WorldWideScience

Sample records for block modifiable risk

  1. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindl, M.; Bonten, C.

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  2. Modified risk evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udell, C.J.; Tilden, J.A.; Toyooka, R.T.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a structured and cost-oriented process to determine risks associated with nuclear material and other security interests. Financial loss is a continuing concern for US Department of Energy contractors. In this paper risk is equated with uncertainty of cost impacts to material assets or human resources. The concept provides a method for assessing the effectiveness of an integrated protection system, which includes operations, safety, emergency preparedness, and safeguards and security. The concept is suitable for application to sabotage evaluations. The protection of assets is based on risk associated with cost impacts to assets and the potential for undesirable events. This will allow managers to establish protection priorities in terms of the cost and the potential for the event, given the current level of protection

  3. A comparative study of the Louisiana Graduation Exit Exam science scores and student achievement based on block, modified block, and traditional bell schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczala, Deanna Marie

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among bell schedules, GEE 21 science scores, and cumulative GPAs. Factors under consideration included teacher perspective, gender, ethnicity and students' at-risk status. The researcher collected data from the Louisiana Department of Education (LDE) targeting seven schools for three types of bell schedules---traditional, modified block, and block. From each school, the cumulative GPAs and GEF 21 science scores of up to 50 randomly selected students were analyzed. The effectiveness of different bells schedules on student achievement has resulted in conflicting data. Some educators feel that block scheduling will provide teachers with more time to engage students in higher-order thinking problems and to better engage them in the content material, thus improving student achievement overall (Gullatt, 2006). Some studies found that block scheduling provides students the opportunity to spend more time examining a subject with greater detail for a longer period of continuous time. Other studies have found that students on traditional schedules outperform block scheduled students on high stakes testing (Veal & Schreiber, 1999). Using a causal-comparative research design, the researcher examined the effect of three different bell schedules on student cumulative GPAS and GEE 21 science scores. The cumulative GPAs for the students were used to determine if there was a difference in the achievement level for students taught using different bell schedules. The GEE 21 science scores were also assessed for possible differences in learning science across various bell schedules.

  4. The properties of batrachotoxin-modified cardiac Na channels, including state-dependent block by tetrodotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L Y; Yatani, A; Brown, A M

    1987-09-01

    Batrachotoxin (BTX) modification and tetrodotoxin (TTX) block of BTX-modified Na channels were studied in single cardiac cells of neonatal rats using the whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique. The properties of BTX-modified Na channels in heart are qualitatively similar to those in nerve. However, quantitative differences do exist between the modified channels of these two tissues. In the heart, the shift of the conductance-voltage curve for the modified channel was less pronounced, the maximal activation rate constant, (tau m)max, of modified channels was considerably slower, and the slow inactivation of the BTX-modified cardiac Na channels was only partially abolished. TTX blocked BTX-modified mammalian cardiac Na channels and the block decreased over the potential range of -80 to -40 mV. The apparent dissociation constant of TTX changed from 0.23 microM at -50 mV to 0.69 microM at 0 mV. No further reduction of block was observed at potentials greater than -40 mV. This is the potential range over which gating from closed to open states occurred. These results were explained by assuming that TTX has a higher affinity for closed BTX-modified channels than for open modified channels. Hence, the TTX-binding rate constants are considered to be state dependent rather than voltage dependent. This differs from the voltage dependence of TTX block reported for BTX-modified Na channels from membrane vesicles incorporated into lipid bilayers and from amphibian node of Ranvier.

  5. Efficacy and complications associated with a modified inferior alveolar nerve block technique. A randomized, triple-blind clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-Bosch, Marta; Nogueira-Magalhães, Pedro; Arnabat-Dominguez, Josep; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the efficacy and complication rates of two different techniques for inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB). Study Design: A randomized, triple-blind clinical trial comprising 109 patients who required lower third molar removal was performed. In the control group, all patients received an IANB using the conventional Halsted technique, whereas in the experimental group, a modified technique using a more inferior injection point was performed. Results: A total of 100 patients were randomized. The modified technique group showed a significantly higher onset time in the lower lip and chin area, and was frequently associated to a lingual electric discharge sensation. Three failures were recorded, 2 of them in the experimental group. No relevant local or systemic complications were registered. Conclusions: Both IANB techniques used in this trial are suitable for lower third molar removal. However, performing an inferior alveolar nerve block in a more inferior position (modified technique) extends the onset time, does not seem to reduce the risk of intravascular injections and might increase the risk of lingual nerve injuries. Key words:Dental anesthesia, inferior alveolar nerve block, lidocaine, third molar, intravascular injection. PMID:24608204

  6. Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B. L.; Wilcks, Andrea

    2001-01-01

    the industry, national administration and research institutions were gathered to discuss which elements should be considered in a risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms used as food or food ingredients. The existing EU and national regulations were presented, together with the experiences...

  7. Preoperative modifiable risk factors in colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rooijen, Stefanus; Carli, Francesco; Dalton, Susanne O

    2017-01-01

    in higher mortality rates and greater hospital costs. The number and severity of complications is closely related to patients' preoperative performance status. The aim of this study was to identify the most important preoperative modifiable risk factors that could be part of a multimodal prehabilitation...... program. METHODS: Prospectively collected data of a consecutive series of Dutch CRC patients undergoing colorectal surgery were analyzed. Modifiable risk factors were correlated to the Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) and compared within two groups: none or mild complications (CCI ... complications (CCI ≥20). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to explore the combined effect of individual risk factors. RESULTS: In this 139 patient cohort, smoking, malnutrition, alcohol consumption, neoadjuvant therapy, higher age, and male sex, were seen more frequently in the severe...

  8. Classifying PML risk with disease modifying therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joseph R

    2017-02-01

    To catalogue the risk of PML with the currently available disease modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS). All DMTs perturb the immune system in some fashion. Natalizumab, a highly effective DMT, has been associated with a significant risk of PML. Fingolimod and dimethyl fumarate have also been unquestionably associated with a risk of PML in the MS population. Concerns about PML risk with other DMTs have arisen due to their mechanism of action and pharmacological parallel to other agents with known PML risk. A method of contextualizing PML risk for DMTs is warranted. Classification of PML risk was predicated on three criteria:: 1) whether the underlying condition being treated predisposes to PML in the absence of the drug; 2) the latency from initiation of the drug to the development of PML; and 3) the frequency with which PML is observed. Among the DMTs, natalizumab occupies a place of its own with respect to PML risk. Significantly lesser degrees of risk exist for fingolimod and dimethyl fumarate. Whether PML will be observed with other DMTs in use for MS, such as, rituximab, teriflunomide, and alemtuzumab, remains uncertain. A logical classification for stratifying DMT PML risk is important for both the physician and patient in contextualizing risk/benefit ratios. As additional experience accumulates regarding PML and the DMTs, this early effort will undoubtedly require revisiting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of paravertebral and interpleural block in patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kundra

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: To conclude, lung functions are well-preserved in patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy under general anesthesia supplemented with paravertebral or IPB. IPB is as effective as PVB for post-operative pain relief. PVB has the added advantage of achieving a more complete block.

  10. A PCBM-Modified TiO2 Blocking Layer towards Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organometal halide perovskite as a promising absorber in solar cells has caught tremendous attention in the past few years. Herein, a hydrophobic PCBM layer was introduced into planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells to form the TiO2/PCBM double blocking layer. The bilayer structure assures the formation of a dense, smooth, and pinhole-free blocking layer. And the PCBM layer can also be in favor of larger grain size perovskite film and further passivate the TiO2 blocking layer. Scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and X-ray diffraction (XRD results suggest the formation of a uniform and compact CH3NH3PbI3−xClx perovskite layer on the PCBM-modified TiO2 blocking layer. The solar cell has reached a PCE up to 16.37%, which is greatly larger than the control device with a PCE of 10.81%.

  11. Evaluation of tri-steps modified styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane for wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jen Ming; Huang, Huei Tsz

    2012-01-01

    Tri-steps modified styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) membrane was prepared with epoxidation, ring opening reaction with maleated ionomer and layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte technique. The tri-steps modified SBS membrane was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). The structures of the modified SBS membranes were identified with methylene blue and azocarmine G. The content of amino group on the surface of the modified membrane was calculated from uptake of an acid dye. The values of the contact angle, water absorption, water vapor transmission rate and the adsorption of fibronectin on the membranes were determined. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the tri-steps modified SBS membrane, the cytotoxicity, antibacterial and growth profile of the cell culture of 3T3 fibroblasts on the membrane were evaluated. The bactericidal activity was found on the modified SBS. From the cell culture of 3T3 fibroblasts on the membrane, it revealed that the cells not only remained viable but also proliferated on the surface of the tri-steps modified SBS membranes. As the membranes are sterile semipermeable with bactericidal activity and transparent allowing wound checks, they can be considered for shallow wound with low exudates. - Highlights: ► Styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) was modified with tri-steps. ► The tri-steps are epoxidation, ring opening reaction and layer-by-layer assembly. ► Modified SBS membrane for wound dressing is evaluated. ► Membranes are sterile semipermeable with bactericidal activity and transparent. ► Membranes can be considered for shallow wound with low exudates.

  12. Revalidation of a modified and safe approach of stellate ganglion block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Jadon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stellate ganglion block (SGB is very effective in management of chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS-1. However, serious complication may occur due to accidental intravascular (intra-arterial injection of local anaesthetic agents. Abdi and others, has suggested a modified technique in which fluoroscopy-guided block is given at the junction of uncinate process and body of vertebra at C7 level. In this approach vascular structures remain away from the trajectory of needle and thus avoid accidental vascular injection. We have used this technique of SGB in nine patients who were treated for CRPS-I. The blocks were effective in all the patients all the time without any vascular or other serious complication.

  13. Modifying JPEG binary arithmetic codec for exploiting inter/intra-block and DCT coefficient sign redundancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhani, Gopal

    2013-04-01

    This article presents four modifications to the JPEG arithmetic coding (JAC) algorithm, a topic not studied well before. It then compares the compression performance of the modified JPEG with JPEG XR, the latest block-based image coding standard. We first show that the bulk of inter/intra-block redundancy, caused due to the use of the block-based approach by JPEG, can be captured by applying efficient prediction coding. We propose the following modifications to JAC to take advantages of our prediction approach. 1) We code a totally different DC difference. 2) JAC tests a DCT coefficient by considering its bits in the increasing order of significance for coding the most significant bit position. It causes plenty of redundancy because JAC always begins with the zeroth bit. We modify this coding order and propose alternations to the JPEG coding procedures. 3) We predict the sign of significant DCT coefficients, a problem is not addressed from the perspective of the JPEG decoder before. 4) We reduce the number of binary tests that JAC codes to mark end-of-block. We provide experimental results for two sets of eight-bit gray images. The first set consists of nine classical test images mostly of size 512 × 512 pixels. The second set consists of 13 images of size 2000 × 3000 pixels or more. Our modifications to JAC obtain extra-ordinary amount of code reduction without adding any kind of losses. More specifically, when we quantize the images using the default quantizers, our modifications reduce the total JAC code size of the images of these two sets by about 8.9 and 10.6%, and the JPEG Huffman code size by about 16.3 and 23.4%, respectively, on the average. Gains are even higher for coarsely quantized images. Finally, we compare the modified JAC with two settings of JPEG XR, one with no block overlapping and the other with the default transform (we denote them by JXR0 and JXR1, respectively). Our results show that for the finest quality rate image coding, the modified

  14. Polystyrene-block-Poly(ionic liquid) Copolymers as Work Function Modifiers in Inverted Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Baek; Isik, Mehmet; Park, Hea Jung; Jung, In Hwan; Mecerreyes, David; Hwang, Do-Hoon

    2018-02-07

    Interfacial layers play a critical role in building up the Ohmic contact between electrodes and functional layers in organic photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells. These layers are based on either inorganic oxides (ZnO and TiO 2 ) or water-soluble organic polymers such as poly[(9,9-dioctyl-2,7-fluorene)-alt-(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)] and polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE). In this work, we have developed a series of novel poly(ionic liquid) nonconjugated block copolymers for improving the performance of inverted OPV cells by using them as work function modifiers of the indium tin oxide (ITO) cathode. Four nonconjugated polyelectrolytes (n-CPEs) based on polystyrene and imidazolium poly(ionic liquid) (PSImCl) were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The ratio of hydrophobic/hydrophilic block copolymers was varied depending on the ratio of polystyrene to the PSImCl block. The ionic density, which controls the work function of the electrode by forming an interfacial dipole between the electrode and the block copolymers, was easily tuned by simply changing the PSImCl molar ratio. The inverted OPV device with the ITO/PS 29 -b-PSImCl 60 cathode achieved the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.55% among the synthesized block copolymers, exhibiting an even higher PCE than that of the reference OPV device with PEIE (7.30%). Furthermore, the surface properties of the block copolymers films were investigated by contact angle measurements to explore the influence of the controlled hydrophobic/hydrophilic characters on the device performances.

  15. Modifiable risk factors of hypertension and socio demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Factors associated with the development of hypertension can be categorized into modifiable and non‑modifiable risk factors. The modifiable risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, high salt diet, smoking alcohol consumption and others. Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of ...

  16. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Legge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

  17. Evaluation of Modified Risk Claim Advertising Formats for Camel Snus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Brian V.; Adkison, Sarah E.; O'Connor, Richard J.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Rees, Vaughan W.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulatory authority for modified risk tobacco product advertising claims. To guide future regulatory efforts, we investigated how variations in modified risk claim advertisements influence consumer perceptions of product risk claims for Camel Snus. Methods: Young people and adults (15-65),…

  18. Modifiable Risk factors of Hypertension and Socio‑demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of modifiable risk factors of hypertension in ... Ibekwe: Correlation between modifiable risk factors of hypertension and socio‑demographic profile in Oghara, Delta State. 72. Annals of ..... non‑communicable disease risk factors among older adults in South Africa.

  19. Exact solution of corner-modified banded block-Toeplitz eigensystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobanera, Emilio; Alase, Abhijeet; Ortiz, Gerardo; Viola, Lorenza

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by the challenge of seeking a rigorous foundation for the bulk-boundary correspondence for free fermions, we introduce an algorithm for determining exactly the spectrum and a generalized-eigenvector basis of a class of banded block quasi-Toeplitz matrices that we call corner-modified. Corner modifications of otherwise arbitrary banded block-Toeplitz matrices capture the effect of boundary conditions and the associated breakdown of translational invariance. Our algorithm leverages the interplay between a non-standard, projector-based method of kernel determination (physically, a bulk-boundary separation) and families of linear representations of the algebra of matrix Laurent polynomials. Thanks to the fact that these representations act on infinite-dimensional carrier spaces in which translation symmetry is restored, it becomes possible to determine the eigensystem of an auxiliary projected block-Laurent matrix. This results in an analytic eigenvector Ansatz, independent of the system size, which we prove is guaranteed to contain the full solution of the original finite-dimensional problem. The actual solution is then obtained by imposing compatibility with a boundary matrix, whose shape is also independent of system size. As an application, we show analytically that eigenvectors of short-ranged fermionic tight-binding models may display power-law corrections to exponential behavior, and demonstrate the phenomenon for the paradigmatic Majorana chain of Kitaev.

  20. Risks and benefits of genetically modified foods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... modified food (GMF) related issues available in an online database. In order to achieve this, ... However, the production of gene- tically modified foods (GMF) and crops has also raised ethical questions. Opposing parties question the possible ... local journalists on the issue of agricultural biotechnology.

  1. Modifiable risk factors and colorectal adenomas among those at high risk of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, A.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified several modifiable risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in the general population. However, associations between modifiable risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption and dietary patterns, and colorectal neoplasms in two

  2. A new scarless oncoplastic breast-conserving surgery: modified round block technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaha, Hisamitsu; Onomura, Mai; Unesoko, Mikiko

    2013-12-01

    Round block technique (RBT) is often utilized in breast-conserving surgery, but has problems of late-onset scar widening and changes in the shape or the position of the areola. We have modified RBT (MRBT) to resolve those problems. A circumferential incision was made without excision of the periareolar skin, and subcutaneous dissection was extended to the entire breast. The wound could be widened and moved onto the distant tumor by application of a wound retractor. Partial mastectomy was then performed under direct vision. The wound was easily closed without tension. Forty breast cancer patients were treated with MRBT. The median distance between the nipple and the tumor was 5.2 cm, and the median areolar size was 2.8 cm. Cosmetic results were satisfactory with minimal scar formation. There were neither subsequent changes in the shape nor the position of the areola. MRBT is a useful oncoplastic technique in patients with small areolae, and/or when the tumor location is distant from the nipple. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparative randomized study of paravertebral block versus wound infiltration of bupivacaine in modified radical mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paravertebral block (PVB has the potential to offer long-lasting pain relief because it can uniquely eliminate cortical responses to thoracic dermatomal stimulation. Benefits include a reduction in postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV, prolonged postoperative pain relief, and potential for ambulatory discharge. Aims: To compare PVB with local infiltration for postoperative analgesia following modified radical mastectomy (MRM. Methods: Forty patients undergoing MRM with axillary dissection were randomly allocated into two groups. Following induction of general anesthesia in group P, a catheter was inserted in the paravertebral space and 0.3 ml/kg of 0.25 % of bupivacaine was administered followed by continuous infusion, while in group L, the surgical incision was infiltrated with 0.3 ml/kg of 0.25 % bupivacaine. Statistical Analysis: The statistical tests were applied as unpaired student ′t′ test/nonparametric test Wilcoxon Mann Whitney test for comparing different parameters such as VAS score and consumption of drugs. The categorical variables such as nausea and vomiting scores, sedation score, and patient satisfaction score were computed by Chi square test/Fisher exact test. Results: VAS score was significantly lower in group P than in group L throughout the postoperative period. The mean alertness score (i.e., less sedation was higher in group P in the postoperative period than group L. The incidence of PONV was less in PVB group. Conclusion: PVB at the end of the surgery results in better postoperative analgesia, lesser incidence of PONV, and better alertness score.

  4. Modified Proofreading PCR for Detection of Point Mutations, Insertions and Deletions Using a ddNTP-Blocked Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qianqian; Chen, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Sichao; Lan, Ke; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Chiyu

    2015-01-01

    The development of simple, accurate, rapid and cost-effective technologies for mutation detection is crucial to the early diagnosis and prevention of numerous genetic diseases, pharmacogenetics, and drug resistance. Proofreading PCR (PR-PCR) was developed for mutation detection in 1998 but is rarely applied due to its low efficiency in allele discrimination. Here we developed a modified PR-PCR method using a ddNTP-blocked primer and a mixture of DNA polymerases with and without the 3'-5' proofreading function. The ddNTP-blocked primer exhibited the best blocking efficiency to avoid nonspecific primer extension while the mixture of a tiny amount of high-fidelity DNA polymerase with a routine amount of Taq DNA polymerase provided the best discrimination and amplification effects. The modified PR-PCR method is quite capable of detecting various mutation types, including point mutations and insertions/deletions (indels), and allows discrimination amplification when the mismatch is located within the last eight nucleotides from the 3'-end of the ddNTP-blocked primer. The modified PR-PCR has a sensitivity of 1-5 × 102 copies and a selectivity of 5 × 10-5 mutant among 107 copies of wild-type DNA. It showed a 100% accuracy rate in the detection of P72R germ-line mutation in the TP53 gene among 60 clinical blood samples, and a high potential to detect rifampin-resistant mutations at low frequency in Mycobacterium tuberculosis using an adaptor and a fusion-blocked primer. These results suggest that the modified PR-PCR technique is effective in detection of various mutations or polymorphisms as a simple, sensitive and promising approach. PMID:25915410

  5. [Selectivity and sensitivity to blocking by hydrogen ions of batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels in nerve fiber membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhaeva, G N; Naumov, A P; Khodorov, B I

    1983-01-01

    Currents through normal and batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels in frog nerve were measured under voltage clamp conditions. Measured reversal potentials and the Goldman equation were used to calculate relative permeabilities. The permeability ratios were: PNa: PNH4: PK = 1: 0.47: 0.19. Hydrogen-to-sodium permeability ratio was estimated from reversal potential measurements in Na-free acid (pH 3.7-3.8) solutions. It was 528 +/- 46 for batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels. Modified channels were less sensitive to hydrogen block as compared with normal ones. The difference in apparent pKa for acid group between normal and modified channels was about 0.40.

  6. Modified risk graph method using fuzzy rule-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nait-Said, R., E-mail: r_nait_said@hotmail.com [LARPI Laboratory, Safety Department, Institute of Health and Occupational Safety, University of Batna, Road Med El-Hadi Boukhlouf, Batna (Algeria); Zidani, F., E-mail: fati_zidani@lycos.com [LSPIE Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Batna, Road Med El-Hadi Boukhlouf, Batna 05000 (Algeria); Ouzraoui, N., E-mail: ouzraoui@yahoo.fr [LARPI Laboratory, Safety Department, Institute of Health and Occupational Safety, University of Batna, Road Med El-Hadi Boukhlouf, Batna (Algeria)

    2009-05-30

    The risk graph is one of the most popular methods used to determine the safety integrity level for safety instrumented functions. However, conventional risk graph as described in the IEC 61508 standard is subjective and suffers from an interpretation problem of risk parameters. Thus, it can lead to inconsistent outcomes that may result in conservative SILs. To overcome this difficulty, a modified risk graph using fuzzy rule-based system is proposed. This novel version of risk graph uses fuzzy scales to assess risk parameters and calibration may be made by varying risk parameter values. Furthermore, the outcomes which are numerical values of risk reduction factor (the inverse of the probability of failure on demand) can be compared directly with those given by quantitative and semi-quantitative methods such as fault tree analysis (FTA), quantitative risk assessment (QRA) and layers of protection analysis (LOPA).

  7. Modified risk graph method using fuzzy rule-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nait-Said, R; Zidani, F; Ouzraoui, N

    2009-05-30

    The risk graph is one of the most popular methods used to determine the safety integrity level for safety instrumented functions. However, conventional risk graph as described in the IEC 61508 standard is subjective and suffers from an interpretation problem of risk parameters. Thus, it can lead to inconsistent outcomes that may result in conservative SILs. To overcome this difficulty, a modified risk graph using fuzzy rule-based system is proposed. This novel version of risk graph uses fuzzy scales to assess risk parameters and calibration may be made by varying risk parameter values. Furthermore, the outcomes which are numerical values of risk reduction factor (the inverse of the probability of failure on demand) can be compared directly with those given by quantitative and semi-quantitative methods such as fault tree analysis (FTA), quantitative risk assessment (QRA) and layers of protection analysis (LOPA).

  8. Ecological Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Higher Plants (GMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, C.; Damgaard, C.; Kjellsson, G.

    assessment of GM plants when application for placing on the market is made. It is our hope that both the scientific community, the biotechnological industry and the regulatory bodies will participate in the process of improving the present draft, so that it can develop into a useful tool for both...... and establishment of the modified plant in natural habitats; risk of introgression of the inserted or modified traits to other plant species; and the risk of adverse effects on non-target organisms. The guidance paper considers only aspects of ecological risk assessment. Possible risks to human health, livestock...... for reproduction of the GMHP B. Identification of possible effects on non-target organisms C. Detection of potential hybridisation, and assessment of the selective force acting on the inserted gene in a natural plant population Tier III. Laboratory measurements and small scale trials on the GMHP A. Test of changes...

  9. Employees' Modifiable Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worksites have been identified as strategic locations for the delivery of interventions to decrease the prevalence of chronic diseases of lifestyle among adult populations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of modifiable risks factors for cardiovascular diseases of employees at an urban university in Kigali, ...

  10. Pre-Diabetes Non-Modifiable Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Pre-diabetes Non-modifiable Risk Factors Updated:Nov 9,2015 ... This content was last reviewed August 2015. Pre-diabetes • Introduction • About Pre-diabetes • What's the Problem? Intro ...

  11. Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) | Amin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk assessment is a procedure normally carried out prior to decision-making on the release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment. ... biosafety laws of more developed countries and to ensure adequate level of protection for the Malaysian people against any adverse effects of GMOs and products.

  12. Risk factors for acute renal failure: inherent and modifiable risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Martine; Kellum, John A; Gibney, R T Noel; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Tumlin, James; Mehta, Ravindra

    2005-12-01

    Our purpose is to discuss established risk factors in the development of acute renal failure and briefly overview clinical markers and preventive measures. Findings from the literature support the role of older age, diabetes, underlying renal insufficiency, and heart failure as predisposing factors for acute renal failure. Diabetics with baseline renal insufficiency represent the highest risk subgroup. An association between sepsis, hypovolemia, and acute renal failure is clear. Liver failure, rhabdomyolysis, and open-heart surgery (especially valve replacement) are clinical conditions potentially leading to acute renal failure. Increasing evidence shows that intraabdominal hypertension may contribute to the development of acute renal failure. Radiocontrast and antimicrobial agents are the most common causes of nephrotoxic acute renal failure. In terms of prevention, avoiding nephrotoxins when possible is certainly desirable; fluid therapy is an effective prevention measure in certain clinical circumstances. Supporting cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and renal perfusion pressure are indicated to reduce the risk for acute renal failure. Nonionic, isoosmolar intravenous contrast should be used in high-risk patients. Although urine output and serum creatinine lack sensitivity and specificity in acute renal failure, they remain the most used parameters in clinical practice. There are identified risk factors of acute renal failure. Because acute renal failure is associated with a worsening outcome, particularly if occurring in critical illness and if severe enough to require renal replacement therapy, preventive measures should be part of appropriate management.

  13. Modifiable Risk Factors for Early Mortality on Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory McQuillan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of incident hemodialysis patients from 2001 to 2007 were abstracted from The Renal Disease Registry (TRDR from central Ontario, Canada and followed until December 2008 to determine 90-day mortality rates for incident hemodialysis patients. Modifiable risk factors of early mortality were determined by a Cox model. In total, 876 of 4807 incident patients died during their first year on dialysis; 304 (34.7% deaths occurred within the first 90 days of dialysis initiation. The majority of deaths were attributed to a cardiovascular event or infection and more likely occurred in older patients and those with cardiovascular co-morbidities. Of potentially modifiable risk factors, low body mass index (<18.5, a surrogate for malnutrition, was a strong predictor of early mortality [adjusted hazard ratio (HR 4.22 (CI: 3.12–5.17]. Also, central venous catheter use was associated with a 2.40 fold increase risk of death (CI: 1.4–3.90. Patients who attended a multidisciplinary pre-dialysis clinic were less likely to die (HR: 0.60, CI: 0.47–0.78. The first 90 days after initiation of dialysis is a period of especially high risk of death. We have identified potentially modifiable risk factors in vascular access type, pre-dialysis care and nutritional status.

  14. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors).

  15. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors)

  16. Hostility Modifies the Association between TV Viewing and Cardiometabolic Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It was hypothesized that television viewing is predictive of cardiometabolic risk. Moreover, people with hostile personality type may be more susceptible to TV-induced negative emotions and harmful health habits which increase occurrence of cardiometabolic risk. Purpose. The prospective association of TV viewing on cardiometabolic risk was examined along with whether hostile personality trait was a modifier. Methods. A total of 3,269 Black and White participants in the coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA study were assessed from age 23 to age 35. A cross-lagged panel model at exam years 5, 10, 15, and 20, covering 15 years, was used to test whether hours of daily TV viewing predicted cardiometabolic risk, controlling confounding variables. Multiple group analysis of additional cross-lagged panel models stratified by high and low levels of hostility was used to evaluate whether the association was modified by the hostile personality trait. Results. The cross-lagged association of TV viewing at years 5 and 15 on clustered cardiometabolic risk score at years 10 and 20 was significant (B=0.058 and 0.051, but not at 10 to 15 years. This association was significant for those with high hostility (B=0.068 for exam years 5 to 10 and 0.057 for exam years 15 to 20 but not low hostility. Conclusion. These findings indicate that TV viewing is positively associated with cardiometabolic risk. Further, they indicate that hostility might be a modifier for the association between TV viewing and cardiometabolic risk.

  17. Functionalized surfaces of polylactide modified by Langmuir-Blodgett films of amphiphilic block copolymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubies, Dana; Machová, Luďka; Brynda, Eduard; Lukáš, Jaromír; Rypáček, František

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2003), s. 143-149 ISSN 0957-4530 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0576 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : polylactide * Langmuir - Blodgett films * amphiphilic block copolymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2003

  18. Primary prevention of dementia: focus on modifiable risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuwan, Patsri

    2013-02-01

    Dementia will inevitably increase in the aging world. Moreover there is no cure for dementia. Therefore, primary prevention is very important. There are several factors possibly and/or certainly influencing dementia risk including non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors. There are evidences that the risk of developing dementia may be reduced by modifiable risk factors. LIFESTYLE FACTORS: The strategies are to encourage regular physical and mental exercise in midlife and in late-life. Those include cognitive activity and higher education, mentally demanding occupations or participation in mentally challenging leisure activities, being more socially active, a diet that is low in saturated fat, a diet with lots of fruits and vegetables, smoking cessation, and prevention of head injury, with loss of consciousness. Chronic disease factors: The strategies are to prevent high blood pressure, especially at midlife, diabetes, high serum cholesterol, especially at midlife, and depression or high depressive symptoms. It is important to develop a systematic public-health strategy and research specific to primary prevention of dementia in Thailand with the evidence-based medicine.

  19. Female Sex Is a Risk Modifier Rather Than a Risk Factor for Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Brønnum; Skjøth, Flemming; Overvad, Thure Filskov

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke risk in atrial fibrillation is assessed by using the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Sex category (Sc, ie, female sex) confers 1 point on CHA2DS2-VASc. We hypothesized that female sex is a stroke risk modifier, rather than an overall risk factor, when added to a CHA2DS2-VA (sex...... strata as events per 100 person-years. For quantifying absolute risk of stroke, we calculated risks based on the pseudovalue method. Female sex as a prognostic factor was investigated by inclusion as an interaction term on the CHA2DS2-VA score to calculate the thromboembolic risk ratio for different......), but the Sc risk component modifies and accentuates stroke risk in women who would have been eligible for oral anticoagulant treatment on the basis of ≥2 additional stroke risk factors....

  20. Nonlinear state feedback controller design for underactuated mechanical system: a modified block backstepping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Shubhobrata; Barai, Ranjit Kumar; Maitra, Madhubanti

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the formulation of a novel block-backstepping based control algorithm to address the stabilization problem for a generalized nonlinear underactuated mechanical system. For the convenience of compact design, first, the state model of the underactuated system has been converted into the block-strict feedback form. Next, we have incorporated backstepping control action to derive the expression of the control input for the generic nonlinear underactuated system. The proposed block backstepping technique has further been enriched by incorporating an integral action additionally for enhancing the steady state performance of the overall system. Asymptotic stability of the overall system has been analyzed using Lyapunov stability criteria. Subsequently, the stability of the zero dynamics has also been analyzed to ensure the global asymptotic stability of the entire nonlinear system at its desired equilibrium point. The proposed control algorithm has been applied for the stabilization of a benchmarked underactuated mechanical system to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control law in real-time environment. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thoracic epidural anesthesia and interscalene block for a pneumonectomized patient posted for modified radical mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridul Dua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic epidural anesthesia with ipsilateral brachial plexus block is emerging as an alternative to general anesthesia for oncologic breast surgery.1. A 31 year old, pneumonectomised female with a past history of MDR TB was diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma in left breast 2 months ago and was posted for MRM. She also had moderate Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Thoracic epidural anesthesia was induced with 12 ml of 0.5% Ropivacaine at T6-T7 level. Interscalene block was given with 10 ml 0.5% Ropivacaine using peripheral nerve locator. Patient was comfortable throughout the procedure and remained vitally stable. Post-operative analgesia was given with 10 ml of 0.2% ropivacaine and patient was discharged the following week. Thoracic epidural anesthesia provides the advantage of superior intra and post-operative analgesia without the adverse effects of general anesthesia like postoperative nausea, vomiting, respiratory depression and sedation.2 Coupled with interscalene block for axillary lymph node dissection, it can be successfully used as an alternative to GA for MRM.

  2. Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, Detlef; Chueca, Cristina; De-Schrijver, Adinda

    relatives, including plant-to-plant gene transfer ; (2) plant-to-micro-organism gene transfer; (3) interaction of the GM plant with target organisms and (4) interaction of the GM plant with non-target organisms, including criteria for selection of appropriate species and relevant functional groups for risk......This document provides guidance for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) plants submitted within the framework of Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003 on GM food and feed or under Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified...... organisms (GMOs). This document provides guidance for assessing potential effects of GM plants on the environment and the rationales for the data requirements for a comprehensive ERA of GM plants. The ERA should be carried out on a case-by-case basis, following a step-by-step assessment approach...

  3. Exercise intervention to modify physiologic risk factors in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Carolyn; Visovsky, Constance

    2007-11-01

    To review the best current evidence regarding the effects of exercise on modifiable risk factors for adverse physiologic outcomes of cancer and its treatment. Clinical practice guidelines, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and single studies. There is mounting evidence that exercise improves fatigue, physical functioning, and cardio-respiratory fitness. Preliminary evidence suggests that exercise also contributes to improvements in body weight and composition, metabolic risk factors, and immune function. It may also influence disease-free and overall survival in selected populations. Exercise appears to be a safe and well-tolerated intervention that may minimize or prevent adverse physiologic outcomes of cancer and cancer treatment.

  4. A modified potential probe for induction charging risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, Lars; Paasi, Jaakko

    2008-01-01

    Practical assessment of risks for Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) failures of semiconductor devices, due to charges induced on devices in a manufacturing or repair environment of electronics has been difficult, because easily measurable parameters such as the electrostatic field and the potential of a charged surface do not directly quantify the risk. In this paper a new method of assessing the risks with induction charging of a sensitive device is presented by introducing a well-defined dummy device, which is a simple modification of the probe of DC type non-contacting electrostatic voltmeter. By placing the modified potential probe (mimicking large sensitive device) in front of charged surface, risks of ESD failure for a device due to induction charging can be assessed. The electrostatic response of the probe at different distances between charged surface and the probe has been verified by numerical model calculations.

  5. Efficient Risk Determination of Risk of Road Blocking by Means of MMS and Data of Buildings and Their Surrounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, Kazuhito; Hatake, Shuhei

    2016-06-01

    Massive earthquake named "Tonankai Massive earthquake" is predicted to occur in the near future and is feared to cause severe damage in Kinki District . "Hanshin-Awaji Massive Earthquake" in 1995 destroyed most of the buildings constructed before 1981 and not complying with the latest earthquake resistance standards. Collapsed buildings blocked roads, obstructed evacuation, rescue and firefighting operations and inflicted further damages.To alleviate the damages, it is important to predict the points where collapsed buildings are likely block the roads and to take precautions in advance. But big cities have an expanse of urban areas with densely-distributed buildings, and it requires time and cost to check each and every building whether or not it will block the road. In order to reduce blocked roads when a disaster strikes, we made a study and confirmed that the risk of road blocking can be determined easily by means of the latest technologies of survey and geographical information.

  6. Modified Three-Step Search Block Matching Motion Estimation and Weighted Finite Automata based Fractal Video Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Kamble

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The major challenge with fractal image/video coding technique is that, it requires more encoding time. Therefore, how to reduce the encoding time is the research component remains in the fractal coding. Block matching motion estimation algorithms are used, to reduce the computations performed in the process of encoding. The objective of the proposed work is to develop an approach for video coding using modified three step search (MTSS block matching algorithm and weighted finite automata (WFA coding with a specific focus on reducing the encoding time. The MTSS block matching algorithm are used for computing motion vectors between the two frames i.e. displacement of pixels and WFA is used for the coding as it behaves like the Fractal Coding (FC. WFA represents an image (frame or motion compensated prediction error based on the idea of fractal that the image has self-similarity in itself. The self-similarity is sought from the symmetry of an image, so the encoding algorithm divides an image into multi-levels of quad-tree segmentations and creates an automaton from the sub-images. The proposed MTSS block matching algorithm is based on the combination of rectangular and hexagonal search pattern and compared with the existing New Three-Step Search (NTSS, Three-Step Search (TSS, and Efficient Three-Step Search (ETSS block matching estimation algorithm. The performance of the proposed MTSS block matching algorithm is evaluated on the basis of performance evaluation parameters i.e. mean absolute difference (MAD and average search points required per frame. Mean of absolute difference (MAD distortion function is used as the block distortion measure (BDM. Finally, developed approaches namely, MTSS and WFA, MTSS and FC, and Plane FC (applied on every frame are compared with each other. The experimentations are carried out on the standard uncompressed video databases, namely, akiyo, bus, mobile, suzie, traffic, football, soccer, ice etc. Developed

  7. Quantifying cardiometabolic risk using modifiable non-self-reported risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Pencina, Michael J; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Berkman, Lisa F; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2014-08-01

    Sensitive general cardiometabolic risk assessment tools of modifiable risk factors would be helpful and practical in a range of primary prevention interventions or for preventive health maintenance. To develop and validate a cumulative general cardiometabolic risk score that focuses on non-self-reported modifiable risk factors such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and BMI so as to be sensitive to small changes across a span of major modifiable risk factors, which may not individually cross clinical cut-off points for risk categories. We prospectively followed 2,359 cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free subjects from the Framingham offspring cohort over a 14-year follow-up. Baseline (fifth offspring examination cycle) included HbA1c and cholesterol measurements. Gender-specific Cox proportional hazards models were considered to evaluate the effects of non-self-reported modifiable risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI, and HbA1c) on general CVD risk. We constructed 10-year general cardiometabolic risk score functions and evaluated its predictive performance in 2012-2013. HbA1c was significantly related to general CVD risk. The proposed cardiometabolic general CVD risk model showed good predictive performance as determined by cross-validated discrimination (male C-index=0.703, 95% CI=0.668, 0.734; female C-index=0.762, 95% CI=0.726, 0.801) and calibration (lack-of-fit chi-square=9.05 [p=0.338] and 12.54 [p=0.128] for men and women, respectively). This study presents a risk factor algorithm that provides a convenient and informative way to quantify cardiometabolic risk on the basis of modifiable risk factors that can motivate an individual's commitment to prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modifiable risk factors for prescription medicine sharing behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Kebede; Aspden, Trudi; McNeill, Rob; Sheridan, Janie

    2018-04-06

    Prescription medicine sharing has been defined as giving one's own medicine to someone else (lending) or taking someone else's medicine (borrowing). Medicines can be shared for non-medical purposes (recreational sharing or drug abuse) or for their intended therapeutic benefits (non-recreational sharing, e.g. sharing antibiotics to self-treat); the latter is the focus of this research. Limited research evidence is available about modifiable risk factors for non-recreational medicine sharing and addressing this issue was the main aim of this research. An online, cross-sectional survey design was used. The study population comprised a convenience sample of 233 adults, who were primarily recruited through patient support groups across New Zealand. Principal component analysis was used to develop scales assessing attitudes toward medicine lending and borrowing. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between explanatory (demographics, medical conditions, and attitudes towards medicine sharing) and outcome (medicine sharing behaviours) variables. Half of the study participants reported ever borrowing/lending medicines, and approximately a third of participants reported borrowing/lending in the past year. Modifiable risk factors associated with an increased risk of medicine borrowing behaviour were having more difficulty with accessing medicine ('access-related issue'), stronger 'emotional beliefs about borrowing', and greater 'concern about missing doses.' Greater 'concern for the wellbeing of others' and stronger 'beliefs about the benefits and safety of lending' were associated with an increased risk of medicine lending behaviour. Those with a higher 'perceived risk of harm' were less likely to borrow or lend medicines. This research expands the current knowledge of medicine sharing by examining underlying behavioural factors which predict sharing behaviours and that can be modified by interventions. This research suggests using multifaceted

  9. Cryoablation of junctional tachycardia at high risk of atrio-ventricular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadji, G; Hermida, J-S; Kubala, M; Quenum, S; Bakkour, H; Jarry, G

    2008-03-01

    Transcatheter cryoablation is an alternative option for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia, due to its very low risk of permanent atrio-ventricular block. However, the overcost of cryocatheter and the high recurrence rate of this emerging technology braked its large use. This study reports the results of an approach using cryoablation for the treatment of junctional tachycardia (JT) in selected patients at high risk of atrio-ventricular (AV) block. Out of a series of 199 patients with JT treated by catheter ablation, 26 benefited from cryoablation (mean age 32.8+/-15 years, 15 males). The indications were the presence of an accessory pathway with a high risk of atrio-ventricular block (n=7), a slow pathway difficult to ablate, with a risk of atrio-ventricular block (n=7), a recurrence after a RF procedure, during which a transient atrio-ventricular block has occurred (n=4), and finally patients at young age (n=8). The primary success rate was 92%. No permanent AV block has been reported, neither with RF nor with cryoablation. The recurrence rate at 9+/-10 months was at 29% after cryoablation and 8.6% after RF. In case of AV nodal reentrant tachycardia, the additional cost of cryotherapy catheter has been avoided in 76.85% of cases. The use of a cryotherapy catheter and RF catheter has been necessary for the remaining cases. This study demonstrates that an approach, reserving cryoablation in selected patients at high risk of AV block is an alternative strategy to "the systematic use" of cryotherapy in the ablation of JT with a high efficacy, an excellent safety and a reduced cost.

  10. Cl II Malocclusion Treatment, Using the Modified Twin Block Appliance Coordinated with Fixed Orthodontics in a Postmenarche Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Aminian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional appliances have been used for treatment of Class II patients for a long time. The main objective of therapy with functional appliances is to induce supplementary lengthening of the mandible by stimulating increased growth at the condylar cartilage. The Twin Block appliance is one of the most commonly used functional appliances. The aim of this paper is to present a case report of mandibular deficiency treatment with Twin Block appliance in a female patient whose sexual maturation (one and a half years after menarche and cervical vertebral maturation stage indicated the end of the growth peak. The treatment started with bonding 0.022 in MBT prescription brackets on the upper arch in order to align upper teeth and create a symmetric overjet. When reaching alignment, a modified Twin Block was given to the patient for 8 months. Final coordination was achieved with fixed appliances in both arches. At the end of the treatment, profile of the patient improved, crowding was relieved, and Cl I relationship with normal overjet and overbite was achieved.

  11. Electron Transfer of Myoglobin Immobilized in Au Electrodes Modified with a RAFT PMMA-Block-PDMAEMA Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla N. Toledo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoglobin was immobilized with poly(methyl methacrylate-block-poly[(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate]PMMA-block-PDMAEMA polymer synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer technique (RAFT. Cyclic voltammograms gave direct and slow quasireversible heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics between Mb-PMMA-block-PDMAEMA modified electrode and the redox center of the protein. The values for electron rate constant (Ks and transfer coefficient (α were 0.055±0.01·s−1 and 0.81±0.08, respectively. The reduction potential determined as a function of temperature (293–328 K revealed a value of reaction center entropy of ΔS0 of 351.3±0.0002 J·mol−1·K−1 and enthalpy change of -76.8±0.1 kJ·mol−1, suggesting solvent effects and charge ionization atmosphere involved in the reaction parallel to hydrophobic interactions with the copolymer. The immobilized protein also exhibits an electrocatalytical response to reduction of hydrogen peroxide, with an apparent Km of 114.7±58.7 μM. The overall results substantiate the design and use of RAFT polymers towards the development of third-generation biosensors.

  12. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc

  13. Modifiable risk factors for increased arterial stiffness in outpatient nephrology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Elewa

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV, is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. Arterial stiffness increases with age. However, modifiable risk factors such as smoking, BP and salt intake also impact on PWV. The finding of modifiable risk factors may lead to the identification of treatable factors, and, thus, is of interest to practicing nephrologist. We have now studied the prevalence and correlates of arterial stiffness, assessed by PWV, in 191 patients from nephrology outpatient clinics in order to identify modifiable risk factors for arterial stiffness that may in the future guide therapeutic decision-making. PWV was above normal levels for age in 85/191 (44.5% patients. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, systolic BP, diabetes mellitus, serum uric acid and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy or calcium-containing medication were independent predictors of PWV. A new parameter, Delta above upper limit of normal PWV (Delta PWV was defined to decrease the weight of age on PWV values. Delta PWV was calculated as (measured PWV - (upper limit of the age-adjusted PWV values for the general population. Mean±SD Delta PWV was 0.76±1.60 m/sec. In multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, active smoking and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy remained independent predictors of higher delta PWV, while age, urinary potassium and beta blocker therapy were independent predictors of lower delta PWV. In conclusion, arterial stiffness was frequent in nephrology outpatients. Systolic blood pressure, smoking, serum uric acid, calcium-containing medications, potassium metabolism and non-use of beta blockers are modifiable factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in Nephrology outpatients.

  14. Modifiable risk factors of obstetric anal sphincter injury in primiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jango, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    To determine modifiable risk factors and incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) in primiparous women.......To determine modifiable risk factors and incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) in primiparous women....

  15. Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, B.; Kjær, C.; Hindar, K.

    of genetically modified plants. This chapter describes both the legislation within the EU and the state of the technology (existing and coming cases). Furthermore, a presentation of the ecological concerns discussed in the report, i.e. invasion, introgression and adverse effects on non-target organisms...... for annual plants, trees and fish, respectively, and suggests a structural/hierarchical decision system for information requirements. The latter should aid to eliminate the 'high-risk' products at an early stage and to improve the design of tests at higher tiers. The second section works with specific...... requirements for the ecological risk assessment of long-lived species like tree species and fish. The third and last section characterises the specific conditions and requirements prevailing in the Nordic region. It is recommended that new field releases and applications for marketing are accompanied...

  16. Analysis of dysphagia risk using the modified dysphagia risk assessment for the community-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] The elderly are susceptible to dysphagia, and complications can be minimized if high-risk groups are screened in early stages and properly rehabilitated. This study provides basic material for the early detection and prevention of dysphagia by investigating the risks of dysphagia and related factors in community-dwelling elders. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included 325 community-dwelling elderly people aged 65 or older. The modified dysphagia risk assessment for the community-dwelling elderly was used to assess dysphagia risk. [Results] Approximately 52.6% (n=171) of participants belonged to the high-risk group for dysphagia. After adjusting for confounding variables, people aged 75+, who used dentures, and who needed partial help in daily living had a significantly higher risk of dysphagia. [Conclusion] It is necessary to develop guidelines for dysphagia for early detection and rehabilitation.

  17. Immediately modifiable risk factors attributable to colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Lai, Pei Kuan; Mak, Joon Wah

    2017-08-04

    This study aimed to estimate potential reductions in case incidence of colorectal cancer attributable to the modifiable risk factors such as alcohol consumption, overweight and physical inactivity amongst the Malaysian population. Gender specific population-attributable fractions (PAFs) for colorectal cancer in Malaysia were estimated for the three selected risk factors (physical inactivity, overweight, and alcohol consumptions). Exposure prevalence were sourced from a large-scale national representative survey. Risk estimates of the relationship between the exposure of interest and colorectal cancer were obtained from published meta-analyses. The overall PAF was then estimated, using the 2013 national cancer incidence data from the Malaysian Cancer Registry. Overall, the mean incidence rate for colorectal cancer in Malaysia from 2008 to 2013 was 21.3 per 100,000 population, with the mean age of 61.6 years (±12.7) and the majority were men (56.6%). Amongst 369 colorectal cancer cases in 2013, 40 cases (20 men, 20 women), 10 cases (9 men, 1 woman) or 20 cases (16 men,4 women) would be prevented, if they had done physical exercises, could reduce their body weight to normal level or avoided alcohol consumption, assuming that these factors are causally related to colorectal cancer. It was estimated that 66 (17.8%;66/369) colorectal cancer cases (42 men, 24 women) who had all these three risk factors for the last 10 years would have been prevented, if they could control these three risk factors through effective preventive measures. Findings suggest that approximately 18% of colorectal cancer cases in Malaysia would be prevented through appropriate preventive measures such as doing regular physical exercises, reducing their body weight to normal level and avoiding alcohol consumption, if these factors are causally related to colorectal cancer. Scaling-up nationwide public health campaigns tailored to increase physical activity, controlling body weight within normal

  18. Modified Framingham Risk Factor Score for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urowitz, Murray B; Ibañez, Dominique; Su, Jiandong; Gladman, Dafna D

    2016-05-01

    The traditional Framingham Risk Factor Score (FRS) underestimates the risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to determine whether an adjustment to the FRS would more accurately reflect the higher prevalence of CAD among patients with SLE. Patients with SLE without a previous history of CAD or diabetes followed regularly at the University of Toronto Lupus Clinic were included. A modified FRS (mFRS) was calculated by multiplying the items by 1.5, 2, 3, or 4. In the first part of the study, using one-third of all eligible patients, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the FRS and the different multipliers for the mFRS. In the second part of the study, using the remaining 2/3 of the eligible patients, we compared the predictive ability of the FRS to the mFRS. In the third part of the study, we assessed the prediction for CAD in a time-dependent analysis of the FRS and mFRS. There were 905 women (89.3%) with a total of 95 CAD events included. In part 1, we determined that a multiplier of 2 provided the best combination of sensitivity and specificity. In part 2, 2.4% of the patients were classified as moderate/high risk based on the classic FRS and 17.3% using the 2FRS (the FRS with a multiplier of 2). In part 3, a time-dependent covariate analysis for the prediction of the first CAD event revealed an HR of 3.22 (p = 0.07) for the classic FRS and 4.37 (p mFRS in which each item is multiplied by 2 more accurately predicts CAD in patients with SLE.

  19. The Differential Effects of the Use of Handwriting without Tears® Modified Gray Block Paper to Teach Two Preschool Students with Developmental Delays Capital Letter Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jessica; McLaughlin, T. F.; Neyman, Jen; Donica, Denise K.; Robison, Milena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and measure the effectiveness of Handwriting Without Tears (HWT) modified gray block paper with letter writing on two preschool students diagnosed with developmental delays in pre-academics. Two students were selected from a self-contained special education preschool classroom in the Pacific Northwest. All…

  20. Coronary age as a risk factor in the modified Framingham risk score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schisterman, Enrique F; Whitcomb, Brian W

    2004-01-01

    Clinical guidelines emphasize risk assessment as vital to patient selection for medical primary intervention. However, risk assessment methods are restricted in their ability to predict further coronary events. The most widely accepted tool in the United States is the Framingham risk score. In these equations age is a powerful risk factor. Although the extent of coronary atherosclerosis increases with age, there is large inter-individual variability in the rate of development and progression of this disease. This fact limits the utility of Framingham scoring when applied to individuals. Electron beam tomography (EBT), which measures coronary calcium, provides a non-invasive method for assessing coronary plaque burden, thus offering the possibility of providing a more accurate estimate of an individual's 'arterial age' than from chronological age alone. In this paper we discuss a new and simple method for incorporating the coronary calcium score (CCS) to modify the Framingham Risk Assessment (FRA). Using this method, a coronary artery calcium (CAC) age equivalent is generated that replaces chronological age in Framingham scoring. Using a percentile table of CCS scores by age group and sex, individuals are matched to the age group whose calcium score most closely approximates their own individual score. The original 10-year absolute risk score of a 65-year old man with a CCS of 6 based on chronological age is 10%, whereas the modified absolute risk score based on CAC age equivalents is 2%. Our approach of replacing chronological age with CAC age equivalents in the Framingham equations possesses simplicity of application combined with precision. Physicians can easily derive adjusted Framingham risk scores and prescribe intervention methods based on patients' ten-year risks. The adjusted ten-year risks are likely to be more accurate than unadjusted risks since they are based on coronary calcium score information. The modified FRA approach not only

  1. Testosterone and modifiable risk factors associated with diabetes in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantis, Evan; Lange, Kylie; Martin, Sean; Haren, Matthew T; Taylor, Anne; O'Loughlin, Peter D; Marshall, Villis; Wittert, Gary A

    2011-03-01

    The role of endogenous testosterone in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus remains vague. We investigated whether associations between endogenous testosterone and diabetes prevalence in men could be partially explained by modifiable risk factors. A random population-based cross-sectional study of 1195 men aged 35-80 years living in the north-west regions of Adelaide, Australia. Data collections occurred between 2002 and 2005, and response rate was 45.1%. Diabetes (non-specific) was classified by either: (1) self-report for doctor diagnosis of diabetes; (2) prescription medication for diabetes; (3) fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7 mmol/L; or (4) glycosylated haemoglobin ≥ 6.2%. Logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (OR [with 95% confidence intervals]) for diabetes, with stepwise adjustments for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors. Diabetes prevalence was positively associated with age groups 45-54 years (2.8 [1.4, 5.8]), 55-64 years (3.9 [1.9, 8.3]) and ≥ 65 years (4.0 [1.8, 8.9]), lowest income group (1.8 [1.0, 3.4]), ex-smoker (1.8 [1.2, 2.9]), lowest (3.2 [1.9, 5.5]) and middle (1.9 [1.1, 3.4]) alcohol tertiles, cardiovascular disease (1.9 [1.2, 2.8]), metabolic syndrome (4.0 [2.6, 6.1]), and lowest plasma total testosterone tertile (1.8 [1.1, 3.0]), but negatively associated with middle (0.5 [0.3, 0.8]) and highest (0.4 [0.3, 0.7]) sugar intake tertiles, arthritis (0.6 [0.3, 1.0]), and elevated LDL cholesterol (0.5 [0.3, 0.8]); ORs showed an inverted 'U' shape for middle and highest voiding lower urinary tract symptoms tertiles. Body composition, muscle strength, and cardio-metabolic factors partially explained the association between low plasma total testosterone and diabetes. Plasma total testosterone was inversely and independently associated with diabetes prevalence, that might have been partially explained by several modifiable risk factors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. What risk assessments of genetically modified organisms can learn from institutional analyses of public health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large.

  3. What Risk Assessments of Genetically Modified Organisms Can Learn from Institutional Analyses of Public Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravi Rajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large.

  4. Attributable fractions, modifiable risk factors and risk stratification using a risk score for peri-implant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Nobre, Miguel; Mano Azul, António; Rocha, Evangelista; Maló, Paulo; Salvado, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the impact of risk factors for peri-implant pathology, to identify potentially modifiable factors, and to evaluate the accuracy of the risk algorithm, risk scores and risk stratification. This retrospective case-control study with 1275 patients (255 cases; 1020 controls) retrieved a model according to the predictors: history of Periodontitis, bacterial plaque, bleeding, bone level, lack of passive fit or non-optimal screw joint, metal-ceramic restoration, proximity to other implants/teeth, and smoking habits. Outcome measures were the attributable fraction; the positive and negative likelihood ratios at different disease cut-off points illustrated by the area under the curve statistic. Six predictors may be modified or controlled directly by either the patient or the clinician, accounting for a reduction in up to 95% of the peri-implant pathology cases. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 9.69 and 0.13, respectively; the area under the curve was 0.96; a risk score was developed, making the complex statistical model useful to clinicians. Based on the results, six predictors for the incidence of peri-implant pathology can be modified to significantly improve the outcome. It was possible to stratify patients per risk category according to the risk score, providing a tool for clinicians to support their decision-making process. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kramkowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed ‘modified organisms’, which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  6. Genetically modified organisms: do the benefits outweigh the risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this literature review is to analyze the implications of using genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as well as international and European position regarding such organisms. Review of international and European legal requirements and ethical guidelines and relevant publications, found and accessed with the help of PubMed and Lund University Library databases. The article discusses the main application areas of GMOs, the expansion of using GMOs in the world as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the implications of their usage. It further provides an overview of the suggested ways to tackle or avoid the GMO-related risks. The international and European positions regarding the application of GMOs are discussed and European Directives, Regulations, and ethical guidelines are overviewed. The article further presents the public attitudes towards GMOs in Europe as well as overviews surveys conducted at the national level. Suggested steps to tackle the challenge of developing and managing biotechnology for the benefit of public health and the environment are presented.

  7. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czyżewska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  8. Transversus abdominis plane block for an emergency laparotomy in a high-risk, elderly patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha S Patil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 72-year-old male patient with gall bladder perforation and small intestinal obstruction from impacted gall stone was posted for emergency laparotomy. He had congestive heart failure, severe hypertension at admission and history of multiple other coexisting diseases. On admission, he developed pulmonary oedema from systolic hypertension which was controlled by ventilatory support, nitroglycerine and furosemide. Preoperative international normalized ratio was 2.34 and left ventricular ejection fraction was only 20%. Because of risk of exaggerated fall in blood pressure during induction of anaesthesia (general or neuraxial, a transversus abdominis plane block via combined Petit triangle and subcostal technique was administered and supplemented with Propofol sedation.

  9. Identification of types of landings after blocking in volleyball associated with risk of ACL injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahradnik, David; Jandacka, Daniel; Farana, Roman; Uchytil, Jaroslav; Hamill, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Landing with a low knee flexion angle after volleyball block jumps may be associated with an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The aim of the present study was to identify the types of volleyball landings after blocks where the knee flexion angle is found to be under a critical knee flexion angle value of 30° at the instant of the first peak of the ground reaction force (GRF). Synchronized kinematic and kinetic data were collected for each trial. T-tests were used to determine if each knee flexion angle at the instant of the peak GRF was significantly different from the critical value of 30°. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare knee flexion angle, time to first peak and the magnitude of the first peak of the resultant GRF and knee stiffness. Significantly lower knee flexion angles were found in the "go" landing (p = .01, ES = 0.6) and the "reverse" landing (p = .02, ES = 0.6) only. The results for knee flexion angle and GRF parameters indicated a significant difference between a "reverse" and "go" and other types of landings, except the "side stick" landing for GRF. The "reverse" and "go" landings may present a risk for ACL injury due to the single-leg landing of these activities that have an associated mediolateral movement.

  10. Blocks, ovals, or people? Icon type affects risk perceptions and recall of pictographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Witteman, Holly O; Dickson, Mark; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Kahn, Valerie C; Exe, Nicole L; Valerio, Melissa; Holtzman, Lisa G; Scherer, Laura D; Fagerlin, Angela

    2014-05-01

    Research has demonstrated that icon arrays (also called "pictographs") are an effective method of communicating risk statistics and appear particularly useful to less numerate and less graphically literate people. Yet research is very limited regarding whether icon type affects how people interpret and remember these graphs. 1502 people age 35-75 from a demographically diverse online panel completed a cardiovascular risk calculator based on Framingham data using their actual age, weight, and other health data. Participants received their risk estimate in an icon array graphic that used 1 of 6 types of icons: rectangular blocks, filled ovals, smile/frown faces, an outline of a person's head and shoulders, male/female "restroom" person icons (gender matched), or actual head-and-shoulder photographs of people of varied races (gender matched). In each icon array, blue icons represented cardiovascular events and gray icons represented those who would not experience an event. We measured perceived risk magnitude, approximate recall, and opinions about the icon arrays, as well as subjective numeracy and an abbreviated measure of graphical literacy. Risk recall was significantly higher with more anthropomorphic icons (restroom icons, head outlines, and photos) than with other icon types, and participants rated restroom icons as most preferred. However, while restroom icons resulted in the highest correlations between perceived and actual risk among more numerate/graphically literate participants, they performed no better than other icon types among less numerate/graphically literate participants. Icon type influences both risk perceptions and risk recall, with restroom icons in particular resulting in improved outcomes. However, optimal icon types may depend on numeracy and/or graphical literacy skills.

  11. Predicting the risk of physical disability in old age using modifiable mid-life risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Evelyn; Stevenson, Christopher; Backholer, Kathryn; Woodward, Mark; Shaw, Jonathan E; Peeters, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between potentially modifiable risk factors in middle age and disability after 13 years using the Framingham Offspring Study (FOS). We further aimed to develop a disability risk algorithm to estimate the risk of future disability for those aged 45-65 years. FOS is a longitudinal study. We used examination 5 (1991-1995; 'baseline') and examination 8 (2005-2008; 'follow-up'). We included participants aged between 45-65 years at 'baseline' with complete predictor and outcome measures (n=2031; mean age 53.9 years). Predictors considered were body mass index, smoking, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia. We used multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of disability or death.We assessed external validity using Australian data. By examination 8, 156 participants had disability and 198 had died. Disability was associated with smoking (OR (95% CI) 1.81 (1.18 to 2.78)); obesity (2.95 (1.83 to 4.77)); diabetes 1.96 (1.11 to 3.45) and being female (OR 1.67 (1.13 to 2.45). The model performed moderately well in predicting disability and death in an Australian population. Based on our algorithm, a 45-year-old man/woman with the combined risk factors of obesity, diabetes and smoking has similar likelihood of surviving free of disability to a 65-year-old man/woman without any of the same risk factors. The derived risk algorithm allows, for the first time, quantification of the substantial combined impact on future disability of key modifiable risk factors in mid-life. Here we demonstrated the combined impact of obesity, diabetes and smoking to be similar to 20 years of aging. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Risks and benefits of genetically modified foods | Amin | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are claims that fear towards new technology has been caused by the lack of information and education on the subject to the public. Modern biotechnology and its applications have been receiving the same criticism. Thus, the objective of this study is to analyze the trends and coverage of genetically modified food ...

  13. Assessing ecological risks and benefits of genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    Bošković Jelena V.; Isajev Vasilije V.; Prijić Željana S.; Zečević Veselinka M.; Hojka Zdravko M.; Dozet Gordana K.

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and biotechnology are providing new opportunities for increasing crop productivity and tackling agriculture problems, such as diseases, pests and weeds, abiotic stress and nutritional limitations of staple food crops. As GM crops are being adopted in various locations with different ecosystems, a scientifically based understanding of the environmental effects of cultivations of GM crops would assist decision makers worldwide ...

  14. Efficacy of US-guided transversus abdominis plane block and rectus sheath block with ropivacaine and dexmedetomidine in elderly high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Hu, Zhiyong; Shen, Jianjun; McQuillan, Patrick M

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) and rectus sheath (RS) blocks with ropivacaine and dexmedetomidine in elderly, high-risk patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery. Sixty elderly patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery receiving both bilateral ultrasound-guided TAP and RS blocks were randomly divided into two groups: R+D (10 mL of 0.25% ropivacaine+0.5μg/kg dexmedetomidine) and R (10 mL of 0.25% ropivacaine). Pain scores (at rest and with movement) and overall analgesia satisfaction were assessed. The total amount of sufentanil administered postoperatively during the first 24 h, duration of sensory blockade, first time and total number of patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) pump activations on the first postoperative day were recorded. The duration of sensory blockade and the first time to PCIA pump activation in the R+D group were longer than that of the R group (P<0.05). The total number of PCIA pump activations on the first postoperative day as well as the total amount of sufentanil administered during the first 24 h in R+D group were less than in the R group (P<0.05). VAS scores at rest and during activity in the R+D group were lower than those in the R group at 2, 6, and 12 h after surgery (P<0.05). Ultrasound-guided TAP and RS blocks with ropivacaine and dexmedetomidine are more effective in promoting block effect, prolonging the duration of analgesia, reducing postoperative pain in elderly high-risk patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery.

  15. [Genetically modified organisms in food--production, detection and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljezić, Davor

    2004-11-01

    The first genetically modified plant (GMP) was a tobacco resistant to antibiotics in 1983. In 1996, the first genetically altered crop, a delayed-ripening tomato was commercially released. In the year 2003, the estimated global area of GM crops for was 67.7 million hectares. To produce such a plant a gene of interest has to be isolated from the donor. Together with a promoter, terminator sequence and marker gene it has to be introduced into the plant cell which is then stimulated to generate a whole GMP expressing new characteristics (herbicide/insect resistance, delayed ripening). The last few months have seen a strong public debate over genetically modified organisms which has raised scientific, economic, political, and ethical issues. Some questions concerning the safety of GMPs are still to be answered, and decisions about their future should be based on scientifically validated information.

  16. Comparison of modifiable coronary artery disease risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of the following coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in urban (westernised) Black and White females: physical inactivity, hypertension, cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity and multiple risk factors. Subjects: Subjects for this study were ...

  17. Cigarette use and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease: an unappreciated modifiable lifestyle risk factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, Austin G

    2012-01-31

    Tobacco use is a major modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in the general population and contributes to excess cardiovascular risk. Emerging evidence from large-scale observational studies suggests that continued tobacco use is also an independent cardiovascular risk factor among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The benefits of smoking cessation programs on improving the heath status of patients and reducing mortality are unequivocal in the general population. Despite this, there has been little effort in pursuing tobacco cessation programs in dialysis cohorts or those with lesser degrees of kidney impairment. Most of our attention to date has focused on the development of "kidney-specific" interventions that reduce rates of renal disease progression and improve dialysis outcomes. The purpose of this current review is to describe the epidemiology of tobacco use among patients with CKD, draw attention to its negative impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and finally highlight potential strategies for successful intervention. We hope that this study heightens the importance of tobacco use in CKD, stimulates renewed interest in the barriers and challenges that exist in achieving smoking cessation, and endorses the efficacy of intervention strategies and the immeasurable benefits of quitting on cardiovascular and noncardiovascular outcomes.

  18. Little change of modifiable risk factors 1 year after stroke: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornnes, Nete; Larsen, Klaus; Boysen, Gudrun

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent stroke accounts for about 25% of admissions for acute stroke. For the prevention of recurrent cerebro and cardiovascular disease, stroke patients are advised to change modifiable stroke risk factors before discharge from stroke units....

  19. Prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among tea garden and general population in Dibrugarh, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika G. Mahanta

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: High prevalence of modifiable risk factors like tobacco consumption, high salt intake and high prevalence of hypertension indicates the need for early implementation of preventive actions in this population.

  20. Associations between Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors and Alzheimer Disease : A Mendelian Randomization Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostergaard, Soren D.; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Sharp, Stephen J.; Proitsi, Petroula; Lotta, Luca A.; Day, Felix; Perry, John R. B.; Boehme, Kevin L.; Walter, Stefan; Kauwe, John S.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Larson, Eric B.; Powell, John F.; Langenberg, Claudia; Crane, Paul K.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Scott, Robert A.; van der Schouw, YT

    Background Potentially modifiable risk factors including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and smoking are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and represent promising targets for intervention. However, the causality of these associations is unclear. We sought to assess the causal nature of these

  1. Multifunctional alumina/titania hybrid blocking layer modified nanocrystalline titania films as efficient photoanodes in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlei; Yu, Zhenhua; Bu, Chenghao; Liu, Pei; Bai, Sihang; Liu, Chang; Kondamareddy, Kiran Kumar; Sun, Weiwei; Zhan, Kan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2015-05-01

    A facile way of fabricating efficient blocking layer on mesoporous TiO2 film of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is demonstrated here for the first time. Al2O3 and TiO2 are combined together to form a blocking layer. A simple spin coating technique is employed which is a versatile and low-cost method over the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Multifunctional alumina/titania (Al2O3/TiO2) hybrid overlayer is prepared on traditional TiO2 nanocrystalline thin film surface, through sequential deposition of AlCl3·6H2O and TiCl4 precursor solutions followed by sintering at 500 °C for 30 min. Al2O3 effectively plays its role in retarding interfacial recombination of electrons and improving open circuit potential (Voc), while the tiny TiO2 clusters synthesized from TiCl4 treatment act as electron transporting channels to facilitate electron diffusion which leads to enhanced photocurrent (Jsc). Compared to the device without blocking layer, the DSSCs assembled with Al2O3/TiO2 hybrid blocking layer showed improvement in Jsc (from 13.09 mA/cm2 to 16.90 mA/cm2) as well as in Voc (from 0.72 V to 0.73 V) resulting a much better conversion efficiency of 8.60%.

  2. Air pollution: a potentially modifiable risk factor for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajersztajn, Laís; Veras, Mariana; Barrozo, Ligia Vizeu; Saldiva, Paulo

    2013-09-01

    Economic growth and increased urbanization pose a new risk for cancer development: the exposure of high numbers of people to ambient air pollution. Epidemiological evidence that links air pollution to mortality from lung cancer is robust. An ability to produce high-quality scientific research that addresses these risks and the ability of local health authorities to understand and respond to these risks are basic requirements to solve the conflict between economic development and the preservation of human health. However, this is currently far from being achieved. Thus, this Science and Society article addresses the possibilities of expanding scientific networking to increase awareness of the risk of lung cancer that is promoted by air pollution.

  3. Interrelated aldosterone and parathyroid hormone mutually modify cardiovascular mortality risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pilz, Stefan; Rus-Machan, Jutta; Meinitzer, Andreas; Brandenburg, Vincent M; Scharnagl, Hubert; Kapl, Martin; Grammer, Tanja; Ritz, Eberhard; Horina, Jörg H; Kleber, Marcus E; Pieske, Burkert; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó; Toplak, Hermann; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J; Amrein, Karin; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; März, Winfried

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inappropriate aldosterone and parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Accumulating evidence suggests bidirectional interplay between aldosterone and PTH. METHODS: We evaluated the cross-sectional relationship between plasma aldosterone

  4. Little change of modifiable risk factors 1 year after stroke: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornnes, Nete; Larsen, Klaus; Boysen, Gudrun

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent stroke accounts for about 25% of admissions for acute stroke. For the prevention of recurrent cerebro and cardiovascular disease, stroke patients are advised to change modifiable stroke risk factors before discharge from stroke units.......Recurrent stroke accounts for about 25% of admissions for acute stroke. For the prevention of recurrent cerebro and cardiovascular disease, stroke patients are advised to change modifiable stroke risk factors before discharge from stroke units....

  5. Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among adults in Aleppo, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Fouad, Fouad M; Mzayek, Fawaz; Maziak, Wasim

    2011-12-01

    This report provides the first comprehensive and standardized assessment of the distribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Syria, where such data are still scarce. A population-based household survey was conducted in Aleppo (population >2.5 million), involving 1,168 subjects ≥25 years old (47.7% men; mean age 44.7 ± 12.7 years). Information about socio-demographics, personal behavior, and other CVD risk factors was collected. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were obtained. The prevalence of clinical risk factors of CVD (ClinRFs) was 45.6% for hypertension, 43.2% for obesity, 21.9% for hypercholesterolemia and 15.6% for diabetes. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors (BehRFs) was 82.3% for physical inactivity, 39.0% for smoking, and 33.4% for unhealthy diet. All ClinRFs increased with age, while gender was associated only with obesity and smoking. Education was associated with obesity and diabetes (P Syria have some of the world's highest prevalence of CVD risk factors. Unhealthy behaviors and social norms unfavorable to women may explain some of such risk profiles.

  6. Lowering triglycerides to modify cardiovascular risk: will icosapent deliver?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer DJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Scherer,1 Stephen J Nicholls2 1Cardiovascular Investigation Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital, 2South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Despite the clinical benefits of lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, many patients continue to experience cardiovascular events. This residual risk suggests that additional risk factors require aggressive modification to result in more effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Hypertriglyceridemia has presented a considerable challenge with regard to understanding its role in the promotion of cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence has established a clear causal role for elevated triglyceride levels in vascular risk. As a result, there is increasing interest in the development of specific therapeutic strategies that directly target hypertriglyceridemia. This has seen a resurgence in the use of omega-3 fatty acids for the therapeutic lowering of triglyceride levels. The role of these agents and other emerging strategies to reduce triglyceride levels in order to decrease vascular risk are reviewed. Keywords: hypertriglyceridemia, omega-3 fatty acid, fish oil, cardiovascular risk, lipids

  7. Risk of jugular compression blocks in workers exposed to prolonged upright posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sio, S; Mandolesi, S; Niglio, T; D'Alessandro, Aldo; D'Alessandro, Alessandro; Vitarelli, A; Ricci, S

    2016-01-01

    The working posture affects the peripheral venous circulation, although the current literature does not report any correlation between working posture and the abnormalities of the jugular veins flow. The purpose of this preliminary research is to study, in female workers, the prevalence of Venous Compressive Syndrome (VCS) caused by total block of the internal jugular veins flow, so-called "White Compression". Due to complete compression by postural, muscular, fascial, anatomical or bone anomalies, White Compression is not visible by EchoColorDoppler (ECD) and its flow can only be detected by the rotational movements of the head or by Valsalva's maneuver. We studied a sample of female workers with ECD (n=128), in supine and upright position divided into subgroups according to the obliged posture maintained during working hours: group A, seated work (n = 61; 47.7%); group B, standing work (n = 41; 32.0%); group C, mixed (both standing and seated work) (n = 26; 20.3%). The total sample (n = 128) had the mean age of 46 ± 10 years (minimum 18 and maximum 67 years) and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) of 23 ± 4 kg/m2 (min 16 kg/m2 and a maximum of 42 kg/m2). Group A and group C did not show any White Compression in orthostatic and clinostatic position. The 9.75% (p = 0.0125) of Group B had a White Compression in orthostatic position: two female workers on the left side (4.9%) and two female workers on the right side (4.9%). We conclude that there is a risk of jugular compression blocks in female workers exposed to prolonged upright posture. Yet there is no longitudinal study that identifies the White Compressions as etiology of a chronic neurodegenerative disease. The authors hope that some wider studies can confirm the prevalence of these compressions in standing posture and their patho-physiological consequences.

  8. Quantifying the risk-reduction potential of new Modified Risk Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Florian; Vuillaume, Gregory; Baker, Gizelle; Sponsiello-Wang, Zheng; Ricci, Paolo F; Lüdicke, Frank; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative risk assessment of novel Modified Risk Tobacco Products (MRTP) must rest on indirect measurements that are indicative of disease development prior to epidemiological data becoming available. For this purpose, a Population Health Impact Model (PHIM) has been developed to estimate the reduction in the number of deaths from smoking-related diseases following the introduction of an MRTP. One key parameter of the model, the F-factor, describes the effective dose upon switching from cigarette smoking to using an MRTP. Biomarker data, collected in clinical studies, can be analyzed to estimate the effects of switching to an MRTP as compared to quitting smoking. Based on transparent assumptions, a link function is formulated that translates these effects into the F-factor. The concepts of 'lack of sufficiency' and 'necessity' are introduced, allowing for a parametrization of a family of link functions. These can be uniformly sampled, thus providing different 'scenarios' on how biomarker-based evidence can be translated into the F-factor to inform the PHIM. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modifiable Risk Factors for Hypertension in a Rural Community of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study found that the rate of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking was high in this community. It is recommended that any health promoting, preventive or intervention programme for this population should pay emphasis on their alcohol consumption and smoking habits. Key words: hypertension risk factors, ...

  10. Population attributable risk of breast cancer in white women associated with immediately modifiable risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Sally L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen/progestin replacement therapy (EPRT, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and breast-feeding duration differ from other factors associated with breast cancer in being immediately modifiable by the individual, thereby representing attractive targets for future breast cancer prevention efforts. To justify such efforts, it is vital to quantify the potential population-level impacts on breast cancer considering population variations in behavior prevalence, risk estimate, and baseline incidence. Methods For each of these four factors, we calculated population attributable risk percents (PARs using population-based survey (2001 and cancer registry data (1998–2002 for 41 subpopulations of white, non-Hispanic California women aged 40–79 years, and ranges of relative risk (RR estimates from the literature. Results Using a single RR estimate, subpopulation PARs ranged from 2.5% to 5.6% for hormone use, from 0.0% to 6.1% for recent consumption of >= 2 alcoholic drinks daily, and 4.6% to 11.0% for physical inactivity. Using a range of RR estimates, PARs were 2–11% for EPRT use, 1–20% for alcohol consumption and 2–15% for physical inactivity. Subpopulation data were unavailable for breastfeeding, but PARs using published RR estimates ranged from 2% to 11% for lifetime breastfeeding >= 31 months. Thus, of 13,019 breast cancers diagnosed annually in California, as many as 1,432 attributable to EPRT use, 2,604 attributable to alcohol consumption, 1,953 attributable to physical inactivity, and 1,432 attributable to never breastfeeding might be avoidable. Conclusion The relatively feasible lifestyle changes of discontinuing EPRT use, reducing alcohol consumption, increasing physical activity, and lengthening breastfeeding duration could lower population breast cancer incidence substantially.

  11. Temperature Effects on Kinetics of KV11.1 Drug Block Have Important Consequences for In Silico Proarrhythmic Risk Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windley, Monique J; Mann, Stefan A; Vandenberg, Jamie I; Hill, Adam P

    2016-07-01

    Drug block of voltage-gated potassium channel subtype 11.1 human ether-a-go-go related gene (Kv11.1) (hERG) channels, encoded by the KCNH2 gene, is associated with reduced repolarization of the cardiac action potential and is the predominant cause of acquired long QT syndrome that can lead to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Current safety guidelines require that potency of KV11.1 block is assessed in the preclinical phase of drug development. However, not all drugs that block KV11.1 are proarrhythmic, meaning that screening on the basis of equilibrium measures of block can result in high attrition of potentially low-risk drugs. The basis of the next generation of drug-screening approaches is set to be in silico risk prediction, informed by in vitro mechanistic descriptions of drug binding, including measures of the kinetics of block. A critical issue in this regard is characterizing the temperature dependence of drug binding. Specifically, it is important to address whether kinetics relevant to physiologic temperatures can be inferred or extrapolated from in vitro data gathered at room temperature in high-throughout systems. Here we present the first complete study of the temperature-dependent kinetics of block and unblock of a proarrhythmic drug, cisapride, to KV11.1. Our data highlight a complexity to binding that manifests at higher temperatures and can be explained by accumulation of an intermediate, non-blocking encounter-complex. These results suggest that for cisapride, physiologically relevant kinetic parameters cannot be simply extrapolated from those measured at lower temperatures; rather, data gathered at physiologic temperatures should be used to constrain in silico models that may be used for proarrhythmic risk prediction. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  12. Epidemiology, classification, and modifiable risk factors of peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas W Shammas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas W ShammasMidwest Cardiovascular Research Foundation, Cardiovascular Medicine, PC, Davenport, IA, USAAbstract: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is part of a global vascular problem of diffuse atherosclerosis. PAD patients die mostly of cardiac and cerebrovascular-related events and much less frequently due to obstructive disease of the lower extremities. Aggressive risk factors modification is needed to reduce cardiac mortality in PAD patients. These include smoking cessation, reduction of blood pressure to current guidelines, aggressive low density lipoprotein lowering, losing weight, controlling diabetes and the use of oral antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin or clopidogrel. In addition to quitting smoking and exercise, cilostazol and statins have been shown to reduce claudication in patients with PAD. Patients with critical rest limb ischemia or severe progressive claudication need to be treated with revascularization to minimize the chance of limb loss, reduce symptoms, and improve quality of life.Keywords: peripheral arterial disease, epidemiology, risk factors, classification

  13. Budding adult hypertensives with modifiable risk factors: "Catch them young"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind S.K. Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the data of primary hypertension (HT in children is scanty in India, this study attempted to evaluate HT by a multidimensional investigation of the various risk factors in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A total of 3906 subjects were recruited, all of whom lived in Chennai, an urban area of Tamil Nadu. The children and adolescents aged from 10 to 17 years were selected by random sampling. The children/adolescents were randomized into one control and further divided into two groups. The National High Blood Pressure Education Program fourth report (2004 and anthropometric body mass index (BMI, food frequency questionnaire (PURE were followed in the study. Results: Out of 3906 children, 2107 were girls and 1799 boys. On screening, we found 9.5% to be hypertensive with the prevalence rate of boys and girls 8% and 10.8%, respectively. Overall obesity was 2.7%, (boys 2%, girls 3.32%; hypertensives and normotensives were 8.4% and 2.1%, respectively. We found that overweight (odds ratio [OR]: 2.06 [1.40-3.01] 95% confidence interval [CI], obese children (OR: 1.21 [2.72-6.48] 95% CI, and those with a family history of HT (OR: 1.66 [1.20-2.30] 95% CI had increased risk of hypertension. Females were 1.39 times (OR: 1.39 [1.11-1.72] 95% CI more at risk of getting HT. Multivariate analysis showed that obese children/adolescent were four times more likely to have HT than children with normal BMI (OR: 4.67 [3.00-7.26] 95% CI]. Conclusion: Family history of HT, obesity, and female gender are associated with a high risk of HT. The prevalence of HT was higher among obese adolescents than among slender subjects. This may be related to their sedentary lifestyle, faulty eating habits, high fat content in the diet and little physical activity.

  14. Carborane-linked 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-O-triphosphate as building block for polymerase synthesis of carborane-modified DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balintová, Jana; Simonova, Anna; Białek-Pietras, Magdalena; Olejniczak, Agnieszka; Lesnikowski, Zbigniew J; Hocek, Michal

    2017-11-01

    5-[(p-Carborane-2-yl)ethynyl]-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-O-triphosphate was synthesized and used as a good substrate in enzymatic construction of carborane-modified DNA or oligonucleotides containing up to 21 carborane moieties in primer extension reactions by DNA polymerases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic modifiers of CHEK2*1100delC-associated breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muranen, Taru A; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: CHEK2*1100delC is a founder variant in European populations that confers a two- to threefold increased risk of breast cancer (BC). Epidemiologic and family studies have suggested that the risk associated with CHEK2*1100delC is modified by other genetic factors in a multiplicative fashion...

  16. Genetic modifiers of menopausal hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Anja; Hein, Rebecca; Lindström, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Women using menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) are at increased risk of developing breast cancer (BC). To detect genetic modifiers of the association between current use of MHT and BC risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide case-only studies followed by replication in 11 case...

  17. DTREEv2, a computer-based support system for the risk assessment of genetically modified plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pertry, I.; Nothegger, C.; Sweet, J.; Kuiper, H.A.; Davies, H.; Iserentant, D.; Hull, R.; Mezzetti, B.; Messens, K.; Loose, De M.; Oliveira, de D.; Burssens, S.; Gheysen, G.; Tzotzos, G.

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) remains a contentious area and a major factor influencing the adoption of agricultural biotech. Methodologically, in many countries, risk assessment is conducted by expert committees with little or no recourse to databases and expert systems

  18. Modifiable Risk Factors and Infertility: What are the Connections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Brooke V.; Abusief, Mary; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is a relatively common condition, greatly affecting couples medically and psychologically. Although infertility treatment is safe, it can be time-intensive, expensive and increase the risk of multiple gestations. Thus, to reduce costs and risks, couples may initially consider lifestyle change to increase their fertility and chances of pregnancy. For many of the diet factors studied (for example: caffeine, soy, protein, iron), there are conflicting data. However, there are some items men and women consume that are detrimental to fertility, such as alcohol and tobacco. The data on exercise are varied but may have an effect on ovulation and fertility - positive or negative. Body mass index appears to impact fertility also, with obesity in both men and women negatively affecting pregnancy rates. In addition, there remains concern and a growing body of research on environmental toxin exposures and reproductive health. Finally, supporting patients through infertility diagnosis and treatment is critical, as psychological stress may impact conception. It is imperative that the relationship between lifestyle factors and fertility continue to be explored as to lessen the morbidity associated with infertility. PMID:27594813

  19. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors of Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease (CASHD among a sample in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ku Melvin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease (CASHD is increasing in India. Several modifiable risk factors contribute directly to this disease burden. Public knowledge of such risk factors among the urban Indian population is largely unknown. This investigation attempts to quantify knowledge of modifiable risk factors of CASHD as sampled among an Indian population at a large metropolitan hospital. Methods A hospital-based, cross sectional study was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, a major tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. Participants (n = 217 recruited from patient waiting areas in the emergency room were provided with standardized questionnaires to assess their knowledge of modifiable risk factors of CASHD. The risk factors specifically included smoking, hypertension, elevated cholesterol levels, diabetes mellitus and obesity. Identifying 3 or less risk factors was regarded as a poor knowledge level, whereas identifying 4 or more risk factors was regarded as a good knowledge level. A multiple logistic regression model was used to isolate independent demographic markers predictive of a participant's level of knowledge. Results 41% of the sample surveyed had a good level of knowledge. 68%, 72%, 73% and 57% of the population identified smoking, obesity, hypertension, and high cholesterol correctly, respectively. 30% identified diabetes mellitus as a modifiable risk factor of CASHD. In multiple logistic regression analysis independent demographic predictors of a good knowledge level with a statistically significant (p Conclusion An Indian population in a hospital setting shows a lack of knowledge pertaining to modifiable risk factors of CASHD. By isolating demographic predictors of poor knowledge, such as current smokers and persons who do not exercise regularly, educational interventions can be effectively targeted and implemented as primary and secondary prevention strategies

  20. Fatal anaphylaxis with neuromuscular blocking agents: a risk factor and management analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitter, M; Petitpain, N; Latarche, C; Cottin, J; Massy, N; Demoly, P; Gillet, P; Mertes, P M

    2014-07-01

    Anaphylactic reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) can be severe and even fatal. Our aim was to evaluate mortality rate in France from anaphylactic reactions to NMBAs, to identify risk factors for a fatal outcome, and to describe management of the cases that proved fatal. The French National Pharmacovigilance Database was queried for reports of NMBA anaphylaxis that occurred between January 2000 and December 2011. A questionnaire was sent to regional pharmacovigilance centers to obtain further information on the management of cases with a fatal outcome. Two thousand and twenty-two cases of NMBA hypersensitivity were retrieved, of which 84 were fatal (4.1%). Among the 1247 cases of severe NMBA anaphylaxis (grades 3 and 4), independent risk factors associated with a fatal outcome in a multivariate analysis were male gender (female gender: OR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.7; P = 0.0004), an emergency setting (OR = 2.6; 95% CI 1.5-4.6; P = 0.0007), a history of hypertension (OR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.5-4.4; P = 0.0010) or of other cardiovascular disease (OR = 4.4; 95% CI 2.4-8.1; P < 0.0001), obesity (OR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.1-5.3; P = 0.0376), and ongoing beta-blocker treatment (OR = 4.2; 95% CI 1.8-9.8; P = 0.0011). All 31 patients with a fatal outcome received epinephrine in a titrated manner according to international guidelines. Obese males with a history of cardiovascular disease receiving ongoing beta-blocker treatment and undergoing surgery in an emergency setting were at high risk of a fatal outcome after NMBA-induced anaphylaxis. Some epinephrine-resistant cases may play a role in our high mortality rate. New therapeutic approaches need to be developed to treat these cases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A modified risk assessment scoring system for post laser in situ keratomileusis ectasia in topographically normal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Miraftab

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Our modified ectasia risk scoring system for patients with normal corneal topography can predict post LASIK ectasia risk with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. However, there are still unidentified risk factors for which further studies are required.

  2. Anorexia of aging: a modifiable risk factor for frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martone, Anna Maria; Onder, Graziano; Vetrano, Davide Liborio; Ortolani, Elena; Tosato, Matteo; Marzetti, Emanuele; Landi, Francesco

    2013-10-14

    Anorexia of aging, defined as a loss of appetite and/or reduced food intake, affects a significant number of elderly people and is far more prevalent among frail individuals. Anorexia recognizes a multifactorial origin characterized by various combinations of medical, environmental and social factors. Given the interconnection between weight loss, sarcopenia and frailty, anorexia is a powerful, independent predictor of poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality in older persons. One of the most important goals in the management of older, frail people is to optimize their nutritional status. To achieve this objective it is important to identify subjects at risk of anorexia and to provide multi-stimulus interventions that ensure an adequate amount of food to limit and/or reverse weight loss and functional decline. Here, we provide a brief overview on the relevance of anorexia in the context of sarcopenia and frailty. Major pathways supposedly involved in the pathogenesis of anorexia are also illustrated. Finally, the importance of treating anorexia to achieve health benefits in frail elders is highlighted.

  3. Risk assesment in the context of EC directives on genetically modified organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meer, P.J. van der

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of these new molecular technologies initiated an international discussion on the safety in biotechnology. In 1974 one of the pioneers of this new technology, Paul Berg, expressed his view on the potential risks of recombinant DNA applications in the famous 'Berg letter', leading to a self-imposed moratorium on certain experiments. Following the Berg letter and the Asilomar convention, much international attention has been given to the question of safety in biotechnology. This attention resulted in hundreds of documents, research programmes, guidelines and regulations. This resulted, among others, in two EC Directives on genetically modified organisms: the EC Directive 90/219/EEC on the contained use of genetically modified micro-organisms, and Directive 90/220/EEC on the release of genetically modified organisms. These directives lay down a system for harmonization of risk assessment and risk management with regard to the safety for human health and the environment

  4. Monitoring modifiable risk factors for breast cancer: an obligation for health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Guerra Guerrero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common disease in women and constitutes the second leading cause of cancer death in this population. The factors that contribute to the risk of occurrence are divided into nonmodifiable and modifiable factors. Although there are interventions in primary care to prevent the disease, these measures have not produced the desired changes in women’s health. This article reviews the major modifiable risk factors for breast cancer and describes how these factors can affect the incidence of cancer in women. This information shows that modifiable risk factors (such as physical activity, diet, obesity, and use of alcohol and tobacco can influence the occurrence of breast cancer, in part depending on the life stage of a woman, including menopausal status. Timely prevention at the primary care level is one of the most important areas on which health professionals need to focus in order to help reduce the incidence of breast cancer.

  5. Socioeconomic status, negative affect, and modifiable cancer risk factors in African-American smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Mazas, Carlos A; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Costello, Tracy J; Businelle, Michael S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of cooccurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African-Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African-American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had at least one cancer risk factor in addition to smoking. Univariate ordinal logistic regression analyses revealed that female gender, unemployment, lower positive affect, and greater negative affect were associated with having a greater number of cancer risk factors. Multivariate analyses yielded similar findings. A structural equation modeling approach indicated that stress/negative affect may function as one pathway linking SES and modifiable cancer risk factors among African-American smokers and that gender has a direct effect on modifiable cancer risk factors. Thus, risk patterns identified within each gender group may guide the development of multiple risk factor interventions for African-American smokers. Stress and negative affect may be an important treatment target within behavioral interventions for African-American smokers of low SES.

  6. The media and genetically modified foods: evidence in support of social amplification of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, Lynn J; Miles, Susan; Marsh, Roy

    2002-08-01

    Empirical examinations of the "social amplification of risk" framework are rare, partly because of the difficulties in predicting when conditions likely to result in amplification effects will occur. This means that it is difficult to examine changes in risk perception that are contemporaneous with increases and/or decreases in social or media discussion of the risks associated with a particular risk event. However, the collection of attitude data before, during, and after the increased reporting of the risks of genetically modified food in the United Kingdom (spring 1999) has demonstrated that people's risk perceptions do increase and decrease in line with what might be expected upon examination of the amplification and attenuation mechanisms integral to the framework. Perceptions of benefit, however, appeared to be permanently depressed by negative reporting about genetically modified food. Trust in regulatory institutions with responsibility for protecting the public was not affected. It was concluded that the social amplification of risk framework is a useful framework for beginning to explain the potential impact on risk perceptions of a risk event, particularly if that risk event is presented to the public as a new hazard occurring in a crisis context.

  7. Gene-diet-interactions in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism modify colon cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Amy Y; Scherer, Dominique; Poole, Elizabeth; Potter, John D; Curtin, Karen; Makar, Karen; Slattery, Martha L; Caan, Bette J; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2013-04-01

    The importance of folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) in colorectal carcinogenesis is emphasized by observations that high dietary folate intake is associated with decreased risk of colon cancer (CC) and its precursors. Additionally, polymorphisms in FOCM-related genes have been repeatedly associated with risk, supporting a causal relationship between folate and colorectal carcinogenesis. We investigated ten candidate polymorphisms with defined or probable functional impact in eight FOCM-related genes (SHMT1, DHFR, DNMT1, MTHFD1, MTHFR, MTRR, TCN2, and TDG) in 1609 CC cases and 1974 controls for association with CC risk and for interaction with dietary factors. No polymorphism was statistically significantly associated with overall risk of CC. However, statistically significant interactions modifying CC risk were observed for DNMT1 I311V with dietary folate, methionine, vitamin B2 , and vitamin B12 intake and for MTRR I22M with dietary folate, a predefined one-carbon dietary pattern, and vitamin B6 intake. We observed statistically significant gene-diet interactions with five additional polymorphisms. Our results provide evidence that FOCM-related dietary intakes modify the association between CC risk and FOCM allelic variants. These findings add to observations showing that folate-related gene-nutrient interactions play an important role in modifying the risk of CC. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A review of lifestyle, smoking and other modifiable risk factors for osteoporotic fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Brask-Lindemann, Dorthe; Rubin, Katrine Hass

    2014-01-01

    could include reduction of excessive alcohol intake, smoking cessation, adequate nutrition, patient education, daily physical activity and a careful review of medications that could increase the risk of falls and fractures. There remains, however, an unmet need for high-quality intervention studies......Although many strong risk factors for osteoporosis-such as family history, fracture history and age-are not modifiable, a number of important risk factors are potential targets for intervention. Thus, simple, non-pharmacological intervention in patients at increased risk of osteoporotic fractures...

  9. [Effect of modified huanglian wendan decoction in treating senile patients with mild cognitive impairment of turbid-phlegm blocking orifice syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ren-zhen; Zhou, Wen-quan; Luo, Zeng-gang

    2010-01-01

    To observe the clinical efficacy of modified Huanglian Wendan Decoction (HWD) in treating senile mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of turbid-phlegm blocking orifice syndrome. With a block randomized, double-blinded and controlled design adopted, the 64 patients of MCI selected from December 2007 to February 2009 were randomly and equally assigned to two groups. The treatment group was treated with HWD in dose of 200 mL, twice a day; the control group was given Aniracetam 0.2 g (for patients over 70-years-old, 0.1 g) three times a day. And the illusive medicine in dosage-form of capsule/decoction simulated to that used in the opposite group was applied. The medication and observation lasted for three months. Chinese medicine syndrome, cognition capacity (by MMSE), laboratory indexes [acetylcholine (Ach), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA)] and safety related indexes in patients were observed. After treatment, MMSE score increased in both groups, but the increment in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group (PAniracetam; and with effects for raising SOD activity and reducing MDA level similar to those of Aniracetam.

  10. Endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial cancer and prevention: gaps in existing research of modifiable risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Faina; Edwards, Robert; Balk, Judith; Yurkovetsky, Zoya; Stadterman, Barbara; Lokshin, Anna; Taioli, Emanuela

    2008-08-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common cancer of the lower female genital tract in Europe and the United States. Faced with the growing incidence of endometrial cancer in Europe and around the world, scientists, doctors and public health professionals are becoming more concerned with identifying effective preventive measures for this condition. This review paper presents the existing knowledge about modifiable risk factors leading to endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer and highlights the need for more studies in this area. Extensive literature review of modifiable risk factors for endometrial cancer and endometrial hyperplasia has been performed. Additionally, biomarker approaches to cancer monitoring, existing therapies for endometrial hyperplasia and factors affecting patient survival are reviewed. Obesity and inactivity are two of the major risk factors associated with the development of endometrial cancer and endometrial hyperplasia. Other modifiable risk factors include dietary habits, exercise and the use of hormonal therapy. Similar factors, along with cancer biomarkers, may play an important role in the early detection of endometrial cancer and survival after the diagnosis. The majority of these factors fit well with the unopposed oestrogen theory. Diet and exercise programmes are currently not integrated into a standard treatment programmes for patients with endometrial hyperplasia or endometrial cancer. More studies are needed to investigate modifiable risk factors for endometrial cancer and endometrial hyperplasia. Existing therapies for endometrial hyperplasia target hormone imbalance, which is just one aspect of endometrial cancer development. Next generation therapies for endometrial cancer and endometrial hyperplasia patients should include diet, exercise and weight loss plans, which would target other modifiable aspects of endometrial cancer risk.

  11. Alzheimer disease risk associated with APOE4 is modified by STH gene polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seripa, D; Matera, M G; D'Andrea, R P; Gravina, C; Masullo, C; Daniele, A; Bizzarro, A; Rinaldi, M; Antuono, P; Wekstein, D R; Dal Forno, G; Fazio, V M

    2004-05-11

    The association of the STH gene polymorphism with Alzheimer disease (AD) is debated. In the analysis of two genetically and diagnostically distinct groups of Alzheimer patients from the USA and Italy, the authors did not find an association with the STH polymorphism. However, the APOE-4-associated risk of AD greatly increased if the STH-G allele was also present. The STH-G allele appears to be a risk modifier for AD.

  12. Ubiquitous LEA29Y Expression Blocks T Cell Co-Stimulation but Permits Sexual Reproduction in Genetically Modified Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähr, Andrea; Käser, Tobias; Kemter, Elisabeth; Gerner, Wilhelm; Kurome, Mayuko; Baars, Wiebke; Herbach, Nadja; Witter, Kirsti; Wünsch, Annegret; Talker, Stephanie C; Kessler, Barbara; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Saalmüller, Armin; Schwinzer, Reinhard; Wolf, Eckhard; Klymiuk, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    We have successfully established and characterized a genetically modified pig line with ubiquitous expression of LEA29Y, a human CTLA4-Ig derivate. LEA29Y binds human B7.1/CD80 and B7.2/CD86 with high affinity and is thus a potent inhibitor of T cell co-stimulation via this pathway. We have characterized the expression pattern and the biological function of the transgene as well as its impact on the porcine immune system and have evaluated the potential of these transgenic pigs to propagate via assisted breeding methods. The analysis of LEA29Y expression in serum and multiple organs of CAG-LEA transgenic pigs revealed that these animals produce a biologically active transgenic product at a considerable level. They present with an immune system affected by transgene expression, but can be maintained until sexual maturity and propagated by assisted reproduction techniques. Based on previous experience with pancreatic islets expressing LEA29Y, tissues from CAG-LEA29Y transgenic pigs should be protected against rejection by human T cells. Furthermore, their immune-compromised phenotype makes CAG-LEA29Y transgenic pigs an interesting large animal model for testing human cell therapies and will provide an important tool for further clarifying the LEA29Y mode of action.

  13. Enhanced Antifungal Activity by Ab-Modified Amphotericin B-Loaded Nanoparticles Using a pH-Responsive Block Copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaolong; Dai, Jingjing; Xie, Jun; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhu, Ming; Wang, Zhi; Xie, Chunmei; Yao, Aixia; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Li; Jiang, Qinglin; Wang, Shulei; Liang, Yong; Xu, Congjing

    2015-06-01

    Fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Amphotericin B (AMB), with broad-spectrum antifungal activity, has long been recognized as a powerful fungicidal drug, but its clinical toxicities mainly nephrotoxicity and poor solubility limit its wide application in clinical practice. The fungal metabolism along with the host immune response usually generates acidity at sites of infection, resulting in loss of AMB activity in a pH-dependent manner. Herein, we developed pH-responsive AMB-loaded and surface charge-switching poly( d, l-lactic- co-glycolic acid)- b-poly( l-histidine)- b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PLH-PEG) nanoparticles for resolving the localized acidity problem and enhance the antifungal efficacy of AMB. Moreover, we modified AMB-encapsulated PLGA-PLH-PEG nanoparticles with anti- Candida albicans antibody (CDA) (CDA-AMB-NPs) to increase the targetability. Then, CDA-AMB-NPs were characterized in terms of physical characteristics, in vitro drug release, stability, drug encapsulation efficiency, and toxicity. Finally, the targetability and antifungal activity of CDA-AMB-NPs were investigated in vitro /in vivo. The result demonstrated that CDA-AMB-NPs significantly improve the targetability and bioavailability of AMB and thus improve its antifungal activity and reduce its toxicity. These NPs may become a good drug carrier for antifungal treatment.

  14. Ubiquitous LEA29Y Expression Blocks T Cell Co-Stimulation but Permits Sexual Reproduction in Genetically Modified Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähr, Andrea; Käser, Tobias; Kemter, Elisabeth; Gerner, Wilhelm; Kurome, Mayuko; Baars, Wiebke; Herbach, Nadja; Witter, Kirsti; Wünsch, Annegret; Talker, Stephanie C.; Kessler, Barbara; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Saalmüller, Armin; Schwinzer, Reinhard; Wolf, Eckhard; Klymiuk, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    We have successfully established and characterized a genetically modified pig line with ubiquitous expression of LEA29Y, a human CTLA4-Ig derivate. LEA29Y binds human B7.1/CD80 and B7.2/CD86 with high affinity and is thus a potent inhibitor of T cell co-stimulation via this pathway. We have characterized the expression pattern and the biological function of the transgene as well as its impact on the porcine immune system and have evaluated the potential of these transgenic pigs to propagate via assisted breeding methods. The analysis of LEA29Y expression in serum and multiple organs of CAG-LEA transgenic pigs revealed that these animals produce a biologically active transgenic product at a considerable level. They present with an immune system affected by transgene expression, but can be maintained until sexual maturity and propagated by assisted reproduction techniques. Based on previous experience with pancreatic islets expressing LEA29Y, tissues from CAG-LEA29Y transgenic pigs should be protected against rejection by human T cells. Furthermore, their immune-compromised phenotype makes CAG-LEA29Y transgenic pigs an interesting large animal model for testing human cell therapies and will provide an important tool for further clarifying the LEA29Y mode of action. PMID:27175998

  15. Intermediate acting non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents and risk of postoperative respiratory complications: prospective propensity score matched cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse-Sundrup, Martina; Henneman, Justin P; Sandberg, Warren S; Bateman, Brian T; Uribe, Jose Villa; Nguyen, Nicole Thuy; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Martinez, Elizabeth A; Kurth, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether use of intermediate acting neuromuscular blocking agents during general anesthesia increases the incidence of postoperative respiratory complications. Design Prospective, propensity score matched cohort study. Setting General teaching hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 2006-10. Participants 18 579 surgical patients who received intermediate acting neuromuscular blocking agents during surgery were matched by propensity score to 18 579 reference patients who did not receive such agents. Main outcome measures The main outcome measures were oxygen desaturation after extubation (hemoglobin oxygen saturation 3%) and reintubations requiring unplanned admission to an intensive care unit within seven days of surgery. We also evaluated effects on these outcome variables of qualitative monitoring of neuromuscular transmission (train-of-four ratio) and reversal of neuromuscular blockade with neostigmine to prevent residual postoperative neuromuscular blockade. Results The use of intermediate acting neuromuscular blocking agents was associated with an increased risk of postoperative desaturation less than 90% after extubation (odds ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.51) and reintubation requiring unplanned admission to an intensive care unit (1.40, 1.09 to 1.80). Qualitative monitoring of neuromuscular transmission did not decrease this risk and neostigmine reversal increased the risk of postoperative desaturation to values less than 90% (1.32, 1.20 to 1.46) and reintubation (1.76, 1.38 to 2.26). Conclusion The use of intermediate acting neuromuscular blocking agents during anesthesia was associated with an increased risk of clinically meaningful respiratory complications. Our data suggest that the strategies used in our trial to prevent residual postoperative neuromuscular blockade should be revisited. PMID:23077290

  16. Perceived Risk Modifies the Effect of HIV Knowledge on Sexual Risk Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein eNoroozinejad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThere is a large controversy in the literature about the inter-relations between perceived risk, knowledge and risk behavior in different settings, and people at HIV risk are not an exception.Aim To assess additive and multiplicative effect of perceived HIV risk and HIV knowledge on sexual risk behavior of Injecting Drug Users (IDUs.MethodWe enrolled 162 street based IDUs to this analysis. Data came from a national survey of IDUs in Iran, with a cross sectional design. Socio-demographics (employment, education, marital status, HIV knowledge, perceived HIV risk and four different sexual risk behavior were registered. In the first step, using spearman test, the association of HIV knowledge and risk behavior were tested, then possible moderating effect of perceived HIV risk on this association was determined.ResultsAlthough among IDUs with low perceived HIV risk, HIV knowledge was negatively associated with sexual risk behavior (P<0.05 for all, this association was not significant among IDUs with high perceived HIV risk (P>0.05 for all. Thus perceived HIV risk moderated the association between HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior.ConclusionPerceived risk should be taken into consideration when studying the effect of HIV knowledge on sexual risk behavior of IDUs. Findings may help us better understand negative effects of fear arousing interventions as a part of HIV prevention media campaigns.

  17. The surface electrocardiogram predicts risk of heart block during right heart catheterization in patients with preexisting left bundle branch block: implications for the definition of complete left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padanilam, Benzy J; Morris, Kent E; Olson, Jeff A; Rippy, Janet S; Walsh, Mary Norine; Subramanian, Natrajan; Vidal, Alex; Prystowsky, Eric N; Steinberg, Leonard A

    2010-07-01

    Patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) undergoing right heart catheterization can develop complete heart block (CHB) or right bundle branch block (RBBB) in response to right bundle branch (RBB) trauma. We hypothesized that LBBB patients with an initial r wave (>or=1 mm) in lead V1 have intact left to right ventricular septal (VS) activation suggesting persistent conduction over the left bundle branch. Trauma to the RBB should result in RBBB pattern rather than CHB in such patients. Between January 2002 and February 2007, we prospectively evaluated 27 consecutive patients with LBBB developing either CHB or RBBB during right heart catheterization. The prevalence of an r wave >or=1 mm in lead V1 was determined using 118 serial LBBB electrocardiographs (ECGs) from our hospital database. Catheter trauma to the RBB resulted in CHB in 18 patients and RBBB in 9 patients. All 6 patients with >or=1 mm r wave in V1 developed RBBB. Among these 6 patients q wave in lead I, V5, or V6 were present in 3. Four patients (3 in CHB group and 1 in RBBB group) developed spontaneous CHB during a median follow-up of 61 months. V1 q wave >or=1 mm was present in 28% of hospitalized complete LBBB patients. An initial r wave of >or=1 mm in lead V1 suggests intact left to right VS activation and identifies LBBB patients at low risk of CHB during right heart catheterization. These preliminary findings indicate that an initial r wave of >or=1 mm in lead V1, present in approximately 28% of ECGs with classically defined LBBB, may constitute a new exclusion criterion when defining complete LBBB.

  18. Characterizing Stressors and Modifiable Health Risk Factors among Homeless Smokers: An Exploratory Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Businelle, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study was conducted to explore the associations between stressors related to homelessness and modifiable health risk factors (poor diet, insufficient physical activity, and overweight/obesity) and to provide direction for future research. Participants (N = 57) were homeless adults enrolled in a smoking cessation program. Analyses were…

  19. Modifiable risk factors promoting neurodegeneration is associated with two novel brain degradation markers measured in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Møller, Katrine Dragsbæk; Christiansen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    truncated tau fragments (Tau-A and Tau-C) in serum. Platelets, albumin and several modifiable risk factors, including Body Mass Index, high density lipoprotein and White Blood Cell count were associated with the serum level of tau fragments. The factors associated with tau in serum may promote...

  20. Modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and subjective memory impairment across age groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T Chen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI, which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. METHOD: Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years, 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years, and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. RESULTS: Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other

  1. Modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and subjective memory impairment across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen T; Siddarth, Prabha; Ercoli, Linda M; Merrill, David A; Torres-Gil, Fernando; Small, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI), which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways) of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years), 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years), and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years) adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other dementias later in life remains to be determined.

  2. A tannin-blocking agent does not modify the preference of sheep towards tannin-containing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orduño, G; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Capetillo-Leal, C M; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Alonso-Díaz, M A

    2015-06-01

    Sheep have been suggested to use their senses to perceive plant properties and associate their intake with consequences after ingestion. However, sheep with browsing experience do not seem to select against tannin-rich browsing materials in cafeteria trials. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the chemical composition, selectivity index (SI), preference and intake rate (IR) of tannin-containing forage trees offered to sheep in cafeteria experiments. Four trees were selected for their condensed tannin content and their varying biological activities. Havardia albicans (high biological activity), Leucaena leucocephala (medium biological activity), Acacia gaumeri (low biological activity) and Brosimum alicastrum (very low biological activity) were used in this study. Ten hair sheep (23.7kg±1.43LW) with eight months of browsing experience in native vegetation were used in this study. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 3600MW) was administered to five sheep during all experiments. In experiment 1, fresh foliage from all trees was offered ad libitum for 4h. In experiment 2, B. alicastrum was withdrawn and the preference was determined again. The forage preference in experiment 1 was A. gaumeri (14.77gDM/kgLW)>B. alicastrum (11.77gDM/kgLW)>H. albicans (3.71gDM/kgLW)=L. leucocephala (1.87gDM/kgLW) (PH. albicans=L. leucocephala. PEG administration had no effect on the preference or IR. The intake rate seemed to have been affected by the plant density. Moreover, fiber compounds were found to be better predictors of DM intake than polyphenolic compounds at levels typically found in the evaluated forages. It was concluded that tannins and PEG did not modify the preferences of sheep in cafeteria trials. Thus, tannins are not involved in the preference regulation of animals with browsing experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Residual neuromuscular block as a risk factor for critical respiratory events in the post anesthesia care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, M; Xará, D; Parente, D; Barbosa, M; Abelha, F J

    2013-04-01

    Residual neuromuscular block is an important postoperative complication associated to the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs. The purpose of this study was to access the incidence of residual neuromuscular block in a post-anesthesia care unit and to evaluate its association with critical respiratory events. Prospective cohort study was conducted in a Post Anesthetic Care Unit (PACU) for a period of 3 weeks. Two hundred two adult patients who submitted to scheduled non-cardiac and non-intracranial surgery were eligible to the study. The primary outcome variable was residual neuromuscular block after arrival to PACU that was defined as train-of-four ratio <0.9 and objectively quantified using acceleromyography. Demographic data, perioperative variables, lengths of hospital and recovery room stay and critical respiratory events were recorded. Inadequate emergence was classified in its different forms according to the Richmond agitation and sedation scale 10 min after admission to the recovery room. Residual neuromuscular block incidence in the post-anesthesia care unit was 29.7% (95% confidence interval: 23.4, 36.1). Patients with residual neuromuscular block had more frequently overall critical respiratory events (51% versus 16%, P<0.001), airway obstruction (10% versus 2%, P=0.029), mild-moderate hypoxemia (23% versus 4%, P<0.001), severe hypoxemia (7% versus 1%, P=0.033), respiratory failure (8% versus 1%, P=0.031), inability to breathe deeply (38% versus 12%, P<0.001) and muscular weakness (16% versus 1%, P<0.001). Residual neuromuscular block was more common after high-risk surgery (53% versus 33%, P=0.011) and was more often associated with post-operative hypoactive emergence as defined by the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (21% versus 6%, P=0.001). This study suggests that residual neuromuscular block is common in the PACU and is associated with more frequent critical respiratory events. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimaci

  4. Genetic and modifying factors that determine the risk of brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelli, Terezinha de Cresci Braga; Peraçoli, Maria Terezinha Serrão; Rogatto, Silvia Regina

    2011-01-01

    Some modifying factors may determine the risk of brain tumors. Until now, it could not be attempted to identify people at risk and also to improve significantly disease progression. Current therapy consists of surgical resection, followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Despite...... of these treatments, the prognosis for patients is poor. In this review, we highlight general aspects concerning genetic alterations in brain tumors, namely astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, medulloblastomas and ependymomas. The influence of these genetic alterations in patients' prognosis is discussed....... Mutagen sensitivity is associated with cancer risk. The convincing studies that linked DNA damages and DNA repair alterations with brain tumors are also described. Another important modifying factor is immunity. General immune response against cancer, tumor microenvironment and immune response, mechanisms...

  5. Modifiable Risk Factors Are Common in Early Revision Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, James R; Mears, Simon C; Edwards, Paul K; Barnes, C Lowry

    2017-12-01

    Obesity, smoking, uncontrolled diabetes, and poor dental health are modifiable risk factors for revision total joint arthroplasty. To protect patients from revision surgery while also reducing cost, some joint arthroplasty practices use these conditions as contraindications until they are improved. However, this practice is variable among joint arthroplasty surgeons. We hypothesize that a relatively high rate of revision arthroplasty patients had modifiable risk factors at the time of primary surgery. A retrospective review of all revision total hip and knee arthroplasties performed at an academic, tertiary referral center within 2 years of primary surgery was conducted. The presence of body mass index >40, hemoglobin A1c >8, poor dentition, and smoking status were obtained from the electronic medical record. Risk factors were described and compared between infected revisions and noninfected revisions. A total of 128 revision arthroplasties were performed at our institution in one year. And 23 of 57 (40.4%) total hip revision and 31 of 71 (43.7%) total knee revision patients had at least 1 modifiable risk factor. Infected hip revision patients were more likely to have increased body mass index compared to noninfected patients. Infected knee revision patients were more likely to smoke, have poor dentition, and have >1 contraindication compared to noninfected patients. A high percentage of patients undergoing early revision arthroplasty had at least 1 modifiable risk factor for a primary joint arthroplasty. Joint arthroplasty surgeons may help reduce revision surgery through counseling and appropriate referral for modification of risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated assessment of behavioral and environmental risk factors for Lyme disease infection on Block Island, Rhode Island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Finch

    Full Text Available Peridomestic exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi-infected Ixodes scapularis nymphs is considered the dominant means of infection with black-legged tick-borne pathogens in the eastern United States. Population level studies have detected a positive association between the density of infected nymphs and Lyme disease incidence. At a finer spatial scale within endemic communities, studies have focused on individual level risk behaviors, without accounting for differences in peridomestic nymphal density. This study simultaneously assessed the influence of peridomestic tick exposure risk and human behavior risk factors for Lyme disease infection on Block Island, Rhode Island. Tick exposure risk on Block Island properties was estimated using remotely sensed landscape metrics that strongly correlated with tick density at the individual property level. Behavioral risk factors and Lyme disease serology were assessed using a longitudinal serosurvey study. Significant factors associated with Lyme disease positive serology included one or more self-reported previous Lyme disease episodes, wearing protective clothing during outdoor activities, the average number of hours spent daily in tick habitat, the subject's age and the density of shrub edges on the subject's property. The best fit multivariate model included previous Lyme diagnoses and age. The strength of this association with previous Lyme disease suggests that the same sector of the population tends to be repeatedly infected. The second best multivariate model included a combination of environmental and behavioral factors, namely hours spent in vegetation, subject's age, shrub edge density (increase risk and wearing protective clothing (decrease risk. Our findings highlight the importance of concurrent evaluation of both environmental and behavioral factors to design interventions to reduce the risk of tick-borne infections.

  7. Epidemiological modifiers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Focus on high-risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonardo, Amedeo; Bellentani, Stefano; Argo, Curtis K; Ballestri, Stefano; Byrne, Christopher D; Caldwell, Stephen H; Cortez-Pinto, Helena; Grieco, Antonio; Machado, Mariana V; Miele, Luca; Targher, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    An improved understanding of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease epidemiology would lead to identification of individuals at high risk of developing chronic liver disease and extra-hepatic complications, thus contributing to more effective case finding of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among selected groups. We aimed to illustrate the epidemiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in high-risk groups, which were identified based on existing literature. To this end, PubMed was searched to retrieve original articles published until May 2015 using relevant and pertinent keywords "nonalcoholic fatty liver disease" and "diabetes", "obesity", "hyperlipidaemia", "familial heterozygous hypobetalipoproteinaemia", "hypertension", "metabolic syndrome", "ethnicity", "family history" or "genetic polymorphisms". We found that age, sex and ethnicity are major physiological modifiers of the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, along with belonging to "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease families" and carrying risk alleles for selected genetic polymorphisms. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, mixed hyperlipidaemia and hypocholesterolaemia due to familial hypobetalipoproteinaemia are the major metabolic modifiers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease risk. Compared with these metabolic conditions, however, arterial hypertension appears to carry a relatively more modest risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A better understanding of the epidemiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease may result in a more liberal policy of case finding among high-risk groups. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A statistical simulation model for field testing of non-target organisms in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedhart, Paul W; van der Voet, Hilko; Baldacchino, Ferdinando; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2014-04-01

    Genetic modification of plants may result in unintended effects causing potentially adverse effects on the environment. A comparative safety assessment is therefore required by authorities, such as the European Food Safety Authority, in which the genetically modified plant is compared with its conventional counterpart. Part of the environmental risk assessment is a comparative field experiment in which the effect on non-target organisms is compared. Statistical analysis of such trials come in two flavors: difference testing and equivalence testing. It is important to know the statistical properties of these, for example, the power to detect environmental change of a given magnitude, before the start of an experiment. Such prospective power analysis can best be studied by means of a statistical simulation model. This paper describes a general framework for simulating data typically encountered in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. The simulation model, available as Supplementary Material, can be used to generate count data having different statistical distributions possibly with excess-zeros. In addition the model employs completely randomized or randomized block experiments, can be used to simulate single or multiple trials across environments, enables genotype by environment interaction by adding random variety effects, and finally includes repeated measures in time following a constant, linear or quadratic pattern in time possibly with some form of autocorrelation. The model also allows to add a set of reference varieties to the GM plants and its comparator to assess the natural variation which can then be used to set limits of concern for equivalence testing. The different count distributions are described in some detail and some examples of how to use the simulation model to study various aspects, including a prospective power analysis, are provided.

  9. A statistical simulation model for field testing of non-target organisms in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedhart, Paul W; van der Voet, Hilko; Baldacchino, Ferdinando; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Genetic modification of plants may result in unintended effects causing potentially adverse effects on the environment. A comparative safety assessment is therefore required by authorities, such as the European Food Safety Authority, in which the genetically modified plant is compared with its conventional counterpart. Part of the environmental risk assessment is a comparative field experiment in which the effect on non-target organisms is compared. Statistical analysis of such trials come in two flavors: difference testing and equivalence testing. It is important to know the statistical properties of these, for example, the power to detect environmental change of a given magnitude, before the start of an experiment. Such prospective power analysis can best be studied by means of a statistical simulation model. This paper describes a general framework for simulating data typically encountered in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. The simulation model, available as Supplementary Material, can be used to generate count data having different statistical distributions possibly with excess-zeros. In addition the model employs completely randomized or randomized block experiments, can be used to simulate single or multiple trials across environments, enables genotype by environment interaction by adding random variety effects, and finally includes repeated measures in time following a constant, linear or quadratic pattern in time possibly with some form of autocorrelation. The model also allows to add a set of reference varieties to the GM plants and its comparator to assess the natural variation which can then be used to set limits of concern for equivalence testing. The different count distributions are described in some detail and some examples of how to use the simulation model to study various aspects, including a prospective power analysis, are provided. PMID:24834325

  10. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with an increased risk of heart block in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mantovani

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggested that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is associated with an increased risk of cardiac tachyarrhythmias (mainly atrial fibrillation in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to examine whether an association also exists between NAFLD and heart block. We have retrospectively evaluated a hospital-based cohort of 751 patients with type 2 diabetes discharged from our Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology during years 2007-2014. Standard electrocardiograms were performed on all patients. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography, whereas the severity of advanced hepatic fibrosis was based on the fibrosis (FIB-4 score and other non-invasive fibrosis markers. Overall, 524 (69.8% patients had NAFLD and 202 (26.9% had heart block (defined as at least one block among first-degree atrio-ventricular block, second-degree block, third-degree block, left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block, left anterior hemi-block or left posterior hemi-block on electrocardiograms. Patients with NAFLD had a remarkably higher prevalence of any persistent heart block than those without NAFLD (31.3% vs. 16.7%, p<0.001; this prevalence was particularly increased among those with higher FIB-4 score. NAFLD was associated with a threefold increased risk of prevalent heart block (adjusted-odds ratio 3.04, 95% CI 1.81-5.10, independently of age, sex, hypertension, prior ischemic heart disease, hemoglobin A1c, microvascular complication status, use of medications and other potentially confounding factors. In conclusion, this is the largest cross-sectional study to show that NAFLD and its severity are independently associated with an increased risk of prevalent heart block in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Analysis of recurrent gap time data using the weighted risk-set method and the modified within-cluster resampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xianghua; Huang, Chiung-Yu

    2011-02-20

    The gap times between recurrent events are often of primary interest in medical and epidemiology studies. The observed gap times cannot be naively treated as clustered survival data in analysis because of the sequential structure of recurrent events. This paper introduces two important building blocks, the averaged counting process and the averaged at-risk process, for the development of the weighted risk-set (WRS) estimation methods. We demonstrate that with the use of these two empirical processes, existing risk-set based methods for univariate survival time data can be easily extended to analyze recurrent gap times. Additionally, we propose a modified within-cluster resampling (MWCR) method that can be easily implemented in standard software. We show that the MWCR estimators are asymptotically equivalent to the WRS estimators. An analysis of hospitalization data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register is presented to illustrate the proposed methods. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Modified social ecological model: a tool to guide the assessment of the risks and risk contexts of HIV epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Stefan; Logie, Carmen H; Grosso, Ashley; Wirtz, Andrea L; Beyrer, Chris

    2013-05-17

    Social and structural factors are now well accepted as determinants of HIV vulnerabilities. These factors are representative of social, economic, organizational and political inequities. Associated with an improved understanding of multiple levels of HIV risk has been the recognition of the need to implement multi-level HIV prevention strategies. Prevention sciences research and programming aiming to decrease HIV incidence requires epidemiologic studies to collect data on multiple levels of risk to inform combination HIV prevention packages. Proximal individual-level risks, such as sharing injection devices and unprotected penile-vaginal or penile-anal sex, are necessary in mediating HIV acquisition and transmission. However, higher order social and structural-level risks can facilitate or reduce HIV transmission on population levels. Data characterizing these risks is often far more actionable than characterizing individual-level risks. We propose a modified social ecological model (MSEM) to help visualize multi-level domains of HIV infection risks and guide the development of epidemiologic HIV studies. Such a model may inform research in epidemiology and prevention sciences, particularly for key populations including men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PID), and sex workers. The MSEM builds on existing frameworks by examining multi-level risk contexts for HIV infection and situating individual HIV infection risks within wider network, community, and public policy contexts as well as epidemic stage. The utility of the MSEM is demonstrated with case studies of HIV risk among PID and MSM. The MSEM is a flexible model for guiding epidemiologic studies among key populations at risk for HIV in diverse sociocultural contexts. Successful HIV prevention strategies for key populations require effective integration of evidence-based biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions. While the focus of epidemiologic studies has traditionally been on

  13. Pathways between socioeconomic status and modifiable risk factors among African American smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Costello, Tracy J; Cinciripini, Paul M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Wetter, David W

    2009-12-01

    Although socioeconomic status is a major contributing factor to health disparities, the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status influences health remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an a priori conceptual model of the pathways between socioeconomic status and modifiable health risk factors in a sample of 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment. A latent variable modeling approach was utilized to characterize the interrelationships among socioeconomic status, neighborhood disadvantage, social support, negative affect/perceived stress, and three specific modifiable risk factors (i.e., overweight/obesity, insufficient physical activity, at-risk drinking). Findings indicated that neighborhood disadvantage, social support, and negative affect/perceived stress function as pathways linking socioeconomic status and modifiable risk factors among African American smokers, and negative affect/perceived stress appears to play a key mediating role. Policy, community, and individual-level interventions may attenuate the impact of socioeconomic status on health by targeting intermediate psychosocial, environmental, and behavioral pathways. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

  14. Interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2011-01-19

    Homeless youth are at high risk for HIV infection as a consequence of risky sexual behaviour. Interventions for homeless youth are challenging. Assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth is needed. To evaluate and summarize the effectiveness of interventions for modifying sexual risk behaviours and preventing transmission of HIV among homeless youth. We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AIDSearch, Gateway, PsycInfo, LILACS), reference lists of eligible articles, international health agency publication lists, and clinical trial registries. The search was updated January 2010. We contacted authors of published reports and other key role players. Randomised studies of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviour (biological, self-reporting of sexual-risk behaviour or health-seeking behaviour) in homeless youth (12-24 years). Data from eligible studies were extracted by two reviewers. We assessed risk of bias per the Cochrane Collaborations tool. None of the eligible studies reported any primary biological outcomes for this review. Reports of self-reporting sexual risk behaviour outcomes varied across studies precluding calculation of summary measures of effect; we present the outcomes descriptively for each study. We contacted authors for missing or ambiguous data. We identified three eligible studies after screening a total of 255 unique records. All three were performed in the United States of America and recruited substance-abusing male and female adolescents (total N=615) through homeless shelters into randomised controlled trials of independent and non-overlapping behavioural interventions. The three trials differed in theoretical background, delivery method, dosage (number of sessions,) content and outcome assessments. Overall, the variability in delivery and outcomes precluded estimation of summary of effect measures. We assessed the risk of bias to be high for

  15. Modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors in youth with at-risk mental states: A cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Oscar; Rosenbaum, Simon; Maloney, Chris; Curtis, Jackie; Ward, Philip B

    2017-11-01

    Young people experiencing psychotic illness engage in low amounts of physical activity have poor fitness levels and poor sleep quality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of these modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors among individuals with at-risk mental states (ARMS), who are at increased risk of developing psychosis. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a community-based youth mental health service. Thirty participants (23%♀, 21.3 ± 1.7 years old) were recruited, 10 with ARMS, 10 with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 10 healthy volunteers. Physical activity levels were assessed using self-report and objective measures. Aerobic capacity, upper body strength, hamstring flexibility, forearm grip strength and core endurance were assessed. Sleep quality, depression and anxiety were measured by self-report questionnaire. The ARMS group did not differ significantly on anthropometric measures from FEP or healthy volunteers. They engaged in significantly less physical activity (p < 0.05) and had poorer sleep quality (p < 0.05) than healthy volunteers. Our results are consistent with other studies that found that youth with ARMS are at greater cardiometabolic risk. Interventions aimed at improving these modifiable risk factors may assist with preventing the decline in physical health associated with the development of psychiatric illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Interactions of infectious symptoms and modifiable risk factors in sudden infant death syndrome. The Nordic Epidemiological SIDS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, K; Banner, Jytte; Oyen, N

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of infection on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and to analyse whether modifiable risk factors of SIDS, prone sleeping, covered head and smoking act as effect modifiers. In a consecutive multicentre case-control study of SIDS in Denmark, Norway......, prone sleeping, head covered or parental smoking, was far greater than the sum of each individual factor. These risk factors thus modify the dangerousness of infection in infancy....

  17. MC1R Genotype Modifies Risk of Melanoma in Families Segregating CDKN2A Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Box, Neil F.; Duffy, David L.; Chen, Wei; Stark, Mitchell; Martin, Nicholas G.; Sturm, Richard A.; Hayward, Nicholas K.

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in the exons of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor gene CDKN2A are melanoma-predisposition alleles which have high penetrance, although they have low population frequencies. In contrast, variants of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, MC1R, confer much lower melanoma risk but are common in European populations. Fifteen Australian CDKN2A mutation–carrying melanoma pedigrees were assessed for MC1R genotype, to test for possible modifier effects on melanoma risk. A CDKN2A mutation in ...

  18. Risk of childhood otitis media with focus on potentially modifiable factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørvel-Hanquist, Asbjørn; Koch, Anders; Lous, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Otitis media is the primary cause of antibiotic prescription in children. Two-thirds of all children experience at least one episode of otitis media before the age of 7 years. The aim of this study was to characterise the attributable effect of several modifiable risk exposures...... with an increased risk of >3 episodes of otitis media at 18 months of age and at 7 years of age. The fraction of children with otitis media attributed from breastfeeding lasting for less than 6 months was 10%. Introduction to daycare before the age of 12 months attributed with 20% of the cases of >3 episodes...... on the risk of >3 episodes of otitis media at age 18 months and 7 years within a large prospective national birth cohort. Methods The study used the Danish National Birth Cohort comprising information about otitis media and risk exposures from more than 50,000 mother-child pairs from the period 1996...

  19. Lifestyle modifies obesity-associated risk of cardiovascular disease in a genetically homogeneous population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit E; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk differs across populations. Whether such differences in obesity-related risk factors exist within population groups of the same genetic origin but with differences in lifestyle remains to be determined. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... was to analyze whether obesity was associated with the same degree of metabolic disturbances in 2 groups of genetically homogeneous Inuit who were exposed to considerable differences in lifestyle. DESIGN: We studied obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a cross-sectional population survey of 2311...... groups of Inuit living in Greenland and Inuit migrants living in Denmark. The findings indicate that lifestyle factors modify the cardiovascular disease risk associated with obesity....

  20. Risk from drought and extreme heat in Russian wheat production and its relation to atmospheric blocking and teleconnection patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakaki, Paraskevi; Calanca, Pierluigi

    2017-04-01

    Russia has become one of the leading wheat exporters worldwide. Major breakdowns in Russian wheat production induced by extreme weather events are therefore of high significance not only for the domestic but also for the global market. Wheat production in south-western Russia, the main growing area, suffers in particular from the adverse effects of drought and heat waves. For this reason knowledge of the occurrence of this type of extreme events and of the processes that lead to adverse conditions is of paramount importance for risk management. The negative impacts of heat waves and drought are particularly severe when anomalous conditions persist in time. As an example, a blocking event in summer 2010 resulted in one of the warmest and worst drought conditions in Russia's recent history. The latter caused a decline in Russian wheat production by more than 30%, which in turn prompted the Russian government to issue an export ban that lasted until summer 2011. In view of this, the question of course arises of how much of the negative variations in Russian wheat production levels can be explained by blocking events and other features of the large-scale atmospheric circulation. Specific questions are: how often are blocking events over Russia associated with extreme high temperatures and dry conditions? Which of the teleconnection patterns are correlated with drought and heat stress conditions in the area? Answering these questions can contribute to a develop strategies for agricultural risk management. In this contribution we present results of a study that aims at characterizing the occurrence of adverse weather conditions in south-western Russia in relation to atmospheric blocking and teleconnection patterns such as East Atlantic/Western Russia pattern, the Polar/Eurasia pattern, the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Scandinavia pattern. The analysis relies on weather data for 1980-2014 from 130 stations distributed across the wheat production area. The account

  1. Interventions for improving modifiable risk factor control in the secondary prevention of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Kate E; Mistri, Amit K; Khunti, Kamlesh; Haunton, Victoria J; Sett, Aung K; Wilson, Andrew D

    2014-05-02

    People with stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) are at increased risk of future stroke and other cardiovascular events. Evidence-based strategies for secondary stroke prevention have been established. However, the implementation of prevention strategies could be improved. To assess the effects of stroke service interventions for implementing secondary stroke prevention strategies on modifiable risk factor control, including patient adherence to prescribed medications, and the occurrence of secondary cardiovascular events. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (April 2013), the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group Trials Register (April 2013), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (1981 to April 2013) and 10 additional databases. We located further studies by searching reference lists of articles and contacting authors of included studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of organisational or educational and behavioural interventions (compared with usual care) on modifiable risk factor control for secondary stroke prevention. Two review authors selected studies for inclusion and independently extracted data. One review author assessed the risk of bias for the included studies. We sought missing data from trialists. This review included 26 studies involving 8021 participants. Overall the studies were of reasonable quality, but one study was considered at high risk of bias. Fifteen studies evaluated predominantly organisational interventions and 11 studies evaluated educational and behavioural interventions for patients. Results were pooled where appropriate, although some clinical and methodological heterogeneity was present. The estimated effects of organisational interventions were compatible with improvements and no differences in the modifiable risk factors mean systolic blood pressure (mean difference (MD) -2.57 mmHg; 95% confidence

  2. The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Attributable to Major Modifiable Risk Factors in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akhtar Hussain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Indonesia, coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke are estimated to cause more than 470 000 deaths annually. In order to inform primary prevention policies, we estimated the sex- and age-specific burden of CHD and stroke attributable to five major and modifiable vascular risk factors: cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, elevated total cholesterol, and excess body weight. Methods: Population attributable risks for CHD and stroke attributable to these risk factors individually were calculated using summary statistics obtained for prevalence of each risk factor specific to sex and to two age categories (<55 and ≥55 years from a national survey in Indonesia. Age- and sex-specific relative risks for CHD and stroke associated with each of the five risk factors were derived from prospective data from the Asia-Pacific region. Results: Hypertension was the leading vascular risk factor, explaining 20%–25% of all CHD and 36%–42% of all strokes in both sexes and approximately one-third of all CHD and half of all strokes across younger and older age groups alike. Smoking in men explained a substantial proportion of vascular events (25% of CHD and 17% of strokes. However, given that these risk factors are likely to be strongly correlated, these population attributable risk proportions are likely to be overestimates and require verification from future studies that are able to take into account correlation between risk factors. Conclusions: Implementation of effective population-based prevention strategies aimed at reducing levels of major cardiovascular risk factors, especially blood pressure, total cholesterol, and smoking prevalence among men, could reduce the growing burden of CVD in the Indonesian population.

  3. Periodontitis as a Modifiable Risk Factor for Dementia: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yao-Tung; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Hu, Chaur-Jongh; Huang, Li-Kai; Chao, Shu-Ping; Lin, Chia-Pei; Su, Emily Chia-Yu; Lee, Yi-Chen; Chen, Chu-Chieh

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether periodontitis is a modifiable risk factor for dementia. Prospective cohort study. National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Individuals aged 65 and older with periodontitis (n = 3,028) and an age- and sex-matched control group (n = 3,028). Individuals with periodontitis were compared age- and sex-matched controls with for incidence density and hazard ratio (HR) of new-onset dementia. Periodontitis was defined according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 523.3-5 diagnosed by dentists. To ensure diagnostic validity, only those who had concurrently received antibiotic therapies, periodontal treatment other than scaling, or scaling more than twice per year performed by certified dentists were included. Dementia was defined according to ICD-9-CM codes 290.0-290.4, 294.1, 331.0-331.2. After adjustment for confounding factors, the risk of developing dementia was calculated to be higher for participants with periodontitis (HR = 1.16, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.32, P = .03) than for those without. Periodontitis is associated with greater risk of developing dementia. Periodontal infection is treatable, so it might be a modifiable risk factor for dementia. Clinicians must devote greater attention to this potential association in an effort to develop new preventive and therapeutic strategies for dementia. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Modifiable risk factors for mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de Mendonça Nepomuceno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a pulmonary infection that occurs 48 to 72 hours after endotracheal intubation and institution of mechanical ventilation, being considered one of the most feared adverse effects of intensive care therapy. Its incidence affects 10-30% of patients as an important cause of morbidity and mortality, of which mortality rate can exceed 25%. Modifiable risk factors are seen as crucial in decision-making for its treatment and prevention. Thus, the modifiable risk factors for pneumonia associated with invasive mechanical ventilation in patients admitted to the intensive care unit were described. Methods: This is a literature review carried out at Lilacs, SciELO, MEDLINE and Bdenf databases, to collect and summarize publications and subsequently, critically evaluate the risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia. Results: The inappropriate or indiscriminate use of antibiotics, lack of knowledge about the microbiota of the ICU and non compliance of the team regarding preventive measures predominated. Conclusion: Professionals must be made aware of the identified risk factors in order to carry out direct actions with short-term impact in the prevention and effective control of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

  5. African genetic ancestry interacts with body mass index to modify risk for uterine fibroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayush Giri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Race, specifically African ancestry, and obesity are important risk factors for uterine fibroids, and likely interact to provide the right conditions for fibroid growth. However, existing studies largely focus on the main-effects rather than their interaction. Here, we firstly provide evidence for interaction between categories of body mass index (BMI and reported-race in relation to uterine fibroids. We then investigate whether the association between inferred local European ancestry and fibroid risk is modified by BMI in African American (AA women in the Vanderbilt University Medical Center bio-repository (BioVU (539 cases and 794 controls and the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (CARDIA, 264 cases and 173 controls. We used multiple logistic regression to evaluate interactions between local European ancestry and BMI in relation to fibroid risk, then performed fixed effects meta-analysis. Statistical significance threshold for local-ancestry and BMI interactions was empirically estimated with 10,000 permutations (p-value = 1.18x10-4. Admixture mapping detected an association between European ancestry and fibroid risk which was modified by BMI (continuous-interaction p-value = 3.75x10-5 around ADTRP (chromosome 6p24; the strongest association was found in the obese category (ancestry odds ratio (AOR = 0.51, p-value = 2.23x10-5. Evaluation of interaction between genotyped/imputed variants and BMI in this targeted region suggested race-specific interaction, present in AAs only; strongest evidence was found for insertion/deletion variant (6:11946435, again in the obese category (OR = 1.66, p-value = 1.72x10-6. We found nominal evidence for interaction between local ancestry and BMI at a previously reported region in chromosome 2q31-32, which includes COL5A2, and TFPI, an immediate downstream target of ADTRP. Interactions between BMI and SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms found in this region in AA women were also detected

  6. African genetic ancestry interacts with body mass index to modify risk for uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Ayush; Edwards, Todd L; Hartmann, Katherine E; Torstenson, Eric S; Wellons, Melissa; Schreiner, Pamela J; Velez Edwards, Digna R

    2017-07-01

    Race, specifically African ancestry, and obesity are important risk factors for uterine fibroids, and likely interact to provide the right conditions for fibroid growth. However, existing studies largely focus on the main-effects rather than their interaction. Here, we firstly provide evidence for interaction between categories of body mass index (BMI) and reported-race in relation to uterine fibroids. We then investigate whether the association between inferred local European ancestry and fibroid risk is modified by BMI in African American (AA) women in the Vanderbilt University Medical Center bio-repository (BioVU) (539 cases and 794 controls) and the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (CARDIA, 264 cases and 173 controls). We used multiple logistic regression to evaluate interactions between local European ancestry and BMI in relation to fibroid risk, then performed fixed effects meta-analysis. Statistical significance threshold for local-ancestry and BMI interactions was empirically estimated with 10,000 permutations (p-value = 1.18x10-4). Admixture mapping detected an association between European ancestry and fibroid risk which was modified by BMI (continuous-interaction p-value = 3.75x10-5) around ADTRP (chromosome 6p24); the strongest association was found in the obese category (ancestry odds ratio (AOR) = 0.51, p-value = 2.23x10-5). Evaluation of interaction between genotyped/imputed variants and BMI in this targeted region suggested race-specific interaction, present in AAs only; strongest evidence was found for insertion/deletion variant (6:11946435), again in the obese category (OR = 1.66, p-value = 1.72x10-6). We found nominal evidence for interaction between local ancestry and BMI at a previously reported region in chromosome 2q31-32, which includes COL5A2, and TFPI, an immediate downstream target of ADTRP. Interactions between BMI and SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) found in this region in AA women were also detected in an

  7. Left bundle branch block as a risk factor for progression to heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zannad, Faiez; Huvelle, Etienne; Dickstein, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    role of such conduction disorders in the progression to HF has been underestimated. The purpose of this article is to review the data from the literature indicating that LBBB may have a causative role, mediated through the resulting intra-ventricular asynchrony, in the deterioration of cardiac function...... and the development of cardiac remodelling and HF. It also aims to address the potential for future clinical therapies for this conduction disorder.......The prevalence of conduction disturbances, particularly left bundle branch block (LBBB), is strongly correlated with age and with the presence of cardiovascular disease. LBBB has been reported to affect approximately 25% of the heart failure (HF) population and it is likely that the deleterious...

  8. Modifying Risk Factors in the Management of Erectile Dysfunction: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J DeLay

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED is prevalent among men and its presence is often an indicator of systemic disease. Risk factors for ED include cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM, tobacco use, hyperlipidemia, hypogonadism, lower urinary tract symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and depression. Addressing the modifiable risk factors frequently improves a patient’s overall health and increases lifespan. The literature suggests that smoking cessation, treatment of hyperlipidemia, and increasing physical activity will improve erectile function in many patients. How the treatment of DM, depression, and hypogonadism impacts erectile function is less clear. Clinicians need to be aware that certain antihypertensive agents can adversely impact erectile function. The treatment of men with ED needs to address the underlying risk factors to ameliorate the disease process.

  9. The effect of modifiable risk factors on geographic mortality differentials: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson Christopher E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian mortality rates are higher in regional and remote areas than in major cities. The degree to which this is driven by variation in modifiable risk factors is unknown. Methods We applied a risk prediction equation incorporating smoking, cholesterol and blood pressure to a national, population based survey to project all-causes mortality risk by geographic region. We then modelled life expectancies at different levels of mortality risk by geographic region using a risk percentiles model. Finally we set high values of each risk factor to a target level and modelled the subsequent shift in the population to lower levels of mortality risk and longer life expectancy. Results Survival is poorer in both Inner Regional and Outer Regional/Remote areas compared to Major Cities for men and women at both high and low levels of predicted mortality risk. For men smoking, high cholesterol and high systolic blood pressure were each associated with the mortality difference between Major Cities and Outer Regional/Remote areas--accounting for 21.4%, 20.3% and 7.7% of the difference respectively. For women smoking and high cholesterol accounted for 29.4% and 24.0% of the difference respectively but high blood pressure did not contribute to the observed mortality differences. The three risk factors taken together accounted for 45.4% (men and 35.6% (women of the mortality difference. The contribution of risk factors to the corresponding differences for inner regional areas was smaller, with only high cholesterol and smoking contributing to the difference in men-- accounting for 8.8% and 6.3% respectively-- and only smoking contributing to the difference in women--accounting for 12.3%. Conclusions These results suggest that health intervention programs aimed at smoking, blood pressure and total cholesterol could have a substantial impact on mortality inequities for Outer Regional/Remote areas.

  10. Pacifiers and Exclusive Breastfeeding: Does Risk for Postpartum Depression Modify the Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipsma, Heather L; Kornfeind, Katelin; Kair, Laura R

    2017-11-01

    Postpartum depression is associated with lower rates of breastfeeding. Evidence describing the effect of pacifiers on breastfeeding is inconsistent, and previous research suggests that pacifiers may help vulnerable mothers breastfeed. Research aim: This study aimed to determine (a) how receiving a pacifier in the hospital affects exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at 1 week and 3 months postpartum and (b) whether this association is modified by risk for postpartum depression (PPD). Data were derived from Listening to Mothers III. We included participants ( n = 1,349) who intended to breastfeed and delivered at term. Mothers were considered at high risk for PPD if they reported feeling the need to receive treatment for depression during pregnancy. We used weighted multivariable logistic regression models to adjust for covariates. Receiving a pacifier in the hospital was not significantly associated with EBF at 1 week (odds ratio [ OR] = 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.62, 1.12]) but was significantly associated with lower odds of EBF at 3 months postpartum ( OR = 0.72, 95% CI [0.54, 0.95]). Risk for PPD modified this association. Among mothers at high risk for PPD, receiving a pacifier was significantly associated with increased odds of EBF ( OR = 3.31, 95% CI [1.23, 8.97] at 1 week and OR = 5.27, 95% CI [1.97, 14.12] at 3 months); however, among mothers who were at lower risk for PPD, receiving a pacifier was associated with decreased odds of EBF ( OR = 0.75, 95% CI [0.56, 1.02] at 1 week and OR = 0.62, 95% CI [0.46, 0.82] at 3 months). Pacifiers may help protect against early cessation of EBF among mothers at high risk for depression. Additional research is needed to better understand this association.

  11. Objective rapid delineation of areas at risk from block-and-ash pyroclastic flows and surges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiwijayanti, C.; Voight, B.; Hidayat, D.; Schilling, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Assessments of pyroclastic flow (PF) hazards are commonly based on mapping of PF and surge deposits and estimations of inundation limits, and/or computer models of varying degrees of sophistication. In volcanic crises a PF hazard map may be sorely needed, but limited time, exposures, or safety aspects may preclude fieldwork, and insufficient time or baseline data may be available for reliable dynamic simulations. We have developed a statistically constrained simulation model for block-and-ash type PFs to estimate potential areas of inundation by adapting methodology from Iverson et al. (Geol Soc America Bull 110:972-984, (1998) for lahars. The predictive equations for block-and-ash PFs are calibrated with data from several volcanoes and given by A = (0.05 to 0.1) V2/3, B = (35 to 40) V2/3, where A is cross-sectional area of inundation, B is planimetric area and V is deposit volume. The proportionality coefficients were obtained from regression analyses and comparison of simulations to mapped deposits. The method embeds the predictive equations in a GIS program coupled with DEM topography, using the LAHARZ program of Schilling (1998). Although the method is objective and reproducible, any PF hazard zone so computed should be considered as an approximate guide only, due to uncertainties on the coefficients applicable to individual PFs, the authenticity of DEM details, and the volume of future collapses. The statistical uncertainty of the predictive equations, which imply a factor of two or more in predicting A or B for a specified V, is superposed on the uncertainty of forecasting V for the next PF to descend a particular valley. Multiple inundation zones, produced by simulations using a selected range of volumes, partly accommodate these uncertainties. The resulting maps show graphically that PF inundation potentials are highest nearest volcano sources and along valley thalwegs, and diminish with distance from source and lateral distance from thalweg. The model does

  12. Reconsidering the risk assessment concept: Standardizing the impact description as a building block for vulnerability assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hollenstein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessments for natural hazards are becoming more widely used and accepted. Using an extended definition of risk, it becomes obvious that performant procedures for vulnerability assessments are vital for the success of the risk concept. However, there are large gaps in knowledge about vulnerability. To alleviate the situation, a conceptual extension of the scope of existing and new models is suggested. The basis of the suggested concept is a stadardization of the output of hazard assessments. This is achieved by defining states of the target objects that depend on the impact and at the same time affect the object's performance characteristics. The possible state variables can be related to a limited set of impact descriptors termed generic impact description interface. The concept suggests that both hazard and vulnerability assessment models are developed according to the specification of this interface, thus facilitating modularized risk assessments. Potential problems related to the application of the concept include acceptance issues and the lacking accuracy of transformation of outputs of existing models. Potential applications and simple examples for adapting existing models are briefly discussed.

  13. Life cycle inventory and risk assessment of genetic modified perennial ryegrass in a technology foresight perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, K.; Rasmussen, B.; Schleisner, L.

    2000-01-01

    , a methodological approach is suggested to analyse the uncertainties that the biotech industry and the authorities face when implementing genetically modified (GM) crops. These uncertainties embracescientific rationality regarding technological development and risk assessments, as well as ethic political and social...... important and uncertain fac-tors for the future direction of GM crops: 1) publicparticipation in regulation, 2) utility value for the consumers, 3) being first to market GM-ryegrass, and 4) an efficient professional network. Based on the identified drivers several scenar-ios were constructed, of which two...

  14. Antiestrogen therapy for breast cancer modifies the risk of subsequent cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Caroline; Bouchardy, Christine; Schaffar, Robin; Neyroud-Caspar, Isabelle; Vlastos, Georges; Le Gal, Frédérique-Anne; Rapiti, Elisabetta; Benhamou, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Increased risk of secondary melanoma after breast cancer has been reported. Several lines of evidence suggest that elevated estrogen levels may be implicated in melanoma etiology. Accordingly, use of antiestrogens should be associated with decreased risk of melanoma. We compared melanoma incidence among a cohort of breast cancer patients with and without antiestrogen therapy, with data from the Geneva Cancer Registry. The cohort consisted of 7,360 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1980 and 2005. About 54% of these patients received antiestrogens. All women were followed until December 2008. We compared cutaneous melanoma incidence rates among patients with and without antiestrogens with those expected in the general population by age and period standardized incidence ratios (SIR). A total of 34 women developed a melanoma during the follow-up period. Compared with the general population, the risk of melanoma was higher for patients who did not receive antiestrogens (SIR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.08-2.12, P = 0.02). On the contrary, the risk was close to 1 (SIR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.40-1.56, P = 0.57) for patients who received antiestrogen therapy. This study suggests that antiestrogen therapy modifies the risk of melanoma after breast cancer. Although our results are in agreement with the hypothesis that estrogens could play a role in melanoma occurrence, they need to be replicated in a larger study with data on potential confounders. . ©2011 AACR

  15. Individually modifiable risk factors to ameliorate cognitive aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehert, Philippe; Villaseca, Paulina; Hogervorst, Eef; Maki, Pauline M.; Henderson, Victor W.

    2016-01-01

    A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually-modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For 10 of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least six months), randomized controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11 to 0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging. PMID:26361790

  16. Modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors among residents of Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria

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    Kaoje AU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Majority of cardiovascular disease (CVD is caused by risk factors that can be controlled, treated or modified, however, there are also some major CVD risk factors that cannot be controlled. The study aimed to assess and profile the modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular diseases among residents of Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. Methods This is a population‐based study and a descriptive cross‐sectional survey design was utilized for the study. A multi‐stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 902 respondents for the study. A closed‐ended questionnaire was used to collect data on the following: arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, physical activity, and sociodemographic parameters. These were analyzed with SPSS version 17.0 and result presented with simple table. Results Middle‐aged adult made up 39% of the total respondents followed by those aged between 25 and 39 years that accounted for 35% while the elderly aged 65 years and above constituted just 3.7%. Ten percent were obese (7% of men were obese as compared to 13.6% and almost one third reported engaging in some physical activities while 7% reported smoking cigarette. Out of 12 respondents that had deranged total cholesterol, 7 were male while 5 females, and while 14 of the men had deranged HDL, 10 women’s HDL was abnormally high. Only two of the men out 88 that had lipid profiling were found to have Dyslipidaemia as against five out 112 women. Conclusion Generally the study reveals the rising prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors however they were more prevalent among elderly respondents aged 65 years and above. There is urgent need of programme that will focus on life style and eating habit in order to reverse the emerging trend of non‐communicable diseases.

  17. Smoking behaviour modifies IL23r-associated disease risk in patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doecke, James D; Simms, Lisa A; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Roberts, Rebecca L; Fowler, Elizabeth V; Croft, Anthony; Lin, Angela; Huang, Ning; Whiteman, David C; Florin, Timothy H J; Barclay, Murray L; Merriman, Tony R; Gearry, Richard B; Montgomery, Grant W; Radford-Smith, Graham L

    2015-02-01

    The etiology of Crohn's disease (CD) implicates both genetic and environmental factors. Smoking behavior is one environmental risk factor to play a role in the development of CD. The study aimed to assess the contribution of the interleukin 23 receptor (IL23R) in determining disease susceptibility in two independent cohorts of CD, and to investigate the interactions between IL23R variants, smoking behavior, and CD-associated genes, NOD2 and ATG16L1. Ten IL23R single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 675 CD cases, and 1255 controls from Brisbane, Australia (dataset 1). Six of these SNPs were genotyped in 318 CD cases and 533 controls from Canterbury, New Zealand (dataset 2). Case-control analysis of genotype and allele frequencies, and haplotype analysis for all SNPs was conducted. We demonstrate a strong increased CD risk for smokers in both datasets (odds ratio 3.77, 95% confidence interval 2.88-4.94), and an additive interaction between IL23R SNPs and cigarette smoking. Ileal involvement was a consistent marker of strong SNP-CD association (P ≤ 0.001), while the lowest minor allele frequencies for location were found in those with colonic CD (L2). Three haplotype blocks were identified across the 10 IL23R SNPs conferring different risk of CD. Haplotypes conferred no further risk of CD when compared with single SNP analyses. IL23R gene variants determine CD susceptibility in the Australian and New Zealand population, particularly ileal CD. A strong additive interaction exists between IL23R SNPs and smoking behavior resulting in a dramatic increase in disease risk depending upon specific genetic background. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Recurrent pneumonia: a review with focus on clinical epidemiology and modifiable risk factors in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, T T; Majumdar, S R; Marrie, T J; Eurich, D T

    2015-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common reasons for physician visits and hospitalizations in North America. Rates of CAP increase with age and CAP is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the elderly. Though there is much written about the epidemiology and risk factors of incident (first episode) pneumonia, much less is known about recurrent pneumonia. Rates of recurrent pneumonia within 3-5-years of an episode of CAP are 9-12% with a median time to recurrence of 123-317 days and mortality ranging from 4 to 10%. Age ≥65-years-old and impaired functional status are the only patient characteristics that are independently associated with increased risk of recurrence. In terms of modifiable risk factors, only the use of proton-pump inhibitors and systemic and inhaled corticosteroids have consistently been associated with increased risk of recurrent pneumonia, while angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may exert a protective effect. Many chronic medical conditions typically associated with increased incident pneumonia-such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), neurological disease (resulting in dysphagia or silent aspiration), and heart failure-were not associated with increased risk of recurrent pneumonia. However, those who are immune-suppressed (e.g., immunoglobulin deficiencies) may be at increased risk of recurrent pneumonia. In summary, among those who survive an episode of pneumonia, recurrence is not uncommon, particularly in the elderly. Following recovery from an episode of pneumonia, patients should be evaluated for risk factors that would predispose to a second episode including seeking evidence of immunosuppression in younger patients and medication optimization, particularly in the elderly.

  19. The relationship between modifiable health risks and future medical care expenditures: the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, S H; O'Donnell, M P; Suh, I; Kim, I S

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between lifestyle risk factors, morbidity, and mortality is well established, but the relationship between lifestyle risk factors and medical care costs is not as well defined. To determine the ability of modifiable biometric and lifestyle risk factors to predict future medical care costs. Prospective cohort study. Data on modifiable risk factors collected in 1992 and medical care costs collected in 1998 by the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation in South Korea. Data were examined for a final cohort of 78,728 men and 50,414 women enrolled in the health insurance plan from 1990 through 1998. Outcome measures included likelihood of any inpatient, outpatient, and total medical care costs and outlier costs; amount of inpatient, outpatient, and total medical care costs; and portion of total medical costs attributable to each risk factor through unadjusted and adjusted multivariate analyses. Baseline modifiable risk factors measured in 1992 (including lifestyle factors such as smoking, high body mass index, exercise, and biometric measures such as cholesterol, blood sugar, blood pressure, and urinary sugar) were important predictors of the amount of medical care costs incurred 6 years later in 1998, even after controlling for age, perceived health status, and each of the other modifiable variables. These risk factors were generally better predictors than nonmodifiable demographic risk factors, including income level and type of job. For men, lifestyle risk factors were associated with total costs that were 2.4% (for high blood pressure) to 16.1% (for former smokers) higher than among men without those risk factors. Biometric risk factors were associated with costs ranging from 9.2% (for cholesterol) to 38.2% (for positive urinary glucose) higher. For women, lifestyle risk factors were associated with total costs that were 2.5% (for exercise) to 6.4% (for current smokers) higher than among those without the risk factors. Biometric risk factors were

  20. Hedge your bets on Flood Risk: How do Hedgerows modify hillslope and catchment scale hydrological response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Victoria; Pattison, Ian

    2017-04-01

    A dominant feature in the agricultural landscape in the UK are field boundaries. Two thirds of England has been continuously hedged for over a thousand years although most modern hedges were planted during the Enclosures Acts 1720-1840. However, the use of larger agricultural machinery has resulted in the removal of some field boundaries and the subsequent increase in field sizes over the 20th Century. The multiple benefits of hedgerows in ecology have been extensively studied, but the impact of these widespread features on hydrology and flood risk has seen very little attention. Nature-based solutions are increasingly being seen as a complementary approach to hard engineered flood defences. It is hypothesised that hedgerows play a part in this through modifying hillslope hydrological processes, including (a) changing the spatial distribution of precipitation due to sheltering effects; (b) biological loss of water through transpiration; (c) infiltration increased through improved soil structure at the boundaries; and (d) throughflow effected by modified hydraulic gradients. An extensive monitoring programme of a 20m transect through a hedgerow in the Skell Catchment, Northern England occurred from April 2014 to October 2015. The holistic hydrological cycle was monitored, including precipitation and soil moisture at different distances from the hedgerow, leaf wetness interception, stemflow collars, and throughfall gauges, and transpiration losses from the hedgerow. Results indicate that hedgerows modify precipitation volumes at different distances along the transect, but that relationships are complex, probably related to event specific weather conditions such as wind direction and speed and rainfall intensity. Soil moisture levels are significantly (phedgerow compared to 1, 3 and 10m away from it in all seasons. It has also been shown that hedgerows modify hydrological connectivity at the catchment scale.

  1. Lack of motivation: a new modifiable risk factor for peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Klara; Namagondlu, Girish; Samad, Nasreen; McKitty, Khadija; Fan, Stanley L

    2015-03-01

    Can we identify modifiable risk factors for peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD)? We aimed to determine whether housing standard, PD exchange technique or patient motivation might be modifiable risks for peritonitis. We also explored the relationship between lack of motivation and depression. Nurse home visits assessed PD exchange technique, environment and patient motivation. Motivation scores were correlated separately with an Apathy Evaluation Score and a depression score using PHQ-9 questionnaires. Home hygiene, exchange technique and motivation were above average in 53%, 56% and 60%, respectively in 104 patients undergoing PD. After 15 months, 25.9% patients developed peritonitis but nurses' ratings of homes and exchange techniques were not predictive. Low patient motivation was predictive. Patients rated to have above or below median motivation had significantly different Apathy Scores (p = 0.0002). Unmotivated depressed patients were significantly more likely to develop peritonitis compared to motivated depressed patients. Lack of motivation predicted peritonitis particularly if associated with depression. Further studies are required focusing on specific motivation scoring schemes and the psychosocial support that might lead to better outcomes. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  2. The Modified Risk Factors of Health Heads of the Medical Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Zadvornaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: study and evaluation of modifiable potential risk factors of health of heads of medical organizations in terms of structural and technological modernization of the health system, the growing need for highly qualified management personnel. Efficiency of activity of medical associations largely due to the level of health managers, allowing to solve problems of activities of medical organizations in the modern fastchanging environmental conditions. Based on international experience and our own research the authors identified features of the state of health of heads of medical organizations, and the degree of exposure to risk factors for no communicable diseases; considered approaches to assess motivation and psychological readiness to promote the health and potential of managerial personnel in the formation of health-saving behavior. Methods: in the present study, the following methods were used: systemic approach, content analysis, methods of social diagnosis (questionnaires, interviews, comparative analysis, method of expert evaluations, and method of statistical processing of information. Results: reviewed and proposed approaches to use preventive measures prevention of risk factors of non-communicable diseases healthcare leaders, forming health-preserving behavior. Conclusions and Relevance: in modern scientific studies on the health of medical workers, including heads of medical institutions, defined the modern methodological approaches to formation of health-saving behavior and maintaining healthy lifestyle health care workers. Despite the high awareness of heads of medical organizations in the area of influence of risk factors on health, accessibility of medical care for the diagnosis and correction of risk factors of chronic no communicable diseases, risk factors of health among healthcare leaders have sufficient prevalence. Health-promoting behavior model is not a conscious lifestyle leader and formed as a reaction if you have

  3. Regulating genetically modified food. Policy trajectories, political culture, and risk perceptions in the U.S., Canada, and EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Anton E

    2010-09-01

    This paper examines whether national differences in political culture add an explanatory dimension to the formulation of policy in the area of biotechnology, especially with respect to genetically modified food. The analysis links the formulation of protective regulatory policies governing genetically modified food to both country and region-specific differences in uncertainty tolerance levels and risk perceptions in the United States, Canada, and European Union. Based on polling data and document analysis, the findings illustrate that these differences matter. Following a mostly opportunistic risk perception within an environment of high tolerance for uncertainty, policymakers in the United States and Canada modified existing regulatory frameworks that govern genetically modified food in their respective countries. In contrast, the mostly cautious perception of new food technologies and low tolerance for uncertainty among European Union member states has contributed to the creation of elaborate and stringent regulatory policies governing genetically modified food.

  4. An opportunity to address modifiable breast cancer risks: Mammography screening and physical activity readiness to change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Thomson, PhD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer risk is significantly reduced by improvements in lifestyle factors such as physical activity. Previous work suggests personal experiences such as false positive mammography or family history of breast cancer may influence these health behaviors. Surveys were distributed to women aged 40–75 who had received a negative mammogram from an academic hospital in Virginia in 2015. Measures assessed breast cancer worry and perceived risk, awareness of cancer risk factors, family history of breast cancer, false positive mammography experience, and readiness to change physical activity. Surveys were collected from 106 women. The regression for readiness to change physical activity was significant, F(7, 91 = 3.7, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.22. Physical activity readiness to change was positively associated with income (p = 0.034 and receipt of a false positive mammogram (p = 0.045. African American women (p = 0.031 and women with family history of breast cancer (p = 0.027 reported lower readiness to change physical activity. Results support previous qualitative work suggesting the receipt of a false positive mammogram may stimulate motivation to increase physical activity. Mammography screening may serve as a strategic opportunity to target modifiable breast cancer risk factors at a time when women are highly receptive to a lifestyle change intervention.

  5. Can oxytocin augmentation modify the risk of epidural analgesia by maternal age in cesarean sections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, Janne; Klungsøyr, Kari; Albrechtsen, Susanne; Løkkegård, Ellen; Rasmussen, Steen; Bergholt, Thomas; Skjeldestad, Finn E

    2018-03-07

    Maternal age is an established risk factor for cesarean section; epidural analgesia and oxytocin augmentation may modify this association. We investigated the effects and interactions of oxytocin augmentation, epidural analgesia and maternal age on the risk of cesarean section. In all, 416 386 nulliparous women with spontaneous onset of labor, ≥37 weeks of gestation and singleton infants with a cephalic presentation during 2000-2011 from Norway and Denmark were included [Ten-group classification system (Robson) group 1]. In this case-control study the main exposure was maternal age; epidural analgesia, oxytocin augmentation, birthweight and time period were explanatory variables. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to estimate associations and interactions. The cesarean section rate increased consistently with advancing maternal age, both overall and in strata of epidural analgesia and oxytocin augmentation. We observed strong interactions between maternal age, oxytocin augmentation and epidural analgesia for the risk of cesarean section. Women with epidural analgesia generally had a reduced adjusted odds ratio when oxytocin was used compared with when it was not used. In Norway, this applied to all maternal age groups but in Denmark only for women ≥30 years. Among women without epidural, oxytocin augmentation was associated with an increased odds ratio for cesarean section in Denmark, whereas no difference was observed in Norway. Oxytocin augmentation in nulliparous women with epidural analgesia is associated with a reduced risk of cesarean section in labor with spontaneous onset. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. The analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided modified rectus sheath block compared with wound infiltration in reduction of postoperative morphine consumption in women undergoing open hysterectomy or myomectomy: A randomized controlled trial 14/09/2012 trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Kumar Shah; Sandeep S Kulkarni; Wendy Fun

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: As ultrasound allows more accurate placement of local anesthetic (LA), ultrasound-guided modified rectus sheath block (MRSB) was compared with wound infiltration (WI) in women having open hysterectomy or myomectomy for fibroids via a Pfannenstiel incision under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Forty-two American Society of Anesthesiologists Class ASA I,II and III patients were recruited into two groups in a randomized patient-blinded controlled trial excluding thos...

  7. Long-term use of calcium channel blocking drugs and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of US and Puerto Rican women

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Lauren E.; D?Aloisio, Aimee A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Taylor, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a recent case?control study, long-term use of calcium channel blocking drugs was associated with a greater-than-twofold increased breast cancer risk. If prospectively collected data confirm that calcium channel blocker use increases breast cancer risk, this would have major implications for hypertension treatment. The objective of this study was to determine whether women using calcium channel blockers for 10?years or more were at increased risk of developing breast cancer compa...

  8. Do not fear the Framingham: Practical application to properly evaluate and modify cardiovascular risk in commercial divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Rahul; Pavela, James; Kus, Marcus S; Alleman, Tony; Sanders, Robert

    2018-01-01

    In April 2016 the Association of Diving Contractors International (ADCI) consensus guidelines began recommending annual cardiovascular risk stratification of commercial divers using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). For those at elevated risk, further testing is recommended. This approach has raised concerns about potential operational and financial impacts. However, the prevalence of elevated cardiovascular risk and need for additional testing among commercial divers is not known. Clinical data required to calculate the FRS was abstracted for 190 commercial divers in two cohorts. Population demographics, FRS distribution, contributions of risk factors and effect of interventions on reducing risk-factor burden were assessed. Mean FRS score was 1.68 ± 6.35 points, with 13 divers (6.8%) at intermediate risk and none at high 10-year risk. In these 13 divers, the mean contributions to the FRS were from age (6.5 points), cholesterol (3.1 pts.), smoking (1.3 pts.), highdensity lipoprotein (1 pt.), and systolic blood pressure (0.8 pts). The youngest age group had a significantly higher modifiable risk core than the oldest age group (5.87 vs. 1.2 points, P ⟨ 0.001). All 13 intermediate risk divers could have been reclassified as low-risk with successful treatment of modifiable risk factors. The prevalence of elevated cardiovascular risk among commercial divers is low, and treatment of modifiable risk factors could reclassify those at intermediate risk to low risk. Therefore, FRS implementation coupled with intensive risk-reduction strategies for at risk-divers may help improve diver health and prolong the careers of divers while limiting the need for additional testing and adverse operational impact. Copyright© Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.

  9. Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, A S; Anilakumar, K R

    2013-12-01

    Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be 'Genetically modified (GM)', 'Genetically engineered' or 'Transgenic'. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown commercially and/or field-tested are sweet potato resistant to a virus that could destroy most of the African harvest, rice with increased iron and vitamins that may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries and a variety of plants that are able to survive weather extremes. There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. With this new technology on gene manipulation what are the risks of "tampering with Mother Nature"?, what effects will this have on the environment?, what are the health concerns that consumers should be aware of? and is recombinant technology really beneficial? This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology.

  10. Associations between Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors and Alzheimer Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren D Østergaard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Potentially modifiable risk factors including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and smoking are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD and represent promising targets for intervention. However, the causality of these associations is unclear. We sought to assess the causal nature of these associations using Mendelian randomization (MR.We used SNPs associated with each risk factor as instrumental variables in MR analyses. We considered type 2 diabetes (T2D, NSNPs = 49, fasting glucose (NSNPs = 36, insulin resistance (NSNPs = 10, body mass index (BMI, NSNPs = 32, total cholesterol (NSNPs = 73, HDL-cholesterol (NSNPs = 71, LDL-cholesterol (NSNPs = 57, triglycerides (NSNPs = 39, systolic blood pressure (SBP, NSNPs = 24, smoking initiation (NSNPs = 1, smoking quantity (NSNPs = 3, university completion (NSNPs = 2, and years of education (NSNPs = 1. We calculated MR estimates of associations between each exposure and AD risk using an inverse-variance weighted approach, with summary statistics of SNP-AD associations from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project, comprising a total of 17,008 individuals with AD and 37,154 cognitively normal elderly controls. We found that genetically predicted higher SBP was associated with lower AD risk (odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation [15.4 mm Hg] of SBP [95% CI]: 0.75 [0.62-0.91]; p = 3.4 × 10(-3. Genetically predicted higher SBP was also associated with a higher probability of taking antihypertensive medication (p = 6.7 × 10(-8. Genetically predicted smoking quantity was associated with lower AD risk (OR per ten cigarettes per day [95% CI]: 0.67 [0.51-0.89]; p = 6.5 × 10(-3, although we were unable to stratify by smoking history; genetically predicted smoking initiation was not associated with AD risk (OR = 0.70 [0.37, 1.33]; p = 0.28. We saw no evidence of causal associations between glycemic traits, T2D, BMI, or educational attainment and risk of AD (all p > 0.1. Potential limitations of this study

  11. Associations between Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors and Alzheimer Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Sharp, Stephen J; Proitsi, Petroula; Lotta, Luca A; Day, Felix; Perry, John R B; Boehme, Kevin L; Walter, Stefan; Kauwe, John S; Gibbons, Laura E; Larson, Eric B; Powell, John F; Langenberg, Claudia; Crane, Paul K; Wareham, Nicholas J; Scott, Robert A

    2015-06-01

    Potentially modifiable risk factors including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and smoking are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and represent promising targets for intervention. However, the causality of these associations is unclear. We sought to assess the causal nature of these associations using Mendelian randomization (MR). We used SNPs associated with each risk factor as instrumental variables in MR analyses. We considered type 2 diabetes (T2D, NSNPs = 49), fasting glucose (NSNPs = 36), insulin resistance (NSNPs = 10), body mass index (BMI, NSNPs = 32), total cholesterol (NSNPs = 73), HDL-cholesterol (NSNPs = 71), LDL-cholesterol (NSNPs = 57), triglycerides (NSNPs = 39), systolic blood pressure (SBP, NSNPs = 24), smoking initiation (NSNPs = 1), smoking quantity (NSNPs = 3), university completion (NSNPs = 2), and years of education (NSNPs = 1). We calculated MR estimates of associations between each exposure and AD risk using an inverse-variance weighted approach, with summary statistics of SNP-AD associations from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project, comprising a total of 17,008 individuals with AD and 37,154 cognitively normal elderly controls. We found that genetically predicted higher SBP was associated with lower AD risk (odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation [15.4 mm Hg] of SBP [95% CI]: 0.75 [0.62-0.91]; p = 3.4 × 10(-3)). Genetically predicted higher SBP was also associated with a higher probability of taking antihypertensive medication (p = 6.7 × 10(-8)). Genetically predicted smoking quantity was associated with lower AD risk (OR per ten cigarettes per day [95% CI]: 0.67 [0.51-0.89]; p = 6.5 × 10(-3)), although we were unable to stratify by smoking history; genetically predicted smoking initiation was not associated with AD risk (OR = 0.70 [0.37, 1.33]; p = 0.28). We saw no evidence of causal associations between glycemic traits, T2D, BMI, or educational attainment and risk of AD (all p > 0.1). Potential limitations of this

  12. Identification of a BRCA2-specific modifier locus at 6p24 related to breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaudet, Mia M.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Vijai, Joseph; Klein, Robert J.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Dunning, Alison M.; Lee, Andrew; Dennis, Joe; Healey, Sue; Dicks, Ed; Soucy, Penny; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Wang, Xianshu; Eldridge, Ronald C.; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Peock, Susan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Peterlongo, Paolo; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Piedmonte, Marion; Singer, Christian F.; Thomassen, Mads; Hansen, Thomas v O.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Blanco, Ignacio; Greene, Mark H.; Garber, Judith; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Goldgar, David E.; D'Andrea, Emma; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Osorio, Ana; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Arason, Adalgeir; Rennert, Gad; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Kets, Carolien M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Wijnen, Juul T.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve; Fineberg, Elena; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Jacobs, Chris; Adlard, Julian; Tischkowitz, Marc; Porteous, Mary E.; Damiola, Francesca; Golmard, Lisa; Barjhoux, Laure; Longy, Michel; Belotti, Muriel; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Genuardi, Maurizio; Arnold, Norbert; Meindl, Alfons; Sutter, Christian; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Domchek, Susan M.; Pfeiler, Georg; Friedman, Eitan; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Robson, Mark; Shah, Sohela; Lazaro, Conxi; Mai, Phuong L.; Benitez, Javier; Southey, Melissa C.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Fasching, Peter A.; Peto, Julian; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Bojesen, Stig E.; Milne, Roger L.; Brenner, Hermann; Lochmann, Magdalena; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Dörk, Thilo; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Lambrechts, Diether; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Radice, Paolo; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Winqvist, Robert; Devillee, Peter; García-Closas, Montserrat; Schoof, Nils; Hooning, Maartje J.; Cox, Angela; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Jakubowska, Anna; Orr, Nick; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Hall, Per; Couch, Fergus J.; Simard, Jacques; Altshuler, David; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Offit, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Common genetic variants contribute to the observed variation in breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers; those known to date have all been found through population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To comprehensively identify breast cancer risk modifying loci for BRCA2 mutation

  13. Identification of a BRCA2-Specific Modifier Locus at 6p24 Related to Breast Cancer Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaudet, Mia M.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Vijai, Joseph; Klein, Robert J.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Dunning, Alison M.; Lee, Andrew; Dennis, Joe; Healey, Sue; Dicks, Ed; Soucy, Penny; Sinilnikova, Olgam.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Wang, Xianshu; Eldridge, Ronald C.; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Peock, Susan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Peterlongo, Paolo; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Piedmonte, Marion; Singer, Christian F.; Thomassen, Mads; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Blanco, Ignacio; Greene, Mark H.; Garber, Judith; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Goldgar, David E.; D'Andrea, Emma; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Osorio, Ana; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Arason, Adalgeir; Rennert, Gad; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Hout , van der Annemarie H.; Kets, Carolien M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Wijnen, Juul T.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve; Fineberg, Elena; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Jacobs, Chris; Adlard, Julian; Tischkowitz, Marc; Porteous, Mary E.; Damiola, Francesca; Golmard, Lisa; Barjhoux, Laure; Longy, Michel; Belotti, Muriel; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Genuardi, Maurizio; Arnold, Norbert; Meindl, Alfons; Sutter, Christian; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Domchek, Susan M.; Pfeiler, Georg; Friedman, Eitan; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Robson, Mark; Shah, Sohela; Lazaro, Conxi; Mai, Phuong L.; Benitez, Javier; Southey, Melissa C.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Fasching, Peter A.; Peto, Julian; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guenel, Pascal; Bojesen, Stig E.; Milne, Roger L.; Brenner, Hermann; Lochmann, Magdalena; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Doerk, Thilo; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Lambrechts, Diether; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Radice, Paolo; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Winqvist, Robert; Devillee, Peter; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Schoof, Nils; Hooning, Maartje J.; Cox, Angela; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Jakubowska, Anna; Orr, Nick; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Rosario Alonso, M.; Hall, Per; Couch, Fergus J.; Simard, Jacques; Altshuler, David; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Offit, Kenneth

    Common genetic variants contribute to the observed variation in breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers; those known to date have all been found through population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To comprehensively identify breast cancer risk modifying loci for BRCA2 mutation

  14. Modifiable risk factors in the first 1000 days for subsequent risk of childhood overweight in an Asian cohort: significance of parental overweight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris, I M; Bernard, J Y; Chen, L-W; Tint, M T; Pang, W W; Soh, S E; Saw, S-M; Shek, L P-C; Godfrey, K M; Gluckman, P D; Chong, Y-S; Yap, F; Kramer, M S; Lee, Y S

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have identified early-life risk factors for subsequent childhood overweight/obesity, but few have evaluated how they combine to influence risk of childhood overweight/obesity. We examined associations, individually and in combination, of potentially modifiable risk factors in the first 1000 days after conception with childhood adiposity and risk of overweight/obesity in an Asian cohort. Six risk factors were examined: maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (body mass index (BMI) ⩾25 kg m -2 ), paternal overweight/obesity at 24 months post delivery, maternal excessive gestational weight gain, raised maternal fasting glucose during pregnancy (⩾5.1 mmol l -1 ), breastfeeding duration childhood adiposity and risk of overweight/obesity. Early-life and preconception intervention programmes may be more effective in preventing overweight/obesity if they concurrently address these multiple modifiable risk factors.

  15. MC1R genotype modifies risk of melanoma in families segregating CDKN2A mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, N F; Duffy, D L; Chen, W; Stark, M; Martin, N G; Sturm, R A; Hayward, N K

    2001-10-01

    Mutations in the exons of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor gene CDKN2A are melanoma-predisposition alleles which have high penetrance, although they have low population frequencies. In contrast, variants of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, MC1R, confer much lower melanoma risk but are common in European populations. Fifteen Australian CDKN2A mutation-carrying melanoma pedigrees were assessed for MC1R genotype, to test for possible modifier effects on melanoma risk. A CDKN2A mutation in the presence of a homozygous consensus MC1R genotype had a raw penetrance of 50%, with a mean age at onset of 58.1 years. When an MC1R variant allele was also present, the raw penetrance of the CDKN2A mutation increased to 84%, with a mean age at onset of 37.8 years (P=.01). The presence of a CDKN2A mutation gave a hazard ratio of 13.35, and the hazard ratio of 3.72 for MC1R variant alleles was also significant. The impact of MC1R variants on risk of melanoma was mediated largely through the action of three common alleles, Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, and Asp294His, that have previously been associated with red hair, fair skin, and skin sensitivity to ultraviolet light.

  16. Modifiable Risk Factors and Interventions for Childhood Obesity Prevention within the First 1,000 Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilo, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased, amounting to 42 million overweight or obese children, and there is increasing evidence that the origins are within the first 1,000 days: the period of conception through 2 years. Antecedents of early childhood obesity are multifactorial, and associations of varying strength have been documented for genetic/epigenetic, biologic, dietary, environmental, social, and behavioral influences. Modifiable factors in pregnancy and early infancy associated with childhood obesity include maternal overweight/obesity, maternal smoking, gestational weight gain, infant and young child feeding, caregiver responsive feeding practices, as well as sleep duration, and physical activity. Promising obesity prevention interventions include those beginning during the first 1,000 days, using a multicomponent approach, with roots in nutrition education theories or behavior change communication that can continue over time. However, the limited number of completed interventions to date (within pediatric clinics or in home-based or community settings) may not be scalable to the magnitude needed for sustainable obesity prevention. Scale-up interventions that can be maintained for the durations needed, addressing infant and young child feeding and other modifiable risk factors associated with childhood obesity are needed. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Communicating about the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods: The mediating role of trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Bredahl, Lone

    2003-01-01

    role, direct as well as mediating effects of trust were tested in an attitude change experiment involving 1203 consumers from Denmark, Germany, Italy and the UK. After prior attitudes to genetic modification in food production had been assessed, participants received different information materials...... (either product-specific information or balanced/general information about genetic modification in food production) and were asked to evaluate different types of genetically modified foods (either beer or yoghurt). The information materials were attributed to different information sources (either...... an industry association, a consumer organization, or a government source). After completion, perceived risk and perceived benefit were assessed, and participants indicated their trust in the information sources to which the materials had been attributed. Direct and trust-mediated attitude change effects were...

  18. Problem formulation in the environmental risk assessment for genetically modified plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolt, Jeffrey D.; Keese, Paul; Raybould, Alan; Burachik, Moisés; Gray, Alan; Olin, Stephen S.; Schiemann, Joachim; Sears, Mark; Wu, Felicia

    2009-01-01

    Problem formulation is the first step in environmental risk assessment (ERA) where policy goals, scope, assessment endpoints, and methodology are distilled to an explicitly stated problem and approach for analysis. The consistency and utility of ERAs for genetically modified (GM) plants can be improved through rigorous problem formulation (PF), producing an analysis plan that describes relevant exposure scenarios and the potential consequences of these scenarios. A properly executed PF assures the relevance of ERA outcomes for decision-making. Adopting a harmonized approach to problem formulation should bring about greater uniformity in the ERA process for GM plants among regulatory regimes globally. This paper is the product of an international expert group convened by the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Research Foundation. PMID:19757133

  19. Modifiable health risks and illness absence from work: evidence from the panel study of income dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Brian

    2013-03-01

    Modifiable health risks such as smoking, exercise, and body weight have been linked to illness absence from work. This suggests that employers could improve their productivity if their workers adopted healthier lifestyles, but methodological concerns regarding selection bias and omitted variables remain. We use a first-difference model of changes in health behaviors and illness- and family-related absence from work among a nationally representative, longitudinal panel of employed individuals. Workers who lost weight or increased their frequency of light exercise also saw their illness absences decrease over a 2-year period. Some, but not all, of the relationship is mediated by the change in health status. No such decrease was observed for family-related absences. The findings are consistent with the proposition that both employers and employees could benefit from efforts to support better health habits.

  20. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and psychological stress - a modifiable risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Ruth A; Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Psychological stress is common in many physical illnesses and is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for disease onset and progression. An emerging body of literature suggests that stress has a role in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) both as a predictor of new onset T2DM and as a prognostic factor in people with existing T2DM. Here, we review the evidence linking T2DM and psychological stress. We highlight the physiological responses to stress that are probably related to T2DM, drawing on evidence from animal work, large epidemiological studies and human laboratory trials. We discuss population and clinical studies linking psychological and social stress factors with T2DM, and give an overview of intervention studies that have attempted to modify psychological or social factors to improve outcomes in people with T2DM.

  1. Supporting evidence-based analysis for modified risk tobacco products through a toxicology data-sharing infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Boué, Stéphanie; Exner, Thomas; Ghosh, Samik; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Dokler, Joh; Page, David; Boda, Akash; Bonjour, Filipe; Hardy, Barry; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The US FDA defines modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) as products that aim to reduce harm or the risk of tobacco-related disease associated with commercially marketed tobacco products.  Establishing a product’s potential as an MRTP requires scientific substantiation including toxicity studies and measures of disease risk relative to those of cigarette smoking.  Best practices encourage verification of the data from such studies through sharing and open standards. Building on the experienc...

  2. Hypertension Risk Subsequent to Gestational Dysglycemia Is Modified by Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Lewis, Rhonda; Huynh, Jennifer; Li, Sylvia; Wenger, Julia; Thadhani, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Additionally, gestational dysglycemia has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus but not yet associated with hypertension subsequent to pregnancy in long-term follow-up. Therefore, we set out to examine this relationship as well as the role of race/ethnicity in modifying this relationship. We analyzed a prospective observational cohort followed between 1998 and 2007. There were 17 655 women with self-reported race/ethnicity and full-term, live births. A 1-hour 50 g oral glucose-load test and a 3-hour 100 g oral glucose-tolerance test enabled third trimester stratification of women into 1 of 4 glucose-tolerance groups: (1) normal (n=15 056); (2) abnormal glucose-load test (n=1558); (3) abnormal glucose-load and -tolerance tests (n=520); and (4) gestational diabetes mellitus (n=521). Women were then followed for a mean±standard deviation of 4.1±2.9 years after delivery for the development of hypertension. Although gestational diabetes mellitus was associated with an increased risk of hypertension after pregnancy (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.58 [1.02, 2.45]; P=0.04), dysglycemia defined by an abnormal glucose-load test predicted hypertension only among black women (4.52 [1.24, 16.52]; P=0.02). The risk of hypertension after pregnancy among dysglycemia groups not meeting criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus varied based on the race/ethnicity of the population. Further research on the implications of the intersection of race/ethnicity and gestational dysglycemia on subsequent hypertension is warranted. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. The use of genetically modified mice in cancer risk assessment: Challenges and limitations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastmond, David A.; Vulimiri, Suryanarayana V.; French, John E.; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2015-01-01

    The use of genetically modified (GM) mice to assess carcinogenicity is playing an increasingly important role in the safety evaluation of chemicals. While progress has been made in developing and evaluating mouse models such as the Trp53+/−, Tg.AC and the rasH2, the suitability of these models as replacements for the conventional rodent cancer bioassay and for assessing human health risks remains uncertain. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of accelerated cancer bioassays with GM mice for assessing the potential health risks associated with exposure to carcinogenic agents. We compared the published results from the GM bioassays to those obtained in the National Toxicology Program’s conventional chronic mouse bioassay for their potential use in risk assessment. Our analysis indicates that the GM models are less efficient in detecting carcinogenic agents but more consistent in identifying non-carcinogenic agents. We identified several issues of concern related to the design of the accelerated bioassays (e.g., sample size, study duration, genetic stability and reproducibility) as well as pathway-dependency of effects, and different carcinogenic mechanisms operable in GM and non-GM mice. The use of the GM models for dose-response assessment is particularly problematic as these models are, at times, much more or less sensitive than the conventional rodent cancer bioassays. Thus, the existing GM mouse models may be useful for hazard identification, but will be of limited use for dose-response assessment. Hence, caution should be exercised when using GM mouse models to assess the carcinogenic risks of chemicals. PMID:23985072

  4. Risk markers of late high-degree atrioventricular block in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after an acute myocardial infarction: a CARISMA substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Uffe Jakob Ortved; Jøns, Christian; Jørgensen, Rikke Mørch

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: High-degree atrioventricular block (HAVB) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with increased risk of mortality. Risk markers and predictors of HAVB occurring after AMI are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of risk markers derived from....... An ILR was implanted for continuous arrhythmia surveillance. Risk stratification testing was performed at inclusion and 6 weeks after AMI. The tests included echocardiography, electrocardiogram (ECG), 24 h Holter monitoring, and an invasive electrophysiological study. High-degree atrioventricular block...... was documented in 28 (10%) patients during a median follow-up of 2.0 (0.4-2.0) years. Heart rate variability (HRV) measures and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia occurring at the week 6 Holter monitoring were highly predictive of HAVB. Power law slope powerful HRV parameter (HR...

  5. Risk factors related to low ankle-brachial index measured by traditional and modified definition in hypertensive elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Raphael; Marto, Renata; Neves, Mario Fritsch

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) increases with age and ankle-brachial index (ABI) ≤ 0.9 is a noninvasive marker of PAD. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors related to a low ABI in the elderly using two different methods of ABI calculation (traditional and modified definition using lower instead of higher ankle pressure). A cross-sectional study was carried out with 65 hypertensive patients aged 65 years or older. PAD was present in 18% of individuals by current ABI definition and in 32% by modified method. Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, higher levels of systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, elevated risk by Framingham Risk Score (FRS), and a higher number of total and antihypertensive drugs in use were associated with low ABI by both definitions. Smoking and LDL-cholesterol were associated with low ABI only by the modified definition. Low ABI by the modified definition detected 9 new cases of PAD but cardiovascular risk had not been considered high in 3 patients when calculated by FRS. In conclusion, given that a simple modification of ABI calculation would be able to identify more patients at high risk, it should be considered for cardiovascular risk prediction in all elderly hypertensive outpatients.

  6. Periodontal disease and subgingival microbiota as contributors for rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis: modifiable risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Jose U; Bretz, Walter A; Abramson, Steven B

    2014-07-01

    Since the early 1900s, the role of periodontal disease in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis has been a matter of intense research. The last decade has witnessed many advances supporting a link between periodontitis, the presence of specific bacterial species (i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis) and their effects in immune response. This review will examine available evidence on the individuals. Epidemiological studies have stressed the commonalities shared by periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Many groups have focused their attention toward understanding the periodontal microbiota and its alterations in states of health and disease. The presence of circulating antibodies against periodontopathic bacteria and associated inflammatory response has been found in both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and individuals at-risk for disease development. Most recently, the periodontal microbiota of smokers and patients with RA has been elucidated, revealing profound changes in the bacterial communities compared with those of healthy controls. This has led to several small clinical trials of progressive disease treatment as adjuvant for disease-modifying therapy in RA. Smoking and periodontal disease are emerging risk factors for the development of RA. Epidemiological, clinical, and basic research has further strengthened this association, pointing toward changes in the oral microbiota as possible contributors to systemic inflammation and arthritis.

  7. Characterizing Stressors and Modifiable Health Risk Factors Among Homeless Smokers: An Exploratory Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Businelle, Michael S

    2015-10-01

    This pilot study was conducted to explore the associations between stressors related to homelessness and modifiable health risk factors (poor diet, insufficient physical activity, and overweight/obesity) and to provide direction for future research. Participants (N = 57) were homeless adults enrolled in a smoking cessation program. Analyses were conducted to characterize the sample as well as the relations between relevant stressors (discrimination, chronic stress, and fear and mistrust) and health risk factors. Inadequate daily consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fiber was common. High-fat diet and insufficient physical activity were also prevalent, and the majority of participants were overweight/obese. Participants commonly endorsed discrimination, fear of victimization, mistrust of others, and several other stressors. Greater endorsement of stressors was associated with a high-fat diet. Results suggest that lifestyle interventions and policy changes may be warranted in homeless shelters to attenuate the potential effects of stressors on high-fat dietary consumption among smokers. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  8. Procedure to select test organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops in aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbeck, Angelika; Bundschuh, Rebecca; Bundschuh, Mirco; Hofmann, Frieder; Oehen, Bernadette; Otto, Mathias; Schulz, Ralf; Trtikova, Miluse

    2017-11-01

    For a long time, the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops focused mainly on terrestrial ecosystems. This changed when it was scientifically established that aquatic ecosystems are exposed to GM crop residues that may negatively affect aquatic species. To assist the risk assessment process, we present a tool to identify ecologically relevant species usable in tiered testing prior to authorization or for biological monitoring in the field. The tool is derived from a selection procedure for terrestrial ecosystems with substantial but necessary changes to adequately consider the differences in the type of ecosystems. By using available information from the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), the procedure can draw upon existing biological data on aquatic systems. The proposed procedure for aquatic ecosystems was tested for the first time during an expert workshop in 2013, using the cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as the GM crop and 1 stream type as the receiving environment in the model system. During this workshop, species executing important ecological functions in aquatic environments were identified in a stepwise procedure according to predefined ecological criteria. By doing so, we demonstrated that the procedure is practicable with regard to its goal: From the initial long list of 141 potentially exposed aquatic species, 7 species and 1 genus were identified as the most suitable candidates for nontarget testing programs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:974-979. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  9. A conceptual framework for managing modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Trevor; Poudevigne, Melanie; Lambrick, Danielle M; Faulkner, James; Lucero, Adam A; Page, Rachel; Perry, Lane G; Tarrant, Michael A; Stoner, Lee

    2015-03-01

    The current review will look at modifiable lifestyle (physical inactivity, poor nutrition, risky alcohol behavior and cigarette smoking) and cardio-metabolic (obesity, diabetes mellitus, high cholesterol and high blood pressure) cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Indigenous-Fijian and Indo-Fijian subgroups. A framework for monitoring and managing these risk factors will be presented. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized and synthesized. Compared to Indo-Fijians, Indigenous-Fijians have higher rates of obesity (17% vs 11%) and hypertension (21% vs 16%), but lower rates of diabetes mellitus (12% vs 21%) and high cholesterol (33% vs 39%). Indigenous-Fijians report higher rates of prescribed physical activity (25% vs 21%), but poorer recommended vegetable intake (48% vs 56%), greater risky alcohol behavior (17% vs 15%) and a much greater prevalence of cigarette smoking (45% vs 24%). Both Indigenous-Fijians and Indo-Fijians report a low prevalence of recommended fruit intake (17% vs 15%). Fiji is progressing through demographic and epidemiological transitions, including a decline in infectious diseases and improved life expectancy. However, in concert with other developing nations, 'modernization' is accompanied by increased mortality from non-communicable diseases, with CVD being the most prevalent. This transition has been associated with changes to socio-cultural aspects of Fiji, including poor lifestyle choices that may contribute to a cluster of cardio-metabolic conditions which precede CVD. © Royal Society for Public Health 2013.

  10. Antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity is a risk factor for positive allergy skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagau, Natalia; Gherman, Nadia; Cocis, Mihaela; Petrisor, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are not currently recommended for the general population undergoing general anaesthesia. In a previous study we have reported a high incidence of positive allergy tests for NMBAs in patients with a positive history of non-anaesthetic drug allergy, a larger prospective study being needed to confirm those preliminary results. The objective of this study was to compare the skin tests results for patients with a positive history of antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity reactions to those of controls without drug allergies. Ninety eight patients with previous antibiotic hypersensitivity and 72 controls were prospectively included. Skin tests were performed for atracurium, pancuronium, rocuronium, and suxamethonium. We found 65 positive skin tests from the 392 tests performed in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity (1 6.58%) and 23 positive skin tests from the 288 performed in controls (7.98%), the two incidences showing significant statistical difference (p = 0.0011). The relative risk for having a positive skin test for NMBAs for patients versus controls was 1.77 (1.15-2.76). For atracurium, skin tests were more often positive in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity versus controls (p = 0.02). For pancuronium, rocuronium and suxamethonium the statistical difference was not attained (p-values 0.08 for pancuronium, 0.23 for rocuronium, and 0.26 for suxamethonium). Patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity seem to have a higher incidence of positive skin tests for NMBAs. They might represent a group at higher risk for developing intraoperative anaphylaxis compared to the general population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Population Modeling of Modified Risk Tobacco Products Accounting for Smoking Reduction and Gradual Transitions of Relative Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Bill; Teischinger, Florian

    2017-11-01

    As suggested by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Modified Risk Tobacco Product (MRTP) Applications Draft Guidance, we developed a statistical model based on public data to explore the effect on population mortality of an MRTP resulting in reduced conventional cigarette smoking. Many cigarette smokers who try an MRTP persist as dual users while smoking fewer conventional cigarettes per day (CPD). Lower-CPD smokers have lower mortality risk based on large cohort studies. However, with little data on the effect of smoking reduction on mortality, predictive modeling is needed. We generalize prior assumptions of gradual, exponential decay of Excess Risk (ER) of death, relative to never-smokers, after quitting or reducing CPD. The same age-dependent slopes are applied to all transitions, including initiation to conventional cigarettes and to a second product (MRTP). A Monte Carlo simulation model generates random individual product use histories, including CPD, to project cumulative deaths through 2060 in a population with versus without the MRTP. Transitions are modeled to and from dual use, which affects CPD and cigarette quit rates, and to MRTP use only. Results in a hypothetical scenario showed high sensitivity of long-run mortality to CPD reduction levels and moderate sensitivity to ER transition rates. Models to project population effects of an MRTP should account for possible mortality effects of reduced smoking among dual users. In addition, studies should follow dual-user CPD histories and quit rates over long time periods to clarify long-term usage patterns and thereby improve health impact projections. We simulated mortality effects of a hypothetical MRTP accounting for cigarette smoking reduction by smokers who add MRTP use. Data on relative mortality risk versus CPD suggest that this reduction may have a substantial effect on mortality rates, unaccounted for in other models. This effect is weighed with additional hypothetical effects in an example.

  12. Risk perception of genetically modified foods: a comparison between Russia and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darkhovskaya, M.; Frewer, L.; Urge-Vorsatz, D.

    1998-01-01

    The appearance of genetically modified products on the shelves of Western supermarkets has given rise to a number of questions regarding food safety, nutrition, environmental manipulation as well as ethical concerns. Public perception of gene technology has been shown to be an important factor influencing its future development. Many studies have been carried out to assess public attitudes to genetic engineering in the UK, while in Russia this research is in its embryonic stage yet. The study seeks to compare public concerns in the UK and Russia. Students studying Food Sciences and Biotechnology were surveyed with the use of standardised questionnaire. The results indicated that the views of students were in many ways similar to each other and the differences found were likely to be caused by the differences in economic, social and cultural contexts. The data analysis showed that students' attitudes and the Russians' in particular have not been shaped yet and can be characterised as 'positively neutral'. The lack of knowledge and discrepancy between the necessity to trust in regulators and the real trust pointed to the need of risk-benefit communication. Additionally, student-groups were compared with the general English public to determine the impact of knowledge and education on public perception of risks and benefits related to modem biotechnology. The general public was found to perceive gene technology as more risky and lower in benefits than the students. On the whole all English respondents were more concerned about the risk than the surveyed Russians. This research can serve a starting point for further development in the field of studying public perception of 'novel' food in Russia. (authors)

  13. Efficient bacterial expression of recombinant potato mop-top virus non-structural triple gene block protein 1 modified by progressive deletion of its N-terminus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pečenková, Tamara; Filigarová, Marie; Čeřovská, Noemi

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2005), s. 128-135 ISSN 1046-5928 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/04/1329 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Protein expression * Potato mop-top virus * Triple gene block Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.553, year: 2005

  14. Diabetes and modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease: the prospective Million Women Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Elizabeth A.; Pirie, Kirstin L.; Stevens, Richard J.; Beral, Valerie; Brown, Anna; Liu, Bette; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K.

    2008-01-01

    To compare the effect of potentially modifiable lifestyle factors on the incidence of vascular disease in women with and without diabetes. In 1996-2001 over one million middle-aged women in the UK joined a prospective study, providing medical history, lifestyle and socio-demographic information. All participants were followed for hospital admissions and deaths using electronic record-linkage. Adjusted relative risks (RRs) and incidence rates were calculated to compare the incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke in women with and without diabetes and by lifestyle factors. At recruitment 25,915 women (2.1% of 1,242,338) reported current treatment for diabetes. During a mean follow-up of 6.1 years per woman, 21,928 had a first hospital admission or death from coronary heart disease (RR for women with versus without diabetes = 3.30, 95% CI 3.14-3.47) and 7,087 had a first stroke (RR = 2.47, 95% CI 2.24-2.74). Adjusted incidence rates of these conditions in women with diabetes increased with duration of diabetes, obesity, inactivity and smoking. The 5-year adjusted incidence rates for cardiovascular disease were 4.6 (95% CI 4.4-4.9) per 100 women aged 50-69 in non-smokers with diabetes, 5.9 (95% CI 4.6-7.6) in smokers with diabetes not using insulin and 11.0 (95% CI 8.3-14.7) in smokers with diabetes using insulin. Non-smoking women with diabetes who were not overweight or inactive still had threefold increased rate for coronary disease or stroke compared with women without diabetes. Of the modifiable factors examined in middle aged women with diabetes, smoking causes the greatest increase in cardiovascular disease, especially in those with insulin treated diabetes

  15. Dominant modifiable risk factors for stroke in Ghana and Nigeria (SIREN: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayowa O Owolabi, ProfDrMed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence, prevalence, and fatality from stroke globally. Yet, only little information about context-specific risk factors for prioritising interventions to reduce the stroke burden in sub-Saharan Africa is available. We aimed to identify and characterise the effect of the top modifiable risk factors for stroke in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN study is a multicentre, case-control study done at 15 sites in Nigeria and Ghana. Cases were adults (aged ≥18 years with stroke confirmed by CT or MRI. Controls were age-matched and gender-matched stroke-free adults (aged ≥18 years recruited from the communities in catchment areas of cases. Comprehensive assessment for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was done using standard instruments. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs and population-attributable risks (PARs with 95% CIs. Findings: Between Aug 28, 2014, and June 15, 2017, we enrolled 2118 case-control pairs (1192 [56%] men with mean ages of 59·0 years (SD 13·8 for cases and 57·8 years (13·7 for controls. 1430 (68% had ischaemic stoke, 682 (32% had haemorrhagic stroke, and six (<1% had discrete ischaemic and haemorrhagic lesions. 98·2% (95% CI 97·2–99·0 of adjusted PAR of stroke was associated with 11 potentially modifiable risk factors with ORs and PARs in descending order of PAR of 19·36 (95% CI 12·11–30·93 and 90·8% (95% CI 87·9–93·7 for hypertension, 1·85 (1·44–2·38 and 35·8% (25·3–46·2 for dyslipidaemia, 1·59 (1·19–2·13 and 31·1% (13·3–48·9 for regular meat consumption, 1·48 (1·13–1·94 and 26·5% (12·9–40·2 for elevated waist-to-hip ratio, 2·58 (1·98–3·37 and 22·1% (17·8–26·4 for diabetes, 2·43 (1·81–3·26 and 18·2% (14·1–22·3 for low green leafy vegetable consumption, 1·89 (1·40–2·54 and 11·6% (6·6–16·7

  16. Common variants associated with breast cancer in genome-wide association studies are modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, V. Shane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Tarrell, Robert; Karaus, Mary; McGuffog, Lesley; Pharaoh, Paul D. P.; Ponder, Bruce A. J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Houdayer, Claude; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.; Spurdle, Amanda; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Singer, Christian F.; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Dressler, Catherina; Fink, Anneliese; Szabo, Csilla I.; Zikan, Michal; Foretova, Lenka; Claes, Kathleen; Thomas, Gilles; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Gregory, Helen; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Morrison, Patrick; Cole, Trevor; McKeown, Carole; Taylor, Amy; Donaldson, Alan; Paterson, Joan; Murray, Alexandra; Rogers, Mark; McCann, Emma; Kennedy, John; Barton, David; Porteous, Mary; Brewer, Carole; Kivuva, Emma; Searle, Anne; Goodman, Selina; Davidson, Rosemarie; Murday, Victoria; Bradshaw, Nicola; Snadden, Lesley; Longmuir, Mark; Watt, Catherine; Izatt, Louise; Pichert, Gabriella; Langman, Caroline; Dorkins, Huw; Barwell, Julian; Chu, Carol; Bishop, Tim; Miller, Julie; Ellis, Ian; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Holt, Felicity; Male, Alison; Robinson, Anne; Gardiner, Carol; Douglas, Fiona; Claber, Oonagh; Walker, Lisa; McLeod, Diane; Eeles, Ros; Shanley, Susan; Rahman, Nazneen; Houlston, Richard; Bancroft, Elizabeth; D'Mello, Lucia; Page, Elizabeth; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Mitra, Anita; Cook, Jackie; Quarrell, Oliver; Bardsley, Cathryn; Hodgson, Shirley; Goff, Sheila; Brice, Glen; Winchester, Lizzie; Eccles, Diana; Lucassen, Anneke; Crawford, Gillian; Tyler, Emma; McBride, Donna; Bérard, Léon; Sinilnikova, Olga; Barjhoux, Laure; Giraud, Sophie; Léone, Mélanie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Moncoutier, Virginie; Belotti, Muriel; de Pauw, Antoine; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Byrde, Véronique; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Sobol, Hagay; Bourdon, Violaine; Eisinger, Françoise; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Coupier, Isabelle; Payrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Révillion, Françoise; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Rouleau, Etienne; Lidereau, Rosette; Demange, Liliane; Nogues, Catherine; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Longy, Michel; Sevenet, Nicolas; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Hélèn; Rebischung, Christine; Cassini, Cécile; Olivier-Faivre, Laurence; Prieur, Fabienne; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Lynch, Henry T.; Hogervorst, Frans; Vernhoef, Senno; Pijpe, Anouk; van 't Veer, Laura; van Leeuwen, Flora; Rookus, Matti; Collée, Margriet; van den Ouweland, Ans; Kriege, Mieke; Schutte, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Asperen, Christi; Wijnen, Juul; Vreeswijk, Maaike; Tollenaar, Rob; Devilee, Peter; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet; van der Luijt, Rob; Aalfs, Cora; van Os, Theo; Gille, Hans; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Gomez-Garcia, Encarna; van Roozendaal, Kees; Blok, Marinus; Oosterwijk, Jan; van der Hout, Annemieke; Mourits, Marian; Vasen, Hans; Szabo, Csilla; Pohlreich, Petr; Kleibl, Zdenek; Machackova, Eva; Lukesova, Miroslava; de Leeneer, Kim; Poppe, Bruce; de Paepe, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Since these risk modifiers were originally identified as genetic risk factors for breast cancer in genome-wide association studies (GWASs),

  17. Common variants associated with breast cancer in genome-wide association studies are modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Pankratz, V.S.; Fredericksen, Z.; Tarrell, R.; Karaus, M.; McGuffog, L.; Pharaoh, P.D.; Ponder, B.A.J.; Dunning, A.M.; Peock, S.; Cook, M.; Oliver, C.; Frost, D.; Sinilnikova, O.M.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Mazoyer, S.; Houdayer, C.; Hogervorst, F.B.L.; Hooning, M.J.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Spurdle, A.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Schmutzler, R.K.; Wappenschmidt, B.; Engel, C.; Meindl, A.; Domchek, S.M.; Nathanson, K.L.; Rebbeck, T.R.; Singer, C.F.; Gschwantler-Kaulich, D.; Dressler, C.; Fink, A.; Szabo, C.I.; Zikan, M.; Foretova, L.; Claes, K.; Thomas, G.; Hoover, R.N.; Hunter, D.J.; Chanock, S.J.; Easton, D.F.; Antoniou, A.C.; Couch, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Since these risk modifiers were originally identified as genetic risk factors for breast cancer in genome-wide association studies (GWASs),

  18. Reducing sickness absence from work due to low back pain: how well do intervention strategies match modifiable risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Linton, Steven J; Pransky, Glenn

    2006-12-01

    To assess, from the review literature, the extent to which effective strategies for reducing work absence after acute low back pain (LBP) match empirical risk factors. From 17 recent review articles (2000-2005), disability risk factors and interventions were cross-tabulated to assess levels of relative concordance. Potentially modifiable risk factors included 23 variables describing 3 workplace and 3 personal domains. Effective interventions included 25 strategies that were personal (physical or behavioral), engineering, or administrative in nature. There was a strong risk factor concordance for workplace technical and organizational interventions, graded activity exposure, and cognitive restructuring of pain beliefs. There was less risk factor concordance for exercise, back education, and RTW coordination. Few interventions focused on relieving emotional distress or improving job dissatisfaction, two well-supported risk factors. Gaps between the epidemiological and intervention research of back disability prevention could be reduced by testing mediators of intervention effects or by stratifying outcomes according to pre-intervention risk factors.

  19. Scientific opinion on risks for animal health related to the presence of zearalenone and its modified forms in feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi, occurs predominantly in cereal grains. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risk to animal health related to ZEN and its modified forms in feed. Modified forms of ZEN occurring in feed include phase I......, rabbits, mink and cats. For modified forms, no reference points could be established for any animal species and relative potency factors previously established from rodents by the CONTAM Panel in 2016 were used. The dietary exposure was estimated on 17,706 analytical results with high proportions of left...... of adverse health effects of feed containing ZEN was considered extremely low for poultry and low for sheep, dog, pig and fish. The same conclusions also apply to the sum of ZEN and its modified forms....

  20. Association of diet and anthropometric measures as cardiovascular modifiable risk factors in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Soumya; Banerjee, Swasti; Sengupta, Tridip Kumar; Behera, Anugya Aparajita; Manjareeka, Magna; Mishra, Jayanti

    2013-12-18

    Abstract Background: Cardiovascular accidents are the major cause of death in the developing world, accounting for nearly 40% of deaths in adult men and women. Developed countries have already brought this under control, whereas India has to take a giant leap. Diet plays a pivotal role among the various modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. The sole objective of this study is to point at nutrition as being the main modulator of different anthropometric parameters and directly or indirectly has a tremendous impact on the blood pressure levels even during young age. Methods: In a cross-sectional study involving 223 young adults, the pattern of food habits and level of physical activity were determined from self-reported questionnaires, while blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were computed. The subjects were grouped as normotensives and prehypertensives and also were compared according to their BMI and other parameters. Results: Statistically significant, greater association of weight followed by WC with the prehypertensive levels of blood pressure compared to other parameters was seen. The subjects detected as prehypertensives had predilection for salty, fried, oily, sweet, and fast food; BMI >25 kg/m2; and WC and WHR in high risk-categories per World Health Organization standards. More than 69% of subjects had high WHR, whereas only 9% of total subjects exercised regularly. Conclusions: Central obesity is associated with sedentary life and high intake of calories, leading to hypertension with advancing age. Early detection, awareness, and primary prevention would help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Genetic polymorphisms in MMP 2, 9 and 3 genes modify lung cancer risk and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Arriaga Patricia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs are proteolytic enzymes that contribute to all stages of tumour progression, including the later stages of invasion and metastasis. Genetic variants in the MMP genes may influence the biological function of these enzymes and change their role in carcinogenesis and progression. We have investigated the association between the -735 C/T, the -1171 5A/6A, and the -1562 C/T polymorphisms in the MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 genes, respectively, and the risk and survival of lung cancer. Methods The case-control study includes 879 lung cancer patients and 803 controls from a Caucasian population in Spain (CAPUA study. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. The Kaplan-Meier method, long-rank test and Cox's were used for the survival analysis. Results The MMP9 -1562 T/T genotype was associated with a statistically significant decreased risk of developing lung cancer (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.06-0.85, whereas no association was found for the MMP2 -735 C/T and MMP3 -1171 5A/6A polymorphisms. The MMP2 -735 T/T genotype was statistically significantly associated with a decreased survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients, identified as an independent prognosis factor of survival (hazard ratio (HR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.00-3.20. In contrast, no association was found between the MMP3 -1171 5A/6A and the MMP9 -1562 C/T polymorphisms and survival. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that the MMP9 -1562 C/T polymorphism is associated with a protective effect against the development of lung cancer and suggest that the MMP2 -735 C/T polymorphism modify the length of survival in NSCLC patients.

  2. CYP2C9 Genotypes Modify Benzodiazepine-Related Fall Risk: Original Results From Three Studies With Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, Annelies C.; Ziere, Gijsbertus; Broer, Linda; Swart, Karin M. A.; Enneman, Anke W.; van Dijk, Suzanne C.; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P.; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L.; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Zillikens, M. Carola; van Gelder, Teun; de Vries, Oscar J.; Lips, Paul; Deeg, Dorly J. H.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Hofman, Albert; Witkamp, Renger F.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Stricker, Bruno H.; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether the CYP2C9*2 and *3 variants modify benzodiazepine-related fall risk. Three prospective studies; the Rotterdam Study, B-PROOF, and LASA. Community-dwelling individuals living in or near five Dutch cities. There were 11,485 participants aged ≥55 years. Fall incidents were

  3. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterlongo, P.; Chang-Claude, J.; Moysich, K.B.; Rudolph, A.; Schmutzler, R.K.; Simard, J.; Soucy, P.; Eeles, R.A.; Easton, D.F.; Hamann, U.; Wilkening, S.; Chen, B.; Rookus, M.A.; Schmidt, M.K.; Baan, F.H. van der; Spurdle, A.B.; Walker, L.C.; Lose, F.; Maia, A.T.; Montagna, M.; Matricardi, L.; Lubinski, J.; Jakubowska, A.; Garcia, E.B.; Olopade, O.I.; Nussbaum, R.L.; Nathanson, K.L.; Domchek, S.M.; Rebbeck, T.R.; Arun, B.K.; Karlan, B.Y.; Orsulic, S.; Lester, J.; Chung, W.K.; Miron, A.; Southey, M.C.; Goldgar, D.E.; Buys, S.S.; Janavicius, R.; Dorfling, C.M.; Rensburg, E.J. van; Ding, Y.C.; Neuhausen, S.L.; Hansen, T.V.; Gerdes, A.M.; Ejlertsen, B.; Jonson, L.; Osorio, A.; Martinez-Bouzas, C.; Benitez, J.; Conway, E.E.; Blazer, K.R.; Weitzel, J.N.; Manoukian, S.; Peissel, B.; Zaffaroni, D.; Scuvera, G.; Barile, M.; Ficarazzi, F.; Mariette, F.; Fortuzzi, S.; Viel, A.; Giannini, G.; Papi, L.; Martayan, A.; Tibiletti, M.G.; Radice, P.; Vratimos, A.; Fostira, F.; Garber, J.E.; Donaldson, A.; Brewer, C.; Foo, C.; Evans, D.G.; Frost, D.; Eccles, D.; Brady, A.; Cook, J.; Tischkowitz, M.; Adlard, J.; Barwell, J.; Izatt, L.; Side, L.E.; Kennedy, M.J.; Rogers, M.T.; Porteous, M.E.; Morrison, P.J.; Platte, R.; Davidson, R.; Hodgson, S.V.; Ellis, S.; Cole, T.; Godwin, A.K.; Claes, K.; Maerken, T. Van; Meindl, A.; Gehrig, A.; Sutter, C.; Engel, C.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and nongenetic modifying factors. In

  4. Candidate Genetic Modifiers for Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterlongo, Paolo; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Rudolph, Anja; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Hamann, Ute; Wilkening, Stefan; Chen, Bowang; Rookus, Matti A.; Schmidt, MarjankaK.; van der Baan, Frederieke H.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Walker, Logan C.; Lose, Felicity; Maia, Ana-Teresa; Montagna, Marco; Matricardi, Laura; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Arun, Banu K.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Orsulic, Sandra; Lester, Jenny; Chung, Wendy K.; Miron, Alex; Southey, Melissa C.; Goldgar, David E.; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jonson, Lars; Osorio, Ana; Martinez-Bouzas, Cristina; Benitez, Javier; Conway, Edye E.; Blazer, Kathleen R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Barile, Monica; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Mariette, Frederique; Fortuzzi, Stefano; Viel, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Papi, Laura; Martayan, Aline; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Radice, Paolo; Vratimos, Athanassios; Fostira, Florentia; Garber, Judy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D. Gareth R.; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Brady, Angela; Cook, Jackie; Tischkowitz, Marc; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E.; Kennedy, M. John; Rogers, Mark T.; Porteous, Mary E.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Platte, Radka; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Ellis, Steve; Cole, Trevor; Godwin, Andrew K.; Claes, Kathleen; Van Maerken, Tom; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Buecher, Bruno; Delnatte, Capucine; Houdayer, Claude; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Damiola, Francesca; Coupier, Isabelle; Barjhoux, Laure; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Golmard, Lisa; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Caron, Olivier; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Belotti, Muriel; Piedmonte, Marion; Friedlander, Michael L.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Copeland, Larry J.; de la Hoya, Miguel; Perez Segura, Pedro; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomaeki, Kristiina; van Os, Theo A. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P. G.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; van Doorn, Helena C.; Collee, J. Margriet; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Arason, Adalgeir; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Olswold, Curtis; Couch, Fergus J.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Wang, Xianshu; Szabo, Csilla I.; Offit, Kenneth; Corines, Marina; Jacobs, Lauren; Robson, Mark E.; Zhang, Liying; Joseph, Vijai; Berger, Andreas; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng M.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Rennert, Gad; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Andrulis, Irene L.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Laitman, Yael; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Borg, Ake; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Friedman, Eitan; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Ligtenberg, Jakobus J. M.

    Background: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and nongenetic modifying factors. In

  5. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterlongo, Paolo; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Rudolph, Anja; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Hamann, Ute; Wilkening, Stefan; Chen, Bowang; Rookus, Matti A.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; van der Baan, Frederieke H.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Walker, Logan C.; Lose, Felicity; Maia, Ana-Teresa; Montagna, Marco; Matricardi, Laura; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Arun, Banu K.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Orsulic, Sandra; Lester, Jenny; Chung, Wendy K.; Miron, Alex; Southey, Melissa C.; Goldgar, David E.; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jønson, Lars; Osorio, Ana; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Benitez, Javier; Conway, Edye E.; Blazer, Kathleen R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Barile, Monica; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Mariette, Frederique; Fortuzzi, Stefano; Viel, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Papi, Laura; Martayan, Aline; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Radice, Paolo; Vratimos, Athanassios; Fostira, Florentia; Garber, Judy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D. Gareth R.; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Brady, Angela; Cook, Jackie; Tischkowitz, Marc; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E.; Kennedy, M. John; Rogers, Mark T.; Porteous, Mary E.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Platte, Radka; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Ellis, Steve; Cole, Trevor; Godwin, Andrew K.; Claes, Kathleen; van Maerken, Tom; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Buecher, Bruno; Delnatte, Capucine; Houdayer, Claude; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Damiola, Francesca; Coupier, Isabelle; Barjhoux, Laure; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Golmard, Lisa; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Caron, Olivier; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Belotti, Muriel; Piedmonte, Marion; Friedlander, Michael L.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Copeland, Larry J.; de la Hoya, Miguel; Segura, Pedro Perez; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; van Os, Theo A. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P. G.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; van Doorn, Helena C.; Collée, J. Margriet; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Arason, Adalgeir; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Olswold, Curtis; Couch, Fergus J.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Wang, Xianshu; Szabo, Csilla I.; Offit, Kenneth; Corines, Marina; Jacobs, Lauren; Robson, Mark E.; Zhang, Liying; Joseph, Vijai; Berger, Andreas; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; tea, Muy-Kheng M.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Rennert, Gad; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Andrulis, Irene L.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Laitman, Yael; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Borg, Åke; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Friedman, Eitan

    2015-01-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and nongenetic modifying factors. In this study, we

  6. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk inBRCA1andBRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Peterlongo (Paolo); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); K.B. Moysich (Kirsten); A. Rudolph (Anja); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); J. Simard (Jacques); P. Soucy (Penny); R. Eeles (Rosalind); D.F. Easton (Douglas); U. Hamann (Ute); S. Wilkening (Stefan); B. Chen (Bowang); M.A. Rookus (Matti); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka K.); F.H. Van Der Baan (Frederieke H.); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); L.C. Walker (Logan); F. Lose (Felicity); A.-T. Maia (Ana-Teresa); M. Montagna (Marco); L. Matricardi (Laura); J. Lubinski (Jan); A. Jakubowska (Anna); E.B.G. Garcia; O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); R.L. Nussbaum (Robert L.); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); S.M. Domchek (Susan); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); B.K. Arun (Banu); B. Karlan; S. Orsulic (Sandra); K.J. Lester (Kathryn); W.K. Chung (Wendy K.); A. Miron (Alexander); M.C. Southey (Melissa); D. Goldgar (David); S.S. Buys (Saundra); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); C.M. Dorfling (Cecilia); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); Y.C. Ding (Yuan Chun); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); A.-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); L. Jønson (Lars); A. Osorio (Ana); C. Martínez-Bouzas (Cristina); J. Benítez (Javier); E.E. Conway (Edye E.); K.R. Blazer (Kathleen R.); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); B. Peissel (Bernard); D. Zaffaroni (Daniela); G. Scuvera (Giulietta); M. Barile (Monica); F. Ficarazzi (Filomena); F. Mariette (F.); S. Fortuzzi (S.); A. Viel (Alessandra); G. Giannini (Giuseppe); L. Papi (Laura); A. Martayan (Aline); M.G. Tibiletti (Maria Grazia); P. Radice (Paolo); A. Vratimos (Athanassios); F. Fostira (Florentia); J. Garber (Judy); A. Donaldson (Alan); C. Brewer (Carole); C. Foo (Claire); D.G. Evans (Gareth); D. Frost (Debra); D. Eccles (Diana); A. Brady (A.); J. Cook (Jackie); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); L. Adlard; J. Barwell (Julian); L.J. Walker (Lisa); L. Izatt (Louise); L. Side (Lucy); M.J. Kennedy (John); M.T. Rogers (Mark); M.E. Porteous (Mary); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); R. Platte (Radka); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); S. Hodgson (Shirley); S.D. Ellis (Steve); T. Cole (Trevor); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); K.B.M. Claes (Kathleen B.M.); T. Van Maerken (Tom); A. Meindl (Alfons); P.A. Gehrig (Paola A.); C. Sutter (Christian); C.W. Engel (Christoph); D. Niederacher (Dieter); D. Steinemann (Doris); H. Plendl (Hansjoerg); K. Kast (Karin); K. Rhiem (Kerstin); N. Ditsch (Nina); N. Arnold (Norbert); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); B. Bressac-de Paillerets (Brigitte); B. Buecher (Bruno); C.D. Delnatte (Capucine); C. Houdayer (Claude); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); F. Damiola (Francesca); I. Coupier (Isabelle); L. Barjhoux (Laure); L. Vénat-Bouvet (Laurence); L. Golmard (Lisa); N. Boutry-Kryza (N.); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); O. Caron (Olivier); P. Pujol (Pascal); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); M. Belotti (Muriel); M. Piedmonte (Marion); M.L. Friedlander (Michael L.); G. Rodriguez (Gustavo); L.J. Copeland (Larry J.); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); P. Perez-Segura (Pedro); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); T.A.M. van Os (Theo); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); A.H. van der Hout (Annemarie); M.P. Vreeswijk (Maaike); N. Hoogerbrugqe (N.); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); H.C. van Doorn (Helena); J.M. Collée (Margriet); E. Olah; O. Díez (Orland); I. Blanco (Ignacio); C. Lazaro (Conxi); J. Brunet (Joan); L. Feliubadaló (L.); C. Cybulski (Cezary); J. Gronwald (Jacek); K. Durda (Katarzyna); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); G. Sukiennicki (Grzegorz); A. Arason (Adalgeir); J. Chiquette (Jocelyne); P.J. Teixeira; C. Olswold (Curtis); F.J. Couch (Fergus); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); X. Wang (X.); C. Szabo (Csilla); K. Offit (Kenneth); M. Corines (Marina); L. Jacobs (Lauren); M.E. Robson (Mark E.); L. Zhang (Lingling); V. Joseph (Vijai); A. Berger (Andreas); C.F. Singer (Christian); C. Rappaport (Christine); D.G. Kaulich (Daphne Gschwantler); G. Pfeiler (Georg); M.-K. Tea; C. Phelan (Catherine); M.H. Greene (Mark); P.L. Mai (Phuong); G. Rennert (Gad); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); G. Glendon (Gord); S. Tchatchou (Sandrine); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); A.E. Toland (Amanda); A. Bojesen (Anders); I.S. Pedersen (Inge Sokilde); M. Thomassen (Mads); U.B. Jensen; Y. Laitman (Yael); J. Rantala (Johanna); A. von Wachenfeldt (Anna); H. Ehrencrona (Hans); M.S. Askmalm (Marie); Å. Borg (Åke); K.B. Kuchenbaecker (Karoline); L. McGuffog (Lesley); D. Barrowdale (Daniel); S. Healey (Sue); A. Lee (Andrew); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul D.P.); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis C.); E. Friedman (Eitan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and nongenetic modifying

  7. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterlongo, Paolo; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and nongenetic modifying factors...

  8. Effect of Interventions on Potential, Modifiable Risk Factors for Knee Injury in Team Ball Sports : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Stege, Marloes H. P.; Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Knee injuries are one of the most common types of injuries in team ball sports, and prevention is crucial because of health and economic implications. To set up effective prevention programs, these programs must be designed to target potential, modifiable risk factors. In addition, it is

  9. The myth of natural barriers. Is transgene introgression by genetically modified crops an environmental risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Vincenzo; Benessia, Alice; Camino, Elena; Barbiero, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops under open field conditions are a complex and controversial issue. Ecologists are discussing about the possibility that a transgene belonging to GM plants could spread to native populations through a process known as introgression the stable incorporation of a gene in the host genome able to generate a differentiated population. The ecological consequences of a transgene introgression in plants or bacteria are not yet well understood, but could be significant. In this critical review we consider vertical and horizontal introgression. We analyse the biochemical and genetic constraints, and environmental factors that limit the possibility of transgene spread; meanwhile we show cases in which the natural barriers are overcome. Then we discuss the overall management of GM crops, noting the shortcomings and approximations of risk assessment based on linear thinking typical of the biomolecular approach. Finally we suggest to explicitly weight facts together with values and we encourage the undertaking of an ecological perspective, encompassing the complexity of (non-linear) relations between organisms and the environment.

  10. Modified Mediterranean Diet Score and Cardiovascular Risk in a North American Working Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Justin; Farioli, Andrea; Korre, Maria; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet is linked to lower risk for cardiovascular morbidity/mortality in studies of Mediterranean cohorts, older subjects, and/or those with existing health conditions. No studies have examined the effects of this dietary pattern in younger working populations in the United States. We investigated the effects of Mediterranean diet adherence on cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers, metabolic syndrome and body composition in an occupationally active, non-Mediterranean cohort. Methods A cross-sectional study in a cohort of 780 career male firefighters, ages 18 years or older, from the United States Midwest. No dietary intervention was performed. A modified Mediterranean diet score (mMDS) was developed for assessment of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern from a previously administered life-style questionnaire that examined pre-existing dietary habits. Clinical data from fire department medical examinations were extracted and analyzed. Results Obese subjects had significantly lower mMDS, and they reported greater fast/take-out food consumption (pMediterranean-style dietary pattern had significant inverse associations with metabolic syndrome, LDL-cholesterol and reported weight gain, and was significantly and independently associated with higher HDL-cholesterol. Our results support the potential effectiveness of this diet in young, non-Mediterranean working cohorts, and justify future intervention studies. PMID:24503596

  11. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  12. Establishing a risk-assessment process for release of genetically modified wine yeast into the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, Heidi; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Botha, Alfred; van Rensburg, Pierre; Pretorius, Isak S

    2009-08-01

    The use and release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is an issue of intense public concern and, in the case of food and beverages, products containing GMOs or products thereof carry the risk of consumer rejection. The recent commercialization of 2 GM wine yeasts in the United States and Canada has made research and development of risk assessments for GM microorganisms a priority. The purpose of this study was to take a first step in establishing a risk-assessment process for future use and potential release of GM wine yeasts into the environment. The behaviour and spread of a GM wine yeast was monitored in saturated sand columns, saturated sand flow cells, and conventional flow cells. A widely used commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast, VIN13, a VIN13 transgenic strain (LKA1, which carries the LKA1 alpha-amylase gene of Lipomyces kononenkoae), a soil bacterium (Dyadobacter fermentens), and a nonwine soil-borne yeast (Cryptococcus laurentii) were compared in laboratory-scale microcosm systems designed to monitor microbial mobility behaviour, survival, and attachment to surfaces. It was found that LKA1 cells survived in saturated sand columns, but showed little mobility in the porous matrix, suggesting that the cells attached with high efficiency to sand. There was no significant difference between the mobility patterns of LKA1 and VIN13. All 3 yeasts (VIN13, LKA1, and C. laurentii) were shown to form stable biofilms; the 2 S. cerevisiae strains either had no difference in biofilm density or the LKA1 biofilm was less dense than that of VIN13. When co-inoculated with C. laurentii, LKA1 had no negative influence on the breakthrough of the Cryptococcus yeast in a sand column or on its ability to form biofilms. In addition, LKA1 did not successfully integrate into a stable mixed-biofilm community, nor did it disrupt the biofilm community. Overall, it was concluded that the LKA1 transgenic yeast had the same reproductive success as VIN13 in these 3

  13. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlongo, Paolo; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Rudolph, Anja; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Hamann, Ute; Wilkening, Stefan; Chen, Bowang; Rookus, Matti A.; Schmidt, Marjanka K; van der Baan, Frederieke H.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Walker, Logan C.; Lose, Felicity; Maia, Ana-Teresa; Montagna, Marco; Matricardi, Laura; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Arun, Banu K.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Orsulic, Sandra; Lester, Jenny; Chung, Wendy K.; Miron, Alex; Southey, Melissa C.; Goldgar, David E.; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jønson, Lars; Osorio, Ana; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Benitez, Javier; Conway, Edye E.; Blazer, Kathleen R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Barile, Monica; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Mariette, Frederique; Fortuzzi, Stefano; Viel, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Papi, Laura; Martayan, Aline; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Radice, Paolo; Vratimos, Athanassios; Fostira, Florentia; Garber, Judy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D. Gareth R.; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Brady, Angela; Cook, Jackie; Tischkowitz, Marc; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E.; Kennedy, M. John; Rogers, Mark T.; Porteous, Mary E.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Platte, Radka; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Ellis, Steve; Cole, Trevor; Godwin, Andrew K.; Claes, Kathleen; Van Maerken, Tom; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Buecher, Bruno; Delnatte, Capucine; Houdayer, Claude; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Damiola, Francesca; Coupier, Isabelle; Barjhoux, Laure; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Golmard, Lisa; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Caron, Olivier; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Belotti, Muriel; Piedmonte, Marion; Friedlander, Michael L.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Copeland, Larry J; de la Hoya, Miguel; Segura, Pedro Perez; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; van Os, Theo A.M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.G.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; van Doorn, Helena C.; Collée, J. Margriet; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Arason, Adalgeir; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Olswold, Curtis; Couch, Fergus J.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Wang, Xianshu; Szabo, Csilla I.; Offit, Kenneth; Corines, Marina; Jacobs, Lauren; Robson, Mark E.; Zhang, Liying; Joseph, Vijai; Berger, Andreas; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng M.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Rennert, Gad; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Andrulis, Irene L.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Laitman, Yael; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Borg, Åke; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Friedman, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Background BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and non-genetic modifying factors. In this study we evaluated the putative role of variants in many candidate modifier genes. Methods Genotyping data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers, for known variants (n=3,248) located within or around 445 candidate genes, were available through the iCOGS custom-designed array. Breast and ovarian cancer association analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort approach. Results The observed p-values of association ranged between 0.005-1.000. None of the variants was significantly associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, after multiple testing adjustments. Conclusion There is little evidence that any of the evaluated candidate variants act as modifiers of breast and/or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact Genome-wide association studies have been more successful at identifying genetic modifiers of BRCA1/2 penetrance than candidate gene studies. PMID:25336561

  14. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlongo, Paolo; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B; Rudolph, Anja; Schmutzler, Rita K; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Eeles, Rosalind A; Easton, Douglas F; Hamann, Ute; Wilkening, Stefan; Chen, Bowang; Rookus, Matti A; Schmidt, Marjanka K; van der Baan, Frederieke H; Spurdle, Amanda B; Walker, Logan C; Lose, Felicity; Maia, Ana-Teresa; Montagna, Marco; Matricardi, Laura; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Nussbaum, Robert L; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Arun, Banu K; Karlan, Beth Y; Orsulic, Sandra; Lester, Jenny; Chung, Wendy K; Miron, Alex; Southey, Melissa C; Goldgar, David E; Buys, Saundra S; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Ding, Yuan Chun; Neuhausen, Susan L; Hansen, Thomas V O; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jønson, Lars; Osorio, Ana; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Benitez, Javier; Conway, Edye E; Blazer, Kathleen R; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Barile, Monica; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Mariette, Frederique; Fortuzzi, Stefano; Viel, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Papi, Laura; Martayan, Aline; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Radice, Paolo; Vratimos, Athanassios; Fostira, Florentia; Garber, Judy E; Donaldson, Alan; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D Gareth R; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Brady, Angela; Cook, Jackie; Tischkowitz, Marc; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E; Kennedy, M John; Rogers, Mark T; Porteous, Mary E; Morrison, Patrick J; Platte, Radka; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley V; Ellis, Steve; Cole, Trevor; Godwin, Andrew K; Claes, Kathleen; Van Maerken, Tom; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Buecher, Bruno; Delnatte, Capucine; Houdayer, Claude; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Damiola, Francesca; Coupier, Isabelle; Barjhoux, Laure; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Golmard, Lisa; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Caron, Olivier; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Belotti, Muriel; Piedmonte, Marion; Friedlander, Michael L; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Copeland, Larry J; de la Hoya, Miguel; Segura, Pedro Perez; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; van Os, Theo A M; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; van der Hout, Annemarie H; Vreeswijk, Maaike P G; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet G E M; van Doorn, Helena C; Collée, J Margriet; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Arason, Adalgeir; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Teixeira, Manuel R; Olswold, Curtis; Couch, Fergus J; Lindor, Noralane M; Wang, Xianshu; Szabo, Csilla I; Offit, Kenneth; Corines, Marina; Jacobs, Lauren; Robson, Mark E; Zhang, Liying; Joseph, Vijai; Berger, Andreas; Singer, Christian F; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng M; Phelan, Catherine M; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Rennert, Gad; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Andrulis, Irene L; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Laitman, Yael; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Borg, Åke; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D P; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Friedman, Eitan

    2015-01-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and nongenetic modifying factors. In this study, we evaluated the putative role of variants in many candidate modifier genes. Genotyping data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers, for known variants (n = 3,248) located within or around 445 candidate genes, were available through the iCOGS custom-designed array. Breast and ovarian cancer association analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort approach. The observed P values of association ranged between 0.005 and 1.000. None of the variants was significantly associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, after multiple testing adjustments. There is little evidence that any of the evaluated candidate variants act as modifiers of breast and/or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genome-wide association studies have been more successful at identifying genetic modifiers of BRCA1/2 penetrance than candidate gene studies. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours: Correlation of modified NIH risk stratification with diffusion-weighted MR imaging as an imaging biomarker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Kim, Seong Hyun; Jang, Kyung Mi; Choi, Dongil; Ha, Sang Yun; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Min Ji

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Except size and necrosis, conventional MR findings of GISTs were not significantly different according to the modified NIH criteria. • The ADC values of GISTs were negatively correlated with the modified NIH criteria. • The ADC value can be helpful for the determination of intermediate or high-risk GISTs. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the correlation of risk grade of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) based on modified National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria with conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging. Methods: We included 22 patients with histopathologically proven GISTs in the stomach or small bowel who underwent pre-operative gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging and DW imaging. We retrospectively assessed correlations between morphologic findings, qualitative (signal intensity, consensus from two observers) and quantitative (degree of dynamic enhancement using signal intensity of tumour/muscle ratio and apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]) values, and the modified NIH criteria for risk stratification. Spearman partial correlation analysis was used to control for tumour size as a confounding factor. The optimal cut-off level of ADC values for intermediate or high risk GISTs was analyzed using a receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Except tumour size and necrosis, conventional MR imaging findings, including the degree of dynamic enhancement, were not significantly different according to the modified NIH criteria (p > 0.05). Tumour ADC values were negatively correlated with the modified NIH criteria, before and after adjustment of tumour size (ρ = −0.754; p < 0.001 and ρ = −0.513; p = 0.017, respectively). The optimal cut-off value for the determination of intermediate or high-risk GISTs was 1.279 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s (100% sensitivity, 69.2% specificity, 81.8% accuracy). Conclusion: Except tumour size and necrosis, conventional MR imaging findings did not correlate with

  16. DNA barcoding simplifies environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops in biodiverse regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzeduru, Chinyere V; Ronca, Sandra; Wilkinson, Mike J

    2012-01-01

    Transgenes encoding for insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis have been widely introduced into Genetically Modified (GM) crops to confer protection against insect pests. Concern that these transgenes may also harm beneficial or otherwise valued insects (so-called Non Target Organisms, NTOs) represents a major element of the Environmental Risk Assessments (ERAs) used by all countries prior to commercial release. Compiling a comprehensive list of potentially susceptible NTOs is therefore a necessary part of an ERA for any Cry toxin-containing GM crop. In partly-characterised and biodiverse countries, NTO identification is slowed by the need for taxonomic expertise and time to enable morphological identifications. This limitation represents a potentially serious barrier to timely adoption of GM technology in some developing countries. We consider Bt Cry1A cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Nigeria as an exemplar to demonstrate how COI barcoding can provide a simple and cost-effective means of addressing this problem. Over a period of eight weeks, we collected 163 insects from cowpea flowers across the agroecological and geographic range of the crop in Nigeria. These individuals included 32 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) spanning four Orders and that could mostly be assigned to genus or species level. They included 12 Lepidopterans and two Coleopterans (both potentially sensitive to different groups of Cry proteins). Thus, barcode-assisted diagnoses were highly harmonised across groups (typically to genus or species level) and so were insensitive to expertise or knowledge gaps. Decisively, the entire study was completed within four months at a cost of less than 10,000 US$. The broader implications of the findings for food security and the capacity for safe adoption of GM technology are briefly explored.

  17. DNA barcoding simplifies environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops in biodiverse regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinyere V Nzeduru

    Full Text Available Transgenes encoding for insecticidal crystal (Cry proteins from the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis have been widely introduced into Genetically Modified (GM crops to confer protection against insect pests. Concern that these transgenes may also harm beneficial or otherwise valued insects (so-called Non Target Organisms, NTOs represents a major element of the Environmental Risk Assessments (ERAs used by all countries prior to commercial release. Compiling a comprehensive list of potentially susceptible NTOs is therefore a necessary part of an ERA for any Cry toxin-containing GM crop. In partly-characterised and biodiverse countries, NTO identification is slowed by the need for taxonomic expertise and time to enable morphological identifications. This limitation represents a potentially serious barrier to timely adoption of GM technology in some developing countries. We consider Bt Cry1A cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in Nigeria as an exemplar to demonstrate how COI barcoding can provide a simple and cost-effective means of addressing this problem. Over a period of eight weeks, we collected 163 insects from cowpea flowers across the agroecological and geographic range of the crop in Nigeria. These individuals included 32 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs spanning four Orders and that could mostly be assigned to genus or species level. They included 12 Lepidopterans and two Coleopterans (both potentially sensitive to different groups of Cry proteins. Thus, barcode-assisted diagnoses were highly harmonised across groups (typically to genus or species level and so were insensitive to expertise or knowledge gaps. Decisively, the entire study was completed within four months at a cost of less than 10,000 US$. The broader implications of the findings for food security and the capacity for safe adoption of GM technology are briefly explored.

  18. Biosafety risk assessment approaches for insect-resistant genetically modified crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaam Ullah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental risk assessment (ERA is imperative for commercial release of insect resistant, genetically modified crops (IR-GMCs.An insect specific, spider venom peptideω-HXTX-Hv1a (Hvt was successfully expressed in cotton plants. The cotton plants producing Hvt protein have demonstrated resistance against economically important insect pest species. The study was performed to assess the effects of Hvt producing cotton plants on Honey bees (Apis mellifera. Methods: Three approaches were used to evaluate the effects of Hvt protein on adults of honeybees; whole plant assays in flight cages, in vitro assays with pollen of Hvt-cotton, and assays with elevated levels of purified Hvt protein. Pollens of Bt cotton or purified Bt proteins were used as control. Results: The field experiments did not yield any meaningful data due to high rate of mortality in all treatments including the control. However, the laboratory experiments provided conclusive results in which Hvt, purified or in pollens, did not affect the survival or longevity of the bees compared to the control. During the course of study we were able to compare the quality, effectiveness and economics of different experiments. Conclusions: We conclude that Hvt either purified or produced in cotton plants do not affect the survival or longevity of honey bees. We are also of the view that starting at laboratory level assays not only gives meaningful data but also saves a lot of time and money that can be spent on other important questions regarding safety of a particular transgenic crop. Hence, a purpose-based, tiered approach could be the best choice for pre-release ERA of IR-GMCs.

  19. Intronic TP53 Germline Sequence Variants Modify the Risk in German Breast/Ovarian Cancer Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xuan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To establish the contribution of TP53 germline mutations to familial breast/ovarian cancer in Germany we screened the complete coding region of the TP53 gene in a series of German breast/ovarian cancer families negative for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Two different intronic TP53 sequence variants were identified in 6/48 (12.5% breast/ovarian cancer families. A novel A to T nucleotide change at position 17708 in intron 10 segregating with the disease was detected in three breast cancer families (6.2%. One 17708 A>T-associated breast tumour showed loss of the wild-type allele. This variant was also found in 5/112 (4.5% healthy controls indicating that it is a polymorphism. A second sequence variant changing a G to C at position 13964 in intron 6 not segregating with the disease was found in two breast cancer families and one breast-ovarian cancer family (6.2%. This variant has previously been shown to occur at an elevated frequency in hereditary breast cancer patients from North America and to be of functional importance leading to inhibition of apoptosis and prolongation of cell survival after DNA-damage. Screening of 185 consecutive unselected German breast cancer patients revealed the 13964 G>C variant in four patients (2.2%. Immunohistochemical analysis of the TP53 protein showed negative immunoreactivity in normal and tumour tissues of one 17708 A>T and six 13964 G>C carriers. TP53 overexpression was detected in the tumour tissue of one sporadic breast cancer patient carrying the 13964 G>C variant. Our results show that intronic changes of the TP53 gene may act as or be associated with risk modifiers in familial breast cancer.

  20. Assessing genetically modified crops to minimize the risk of increased food allergy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard E; Hefle, Susan L; Taylor, Steven L; van Ree, Ronald

    2005-06-01

    The first genetically modified (GM) crops approved for food use (tomato and soybean) were evaluated for safety by the United States Food and Drug Administration prior to commercial production. Among other factors, those products and all additional GM crops that have been grown commercially have been evaluated for potential increases in allergenic properties using methods that are consistent with the current understanding of food allergens and knowledge regarding the prediction of allergenic activity. Although there have been refinements, the key aspects of the evaluation have not changed. The allergenic properties of the gene donor and the host (recipient) organisms are considered in determining the appropriate testing strategy. The amino acid sequence of the encoded protein is compared to all known allergens to determine whether the protein is a known allergen or is sufficiently similar to any known allergen to indicate an increased probability of allergic cross-reactivity. Stability of the protein in the presence of acid with the stomach protease pepsin is tested as a risk factor for food allergenicity. In vitro or in vivo human IgE binding are tested when appropriate, if the gene donor is an allergen or the sequence of the protein is similar to an allergen. Serum donors and skin test subjects are selected based on their proven allergic responses to the gene donor or to material containing the allergen that was matched in sequence. While some scientists and regulators have suggested using animal models, performing broadly targeted serum IgE testing or extensive pre- or post-market clinical tests, current evidence does not support these tests as being predictive or practical. Based on the evidence to date, the current assessment process has worked well to prevent the unintended introduction of allergens in commercial GM crops.

  1. Effect of Modifiable Risk Factors on Preterm Birth: A Population Based-Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Candice S; Ehrlich, Shelley; Iams, Jay D; Muglia, Louis J; DeFranco, Emily A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, impact, and interaction of short interpregnancy interval (IPI), pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, and pregnancy weight gain (PWG) on the rate of preterm birth. Methods This is a population-based retrospective cohort study using vital statistics birth records from 2006 to 2011 in OH, US, analyzing singleton live births to multiparous mothers with recorded IPI (n = 393,441). Preterm birth rate at preterm birth rate of 7.6 % for this group. Short IPIs of preterm birth rate to 12.9 and 10.4 %, respectively. Low PWG compared to IOM recommendations for pre-pregnancy BMI class was also associated with increased preterm birth rate of 13.2 % for all BMI classes combined. However, the highest rate of preterm birth of 25.2 % occurred in underweight women with short IPI and inadequate weight gain with adj OR 3.44 (95 % CI 2.80, 4.23). The fraction of preterm births observed in this cohort that can be attributed to short IPIs is 5.9 %, long IPIs is 8.3 %, inadequate PWG is 7.5 %, and low pre-pregnancy BMI is 2.2 %. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that a significant proportion of preterm births in Ohio are associated with potentially modifiable risk factors. These data suggest public health initiatives focused on preterm birth prevention could include counseling and interventions to optimize preconception health and prenatal nutrition.

  2. Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzakas, Theodoros H; Chryssochoidis, G; Argyropoulos, D

    2007-04-01

    Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher demand for non-GM products and these products could be differentiated from GM products using the identity preservation system (IP) that could apply throughout the grain processing system. IP is the creation of a transparent communication system that encompasses HACCP, traceability and related systems in the supply chain. This process guarantees that certain characteristics of the lots of food (non-GM origin) are maintained "from farm to fork". This article examines the steps taken by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority to examine the presence of GMOs in foods. The whole integrated European legislation framework currently in place still needs to be implemented in Greece. Penalties should be enforced to those who import, process GMOs without special licence and do not label those products. Similar penalties should be enforced to those companies that issue false certificates beyond the liabilities taken by the food enterprises for farmers' compensation. We argue that Greece has no serious reasons to choose the use of GMOs due to the fact that the structural and pedologic characteristics of the Greek agriculture favour the biological and integrated cultivation more. Greece is not in favour of the politics behind coexistence of conventional and GM plants and objects to the use of GMOs in the food and the environment because the processor has a big burden in terms of money, time and will suffer a great deal in order to prove that their products are GMO free or that any contamination is adventitious or technically unavoidable. Moreover, Greece owns a large variety of genetic

  3. Assessing the prevalence of modifiable risk factors in older patients visiting an ED due to a fall using the CAREFALL Triage Instrument.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, R.C. van; Dijk, N. van; Breda, F.G. van; Scheffer, A.C.; Korevaar, J.C.; Cammen, T.J. van der; Lips, P.; Goslings, J.C.; Rooij, S.E. de

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Falls in older people are a common presenting complaint. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors may lead to a more tailored approach to prevent recurrent falls and/or fractures. We investigated prevalence of 8 modifiable risk factors for recurrent falling and/or a serious consequence of the

  4. Assessing the prevalence of modifiable risk factors in older patients visiting an ED due to a fall using the CAREFALL Triage Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuizen, R.C.; van Dijk, N.; van Breda, F.G.; Scheffer, A.C.; Korevaar, J.C.; van der Cammen, T.J.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Goslings, J.C.; Rooij, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Falls in older people are a common presenting complaint. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors may lead to a more tailored approach to prevent recurrent falls and/or fractures. We investigated prevalence of 8 modifiable risk factors for recurrent falling and/or a serious consequence of the

  5. Effect of 9p21 genetic variation on coronary heart disease is not modified by other risk markers. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, Aaron R; Nambi, Vijay; Pankow, James S; Tang, Weihong; Farbakhsh, Kian; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether the 9p21 SNP association with coronary heart disease is modified by other classical or novel risk markers. The 9p21 SNP (rs10757274) and multiple risk markers were measured in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, and incident coronary disease events were ascertained. Effect modification (interaction) of the 9p21 SNP with risk markers was tested in Cox proportional hazard regression models. The incidence rates of coronary heart disease per 1000 person-years were 14.4, 17.0, and 18.7 for AA, AG, and GG genotypes, yielding hazard ratios of 1.0, 1.20 (95% CI = 1.07-1.36), and 1.34 (95% CI = 1.16-1.53). There was no meaningful evidence of an interaction (all p-interaction > 0.04) between 9p21 SNP and any of 14 other risk markers for coronary heart disease. These included novel markers not previously explored for 9p21 interaction (e.g., cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide). Our study extends evidence that the 9p21 SNP association with coronary heart disease is not modified by classical or novel risk markers. Our findings therefore rule out additional plausible pathways by which 9p21 might have increased coronary heart disease risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Application of negative binomial regression and modified Poisson regression in the research of risk factors for injury frequency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qingqing; Wu, Zhenqiang; Sun, Ying; Wang, Tiezhu; Han, Tengwei; Gu, Chaomei; Sun, Yehuan

    2011-11-01

    To Eexplore the application of negative binomial regression and modified Poisson regression analysis in analyzing the influential factors for injury frequency and the risk factors leading to the increase of injury frequency. 2917 primary and secondary school students were selected from Hefei by cluster random sampling method and surveyed by questionnaire. The data on the count event-based injuries used to fitted modified Poisson regression and negative binomial regression model. The risk factors incurring the increase of unintentional injury frequency for juvenile students was explored, so as to probe the efficiency of these two models in studying the influential factors for injury frequency. The Poisson model existed over-dispersion (P binomial regression model, was fitted better. respectively. Both showed that male gender, younger age, father working outside of the hometown, the level of the guardian being above junior high school and smoking might be the results of higher injury frequencies. On a tendency of clustered frequency data on injury event, both the modified Poisson regression analysis and negative binomial regression analysis can be used. However, based on our data, the modified Poisson regression fitted better and this model could give a more accurate interpretation of relevant factors affecting the frequency of injury.

  7. Identification of a BRCA2-specific modifier locus at 6p24 related to breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaudet, Mia M; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Vijai, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    susceptibility alleles in these BRCA2 mutation carriers and for several regions (including FGFR2, MAP3K1, CDKN2A/B, and PTHLH) identified SNPs that have stronger evidence of association than those previously published. We also identified a novel susceptibility allele at 6p24 that was inversely associated......Common genetic variants contribute to the observed variation in breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers; those known to date have all been found through population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To comprehensively identify breast cancer risk modifying loci for BRCA2 mutation...... of a multi-consortial project. DNA samples from 3,881 breast cancer affected and 4,330 unaffected BRCA2 mutation carriers from 47 studies belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 were genotyped and available for analysis. We replicated previously reported breast cancer...

  8. Nucleotide excision repair polymorphisms may modify ionizing radiation-related breast cancer risk in US radiologic technologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaraman, Preetha; Bhatti, Parveen; Doody, Michele Morin; Simon, Steven L.; Weinstock, Robert M.; Linet, Martha S.; Rosenstein, Marvin; Stovall, Marilyn; Alexander, Bruce H.; Preston, Dale L.; Sigurdson, Alice J.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation has been consistently associated with increased risk of female breast cancer. Although the majority of DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation is corrected by the base-excision repair pathway, certain types of multiple-base damage can only be repaired through the nucleotide excision repair pathway. In a nested case–control study of breast cancer in US radiologic technologists exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation (858 cases, 1,083 controls), we examined whether risk of breast cancer conferred by radiation was modified by nucleotide excision gene polymorphisms ERCC2 (XPD) rs13181, ERCC4 (XPF) rs1800067 and rs1800124, ERCC5 (XPG) rs1047769 and rs17655; and ERCC6 rs2228526. Of the 6 ERCC variants examined, only ERCC5 rs17655 showed a borderline main effect association with breast cancer risk (ORGC = 1.1, ORCC = 1.3; p-trend = 0.08), with some indication that individuals carrying the C allele variant were more susceptible to the effects of occupational radiation (EOR/GyGG = 1.0, 95% CI = <0, 6.0; EOR/GyGC/CC = 5.9, 95% CI = 0.9, 14.4; phet = 0.10). ERCC2 rs13181, although not associated with breast cancer risk overall, statistically significantly modified the effect of occupational radiation dose on risk of breast cancer (EOR/GyAA = 9.1, 95% CI = 2.1–21.3; EOR/GyAC/CC = 0.6, 95% CI = <0, 4.6; phet = 0.01). These results suggest that common variants in nucleotide excision repair genes may modify the association between occupational radiation exposure and breast cancer risk. PMID:18767034

  9. Aurora-A as a Modifier of Breast Cancer Risk in BRCA 1/2 Mutation Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Brigitte Bressac- de -Paillerets, Véronique Byrde, Corinne Capoulade, Gilbert Lenoir , Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France; Yves-Jean Bignon, Nancy...regulation of the G2 to M phase transition in the cell cycle . In addition, it has been shown that both proteins are localized to the centrosome and...Chenevix-Trench G, Milne RL, Antoniou AC, Couch FJ, Easton DF, Goldgar DE ; CIMBA. An international initiative to identify genetic modifiers of cancer risk

  10. Factors modifying the risk of lung cancer associated to radon in the french cohort of uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacquier, B.; Rogel, A.; Laurier, D.; Caer, S.; Acker, A.

    2008-01-01

    The radon is classified lung carcinogen for man, but questions stay about the effects for low doses irradiation.The results of the analysis radon-lung cancer and the factors modifying on this relationship in the French cohort of miners followed until to 1999 is reported. This analysis confirms that the risk lung cancer is different according the period of exposure. A best precision in the measurement of exposure after 1956 could explain this difference. (N.C.)

  11. Modifying Resilience Mechanisms in At-Risk Individuals: A Controlled Study of Mindfulness Training in Marines Preparing for Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    NAS, Segal ZV, Mayberg H, Bean J, McKeon D, Fatima Z, Anderson AK: Attending to the present: mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of...Article Modifying Resilience Mechanisms in At-Risk Individuals: A Controlled Study of Mindfulness Training in Marines Preparing for Deployment...and mental health. Few studies have examinedwhether interventions prior to deployment can improvemechanisms underlying resilience. Mindfulness -based

  12. U.S. Adult Interest in Less Harmful and Less Addictive Hypothetical Modified Risk Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Erin Keely; Persoskie, Alexander; Parascandola, Mark; Hoffman, Allison C

    2017-09-28

    Tobacco companies have a history of making health claims about their new products. Such claims are now regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. We examined consumer interest in hypothetical modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) among current, former and never established smokers, and examined whether interest was associated with beliefs about tobacco and cancer. Data were analyzed from the U.S. nationally representative 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS-FDA 2015; N = 3,738). Interest in hypothetical MRTPs was assessed by asking participants their likelihood of using tobacco products claiming to be less addictive and less harmful than other products. About half of current smokers and a tenth of both former and never smokers reported they were "somewhat" or "very" likely to try hypothetical MRTPs claiming to be less harmful or less addictive. Female smokers, former smokers with lower smoking harm perceptions, and never smokers who are young adults or without college education expressed more interest in these products. Interest in using these products was positively associated with believing that smoking status is a changeable individual characteristic and that it is possible for tobacco products to be made without some harmful chemicals. We identified several subgroups of current, former, and never smokers who may be particularly affected by the marketing of MRTPs and therefore important to study to inform models of the potential population health impact of authorizing the marketing of MRTPs. Findings about interest in hypothetical MRTPs can inform models of how the marketing of MRTPs could affect population health. Understanding which subgroups are particularly interested in MRTPs can help determine who might be important to study to inform these models. We identified several groups who may warrant specific attention: smokers who are female, former smokers who hold low harm perceptions of smoking, never smokers who are young adults or

  13. Genetic mapping in mice identifies DMBT1 as a candidate modifier of mammary tumors and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Anneke C; Hill, Linda Z; Roberts, Amy L

    2007-01-01

    Low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility alleles seem to play a significant role in breast cancer risk but are difficult to identify in human cohorts. A genetic screen of 176 N2 backcross progeny of two Trp53(+/-) strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6, which differ in their susceptibility to mammary...... tumors, identified a modifier of mammary tumor susceptibility in an approximately 25-Mb interval on mouse chromosome 7 (designated SuprMam1). Relative to heterozygotes, homozygosity for BALB/c alleles of SuprMam1 significantly decreased mammary tumor latency from 70.7 to 61.1 weeks and increased risk...

  14. A public health approach to the impact of climate change on health in southern Africa - identifying priority modifiable risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J; Young, T; Galloway, M; Manyike, P; Tucker, T

    2011-11-01

    Anthropogenic climate change and anticipated adverse impacts on human health as outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are taken as given. A conceptual model for thinking about the spectrum of climate-related health risks ranging from distal and infrastructural to proximal and behavioural and their relation to the burden of disease pattern typical of sub-Saharan Africa is provided. The model provides a tool for identifying modifiable risk factors with a view to future research, specifically into the performance of interventions to reduce the impact of climate change.

  15. Prison environment and non-communicable chronic disease modifiable risk factors: length of incarceration trend analysis in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman-Retana, Omar; Servan-Mori, Edson; Bertozzi, Stefano Michele; Orozco-Nuñez, Emanuel; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy

    2018-04-01

    There is a lack of evidence regarding chronic disease modifiable risk factors among prisoner populations in Latin America. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases and to assess their relationship with length of incarceration. We analysed data from a cross sectional study in which 4241 prisoners were randomly selected to answer a questionnaire with socio-demographic and health behaviour content using an audio computer-assisted self-interview format. Physical activity (PA), low-quality diet, current smoking and alcohol or cocaine use during the last month in prison were our main outcomes. Quantile regression models and logistic regression models were performed. Our final analytical sample consisted of 3774 prisoners from four Mexico City prisons. PA was estimated as 579 median metabolic equivalents-min/week, prevalence of alcohol use was 23.4%, cocaine use was 24.2% and current smoking was 53.2%. Our results suggest that, as length of incarceration increased, PA as well as alcohol and cocaine use increased, whereas the quality of diet decreased. This study supports the hypothesis that exposure to prison environment (measured by length of incarceration) fosters modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases, particularly diet quality and cocaine use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Genetic Factors Interact With Tobacco Smoke to Modify Risk for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Humans and Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yadav, Pankaj; Ellinghaus, David; Rémy, Gaëlle

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of tobacco smoke in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unclear. We investigated interactions between genes and smoking (gene-smoking interactions) that affect risk for Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in a case-only study of patients......) to SNPs previously associated with IBD; many were located near or within genes that regulate mucosal barrier function and immune tolerance. Smoking modified the disease risk of some variants in opposite directions for CD vs UC. Exposure of Interleukin 10 (il10)-deficient mice to cigarette smoke...... smoking in relation to the risk for CD (frameshift variant fs1007insC; rs5743293). We identified 2 variants in the same genomic region (rs2270368 and rs17221417) that interact with smoking in relation to CD risk. Approximately 45% of the SNPs that interact with smoking were in close vicinity (≤1 Mb...

  17. Assessment of metal contamination in estuarine surface sediments from Dongying City, China: Use of a modified ecological risk index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qunqun; Wang, Feifei; Meng, Fanping; Jiang, Lei; Li, Guangjing; Zhou, Rongguang

    2018-01-01

    Surface sediments and clam Meretrix meretrix were collected from a northern estuarine region in Dongying City, China. Sediments were analysed for heavy metals (Hg, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and the clams were tested for metallothioneins (MTs) and lysosomal membrane stability (LMS). The heavy metal total concentrations decreased in the order of Cr>Zn>Cu>Pb>As>Cd>Hg. The results of Bureau Communautaire de Référence (BCR) sequential extraction of heavy metals showed that the geochemical speciation of all heavy metals was dominated by residual fraction. According to the responses of biomarkers in M. meretrix, the modified potential ecological risk index (PERI-B) can more accurately reflect heavy metals pollution. PERI-B showed all sediment samples have low or moderate risk, except at site S10 (considerable risk), and the main contribution of ecological risk heavy metals were Cd and Hg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modifiable Risk Factors for Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; De Rekeneire, Nathalie; Allore, Heather; Chen, Shu; O’Leary, John R.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Newman, Anne B.; Yende, Sachin; Weyant, Robert J.; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Quagliarello, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Background Pneumonia requiring hospitalization remains a major public health problem among community-dwelling older adults. Impaired oral hygiene is a modifiable risk factor for healthcare-associated pneumonia, but its role in community-acquired pneumonia is unclear. Objectives To identify novel modifiable risk factors, focusing on oral hygiene, for pneumonia requiring hospitalization among community-dwelling older adults. Design Prospective observational cohort study Setting Memphis, Tennessee and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Participants Of 3075 well-functioning community-dwelling adults aged 70–79 years enrolled in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study from 1997–1998, 1441 had complete data, dental exam within six months of baseline, and were eligible for this study. Measurements The primary outcome was pneumonia requiring hospitalization through 2008. Results Of 1441 participants, 193 were hospitalized for pneumonia. In a multivariable model, male gender (HR 2.07, 95%CI 1.51–2.83), white race (HR 1.44, 95%CI 1.03–2.01), history of pneumonia (HR 3.09, 95%CI 1.86–5.14), pack-years of smoking (HR 1.006, 95%CI 1.001–1.011), and percent predicted FEV1 (moderate vs. mild/normal lung function [HR 1.78, 95%CI 1.28–2.48], severe vs. mild/normal lung function [HR 2.90, 95%CI 1.51–5.57]) were non-modifiable risk factors for pneumonia. Incident mobility limitation (HR 1.77, 95%CI 1.32–2.38) and higher mean oral plaque score (HR 1.29, 95%CI 1.02–1.64) were modifiable risk factors for pneumonia. Average Attributable Fractions revealed that 11.5% of pneumonias were attributed to incident mobility limitation and 10.3% to mean oral plaque score ≥1. Conclusion Incident mobility limitation and higher mean oral plaque score were two modifiable risk factors attributable for 22% of pneumonias requiring hospitalization. These data suggest innovative opportunities for pneumonia prevention among community-dwelling older adults. PMID:23772872

  19. Comparative environmental impact assessment of herbicides used on genetically modified and non-genetically modified herbicide-tolerant canola crops using two risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Danielle P; Kookana, Rai S; Miller, Rosalind B; Correll, Raymond L

    2016-07-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is the third largest field crop in Australia by area sown. Genetically modified (GM) and non-GM canola varieties released or being developed in Australia include Clearfield® (imidazolinone tolerant), TT (triazine tolerant), InVigor® (glufosinate-ammonium tolerant), Roundup Ready® - RR® (glyphosate tolerant) and Hyola® RT® (tolerant to both glyphosate and triazine). We used two risk assessment approaches - the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) and the Pesticide Impact Rating Index (PIRI) - to compare the environmental risks associated with herbicides used in the canola varieties (GM and non-GM) that are currently grown or may be grown in the future. Risk assessments found that from an environmental impact viewpoint a number of herbicides used in the production of TT canola showed high relative risk in terms of mobility and ecotoxicity of herbicides. The EIQ field use rating values for atrazine and simazine in particular were high compared with those for glyphosate and trifluralin. Imazapic and imazapyr, which are only used in Clearfield® canola, had extremely low EIQ field use rating values, likely reflecting the very low application rates used for these chemicals (0.02 to 0.04kg/ha) compared with those used for atrazine and simazine (1.2 to 1.5kg/ha). The PIRI assessment showed that irrespective of the canola variety grown, trifluralin posed a high toxicity risk to fish (Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), algae and Daphnia sp. While the replacement of trifluralin with propyzamide had little effect on the mobility score, it greatly decreased the ecotoxicity score to fish, algae and Daphnia sp. due to the lower LC50 values for propyzamide compared with trifluralin. This study has shown that based on likelihood of off-site transport of herbicides in surface water and potential toxicity to non-target organisms, the GM canola varieties have no advantage over non-herbicide tolerant (non HT) or Clearfield® canola. Crown Copyright

  20. Assessment of groundwater contamination risk using hazard quantification, a modified DRASTIC model and groundwater value, Beijing Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; He, Jiangtao; Chen, Honghan

    2012-08-15

    Groundwater contamination risk assessment is an effective tool for groundwater management. Most existing risk assessment methods only consider the basic contamination process based upon evaluations of hazards and aquifer vulnerability. In view of groundwater exploitation potentiality, including the value of contamination-threatened groundwater could provide relatively objective and targeted results to aid in decision making. This study describes a groundwater contamination risk assessment method that integrates hazards, intrinsic vulnerability and groundwater value. The hazard harmfulness was evaluated by quantifying contaminant properties and infiltrating contaminant load, the intrinsic aquifer vulnerability was evaluated using a modified DRASTIC model and the groundwater value was evaluated based on groundwater quality and aquifer storage. Two groundwater contamination risk maps were produced by combining the above factors: a basic risk map and a value-weighted risk map. The basic risk map was produced by overlaying the hazard map and the intrinsic vulnerability map. The value-weighted risk map was produced by overlaying the basic risk map and the groundwater value map. Relevant validation was completed by contaminant distributions and site investigation. Using Beijing Plain, China, as an example, thematic maps of the three factors and the two risks were generated. The thematic maps suggested that landfills, gas stations and oil depots, and industrial areas were the most harmful potential contamination sources. The western and northern parts of the plain were the most vulnerable areas and had the highest groundwater value. Additionally, both the basic and value-weighted risk classes in the western and northern parts of the plain were the highest, indicating that these regions should deserve the priority of concern. Thematic maps should be updated regularly because of the dynamic characteristics of hazards. Subjectivity and validation means in assessing the

  1. Modifiable life style associated risk factors for non communicable diseases among students of pre-university college of Udupi taluk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shradha S Parsekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Non-communicable diseases are diseases of longer period and are increasing. This study was intended to find out the proportion of adolescents having modifiable life style associated risk factors. Materials and methods A cross sectional study was carried out in 15 pre-university colleges (PUC of Udupi taluk, which were randomly selected, a class from each PUC was randomly chosen. WHO stepwise approach was used to collect data. A total of 838 adolescents in the age group 15 to 19 years were included. Data was analysed using SPSS software version 15. Chi square test was used to find the association. Results Current smoking was found in 1.67% of the participants. Nearly 16.94% participants were exposed to second hand smoke. About 2.15% of the participants were current alcohol drinkers. Junk food consumption was found in 64.08% of the participants. About 89.86% of the participants were physically inactive. Nearly 31.98% of the participants reported adding extra salt to the diet. Conclusion The behavioural risk factors investigated in the present study are potentially modifiable; identifying subgroups having one or multiple risk factors at an early age is of extreme importance for preventing risk of acquiring chronic diseases in adult life.

  2. Modifiable risk factors predicting major depressive disorder at four year follow-up: a decision tree approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Helen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relative to physical health conditions such as cardiovascular disease, little is known about risk factors that predict the prevalence of depression. The present study investigates the expected effects of a reduction of these risks over time, using the decision tree method favoured in assessing cardiovascular disease risk. Methods The PATH through Life cohort was used for the study, comprising 2,105 20-24 year olds, 2,323 40-44 year olds and 2,177 60-64 year olds sampled from the community in the Canberra region, Australia. A decision tree methodology was used to predict the presence of major depressive disorder after four years of follow-up. The decision tree was compared with a logistic regression analysis using ROC curves. Results The decision tree was found to distinguish and delineate a wide range of risk profiles. Previous depressive symptoms were most highly predictive of depression after four years, however, modifiable risk factors such as substance use and employment status played significant roles in assessing the risk of depression. The decision tree was found to have better sensitivity and specificity than a logistic regression using identical predictors. Conclusion The decision tree method was useful in assessing the risk of major depressive disorder over four years. Application of the model to the development of a predictive tool for tailored interventions is discussed.

  3. Assessing genetically modified crops to minimize the risk of increased food allergy: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodman, Richard E.; Hefle, Susan L.; Taylor, Steven L.; van Ree, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    The first genetically modified (GM) crops approved for food use ( tomato and soybean) were evaluated for safety by the United States Food and Drug Administration prior to commercial production. Among other factors, those products and all additional GM crops that have been grown commercially have

  4. The level of Ischemic Modified Albumin (IMA) as risk marker for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Recent literature reports show large interest in ischemic modified albumin (IMA) biochemical marker for detection of myocardial injury. Special attention is focused in estimation of IMA test for the diagnosis and evaluation of myocardial ischemia as well as others acute coronary syndrome in emergency patients.

  5. Relevance of Bt toxin interaction studies for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, De Adinda; Clercq, De Patrick; Maagd, de R.A.; Frankenhuyzen, van Kees

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, different Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin-encoding genes have been combined or 'stacked' in genetically modified (GM) crops. Synergism between Bt proteins may occur and thereby increase the impact of the stacked GM event on nontarget invertebrates compared to plants expressing

  6. Long-term use of calcium channel blocking drugs and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of US and Puerto Rican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lauren E; D'Aloisio, Aimee A; Sandler, Dale P; Taylor, Jack A

    2016-07-05

    In a recent case-control study, long-term use of calcium channel blocking drugs was associated with a greater-than-twofold increased breast cancer risk. If prospectively collected data confirm that calcium channel blocker use increases breast cancer risk, this would have major implications for hypertension treatment. The objective of this study was to determine whether women using calcium channel blockers for 10 years or more were at increased risk of developing breast cancer compared with women not using calcium channel blockers. The Sister Study is a prospective volunteer cohort study of women from the USA and Puerto Rico designed to evaluate environmental and genetic risk factors for breast cancer. Beginning in 2003, women between the ages of 35 and 74 were recruited. They were eligible to participate if they had a sister with breast cancer but had not been diagnosed with breast cancer themselves. In total, 50,884 women enrolled in the cohort between 2003 and 2009; 50,757 women with relevant baseline data and available follow-up data are included in this study. The exposure of interest is current use of calcium channel blocking drugs and the reported duration of use at entry into the cohort. Secondary exposures of interest were the duration and frequency of use for all other subclasses of antihypertensive drugs. Our main outcome is a self-reported diagnosis of breast cancer during the study follow-up period. With patient permission, self-reported diagnoses were confirmed using medical records. Results showed 15,817 participants were currently using an antihypertensive drug, and 3316 women were currently using a calcium channel blocker at study baseline; 1965 women reported a breast cancer diagnosis during study follow-up. Using Cox proportional hazards modeling, we found no increased risk of breast cancer among women who had been using calcium channel blockers for 10 years or more compared with never users of calcium channel blockers (HR 0.88, 95 % CI 0

  7. Modifiable worker risk factors contributing to workplace absence: a stakeholder-centred best-evidence synthesis of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Shannon; White, Marc; Schultz, Izabela; Murray, Eleanor; Bradley, Susan M; Hsu, Vernita; McGuire, Lisa; Schulz, Werner

    2014-01-01

    A challenge facing stakeholders is the identification and translation of relevant high quality research to inform policy and practice. This study engaged academic and community stakeholders in conducting a best evidence-synthesis to identify modifiable risk and protective worker factors across health conditions impacting work-related absence. To identify modifiable worker disability risk and protective factors across common health conditions impacting work-related absence. We searched Medline, Embase, CINHAL, The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, BusinessSourceComplete, and ABI/Inform from 2000 to 2011. Quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods systematic reviews of work-focused population were considered for inclusion. Two or more reviewers independently reviewed articles for inclusion and methodological screening. The search strategy, expert input and grey literature identified 2,467 unique records. One hundred and forty-two full text articles underwent comprehensive review. Twenty-four systematic reviews met eligibility criteria. Modifiable worker factors found to have consistent evidence across two or more health conditions included emotional distress, negative enduring psychology/personality factors, negative health and disability perception, decreased physical activity, lack of family support, poor general health, increased functional disability, increased pain, increased fatigue and lack of motivation to return to work. Systematic reviews are limited by availability of high quality studies, lack of consistency of methodological screening and reporting, and variability of outcome measures used.

  8. Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osorio, A.; Milne, R.L.; Pita, G.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. METHODS: We have g...

  9. Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osorio, A.; Milne, R. L.; Pita, G.; Peterlongo, P.; Heikkinen, T.; Simard, J.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Spurdle, A. B.; Beesley, J.; Chen, X.; Healey, S.; Neuhausen, S. L.; Ding, Y. C.; Couch, F. J.; Wang, X.; Lindor, N.; Manoukian, S.; Barile, M.; Viel, A.; Tizzoni, L.; Szabo, C. I.; Foretova, L.; Zikan, M.; Claes, K.; Greene, M. H.; Mai, P.; Rennert, G.; Lejbkowicz, F.; Barnett-Griness, O.; Andrulis, I. L.; Ozcelik, H.; Weerasooriya, N.; Gerdes, A.-M.; Thomassen, M.; Cruger, D. G.; Caligo, M. A.; Friedman, E.; Kaufman, B.; Laitman, Y.; Cohen, S.; Kontorovich, T.; Gershoni-Baruch, R.; Dagan, E.; Jernström, H.; Askmalm, M. S.; Arver, B.; Malmer, B.; Domchek, S. M.; Nathanson, K. L.; Brunet, J.; Ramón Y Cajal, T.; Yannoukakos, D.; Hamann, U.; Hogervorst, F. B. L.; Verhoef, S.; Gómez García, E. B.; Wijnen, J. T.; van den Ouweland, A.; Easton, D. F.; Peock, S.; Cook, M.; Oliver, C. T.; Frost, D.; Luccarini, C.; Evans, D. G.; Lalloo, F.; Eeles, R.; Pichert, G.; Cook, J.; Hodgson, S.; Morrison, P. J.; Douglas, F.; Godwin, A. K.; Sinilnikova, O. M.; Barjhoux, L.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Moncoutier, V.; Giraud, S.; Cassini, C.; Olivier-Faivre, L.; Révillion, F.; Peyrat, J.-P.; Muller, D.; Fricker, J.-P.; Lynch, H. T.; John, E. M.; Buys, S.; Daly, M.; Hopper, J. L.; Terry, M. B.; Miron, A.; Yassin, Y.; Goldgar, D.; Singer, C. F.; Gschwantler-Kaulich, D.; Pfeiler, G.; Spiess, A.-C.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Johannsson, O. T.; Kirchhoff, T.; Offit, K.; Kosarin, K.; Piedmonte, M.; Rodriguez, G. C.; Wakeley, K.; Boggess, J. F.; Basil, J.; Schwartz, P. E.; Blank, S. V.; Toland, A. E.; Montagna, M.; Casella, C.; Imyanitov, E. N.; Allavena, A.; Schmutzler, R. K.; Versmold, B.; Engel, C.; Meindl, A.; Ditsch, N.; Arnold, N.; Niederacher, D.; Deissler, H.; Fiebig, B.; Varon-Mateeva, R.; Schaefer, D.; Froster, U. G.; Caldes, T.; de la Hoya, M.; McGuffog, L.; Antoniou, A. C.; Nevanlinna, H.; Radice, P.; Benítez, J.; Simard, Jacques; Durocher, Francine; Laframboise, Rachel; Plante, Marie; Bridge, Peter; Parboosingh, Jilian; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Lesperance, Bernard; Karlsson, Per; Nordling, Margareta; Bergman, Annika; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Liedgren, Sigrun; Borg, Ake; Loman, Niklas; Olsson, Hakan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Jernstrom, Helena; Harbst, Katja; Henriksson, Karin; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Liljegren, Annelie; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Malmer, Beatrice; Stattin, Eva-Lena; Emanuelsson, Monica; Ehrencrona, Hans; Brandell, Richard Rosenquist; Dahl, Niklas; Hogervorst, Frans; Verhoef, Senno; Pijpe, Anouk; van 't Veer, Laura; van Leeuwen, Flora; Rookus, Matti; Collée, Margriet; van den Ouweland, Ans; Kriege, Mieke; Schutte, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tollenaar, Rob; van Asperen, Christi; Wijnen, Juul; Vreeswijk, Maaike; Devilee, Peter; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn; Ausems, Margreet; van der Luijt, Rob; Aalfs, Cora; van Os, Theo; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Gille, Hans; Gomez-Garcia, Encarna; Blok, Rien; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Gregory, Helen; Morrison, Patrick; Cole, Trevor; McKeown, Carole; Taylor, Amy; Donaldson, Alan; Paterson, Joan; Murray, Alexandra; Rogers, Mark; McCann, Emma; Kennedy, John; Barton, David; Porteous, Mary; Brewer, Carole; Kivuva, Emma; Searle, Anne; Goodman, Selina; Davidson, Rosemarie; Murday, Murday; Bradshaw, Nicola; Snadden, Lesley; Longmuir, Mark; Watt, Catherine; Izatt, Louise; Pichert, Gabriella; Langman, Caroline; Dorkins, Huw; Barwell, Julian; Chu, Carol; Bishop, Tim; Miller, Julie; Ellis, Ian; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Holt, Felicity; Male, Alison; Robinson, Anne; Gardiner, Carol; Douglas, Fiona; Claber, Oonagh; Walker, Lisa; Durell, Sarah; Eeles, Ros; Shanley, Susan; Rahman, Nazneen; Houlston, Richard; Bancrof, Elizabeth; D'Mello, Lucia; Page, Elizabeth; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Mitra, Anita; Wiggins, Jennifer; Castro, Elena; Cook, Jackie; Quarrell, Oliver; Bardsley, Cathryn; Hodgson, Shirley; Goff, Sheila; Brice, Glen; Winchester, Lizzie; Eccles, Diana; Lucassen, Anneke; Crawford, Gillian; Tyler, Emma; McBride, Donna; Sinilnikova, Olga; Barjhoux, Laure; Giraud, Sophie; Léone, Mélanie; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Houdayer, Claude; Moncoutier, Virginie; Belotti, Muriel; de Pauw, Antoine; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Byrde, Véronique; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Bourdon, Violaine; Eisinger, François; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Coupier, Isabelle; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Révillion, Françoise; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Rouleau, Etienne; Lidereau, Rosette; Demange, Liliane; Nogues, Catherine; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Longy, Michel; Sevenet, Nicolas; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Hélène; Rebischung, Christine; Cassini, Cécile; Olivier-Faivre, Laurence; Prieur, Fabienne; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Frénay, Marc; Lynch, Henry T.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We have genotyped rs744154 in

  10. Quality of life and functional capacity of patients with adhesive capsulitis: identifying risk factors associated to better outcomes after treatment with nerve blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rassi Fernandes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The objectives of this study were to assess the quality of life and functional capacity of adhesive capsulitis patients at the beginning and end of procedure and to identify risk factors associated to better outcomes after treatment with nerve blocking. Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed. Inclusion criteria were clinical signs of adhesive capsulitis and disease changes on shoulder imaging exams. The short form of World Health Organization Quality of life and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaires were administered at the beginning and end of treatment. A score of 55 points or more on the Constant index was used for discontinuation of treatment. We used the Wilcoxon test for paired samples. Multiple regression analysis of Poisson was carried out using exposure variables with p < 0.20 in the univariate analysis and the satisfactory quality of life and better functional capability as outcomes. The significance level was 5%. Results: 43 patients were evaluated. For the comparison between medians values at the beginning and end of treatment (physical domain: 46.43-67.86; psychologic domain: 66.67-79.17; social domain: 66.67-75; environment domain: 62.5-68.75; DASH: 64.16-38.33, p was <0.05. Aging (physical/psychologic/DASH, higher educational level (physical/environment/DASH, less severity (only physical and fewer nerve blocking (only psychologic were these independent risk factors. Conclusions: Quality of life and functional capacity of the patients improve at the end of procedure. Older patients and higher education levels are the risk factors most associated to satisfactory quality of life and better functional capacity after treatment with nerve blocking.

  11. Quality of life and functional capacity of patients with adhesive capsulitis: identifying risk factors associated to better outcomes after treatment with nerve blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcos Rassi; Barbosa, Maria Alves; Faria, Ruth Minamisawa

    The objectives of this study were to assess the quality of life and functional capacity of adhesive capsulitis patients at the beginning and end of procedure and to identify risk factors associated to better outcomes after treatment with nerve blocking. A prospective cohort study was performed. Inclusion criteria were clinical signs of adhesive capsulitis and disease changes on shoulder imaging exams. The short form of World Health Organization Quality of life and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaires were administered at the beginning and end of treatment. A score of 55 points or more on the Constant index was used for discontinuation of treatment. We used the Wilcoxon test for paired samples. Multiple regression analysis of Poisson was carried out using exposure variables with p<0.20 in the univariate analysis and the satisfactory quality of life and better functional capability as outcomes. The significance level was 5%. 43 patients were evaluated. For the comparison between medians values at the beginning and end of treatment (physical domain: 46.43-67.86; psychologic domain: 66.67-79.17; social domain: 66.67-75; environment domain: 62.5-68.75; DASH: 64.16-38.33), p was <0.05. Aging (physical/psychologic/DASH), higher educational level (physical/environment/DASH), less severity (only physical) and fewer nerve blocking (only psychologic) were these independent risk factors. Quality of life and functional capacity of the patients improve at the end of procedure. Older patients and higher education levels are the risk factors most associated to satisfactory quality of life and better functional capacity after treatment with nerve blocking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  12. Does influence at work modify the relation between high occupational physical activity and risk of heart disease in women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allesøe, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Rugulies, Reiner

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether influence at work modifies the association between demanding and strenuous occupational physical activity (OPA) and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods: A sample of 12,093 nurses aged 45–64 years from the Danish Nurse Cohort Study was followed for 20.......6 years by individual linkage to incident IHD in the Danish National Patient Registry. Information on OPA, influence at work, other occupational factors and known risk factors for IHD was collected by self-report in 1993. Results: During follow-up 869 nurses were hospitalised with incident IHD. Nurses...... exposed to strenuous OPA and low influence at work had a 46% increased risk of IHD [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–2.09)] compared to the reference group of nurses with moderate OPA and high influence at work. Nurses exposed to strenuous OPA and high influence at work were...

  13. A nonsynonymous polymorphism in IRS1 modifies risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and ovarian cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yuan C; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and were associated wit...... with breast cancer risk in a larger cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.......We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and were associated...

  14. Transversus abdominis plane block in combination with general anesthesia provides better intraoperative hemodynamic control and quicker recovery than general anesthesia alone in high-risk abdominal surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, M; Takahashi, R; Furukawa, A; Suehiro, K; Mizutani, K; Nishikawa, K

    2012-11-01

    Patients with severe cardiovascular disease are frequently hemodynamically unstable during abdominal surgery. Improving the safety of such patients by stabilizing intraoperative hemodynamics remains a major concern for anesthesiologists. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in combination with general anesthesia may facilitate optimum anesthetic management of these high-risk patients. Patients with cardiovascular disease classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status 3 were enrolled. The patients were undergoing elective abdominal surgery and were randomized to a group receiving general anesthesia and TAP block (Group T, N.=33) or a group receiving general anesthesia alone (Group G, N.=35). We compared the groups for intraoperative hemodynamic stability, anesthesia emergence time, amounts of anesthetics and opioids given, and frequency of emergency treatment with cardiovascular agents. A preliminary study demonstrated that systolic blood pressure and heart rate were maintained stable within 70-110% of their preanesthesia values throughout surgery in ASA 1 elderly patients without cardiovascular disease. Thus, the hemodynamically stable time was defined as the time when systolic blood pressure and heart rate were 70-110% of their preanesthesia values. The ratio of hemodynamically stable time to total operative time was used as an index of hemodynamic stability. The median (minimum-maximum) percentage of hemodynamically stable time was longer in Group T (91[50-100]%) than Group G (79[40-91]%, Pabdominal surgery in patients with severe cardiovascular disease, combining TAP block with general anesthesia promotes intraoperative hemodynamic stability and early emergence from anesthesia.

  15. Advantage of the modified Lunn-McNeil technique over Kalbfleisch-Prentice technique in competing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman, Iing; Ibrahim, Noor A.; Daud, Isa B.; Maarof, Fauziah; Hassan, Mohd N.

    2002-03-01

    Survival analysis algorithm is often applied in the data mining process. Cox regression is one of the survival analysis tools that has been used in many areas, and it can be used to analyze the failure times of aircraft crashed. Another survival analysis tool is the competing risks where we have more than one cause of failure acting simultaneously. Lunn-McNeil analyzed the competing risks in the survival model using Cox regression with censored data. The modified Lunn-McNeil technique is a simplify of the Lunn-McNeil technique. The Kalbfleisch-Prentice technique is involving fitting models separately from each type of failure, treating other failure types as censored. To compare the two techniques, (the modified Lunn-McNeil and Kalbfleisch-Prentice) a simulation study was performed. Samples with various sizes and censoring percentages were generated and fitted using both techniques. The study was conducted by comparing the inference of models, using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), the power tests, and the Schoenfeld residual analysis. The power tests in this study were likelihood ratio test, Rao-score test, and Wald statistics. The Schoenfeld residual analysis was conducted to check the proportionality of the model through its covariates. The estimated parameters were computed for the cause-specific hazard situation. Results showed that the modified Lunn-McNeil technique was better than the Kalbfleisch-Prentice technique based on the RMSE measurement and Schoenfeld residual analysis. However, the Kalbfleisch-Prentice technique was better than the modified Lunn-McNeil technique based on power tests measurement.

  16. The Media and Genetically Modified Foods : Evidence in Support of Social Amplification of Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Miles, S.; Marsh, R.

    2002-01-01

    Empirical examinations of the "social amplification of risk" framework are rare, partly because of the difficulties in predicting when conditions likely to result in amplification effects will occur. This means that it is difficult to examine changes in risk perception that are contemporaneous with

  17. Do parental coronary heart disease risk factors (non-modifiable effect their young ones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions:: Advancing age may result in changes that could be atherogenic in the future. Such atherogenic changes have already initiated when the subjects are about 21 years old. The incidence of atherogenic changes is far greater when mothers who are having any of the risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, HTN and myocardial infarction than that fathers who are having similar risk factors.

  18. A modified portfolio diet complements medical management to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Mary; Kuliszewski, Michael A; Liao, Christine; Peeva, Valentina; Ahmed, Mavra; Tran, Susan; Sorokin, Kevin; Jenkins, David J; Errett, Lee; Leong-Poi, Howard

    2015-06-01

    Secondary prevention can improve outcomes in high risk patients. This study investigated the magnitude of cardiovascular risk reduction associated with consumption of a modified portfolio diet in parallel with medical management. 30 patients with type II diabetes, 6 weeks post bypass surgery received dietary counseling on a Modified Portfolio Diet (MPD) (low fat, 8 g/1000 kcal viscous fibres, 17 g/1000 kcal soy protein and 22 g/1000 kcal almonds). Lipid profiles, endothelial function and markers of glycemic control, oxidative stress and inflammation were measured at baseline and following two and four weeks of intervention. Seven patients with no diet therapy served as time controls. Consumption of the MPD resulted in a 19% relative reduction in LDL (1.9 ± 0.8 vs 1.6 ± 0.6 mmol/L, p patients (3.8 ± 3.8% to 6.5 ± 3.6%, p = 0.004) while remaining constant in controls (p = 0.6). Endothelial progenitor cells numbers (CD34+, CD 133+ and UEA-1+) increased significantly following MPD consumption (p patients resulted in important reductions in risk factors. Clinical Trials registry number NCT00462436. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. The Association between Obesity-Risk Genes and Gestational Weight Gain Is Modified by Dietary Intake in African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Meng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-risk genes have been associated with dietary intake, appetite regulation, and gestational weight gain (GWG. The purpose of this study was to examine whether dietary intake including total energy intake and macronutrients modify or mediate the association between obesity-risk genes and GWG. An observational study was conducted with 85 African American pregnant women. Sociodemographic, medical, and lifestyle factors and dietary recalls were collected during pregnancy. Seven obesity-risk genetic variants were genotyped. Regression analyses with bootstrapping methods were used to examine the moderation and mediation effects of dietary intake. The mean GWG was 14.2 kg, and 55.3% of the women gained above the Institute of Medicine GWG guidelines. A nominally significant association was found between rs17782313 (close to MC4R and percentage of energy intake from fat P=0.043. A variant downstream of KCTD15 (rs11084753 was nominally significantly related to GWG P=0.023. There was a significant interaction between the KCTD15 polymorphism and dietary fat intake P=0.048. Women with the AG genotype gained more weight during pregnancy with more dietary fat consumption. In conclusion, our results indicate that dietary macronutrients, especially fat intake, may modify the effect of the KCTD15 gene on GWG. Improved knowledge of gene-diet interactions can facilitate the development of personalized interventions.

  20. Non-modifiable worker and workplace risk factors contributing to workplace absence: A stakeholder-centred synthesis of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marc I; Wagner, Shannon L; Schultz, Izabela Z; Murray, Eleanor; Bradley, Susan M; Hsu, Vernita; McGuire, Lisa; Schulz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Workplace stakeholders report the identification and translation of relevant high quality research to inform workplace disability policy and practice is a challenge. The present study engaged academic and community stakeholders in conducting a best evidence-synthesis to identify non-modifiable risk and protective worker and workplace factors impacting work-related absence across a variety of health conditions. To identify non-modifiable worker and workplace disability risk and protective factors impacting work-related absence across common health conditions. The research team searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, BusinessSource-Complete, and ABI/Inform from 2000 to 2011. Quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods systematic reviews of work-focused population were considered for inclusion. Two or more reviewers independently reviewed articles for inclusion and methodological screening. The search strategy, including expert input and grey literature, led to the identification of 2,467 unique records. From this initial search, 2325 were eliminated by title or abstract review, 142 articles underwent comprehensive review to assess for inclusion, 26 systematic reviews met eligibility criteria for this synthesis. For non-modifiable worker and workplace factors we found consistent evidence across two or more health conditions for increased risk of disability in situations where workers experience lower education, older age, emotional distress, poor personal functioning, decreased physical functioning, psychological symptoms, overweight status, and greater sick leave history. Heterogeneity of existing literature due to differences in outcome measures, definitions and research designs limited ability to assess effect size and results reflect findings limited to English-language papers.

  1. How biological background assumptions influence scientific risk evaluation of stacked genetically modified plants: an analysis of research hypotheses and argumentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Elena; Andersen, Fredrik

    2017-08-14

    Scientific risk evaluations are constructed by specific evidence, value judgements and biological background assumptions. The latter are the framework-setting suppositions we apply in order to understand some new phenomenon. That background assumptions co-determine choice of methodology, data interpretation, and choice of relevant evidence is an uncontroversial claim in modern basic science. Furthermore, it is commonly accepted that, unless explicated, disagreements in background assumptions can lead to misunderstanding as well as miscommunication. Here, we extend the discussion on background assumptions from basic science to the debate over genetically modified (GM) plants risk assessment. In this realm, while the different political, social and economic values are often mentioned, the identity and role of background assumptions at play are rarely examined. We use an example from the debate over risk assessment of stacked genetically modified plants (GM stacks), obtained by applying conventional breeding techniques to GM plants. There are two main regulatory practices of GM stacks: (i) regulate as conventional hybrids and (ii) regulate as new GM plants. We analyzed eight papers representative of these positions and found that, in all cases, additional premises are needed to reach the stated conclusions. We suggest that these premises play the role of biological background assumptions and argue that the most effective way toward a unified framework for risk analysis and regulation of GM stacks is by explicating and examining the biological background assumptions of each position. Once explicated, it is possible to either evaluate which background assumptions best reflect contemporary biological knowledge, or to apply Douglas' 'inductive risk' argument.

  2. Identification of a BRCA2-specific modifier locus at 6p24 related to breast cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia M Gaudet

    Full Text Available Common genetic variants contribute to the observed variation in breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers; those known to date have all been found through population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS. To comprehensively identify breast cancer risk modifying loci for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted a deep replication of an ongoing GWAS discovery study. Using the ranked P-values of the breast cancer associations with the imputed genotype of 1.4 M SNPs, 19,029 SNPs were selected and designed for inclusion on a custom Illumina array that included a total of 211,155 SNPs as part of a multi-consortial project. DNA samples from 3,881 breast cancer affected and 4,330 unaffected BRCA2 mutation carriers from 47 studies belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 were genotyped and available for analysis. We replicated previously reported breast cancer susceptibility alleles in these BRCA2 mutation carriers and for several regions (including FGFR2, MAP3K1, CDKN2A/B, and PTHLH identified SNPs that have stronger evidence of association than those previously published. We also identified a novel susceptibility allele at 6p24 that was inversely associated with risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers (rs9348512; per allele HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.80-0.90, P = 3.9 × 10(-8. This SNP was not associated with breast cancer risk either in the general population or in BRCA1 mutation carriers. The locus lies within a region containing TFAP2A, which encodes a transcriptional activation protein that interacts with several tumor suppressor genes. This report identifies the first breast cancer risk locus specific to a BRCA2 mutation background. This comprehensive update of novel and previously reported breast cancer susceptibility loci contributes to the establishment of a panel of SNPs that modify breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers. This panel may have clinical utility for women with BRCA2 mutations weighing options for

  3. Identification of a BRCA2-Specific Modifier Locus at 6p24 Related to Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijai, Joseph; Klein, Robert J.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Dunning, Alison M.; Lee, Andrew; Dennis, Joe; Healey, Sue; Dicks, Ed; Soucy, Penny; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Wang, Xianshu; Eldridge, Ronald C.; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Peock, Susan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Peterlongo, Paolo; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Piedmonte, Marion; Singer, Christian F.; Thomassen, Mads; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Blanco, Ignacio; Greene, Mark H.; Garber, Judith; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Goldgar, David E.; D'Andrea, Emma; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Osorio, Ana; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Arason, Adalgeir; Rennert, Gad; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Kets, Carolien M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Wijnen, Juul T.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve; Fineberg, Elena; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Jacobs, Chris; Adlard, Julian; Tischkowitz, Marc; Porteous, Mary E.; Damiola, Francesca; Golmard, Lisa; Barjhoux, Laure; Longy, Michel; Belotti, Muriel; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Genuardi, Maurizio; Arnold, Norbert; Meindl, Alfons; Sutter, Christian; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Domchek, Susan M.; Pfeiler, Georg; Friedman, Eitan; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Robson, Mark; Shah, Sohela; Lazaro, Conxi; Mai, Phuong L.; Benitez, Javier; Southey, Melissa C.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Fasching, Peter A.; Peto, Julian; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Bojesen, Stig E.; Milne, Roger L.; Brenner, Hermann; Lochmann, Magdalena; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Dörk, Thilo; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Lambrechts, Diether; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Radice, Paolo; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Winqvist, Robert; Devillee, Peter; García-Closas, Montserrat; Schoof, Nils; Hooning, Maartje J.; Cox, Angela; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Jakubowska, Anna; Orr, Nick; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Hall, Per; Couch, Fergus J.; Simard, Jacques; Altshuler, David; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Offit, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Common genetic variants contribute to the observed variation in breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers; those known to date have all been found through population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To comprehensively identify breast cancer risk modifying loci for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted a deep replication of an ongoing GWAS discovery study. Using the ranked P-values of the breast cancer associations with the imputed genotype of 1.4 M SNPs, 19,029 SNPs were selected and designed for inclusion on a custom Illumina array that included a total of 211,155 SNPs as part of a multi-consortial project. DNA samples from 3,881 breast cancer affected and 4,330 unaffected BRCA2 mutation carriers from 47 studies belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 were genotyped and available for analysis. We replicated previously reported breast cancer susceptibility alleles in these BRCA2 mutation carriers and for several regions (including FGFR2, MAP3K1, CDKN2A/B, and PTHLH) identified SNPs that have stronger evidence of association than those previously published. We also identified a novel susceptibility allele at 6p24 that was inversely associated with risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers (rs9348512; per allele HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.80–0.90, P = 3.9×10−8). This SNP was not associated with breast cancer risk either in the general population or in BRCA1 mutation carriers. The locus lies within a region containing TFAP2A, which encodes a transcriptional activation protein that interacts with several tumor suppressor genes. This report identifies the first breast cancer risk locus specific to a BRCA2 mutation background. This comprehensive update of novel and previously reported breast cancer susceptibility loci contributes to the establishment of a panel of SNPs that modify breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers. This panel may have clinical utility for women with BRCA2 mutations weighing options for medical

  4. Modifiers of the Efficacy of Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy for the Prevention of Breast and Ovarian Cancer in Carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kauff, Noah

    2004-01-01

    .... This plan included 1) conduct of a prospective study examining modifiers of the efficacy of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy for the prevention of breast and ovarian cancer in carriers of BRCA mutations; and 2...

  5. Modifiers of the Efficacy of Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy for the Prevention of Breast and Ovarian Cancer in Carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kauff, Noah D

    2006-01-01

    .... This plan included 1) conduct of a prospective study examining modifiers of the efficacy of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy for the prevention of breast and ovarian cancer in carriers of BRCA mutations; and 2...

  6. Diastolic blood pressure is a potentially modifiable risk factor for preeclampsia in women with pre-existing diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sidse Kjærhus; Vestgaard, Marianne Jenlev; Jørgensen, Isabella Lindegaard

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: To identify early clinical, modifiable risk factors for preeclampsia present at first antenatal visit and assess the prevalence of pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders in women with pre-existing diabetes treated with tight glycemic and blood pressure (BP) control. METHODS: A population......-based cohort study of 494 women with pre-existing diabetes (307 and 187 women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively), included at their first antenatal visit from 2012 to 2016. The prevalence of chronic hypertension (without diabetic nephropathy or microalbuminuria), gestational hypertension...... and preeclampsia was recorded. Diabetic microangiopathy included presence of nephropathy, microalbuminuria and/or retinopathy. Treatment target was BP

  7. Factors Modifying the Radon-Related Lung Cancer Risk at Low Exposures and Exposure Rates among German Uranium Miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, M; Sobotzki, C; Schnelzer, M; Fenske, N

    2018-02-01

    It is still not fully understood whether and how factors such as time, age and smoking modify the relationship between lung cancer and radon at low exposures and exposure rates. Improved knowledge is necessary for the dose conversion of radon in working level month (WLM) into effective dose, as currently discussed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). An update of the German uranium miner cohort study (n = 58,974 men) with a 10-year extension of mortality follow-up (1946-2013) was used to further examine this issue. Internal Poisson regression was applied to estimate the excess relative risk (ERR) for lung cancer mortality per unit of cumulative radon exposure in WLM with exponential time-related effect modifiers. In the full cohort restricted to <100 WLM the estimated overall ERR/WLM was 0.006 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.003; 0.010] based on 1,254 lung cancer deaths and 1,620,190 person-years at risk. Both age at and time since exposure turned out to be important modifiers of the ERR/WLM and were included in the final model. Here, the ERR/WLM centered on age at exposure of 30 years, and 20 years since exposure was 0.016 (95% CI: 0.008; 0.028). This value decreased statistically significantly by approximately 40% and 60% for each 10-year increase in age at exposure and time since exposure, respectively. The joint effect of smoking and radon exposure was investigated in the sub-cohort of miners hired in 1960 or later, which includes data on smoking status. The centered ERR/WLM was slightly higher for non/light smokers compared to moderate/heavy smokers (0.022 versus 0.013). The current findings provide evidence for an increased lung cancer risk at low radon exposures or exposure rates that is modified by age and time. The observed risk is lower, but statistically compatible to those of other miner studies at low exposures or exposure rates. These findings reject an additive- and support a sub- to (supra-) multiplicative interaction

  8. The association between creatinine versus cystatin C-based eGFR and cardiovascular risk in children with chronic kidney disease using a modified PDAY risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sheena; Denburg, Michelle R; Furth, Susan L

    2017-08-01

    Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors which may contribute to the development of cardiovascular events in adulthood. Among adults with CKD, cystatin C-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) demonstrate a stronger predictive value for cardiovascular events than creatinine-based eGFR. The PDAY (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth) risk score is a validated tool used to estimate the probability of advanced coronary atherosclerotic lesions in young adults. To assess the association between cystatin C-based versus creatinine-based eGFR (eGFR cystatin C and eGFR creatinine, respectively) and cardiovascular risk using a modified PDAY risk score as a proxy for CVD in children and young adults. We performed a cross-sectional study of 71 participants with CKD [median age 15.5 years; inter-quartile range (IQR) 13, 17], and 33 healthy controls (median age 15.1 years; IQR 13, 17). eGFR was calculated using age-appropriate creatinine- and cystatin C-based formulas. Median eGFR creatinine and eGFR cystatin C for CKD participants were 50 (IQR 30, 75) and 53 (32, 74) mL/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. For the healthy controls, median eGFR creatinine and eGFR cystatin were 112 (IQR 85, 128) and 106 mL/min/1.73m 2 (95, 123) mL/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. A modified PDAY risk score was calculated based on sex, age, serum lipoprotein concentrations, obesity, smoking status, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. Modified PDAY scores ranged from -2 to 20. The Spearman's correlations of eGFR creatinine and eGFR cystatin C with coronary artery PDAY scores were -0.23 (p = 0.02) and -0.28 (p = 0.004), respectively. Ordinal logistic regression also showed a similar association of higher eGFR creatinine and higher eGFR cystatin C with lower PDAY scores. When stratified by age children [-0.29 (p = 0.008) vs. -0.32 (p = 0.004), respectively]. Despite a smaller sample size, the correlation in

  9. Variability modifies life satisfaction's association with mortality risk in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K.; Winning, Ashley; Segerstrom, Suzanne; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction is associated with greater longevity, but its variability across time has not been examined relative to longevity. We investigated whether mean levels of life satisfaction across time, variability in life satisfaction across time, and their interaction were associated with mortality over 9 years of follow-up. Participants were 4,458 Australians initially ≥50 years old. During the follow-up, 546 people died. Adjusting for age, greater mean life satisfaction was associated with reduced risk and greater variability in life satisfaction was associated with increased risk of mortality. These findings were qualified by a significant interaction such that individuals with low mean satisfaction and high variability in satisfaction had the greatest risk of mortality over the follow-up period. In combination with mean levels of life satisfaction, variability in life satisfaction is relevant for mortality risk among older adults. Considering intraindividual variability provides additional insight into associations between psychological characteristics and health. PMID:26048888

  10. Epidemiological modifiers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: focus on high-risk groups

    OpenAIRE

    Lonardo, A.; Bellentani, S.; Argo, C.K.; Ballestri, S.; Byrne, Christopher D.; Caldwell, S.H.; Cortez-Pinto, H.; Grieco, A.; Machado, M.V.; Miele, L.; Targher, G.

    2015-01-01

    An improved understanding of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease epidemiology would lead to identification of individuals at high risk of developing chronic liver disease and extra-hepatic complications, thus contributing to more effective case finding of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among selected groups.We aimed to illustrate the epidemiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in high-risk groups, which were identified based on existing literature. To this end, PubMed was searched to r...

  11. Measuring and Modifying Community Social Factors to Reduce Alcohol Use and HIV Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie, Hannah Hogan

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation addresses methodological and substantive questions around the estimation of contextual effects, with a focus on the influence of community factors on alcohol use in South Africa. Alcohol use contributes to a multitude of health conditions and is a particularly important risk factor for South African men due to heavy consumption and the high risk of alcohol-related harms such as violence and road accidents in this population. In addition, HIV transmission and progression to A...

  12. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes: Modifying Risk Factors Other Than Glucose Control

    OpenAIRE

    Basa, Amelita L. P.; Garber, Alan J.

    2001-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have a significantly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis kills more diabetic patients than all other causes combined. Multiple risk factors tend to cluster in some patients in a syndrome termed insulin resistance syndrome or “Syndrome X.” Increasing evidence has changed the recommended management of diabetes from simple glucose control to aggressive lipid management and control of the other components of the metabolic syndrome to ...

  13. Relationship between risk factors and activities of daily living using modified Shah Barthel Index in stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningsih, W.; Rachmayanti, S.; Werdhani, R. A.

    2017-08-01

    Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors of stroke. The study aimed to determine the relationship between hypertension and diabetes mellitus risk factors and dependence on assistance with activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. The study used an analytical observational cross-sectional design. The study’s sample included 44 stroke patients selected using the quota sampling method. The relationship between the variables was analyzed using the bivariate chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression. Based on the chi-squared test, the relationship between the Modified Shah Barthel Index (MSBI) score and hypertension and diabetes mellitus as stroke risk factors, were p = 0.122 and p = 0.002, respectively. The logistic regression results suggest that hypertension and diabetes mellitus are stroke risk factors related to the MSBI score: p = 0.076 (OR 4.076; CI 95% 0.861-19.297) and p = 0.007 (OR 22.690; CI 95% 2.332-220.722), respectively. Diabetes mellitus is the most prominent risk factor of severe dependency on assistance with activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients.

  14. CYP2C9 Genotypes Modify Benzodiazepine-Related Fall Risk: Original Results From Three Studies With Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Annelies C; Ziere, Gijsbertus; Broer, Linda; Swart, Karin M A; Enneman, Anke W; van Dijk, Suzanne C; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; van Schoor, Natasja M; Zillikens, M Carola; van Gelder, Teun; de Vries, Oscar J; Lips, Paul; Deeg, Dorly J H; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Hofman, Albert; Witkamp, Renger F; Uitterlinden, André G; Stricker, Bruno H; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether the CYP2C9*2 and *3 variants modify benzodiazepine-related fall risk. Three prospective studies; the Rotterdam Study, B-PROOF, and LASA. Community-dwelling individuals living in or near five Dutch cities. There were 11,485 participants aged ≥55 years. Fall incidents were recorded prospectively. Benzodiazepine use was determined using pharmacy dispensing records or interviews. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age and sex were applied to determine the association between benzodiazepine use and fall risk stratified for CYP2C9 genotype and comparing benzodiazepine users to nonusers. The results of the three studies were combined applying meta-analysis. Within benzodiazepine users, the association between genotypes and fall risk was also assessed. Three thousand seven hundred five participants (32%) encountered a fall during 91,996 follow-up years, and 4% to 15% (depending on the study population) used benzodiazepines. CYP2C9 variants had frequencies of 13% for the *2 allele and 6% for the *3 allele. Compared to nonusers, current benzodiazepine use was associated with an 18% to 36% increased fall risk across studies with a combined hazard ratio (HR) = 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13; 1.40). CYP2C9*2 or *3 allele variants modified benzodiazepine-related fall risk. Compared to nonusers, those carrying a CYP2C9*2 or *3 allele and using benzodiazepines had a 45% increased fall risk (HR, 1.45 95% CI, 1.21; 1.73), whereas CYP2C9*1 homozygotes using benzodiazepines had no increased fall risk (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.90; 1.45). Within benzodiazepine users, having a CYP2C9*2 or *3 allele was associated with an increased fall risk (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.06; 1.72). Additionally, we observed an allele dose effect; heterozygous allele carriers had a fall risk of (HR = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.05; 1.61), and homozygous allele carriers of (HR = 1.91 95% CI, 1.23; 2.96). CYP2C9*2 and *3 allele variants modify benzodiazepine-related fall risk. Those

  15. Global and regional effects of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with acute stroke in 32 countries (INTERSTROKE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, Martin J; Chin, Siu Lim; Rangarajan, Sumathy

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. We sought to quantify the importance of potentially modifiable risk factors for stroke in different regions of the world, and in key populations and primary pathological subtypes......-based or community-based individuals with no history of stroke, and were matched with cases, recruited in a 1:1 ratio, for age and sex. All participants completed a clinical assessment and were requested to provide blood and urine samples. Odds ratios (OR) and their population attributable risks (PARs) were...... calculated, with 99% confidence intervals. FINDINGS: Between Jan 11, 2007, and Aug 8, 2015, 26 919 participants were recruited from 32 countries (13 447 cases [10 388 with ischaemic stroke and 3059 intracerebral haemorrhage] and 13 472 controls). Previous history of hypertension or blood pressure of 140...

  16. Approaches to assess IgE mediated allergy risks (sensitization and cross-reactivity) from new or modified dietary proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remington, B.; Broekman, H. C. H.; Blom, W. M.

    2018-01-01

    The development and introduction of new dietary protein sources has the potential to improve food supply sustainability. Understanding the potential allergenicity of these new or modified proteins is crucial to ensure protection of public health. Exposure to new proteins may result in de novo...... sensitization, with or without clinical allergy, or clinical reactions through cross-reactivity. In this paper we review the potential of current methodologies (in silico, in vitro degradation, in vitro IgE binding, animal models and clinical studies) to address these outcomes for risk assessment purposes...... for new proteins, and especially to identify and characterise the risk of sensitization for IgE mediated allergy from oral exposure. Existing tools and tests are capable of assessing potential crossreactivity. However, there are few possibilities to assess the hazard due to de novo sensitization. The only...

  17. Principles for the risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms and their food products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Jaime; Gomes, Ana R; Olaru, Irina

    2013-10-01

    Genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) are involved in the production of a variety of food and feed. The release and consumption of these products can raise questions about health and environmental safety. Therefore, the European Union has different legislative instruments in place in order to ensure the safety of such products. A key requirement is to conduct a scientific risk assessment as a prerequisite for the product to be placed on the market. This risk assessment is performed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), through its Scientific Panels. The EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms has published complete and comprehensive guidance for the risk assessment of GMMs and their products for food and/or feed use, in which the strategy and the criteria to conduct the assessment are explained, as well as the scientific data to be provided in applications for regulated products. This Guidance follows the main risk assessment principles developed by various international organisations (Codex Alimentarius, 2003; OECD, 2010). The assessment considers two aspects: the characterisation of the GMM and the possible effects of its modification with respect to safety, and the safety of the product itself. Due to the existing diversity of GMMs and their products, a categorisation is recommended to optimise the assessment and to determine the extent of the required data. The assessment starts with a comprehensive characterisation of the GMM, covering the recipient/parental organism, the donor(s) of the genetic material, the genetic modification, and the final GMM and its phenotype. Evaluation of the composition, potential toxicity and/or allergenicity, nutritional value and environmental impact of the product constitute further cornerstones of the process. The outcome of the assessment is reflected in a scientific opinion which indicates whether the product raises any safety issues. This opinion is taken into account by the different European regulatory

  18. Homocysteine and Stroke Risk: Modifying Effect of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Folic Acid Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Wang, Xiaobin; He, Mingli; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Huo, Yong; Li, Jianping; Fu, Jia; Huang, Xiao; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Wang, Binyan; Hou, Fan Fan; Sun, Ningling; Cai, Yefeng

    2017-05-01

    Elevated blood homocysteine concentration increases the risk of stroke, especially among hypertensive individuals. Homocysteine is largely affected by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and folate status. Among hypertensive patients, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the association between homocysteine and stroke can be modified by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and folic acid intervention. We analyzed the data of 20 424 hypertensive adults enrolled in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. The participants, first stratified by methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype, were randomly assigned to receive double-blind treatments of 10-mg enalapril and 0.8-mg folic acid or 10-mg enalapril only. The participants were followed up for a median of 4.5 years. In the control group, baseline log-transformed homocysteine was associated with an increased risk of first stroke among participants with the CC/CT genotype (hazard ratio, 3.1; 1.1-9.2), but not among participants with the TT genotype (hazard ratio, 0.7; 0.2-2.1), indicating a significant gene-homocysteine interaction ( P =0.008). In the folic acid intervention group, homocysteine showed no significant effect on stroke regardless of genotype. Consistently, folic acid intervention significantly reduced stroke risk in participants with CC/CT genotypes and high homocysteine levels (tertile 3; hazard ratio, 0.73; 0.55-0.97). In Chinese hypertensive patients, the effect of homocysteine on the first stroke was significantly modified by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genotype and folic acid supplementation. Such information may help to more precisely predict stroke risk and develop folic acid interventions tailored to individual genetic background and nutritional status. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00794885. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Dietary Fiber Intake Modifies the Positive Association between n-3 PUFA Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk in a Caucasian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraja, Bledar; Muka, Taulant; Ruiter, Rikje; de Keyser, Catherine E; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Stricker, Bruno H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-08-01

    The association between dietary fat intake and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is still unclear. We analyzed whether intakes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were associated with CRC risk and whether these associations were modified by dietary fiber (DF) intake. This study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a prospective cohort study among subjects aged ≥55 y (n = 4967). At baseline, diet was measured by a food-frequency questionnaire. CRC events were diagnosed on the basis of pathology data and medical records. Multivariable adjusted HRs were calculated using Cox regression models. During a mean follow-up period of 14.6 y, we identified 222 incident cases of CRC. There was no association between total PUFA, n-6 (ω-6) PUFA, or SFA intake and CRC risk. n-3 PUFA intake was associated with an increased risk of CRC [tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR = 1.44 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.04), P-trend = 0.04]. When data were analyzed by food sources, only n-3 PUFAs from nonmarine sources were associated with an increased risk of CRC. A significant interaction between n-3 PUFA and DF intakes was found (P-interaction = 0.02). After stratification by median DF intake, an increased risk of CRC caused by n-3 PUFA intake was observed in participants with a DF intake less than the median [tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR = 1.96 (95% CI: 1.20, 3.19), P-trend = 0.01]. No association was observed in subjects with DF intake equal to or higher than the median. This study suggests that intake of n-3 PUFAs by adults is associated with an increased risk of CRC, which may be driven mainly by sources other than fish. Moreover, a complex interaction with DF intake may be present. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Genetic mapping in mice identifies DMBT1 as a candidate modifier of mammary tumors and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Anneke C; Hill, Linda Z; Roberts, Amy L

    2007-01-01

    Low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility alleles seem to play a significant role in breast cancer risk but are difficult to identify in human cohorts. A genetic screen of 176 N2 backcross progeny of two Trp53(+/-) strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6, which differ in their susceptibility to mammary...... tumors, identified a modifier of mammary tumor susceptibility in an approximately 25-Mb interval on mouse chromosome 7 (designated SuprMam1). Relative to heterozygotes, homozygosity for BALB/c alleles of SuprMam1 significantly decreased mammary tumor latency from 70.7 to 61.1 weeks and increased risk...... twofold (P = 0.002). Dmbt1 (deleted in malignant brain tumors 1) was identified as a candidate modifier gene within the SuprMam1 interval because it was differentially expressed in mammary tissues from BALB/c-Trp53(+/-) and C57BL/6-Trp53(+/-) mice. Dmbt1 mRNA and protein was reduced in mammary glands...

  1. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN PATIENTS WITH EARLY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS BEFORE DISEASE-MODIFYING ANTIRHEUMATIC THERAPY (PRELIMINARY DATA OF THE REMARCА STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Gorbunova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the level of cardiovascular risk in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA before therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs.Subjects and methods: Seventy-three patients with early RA who had not previously taken DMARDs or glucocorticoids were examined. Disease activity was assessed by the DAS28, SDAI, and CDAI. All the patients were examined by a cardiologist. The investigators assessed traditional risk factors (RF, by determining the overall coronary risk according tothe modified SCORE scale, the degree of a risk for cardiovascular events (CVE, carried out 24-hour ECG and blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography (EchoCG, and carotid duplex scanning, identified coronary artery calcification by multislice spiral computed tomography, and, if indicated, performed stress EchoCG and coronary angiography.Results. The diagnosis of coronary heart disease was established in 13 patients. NYHA functional class I or II chronic heart failure (HF was diagnosed in 8 patients, systolic HF in 2, HF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction in 6 cases. There was left ventricular hypertrophy in 22 (30.1% patients, carotid atherosclerotic plaques in 26 (35.6%, coronary artery calcification in 30 (41.1%, hypertension in 38 (52.1%, abdominal obesity in 34 (46.6%, dyslipidemia in 40 (54.8%, hypercholesterolemia in 37 (50.7%, hypoalphalipoproteinemia in 21 (28.8%, hypertriglyceridemia in 12 (16.4%, low physical activity in 30 (41.1%, and smoking in 13 (17.8%. Thirty-three of 53 women weremenopausal. Fasting hyperglycemia was found in 11 (15.1% patients; type 2 diabetes mellitus in 4 (5.5%. Thirty-one (42.5% patients had at least three RFs. In accordance with the current classification of the degree of cardiovascular risk, very high, high, moderate, and low risks for CVE were observed in 58, 8, 8, and 26% of the RA patients, respectively.Conclusion. Most rheumatoid factor- and anticyclic citrullinated

  2. Policy-Led Comparative Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops: Testing for Increased Risk Rather Than Profiling Phenotypes Leads to Predictable and Transparent Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Raybould

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe two contrasting methods of comparative environmental risk assessment for genetically modified (GM crops. Both are science-based, in the sense that they use science to help make decisions, but they differ in the relationship between science and policy. Policy-led comparative risk assessment begins by defining what would be regarded as unacceptable changes when the use a particular GM crop replaces an accepted use of another crop. Hypotheses that these changes will not occur are tested using existing or new data, and corroboration or falsification of the hypotheses is used to inform decision-making. Science-led comparative risk assessment, on the other hand, tends to test null hypotheses of no difference between a GM crop and a comparator. The variables that are compared may have little or no relevance to any previously stated policy objective and hence decision-making tends to be ad hoc in response to possibly spurious statistical significance. We argue that policy-led comparative risk assessment is the far more effective method. With this in mind, we caution that phenotypic profiling of GM crops, particularly with omics methods, is potentially detrimental to risk assessment.

  3. The Debate on the Risk of Genetically Modified Food: The Politics of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Gaivoronskaia, Galina; Solem, Knut Erik

    2000-01-01

    Scientific research on the use of genetic engineering in the production of new food is facing a difficult situation. Further development in this field is being impacted more and more by the debate on the risk of GM food, where consumers’ tools and the ability to influence decision-making are being enhanced. In Norway regulatory mechanisms have been introduced to address a wide range of GM-food risks, but at the same time have created certain obstacles for scientists and industry. Not yet usin...

  4. Assessing modified risk tobacco and nicotine products: Description of the scientific framework and assessment of a closed modular electronic cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James; Gaca, Marianna; Lowe, Frazer; Minet, Emmanuel; Breheny, Damien; Prasad, Krishna; Camacho, Oscar; Fearon, Ian M; Liu, Chuan; Wright, Christopher; McAdam, Kevin; Proctor, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    Cigarette smoking causes many human diseases including cardiovascular disease, lung disease and cancer. Novel tobacco products with reduced yields of toxicants compared to cigarettes, such as tobacco-heating products, snus and electronic cigarettes, hold great potential for reducing the harms associated with tobacco use. In the UK several public health agencies have advocated a potential role for novel products in tobacco harm reduction. Public Health England has stated that "The current best estimate is that e-cigarettes are around 95% less harmful than smoking" and the Royal College of Physicians has urged public health to "Promote e-cigarettes widely as substitute for smoking". Health related claims on novel products such as 'reduced exposure' and 'reduced risk' should be substantiated using a weight of evidence approach based on a comprehensive scientific assessment. The US FDA, has provided draft guidance outlining a framework to assess novel products as Modified Risk Tobacco Products (MRTP). Based on this, we now propose a framework comprising pre-clinical, clinical, and population studies to assess the risk profile of novel tobacco products. Additionally, the utility of this framework is assessed through the pre-clinical and part of the clinical comparison of a commercial e-cigarette (Vype ePen) with a scientific reference cigarette (3R4F) and the results of these studies suggest that ePen has the potential to be a reduced risk product. Copyright © 2017 British American Tobacco Ltd. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetically modified crops and aquatic ecosystems: considerations for environmental risk assessment and non-target organism testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Keri; Anderson, Jennifer; Bachman, Pamela; De Schrijver, Adinda; Dively, Galen; Federici, Brian; Hamer, Mick; Gielkens, Marco; Jensen, Peter; Lamp, William; Rauschen, Stefan; Ridley, Geoff; Romeis, Jörg; Waggoner, Annabel

    2012-08-01

    Environmental risk assessments (ERA) support regulatory decisions for the commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops. The ERA for terrestrial agroecosystems is well-developed, whereas guidance for ERA of GM crops in aquatic ecosystems is not as well-defined. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate how comprehensive problem formulation can be used to develop a conceptual model and to identify potential exposure pathways, using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as a case study. Within problem formulation, the insecticidal trait, the crop, the receiving environment, and protection goals were characterized, and a conceptual model was developed to identify routes through which aquatic organisms may be exposed to insecticidal proteins in maize tissue. Following a tiered approach for exposure assessment, worst-case exposures were estimated using standardized models, and factors mitigating exposure were described. Based on exposure estimates, shredders were identified as the functional group most likely to be exposed to insecticidal proteins. However, even using worst-case assumptions, the exposure of shredders to Bt maize was low and studies supporting the current risk assessments were deemed adequate. Determining if early tier toxicity studies are necessary to inform the risk assessment for a specific GM crop should be done on a case by case basis, and should be guided by thorough problem formulation and exposure assessment. The processes used to develop the Bt maize case study are intended to serve as a model for performing risk assessments on future traits and crops.

  6. Development of Instructional Competencies for Assessing and Managing Suicide Risk for Baccalaureate Nursing Education: A Modified Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowski, Abigail; Roye, Carol

    2017-03-01

    Suicide is a major health problem and a leading cause of death throughout the world. A primary goal for suicide prevention is reforming health professional education in order to increase the competence of health professionals in assessing and managing suicide risk. Nursing leadership is involved in this reform, yet nurses frequently lack the competence to care for patients in suicidal crisis. An identified gap in baccalaureate nursing education is instructional competencies for assessing and managing suicide risk. A modified Delphi study was used. The study began with a focus group which was conducted in order to develop the Round I Survey which included forty-four competencies. After scoring these competencies, thirty-four were scored for inclusion, two were dropped and eight were revised according to panel members' comments. The Round II Survey comprised the eight revised competencies which were scored for inclusion, resulting in forty-two competencies in the final set of instructional competencies. Forty-two instructional competencies were developed: fourteen pre-assessment instructional competencies, fifteen assessment instructional competencies, and thirteen management instructional competencies. Incorporating these instructional competencies into baccalaureate nursing education might increase the competence of nursing students, and thus new nurses, in caring for patients at risk for suicide. These instructional competencies provide a first step to address the challenging task of intervening with patients at risk for suicide.

  7. Cognitive function modifies the effect of physiological function on the risk of multiple falls--a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kara L; Blizzard, Leigh; Srikanth, Velandai K; Wood, Amanda; Thomson, Russell; Sanders, Lauren M; Callisaya, Michele L

    2013-09-01

    There is a poor understanding of the interplay between cognitive and physiological functions in leading to falls. We hypothesized that poorer physiological function would modify the effect of poorer cognitive function on increased risk of falling in older people. A range of cognitive (executive function/attention, memory, processing speed, and visuospatial ability) and physiological functions (vision, proprioception, sway, leg strength, reaction time) were measured using standardized tests in 386 randomly selected adults aged 60-86. Incident falls were recorded over 12 months. Log-multinomial regression was used to model the relationships and test for interactions between cognition and physiological function in explaining the risk of single or multiple falls. Overall, 94 people (24.4%) had a single fall, and 78 (20.2%) had multiple falls. No significant associations were observed between cognitive function and the risk of single falls. The risk of multiple falls was increased with poorer function in Stroop dot time (RR = 1.03, 95% CI [1.01, 1.05], p = .002) and Stroop word time (RR = 1.02 [1.01, 1.03], p = .001) and reduced with better function in Category Fluency (RR = 0.94 [0.91, 0.98], p = .001) and visuospatial function (RR = 0.95 [0.92, 0.98], p falls due to physiological impairments in community-dwelling older people may need to be tailored based on cognitive impairment, a key factor in their inability to compensate for physical decline.

  8. 75 FR 2879 - Use of Tobacco Marketing Descriptors to Convey Modified Risk; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... the agency's development of guidance on the meaning of the term ``similar descriptors.'' A copy of the... Product packaging plays a critical role in fostering brand loyalty and communicating messages to consumers... imply purification or healthfulness; Words used in brand names that have associations with potency, risk...

  9. Lack of transparency on environmental risks of genetically modified micro-organisms in industrial biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamis, W.L.M.; Dommelen, van A.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2009-01-01

    For the sustainable development of technological innovations the involvement of non-specialist stakeholders is crucial, which requires transparency of the knowledge base of the risks and benefits concerned. This paper evaluates the basic assumptions of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and

  10. Evaluation of the modifying effects of unfavourable genotypes on classical clinical risk factors for ischaemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Szolnoki, Z; Somogyvari, F; Kondacs, A; Szabo, M; Fodor, L; Bene, J; Melegh, B

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Ischaemic stroke is a frequent heterogeneous multifactorial disease that is affected by a number of genetic mutations and environmental factors. We hypothesised the clinical importance of the interactions between common, unfavourable genetic mutations and clinical risk factors in the development of ischaemic stroke.

  11. Modifiable risk factors of coronary heart disease in male first time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following parameters were recorded: personal details, health status, smoking habits, mass, height, body composition, blood pressure, total cholesterol, physical working capacity and predicted aerobic capacity. The majority of subjects (50.9 %) displayed two or more, 27.3 % three or more and 8.2 % four or more, risk ...

  12. 76 FR 36544 - Scientific Evaluation of Modified Risk Tobacco Product Applications; Public Workshop; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) by adding section 911 (21 U.S.C. 387k), which... or the risk of tobacco-related disease if its label, labeling, or advertising represents, either... product's: Label, labeling, or advertising uses the words ``light,'' ``mild,'' or ``low,'' or similar...

  13. Validation of an age-modified caries risk assessment program (Cariogram) in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgerson, Pernilla Lif; Twetman, Svante; Stecksèn-Blicks, Christina

    2009-01-01

    AND METHODS: Caries risk was assessed in 125 two-year-old children invited to participate in a 2-year caries-preventive trial with xylitol tablets. At 7 years of age, 103 were available for follow-up, 48 from the former intervention group and 55 from the control group. At baseline and after 5 years, 7...

  14. Mitochondrial haplogroups modify the risk of developing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a Danish population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Hagen

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes coding for proteins involved in sarcomere function. The disease is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Evolutionarily developed variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, defining mtDNA haplogroups and haplogroup clusters, is associated with functional differences in mitochondrial function and susceptibility to various diseases, including ischemic cardiomyopathy. We hypothesized that mtDNA haplogroups, in particular H, J and K, might modify disease susceptibility to HCM. Mitochondrial DNA, isolated from blood, was sequenced and haplogroups identified in 91 probands with HCM. The association with HCM was ascertained using two Danish control populations. Haplogroup H was more prevalent in HCM patients, 60% versus 46% (p = 0.006 and 41% (p = 0.003, in the two control populations. Haplogroup J was less prevalent, 3% vs. 12.4% (p = 0.017 and 9.1%, (p = 0.06. Likewise, the UK haplogroup cluster was less prevalent in HCM, 11% vs. 22.1% (p = 0.02 and 22.8% (p = 0.04. These results indicate that haplogroup H constitutes a susceptibility factor and that haplogroup J and haplogroup cluster UK are protective factors in the development of HCM. Thus, constitutive differences in mitochondrial function may influence the occurrence and clinical presentation of HCM. This could explain some of the phenotypic variability in HCM. The fact that haplogroup H and J are also modifying factors in ischemic cardiomyopathy suggests that mtDNA haplotypes may be of significance in determining whether a physiological hypertrophy develops into myopathy. mtDNA haplotypes may have the potential of becoming significant biomarkers in cardiomyopathy.

  15. Modifiable risk factors for pneumonia requiring hospitalization of community-dwelling older adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; De Rekeneire, Nathalie; Allore, Heather; Chen, Shu; O'Leary, John R; Bauer, Douglas C; Harris, Tamara B; Newman, Anne B; Yende, Sachin; Weyant, Robert J; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Quagliarello, Vincent

    2013-07-01

    To identify novel modifiable risk factors, focusing on oral hygiene, for pneumonia requiring hospitalization of community-dwelling older adults. Prospective observational cohort study. Memphis, Tennessee, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Of 3,075 well-functioning community-dwelling adults aged 70 to 79 enrolled in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study from 1997 to 1998, 1,441 had complete data in the data set of all variables used, a dental examination within 6 months of baseline, and were eligible for this study. The primary outcome was pneumonia requiring hospitalization through 2008. Of 1,441 participants, 193 were hospitalized for pneumonia. In a multivariable model, male sex (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.51-2.83), white race (HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.03-2.01), history of pneumonia (HR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.86-5.14), pack-years of smoking (HR = 1.006, 95% CI = 1.001-1.011), and percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 minute (moderate vs mild lung disease or normal lung function, HR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.28-2.48; severe lung disease vs mild lung disease or normal lung function, HR = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.51-5.57) were nonmodifiable risk factors for pneumonia. Incident mobility limitation (HR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.32-2.38) and higher mean oral plaque score (HR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.02-1.64) were modifiable risk factors for pneumonia. Average attributable fractions revealed that 11.5% of cases of pneumonia were attributed to incident mobility limitation and 10.3% to a mean oral plaque score of 1 or greater. Incident mobility limitation and higher mean oral plaque score were two modifiable risk factors that 22% of pneumonia requiring hospitalization could be attributed to. These data suggest innovative opportunities for pneumonia prevention among community-dwelling older adults. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Risk of childhood otitis media with focus on potentially modifiable factors: A Danish follow-up cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kørvel-Hanquist, Asbjørn; Koch, Anders; Lous, Jørgen; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Homøe, Preben

    2018-03-01

    Otitis media is the primary cause of antibiotic prescription in children. Two-thirds of all children experience at least one episode of otitis media before the age of 7 years. The aim of this study was to characterise the attributable effect of several modifiable risk exposures on the risk of >3 episodes of otitis media at age 18 months and 7 years within a large prospective national birth cohort. The study used the Danish National Birth Cohort comprising information about otitis media and risk exposures from more than 50,000 mother-child pairs from the period 1996-2002. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for the risk factors and to calculate the population attributable fraction. Short time with breastfeeding, early introduction to daycare, cesarean section, and low compliance to the national vaccination program were all associated with an increased risk of >3 episodes of otitis media at 18 months of age and at 7 years of age. The fraction of children with otitis media attributed from breastfeeding lasting for less than 6 months was 10%. Introduction to daycare before the age of 12 months attributed with 20% of the cases of >3 episodes of otitis media. Short duration of breastfeeding, early introduction into daycare, cesarean section, and low compliance with the national vaccination program increased the risk of experiencing >3 episodes of otitis media at 18 months, and at 7 years of age. These are factors that all can be modulated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism as an important modifier of positive family history related breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Pia; Hirvonen, Ari; Kataja, Vesa; Eskelinen, Matti; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Uusitupa, Matti; Vainio, Harri; Mitrunen, Katja

    2004-04-01

    The association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and diseases such as breast cancer, prostate cancer and osteoporosis has been extensively investigated during recent years. To date, several polymorphisms have been found in the VDR gene. In this Finnish case-control study, comprising 483 breast cancer patients and 482 healthy population controls, we investigated the association between altered breast cancer risk and two polymorphisms in the 3' end of the gene detectable with ApaI and TaqI restriction enzymes. A statistically significant difference was observed in the ApaI genotype distribution between cases and controls. Women with the VDR variant a allele containing genotypes showed a decreased risk for breast cancer [odds ratio (OR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-0.98] compared to women with the AA genotype. This association was especially strong among women with a positive family history of breast cancer (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03-0.76). Moreover, there was a trend (P for trend = 0.0007) for decreased risk with increasing number of variant alleles. The lowest risk of breast cancer was seen for the women with the aa genotype (OR 0.03, 95% CI 0.003-0.31) compared to women with the AA genotype. A tendency of decreased risk of breast cancer was also observed for the TaqI T allele containing genotypes (Tt and TT) (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.41-1.12), but because the distribution of Taql alleles in the controls missed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P = 0.01), we were unable to properly assess the potential impact of the TaqI polymorphism in breast cancer susceptibility. In conclusion, our results suggest that the VDR ApaI genotype may be an important modifier of individual breast cancer risk among Finnish women, especially if they have a positive family history of breast cancer.

  18. The burden of cancer attributable to modifiable risk factors: the Australian cancer-PAF cohort consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga, Maria E; Vajdic, Claire M; Canfell, Karen; MacInnis, Robert; Hull, Peter; Magliano, Dianna J; Banks, Emily; Giles, Graham G; Cumming, Robert G; Byles, Julie E; Taylor, Anne W; Shaw, Jonathan E; Price, Kay; Hirani, Vasant; Mitchell, Paul; Adelstein, Barbara-Ann; Laaksonen, Maarit A

    2017-06-14

    To estimate the Australian cancer burden attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors and their combinations using a novel population attributable fraction (PAF) method that accounts for competing risk of death, risk factor interdependence and statistical uncertainty. 365 173 adults from seven Australian cohort studies. We linked pooled harmonised individual participant cohort data with population-based cancer and death registries to estimate exposure-cancer and exposure-death associations. Current Australian exposure prevalence was estimated from representative external sources. To illustrate the utility of the new PAF method, we calculated fractions of cancers causally related to body fatness or both tobacco and alcohol consumption avoidable in the next 10 years by risk factor modifications, comparing them with fractions produced by traditional PAF methods. Over 10 years of follow-up, we observed 27 483 incident cancers and 22 078 deaths. Of cancers related to body fatness (n=9258), 13% (95% CI 11% to 16%) could be avoided if those currently overweight or obese had body mass index of 18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 . Of cancers causally related to both tobacco and alcohol (n=4283), current or former smoking explains 13% (11% to 16%) and consuming more than two alcoholic drinks per day explains 6% (5% to 8%). The two factors combined explain 16% (13% to 19%): 26% (21% to 30%) in men and 8% (4% to 11%) in women. Corresponding estimates using the traditional PAF method were 20%, 31% and 10%. Our PAF estimates translate to 74 000 avoidable body fatness-related cancers and 40 000 avoidable tobacco- and alcohol-related cancers in Australia over the next 10 years (2017-2026). Traditional PAF methods not accounting for competing risk of death and interdependence of risk factors may overestimate PAFs and avoidable cancers. We will rank the most important causal factors and their combinations for a spectrum of cancers and inform cancer control activities. © Article

  19. Risk of nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteraemia in African children is modified by STAT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, James J; Rautanen, Anna; Fairfax, Benjamin P; Mills, Tara C; Naranbhai, Vivek; Trochet, Holly; Pirinen, Matti; Muthumbi, Esther; Mwarumba, Salim; Njuguna, Patricia; Mturi, Neema; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gondwe, Esther N; MacLennan, Jenny M; Chapman, Stephen J; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Knight, Julian C; Spencer, Chris C A; Williams, Thomas N; MacLennan, Calman A; Scott, J Anthony G; Hill, Adrian V S

    2018-03-09

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a major cause of bacteraemia in Africa. The disease typically affects HIV-infected individuals and young children, causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Here we present a genome-wide association study (180 cases, 2677 controls) and replication analysis of NTS bacteraemia in Kenyan and Malawian children. We identify a locus in STAT4, rs13390936, associated with NTS bacteraemia. rs13390936 is a context-specific expression quantitative trait locus for STAT4 RNA expression, and individuals carrying the NTS-risk genotype demonstrate decreased interferon-γ (IFNγ) production in stimulated natural killer cells, and decreased circulating IFNγ concentrations during acute NTS bacteraemia. The NTS-risk allele at rs13390936 is associated with protection against a range of autoimmune diseases. These data implicate interleukin-12-dependent IFNγ-mediated immunity as a determinant of invasive NTS disease in African children, and highlight the shared genetic architecture of infectious and autoimmune disease.

  20. Poor oral health as a chronic, potentially modifiable dementia risk factor: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, James M; Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Papapanou, Panos N

    2013-10-01

    Poor oral health, including caries, tooth loss, and periodontitis, is ubiquitous worldwide, and is potentially treatable and preventable. Like adverse oral health conditions, Alzheimer disease and related disorders are also very common among aging populations. Established risk factors for Alzheimer disease include cerebrovascular disease and its vascular risk factors, many of which share associations with evidence of systemic inflammation also identified in periodontitis and other poor oral health states. In this review, we present epidemiologic evidence of links between poor oral health and both prevalent and incident cognitive impairment, and review plausible mechanisms linking these conditions, including evidence from compelling animal models. Considering that a large etiologic fraction of dementia remains unexplained, these studies argue for further multidisciplinary research between oral health conditions, including translational, epidemiologic, and possibly clinical treatment studies.

  1. Development of a modified Winchester disability scale--the elderly at risk rating scale.

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, I P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To show that the elderly at risk rating scale (EARRS) satisfies the requirements of an assessment tool for routine health checks in people over 75 and would also be suitable as a method of collecting epidemiological data on the needs of the elderly in a locality. DESIGN: Development and validation of a questionnaire based on a modification of the Winchester rating scale, by a series of prospective, comparative studies before the use of the instrument in a community survey. SETTING:...

  2. Knowledge of diets as a modifiable risk factor of obesity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respondents aged 30-34 years were more likely to have higher knowledge of healthy eating as MRF of obesity than those aged 15-19 years (OR: 2.6; 95%CI: 1.3–5.2). Despite the awareness on causes of obesity, there was no significant difference between knowledge of diets as risk factors to obesity and BMI. Nutrition ...

  3. Communication as a tool to modify the negative perception of radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, L.; Prieto, D.; Sanchez, K.; Ferrer, N.; Arranz, L.

    2011-01-01

    The radiation risks are probably for historical reasons related to their military origin, the paradigm of subjectivity and its perception by the population has become increasingly of interest to those responsible for management and management of any applications of ionizing radiation. This interest is positive because the more you know, the better will the conditions to try to change attitudes and approaches to the problem, particularly from the point of view of communication with society.

  4. A Modified Integrated Genetic Model for Risk Prediction in Younger Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Caroline E; Luskin, Marlise R; Boccuti, Anne M; Sehgal, Alison R; Zhao, Jianhua; Daber, Robert D; Morrissette, Jennifer J D; Luger, Selina M; Bagg, Adam; Gimotty, Phyllis A; Carroll, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Although cytogenetics-based prognostication systems are well described in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), overall survival (OS) remains highly variable within risk groups. An integrated genetic prognostic (IGP) model using cytogenetics plus mutations in nine genes was recently proposed for patients ≤60 years to improve classification. This model has not been validated in clinical practice. We retrospectively studied 197 patients with newly diagnosed de novo AML. We compared OS curves among the mutational profiles defined by the IGP model. The IGP model assigned patients with intermediate cytogenetics as having favorable, intermediate or unfavorable mutational profiles. The IGP model reassigned 50 of 137 patients with intermediate cytogenetics to favorable or unfavorable mutational profiles. Median OS was 2.8 years among 14 patients with intermediate cytogenetics and favorable mutational profiles (mutant NPM1 and mutant IDH1 or IDH2) and 1.3 years among patients with intermediate mutational profiles. Among patients with intermediate cytogenetics labeled as having unfavorable mutational profiles, median OS was 0.8 years among 24 patients with FLT3-ITD positive AML and high-risk genetic changes (trisomy 8, TET2 and/or DNMT3A) and 1.7 years among 12 patients with FLT3-ITD negative AML and high-risk mutations (TET2, ASXL1 and/or PHF6). OS for patients with intermediate cytogenetics and favorable mutational profiles was similar to OS for patients with favorable cytogenetics (p = 0.697) and different from patients with intermediate cytogenetics and intermediate mutational profiles (p = 0.028). OS among patients with FLT3-ITD positive AML and high-risk genetic changes was similar to patients with unfavorable cytogenetics (p = 0.793) and different from patients with intermediate IGP profile (p = 0.022). Patients with FLT3-ITD negative AML and high-risk mutations, defined as 'unfavorable' in the IGP model, had OS similar to patients with intermediate IGP profile (p = 0

  5. A Modified Integrated Genetic Model for Risk Prediction in Younger Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline E Sloan

    Full Text Available Although cytogenetics-based prognostication systems are well described in acute myeloid leukemia (AML, overall survival (OS remains highly variable within risk groups. An integrated genetic prognostic (IGP model using cytogenetics plus mutations in nine genes was recently proposed for patients ≤60 years to improve classification. This model has not been validated in clinical practice.We retrospectively studied 197 patients with newly diagnosed de novo AML. We compared OS curves among the mutational profiles defined by the IGP model. The IGP model assigned patients with intermediate cytogenetics as having favorable, intermediate or unfavorable mutational profiles. The IGP model reassigned 50 of 137 patients with intermediate cytogenetics to favorable or unfavorable mutational profiles. Median OS was 2.8 years among 14 patients with intermediate cytogenetics and favorable mutational profiles (mutant NPM1 and mutant IDH1 or IDH2 and 1.3 years among patients with intermediate mutational profiles. Among patients with intermediate cytogenetics labeled as having unfavorable mutational profiles, median OS was 0.8 years among 24 patients with FLT3-ITD positive AML and high-risk genetic changes (trisomy 8, TET2 and/or DNMT3A and 1.7 years among 12 patients with FLT3-ITD negative AML and high-risk mutations (TET2, ASXL1 and/or PHF6. OS for patients with intermediate cytogenetics and favorable mutational profiles was similar to OS for patients with favorable cytogenetics (p = 0.697 and different from patients with intermediate cytogenetics and intermediate mutational profiles (p = 0.028. OS among patients with FLT3-ITD positive AML and high-risk genetic changes was similar to patients with unfavorable cytogenetics (p = 0.793 and different from patients with intermediate IGP profile (p = 0.022. Patients with FLT3-ITD negative AML and high-risk mutations, defined as 'unfavorable' in the IGP model, had OS similar to patients with intermediate IGP profile (p

  6. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, David G.; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel; Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Ouimet, Manon; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Szabo, Csilla; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Caligo, Maria A.; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch, Shani S.; Borg, Åke; Karlsson, Per; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Bustinza, Gisela Barbany; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti A.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Devilee, Peter; Gille, Hans J. J. P.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Paterson, Joan; Eason, Jacqueline; Godwin, Andrew K.; Remon, Marie-Alice; Moncoutier, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lasset, Christine; Giraud, Sophie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Sobol, Hagay; Eisinger, François; Bressac de Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Delnatte, Capucine; Goldgar, David; Miron, Alex; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Buys, Saundra; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary Beth; Singer, Christian F.; Dressler, Anne-Catharina; tea, Muy-Kheng; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Johannsson, Oskar; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Basil, Jack B.; Blank, Stephanie; Toland, Amanda E.; Montagna, Marco; Isaacs, Claudine; Blanco, Ignacio; Gayther, Simon A.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Fiebig, Britta; Caldes, Trinidad; Laframboise, Rachel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Glendon, Gord; Selander, Teresa; Weerasooriya, Nayana; Nordling, Margareta; Bergman, Annika; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Liedgren, Sigrun; Loman, Niklas; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Soller, Maria; Jernström, Helena; Harbst, Katja; Henriksson, Karin; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Liljegren, Annelie; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Melin, Beatrice; Grönberg, Henrik; Stattin, Eva-Lena; Emanuelsson, Monica; Ehrencrona, Hans; Brandell, Richard Rosenquist; Dahl, Niklas; Hogervorst, F. B. L.; Verhoef, S.; Verheus, M.; van't Veer, L. J.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Rookus, M. A.; Collée, M.; van den Ouweland, A. M. W.; Jager, A.; Hooning, M. J.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M. M. A.; Seynaeve, C.; van Asperen, C. J.; Wijnen, J. T.; Vreeswijk, M. P.; Tollenaar, R. A.; Devilee, P.; Ligtenberg, M. J.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Ausems, M. G.; van der Luijt, R. B.; van Os, T. A.; Gille, J. J. P.; Waisfisz, Q.; Meijers-Heijboer, H. E. J.; Gomez-Garcia, E. B.; van Roozendaal, C. E.; Blok, Marinus J.; Caanen, B.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; van der Hout, A. H.; Mourits, M. J.; Vasen, H. F.; Cook, Margaret; Platte, Radka; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Gregory, Helen; Morrison, Patrick; Jeffers, Lisa; Cole, Trevor; Ong, Kai-Ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; Donaldson, Alan; James, Margaret; Downing, Sarah; Taylor, Amy; Murray, Alexandra; Rogers, Mark T.; McCann, Emma; Kennedy, M. John; Barton, David; Porteous, Mary; Drummond, Sarah; Brewer, Carole; Kivuva, Emma; Searle, Anne; Goodman, Selina; Hill, Kathryn; Davidson, Rosemarie; Murday, Victoria; Bradshaw, Nicola; Snadden, Lesley; Longmuir, Mark; Watt, Catherine; Gibson, Sarah; Haque, Eshika; Tobias, Ed; Duncan, Alexis; Jacobs, Chris; Langman, Caroline; Whaite, Anna; Dorkins, Huw; Barwell, Julian; Chu, Carol; Miller, Julie; Ellis, Ian; Houghton, Catherine; Lalloo, Fiona; Taylor, Jane; Side, Lucy; Male, Alison; Berlin, Cheryl; Collier, Rebecca; Douglas, Fiona; Claber, Oonagh; Jobson, Irene; Walker, Lisa; McLeod, Diane; Halliday, Dorothy; Durell, Sarah; Stayner, Barbara; Shanley, Susan; Rahman, Nazneen; Houlston, Richard; Bancroft, Elizabeth; D'Mello, Lucia; Page, Elizabeth; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Kohut, Kelly; Wiggins, Jennifer; Castro, Elena; Mitra, Anita; Robertson, Lisa; Cook, Jackie; Quarrell, Oliver; Bardsley, Cathryn; Hodgson, Shirley; Goff, Sheila; Brice, Glen; Winchester, Lizzie; Eddy, Charlotte; Tripathi, Vishakha; Attard, Virginia; Eccles, Diana; Lucassen, Anneke; Crawford, Gillian; McBride, Donna; Smalley, Sarah; Sinilnikova, Olga; Léone, Mélanie; Buecher, Bruno; Houdayer, Claude; Belotti, Muriel; Tirapo, Carole; de Pauw, Antoine; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Byrde, Véronique; Lenoir, Gilbert; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Bonadona, Valérie; Bourdon, Violaine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Coupier, Isabelle; Pujol, Pascal; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Révillion, Françoise; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Rouleau, Etienne; Lidereau, Rosette; Demange, Liliane; Nogues, Catherine; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Longy, Michel; Sevenet, Nicolas; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Hèléne; Rebischung, Christine; Coron, Fanny; Faivre, Laurence; Prieur, Fabienne; Lebrun, Marine; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Lynch, Henry T.; Snyder, Carrie L.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly

  7. A Nonsynonymous Polymorphism in IRS1 Modifies Risk of Developing Breast and Ovarian Cancers in BRCA1 and Ovarian Cancer in BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, Yuan C.; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Paluch-Shimon, Shani-; Kaufman, Bella; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Byrski, Tomasz; Osorio, Ana; Cajal, Teresa Ramóny; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V.; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; Aalfs, Cora M.; de Lange, Judith L.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Gómez García, Encarna B.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Jager, Agnes; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Easton, Douglas F.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Brewer, Carole; Tischkowitz, Marc; Godwin, Andrew K.; Pathak, Harsh; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Léoné, Mélanie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Dreyfus, Hélène; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Sokolowska, Johanna; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy; John, Esther M.; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; tea, Muy-Kheng Maria; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar T.; Offit, Kenneth; Sarrel, Kara; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion R.; Andrews, Lesley; Cohn, David; DeMars, Leslie R.; DiSilvestro, Paul; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Isaacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Ramus, Susan J.; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Garber, Judy E.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Tung, Nadine; Blum, Joanne L.; Narod, Steven A.; Brummel, Sean; Gillen, Daniel L.; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Couch, Fergus J.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Lee, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Neuhausen, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and were

  8. A nonsynonymous polymorphism in IRS1 modifies risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and ovarian cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.C. Ding (Yuan); L. McGuffog (Lesley); S. Healey (Sue); E. Friedman (Eitan); Y. Laitman (Yael); S.-P. Shimon (Shani-Paluch); B. Kaufman (Bella); A. Liljegren (Annelie); A. Lindblom (Annika); H. Olsson; U. Kristoffersson (Ulf); M. Stenmark-Askmalm (M.); B. Melin (Beatrice); S.M. Domchek (Susan); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); J. Gronwald (Jacek); T. Huzarski (Tomasz); C. Cybulski (Cezary); T. Byrski (Tomasz); A. Osorio (Ana); T.R. Cajal; A. Stavropoulou (Alexandra); J. Benítez (Javier); U. Hamann (Ute); M.A. Rookus (Matti); C.M. Aalfs (Cora); J.L. de Lange (J.); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); J.C. Oosterwijk (Jan); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline); A. Jager (Agnes); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); D.F. Easton (Douglas); S. Peock (Susan); D. Frost (Debra); S.D. Ellis (Steve); R. Platte (Radka); E. Fineberg (Elena); D.G. Evans (Gareth); F. Lalloo (Fiona); L. Izatt (Louise); R. Eeles (Rosalind); J.W. Adlard (Julian); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); D. Eccles (Diana); T.J. Cole (Trevor); J. Cook (Jackie); C. Brewer (Carole); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); S.S. Pathak; D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); L. Barjhoux (Laure); M. Léone (Mélanie); M. Gauthier-Villars (Marion); V. Caux-Moncoutier (Virginie); A. de Pauw (Antoine); A. Hardouin (Agnès); P. Berthet (Pascaline); H. Dreyfus (Hélène); S.F. Ferrer; M.-A. Collonge-Rame; J. Sokolowska (Johanna); S.S. Buys (Saundra); M.B. Daly (Mary); A. Miron (Alexander); M.-B. Terry (Mary-Beth); W. Chung (Wendy); E.M. John (Esther); M.C. Southey (Melissa); D. Goldgar (David); C.F. Singer (Christian); M.-K. Tea; D. Gschwantler-Kaulich (Daphne); A. Fink-Retter (Anneliese); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); O.T. Johannson (Oskar); K. Offit (Kenneth); K. Sarrel (Kara); M.M. Gaudet (Mia); J. Vijai (Joseph); M. Robson (Mark); M. Piedmonte (Marion); L. Andrews (Lesley); D.E. Cohn (David); L.R. DeMars (Leslie); P. DiSilvestro (Paul); G.C. Rodriguez (Gustavo); A.E. Toland (Amanda); M. Montagna (Marco); S. Agata (Simona); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); C. Isaacs (Claudine); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); C. Lazaro (Conxi); I. Blanco (Ignacio); S.J. Ramus (Susan); L. Sucheston (Lara); B.Y. Karlan (Beth); J. Gross (Jenny); P.A. Ganz (Patricia); M.S. Beattie (Mary); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); A. Meindl (Alfons); N. Arnold (Norbert); D. Niederacher (Dieter); S. Preisler-Adams (Sabine); D. Gadzicki (Dorothea); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); H. Deissler (Helmut); P.A. Gehrig (Paola A.); C. Sutter (Christian); K. Kast (Karin); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); J. Simard (Jacques); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); J. Beesley (Jonathan); X. Chen (Xiaoqing); G. Tomlinson (Gail); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); J. Garber; O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); W.S. Rubinstein (Wendy); N. Tung (Nadine); J.L. Blum (Joanne); S. Narod (Steven); S. Brummel (Sean); D.L. Gillen (Daniel); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); Z. Fredericksen (Zachary); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); F.J. Couch (Fergus); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); M.H. Greene (Mark); J.T. Loud (Jennifer); P.L. Mai (Phuong); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); G. Glendon (Gord); H. Ozcelik (Hilmi); A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); M. Thomassen (Mads); U.B. Jensen; A.-B. Skytte (Anne-Bine); M.A. Caligo (Maria); A. Lee (Andrew); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk inwomen carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and

  9. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigorito, E.; Kuchenbaecker, K.B.; Beesley, J.; Adlard, J.; Agnarsson, B.A.; Andrulis, I.L.; Arun, B.K.; Barjhoux, L.; Belotti, M.; Benitez, J.; Berger, A.; Bojesen, A.; Bonanni, B.; Brewer, C.; Caldes, T.; Caligo, M.A.; Campbell, I.; Chan, S.B.; Claes, K.B.; Cohn, D.E.; Cook, J.; Daly, M.B.; Damiola, F.; Davidson, R.; Pauw, A. de; Delnatte, C.; Diez, O.; Domchek, S.M.; Dumont, M.; Durda, K.; Dworniczak, B.; Easton, D.F.; Eccles, D.; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, C.; Eeles, R.; Ejlertsen, B.; Ellis, S.; Evans, D.G.; Feliubadalo, L.; Fostira, F.; Foulkes, W.D.; Friedman, E.; Frost, D.; Gaddam, P.; Ganz, P.A.; Garber, J.; Garcia-Barberan, V.; Gauthier-Villars, M.; Gehrig, A.; Gerdes, A.M.; Giraud, S.; Godwin, A.K.; Goldgar, D.E.; Hake, C.R.; Hansen, T.V.; Healey, S.; Hodgson, S.; Hogervorst, F.B.; Houdayer, C.; Hulick, P.J.; Imyanitov, E.N.; Isaacs, C.; Izatt, L.; Izquierdo, A.; Jacobs, L; Jakubowska, A.; Janavicius, R.; Jaworska-Bieniek, K.; Jensen, U.B.; John, E.M.; Vijai, J.; Karlan, B.Y.; Kast, K.; Khan, S.; Kwong, A.; Laitman, Y.; Lester, J.; Lesueur, F.; Liljegren, A.; Lubinski, J.; Mai, P.L.; Manoukian, S.; Mazoyer, S.; Meindl, A.; Mensenkamp, A.R.; Montagna, M.; Nathanson, K.L.; Neuhausen, S.L.; Nevanlinna, H.; Niederacher, D.; Olah, E.; Olopade, O.I.; Ong, K.R.; Osorio, A.; Park, S.K.; Paulsson-Karlsson, Y.; Pedersen, I.S.; Peissel, B.; Peterlongo, P.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2

  10. A Nonsynonymous Polymorphism in IRS1 Modifies Risk of Developing Breast and Ovarian Cancers in BRCA1 and Ovarian Cancer in BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, Y.C.; McGuffog, L.; Healey, S.; Friedman, E.; Laitman, Y.; Paluch-Shimon, S.; Kaufman, B.; Liljegren, A.; Lindblom, A.; Olsson, H.; Kristoffersson, U.; Stenmark-Askmalm, M.; Melin, B.; Domchek, S.M.; Nathanson, K.L.; Rebbeck, T.R.; Jakubowska, A.; Lubinski, J.; Jaworska, K.; Durda, K.; Gronwald, J.; Huzarski, T.; Cybulski, C.; Byrski, T.; Osorio, A.; Cajal, T.R.; Stavropoulou, A.V.; Benitez, J.; Hamann, U.; Rookus, M.; Aalfs, C.M.; Lange, J.L. de; Meijers-Heijboer, H.E.; Oosterwijk, J.C.; Asperen, C.J. van; Gomez Garcia, E.B.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Jager, A.; Luijt, R.B. van der; Easton, D.F.; Peock, S.; Frost, D.; Ellis, S.D.; Platte, R.; Fineberg, E.; Evans, D.G.; Lalloo, F.; Izatt, L.; Eeles, R.; Adlard, J.; Davidson, R.; Eccles, D.; Cole, T.; Cook, J.; Brewer, C.; Tischkowitz, M.; Godwin, A.K.; Pathak, H.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Sinilnikova, O.M.; Mazoyer, S.; Barjhoux, L.; Leone, M.; Gauthier-Villars, M.; Caux-Moncoutier, V.; Pauw, A. de; Hardouin, A.; Berthet, P.; Dreyfus, H.; Ferrer, S.F.; Collonge-Rame, M.A.; Sokolowska, J.; Buys, S.; Daly, M.; Miron, A.; Terry, M.B.; Chung, W.; John, E.M.; Southey, M.; Goldgar, D.; Singer, C.F.; Tea, M.K.; Gschwantler-Kaulich, D.; Fink-Retter, A.; Hansen, T.V.; Ejlertsen, B.; Johannsson, O.T.; Offit, K.; Sarrel, K.; Gaudet, M.M.; Vijai, J.; Robson, M.; Piedmonte, M.R.; Andrews, L.; Cohn, D.; Demars, L.R.; Disilvestro, P.; Rodriguez, G.; Toland, A.E.; Montagna, M.; Agata, S.; Imyanitov, E.; Isaacs, C.; Janavicius, R.; Lazaro, C.; Blanco, I.; Ramus, S.J.; Sucheston, L.; Karlan, B.Y.; Gross, J.; Ganz, P.A.; Beattie, M.S.; Schmutzler, R.K.; Wappenschmidt, B.; Meindl, A.; Arnold, N.; Niederacher, D.; Preisler-Adams, S.; Gadzicki, D.; Varon-Mateeva, R.; Deissler, H.; Gehrig, A.; Sutter, C.; Kast, K.; Nevanlinna, H.; Aittomaki, K.; Simard, J.; Spurdle, A.B.; Beesley, J.; Chen, X.; Tomlinson, G.E.; Weitzel, J.; Garber, J.E.; Olopade, O.I.; Rubinstein, W.S.; Tung, N.; Blum, J.L.; Narod, S.A.; Brummel, S.; Gillen, D.L.; Lindor, N.; Fredericksen, Z.; Pankratz, V.S.; Couch, F.J.; Radice, P.; Peterlongo, P.; Greene, M.H.; Loud, J.T.; Mai, P.L.; Andrulis, I.L.; Glendon, G.; Ozcelik, H.; Gerdes, A.M.; Thomassen, M.; Jensen, U.B.; Skytte, A.B.; Caligo, M.A.; Lee, A.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Antoniou, A.C.; Neuhausen, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and were

  11. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 ...

  12. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, David G; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly...

  13. Case studies on genetically modified organisms (GMOs): Potential risk scenarios and associated health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Barbara; Stockhofe, Norbert; Wal, Jean-Michel; Weesendorp, Eefke; Lallès, Jean-Paul; van Dijk, Jeroen; Kok, Esther; De Giacomo, Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Onori, Roberta; Brera, Carlo; Bikker, Paul; van der Meulen, Jan; Gijs, Kleter

    2017-08-30

    Within the frame of the EU-funded MARLON project, background data were reviewed to explore the possibility of measuring health indicators during post-market monitoring for potential effects of feeds, particularly genetically modified (GM) feeds, on livestock animal health, if applicable. Four case studies (CSs) of potential health effects on livestock were framed and the current knowledge of a possible effect of GM feed was reviewed. Concerning allergenicity (CS-1), there are no case-reports of allergic reactions or immunotoxic effects resulting from GM feed consumption as compared with non-GM feed. The likelihood of horizontal gene transfer (HGT; CS-2) of GMO-related DNA to different species is not different from that for other DNA and is unlikely to raise health concerns. Concerning mycotoxins (CS-3), insect-resistant GM maize may reduce fumonisins contamination as a health benefit, yet other Fusarium toxins and aflatoxins show inconclusive results. For nutritionally altered crops (CS-4), the genetic modifications applied lead to compositional changes which require special considerations of their nutritional impacts. No health indicators were thus identified except for possible beneficial impacts of reduced mycotoxins and nutritional enhancement. More generally, veterinary health data should ideally be linked with animal exposure information so as to be able to establish cause-effect relationships. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Modified PAIR Technique for Percutaneous Treatment of High-Risk Hydatid Cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabal, Abdelwahab M.; Khawaja, Fazal I.; Mohammad, Ghanem A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. This paper presents a modification of the known method for percutaneous treatment of hydatid cyst, the PAIR technique. It aimed to achieve safe aspiration of large symptomatic cysts and cysts with a danger of impending rupture. Methods. We designed a coaxial catheter system to achieve concomitant evacuation of cyst contents while infusing scolicidal agent. Hypertonic saline is used to wash out cyst contents and to kill protoscolices. This was followed by injection of a sclerosant (ethyl alcohol 95%) into the residual cyst cavity to prevent formation of a cyst collection after the procedure. Seventeen cysts in 14 patients were successfully aspirated. Follow-up plain radiographs, ultrasonography and CT were performed weekly in the first 4 weeks and then at 3, 6 and 12 months for all patients. Seven patients (9 drained cysts) were followed up for 2 years and 1 patient for 3 years. Results. All cysts were successfully aspirated. The following morphologic changes were noticed: a gradual decrease in cyst size (17 cysts, 100%), thickening and irregularity of the cyst wall due to separation of endocyst from pericyst (7 cysts, 41%), development of a heterogeneous appearance of the cyst components (8 cysts, 47%) and development of pseudotumor (2 cysts, 12%). None of the treated cysts disappeared completely. No significant procedure-related complications were encountered. Conclusion. This modified PAIR technique is a reliable method for percutaneous treatment of risky and symptomatic hydatid cysts

  15. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, David G; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly...... instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA1 gene would modify the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. A total of 9874 BRCA1 mutation...... carriers were available in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) for haplotype analyses of BRCA1. Women carrying the rare allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs16942 on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 were at decreased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence...

  16. Risks of herpes zoster in patients with rheumatoid arthritis according to biologic disease-modifying therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Huifeng; Xie, Fenglong; Delzell, Elizabeth; Chen, Lang; Levitan, Emily B; Lewis, James D; Saag, Kenneth G; Beukelman, Timothy; Winthrop, Kevin; Baddley, John W; Curtis, Jeffrey R

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate whether the risks of herpes zoster (HZ) differed by biologic agents with different mechanisms of action (MOAs) in older rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Using Medicare data from 2006-2011, among RA patients with prior biologic agent use and no history of cancer or other autoimmune diseases, this retrospective cohort study identified new treatment episodes of abatacept, adalimumab, certolizumab, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab, rituximab, and tocilizumab. Followup started on initiation of the new biologic agent and ended at any of the following: first incidence of HZ, a 30-day gap in current exposure, death, a diagnosis of other autoimmune disease or cancer, loss of insurance coverage, or December 31, 2011. We calculated the proportion of RA patients vaccinated for HZ in each calendar year prior to biologic agent initiation and HZ incidence rate for each biologic agent. We compared HZ risks among therapies using Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. Of 29,129 new biologic treatment episodes, 28.7% used abatacept, 15.9% adalimumab, 14.8% rituximab, 12.4% infliximab, 12.2% etanercept, 6.1% tocilizumab, 5.8% certolizumab, and 4.4% golimumab. The proportion of RA patients vaccinated for HZ prior to biologic agent initiation ranged from 0.4% in 2007 to 4.1% in 2011. We identified 423 HZ diagnoses with the highest HZ incidence rate for certolizumab (2.45 per 100 person-years) and the lowest for golimumab (1.61 per 100 person-years). Neither the crude incidence rate nor the adjusted hazard ratio differed significantly among biologic agents. Glucocorticoid use had a significant association with HZ. Among older patients with RA, the HZ risk was similar across biologic agents, including those with different MOAs. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Does influence at work modify the relation between high occupational physical activity and risk of heart disease in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesøe, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Rugulies, Reiner; Aadahl, Mette; Boyle, Eleanor; Søgaard, Karen

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether influence at work modifies the association between demanding and strenuous occupational physical activity (OPA) and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). A sample of 12,093 nurses aged 45-64 years from the Danish Nurse Cohort Study was followed for 20.6 years by individual linkage to incident IHD in the Danish National Patient Registry. Information on OPA, influence at work, other occupational factors and known risk factors for IHD was collected by self-report in 1993. During follow-up 869 nurses were hospitalised with incident IHD. Nurses exposed to strenuous OPA and low influence at work had a 46% increased risk of IHD [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-2.09)] compared to the reference group of nurses with moderate OPA and high influence at work. Nurses exposed to strenuous OPA and high influence at work were not at an increased risk of IHD [HR 1.10 (95% CI 0.59-2.06)]. An additive hazards model showed there were 18.0 (95% CI -0.01 to 36.0) additional cases of IHD per 10,000 person years among nurses with strenuous OPA and low influence at work compared to nurses with moderate OPA and high influence at work. A detrimental additive interaction between strenuous OPA and low influence at work that could explain the additional cases of IHD among nurses with strenuous OPA and low influence at work was indicated. The findings suggest that high influence at work may buffer some of the adverse effects of strenuous OPA on risk of IHD.

  18. Lifestyle modifies obesity-associated risk of cardiovascular disease in a genetically homogeneous population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit E; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    was to analyze whether obesity was associated with the same degree of metabolic disturbances in 2 groups of genetically homogeneous Inuit who were exposed to considerable differences in lifestyle. DESIGN: We studied obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a cross-sectional population survey of 2311...... Inuit living in Denmark (n = 995) or Greenland (n = 1316). The participants received an oral-glucose-tolerance test. Blood tests were supplemented by structured interviews and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. RESULTS: The trend in the association between obesity and metabolic effects...

  19. The Consumption of Dietary Antioxidant Vitamins Modifies the Risk of Obesity among Korean Men with Short Sleep Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miae Doo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Short sleep duration has been reported to be associated with various health problems. This study examined the influence of sleep duration on the odds of being obese in relation to the consumption of dietary antioxidant vitamins among 3941 Korean men between 40 and 69 years of age. After adjusting for age, education, household income, marital status, insomnia, smoking and drinking status, participants with short sleep duration (<6 h had significantly higher body mass index (p = 0.005, body fat mass (p = 0.010, body fat percentage (p = 0.021, waist circumference (p = 0.029, as well as the odds ratio (OR of risk of obesity [OR (95% CI = 1.467 (1.282–1.678], compared to participants with optimal sleep duration (≥7 h. Short sleepers with a low consumption of dietary antioxidant vitamins had a higher risk of obesity than those with a high consumption of dietary antioxidant vitamins; however, this relationship did not hold among those with optimal sleep duration. Although a causal relationship among sleep-related variables could not be definitively demonstrated because of this study’s cross-sectional design, our results suggested that the increased risk of obesity associated with short sleep duration may be modified by the consumption of dietary antioxidant vitamins.

  20. Does calcium in drinking water modify the association between nitrate in drinking water and risk of death from colon cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chen, Pei-Shih; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether calcium (Ca) levels in drinking water modified the effects of nitrate on colon cancer risk. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death from colon cancer and exposure to nitrate in drinking water in Taiwan. All colon cancer deaths of Taiwan residents from 2003 through 2007 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cases by gender, year of birth and year of death. Information on the levels of nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N) and Ca in drinking water have been collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The municipality of residence for cases and controls was assumed to be the source of the subject's NO(3)-N and Ca exposure via drinking water. We observed evidence of an interaction between drinking water NO(3)-N and Ca intake via drinking water. This is the first study to report effect modification by Ca intake from drinking water on the association between NO(3)-N exposure and risk of colon cancer mortality.

  1. Risk factors of systemic inflammation response syndrome after endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery in the modified Valdivia position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabei, Tadashi; Ito, Hiroki; Usui, Kimitsugu; Kuroda, Shinnosuke; Kawahara, Takashi; Terao, Hideyuki; Fujikawa, Atsushi; Makiyama, Kazuhide; Yao, Masahiro; Matsuzaki, Junichi

    2016-08-01

    To identify risk factors of developing systemic inflammation response syndrome after endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery in the modified Valdivia position for renal stone treatment. We retrospectively analyzed 370 consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery procedures in the modified Valdivia position to treat renal stones. Antibiotic therapy based on preoperative urine cultures was administered to all patients from induction of anesthesia until at least postoperative day 3. Postoperative systemic inflammation response syndrome was diagnosed if the patient met two or more systemic inflammation response syndrome criteria. A multivariate logistic regression model with backward selection was used to evaluate the relationships between the incidence of systemic inflammation response syndrome after endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery and other clinical factors. Of the 370 patients, 61 patients (16.5%) were diagnosed with systemic inflammation response syndrome after endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery. Significant differences were found between the non-systemic inflammation response syndrome and systemic inflammation response syndrome groups with regard to female sex (29.8% vs 44.3%, P = 0.027), history of febrile urinary tract infection (16.5% vs 32.8%, P = 0.015) and number of involved calyces (2.68 vs 4.1, P systemic inflammation response syndrome: the number of involved calyces (P = 0.017), stone surface area (P = 0.021) and history of febrile urinary tract infection (P = 0.005). The number of involved calyces larger than four, stone surface area >500 mm(2) and a history of febrile urinary tract infection independently predicted the development of systemic inflammation response syndrome after endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery. This is the first study to identify the independent predictors of systemic inflammation response syndrome after endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery in the modified Valdivia position. © 2016 The

  2. Primary particles and their agglomerate formation as modifying risk factors of nonfibrous nanosized dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J; Walter, D; Brückel, B; Rödelsperger, K

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of certain cancers correlates with the number of dust particles in the air. Nanosized particles differ from coarser particles by their increasing tendency to form agglomerates. The dissociation of biodurable agglomerates after deposition in the alveolar region resulted in a higher toxic potential. Biodurable dusts in the urban and workplace environment were analyzed to determine an effect-relevant exposure parameter. The characterization of the dusts relating to their number of primary particles (P(p)) and agglomerates and aggregates (A + A) was performed by electron microscopy. Diesel soot, toner material, and seven further dust samples in the workplace environment are composed of high numbers of nanosized primary particles (agglomerates. Primary particles of rock, kaoline, and seven further dusts sampled in the workplace are not nanosized. In a multivariate analysis that predicted lung tumor risk, the mass, volume, and numbers of A + A and P(p) per milligram dust were shown to be relevant parameters. Dose-response relationships revealed an increased tumor risk in rats with higher numbers of P(p) in nanosized dust, which occurs unintentionally in the environment.

  3. Participatory Approach to Long-Term Socio-Economic Scenarios as Building Block of a Local Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Tool - The Case Study Lienz (East-Tyrol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ina; Eder, Brigitte; Hama, Michiko; Leitner, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Risks associated with climate change are mostly still understood and analyzed in a sector- or hazard-specific and rarely in a systemic, dynamic and scenario-based manner. In addition, socio-economic trends are often neglected in local vulnerability and risk assessments although they represent potential key determinants of risk and vulnerability. The project ARISE (Adaptation and Decision Support via Risk Management Through Local Burning Embers) aims at filling this gap by applying a participatory approach to socio-economic scenario building as building block of a local vulnerability assessment and risk management tool. Overall, ARISE aims at developing a decision support system for climate-sensitive iterative risk management as a key adaptation tool for the local level using Lienz in the East-Tyrol as a test-site City. One central building block is participatory socio-economic scenario building that - together with regionalized climate change scenarios - form a centrepiece in the process-oriented assessment of climate change risks and vulnerability. Major vulnerabilities and risks may stem from the economic performance, the socio-economic or socio-demographic developments or changes in asset exposition and not from climate change impacts themselves. The IPCC 5th assessment report underlines this and states that for most economic sectors, the impact of climate change may be small relative to the impacts of other driving forces such as changes in population growth, age, income, technology, relative prices, lifestyle, regulation, governance and many other factors in the socio-economy (Arent et al., 2014). The paper presents the methodology, process and results with respect to the building of long-term local socio-economic scenarios for the City of Lienz and the surrounding countryside. Scenarios were developed in a participatory approach using a scenario workshop that involved major stakeholders from the region. Participatory approaches are increasingly recognized as

  4. Targeting modifiable risk factors in age-related macular degeneration in optometric practice in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lene Martin1,2 1School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden; 2School of Health Sciences, City, University of London, London, UK Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which ophthalmologists and optometrists in Sweden recommend the use of nutritional supplements, changes in diet, or smoking cessation to patients who are at risk of or with signs of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. In addition, this study also examined how these practitioners rate the strength of evidence for nutritional supplements in AMD management and which sources of information they consult to determine supplement recommendations for the prevention or treatment of AMD. Methods: This study implemented a cross-sectional design using data from a questionnaire. All Swedish optometrists and ophthalmologists who were registered in the membership databases of their respective professional organizations were invited to participate. The questionnaire contained 18 forced choice questions and one free text question and was organized into the following four sections: use of nutritional supplements, dietary advice, smoking and eye diseases, and strength of evidence and the sources of information regarding nutritional supplement interventions. Results: The response rate was 40.3% for optometrists and 5% for ophthalmologists. Optometrists were more likely than ophthalmologists to recommend nutritional supplements in AMD and provided significantly more advice about diet than did the ophthalmologists for both patients at risk for AMD and those with established disease. The ophthalmologists were more likely than the optometrists to rely on the findings from the age-related eye disease studies of AMD regarding treatment with and selection of supplements and to recommend smoking cessation. Conclusion: Common evidence-based strategies for AMD management among eye care professionals would presumably be beneficial for AMD

  5. Impending macrosomia: will induction of labour modify the risk of caesarean delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, YW; Sparks, TN; Laros, RK; Nicholson, JM; Caughey, AB

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the annual incidence rates of caesarean delivery between induction of labour and expectant management in the setting of macrosomia. Design This is a retrospective cohort study. Setting Deliveries in the USA in 2003. Population Singleton births of macrosomic neonates to low-risk nulliparous women at 39 weeks of gestation and beyond. Methods Women who had induction of labour at 39 weeks of gestation with a neonatal birthweight of 4000 ± 125 g (3875–4125 g) were compared with women who delivered (either induced or spontaneous labour) at 40, 41 or 42 weeks (i.e. expectant management), assuming an intrauterine fetal weight gain of 200 g per additional week of gestation. Similar comparisons were made at 40 and 41 weeks of gestation. Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used for statistical comparison. Main outcome measures Method of delivery, 5-minute Apgar scores, neonatal injury. Results There were 132 112 women meeting the study criteria. In women whose labours were induced at 39 weeks and who delivered a neonate with a birthweight of 4000 ± 125 g, the frequency of caesarean was lower compared with women who delivered at a later gestational age (35.2% versus 40.9%; adjusted OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.17–1.33). This trend was maintained at both 40 weeks (36.1% versus 42.6%; adjusted OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.23–1.40) and 41 weeks (38.9% versus 41.8%; adjusted OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.06–1.28) of gestation. Conclusions In the setting of known birthweight, it appears that induction of labour may reduce the risk of caesarean delivery. Future research should concentrate on clinical and radiological methods to better estimate birthweight to facilitate improved clinical care. These findings deserve examination in a large, prospective, randomised trial. PMID:22251443

  6. The impact on radiation risk estimates of effect modifiers and confounders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, G.B.; Cologne, J.B.; Pierce, D.A.; Tokuoka, S.

    2003-01-01

    We have conducted studies of the joint effects of radiation with other risk factors for liver, lung, and breast cancer in the cohort of Japanese survivors of the 1945 atomic bombings. Based on follow-up of 45,113 subjects from 1958 through 1994, of whom 592 developed lung cancer, we found the effects of smoking and radiation to be significantly non-multiplicative and consistent with additivity. Adjustment for smoking reduced the female:male ratio of radiation risk estimates for lung cancer in this cohort from 5.8 to 1.6, a ratio more similar to that for all solid cancers. We conducted cross sectional and case control studies within the A-bomb survivor cohort to assess the joint effects of radiation with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infections on the etiology of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our study of 268 pathologist-confirmed cirrhosis cases and 843 subjects without cirrhosis, found no relationship between A-bomb radiation and cirrhosis after adjustment for viral hepatitis. In terms of HCC, our study of 238 pathologist-confirmed cases and 894 controls showed super-multiplicative interaction between radiation and HCV infections. Our results suggest that while chronic radiation exposure acts as a complete carcinogen for HCC, acute irradiation may act in concert with an agent such as HCV that is associated with liver cell proliferation. Studies in progress of the joint effects of radiation with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and total estradiol on the etiology of breast cancer, a particularly radiogenic tumor, will also be discussed

  7. Genetic ancestry modifies the association between genetic risk variants and breast cancer risk among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejerman, Laura; Stern, Mariana C; Ziv, Elad; John, Esther M; Torres-Mejia, Gabriela; Hines, Lisa M; Wolff, Roger; Wang, Wei; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Giuliano, Anna R; Slattery, Martha L

    2013-08-01

    Hispanic women in the USA have lower breast cancer incidence than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Genetic factors may contribute to this difference. Breast cancer genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in women of European or Asian descent have identified multiple risk variants. We tested the association between 10 previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of breast cancer in a sample of 4697 Hispanic and 3077 NHW women recruited as part of three population-based case-control studies of breast cancer. We used stratified logistic regression analyses to compare the associations with different genetic variants in NHWs and Hispanics classified by their proportion of Indigenous American (IA) ancestry. Five of 10 SNPs were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Three of the five significant variants (rs17157903-RELN, rs7696175-TLR1 and rs13387042-2q35) were associated with risk among Hispanics but not in NHWs. The odds ratio (OR) for the heterozygous at 2q35 was 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.50-1.15] for low IA ancestry and 1.38 (95% CI = 1.04-1.82) for high IA ancestry (P interaction 0.02). The ORs for association at RELN were 0.87 (95% CI = 0.59-1.29) and 1.69 (95% CI = 1.04-2.73), respectively (P interaction 0.03). At the TLR1 locus, the ORs for women homozygous for the rare allele were 0.74 (95% CI = 0.42-1.31) and 1.73 (95% CI = 1.19-2.52) (P interaction 0.03). Our results suggest that the proportion of IA ancestry modifies the magnitude and direction of the association of 3 of the 10 previously reported variants. Genetic ancestry should be considered when assessing risk in women of mixed descent and in studies designed to discover causal mutations.

  8. Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osorio, A; Milne, R L; Pita, G

    2009-01-01

    for BRCA1 (per-allele HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.93-1.04, P=0.5) or BRCA2 (per-allele HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06, P=0.5) mutation carriers.Conclusion:This SNP is not a significant modifier of breast cancer risk for mutation carriers, though weak associations cannot be ruled out.British Journal of Cancer advance......Background:In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.Methods:We have...... genotyped rs744154 in 9408 BRCA1 and 5632 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) and assessed its association with breast cancer risk using a retrospective weighted cohort approach.Results:We found no evidence of association with breast cancer risk...

  9. Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osorio, A.; Milne, R.L.; Pita, G.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. METHODS: We have...... genotyped rs744154 in 9408 BRCA1 and 5632 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) and assessed its association with breast cancer risk using a retrospective weighted cohort approach. RESULTS: We found no evidence of association with breast cancer risk...... for BRCA1 (per-allele HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.93-1.04, P = 0.5) or BRCA2 (per-allele HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06, P = 0.5) mutation carriers. CONCLUSION: This SNP is not a significant modifier of breast cancer risk for mutation carriers, though weak associations cannot be ruled out Udgivelsesdato: 2009/12/15...

  10. Anti-Ro52 antibody level is an important marker of fetal congenital heart block risk in anti-Ro/SSA antibody positive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasato-Isoda, Mai; Waguri, Masako; Yamada, Yuko; Miyano, Akira; Wada, Yoshinao

    2017-09-21

    The aims of this study are to determine the incidence of congenital heart block (CHB) in the Japanese population and identify maternal factors predicting fetal CHB in anti-Ro/SSA antibody positive pregnancy. A retrospective study was performed using 52,147 clinical records of pregnancies followed in a single center. For 183 anti-Ro/SSA antibody-positive women, anti-Ro52 and Ro60 antibodies were measured, and the odds of CHB in relation to maternal clinical features were calculated by multivariate analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for predicting CHB were constructed for the titers of anti-Ro/SSA, anti-Ro52 and anti-Ro60 antibodies. Fetal CHB occurred in two pregnancies among those without known risks such as positive anti-Ro/SSA antibody or previous CHB-affected pregnancy, suggesting an incidence similar to that in Caucasian populations. As for the anti-Ro/SSA antibody positive pregnancies, the titers of anti-Ro/SSA, anti-Ro52 and anti-Ro60 antibodies were independent risk factors for fetal CHB and the use of corticosteroids before 18 gestational weeks was an independent protective factor. The area under the ROC was 0.84, 0.73 and 0.74 for anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60 and anti-Ro/SSA antibodies, respectively. CHB occurred in two among approximately 50,000 pregnancies without known risks such as positive anti-Ro/SSA antibody or previous delivery of CHB-affected babies. Measurement of anti-Ro52 antibody levels may be helpful in extracting a risk group of delivering CHB infants in the anti-Ro/SSA antibody positive pregnancy.

  11. OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS IN THE PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS NUTRITIONAL USES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nica-Badea Delia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data and arguments on GMO nutritional purposes, assessingrisks, development and production and marketing stage towards the achievement of foodsafety requirements. Dynamic surface is fast transgenic crops from 1.7 million hectares in1996 to 160 million hectares in 2011. Current culture focuses on tolerance of transgenicplants to herbicides, 75% of the total (glyphosate tolerance, eliminating insect pests of plant.Situation licenses PMG: corn (65, cotton (39, rape (15, potatoes and soybeans (14 each.In our country, soybeans and corn were the only GMP grown commercially cultivated area in2011 was ≤ 50.0000 Ha. In food, genetic engineering techniques are directed at changing theproportion of macro and micro nutrients, elimination or reduction of the compounds withadverse effect on health, introducing or increasing concentrations of substances havingproper behavior. Adoption in 2004, the new EU legislation on GMOs seeks to protect therights of producers, traders and consumers to choose and benefit from tools such astraceability, labeling and post-market monitoring. Modern biotechnology is primarily a veryimportant source of income. GMPs global market was estimated for 2008 at $ 7.5 billion.Analyzing the stakes and implications of trade in GMO products can conclude that: there isno conventional cargo "zero GMO" products "free of GMO" are rare - higher prices by 30-50%. Regardless of why GMOs have been created and marketed not be ignored that presentsa potential risk factor.

  12. The CAG repeat polymorphism in the Androgen receptor gene modifies the risk for hypospadias in Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is a birth defect of the urethra in males, and a milder form of 46,XY disorder of sexual development (DSD). The disease is characterized by a ventrally placed urinary opening due to a premature fetal arrest of the urethra development. Moreover, the Androgen receptor (AR) gene has an essential role in the hormone-dependent stage of sexual development. In addition, longer AR polyglutamine repeat lengths encoded by CAG repeats are associated with lower transcriptional activity in vitro. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the role of the CAG repeat length in the AR gene in hypospadias cases as compared to the controls. Our study included 211 hypospadias and 208 controls of Caucasian origin. Methods We amplified the CAG repeat region with PCR, and calculated the difference in the mean CAG repeat length between the hypospadias and control group using the T-test for independent groups. Results We detected a significant increase of the CAG repeat length in the hypospadias cases when compared to the controls (contrast estimate: 2.29, 95% Confidence Interval (1.73-2.84); p-value: 0.001). In addition, the odds ratios between the hypospadias and controls revealed that the hypospadias cases are two to 3 times as likely to have longer CAG repeats than a shorter length for each repeat length investigated. Conclusions We have investigated the largest number of hypospadias cases with regards to the CAG repeat length, and we provide evidence that a higher number of the CAG repeat sequence in the AR gene have a clear effect on the risk of hypospadias in Caucasians. PMID:23167717

  13. Modifiable environmental obesity risk factors among elementary school children in a Mexico-us border city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barrón, Rita Gabriela; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat

    2015-05-01

    The increasing overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) prevalence in Mexican children warrant the assessment of the environmental risk factors. To assess whether there is an association between food availability in children's environments and their food consumption with BMI z-score and waist circumference (WC). Six hundred and eighty four children, 264 parents, 22 teachers and cafeteria staff in the schools and street vendors participated in the study. Weight, height, and WC of 5(th) grade children were assessed. Food frequency, physical activity (PA) and eating habits questionnaires were applied to parents, children and teachers. A food inventory questionnaire was applied to parents, cafeteria staff in the schools, street vendors and stores near the schools. The children's mean age was 10.5. Twenty eight per cent of the children were overweight, 26% obese and 25% had abdominal obesity. A positive correlation was found between energy-dense foods (EDF), fruit and vegetable availability at home and their weekly consumption. Also a correlation between consumption of soft drinks and other EDF was found. The largest contributors to food consumption were the availability at home and at school (R2 = 0.11, p = 0.0001). Children's TV viewing was positively correlated with parents TV viewing time. For each hour of increase (from cero to seven) in daily TV viewing children were more likely to be overweight or obese (OR=1.22 95% CI 1.02-1.45, p=0.026). EDF, fruit and vegetable availability in and near home and school along with hours of TV viewing were positively associated with obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. CT-guided cutting needle lung biopsy using modified coaxial technique: Factors effecting risk of complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Erkan [Baskent University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: drerkany@yahoo.com; Kirbas, Ismail; Harman, Ali; Ozyer, Umut; Tore, H. Gurkan; Aytekin, Cuneyt; Boyvat, Fatih [Baskent University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-04-15

    Purpose: We present our 7-year experience with coaxial computed tomography (CT)-guided cutting needle lung biopsy and evaluate the factors affecting risk of complications. Material and method: Between June 2000 and March 2007, we performed 225 CT-guided coaxial lung biopsies in 213 consecutive patients (161 men, 52 women). Lesion size, lesion depth, lesion location, needle-pleural angle, presence of pleural effusion, patient's position, and complications secondary to biopsy procedure (pneumothorax and bleeding) were noted. Pneumothorax was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Bleeding complications were graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Results: Two hundred twenty-five biopsy procedures were performed in 213 patients. The mean diameter of the lung lesion was 41.3 {+-} 20.1 mm. The mean distance from the peripheral margin of the lesion to the pleura was 17.3 {+-} 19.2 mm. After 225 procedures, there were 42 mild (18.6%), 13 moderate (5.7%), and 4 severe (1.7%) pneumothoraxes. Small hemoptysis occurred in 27 patients (12%), and mild parenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 2 patients (0.8%). The overall complication rate was 39.1%. Although, a statistically significant correlation was found between female sex, presence of emphysema, lesion depth, and pneumothorax, none of these factors had a predictive value for pneumothorax. Although, statistically significant correlations were found between female sex, lesion size, and bleeding, only lesion size had a predictive value for bleeding. Conclusion: The most frequent and important complications of this procedure are pneumothorax and bleeding. But any factor is the predictor of pneumothorax and lesion depth is a poor predictor of bleeding complication.

  15. Application of omics technologies for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants : arabidopsis and modified defence mechanisms as a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houshyani Hassanzadeh, B.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of rapid biotechnological developments in the past century, genetically modified (GM) crops were developed and introduced for field application. Despite the advantages of these crops and the professional marketing policies, people also started questioning the safety of GM products for

  16. Application of omics technologies for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants : arabidopsis and modified defence mechanisms as a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houshyani Hassanzadeh, B.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of rapid biotechnological developments in the past century, genetically modified (GM) crops were developed and introduced for field application. Despite the advantages of these crops and the professional marketing policies, people also started questioning the safety of GM products

  17. Sleeping over a sleep disorder - Awareness of obstructive sleep apnoea as a modifiable risk factor for hypertension and stroke: A survey among health care professionals and medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA syndrome is an established and modifiable but under recognized risk factor for common disorders like stroke and hypertension. Objective: To assess awareness level of health care practitioners and medical students about OSA as a risk factor for stroke and hypertension. Methods: Questionnaire based survey with multiple response type and fill in the blanks type questions. The data was compiled and analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results: 180 participants completed the survey questionnaire. Only 24 (13.3% identified OSA as a reversible risk factor for ischemic stroke. 11 (6% participants only could answer OSA as an identified risk factor for hypertension as per Seventh Joint National Committee report. Poor awareness extended over all categories of participants (medical students, trained doctors and nursing staff . Conclusion: This study reveals dismal level of awareness, among health professionals and medical students, about OSA being an established and modifiable risk factor for hypertension and ischemic stroke.

  18. Strategies for recruiting Hispanic women into a prospective cohort study of modifiable risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastings Valerie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this article was to describe effective strategies for recruitment of Hispanic women into a prospective cohort study of modifiable risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Although Hispanic women have two to four times the risk of developing GDM compared with non-Hispanic white women, few GDM prevention studies have included Hispanic women. Methods The study was conducted in the ambulatory obstetrical practices of Baystate Medical Center located in a socioeconomically and ethnically diverse city in Massachusetts. The study employed a range of strategies to recruit Hispanic women based on a review of the literature as well as prior experience with the study population. Results Over a period of 32 months, a total of 851 Hispanic prenatal care patients were recruited. Among eligible women, 52.4% agreed to participate. Participants were young (70% Conclusions Findings suggest that investigators can successfully recruit pregnant women from ethnic minority groups of low socioeconomic status into observational studies. The study provides culturally appropriate recruitment strategies useful for practice-based settings recruiting Hispanic research participation.

  19. Supporting evidence-based analysis for modified risk tobacco products through a toxicology data-sharing infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, Stéphanie; Exner, Thomas; Ghosh, Samik; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Dokler, Joh; Page, David; Boda, Akash; Bonjour, Filipe; Hardy, Barry; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The US FDA defines modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) as products that aim to reduce harm or the risk of tobacco-related disease associated with commercially marketed tobacco products.  Establishing a product's potential as an MRTP requires scientific substantiation including toxicity studies and measures of disease risk relative to those of cigarette smoking.  Best practices encourage verification of the data from such studies through sharing and open standards. Building on the experience gained from the OpenTox project, a proof-of-concept database and website ( INTERVALS) has been developed to share results from both in vivo inhalation studies and in vitro studies conducted by Philip Morris International R&D to assess candidate MRTPs. As datasets are often generated by diverse methods and standards, they need to be traceable, curated, and the methods used well described so that knowledge can be gained using data science principles and tools. The data-management framework described here accounts for the latest standards of data sharing and research reproducibility. Curated data and methods descriptions have been prepared in ISA-Tab format and stored in a database accessible via a search portal on the INTERVALS website. The portal allows users to browse the data by study or mechanism (e.g., inflammation, oxidative stress) and obtain information relevant to study design, methods, and the most important results. Given the successful development of the initial infrastructure, the goal is to grow this initiative and establish a public repository for 21 st -century preclinical systems toxicology MRTP assessment data and results that supports open data principles.

  20. Avaliação de risco dos organismos geneticamente modificados Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde o começo de sua comercialização, em 1996, a área global de plantações transgênicas aumentou mais de cinquenta vezes. Nas duas últimas décadas, organizações governamentais e intergovernamentais têm planejado estratégias e protocolos para o estudo da segurança de alimentos derivados de cultivos geneticamente modificados. Os testes de segurança são realizados caso a caso e conduzidos de acordo com as características específicas das culturas modificadas e as mudanças introduzidas através da modificação genética, levando em conta o conceito de equivalência substancial. No presente trabalho, estão relatadas algumas abordagens de avaliação de risco de alimentos geneticamente modificados, assim como alguns problemas relacionados à construção genética ou mesmo à expressão do gene inseridoSince the commercial approve in 1996, the global area of transgenic crops has raised more than 50 times. In the last two decades, governments have been planning strategies and protocols for safety assessment of food and feed genetically modified (GM. Evaluation of food safety should be taken on a case-by-case analysis depending on the specific traits of the modified crops and the changes introduced by the genetic modification, using for this the concept of substantial equivalence. This work presents approaches for the risk assessment of GM food, as well as some problems related with the genetic construction or even with the expression of the inserted gene

  1. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David G.; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel; Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Ouimet, Manon; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Szabo, Csilla; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Caligo, Maria A.; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch, Shani S.; Borg, Åke; Karlsson, Per; Stenmark Askmalm, Marie; Barbany Bustinza, Gisela; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti A.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Devilee, Peter; Gille, Hans J.J.P.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Paterson, Joan; Eason, Jacqueline; Godwin, Andrew K.; Remon, Marie-Alice; Moncoutier, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lasset, Christine; Giraud, Sophie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Sobol, Hagay; Eisinger, François; Bressac de Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Delnatte, Capucine; Goldgar, David; Miron, Alex; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Buys, Saundra; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary Beth; Singer, Christian F.; Dressler, Anne-Catharina; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Hansen, Thomas V.O.; Johannsson, Oskar; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Basil, Jack B.; Blank, Stephanie; Toland, Amanda E.; Montagna, Marco; Isaacs, Claudine; Blanco, Ignacio; Gayther, Simon A.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Fiebig, Britta; Caldes, Trinidad; Laframboise, Rachel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Sinilnikova, Olga M.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA1 gene would modify the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. A total of 9874 BRCA1 mutation carriers were available in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) for haplotype analyses of BRCA1. Women carrying the rare allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs16942 on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 were at decreased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.77–0.95, P = 0.003). Promoter in vitro assays of the major BRCA1 haplotypes showed that common polymorphisms in the regulatory region alter its activity and that this effect may be attributed to the differential binding affinity of nuclear proteins. In conclusion, variants on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 modify risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA1 mutations, possibly by altering the efficiency of BRCA1 transcription. PMID:21890493

  2. Sleeping over a sleep disorder - Awareness of obstructive sleep apnoea as a modifiable risk factor for hypertension and stroke: A survey among health care professionals and medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sushma; Srijithesh, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome is an established and modifiable but under recognized risk factor for common disorders like stroke and hypertension. Objective: To assess awareness level of health care practitioners and medical students about OSA as a risk factor for stroke and hypertension. Methods: Questionnaire based survey with multiple response type and fill in the blanks type questions. The data was compiled and analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results: 180 participant...

  3. Safety and feasibility of modified chair-yoga on functional outcome among elderly at risk for falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lou Galantino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Falls are among the most common problems affecting older adults. At least 50% of those over the age of 80 fall annually. The goal of this pilot study was to assess the safety and feasibility of structured yoga in an elderly population with fall risk. Seniors at risk for falls were identified and enrolled in a single arm pilot trial. A chair based yoga program was provided twice a week for 8 weeks. The program was designed from previously published pilot data. A battery of validated instruments was administered at baseline and week eight and was used to identify which instruments may be sensitive to change as a result of a yoga program. Among sixteen seniors (median age of 88 with a previous history of falls, 87% provided data for assessment at the end of the intervention. Two patients withdrew, one due to a fall outside the institution and the other due to lack of time and interest. There were no adverse events during the yoga sessions. Paired-t tests compared pre-post changes and gains were noted in Fear of Falling (5.27 to 2.60; P = 0.029 and SPPB sit to stand subscale (0.31 to 1.00; P =.022. Improved trends were noted in anxiety and the timed up and go assessments. We found the modified chair-yoga program is safe and recruitment is feasible. Our data suggests that yoga may be beneficial in improving mobility and reducing fear of falling which warrants additional research via randomized controlled trial.

  4. Skin Cancer Risk Is Modified by KIR/HLA Interactions That Influence the Activation of Natural Killer Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineretsky, Karin A; Karagas, Margaret R; Christensen, Brock C; Kuriger-Laber, Jacquelyn K; Perry, Ann E; Storm, Craig A; Nelson, Heather H

    2016-01-15

    Natural killer (NK)-cell phenotype is partially mediated through binding of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) with HLA class I ligands. The KIR gene family is highly polymorphic and not well captured by standard genome-wide association study approaches. Here, we tested the hypothesis that variations in KIR gene content combined with HLA class I ligand status is associated with keratinocyte skin cancers using a population-based study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We conducted an interaction analysis of KIR gene content variation and HLA-B (Bw4 vs. Bw6) and HLA-C (C1 vs. C2). KIR centromeric B haplotype was associated with significant risk of multiple BCC tumors (OR, 2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.21), and there was a significant interaction between HLA-C and the activating gene KIR2DS3 for BCC (Pinteraction = 0.005). Furthermore, there was significant interaction between HLA-B and telomeric KIR B haplotype (containing the activating genes KIR3DS1 and KIR2DS1) as well as HLA-B and the activating KIR gene KIR2DS5 (Pinteraction 0.001 and 0.012, respectively). Similar but greatly attenuated associations were observed for SCC. Moreover, previous in vitro models demonstrated that p53 is required for upregulation of NK ligands, and accordingly, we observed there was a strong association between the KIR B haplotype and p53 alteration in BCC tumors, with a higher likelihood that KIR B carriers harbor abnormal p53 (P KIR and HLA modify risks of BCC and SCC and that KIR encoded by the B genes provides selective pressure for altered p53 in BCC tumors. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. A Multicountry Ecological Study of Cancer Incidence Rates in 2008 with Respect to Various Risk-Modifying Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Grant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Observational and ecological studies are generally used to determine the presence of effect of cancer risk-modifying factors. Researchers generally agree that environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and low serum 25-hdyroxyvitamin D levels are important cancer risk factors. This ecological study used age-adjusted incidence rates for 21 cancers for 157 countries (87 with high-quality data in 2008 with respect to dietary supply and other factors, including per capita gross domestic product, life expectancy, lung cancer incidence rate (an index for smoking, and latitude (an index for solar ultraviolet-B doses. The factors found to correlate strongly with multiple types of cancer were lung cancer (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, energy derived from animal products (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, inverse with two, latitude (direct correlation with six types, inverse correlation with three, and per capita gross national product (five types. Life expectancy and sweeteners directly correlated with three cancers, animal fat with two, and alcohol with one. Consumption of animal products correlated with cancer incidence with a lag time of 15–25 years. Types of cancer which correlated strongly with animal product consumption, tended to correlate weakly with latitude; this occurred for 11 cancers for the entire set of countries. Regression results were somewhat different for the 87 high-quality country data set and the 157-country set. Single-country ecological studies have inversely correlated nearly all of these cancers with solar ultraviolet-B doses. These results can provide guidance for prevention of cancer.

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 130,000 individuals shows smoking does not modify the association of APOE genotype on risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Melis, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence exists on whether smoking acts as an effect modifier of the association between APOE genotype and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched PubMed and EMBASE to June 11, 2013 for published studies reporting APOE genotype, smoking statu...

  7. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 130,000 individuals shows smoking does not modify the association of APOE genotype on risk of coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, Michael V.; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Melis, Daniela; Luben, Robert; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Cooper, Jackie; Palmen, Jutta; Horvat, Pia; Engmann, Jorgen; Li, Ka-Wah; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Hofker, Marten H.; Kumari, Meena; Keating, Brendan J.; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Adamkova, Vera; Kubinova, Ruzena; Bobak, Martin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Wareham, Nick; Humphries, Steve E.; Langenberg, Claudia; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Talmud, Philippa J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conflicting evidence exists on whether smoking acts as an effect modifier of the association between APOE genotype and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods and results: We searched PubMed and EMBASE to June 11, 2013 for published studies reporting APOE genotype, smoking status

  8. Keeping children safe at home: protocol for three matched case-control studies of modifiable risk factors for falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Denise; Maula, Asiya; Stewart, Jane; Clacy, Rose; Coffey, Frank; Cooper, Nicola; Coupland, Carol; Hayes, Mike; McColl, Elaine; Reading, Richard; Sutton, Alex; Towner, Elizabeth M L; Watson, Michael Craig

    2012-06-01

    Childhood falls result in considerable morbidity, mortality and health service use. Despite this, little evidence exists on protective factors or effective falls prevention interventions in young children. To estimate ORs for three types of medically attended fall injuries in young children in relation to safety equipment, safety behaviours and hazard reduction and explore differential effects by child and family factors and injury severity. Three multicentre case-control studies in UK hospitals with validation of parental reported exposures using home observations. Cases are aged 0-4 years with a medically attended fall injury occurring at home, matched on age and sex with community controls. Children attending hospital for other types of injury will serve as unmatched hospital controls. Matched analyses will use conditional logistic regression to adjust for potential confounding variables. Unmatched analyses will use unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, deprivation and distance from hospital in addition to other confounders. Each study requires 496 cases and 1984 controls to detect an OR of 0.7, with 80% power, 5% significance level, a correlation between cases and controls of 0.1 and a range of exposure prevalences. Falls on stairs, on one level and from furniture. As the largest in the field to date, these case control studies will adjust for potential confounders, validate measures of exposure and investigate modifiable risk factors for specific falls injury mechanisms. Findings should enhance the evidence base for falls prevention for young children.

  9. A non-synonymous polymorphism in IRS1 modifies risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and ovarian cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuan C.; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Shani-Shimon–Paluch; Kaufman, Bella; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Byrski, Tomasz; Osorio, Ana; Cajal, Teresa Ramóny; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; Aalfs, Cora M.; de Lange, Judith L.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; van Asperen, Christi J.; García, Encarna B. Gómez; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Jager, Agnes; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Easton, Douglas F.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Brewer, Carole; Tischkowitz, Marc; Godwin, Andrew K.; Pathak, Harsh; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Léoné, Mélanie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Dreyfus, Hélène; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Sokolowska, Johanna; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy; John, Esther M; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Maria, Muy-Kheng Tea; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar Th.; Offit, Kenneth; Sarrel, Kara; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion R; Andrews, Lesley; Cohn, David; DeMars, Leslie R.; DiSilvestro, Paul; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Isaacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Ramus, Susan J; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Garber, Judy E.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Tung, Nadine; Blum, Joanne L.; Narod, Steven A.; Brummel, Sean; Gillen, Daniel L.; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Couch, Fergus J.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Lee, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Neuhausen, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and were associated with breast cancer risk in a larger cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Methods IRS1 rs1801123, rs1330645, and rs1801278 were genotyped in samples from 36 centers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Data were analyzed by a retrospective cohort approach modeling the associations with breast and ovarian cancer risks simultaneously. Analyses were stratified by BRCA1 and BRCA2 status and mutation class in BRCA1 carriers. Results Rs1801278 (Gly972Arg) was associated with ovarian cancer risk for both BRCA1 [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.06–1.92; p = 0.019] and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR=2.21; 95% CI: 1.39–3.52, p=0.0008). For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the breast cancer risk was higher in carriers with class 2 mutations than class 1 (mutations (class 2 HR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.28–2.70; class 1 HR=0.86, 95%CI:0.69–1.09; p-for difference=0.0006). Rs13306465 was associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 class 2 mutation carriers (HR = 2.42; p = 0.03). Conclusion The IRS1 Gly972Arg SNP, which affects insulin-like growth factor and insulin signaling, modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 class 2 mutation carriers. Impact These findings may prove useful for risk prediction for breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:22729394

  10. Risk of Subsequent Infection Among Patients Receiving Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors and Other Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accortt, Neil A; Bonafede, Machaon M; Collier, David H; Iles, Jan; Curtis, Jeffrey R

    2016-01-01

    To describe the incidence of subsequent serious infections in patients who received systemic drug therapy after an initial serious infection. Patients with rheumatic conditions (rheumatoid arthritis [RA], psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis) or psoriasis who experienced a serious infection between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2011 were identified in a claims database. Patients were required to be continuously enrolled in the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Research Database for 12 months prior to and at least 60 days after the date of discharge or the end of intravenous antibiotic therapy for the index serious infection. Subsequent serious infection incidence rates per 100 patient-years with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for up to 18 months post-index, starting 60 days post-index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust for baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment duration, and changes during followup. Among the 21,699 patients who met the inclusion criteria, the majority (84.3%) had RA. Patients who received tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy after their index infection had a lower rate of subsequent serious infections (18.1 per 100 patient-years for those treated with a TNF inhibitor alone and 17.3 per 100 patient-years for those treated with a TNF inhibitor plus a nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug [DMARD]) compared with those treated with a nonbiologic DMARD alone (21.4 per 100 patient-years). Etanercept, either alone (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% CI 0.77-0.99) or in combination with a nonbiologic DMARD (adjusted HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.66-0.88), and infliximab (only in combination with a nonbiologic DMARD) (adjusted HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.67-0.95) were associated with a significantly lower risk of subsequent serious infections compared with a nonbiologic DMARD alone. We did not observe an increased risk of subsequent infection in patients who received TNF inhibitor

  11. Exposure to cats and dogs as risk factors for wheezing in preschool children: are their effects modified by removal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia García Marcos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To define the relationship between current wheezing in preschoolers and exposure to dogs and cats at home, and to find out to what extent their removal modifies the associations.Methods: Previously validated questionnaires were completed by parents of 1784 preschoolers (mean age 4.08±0.8 years. Children were stratified according to the presence (20.0 % or absence of wheezing in the previous year. Information regarding cat or dog exposure currently and during the first year of life was collected, as well as information about the removal of the pets.Results: A higher proportion of families owning a cat in the first year of the child’s life, as well as in the previous year, was found in the wheezing group. The proportion of families owning a dog was marginally higher in this group. Cat exposure was shown to be a significant risk factor when present in the first year of the child’s life (Adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 1.73, 95 % CI 1.04-2.88, and an even higher association was found with current exposure (aOR 2.00, 95 % CI 1.22-3.26. The association was highest (aOR 2.68, 95 % CI 1.32-5.44 among the wheezing group for the subset of families that had removed a cat from the home. Dog exposure did not appear to be a significant risk factor, neither during the first year of life (aOR 1.24, 95 % CI 0.88-1.76 nor with current ownership (aOR 1.04, 95 % CI 0.73-1.50. However, a significant association was found in the group that had removed a dog from the home (aOR 5.88, 95 % CI 2.62-13.17.Conclusions: Exposure to cat allergens is a risk factor for asthma, when exposure occurs during the first 12 months of life. However, this factor is of limited influence beyond the first year. It is likely that children who are prone to developing an allergy would benefit from control of environmental allergen exposure, including cat avoidance. 

  12. A prospective investigation of predictive and modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinan, Emer M; Hussey, Juliette; McGarrigle, Sarah A; Healy, Laura A; O’Sullivan, Jacintha N; Bennett, Kathleen; Connolly, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. The lifetime risk of a woman being diagnosed with breast cancer is approximately 12.5%. For women who carry the deleterious mutation in either of the BRCA genes, BRCA1 or BRCA2, the risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer is significantly increased. In recent years there has been increased penetrance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 associated breast cancer, prompting investigation into the role of modifiable risk factors in this group. Previous investigations into this topic have relied on participants recalling lifetime weight changes and subjective methods of recording physical activity. The influence of obesity-related biomarkers, which may explain the link between obesity, physical activity and breast cancer risk, has not been investigated prospectively in this group. This paper describes the design of a prospective cohort study investigating the role of predictive and modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers. Participants will be recruited from breast cancer family risk clinics and genetics clinics. Lifestyle risk factors that will be investigated will include body composition, metabolic syndrome and its components, physical activity and dietary intake. PBMC telomere length will be measured as a potential predictor of breast cancer occurrence. Measurements will be completed on entry to the study and repeated at two years and five years. Participants will also be followed annually by questionnaire to track changes in risk factor status and to record cancer occurrence. Data will be analysed using multiple regression models. The study has an accrual target of 352 participants. The results from this study will provide valuable information regarding the role of modifiable lifestyle risk factors for breast cancer in women with a deleterious mutation in the BRCA gene. Additionally, the study will attempt to identify potential blood biomarkers which may be predictive

  13. The contribution of modifiable risk factors to the formation of cardiovascular remodelling and vegetative balance in patients with essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Syvolap

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of individual modifiable risk factors (RF and their combination on the structural and functional alteration of heart and blood vessels, the state of vegetative balance of the heart rhythm parameters in patients with essential hypertension stage II. Materials and methods. The examined patients with essential hypertension (EH stage II with the presence of one RF were divided into three groups: the first group included 69 patients with hypercholesterolemia (HCE, the second group consisted of 30 patients with the status of smoker (SS and the third comprised 82 patients with overweight (OW. The control group included 10 patients with EH without RF. All patients were subjected to the evaluation of general physical examinations, calculation of body mass index, determination of serum total colesterol (TC level, ECG Holter monitoring with analysis of heart rate variability, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography and duplex pulsed wave dopplerography of extracranial vessels. Results. Patients with EH with any one RF did not differ from patients with EH without RF and among themselves in parameters of office blood pressure, as well as on parameters of ABPM. The mean diastolic blood pressure per day and the time index were significantly higher in patients with EH with any RF compared to EH patients without RF. Patients with EH with OW and patients with EH who smoke did not differ in the TC level but both groups had a significantly higher level of TC compared to patients in the control group. The addition of any single RF in patients with EH is associated with an increase in the size of left atrium, left ventricular myocardial mass index mainly due to thickening of the interventricular septum, diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle. The addition of any RF in the examined patients is accompanied by a tendency to decrease in blood flow in all vessels basins, but mainly in the

  14. Weight loss, mortality and associated potentially modifiable nutritional risk factors among nursing home residents--a Danish follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, A M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this follow-up study is to assess the association between different potentially modifiable nutritional risk factors; weight loss after six and 12 months and mortality. DESIGN, SETTING: A one year follow-up project among Danish nursing home residents. PARTICIPANTS......: A total of 441 nursing home resident living in 11 nursing homes. MEASUREMENTS: Odds ratio was calculated and used to assess the strength of association between different potentially modifiable nutritional risk factors and nutritional status of the participants. The difference in mortality between those...... who died versus survivors was assessed by means of Fishers Exact Test. RESULTS: Almost half experienced a loss of weight during the follow-up period. The nutritional risk factors significantly or borderline significantly associated with weight loss were; eating dependency, leaves 25% or more of food...

  15. Modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codogno Jamile S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil is currently experiencing a nutrition transition: the displacement of traditional diets with foods high in saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol and an increase in sedentary lifestyles. Despite these trends, our understanding of child obesity in Brazil is limited. Thus, the aims of this study were (1 to investigate the current prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large sample of children and adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil, and (2 to identify the lifestyle behaviors associated with an increased risk of obesity in young Brazilians. Methods A total of 3,397 children and adolescents (1,596 male aged 7-18 years were randomly selected from 22 schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese based on international age- and sex-specific body mass index thresholds. Selected sociodemographic, physical activity, and nutrition behaviors were assessed via questionnaire. Results Overall, 19.4% of boys and 16.1% of girls were overweight while 8.9% and 4.3% were obese. Two-way analysis of variance revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher in boys and in younger children when compared to girls and older children, respectively (P Conclusions Our results show that obesity in São Paulo children and adolescents has reached a level equivalent to that seen in many developed countries. We have also identified three key modifiable factors related to obesity that may be appropriate targets for future intervention in Brazilian youth: transport mode to school, computer usage, and breakfast consumption.

  16. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  17. EFSA's scientific activities and achievements on the risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) during its first decade of existence: looking back and ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Yann; Aguilera, Jaime; Diveki, Zoltán; Gomes, Ana; Liu, Yi; Paoletti, Claudia; du Jardin, Patrick; Herman, Lieve; Perry, Joe N; Waigmann, Elisabeth

    2014-02-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and derived food and feed products are subject to a risk analysis and regulatory approval before they can enter the market in the European Union (EU). In this risk analysis process, the role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which was created in 2002 in response to multiple food crises, is to independently assess and provide scientific advice to risk managers on any possible risks that the use of GMOs may pose to human and animal health and the environment. EFSA's scientific advice is elaborated by its GMO Panel with the scientific support of several working groups and EFSA's GMO Unit. This review presents EFSA's scientific activities and highlights its achievements on the risk assessment of GMOs for the first 10 years of its existence. Since 2002, EFSA has issued 69 scientific opinions on genetically modified (GM) plant market registration applications, of which 62 for import and processing for food and feed uses, six for cultivation and one for the use of pollen (as or in food), and 19 scientific opinions on applications for marketing products made with GM microorganisms. Several guidelines for the risk assessment of GM plants, GM microorganisms and GM animals, as well as on specific issues such as post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) were elaborated. EFSA also provided scientific advice upon request of the European Commission on safeguard clause and emergency measures invoked by EU Member States, annual PMEM reports, the potential risks of new biotechnology-based plant breeding techniques, evaluations of previously assessed GMOs in the light of new scientific publications, and the use of antibiotic resistance marker genes in GM plants. Future challenges relevant to the risk assessment of GMOs are discussed. EFSA's risk assessments of GMO applications ensure that data are analysed and presented in a way that facilitates scientifically sound decisions that protect human and animal health and the environment.

  18. A Modified Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System to Assess Diabetes Self-management Behaviors and Diabetes Care in Monterrey Mexico: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    McEwen, Marylyn Morris; Elizondo-Pereo, Rogelio Andr?s; Pasvogel, Alice E.; Meester, Irene; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Gonz?lez-Salazar, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the leading causes of death from worldwide non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of diabetes in the Mexico (MX)–United States border states exceeds the national rate in both countries. The economic burden of diabetes, due to decreased productivity, disability, and medical costs, is staggering and increases significantly when T2DM-related complications occur. The purpose of this study was to use a modified behavioral risk factor surveillance system...

  19. Association of Practice-Level Social and Medical Risk With Performance in the Medicare Physician Value-Based Payment Modifier Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lena M; Epstein, Arnold M; Orav, E John; Filice, Clara E; Samson, Lok Wong; Joynt Maddox, Karen E

    2017-08-01

    Medicare recently launched the Physician Value-Based Payment Modifier (PVBM) Program, a mandatory pay-for-performance program for physician practices. Little is known about performance by practices that serve socially or medically high-risk patients. To compare performance in the PVBM Program by practice characteristics. Cross-sectional observational study using PVBM Program data for payments made in 2015 based on performance of large US physician practices caring for fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries in 2013. High social risk (defined as practices in the top quartile of proportion of patients dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid) and high medical risk (defined as practices in the top quartile of mean Hierarchical Condition Category risk score among fee-for-service beneficiaries). Quality and cost z scores based on a composite of individual measures. Higher z scores reflect better performance on quality; lower scores, better performance on costs. Among 899 physician practices with 5 189 880 beneficiaries, 547 practices were categorized as low risk (neither high social nor high medical risk) (mean, 7909 beneficiaries; mean, 320 clinicians), 128 were high medical risk only (mean, 3675 beneficiaries; mean, 370 clinicians), 102 were high social risk only (mean, 1635 beneficiaries; mean, 284 clinicians), and 122 were high medical and social risk (mean, 1858 beneficiaries; mean, 269 clinicians). Practices categorized as low risk performed the best on the composite quality score (z score, 0.18 [95% CI, 0.09 to 0.28]) compared with each of the practices categorized as high risk (high medical risk only: z score, -0.55 [95% CI, -0.77 to -0.32]; high social risk only: z score, -0.86 [95% CI, -1.17 to -0.54]; and high medical and social risk: -0.78 [95% CI, -1.04 to -0.51]) (P risk only performed the best on the composite cost score (z score, -0.52 [95% CI, -0.71 to -0.33]), low risk had the next best cost score (z score, -0.18 [95% CI, -0.25 to -0.10]), then

  20. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, D. G.; Simard, J.; Sinnett, D.; Hamdi, Y.; Soucy, P.; Ouimet, M.; Barjhoux, L.; Verny-Pierre, C.; McGuffog, L.; Healey, S.; Szabo, C.; Greene, M. H.; Mai, P. L.; Andrulis, I. L.; Thomassen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA...

  1. An Estimate of Attributable Cases of Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia due to Modifiable Risk Factors: The Impact of Primary Prevention in Europe and in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Mayer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Up to 53.7% of all cases of dementia are assumed to be due to Alzheimer disease (AD, while 15.8% are considered to be due to vascular dementia (VaD. In Europe, about 3 million cases of AD could be due to 7 potentially modifiable risk factors: diabetes, midlife hypertension and/or obesity, physical inactivity, depression, smoking, and low educational level. Aims: To estimate the number of VaD cases in Europe and the number of AD and VaD cases in Italy attributable to these 7 potentially modifiable risk factors. Methods: Assuming the nonindependence of the 7 risk factors, the adjusted combined population attributable risk (PAR was estimated for AD and VaD. Results: In Europe, adjusted combined PAR was 31.4% for AD and 37.8% for VaD. The total number of attributable cases was 3,033,000 for AD and 873,000 for VaD. In Italy, assuming a 20% reduction of the prevalence of each risk factor, adjusted combined PAR decreased from 45.2 to 38.9% for AD and from 53.1 to 46.6% for VaD, implying a 6.4 and 6.5% reduction in the prevalence of AD and VaD, respectively. Conclusion: A relevant reduction of AD and VaD cases in Europe and Italy could be obtained through primary prevention.

  2. An Estimate of Attributable Cases of Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia due to Modifiable Risk Factors: The Impact of Primary Prevention in Europe and in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Flavia; Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Lacorte, Eleonora; Bacigalupo, Ilaria; Marzolini, Fabrizio; Ferrante, Gianluigi; Minardi, Valentina; Masocco, Maria; Canevelli, Marco; Di Fiandra, Teresa; Vanacore, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    Background Up to 53.7% of all cases of dementia are assumed to be due to Alzheimer disease (AD), while 15.8% are considered to be due to vascular dementia (VaD). In Europe, about 3 million cases of AD could be due to 7 potentially modifiable risk factors: diabetes, midlife hypertension and/or obesity, physical inactivity, depression, smoking, and low educational level. Aims To estimate the number of VaD cases in Europe and the number of AD and VaD cases in Italy attributable to these 7 potentially modifiable risk factors. Methods Assuming the nonindependence of the 7 risk factors, the adjusted combined population attributable risk (PAR) was estimated for AD and VaD. Results In Europe, adjusted combined PAR was 31.4% for AD and 37.8% for VaD. The total number of attributable cases was 3,033,000 for AD and 873,000 for VaD. In Italy, assuming a 20% reduction of the prevalence of each risk factor, adjusted combined PAR decreased from 45.2 to 38.9% for AD and from 53.1 to 46.6% for VaD, implying a 6.4 and 6.5% reduction in the prevalence of AD and VaD, respectively. Conclusion A relevant reduction of AD and VaD cases in Europe and Italy could be obtained through primary prevention. PMID:29606955

  3. Physical activity modifies the effect of LPL, LIPC, and CETP polymorphisms on HDL-C levels and the risk of myocardial infarction in women of European ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tariq; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Lee, I-Min; Ridker, Paul M; Everett, Brendan M

    2011-02-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified common variants associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Whether these associations are modified by physical activity, which increases HDL-C levels and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, is uncertain. In a prospective cohort study of 22 939 apparently healthy US women of European ancestry, we selected 58 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 genes that demonstrated genome-wide association (Pwomen, whereas the reverse was observed for rs10096633 at LPL. Minor-allele carrier status at the LPL SNP was associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction in active (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval 0.30-0.86) but not among inactive women (hazard ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.61; P-interaction=0.007). By contrast, carrier status at the CETP SNP was associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction regardless of activity level (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.92; P-interaction=0.71). No association between LIPC SNP carrier status and myocardial infarction risk was noted. The effects of common variants in the LPL, LIPC, and CETP genes on HDL-C levels are modified by physical activity. For a common variant in LPL, the impact on myocardial infarction varied by activity level, whereas the effects of a common variant in CETP on myocardial infarction risk did not.

  4. Genetic variants of NOXA and MCL1 modify the risk of HPV16-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ziyuan; Sturgis, Erich M; Liu, Zhensheng; Wang, Li-E; Wei, Qingyi; Li, Guojun

    2012-01-01

    The cooperation between phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced protein 1 (NOXA) and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1) is critical in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16), by inducing p53 and pRb-E2F degradation, may play an essential role in development of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) through NOXA-MCL1 axis-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, genetic variants of NOXA and MCL1 may modify the SCCHN risk associated with HPV16 seropositivity. HPV16 serology was obtained by immunoadsorption assay. Four functional SNPs in the promoter of NOXA (rs9957673, rs4558496) and MCL1 (rs9803935, rs3738485) were genotyped for 380 cases and 335 frequency-matched cancer-free controls of non-Hispanic whites. Associations between the four polymorphisms and SCCHN risk were not significant, while we observed a significantly joint effect on SCCHN risk between the polymorphisms and HPV16 seropositivity. Notably, this effect modification was particularly pronounced for oropharyngeal cancer in subgroups including never smokers, never drinkers and younger subjects. Our results suggested that polymorphisms of NOXA and MCL1 may modify the risk of HPV16-associated oropharyngeal cancer. The further identification of population subgroups at higher risk provides evidence that HPV-targeting treatment may help benefit SCCHN. However, larger studies are needed to validate our findings

  5. Influence of caries risk on the retention of a resin-modified glass ionomer used as occlusal sealant: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Pereira da Silva TAGLIAFERRO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Little is known whether caries risk influence occlusal sealants retention. Objective To determine the retention rates (RR of the resin-modified glass ionomer cement used as occlusal sealant in permanent first molars of 6-8-year old schoolchildren and to analyze the influence of caries risk at baseline on the RR of the sealant, over a 24-month period. Material and method The sealant application was performed in a dental office at the beginning of the study, after children being allocated into high caries risk group (HR and low caries risk group (LR. The examinations were performed by the same calibrated dentist at 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Retention rates were estimated, the Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival probabilities; and the comparison between HR and LR groups was evaluated by Wilcoxon and log-rank test. Result The results showed that 14% of sealed teeth showed total loss (16% for HR and 12% for LR and 46% showed partial loss during the study (51% for HR and 41% for LR, in relation to the baseline sample. No difference could be demonstrated by the survival analysis between HR and LR groups (p>0.05. Conclusion Caries risk did not influence the retention rates of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement used as occlusal sealant in 6-8-year old schoolchildren.

  6. Geological and Geophysical Analysis of the Processes Ground Cracking and Associated Risks in Urban Basins in the Eastern and Northern of Jalisco Block, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Jalisco Block (JB) is located in the western sector of Mexican Volcanic Belt; it is bounded on the east by the Colima graben-Zacoalco and apparently the north by the River Grande de Santiago. Three landform are regionally identified: mountain areas, piedmont and plains formed by deposits of tuffs, volcanic ash and sediment filled. These plains have been progressively urbanized since the sixteenth century; they were built in around the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area, as well as small towns like Sayula, Ciudad Guzman, Zacoalco, Jocotepec and nearby villages, in which all together are populated by about 6 million people. Since 1912 there are records of damages by the continuous formation of ground cracking, this process has increased over the past two decades, affecting natural soil, agricultural areas, urban areas and infrastructure of roads and highways. These cracks generally have a SW-NE orientation similar with the alignment of regional geological structures. They are characterized by settlements and forming steps of a few centimeters, with lengths from 300 to 1000 m and depths of a few centimeters to 15 meters and width of up to 2.5 m. Formed mainly during the rainy season from June to October each year. Recent damages have generated losses of several hundreds of thousands of dollars, especially in Ciudad Guzman, located in southern BJ, where a crack of 2.5 km was observed in 2012 and it has long affected the downtown area, the town of Nextipac-Tesistan, municipality of Zapopan in the northern sector of JB. This territory is formed by a thick deposit of pumice tuffs, which has presented cracks in the years 1912, 1975, 1987, 2004 and 2015, affecting also agricultural and urban areas. The paper will presents results which will analyze and discern through geological, geophysical and with technology of geographic information, the origin of these cracks, which can be associated with active tectonic structures, geo-hydrological processes, extraction of underground

  7. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  8. The association between carbohydrate-rich foods and risk of cardiovascular disease is not modified by genetic susceptibility to dyslipidemia as determined by 80 validated variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Sonestedt

    Full Text Available It is still unclear whether carbohydrate consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Genetic susceptibility might modify the associations between dietary intakes and disease risk.The aim was to examine the association between the consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods (vegetables, fruits and berries, juice, potatoes, whole grains, refined grains, cookies and cakes, sugar and sweets, and sugar-sweetened beverages and the risk of incident ischemic CVD (iCVD; coronary events and ischemic stroke, and whether these associations differ depending on genetic susceptibility to dyslipidemia.Among 26,445 individuals (44-74 years; 62% females from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cohort, 2,921 experienced an iCVD event during a mean follow-up time of 14 years. At baseline, dietary data were collected using a modified diet history method, and clinical risk factors were measured in 4,535 subjects. We combined 80 validated genetic variants associated with triglycerides and HDL-C or LDL-C, into genetic risk scores and examined the interactions between dietary intakes and genetic risk scores on the incidence of iCVD.Subjects in the highest intake quintile for whole grains had a 13% (95% CI: 3-23%; p-trend: 0.002 lower risk for iCVD compared to the lowest quintile. A higher consumption of foods rich in added sugar (sugar and sweets, and sugar-sweetened beverages had a significant cross-sectional association with higher triglyceride concentrations and lower HDL-C concentrations. A stronger positive association between a high consumption of sugar and sweets on iCVD risk was observed among those with low genetic risk score for triglycerides (p-interaction=0.05.In this prospective cohort study that examined food sources of carbohydrates, individuals with a high consumption of whole grains had a decreased risk of iCVD. No convincing evidence of an interaction between genetic susceptibility for dyslipidemia, measured as genetic risk scores of

  9. The association between carbohydrate-rich foods and risk of cardiovascular disease is not modified by genetic susceptibility to dyslipidemia as determined by 80 validated variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonestedt, Emily; Hellstrand, Sophie; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Wallström, Peter; Drake, Isabel; Ericson, Ulrika; Gullberg, Bo; Hedblad, Bo; Orho-Melander, Marju

    2015-01-01

    It is still unclear whether carbohydrate consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Genetic susceptibility might modify the associations between dietary intakes and disease risk. The aim was to examine the association between the consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods (vegetables, fruits and berries, juice, potatoes, whole grains, refined grains, cookies and cakes, sugar and sweets, and sugar-sweetened beverages) and the risk of incident ischemic CVD (iCVD; coronary events and ischemic stroke), and whether these associations differ depending on genetic susceptibility to dyslipidemia. Among 26,445 individuals (44-74 years; 62% females) from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cohort, 2,921 experienced an iCVD event during a mean follow-up time of 14 years. At baseline, dietary data were collected using a modified diet history method, and clinical risk factors were measured in 4,535 subjects. We combined 80 validated genetic variants associated with triglycerides and HDL-C or LDL-C, into genetic risk scores and examined the interactions between dietary intakes and genetic risk scores on the incidence of iCVD. Subjects in the highest intake quintile for whole grains had a 13% (95% CI: 3-23%; p-trend: 0.002) lower risk for iCVD compared to the lowest quintile. A higher consumption of foods rich in added sugar (sugar and sweets, and sugar-sweetened beverages) had a significant cross-sectional association with higher triglyceride concentrations and lower HDL-C concentrations. A stronger positive association between a high consumption of sugar and sweets on iCVD risk was observed among those with low genetic risk score for triglycerides (p-interaction=0.05). In this prospective cohort study that examined food sources of carbohydrates, individuals with a high consumption of whole grains had a decreased risk of iCVD. No convincing evidence of an interaction between genetic susceptibility for dyslipidemia, measured as genetic risk scores of dyslipidemia

  10. Antibody levels against GLURP R2, MSP1 block 2 hybrid and AS202.11 and the risk of malaria in children living in hyperendemic (Burkina Faso) and hypo-endemic (Ghana) areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adu, Bright; Cherif, Mariama K; Bosomprah, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    the children (aged 6-72 months). Associations between antibody levels and risk of malaria were assessed using Cox regression models adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: There was a significant association between GLURP R2 IgG3 and reduced risk of malaria after adjusting age of children in both the Burkinabe...... (hazard ratio 0.82; 95 % CI 0.74-0.91, p risk of malaria in Burkina Faso cohort while IgG against AS202.11 in the Ghanaian children was associated...... therefore need to be evaluated against different malaria endemicity backgrounds. METHODS: The associations between antibody responses to the chimeric merozoite surface protein 1 block 2 hybrid (MSP1 hybrid), glutamate-rich protein region 2 (GLURP R2) and the peptide AS202.11, and the risk of malaria were...

  11. Retrospective analysis of risk factors and predictors of intraoperative complications in neuraxial blocks at Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu-UNESP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ivan Dias Fernandes; Grando, Marcela Miguel; Vianna, Pedro Thadeu Galvão; Braz, José Reinaldo Cerqueira; Castiglia, Yara Marcondes Machado; Vane, Luís Antônio; Módolo, Norma Sueli Pinheiro; do Nascimento, Paulo; Amorim, Rosa Beatriz; Rodrigues, Geraldo Rolim; Braz, Leandro Gobbo; Ganem, Eliana Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular changes associated with neuraxial blocks are a cause of concern due to their frequency and because some of them can be considered physiological effects triggered by the sympathetic nervous system blockade. The objective of this study was to evaluate intraoperative cardiovascular complications and predictive factors associated with neuraxial blocks in patients ≥ 18 years of age undergoing non-obstetric procedures over an 18-year period in a tertiary university hospital--HCFMB-UNESP. A retrospective analysis of the following complications was undertaken: hypertension, hypotension, sinus bradycardia, and sinus tachycardia. These complications were correlated with anesthetic technique, physical status (ASA), age, gender, and preoperative co-morbidities. The Tukey test for comparisons among proportions and logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. 32,554 patients underwent neuraxial blocks. Intraoperative complications mentioned included hypotension (n=4,109), sinus bradycardia (n=1,107), sinus tachycardia (n=601), and hypertension (n=466). Hypotension was seen more often in patients undergoing continuous subarachnoid anesthesia (29.4%, OR=2.39), ≥ 61 years of age, and female (OR=1.27). Intraoperative hypotension and bradycardia were the complications observed more often. Hypotension was related to anesthetic technique (CSA), increased age, and female. Tachycardia and hypertension may not have been directly related to neuraxial blocks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. ASSESSING POSSIBLE ECOLOGICAL RISKS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: GENE EXPRESSION ASSAYS AND GENETIC MONITORING OF NON-TARGET ORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread planting of genetically modified crops with the Bt transgene pesticide has led to concern over non-target effects of Bt compounds in agroecosystems. While some research suggests that non-target organisms exposed to Bt toxin exhibit reduced fecundity and increased morta...

  13. Food Allergy - Basic Mechanisms and Applications to Identifying Risks Associated with Plant Incorporated Pesticides and Other Genetically Modified Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is a relatively new concern for toxicologists as a result of the incorporation of novel proteins into food crops in order to promote resistance to pests and other stresses, improve nutrition, or otherwise modify the phenotype. Food allergy can manifest as inflammatio...

  14. A statistical simulation model for fiels testing of non-target organisms in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, P.W.; Voet, van der H.; Baldacchino, F.; Arpaia, S.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic modification of plants may result in unintended effects causing potentially adverse effects on the environment. A comparative safety assessment is therefore required by authorities, such as the European Food Safety Authority, in which the genetically modified plant is compared with its

  15. Modified risk stratification grouping using standard clinical and biopsy information for patients undergoing radical prostatectomy: Results from SEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumsteg, Zachary S; Chen, Zinan; Howard, Lauren E; Amling, Christopher L; Aronson, William J; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Kane, Christopher J; Terris, Martha K; Spratt, Daniel E; Sandler, Howard M; Freedland, Stephen J

    2017-12-01

    Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and risk stratification systems have been proposed to guide treatment decisions. However, significant heterogeneity remains for those with unfavorable-risk disease. This study included 3335 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy in the SEARCH database. High-risk patients were dichotomized into standard and very high-risk (VHR) groups based on primary Gleason pattern, percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPBC), number of NCCN high-risk factors, and stage T3b-T4 disease. Similarly, intermediate-risk prostate cancer was separated into favorable and unfavorable groups based on primary Gleason pattern, PPBC, and number of NCCN intermediate-risk factors. Median follow-up was 78 months. Patients with VHR prostate cancer had significantly worse PSA relapse-free survival (PSA-RFS, P < 0.001), distant metastasis (DM, P = 0.004), and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM, P = 0.015) in comparison to standard high-risk (SHR) patients in multivariable analyses. By contrast, there was no significant difference in PSA-RFS, DM, or PCSM between SHR and unfavorable intermediate-risk (UIR) patients. Therefore, we propose a novel risk stratification system: Group 1 (low-risk), Group 2 (favorable intermediate-risk), Group 3 (UIR and SHR), and Group 4 (VHR). The c-index of this new grouping was 0.683 for PSA-RFS and 0.800 for metastases, compared to NCCN-risk groups which yield 0.666 for PSA-RFS and 0.764 for metastases. Patients classified as VHR have markedly increased rates of PSA relapse, DM, and PCSM in comparison to SHR patients, whereas UIR and SHR patients have similar prognosis. Novel therapeutic strategies are needed for patients with VHR, likely involving multimodality therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Regular physical activity modifies smoking-related lung function decline and reduces risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Aymerich, J; Lange, Peter; Benet, M

    2007-01-01

    RATIONALE: We have previously reported that regular physical activity reduces risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation. We hypothesized that higher levels of regular physical activity could reduce the risk of COPD by modifying smoking-related lung function decline....... OBJECTIVE: To estimate the longitudinal association between regular physical activity and FEV(1) and FVC decline and COPD risk. METHODS: A population-based sample (n = 6,790) was recruited and assessed with respect to physical activity, smoking, lung function, and other covariates, in Copenhagen in 1981......-1983, and followed until 1991-1994. Mean level of physical activity between baseline and follow-up was classified into "low," "moderate," and "high." FEV(1) and FVC decline rates were expressed as milliliters per year. COPD was defined as FEV(1)/FVC physical activity and FEV...

  17. Sleep Duration Modifies the Association of Overtime Work With Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Imai, Teppei; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Nishihara, Akiko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Honda, Toru; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Dohi, Seitaro

    2018-02-03

    Evidence linking working hours and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is limited and inconsistent in Asian populations. No study has addressed the combined association of long working hours and sleep deprivation on T2DM risk. We investigated the association of baseline overtime work with T2DM risk and assessed whether sleep duration modified the effect among Japanese. Participants were Japanese employees (28,489 men and 4,561 women) aged 30-64 years who reported overtime hours and had no history of diabetes at baseline (mostly in 2008). They were followed up until March 2014. New-onset T2DM was identified using subsequent checkup data, including measurement of fasting/random plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and self-report of medical treatment. Hazard ratios (HRs) of T2DM were estimated using Cox regression analysis. The combined association of sleep duration and working hours was examined in a subgroup of workers (n = 27,590). During a mean follow-up period of 4.5 years, 1,975 adults developed T2DM. Overtime work was not materially associated with T2DM risk. In subgroup analysis, however, long working hours combined with insufficient sleep were associated with a significantly higher risk of T2DM (HR 1.42; 95% CI, 1.11-1.83), whereas long working hours with sufficient sleep were not (HR 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11) compared with the reference (<45 hours of overtime with sufficient sleep). Sleep duration modified the association of overtime work with the risk of developing T2DM. Further investigations to elucidate the long-term effect of long working hours on glucose metabolism are warranted.

  18. The XRCC 1 DNA repair gene modifies the environmental risk of stomach cancer: a hospital-based matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putthanachote, Nuntiput; Promthet, Supannee; Hurst, Cameron; Suwanrungruang, Krittika; Chopjitt, Peechanika; Wiangnon, Surapon; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi

    2017-10-11

    Previous studies have found that polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1(XRCC1) and environmental factors are both associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer, but no study has reported on the potential additive effect of these factors among Thai people. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the risk of stomach cancer from XRCC1 gene polymorphisms was modified by environmental factors in the Thai population. Hospital-based matched case-control study data were collected from 101 new stomach cancer cases and 202 controls, which were recruited from2002 to 2006 and were matched for gender and age. Genotype analysis was performed using real-time PCR-HRM. The data were analysed by the chi-square test and conditional logistic regression. The Arg/Arg homozygote polymorphism of the XRCC1 gene was associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer in the Thai population (OR adj , 3.7; 95%CI, 1.30-10.72) compared with Gln/Gln homozygosity. The effect of the XRCC1gene on the risk of stomach cancer was modified by both a high intake of vegetable oils and salt (p = 0.036 and p = 0.014), particularly for the Arg/Arg homozygous genotype. There were, however, no additive effects on the risk of stomach cancer between variants of the XRCC1gene and smoking,alcohol or pork oil consumption. The effect of the XRCC1 gene homozygosity, particularly Arg/Arg, on the risk for stomach cancer was elevated by a high intake of vegetable oils and salt.

  19. Modifiable Risk Factors for Prevention of Dementia in Midlife, Late Life and the Oldest-Old: Validation of the LIBRA Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Stephanie J B; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Schiepers, Olga J G; Deckers, Kay; de Vugt, Marjolein; Carrière, Isabelle; Dartigues, Jean-François; Peres, Karine; Artero, Sylvaine; Ritchie, Karen; Galluzzo, Lucia; Scafato, Emanuele; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Huisman, Martijn; Comijs, Hannie C; Sacuiu, Simona F; Skoog, Ingmar; Irving, Kate; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Verhey, Frans R J; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Köhler, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the LIfestyle for BRAin health (LIBRA) index was developed to assess an individual's prevention potential for dementia. We investigated the predictive validity of the LIBRA index for incident dementia in midlife, late life, and the oldest-old. 9,387 non-demented individuals were recruited from the European population-based DESCRIPA study. An individual's LIBRA index was calculated solely based on modifiable risk factors: depression, diabetes, physical activity, hypertension, obesity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, coronary heart disease, and mild/moderate alcohol use. Cox regression was used to test the predictive validity of LIBRA for dementia at follow-up (mean 7.2 y, range 1-16). In midlife (55-69 y, n = 3,256) and late life (70-79 y, n = 4,320), the risk for dementia increased with higher LIBRA scores. Individuals in the intermediate- and high-risk groups had a higher risk of dementia than those in the low-risk group. In the oldest-old (80-97 y, n = 1,811), higher LIBRA scores did not increase the risk for dementia. LIBRA might be a useful tool to identify individuals for primary prevention interventions of dementia in midlife, and maybe in late life, but not in the oldest-old.

  20. Chromosome 8q23.3 and 11q23.1 variants modify colorectal cancer risk in Lynch syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, Juul T.; Brohet, Richard M.; van Eijk, Ronald; Jagmohan-Changur, Shanty; Middeldorp, Anneke; Tops, Carli M.; van Puijenbroek, Mario; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Gómez García, Encarna; Hes, Frederik J.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Menko, Fred H.; van Os, Theo A. M.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Verhoef, Senno; Wagner, Anja; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Devilee, Peter; Morreau, Hans; Goldgar, David; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Houlston, Richard S.; van Wezel, Tom; Vasen, Hans F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified common low-risk variants for colorectal cancer (CRC). To assess whether these influence CRC risk in the Lynch syndrome, we genotyped these variants in a large series of proven mutation carriers. We studied 675 individuals from 127 different

  1. Chromosome 8q23.3 and 11q23.1 Variants Modify Colorectal Cancer Risk in Lynch Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, Juul T.; Brohet, Richard M.; Van Eijk, Ronald; Jagmohan-Changur, Shanty; Middeldorp, Anneke; Tops, Carli M.; Van Puijenbroek, Mario; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Garcia, Encarna Gomez; Hes, Frederik J.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Menko, Fred H.; Van Os, Theo A. M.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Verhoef, Senno; Wagner, Anja; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Devilee, Peter; Morreau, Hans; Goldgar, David; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Houlston, Richard S.; Van Wezel, Tom; Vasen, Hans F. A.

    Background & Aims: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified common low-risk variants for colorectal cancer (CRC). To assess whether these influence CRC risk in the Lynch syndrome, we genotyped these variants in a large series of proven mutation carriers. Methods: We studied 675

  2. Concurrent physical activity modifies the association between n3 long-chain fatty acids and cardiometabolic risk in midlife adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Matthew F; Erickson, Kirk I; Goodpaster, Bret H; Jakicic, John M; Conklin, Sarah M; Sekikawa, Akira; Yao, Jeffrey K; Manuck, Stephen B

    2013-09-01

    Greater consumption of n3 (ω3) polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce risk for cardiovascular disease events, yet their effects on metabolic risk factors and diabetes remain unclear. This cross-sectional study used a community volunteer sample to test whether the associations between n3 fatty acids and cardiometabolic risk vary as a function of physical activity. Participants were 344 generally healthy adults, 30-54 y of age, not taking fish oil supplements or confounding medications. Serum phospholipid EPA and DHA were used together (EPA+DHA) as a biomarker of n3 fatty acid exposure. Cardiometabolic risk was calculated as a continuous measure based on standardized distributions of blood pressure, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and a simple count of risk factors. Insulin resistance was estimated from the homeostatic model assessment. Physical activity was found to predict cardiometabolic risk (P ≤ 0.02) and insulin resistance (P ≤ 0.02) and to moderate the association between EPA+DHA and both cardiometabolic risk (P-interaction ≤ 0.02) and insulin resistance (P-interaction ≤ 0.02). Specifically, higher EPA+DHA was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk and insulin resistance in persons engaged in regular physical activity but not in relatively inactive individuals. These findings were noted in several components of cardiometabolic risk, in men and women separately, and in models adjusted for overall diet quality. In midlife adults, habitual physical activity may be necessary to unmask the salutary effects of n3 fatty acids on cardiometabolic risk and insulin resistance.

  3. Breast cancer risk and 6q22.33: combined results from Breast Cancer Association Consortium and Consortium of Investigators on Modifiers of BRCA1/2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kirchhoff

    Full Text Available Recently, a locus on chromosome 6q22.33 (rs2180341 was reported to be associated with increased breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ population, and this association was also observed in populations of non-AJ European ancestry. In the present study, we performed a large replication analysis of rs2180341 using data from 31,428 invasive breast cancer cases and 34,700 controls collected from 25 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC. In addition, we evaluated whether rs2180341 modifies breast cancer risk in 3,361 BRCA1 and 2,020 BRCA2 carriers from 11 centers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA. Based on the BCAC data from women of European ancestry, we found evidence for a weak association with breast cancer risk for rs2180341 (per-allele odds ratio (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, p = 0.023. There was evidence for heterogeneity in the ORs among studies (I(2 = 49.3%; p = <0.004. In CIMBA, we observed an inverse association with the minor allele of rs2180341 and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele OR = 0.89, 95%CI 0.80-1.00, p = 0.048, indicating a potential protective effect of this allele. These data suggest that that 6q22.33 confers a weak effect on breast cancer risk.

  4. Quality of Reporting Randomized Controlled Trials in Five Leading Neurology Journals in 2008 and 2013 Using the Modified "Risk of Bias" Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiao; Cui, Jin; Wang, Yiran; Qu, Zhiquan; Mu, Qingchun; Li, Peiwen; Zhang, Chaochao; Yang, Mingyuan; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Ziqiang; Li, Ming

    2017-03-01

    To examine the risk of bias of methodological quality of reporting randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in major neurology journals before and after the update (2011) of Cochrane risk of bias tool. RCTs in 5 leading neurology journals in 2008 and 2013 were searched systematically. Characteristics were extracted based on the list of the modified Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Country, number of patients, type of intervention, and funding source also were examined for further analysis. A total of 138 RCTs were enrolled in this study. The rates of following a trial plan were 61.6% for the allocation generation, 52.9% for the allocation concealment, 84.8% for the blinding of the participants or the personnel, 34.8% for the blinding of outcome assessment, 78.3% for the incomplete outcome data, and 67.4% for the selective reporting. A significant setback was found in "the selective reporting" in 2013 than that in 2008. Trials performed by multi-centers and on a large scale had significantly more "low risk of bias" trials. Not only the number of surgical trials (5.8%) was much less than that of trials using drugs (73.9%), but also the reporting quality of surgical trials were worse (P = 0.008). Finally, only 17.4% trials met the criterion of "low risk of bias." The modified "risk of bias" tool is an improved version for assessment. Methodological quality of reporting RCTs in the 5neurology journals is unsatisfactory, especially that for surgical RCTs, and it could be further improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Does Type 2 Diabetes Genetic Testing and Counseling Reduce Modifiable Risk Factors? A Randomized Controlled Trial of Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voils, Corrine I; Coffman, Cynthia J; Grubber, Janet M; Edelman, David; Sadeghpour, Azita; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Bolton, Jamiyla; Cho, Alex; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Yancy, William S

    2015-11-01

    We examined the clinical utility of supplementing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) risk counseling with DM genetic test results and counseling. In this randomized controlled trial, non-diabetic overweight/obese veteran outpatients aged 21 to 65 years received DM risk estimates for lifetime risk, family history, and fasting plasma glucose, followed by either genetic test results (CR+G; N = 303) or control eye disease counseling (CR+EYE; N = 298). All participants received brief lifestyle counseling encouraging weight loss to reduce the risk of DM. The mean age was 54 years, 53% of participants were black, and 80% were men. There was no difference between arms in weight (estimated mean difference between CR+G vs. CR+EYE at 3 months = 0.2 kg, 95% CI: -0.3 to 0.7; at 6 months = 0.4 kg, 95 % CI: -0.3 to 1.1), insulin resistance, perceived risk, or physical activity at 3 or 6 months. Calorie and fat intake were lower in the CR+G arm at 3 months (p's ≤ 0.05) but not at 6 months (p's > 0.20). Providing patients with genetic test results was not more effective in changing patient behavior to reduce the risk of DM compared to conventional risk counseling. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01060540 http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01060540.

  6. Intermittent Vagal Nerve Block for Improvements in Obesity, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: 2-Year Results of the VBLOC DM2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikora, Scott A; Toouli, James; Herrera, Miguel F; Kulseng, Bård; Brancatisano, Roy; Kow, Lilian; Pantoja, Juan P; Johnsen, Gjermund; Brancatisano, Anthony; Tweden, Katherine S; Knudson, Mark B; Billington, Charles J; Billingto, Charles J

    2016-05-01

    One-year results of the VBLOC DM2 study found that intermittent vagal blocking (VBLOC therapy) was safe among subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and led to significant weight loss and improvements in glycemic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. Longer-term data are needed to determine whether the results are sustained. VBLOC DM2 is a prospective, observational study of 28 subjects with T2DM and body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m(2) to assess mid-term safety and weight loss and improvements in glycemic parameters, and other cardiovascular risk factors with VBLOC therapy. Continuous outcome variables are reported using mixed models. At 24 months, the mean percentage of excess weight loss was 22% (95% CI, 15 to 28, p obesity and glycemic control were largely sustained after 2 years of treatment with VBLOC therapy with a well-tolerated risk profile.

  7. Fatores modificáveis da degeneração macular relacionada à idade Modifiable risk factors for age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogil José de Almeida Torres

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam os principais fatores modificáveis considerados de risco para o desencadeamento e/ou agravamento da degeneração macular relacionada com a idade. São abordados os mecanismos de ação destes fatores, assim como medidas preventivas e eficácia de eventuais intervenções.The authors present the main modifiable risk factors that may trigger and/or worsen age-related macular degeneration. Mechanisms of action related to these factors as well as preventive measures and intervention effectiveness are discussed.

  8. Human health risks due to heavy metals through consumption of wild mushrooms from Macheke forest, Rail Block forest and Muganyi communal lands in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nharingo, Tichaona; Ndumo, Tafungwa; Moyo, Mambo

    2015-12-01

    The levels and sources of toxic heavy metals in Amanita loosii (AL) and Cantharellus floridulus (CF) mushrooms and their substrates were studied in some parts of Zimbabwe, Rail Block forest (mining town), Macheke forest (commercial farming), and Muganyi communal lands. The mushrooms and their associated soils were acid digested prior to Al, Pb, and Zn determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The transfer factors, mushrooms-soil metal correlation coefficients, daily intake rates, weekly intake rates, and target hazard quotients were calculated for each metal. The concentration of Zn, Al and Pb in mushrooms ranged from 1.045 ± 0.028 to 7.568 ± 0.322, 0.025 ± 0.001 to 0.654 ± 0.005, and a maximum of 5.78 ± 0.31 mg/kg, respectively, in all the three sampling areas. The mean heavy metal concentrations among the three sampling areas decreased as follows: Rail Block forest (mining town) > Macheke forest (commercial farming) > Muganyi communal lands for the concentrations in both mushrooms and total concentration in their substrates. C. floridulus accumulated higher concentrations of Al, Zn, and Pb than A. loosii at each site under study. Zn in both AL and CF (Muganyi communal lands) and Pb in AL (Rail Block forest) were absorbed only from the soils, while other sources of contamination were involved elsewhere. The consumption of 300 g of fresh A. loosii and C. floridulus per day by children less than 16 kg harvested from Rail Block forest would cause health problems, while mushrooms from Macheke Forest and Muganyi communal lands were found to be safe for human consumption. Due to non-biodegradability and bioaccumulation abilities of heavy metals, people are discouraged to consume A. loosii and C. floridulus from Rail Block forest for they have significant levels of heavy metals compared to those from Macheke forest and Muganyi communal lands.

  9. The effect of cigarette smoke and arsenic exposure on urothelial carcinoma risk is modified by glutathione S-transferase M1 gene null genotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chien-Tien [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-15

    Inter-individual variation in the metabolism of xenobiotics, caused by factors such as cigarette smoking or inorganic arsenic exposure, is hypothesized to be a susceptibility factor for urothelial carcinoma (UC). Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the role of gene–environment interaction in the carcinogenesis of UC. A hospital-based case–control study was conducted. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Genotyping was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Information about cigarette smoking exposure was acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to estimate the UC risk associated with certain risk factors. We found that UC patients had higher urinary levels of total arsenic, higher percentages of inorganic arsenic (InAs%) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA%) and lower percentages of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) compared to controls. Subjects carrying the GSTM1 null genotype had significantly increased UC risk. However, no association was observed between gene polymorphisms of CYP1A1, EPHX1, SULT1A1 and GSTT1 and UC risk after adjustment for age and sex. Significant gene–environment interactions among urinary arsenic profile, cigarette smoking, and GSTM1 wild/null polymorphism and UC risk were observed after adjustment for potential risk factors. Overall, gene–environment interactions simultaneously played an important role in UC carcinogenesis. In the future, large-scale studies should be conducted using tag-SNPs of xenobiotic-metabolism-related enzymes for gene determination. -- Highlights: ► Subjects with GSTM1 null genotype had significantly increased UC risk. ► UC patients had poor arsenic metabolic ability compared to controls. ► GSTM1 null genotype may modify arsenic related UC risk.

  10. The effect of cigarette smoke and arsenic exposure on urothelial carcinoma risk is modified by glutathione S-transferase M1 gene null genotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chi-Jung; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Su, Chien-Tien; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Inter-individual variation in the metabolism of xenobiotics, caused by factors such as cigarette smoking or inorganic arsenic exposure, is hypothesized to be a susceptibility factor for urothelial carcinoma (UC). Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the role of gene–environment interaction in the carcinogenesis of UC. A hospital-based case–control study was conducted. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Genotyping was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Information about cigarette smoking exposure was acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to estimate the UC risk associated with certain risk factors. We found that UC patients had higher urinary levels of total arsenic, higher percentages of inorganic arsenic (InAs%) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA%) and lower percentages of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) compared to controls. Subjects carrying the GSTM1 null genotype had significantly increased UC risk. However, no association was observed between gene polymorphisms of CYP1A1, EPHX1, SULT1A1 and GSTT1 and UC risk after adjustment for age and sex. Significant gene–environment interactions among urinary arsenic profile, cigarette smoking, and GSTM1 wild/null polymorphism and UC risk were observed after adjustment for potential risk factors. Overall, gene–environment interactions simultaneously played an important role in UC carcinogenesis. In the future, large-scale studies should be conducted using tag-SNPs of xenobiotic-metabolism-related enzymes for gene determination. -- Highlights: ► Subjects with GSTM1 null genotype had significantly increased UC risk. ► UC patients had poor arsenic metabolic ability compared to controls. ► GSTM1 null genotype may modify arsenic related UC risk.

  11. A modified fall risk assessment tool that is specific to physical function predicts falls in community-dwelling elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirase, Tatsuya; Inokuchi, Shigeru; Matsusaka, Nobuou; Nakahara, Kazumi; Okita, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Developing a practical fall risk assessment tool to predict the occurrence of falls in the primary care setting is important because investigators have reported deterioration of physical function associated with falls. Researchers have used many performance tests to predict the occurrence of falls. These performance tests predict falls and also assess physical function and determine exercise interventions. However, the need for such specialists as physical therapists to accurately conduct these tests limits their use in the primary care setting. Questionnaires for fall prediction offer an easy way to identify high-risk fallers without requiring specialists. Using an existing fall assessment questionnaire, this study aimed to identify items specific to physical function and determine whether those items were able to predict falls and estimate physical function of high-risk fallers. The analysis consisted of both retrospective and prospective studies and used 2 different samples (retrospective, n = 1871; prospective, n = 292). The retrospective study and 3-month prospective study comprised community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years or older and older adults using community day centers. The number of falls, risk factors for falls (15 risk factors on the questionnaire), and physical function determined by chair standing test (CST) and Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) were assessed. The retrospective study selected fall risk factors related to physical function. The prospective study investigated whether the number of selected risk factors could predict falls. The predictive power was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Seven of the 15 risk factors were related to physical function. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the sum of the selected risk factors of previous falls plus the other risk factors was 0.82 (P = .00). The best cutoff point was 4 risk factors, with sensitivity and specificity of 84% and 68

  12. TV watching modifies obesity risk linked to the 27Glu polymorphism of the ADRB2 gene in girls

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa, M.C. (María Carmen); Moreno-Aliaga, M.J. (María Jesús); Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Ángel); Martinez, J.A. (José Alfredo); Marti, A. (Amelia); Grupo de Estudio Navarro de la Obesidad Infantil (GENOI)

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A matched case-control study was conducted in a population of Spanish children and adolescents (5-18 years old), to assess the interaction between the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the ADRB2 and television (TV) watching on obesity risk. PATIENTS: Obese (n=165) and control subjects (n=165) matched by sex and age were recruited and classified according to Spanish reference data. Results. Using conditional logistic regression, we calculated the obesity risk linked to the polymorphism. A st...

  13. Glucagon gene polymorphism modifies the effects of smoking and physical activity on risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Gao, Kaiping; Zhao, Jingzhi; Feng, Tianping; Yin, Lei; Wang, Jinjin; Wang, Chongjian; Li, Chunyang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian; Zhai, Yujia; You, Haifei; Ren, Yongcheng; Wang, Bingyuan; Hu, Dongsheng

    2014-01-25

    Few genome-wide association studies have considered interactions between multiple genetic variants and environmental factors associated with disease. The interaction was examined between a glucagon gene (GCG) polymorphism and smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity and the association with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a case-control study of Chinese Han subjects. The rs12104705 polymorphism of GCG and interactions with environmental variables were analyzed for 9619 participants by binary multiple logistic regression. Smoking with the C-C haplotype of rs12104705 was associated with increased risk of T2DM (OR=1.174, 95% CI=1.013-1.361). Moderate and high physical activity with the C-C genotype was associated with decreased risk of T2DM as compared with low physical activity with the genotype (OR=0.251, 95% CI=0.206-0.306 and OR=0.190, 95% CI=0.164-0.220). However, the interaction of drinking and genotype was not associated with risk of T2DM. Genetic polymorphism in rs12104705 of GCG may interact with smoking and physical activity to modify the risk of T2DM. © 2013.

  14. Synthesis of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-modified activated carbon from risk husk for waste lead (Pb) removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Latief, D. N.; Arnelli, Astuti, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Surfactant-modified active carbon (SMAC) has been successfully synthesized from waste rice husk using a series of treatments i.e. carbonization, activation with H3PO4 and surface modification using sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). The synthesized SMAC was characterized using SEM-EDX and FTIR. The adsorption results show that the SMAC synthesized using H3PO4 treatment for 8 hours followed with SLS treatment for 5 hours had efficiency and capacity of the waste lead removal of 99.965% and 0.499825 mg.g-1, respectively.

  15. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new 3-parameter family of homogeneous 2-by-2 block shifts is described. These are the first examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1. Author Affiliations. Adam Korányi1. Department of Mathematics, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, NY 10016, USA ...

  16. Recent developments in paediatric neuraxial blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali Chandrashekhar Ponde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric anaesthesia and paediatric regional anaesthesia are intertwined. Almost all surgeries unless contradicted could be and should be supplemented with a regional block. The main objective of this review is to elaborate on the recent advances of the central neuraxial blocks, such as application of ultrasound guidance and electrical stimulation in the pursuit of safety and an objective end point. This review also takes account of the traditional technique and understand the benefits as well the risk of each as compared with the recent technique. The recent trends in choosing the most appropriate peripheral block for a given surgery thereby sparing the central neuroaxis is considered. A penile block for circumcision or a sciatic block for unilateral foot surgery, rather than caudal epidural would have a better risk benefit equation. Readers will find a special mention on the recent thoughts on continuous epidural analgesia in paediatrics, especially its rise and fall, yet its unique importance. Lastly, the issue of block placements under sedation or general anaesthesia with its implication in this special population is dealt with. We conducted searches in MEDLINE (PubMed and assessed the relevance of the abstracts of citations identified from literature searches. The search was carried out in English, for last 10 years, with the following key words: Recent advances in paediatric regional anaesthesia; ultrasound guidance for central neuraxial blocks in children; role of electrical stimulation in neuraxial blocks in children; complications in neuraxial block. Full-text articles of potentially relevant abstracts were retrieved for further review.

  17. Secondhand Smoke Is an Important Modifiable Risk Factor in Sickle Cell Disease: A Review of the Current Literature and Areas for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christy Sadreameli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy that causes significant morbidity and mortality related to chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusion, and resultant end-organ damage. Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE through secondhand smoke exposure in people with SCD of all ages and through primary smoking in adolescents and adults is associated with significantly increased morbidity, with increased rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for painful vaso-occlusive crises and acute chest syndrome (ACS. Secondhand smoke is also associated with pulmonary function abnormalities in children with SCD who are already at risk for pulmonary function abnormalities on the basis of SCD. TSE is emerging as one of the few modifiable risk factors of SCD. This review discusses the current state of the evidence with respect to TSE and SCD morbidity, discusses potential mechanisms, and highlights current gaps in the evidence and future research directions.

  18. 99mTc MDP SPECT-CT-Based Modified Mirels Classification for Evaluation of Risk of Fracture in Skeletal Metastasis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Saima; Bashir, Humayun; Niazi, Imran Khalid; Butt, Sumera; Qamar, Faisal

    2018-03-20

    Mirels' scoring system quantifies the risk of sustaining a pathologic fracture in osseous metastases of weight bearing long bones. Conventional Mirels' scoring is based on radiographs. Our pilot study proposes Tc MDP bone SPECT-CT based modified Mirels' scoring system and its comparison with conventional Mirels' scoring. Cortical lysis was noted in 8(24%) by SPECT-CT versus 2 (6.3%) on X-rays. Additional SPECT-CT parameters were; circumferential involvement [1/4 (31%), 1/2 (3%), 3/4 (37.5%), 4/4 (28%)] and extra-osseous soft tissue [3%]. Our pilot study suggests the potential role of SPECT-CT in predicting risk of fracture in osseous metastases.

  19. Physical Activity Modifies the Effect of LPL, LIPC and CETP polymorphisms on HDL-C Levels and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Caucasian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tariq; Chasman, Daniel I.; Buring, Julie E.; Lee, I-Min; Ridker, Paul M; Everett, Brendan M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent genome-wide association studies have identified common variants associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Whether these associations are modified by physical activity, which increases HDL-C levels and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is uncertain. Methods and Results In a prospective cohort study of 22,939 apparently healthy Caucasian US women, we selected 58 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 genes that demonstrated genome-wide association (P<5×10−8) with HDL-C levels and sought evidence of effect modification according to levels of physical activity (PA). PA modified the effects on HDL-C of 7 SNPs at 3 loci, and the strongest evidence of effect was observed for rs10096633 at LPL, rs1800588 at LIPC and rs1532624 at CETP (each P-interaction <0.05). The per-minor-allele increase in HDL-C for rs1800588 at LIPC and rs1532624 at CETP was greater in active than inactive women, whereas the reverse was observed for rs10096633 at LPL. Minor-allele carrier status at the LPL SNP was associated with a reduced risk of MI in active (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.42, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.23–0.76) but not amongst inactive women (HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.83–1.44; P-interaction=0.007). By contrast, carrier status at the CETP SNP was associated with a reduced risk of MI regardless of activity level (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57–0.92; P-interaction=0.71). No association between LIPC SNP carrier status and MI risk was noted Conclusions The effects of common variants in the LPL, LIPC and CETP genes on HDL-C levels are modified by PA. For a common variant in LPL, the impact on MI varied by activity level, while the effects of a common variant in CETP on MI risk did not. PMID:21252145

  20. Trans-channel interactions in batrachotoxin-modified skeletal muscle sodium channels: voltage-dependent block by cytoplasmic amines, and the influence of mu-conotoxin GIIIA derivatives and permeant ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Evgeny; Britvina, Tatiana; McArthur, Jeff R; Ma, Quanli; Sierralta, Iván; Zamponi, Gerald W; French, Robert J

    2008-11-01

    External mu-conotoxins and internal amine blockers inhibit each other's block of voltage-gated sodium channels. We explore the basis of this interaction by measuring the shifts in voltage-dependence of channel inhibition by internal amines induced by two mu-conotoxin derivatives with different charge distributions and net charges. Charge changes on the toxin were made at residue 13, which is thought to penetrate most deeply into the channel, making it likely to have the strongest individual interaction with an internal charged ligand. When an R13Q or R13E molecule was bound to the channel, the voltage dependence of diethylammonium (DEA)-block shifted toward more depolarized potentials (23 mV for R13Q, and 16 mV for R13E). An electrostatic model of the repulsion between DEA and the toxin simulated these data, with a distance between residue 13 of the mu-conotoxin and the DEA-binding site of approximately 15 A. Surprisingly, for tetrapropylammonium, the shifts were only 9 mV for R13Q, and 7 mV for R13E. The smaller shifts associated with R13E, the toxin with a smaller net charge, are generally consistent with an electrostatic interaction. However, the smaller shifts observed for tetrapropylammonium than for DEA suggest that other factors must be involved. Two observations indicate that the coupling of permeant ion occupancy of the channel to blocker binding may contribute to the overall amine-toxin interaction: 1), R13Q binding decreases the apparent affinity of sodium for the conducting pore by approximately 4-fold; and 2), increasing external [Na(+)] decreases block by DEA at constant voltage. Thus, even though a number of studies suggest that sodium channels are occupied by no more than one ion most of the time, measurable coupling occurs between permeant ions and toxin or amine blockers. Such interactions likely determine, in part, the strength of trans-channel, amine-conotoxin interactions.

  1. Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for Reducing Body Weight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gletsu-Miller, Nana; McCrory, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    This article is a summary of the symposium “Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for Reducing Body Weight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk” held 29 April 2014 at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA. In this symposium, novel approaches to modifying eating behavior were highlighted, including 1) alteration of meal timing and macronutrient composition and 2) retraining and provision of feedback about eating behavior. Dr. Ciampolini discussed a method for teaching individuals to recognize a decrease in blood glucose concentration, and therefore the need for energy, by learning the associated physical sensations (signifying hunger). Dr. Madar and Sigal Sofer presented their work on reducing hunger during energy reduction by feeding carbohydrate only in the evening. Dr. Hamilton-Shield reviewed studies on the Mandometer (Mikrodidakt), a device for training individuals to slow eating rate. Finally, Dr. Sazonov presented information on a wearable device, the Automatic Ingestion Monitor, which senses jaw motion and/or hand-to-mouth gestures to detect and characterize food intake. His goal is to use the instrument to prevent overeating by providing feedback to the user to stop ingestion at a predetermined limit. PMID:25398742

  2. An analysis for risk impact of Emergency Diesel Generator on modified Surveillance Test Interval by considering failure due to demand stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Lee, Jooho; Yang, Joon-Eon

    2010-01-01

    The common practice for the estimation of the probability of a component failure to start on demand is to lump together standby failures and failures due to the stress induced by the demand itself. In this paper, a failure by demand stress as well as a standby failure is considered separately to estimate the probability of a failure on demand when a Surveillance Test Interval (STI) is modified. The proposed estimation method is based on α, the ratio of the probability of a failure by demand stress to that of a failure on demand. The estimate of α, however, should be changed when an STI is modified. An estimation method for α', the changed parameter corresponding to α under an STI modification is also suggested. With the proposed estimation method and the estimate of α' from a plant specific database, a risk impact analysis due to an STI modification for the Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) of UCN units 3 and 4 is performed. From the sensitivity analysis, the following conclusions can de derived: if it is assumed that all failures occur during the standby time, as it is the case in the common practice, the results can overestimate the risk impact. And it is required to construct a component reliability database containing detailed information on the failure types to recognize whether a component failure occurs during a standby time or a test.

  3. Contrast in edge vegetation structure modifies the predation risk of natural ground nests in an agricultural landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Schneider

    Full Text Available Nest predation risk generally increases nearer forest-field edges in agricultural landscapes. However, few studies test whether differences in edge contrast (i.e. hard versus soft edges based on vegetation structure and height affect edge-related predation patterns and if such patterns are related to changes in nest conspicuousness between incubation and nestling feeding. Using data on 923 nesting attempts we analyse factors influencing nest predation risk at different edge types in an agricultural landscape of a ground-cavity breeding bird species, the Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe. As for many other bird species, nest predation is a major determinant of reproductive success in this migratory passerine. Nest predation risk was higher closer to woodland and crop field edges, but only when these were hard edges in terms of ground vegetation structure (clear contrast between tall vs short ground vegetation. No such edge effect was observed at soft edges where adjacent habitats had tall ground vegetation (crop, ungrazed grassland. This edge effect on nest predation risk was evident during the incubation stage but not the nestling feeding stage. Since wheatear nests are depredated by ground-living animals our results demonstrate: (i that edge effects depend on edge contrast, (ii that edge-related nest predation patterns vary across the breeding period probably resulting from changes in parental activity at the nest between the incubation and nestling feeding stage. Edge effects should be put in the context of the nest predator community as illustrated by the elevated nest predation risk at hard but not soft habitat edges when an edge is defined in terms of ground vegetation. These results thus can potentially explain previously observed variations in edge-related nest predation risk.

  4. TV watching modifies obesity risk linked to the 27Glu polymorphism of the ADRB2 gene in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, M C; Moreno-Aliaga, M J; Martínez-González, M A; Martínez, J A; Marti, A

    2006-01-01

    A matched case-control study was conducted in a population of Spanish children and adolescents (5-18 years old), to assess the interaction between the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the ADRB2 and television (TV) watching on obesity risk. Obese (n=165) and control subjects (n=165) matched by sex and age were recruited and classified according to Spanish reference data. Results. Using conditional logistic regression, we calculated the obesity risk linked to the polymorphism. A statistically significant association was found for 27Glu carrier allele girls (OR = 1.95; 95% CI = 1.02-3.70), but no association was apparent among boys. In the fully adjusted model, the odds ratio for obesity linked to the genotype Glu27Glu in the female population rose to 4.84 (95% CI = 1.37-17.10). Moreover, we found a significant negative interaction between hours of TV watching and the Gln27Glu polymorphism for obesity risk in girls. Surprisingly, among 27Glu carrier subjects, even girls with a low level of TV watching ( obesity risk (OR = 4.60; 95% CI = 1.01-20.02), which was not very different to the odds ratio values for sedentary girls carrying the 27 Glu allele watching TV more than 12.5 h/week (OR = 6.05; 95% CI = 1.31-27.71). Conclusion. A higher risk of obesity was found for girls carrying the 27Glu allele of the ADRB2 gene even when they spent less than 12.5 h/week watching TV. In addition, our results suggest that the effect of sedentary lifestyle on obesity risk may depend on the genotype of the subject.

  5. Beyond Risk Compensation: Clusters of Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Users in Sexual Networks Can Modify the Impact of ART on HIV Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, Wim; Helleringer, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Concerns about risk compensation—increased risk behaviours in response to a perception of reduced HIV transmission risk—after the initiation of ART have largely been dispelled in empirical studies, but other changes in sexual networking patterns may still modify the effects of ART on HIV incidence. Methods We developed an exploratory mathematical model of HIV transmission that incorporates the possibility of ART clusters, i.e. subsets of the sexual network in which the density of ART patients is much higher than in the rest of the network. Such clusters may emerge as a result of ART homophily—a tendency for ART patients to preferentially form and maintain relationships with other ART patients. We assessed whether ART clusters may affect the impact of ART on HIV incidence, and how the influence of this effect-modifying variable depends on contextual variables such as HIV prevalence, HIV serosorting, coverage of HIV testing and ART, and adherence to ART. Results ART homophily can modify the impact of ART on HIV incidence in both directions. In concentrated epidemics and generalized epidemics with moderate HIV prevalence (≈ 10%), ART clusters can enhance the impact of ART on HIV incidence, especially when adherence to ART is poor. In hyperendemic settings (≈ 35% HIV prevalence), ART clusters can reduce the impact of ART on HIV incidence when adherence to ART is high but few people living with HIV (PLWH) have been diagnosed. In all contexts, the effects of ART clusters on HIV epidemic dynamics are distinct from those of HIV serosorting. Conclusions Depending on the programmatic and epidemiological context, ART clusters may enhance or reduce the impact of ART on HIV incidence, in contrast to serosorting, which always leads to a lower impact of ART on HIV incidence. ART homophily and the emergence of ART clusters should be measured empirically and incorporated into more refined models used to plan and evaluate ART programmes. PMID:27657492

  6. Which modifiable health risk behaviours are related? A systematic review of the clustering of Smoking, Nutrition, Alcohol and Physical activity ('SNAP') health risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Natasha; Paul, Christine; Turon, Heidi; Oldmeadow, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing body of literature examining the clustering of health risk behaviours, but little consensus about which risk factors can be expected to cluster for which sub groups of people. This systematic review aimed to examine the international literature on the clustering of smoking, poor nutrition, excess alcohol and physical inactivity (SNAP) health behaviours among adults, including associated socio-demographic variables. A literature search was conducted in May 2014. Studies examining at least two SNAP risk factors, and using a cluster or factor analysis technique, or comparing observed to expected prevalence of risk factor combinations, were included. Fifty-six relevant studies were identified. A majority of studies (81%) reported a 'healthy' cluster characterised by the absence of any SNAP risk factors. More than half of the studies reported a clustering of alcohol with smoking, and half reported clustering of all four SNAP risk factors. The methodological quality of included studies was generally weak to moderate. Males and those with greater social disadvantage showed riskier patterns of behaviours; younger age was less clearly associated with riskier behaviours. Clustering patterns reported here reinforce the need for health promotion interventions to target multiple behaviours, and for such efforts to be specifically designed and accessible for males and those who are socially disadvantaged. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ground reaction curve based upon block theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.; Goodman, R.E.

    1985-09-01

    Discontinuities in a rock mass can intersect an excavation surface to form discrete blocks (keyblocks) which can be unstable. Once a potentially unstable block is identified, the forces affecting it can be calculated to assess its stability. The normal and shear stresses on each block face before displacement are calculated using elastic theory and are modified in a nonlinear way by discontinuity deformations as the keyblock displaces. The stresses are summed into resultant forces to evaluate block stability. Since the resultant forces change with displacement, successive increments of block movement are examined to see whether the block ultimately becomes stable or fails. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) analytic models for the stability of simple pyramidal keyblocks were evaluated. Calculated stability is greater for 3D analyses than for 2D analyses. Calculated keyblock stability increases with larger in situ stress magnitudes, larger lateral stress ratios, and larger shear strengths. Discontinuity stiffness controls blocks displacement more strongly than it does stability itself. Large keyblocks are less stable than small ones, and stability increases as blocks become more slender

  8. Genetic engineering in agriculture and corporate engineering in public debate: risk, public relations, and public debate over genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajeev; Torres, Robert J; Rosset, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Corporations have long influenced environmental and occupational health in agriculture, doing a great deal of damage, making substantial profits, and shaping public debate to make it appear that environmental misfortunes are accidents of an otherwise well-functioning system, rather than systemic. The debate over the genetically modified (GM) crops is an example. The largest producer of commercial GM seeds, Monsanto, exemplifies the industry's strategies: the invocation of poor people as beneficiaries, characterization of opposition as technophobic or anti-progress, and portrayal of their products as environmentally beneficial in the absence of or despite the evidence. This strategy is endemic to contemporary market capitalism, with its incentives to companies to externalize health and environmental costs to increase profits.

  9. Fractionation And Environmental Risk Of Trace Metals In Surface Sediment Of The East China Sea By Modified BCR Sequential Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical fractionation of Cadmium (Cd, Lead (Pb, Cobalt (Co, Zink (Zn, Iron (Fe and Manganese (Mn in sediment of the East China Sea were determined using four-stages of modified BCR sequential extraction method combination with ICP-MS. The total concentration of trace metals in sediment samples were in the following order: Fe >Mn>Pb> Zn > Co > Cd. Cd is present mainly in acid soluble fraction. Pb and Mn are in the group with presenting of easy reducible fraction and acid soluble fraction. Fe and Co were found in a group with mainly in residual fraction, while Zn was distributed in all four fractions. The highest contamination factors were found for Cd and Mn while the lowest were found for Fe and Co in almost station. The result showed low risk for Fe and Co in all station, Pb (except S2 and S3, Zn at S3,S6 and S7, and Mn at S1. A medium risk is indicated for Pb at S2 and S3, Zn at S1 and S5, and Mn at S2 and S6. A high risk showed for Zn at S2 and S4, and Mn at S4 and S5, while Cd at almost station (except S4 was very high risk.

  10. Invited Commentary: Fundamental Causes, Social Context, and Modifiable Risk Factors in the Racial/Ethnic Inequalities in Blood Pressure and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicken, Margaret T

    2015-08-15

    Racial and ethnic inequalities in blood pressure and hypertension have been well documented, but their causes remain unclear, making efforts to reduce these inequalities challenging. In this issue of the Journal, Basu et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;182(4):345-353) address this gap in our knowledge by using an econometric approach to examine the role of 4 conventional risk factors for hypertension. Their results suggest that targeting certain risk factors will reduce racial inequalities in the prevalence of hypertension. However, racial differences in modifiable risk factors are enmeshed within disparate socioenvironmental contexts which are in turn determined by inequalities in the distribution of social, economic, and political resources and constraints. A small but growing body of literature suggests that targeting the intermediate risk factors that link racial group membership to hypertension, rather than the context or the inequalities in the distribution of resources and constraints, will ultimately result in little change in hypertension inequalities, increase these inequalities, or even create inequalities in poor mental health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Does physical activity modify the risk of obesity for type 2 diabetes : a review of epidemiological data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, L.; Knol, M.J.; Corpeleijn, E.; Stolk, R.P.

    Obesity and physical inactivity are both risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Since they are strongly associated, it has been suggested that they might interact. In this study, we summarized the evidence on this interaction by conducting a systematic review. Two types of interaction have been

  12. Vitamin D3supplementation does not modify cardiovascular risk profile of adults with inadequate vitamin D status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Eric; Lehmann, Ulrike; Riedel, Annett; Ulrich, Christof; Hirche, Frank; Brandsch, Corinna; Dierkes, Jutta; Girndt, Matthias; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2017-03-01

    The Nutrition Societies in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland recommend a daily intake of 20 µg vitamin D 3 for adults when endogenous synthesis is absent. The current study aimed to elucidate whether this vitamin D 3 dose impacts cardiovascular risk markers of adults during the winter months. The study was conducted in Halle (Saale), Germany (51 o northern latitude) as a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomised trial (from January to April). A total of 105 apparently healthy subjects (male and female, 20-71 years old) were included. Subjects were randomly allocated to two groups. One group received a daily 20-µg vitamin D 3 dose (n = 54), and the other group received a placebo (n = 51) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included blood pressure, heart rate, concentrations of renin, aldosterone, serum lipids and vascular calcification markers, and haematologic variables such as pro-inflammatory monocytes. Blood pressure and systemic cardiovascular risk markers remained unchanged by vitamin D 3 supplementation, although serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 increased from 38 ± 14 to 73 ± 16 nmol/L at week 12. The placebo and vitamin D groups did not differ in their final cardiovascular risk profile. Daily supplementation of 20 µg vitamin D 3 during winter is unlikely to change cardiovascular risk profile.

  13. The Relationship between Smoking as a Modifiable Risk Factor and Chronic Complications on Elderly with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indang Trihandini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is known as a variable that can be changed through a specific intervention activity. Recently in Indonesia, research related to chronic complication among elderly with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM was not available. This research has objective in exploring the risk of smoking towards chronic complication among elderly with type 2 DM. This research was using Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas in 2007. Riskesdas is a representative Indonesia Health Survey. 1,565 elderly (aged 60++ years with type 2 DM have selected by random. 70-80% of the elderly have Chronic Complications and 32.11% of the sample is smokers. The elderly who smoke more than 24 cigarettes per day have risk 2.5 (95% CI, 1.54-3.97, smoker 1-12 cigarettes per day, and smoker 13-24 cigarettes per day have risk 1.3 and 1.6 respectively to get chronic complication compared with those who do not smoke, controlled by age, obesity, and physical activity. The proportion of smokers among elderly with type 2 DM is high, most of them are low education, low socioeconomic status, lack of access to the health services, low of physical activity, and low consume vegetables and fruit. Smoking increases the risk of chronic complication of type 2 DM.

  14. Modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for falls after traumatic brain injury: an exploratory investigation with implications for medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mary P; Carmine, Helen; Kolakowsky-Hayner, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Falls are a challenge for rehabilitation nurses, facilities, families, and individuals. Studies related to the causes of falls and potential strategies for risk management have been conducted across disability groups and with the elderly. Still, a focus on individuals with traumatic brain injuries (TBI), specifically, has been limited. This paper presents a brief review of relevant research and the results of a preliminary investigation. This study was a retrospective study of 125 individuals with TBI in residential treatment. Specific risk factors for falls in this population were identified. Results indicate that age, injury severity, medical complications, specific medications and polypharmacy are significantly linked to falls in individuals with brain injuries. Specifically, the use of anticholinergic medications was associated with falls in this study. The results of this study are limited both by the use of a convenience sample and the fact that it is an initial exploratory step to future multicenter research. Still, the resulting fall risk profile that emerged is an important consideration for rehabilitation practitioners working in brain injury. Identifying those individuals with TBI most at risk for falling and taking appropriate measures to prevent falling, including consideration of both number and type of medication used, are important measures for rehabilitation teams working with this population to take. © 2013 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  15. Modifying Alcohol Consumption among High School Students: An Efficacy Trial of an Alcohol Risk Reduction Program (PRIME for Life)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Mats A.; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Kallmen, Hakan; Andreasson, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: PRIME for Life is an alcohol risk reduction program that has been used and refined in the USA for over 20 years. A Swedish version of the program has recently been adapted for use among Swedish high-school students (age 18-19). The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the program on youth alcohol consumption (including…

  16. Risk of Cause-Specific Death in Individuals with Cancer-Modifying Role Diabetes, Statins and Metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Jari; Niskanen, Leo; Auvinen, Anssi

    2017-12-15

    Both diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer are common diseases and they frequently occur in the same patients. We investigated the all-cause and cause-specific mortality dynamics in relation to baseline DM, statin use and metformin use. The study population consisted of 39,900 incident cancer cases from Finland, 19,822 patients were free of DM at the start of follow-up and 20,078 had DM. Mortality from all causes, and cancer, cardiovascular (CVD) and other causes was analysed using Poisson regression model with the following variables: sex, age, DM, statin and metformin usage in baseline, cancer type and stage and calendar period. Statin usage was associated with a reduced cancer-specific mortality with incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.72 (95% confidence interval 0.69-0.74), IRR for CVD mortality was 0.95 (0.88-1.02) and for other causes 0.64 (0.56-0.74). In a sub-population of DM patients, IRR for metformin in all-cause mortality was 0.74 (0.71-0.78), in cancer mortality 0.75 (0.72-0.79), in CVD mortality 0.75 (0.68-0.83) and other causes 0.68 (0.60-0.78). In conclusion, our register-based study of survival after cancer diagnosis showed that patients with diabetes had substantially poorer outcome in all measures. An association between baseline statin usage and lower all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality was modified by cancer type. The effect of statin use was largest for breast and colorectal cancer. Metformin usage in a subpopulation of oral antidiabetic users was in general associated with lower mortality, but this association was modified by cancer type. The association was strongest for liver, colorectal and breast cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  17. Ionization of amphiphilic acidic block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, Olivier; Lejeune, Elise; Charbonneau, Céline; Chassenieux, Christophe; Nicolai, Taco

    2012-06-28

    The ionization behavior of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(n-butyl acrylate(50%)-stat-acrylic acid(50%))(100)-block-poly(acrylic acid)(100) (P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(100), DH50) and of its equivalent triblock copolymer P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(200)-b-P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) (TH50) were studied by potentiometric titration either in pure water or in 0.5 M NaCl. These polymers consist of a hydrophilic acidic block (PAA) connected to a hydrophobic block, P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100), whose hydrophobic character has been mitigated by copolymerization with hydrophilic units. We show that all AA units, even those in the hydrophobic block could be ionized. However, the AA units within the hydrophobic block were less acidic than those in the hydrophilic block, resulting in the preferential ionization of the latter block. The preferential ionization of PAA over that of P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) was stronger at higher ionic strength. Remarkably, the covalent bonds between the PAA and P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) blocks in the diblock or the triblock did not affect the ionization of each block, although the self-association of the block copolymers into spherical aggregates modified the environment of the PAA blocks compared to when PAA was molecularly dispersed.

  18. Prognosis assessment of persistent left bundle branch block after TAVI by an electrophysiological and remote monitoring risk-adapted algorithm: rationale and design of the multicentre LBBB-TAVI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoullié, Grégoire; Bordachar, Pierre; Irles, Didier; Caussin, Christophe; Da Costa, Antoine; Defaye, Pascal; Jean, Frédéric; Mechulan, Alexis; Mondoly, Pierre; Souteyrand, Géraud; Pereira, Bruno; Ploux, Sylvain; Eschalier, Romain

    2016-10-26

    Percutaneous aortic valve replacement (transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)) notably increases the likelihood of the appearance of a complete left bundle branch block (LBBB) by direct lesion of the LBB of His. This block can lead to high-grade atrioventricular conduction disturbances responsible for a poorer prognosis. The management of this complication remains controversial. The screening of LBBB after TAVI persisting for more than 24 hours will be conducted by surface ECG. Stratification will be performed by post-TAVI intracardiac electrophysiological study. Patients at high risk of conduction disturbances (≥70 ms His-ventricle interval (HV) or presence of infra-Hisian block) will be implanted with a pacemaker enabling the recording of disturbance episodes. Those at lower risk (HV algorithm based on electrophysiological study and remote monitoring of CIEDs in the prediction of high-grade conduction disturbances in patients with LBBB after TAVI. The primary end point is to compare the incidence (rate and time to onset) of high-grade conduction disturbances in patients with LBBB after TAVI between the two groups at 12 months. Given the proportion of high-grade conduction disturbances (20-40%), a sample of 200 subjects will allow a margin of error of 6-7%. The LBBB-TAVI Study has been in an active recruiting phase since September 2015 (21 patients already included). Local ethics committee authorisation was obtained in May 2015. We will publish findings from this study in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and present results at national and international conferences. NCT02482844; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  20. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  1. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked...

  2. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajati, Alireza; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes. PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles. Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i) landing, ii) side cutting, iii) stop-jump, and iv) muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position. Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.

  3. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Monajati

    Full Text Available Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes.The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes.PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles.Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i landing, ii side cutting, iii stop-jump, and iv muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position.Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.

  4. Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline: A longitudinal analysis of potentially modifiable risk factors in community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Damien; Kiss, Alex; Lanctot, Krista; Herrmann, Nathan

    2016-01-15

    Depressive symptoms have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline in later life. There are no interventions proven to reduce risk of cognitive decline in older adults with depression, and it is unclear how these effects are mediated. We aim to determine what mediates the relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in later life. Seven thousand six hundred and sixty six community dwelling older adults (age ≥ 50) from the English Longitudinal study of Ageing (ELSA) underwent clinical assessment. Inflammation was assessed with C Reactive Protein and depressive symptoms were assessed with the 8-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies (CESD) scale. Five thousand, five hundred and ninety (73.5%) had a follow-up cognitive assessment after a median of 47 months. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with cognitive decline (B=0.09, pdepressive symptoms. Low physical activity (z=2.16, p=0.03) and inflammation (z=2.3, p=0.02) mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline while hypertension, diabetes and smoking also contributed. This is an observational study with a limited duration of follow up. Not all variables related to cognitive decline were accounted for in this analysis. The relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in later life appears to be mediated by low physical activity, increased inflammation and vascular risk factors that may be amenable to modification. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Understanding suicide attempts among American Indian adolescents in New Mexico: modifiable factors related to risk and resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Michelle; Fullerton-Gleason, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    To examine correlates of suicide attempts among American Indian adolescents living on reservations in New Mexico. Cross-sectional American Indian adolescents attending school in New Mexico, grades 6 to 12. Data from the Search Institute Profiles of Student Life Attitudes and Behaviors survey related to suicide attempts and student assets and risk behaviors. Hypothesized predictor variables derived from 39 survey questions were tested against one outcome variable relating to prior suicide attempts. Of 690 American Indian students included in the study, 24.2% indicated having attempted suicide one or more times in their lives. Salient assets included having neighbors who cared about them, adults who made them feel important, and having friends who did well in school. Notable risk factors were feeling depressed, drug and alcohol use, and having been the victim of violence. Adolescent suicide continues to be a major concern for American Indians. A focus on strengthening parent-child relationships and community support for families may increase resiliency among youth at risk.

  6. Outdoor air pollution as a possible modifiable risk factor to reduce mortality in post-stroke population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desikan, Anita

    2017-03-01

    Outdoor air pollution is a known risk factor for mortality and morbidity. The type of air pollutant most reliably associated with disease is particulate matter (PM), especially finer particulate matter that can reach deeper into the lungs like PM 2.5 (particulate matter diameter pollution. This review focuses on one subgroup, long-term stroke survivors, and the emerging evidence suggesting that survivors of a stroke may be at a higher risk from the deleterious effects of PM pollution. While the mechanisms for mortality are still under debate, long-term stroke survivors may be vulnerable to similar mechanisms that underlie the well-established association between PM pollution and cardiovascular disease. The fact that long-term stroke survivors of ischemic, but not hemorrhagic, strokes appear to be more vulnerable to the risk of death from higher PM pollution may also bolster the connection to ischemic heart disease. Survivors of an ischemic stroke may be more vulnerable to dying from higher concentrations of PM pollution than the general population. The clinical implications of this association suggest that reduced exposure to PM pollution may result in fewer deaths amongst stroke survivors.

  7. Outdoor air pollution as a possible modifiable risk factor to reduce mortality in post-stroke population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Desikan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor air pollution is a known risk factor for mortality and morbidity. The type of air pollutant most reliably associated with disease is particulate matter (PM, especially finer particulate matter that can reach deeper into the lungs like PM2.5 (particulate matter diameter < 2.5 μm. Some subpopulations may be particularly vulnerable to PM pollution. This review focuses on one subgroup, long-term stroke survivors, and the emerging evidence suggesting that survivors of a stroke may be at a higher risk from the deleterious effects of PM pollution. While the mechanisms for mortality are still under debate, long-term stroke survivors may be vulnerable to similar mechanisms that underlie the well-established association between PM pollution and cardiovascular disease. The fact that long-term stroke survivors of ischemic, but not hemorrhagic, strokes appear to be more vulnerable to the risk of death from higher PM pollution may also bolster the connection to ischemic heart disease. Survivors of an ischemic stroke may be more vulnerable to dying from higher concentrations of PM pollution than the general population. The clinical implications of this association suggest that reduced exposure to PM pollution may result in fewer deaths amongst stroke survivors.

  8. The relationship of socioeconomic status, race, and modifiable risk factors to outcomes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, E W; Daltroy, L H; Lew, R A; Wright, E A; Partridge, A J; Fossel, A H; Roberts, W N; Stern, S H; Straaton, K V; Wacholtz, M C; Kavanaugh, A F; Grosflam, J M; Liang, M H

    1997-01-01

    To study the relationship of race, socioeconomic status (SES), clinical factors, and psychosocial factors to outcomes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A retrospective cohort was assembled, comprising 200 patients with SLE from 5 centers. This cohort was balanced in terms of race and SES. Patients provided information on socioeconomic factors, access to health care, nutrition, self-efficacy for disease management, health locus of control, social support, compliance, knowledge about SLE, and satisfaction with medical care. Outcome measures included disease activity (measured by the Systemic Lupus Activity Measure), damage (measured by the SLICC/ACR damage index), and health status (measured by the SF-36). In multivariate models that were controlled for race, SES, center, psychosocial factors, and clinical factors, lower self-efficacy for disease management (P nutrition (P < 0.002), and higher disease activity at diagnosis (P < 0.007) were associated with more damage. Lower self-efficacy for disease management was associated with worse physical function (P < or = 0.0001) and worse mental health status (P < or = 0.0001). Disease activity and health status were most strongly associated with potentially modifiable psychosocial factors such as self-efficacy for disease management. Cumulative organ damage was most highly associated with clinical factors such as age and duration of disease. None of the outcomes measured were associated with race. These results suggest that education and counseling, coordinated with medical care, might improve outcomes in patients with SLE.

  9. Modified cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  10. ASTHME INFANTILE: Les facteurs de risque modifiables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MOTS CLES: Asthme - Infantile - Facteurs de risque - Modifiables. CHILDHOOD ASTHMA: Modifiable risk factors. ABSTRACT: This cross sectional study was carried out to determine the modifiable risk factors, for which some intervention could modify the evolution of childhood asthma. To do this, 145 children aged 3 ...

  11. Modified ocean circulation, albedo instability and ice-flow instability. Risks of non-linear climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J. van; Beer, R.J. van; Builtjes, P.J.H.; Roemer, M.G.M. [TNO Inst. of Environmental Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Koennen, G.P. [KNMI, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Inst., de Bilt (Netherlands); Oerlemans, J. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Inst. for Meteorological and Atmospheric Research

    1995-12-31

    In this presentation part of an investigation is described into risks for climate change which are presently not adequately covered in General Circulation Models. In the concept of climate change as a result of the enhanced greenhouse effect it is generally assumed that the radiative forcings from increased concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) will result in a proportional or quasilinear global warming. Though correlations of this kind are known from palaeoclimate research, the variability of the climate seems to prevent the direct proof of a causal relation between recent greenhouse gas concentrations and temperature observations. In order to resolve the issue the use of General Circulation Models (GCMs), though still inadequate at present, is indispensable. Around the world some 10 leading GCMs exist which have been the subject of evaluation and intercomparison in a number of studies. Their results are regularly assessed in the IPCC process. A discussion on their performance in simulating present or past climates and the causes of their weak points shows that the depiction of clouds is a major weakness of GCMs. A second element which is virtually absent in GCMs are the feedbacks from natural biogeochemical cycles. These cycles are influenced by man in a number of ways. GCMs have a limited performance in simulating regional effects on climate. Moreover, albedo instability, in part due to its interaction with cloudiness, is only roughly represented. Apparently, not all relevant processes have been included in the GCMs. That situation constitutes a risk, since it cannot be ruled out that a missing process could cause or trigger a non-linear climate change. In the study non-linear climate change is connected with those processes which could provide feedbacks with a risk for non-monotonous or discontinuous behaviour of the climate system, or which are unpredictable or could cause rapid transitions

  12. The adverse association of diabetes with risk of first acute myocardial infarction is modified by physical activity and body mass index: prospective data from the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Børge; Augestad, Liv B; Flanders, W Dana; Dalen, Håvard; Nilsen, Tom I L

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes increases the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and effective means for primary prevention are warranted. We prospectively examined the joint association of diabetes and leisure-time physical activity, as well as of diabetes and BMI, with the risk of AMI. A total of 55,534 men and women in the Norwegian HUNT Study were followed-up for first AMI by hospital admission registries and the Cause of Death Registry. Cox proportional adjusted HRs with 95% CIs were estimated. Overall, 1,887 incident AMIs occurred during 12.3 years. Compared with inactive people without diabetes, inactive people with diabetes had an HR of 2.37 (95% CI 1.58, 3.57), whereas the HR among highly active persons with diabetes was 1.04 (95% CI 0.62, 1.74). Normal-weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m(2)) persons with diabetes had an HR of 1.60 (95% CI 1.05, 2.44) and obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2)) persons with diabetes had an HR of 2.55 (95% CI 1.97, 3.29) compared with normal-weight persons without diabetes. The data suggest biological interaction between diabetes and physical activity, with a relative excess risk of inactivity and diabetes of 1.43 (95% CI 0.08, 2.78). For obesity and diabetes, the excess risk due to interaction was smaller (0.67; 95% CI -0.24, 1.58). Body weight and, in particular, physical activity modified the association between diabetes and risk of first AMI. This highlights the potential importance of physical activity and weight maintenance in primary prevention of AMI among people with diabetes.

  13. Clustering of risk-related modifiable behaviours and their association with overweight and obesity among a large sample of youth in the COMPASS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Laxer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canadian youth exhibit a number of risky behaviours, some of which are associated with overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of 15 modifiable risk behaviours in a large sample of Canadian youth, to identify underlying subgroups based on patterns of health behaviours, and to examine the association between identified subgroups and overweight/obesity. Methods Data from 18,587 grades 9–12 students in Year 1 (2012–13 of the COMPASS study and latent class analysis were used to identify patterns and clustering among 15 health behaviours (e.g., physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour, unhealthy eating, substance use. A logistic regression model examined the associations between these clusters and overweight/obesity status. Results Four distinct classes were identified: traditional school athletes, inactive screenagers, health conscious, and moderately active substance users. Each behavioural cluster demonstrated a distinct pattern of behaviours, some with a greater number of risk factors than others. Traditional school athletes (odds ratio (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.03–1.29, inactive screenagers (OR 1.33; 1.19–1.48, and moderately active substance users (OR 1.27; 1.14–1.43 were all significantly more likely to be overweight/obese compared to the health conscious group. Conclusions Four distinct subpopulations of youth were identified based on their patterns of health and risk behaviours. The three clusters demonstrating poorer health behaviour were all at an increased risk of being overweight/obese compared to their somewhat healthier peers. Obesity-related public health interventions and health promotion efforts might be more effective if consideration is given to population segments with certain behavioural patterns, targeting subgroups at greatest risk of overweight or obesity.

  14. Clustering of risk-related modifiable behaviours and their association with overweight and obesity among a large sample of youth in the COMPASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxer, Rachel E; Brownson, Ross C; Dubin, Joel A; Cooke, Martin; Chaurasia, Ashok; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-01-21

    Canadian youth exhibit a number of risky behaviours, some of which are associated with overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of 15 modifiable risk behaviours in a large sample of Canadian youth, to identify underlying subgroups based on patterns of health behaviours, and to examine the association between identified subgroups and overweight/obesity. Data from 18,587 grades 9-12 students in Year 1 (2012-13) of the COMPASS study and latent class analysis were used to identify patterns and clustering among 15 health behaviours (e.g., physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour, unhealthy eating, substance use). A logistic regression model examined the associations between these clusters and overweight/obesity status. Four distinct classes were identified: traditional school athletes, inactive screenagers, health conscious, and moderately active substance users. Each behavioural cluster demonstrated a distinct pattern of behaviours, some with a greater number of risk factors than others. Traditional school athletes (odds ratio (OR) 1.15, 95% CI 1.03-1.29), inactive screenagers (OR 1.33; 1.19-1.48), and moderately active substance users (OR 1.27; 1.14-1.43) were all significantly more likely to be overweight/obese compared to the health conscious group. Four distinct subpopulations of youth were identified based on their patterns of health and risk behaviours. The three clusters demonstrating poorer health behaviour were all at an increased risk of being overweight/obese compared to their somewhat healthier peers. Obesity-related public health interventions and health promotion efforts might be more effective if consideration is given to population segments with certain behavioural patterns, targeting subgroups at greatest risk of overweight or obesity.

  15. Magnesium modifies the association between serum phosphate and the risk of progression to end-stage kidney disease in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yusuke; Iwatani, Hirotsugu; Hamano, Takayuki; Tomida, Kodo; Kawabata, Hiroaki; Kusunoki, Yasuo; Shimomura, Akihiro; Matsui, Isao; Hayashi, Terumasa; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2015-10-01

    It is known that magnesium antagonizes phosphate-induced apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells and prevents vascular calcification. Here we tested whether magnesium can also counteract other pathological conditions where phosphate toxicity is involved, such as progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We explored how the link between the risk of CKD progression and hyperphosphatemia is modified by magnesium status. A post hoc analysis was run in 311 non-diabetic CKD patients who were divided into four groups according to the median values of serum magnesium and phosphate. During a median follow-up of 44 months, 135 patients developed end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). After adjustment for relevant clinical factors, patients in the lower magnesium-higher phosphate group were at a 2.07-fold (95% CI: 1.23-3.48) risk for incident ESKD and had a significantly faster decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate compared with those in the higher magnesium-higher phosphate group. There were no significant differences in the risk of these renal outcomes among the higher magnesium-higher phosphate group and both lower phosphate groups. Incubation of tubular epithelial cells in high phosphate and low magnesium medium in vitro increased apoptosis and the expression levels of profibrotic and proinflammatory cytokine; these changes were significantly suppressed by increasing magnesium concentration. Thus, magnesium may act protectively against phosphate-induced kidney injury.

  16. The effects of modified alternate-day fasting diet on weight loss and CAD risk factors in overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshghinia Samira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a worldwide health problem with increasing prevalence. Decrease in energy intake has been shown to lower the risk of coronary artery disease in obese subjects. The common form of dietary restriction is daily calorie restriction (CR. Another form is alternate-day fasting (ADF. This study examined the ability of modified ADF to facilitate weight loss and lower cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese women. Methods 15 adult subjects completed an 8 weeks trial (2 weeks observed and 6 weeks ADF. All women consumed very low calorie diet on the fast day and usually diet in every other day. Body weight (BW, fat mass and blood pressure (BP were measured. Fasting blood samples were collected at the first and 57th day of trial for biochemical analysis. Results During the course of the trial, BW of the subjects decreased (p Conclusion These finding suggest that short time ADF is a viable dietary option to help obese individuals lose weight and decrease some CAD risk factors. More and longer-term studies in human subjects are needed to support this important result.

  17. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... shows that no readily available tests with a well-defined substantial eccentricity have been performed. This paper presents theoretical and experimental work leading towards generalized block failure capacity methods. Simple combination of normal force, shear force and moment stress distributions along...

  18. Modifiable risk factors for acute skin toxicity in adjuvant breast radiotherapy: Dosimetric analysis and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Lorna G; Lavan, Naomi; Dunne, Mary; McArdle, Orla

    2018-03-23

    Acute skin toxicity in adjuvant breast radiation can be reduced with modern radiotherapy (RT) techniques. However, having reviewed the literature, we found no dosimetric constraint for acute skin toxicity that would be applicable to modern RT planning. This study aimed to identify dosimetric factors that are associated with higher rates of acute skin toxicity. A retrospective review was carried out including women who received adjuvant forward-planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) after breast-conserving surgery. Acute skin toxicity grade was prospectively recorded. A total of 131 patients were analyzed. On multivariate analysis, the V105% > 30 cc (p = 0.013) and the use of conventional fractionation (CF) (p = 0.001) were statistically significant for acute skin toxicity. On literature review, current quantitative dosimetric parameters that have shown statistical significance include a V107% > 3 cc in hypofractionation (HF), V107% > 9 cc in CF, treated volume 110% > 5.13%, and V107% > 28.6%. There is little evidence on the predictive value of clinically applicable dosimetric factors in acute skin toxicity. Given the recent improvements in RT planning, we would consider a V107% or a V110% too high a dosimetric value to be useful for the majority of patients. We have shown that a V105% of greater than 30 cc is significantly associated with acute skin toxicity, controlling for other variables. We suggest that this is currently the most useful modifiable parameter available to reduce skin toxicity and is applicable to modern RT planning. We also suggest that consideration be given to hypofractionated schedules to further reduce acute skin toxicity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Joint analysis of French and Czech uranium miners: lung cancer risk at low radon exposure rates and modifying effects of time since exposure and age at exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladislav Tomasek; Agnes Rogel; Margot Tirmarche; Dominique Laurier

    2006-01-01

    The present analysis was conducted in the frame of European project 'Quantification of lung cancer risk after low radon exposure and low exposure rate: synthesis from epidemiologic and experimental data'. The overall goal of the project related to uranium miners was the evaluation of lung cancer dose-response relationship and of dose rate effects among European uranium miners exposed to low doses and low dose rates of radon decay products. In addition, modifying factors like attained age, age at exposure and time since exposure were investigated. The joint analysis of French and Czech uranium miners was conducted mainly in order to increase the statistical power and to allow a more detailed description of the variation of dose-response relationship in time. (N.C.)

  20. Modifying effects of education on the association between lifestyle behaviors and the risk of obesity: evidence from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woojin; Lee, Sunmi; Lim, Seung-Ji; Kim, Jaeyeun

    2016-10-20

    No previous study has explored the interactions between education and lifestyle in relation to obesity. This study hypothesized that education may be obesogenic through its interplay with lifestyle behaviors. Data for a nationally representative sample (6937 men and 9333 women) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012) were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed for three education levels and six lifestyle behaviors, each of which comprised two groups. Interactions between education and lifestyle behaviors in relation to obesity were observed for all lifestyle behaviors in women (p for interaction women. Each one-unit increase in education level in men increased the odds of obesity by 1.29-fold among under-reported energy intake groups (95 % confidence interval: 1.16, 1.44). Education may be a risk factor for obesity through its interplay with lifestyle behaviors. Further research is required to examine these findings in different socio-cultural settings.

  1. Low titer, isolated anti Ro/SSA 60 kd antibodies is correlated with positive pregnancy outcomes in women at risk of congenital heart block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonello, Marta; Hoxha, Ariela; Mattia, Elena; Zambon, Alessandra; Visentin, Silvia; Cerutti, Alessia; Ghirardello, Anna; Milanesi, Ornella; Ruffatti, Amelia

    2017-05-01

    Congenital heart block (CHB) is an autoantibody mediated disorder presumably caused by placental transmission of maternal autoantibodies to Ro/SSA 52 kd, p200, Ro/SSA 60 kd, La/SSB ribonucleoproteins. This study investigated the clinical significance of isolated anti-Ro/SSA 52 kd, anti-p200, anti-Ro/SSA 60 kd, and anti-La/SSB antibodies in positive pregnant patients. One hundred sixty-three pregnant women positive to anti-Ro/SSA 52 kd and/or anti-Ro/SSA 60 kd and/or anti-La/SSB antibodies were prospectively enrolled in the study. Anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60, anti-p200, and anti-La antibodies were assayed using home-made ELISA assays. Isolated antibody positivity was found in 25 women (15.3%), while multiple antibody positivity in 138 (84.7%). Twenty-four developed CHB, and the 139 had a favorable pregnancy outcome. The prevalence of isolated anti-Ro/SSA 60 kd antibodies was significantly higher (p Ro/SSA 60 kd antibodies.

  2. Peru's Amazonian oil and gas industry: Risks, interests and the politics of grievance surrounding the development of block 76, Madre de Dios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Romera, B. Martinez

    2011-01-01

    This article contributes to academic literature on conflict risk surrounding the exploration and exploitation of natural resources in Less Developed Countries. The research presented here considers this issue in the context of the Peruvian government's policy to increase foreign and private inves...

  3. Peru's Amazonian oil and gas industry: Risks, interests and the politics of grievance surrounding the development of block 76, Madre de Dios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Romera, B. Martinez

    2011-01-01

    This article contributes to academic literature on conflict risk surrounding the exploration and exploitation of natural resources in Less Developed Countries. The research presented here considers this issue in the context of the Peruvian government's policy to increase foreign and private...

  4. Association of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with genetic variants showing differential allelic expression: identification of a modifier of breast cancer risk at locus 11q22.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Kuchenbaeker, Karoline B; Pastinen, Tomi; Droit, Arnaud; Lemaçon, Audrey; Adlard, Julian; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L; Arason, Adalgeir; Arnold, Norbert; Arun, Banu K; Azzollini, Jacopo; Bane, Anita; Barjhoux, Laure; Barrowdale, Daniel; Benitez, Javier; Berthet, Pascaline; Blok, Marinus J; Bobolis, Kristie; Bonadona, Valérie; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bradbury, Angela R; Brewer, Carole; Buecher, Bruno; Buys, Saundra S; Caligo, Maria A; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Chung, Wendy K; Claes, Kathleen B M; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; De la Hoya, Miguel; De Leeneer, Kim; Diez, Orland; Ding, Yuan Chun; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Domchek, Susan M; Dorfling, Cecilia M; Eccles, Diana; Eeles, Ros; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Ejlertsen, Bent; Engel, Christoph; Gareth Evans, D; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Foretova, Lenka; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Fountzilas, George; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Ganschow, Pamela; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; Gayther, Simon A; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Glendon, Gord; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldgar, David E; Greene, Mark H; Gronwald, Jacek; Hahnen, Eric; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V O; Hart, Steven; Hays, John L; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Hulick, Peter J; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Joseph, Vijai; Just, Walter; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Karlan, Beth Y; Kets, Carolien M; Kirk, Judy; Kriege, Mieke; Laitman, Yael; Laurent, Maïté; Lazaro, Conxi; Leslie, Goska; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Loman, Niklas; Loud, Jennifer T; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mariani, Milena; Mazoyer, Sylvie; McGuffog, Lesley; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Meindl, Alfons; Miller, Austin; Montagna, Marco; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Nathanson, Katherine L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nussbaum, Robert L; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Ong, Kai-Ren; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Osorio, Ana; Papi, Laura; Park, Sue Kyung; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Segura, Pedro Perez; Peterlongo, Paolo; Phelan, Catherine M; Radice, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; Rappaport-Fuerhauser, Christine; Rennert, Gad; Richardson, Andrea; Robson, Mark; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Rookus, Matti A; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Sevenet, Nicolas; Shah, Payal D; Singer, Christian F; Slavin, Thomas P; Snape, Katie; Sokolowska, Johanna; Sønderstrup, Ida Marie Heeholm; Southey, Melissa; Spurdle, Amanda B; Stadler, Zsofia; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Tan, Yen; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teulé, Alex; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tihomirova, Laima; Tischkowitz, Marc; Tognazzo, Silvia; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Tung, Nadine; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Engelen, Klaartje; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wijnen, Juul T; Rebbeck, Timothy; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Offit, Kenneth; Couch, Fergus J; Nord, Silje; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C; Simard, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Cis-acting regulatory SNPs resulting in differential allelic expression (DAE) may, in part, explain the underlying phenotypic variation associated with many complex diseases. To investigate whether common variants associated with DAE were involved in breast cancer susceptibility among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, a list of 175 genes was developed based of their involvement in cancer-related pathways. Using data from a genome-wide map of SNPs associated with allelic expression, we assessed the association of ~320 SNPs located in the vicinity of these genes with breast and ovarian cancer risks in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 mutation carriers ascertained from 54 studies participating in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. We identified a region on 11q22.3 that is significantly associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (most significant SNP rs228595 p = 7 × 10 -6 ). This association was absent in BRCA2 carriers (p = 0.57). The 11q22.3 region notably encompasses genes such as ACAT1, NPAT, and ATM. Expression quantitative trait loci associations were observed in both normal breast and tumors across this region, namely for ACAT1, ATM, and other genes. In silico analysis revealed some overlap between top risk-associated SNPs and relevant biological features in mammary cell data, which suggests potential functional significance. We identified 11q22.3 as a new modifier locus in BRCA1 carriers. Replication in larger studies using estrogen receptor (ER)-negative or triple-negative (i.e., ER-, progesterone receptor-, and HER2-negative) cases could therefore be helpful to confirm the association of this locus with breast cancer risk.

  5. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Homogeneous bilateral block shifts. ADAM KORÁNYI. Department of Mathematics, The Graduate Center, City University of New York,. New York, NY 10016, USA. E-mail: Adam.Koranyi@lehman.cuny.edu. MS received 18 January 2013. Abstract. A new 3-parameter family of homogeneous 2-by-2 block shifts is described.

  6. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix.

  7. Fascia iliaca block associated only with deep sedation in high-risk patients, taking P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, for intramedullary femoral fixation in intertrochanteric hip fracture: a series of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carlos Rodrigues; Francisco, Emília Milheiro; Pinho-Oliveira, Vítor; Assunção, José Pedro

    2016-12-01

    We present a series of 3 cases in which the impact in outcome was, first of all, related to the capacity to offer early and safer treatment to some hip fracture high-risk patients using a fascia iliaca block (FIB; ropivacaine 0,5% 20 cc and mepivacaine 1,3% 15 cc, given 30 minutes before incision) associated only with deep sedation, contributing to better practice and outcome. All elderly patients were American Society of Anesthesiologists IV patients, under P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, suffering from an intertrochanteric fracture, and purposed for intramedullary femoral fixation (IMF). All patients have been managed successfully through a deep sedation using a low-dose infusion of propofol and bolus of fentanyl without face mask ventilation, supraglottic device placement, or endotracheal intubation after an FIB. Bispectral index was always greater than 75, and no CO 2 retention or respiratory depression was present. No signs of pain or hemodynamic instability were observed. In these cases, surgery would be postponed if the choice was neuroaxial anesthesia, particularly because of P2Y12 receptor inhibitors' effect. FIB puncture site is distal to the fracture and incision site, but proximal local anesthetic migration through the interfascial planes allows for constant block of femoral nerve and lateral cutaneous of femur nerve and, less constantly, block of obturator. FIB may reduce the risk of perineural hematoma associated with several injections in nerve vicinity of different lumbar plexus branches. Frequently, indications for extramedullary or IMF are overlapping, but IMF is associated with less blood loss and may be managed using a low anesthetic depth if an FIB is done, increasing safety. This way, these less invasive surgical techniques combined with an adjusted anesthetic technique may have a crucial role in high-risk patients, particularly if taking P2Y12 receptor inhibitors. In these cases of IMF, surgical manipulation of sciatic and/or inferior subcostal

  8. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Adlard, Julian; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Arun, Banu K.; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brewer, Carole; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A.; Campbell, Ian; Chan, Salina B.; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Cohn, David E.; Cook, Jackie; Daly, Mary B.; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; de Pauw, Antoine; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M.; Dumont, Martine; Durda, Katarzyna; Dworniczak, Bernd; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Christina; Eeles, Ros; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Evans, D. Gareth; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D.; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gaddam, Pragna; Ganz, Patricia A.; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giraud, Sophie; Godwin, Andrew K.; Goldgar, David E.; Hake, Christopher R.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Healey, Sue; Hodgson, Shirley; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Houdayer, Claude; Hulick, Peter J.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jacobs, Lauren; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M.; Vijai, Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kast, Karin; Investigators, KConFab; Khan, Sofia; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Meindl, Alfons; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Montagna, Marco; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Niederacher, Dieter; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Ong, Kai-ren; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M.; Piedmonte, Marion; Poppe, Bruce; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Radice, Paolo; Rennert, Gad; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Rookus, Matti A.; Ross, Eric A.; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F.; Slavin, Thomas P.; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Szabo, Csilla I.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vratimos, Athanassios; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; McGuffog, Lesley; Kirk, Judy; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Hamann, Ute; Lindor, Noralane; Ramus, Susan J.; Greene, Mark H.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10−16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10−6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population. PMID:27463617

  9. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vigorito

    Full Text Available Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16. These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6. The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population.

  10. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, Jonathan; Adlard, Julian; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Andrulis, Irene L; Arun, Banu K; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brewer, Carole; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A; Campbell, Ian; Chan, Salina B; Claes, Kathleen B M; Cohn, David E; Cook, Jackie; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; Pauw, Antoine de; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M; Dumont, Martine; Durda, Katarzyna; Dworniczak, Bernd; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Christina; Eeles, Ros; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Evans, D Gareth; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gaddam, Pragna; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giraud, Sophie; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldgar, David E; Hake, Christopher R; Hansen, Thomas V O; Healey, Sue; Hodgson, Shirley; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Houdayer, Claude; Hulick, Peter J; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jacobs, Lauren; Jakubows