Obanda Wanyama, Peter
Vast amount of public resources are spent on procurement. Effective public procurement yields additional budget space, hence it ought to be conducted with due diligence. However, public procurement most especially tactical procurement in local governments in Uganda is vulnerable to corruption. In this thesis we analyze how tactical procurement can be managed to fight corruption and promote integrity in the decentralized context in local governments in Uganda. Specifically, we identify the mos...
Obanda Wanyama, Peter
Vast amount of public resources are spent on procurement. Effective public procurement yields additional budget space, hence it ought to be conducted with due diligence. However, public procurement most especially tactical procurement in local governments in Uganda is vulnerable to corruption. In
Simplice A, Asongu
Purpose – Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across African countries? Why are some countries more effective at battling corruption than others? To assess these concerns we examine the determinants of corruption-control throughout the conditional distribution of the fight against corruption using panel data from 46 African countries for the period 2002-2010. Design/methodology/approach – The panel quantile regression technique enables us to investigate if ...
Hulstijn, Joris; Darusalam, Darusalam; Janssen, Marijn; Baldoni, Matteo; Baroglio, Cristina; Micalizio, Roberto
There has been a lot of research on the use of open data in the fight against corruption. Although there are some promising examples, it appears that a systematic approach is lacking. What are the design principles for an architecture to open up data and thereby reduce corruption? In this paper we
Hulstijn, Joris; Darusalam, D.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.
There has been a lot of research on the use of open data in the fight against corruption. Although there are some promising examples, it appears that a systematic approach is lacking. What are the design principles for an architecture to open up data and thereby reduce corruption? In this paper
Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across developing countries? Why are some countries more effective at battling corruption than others? To investigate these concerns we examine the determinants of corruption-control throughout the conditional distribution of the fight against corruption using panel data from 46 African countries for the period 2002-2010. Our findings demonstrate that blanket corruption-control policies are unlikely to succeed equally across c...
in corrupt military institutions to move towards an ethical role-modelling environment. ... transparency, according to Klaus9) is not surviving the hard facts and media reports ..... has authority linked to rank; relies on one-way communication –.
Schalk W. Vorster
Full Text Available Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligations. It was, however, found that the Kantian categorical imperative presupposes an ideal rational society. The imperative has to be ‘softened’ by also allowing for enquiry about the corruptor’s personal circumstances, in the light of Christ’s love commandment. This article highlights the most prominent attributes of two important philosophical theories applicable to the study of corruption, namely utilitarianism (a variant of consequentialism and deontology. It is argued that qualified deontological and utilitistic approaches hold the best promise to curb corruption in the long run. The conclusion is that the state will urgently have to attend to the social context by revitalising programmes of ‘social renewal’, based on effective application of the law, the provision of adequate education and the eradication of poverty. There is also an urgent need for the ‘moral renewal’ of the entire population, focused on Christian values, operationalised within the context of the South Africa of today. Herein lies a massive task for the church.
Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Jensen, Mette Frisk
Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)......Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)...
Schalk W. Vorster
Full Text Available Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligations. It was, however, found that the Kantian categorical imperative presupposes an ideal rational society. The imperative has to be ‘softened’ by also allowing for enquiry about the corruptor’s personal circumstances, in the light of Christ’s love commandment. This article highlights the most prominent attributes of two important philosophical theories applicable to the study of corruption, namely utilitarianism (a variant of consequentialism and deontology. It is argued that qualified deontological and utilitistic approaches hold the best promise to curb corruption in the long run. The conclusion is that the state will urgently have to attend to the social context by revitalising programmes of ‘social renewal’, based on effective application of the law, the provision of adequate education and the eradication of poverty. There is also an urgent need for the ‘moral renewal’ of the entire population, focused on Christian values, operationalised within the context of the South Africa of today. Herein lies a massive task for the church. Korrupsie het verstommende afmetings in Suid-Afrika aangeneem. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om ’n bydrae te lewer tot filosofiese benaderings wat daarop gemik is om korrupsie te bestry. By die oorweging van strawwe vir korrupte dade word die mees algemene benadering gebaseer op die teorie van konsekwensialisme, wat slegs die gevolge van korrupte dade oorweeg. Ideaal-gesproke behoort ook kennis geneem te word
Mackey, Tim K; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Savedoff, William D; Vogl, Frank; Lewis, Maureen; Sale, James; Michaud, Joshua; Vian, Taryn
Corruption has been described as a disease. When corruption infiltrates global health, it can be particularly devastating, threatening hard gained improvements in human and economic development, international security, and population health. Yet, the multifaceted and complex nature of global health corruption makes it extremely difficult to tackle, despite its enormous costs, which have been estimated in the billions of dollars. In this forum article, we asked anti-corruption experts to identify key priority areas that urgently need global attention in order to advance the fight against global health corruption. The views shared by this multidisciplinary group of contributors reveal several fundamental challenges and allow us to explore potential solutions to address the unique risks posed by health-related corruption. Collectively, these perspectives also provide a roadmap that can be used in support of global health anti-corruption efforts in the post-2015 development agenda.
OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012
Education matters. It is a gateway to prosperity of individuals and economies alike. Integrity in education matters too. Corruption hinders prosperity, causes long-term damage to societies, and diminishes the efficiency of investment in their human potential. Driven by the insight that corruption in education can undermine even the best of…
James Batista Vieira
Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to shed light on the causes of corruption through empirical analysis of the impact of public transparency mechanisms on the frequency of improbities in Brazilian municipalities. First, we have presented a new model of corrupt agent´s utility function to better explain the results, and then some empirical evidences in favor of the hypotheses that E-government mechanisms are negatively associated with improbities in Brazilian local government.
Alexandra V. Orlova
Full Text Available Objective to analyze the main practices of corruption counteraction in the modern society with a view of elaborating the key directions of such counteraction. Methods dialectic method of cognition and general scientific methods based on it analysis synthesis induction deduction. Results the work presents the basic models of corruption counteraction in the modern society. The phenomenon of corruption is frequently discussed and debated in a variety of contexts. Corruption is often difficult to identify as it occurs in secret away from the public eye and records. Moreover anticorruption measures repeatedly fail in part because corruption is a multifaceted social phenomenon that penetrates horizontally and vertically through many areas of society. Despite a high degree of informality within many industries and the prevalence of corrupt practices most anticorruption efforts have so far involved reforming the formal legal rules. However the discussion of formal rules and institutions cannot be neatly divorced from the examination of informal norms and vice versa. These two spheres of norms and rules operate side by side each dependent on the other. Hence any conversation about reform has to include discussions of both formal and informal rules and institutions and the intersection between the two. It is also crucial to examine the fora where informal rules and norms are practiced enforced and replicated. Part of this examination revolves around socalled organizational or corporate culture. In order to start overcoming the formal laws vs. informal rules divide government regulators have to work with industry professionals labour groups and consumers when designing various industry and health and safety regulations. This partnership if it were to be a true one would improve the likelihood of compliance and reduce opportunities for corrupt practices. Ultimately any meaningful anticorruption reform will have to address not only the intertwined nature of
This essay aims to discuss how tone at the top works in the traditional military contexts found in Latin America, and how the right tone could be adopted in corrupt military institutions to move towards an ethical role-modelling environment. For this endeavour, several strategies that can help military generals to fight military ...
Muhammad Zamzam Fauzanafi
Full Text Available The expansion of digital technologies and social media in Indonesia shifts practices of citizenship from a formal institutional level toward a more informal digital space. This paper presents the emerging results of research on digital citizenship in Banten, Indonesia, focusing on how new forms of citizenship are brought into being through digital acts that are defined as speech acts uttered through the use of social media. The paper follows digital acts of citizens in anti-corruption campaigns against the patrimonial and clientelistic regime of Banten’s political dynasty that are predominantly staged on Facebook and other online platforms. These digital acts produce and intensify affective publics through which forms of digital citizenship are enacted in opposition to the corrupt dynasty.
Marcelo Rodrigues da Silva
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine whether the plea bargaining in the context of “Lava Jato” Operation is adopting a third route of criminal law against administrative corruption, in which reparation of damages is established as one of the primary objectives of criminal prosecution, in substitution or mitigation of the restrictive sentence of the collaborating defendants. Subsequent to this analysis, it is intended to reflect if the adoption of a third route of criminal law by means of these negotiating instruments could imply in the utilitarian mercantilization of the criminal process prejudicial to the principle of criminal legality, proportionality and isonomy in the application of the punishment. This is a necessary and pertinent analysis due to the protagonism that the plea-bargaining have been assuming in the discovery of great corruption schemes in Brazil and the recovery of assets. The procedural methodology is the bibliographic and the method of approach is the hypothetico-deductive one, besides the case study involving “Lava Jato” operation. The hypothesis worked out is that the award-winning collaboration agreements have externalized a third-way criminal law and that there is a viability of violations of isonomy and criminal legality in fight against administrative corruption.
Concerns about corruption have intensified in recent years as there is a growing realization among international financial donors, including the World Bank, that corruption may undermine development...
Pellegrini, L.; Gerlagh, R.
A common finding of recent theoretical and empirical literature is that corruption has a negative effect on economic growth. In the paper, through growth regression analysis, we estimate the direct and indirect effects of corruption on economic growth. The indirect transmission channels,
This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?
Gabriela de la Torre Campos
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to see whether different wage levels in the private purchasing sector relate to the level of corruptibility. An experiment was conducted that put participants in the role of employees of a purchasing department of a multinational enterprise. The employees were allotted to different wage levels and had to choose between options with different levels of corruption. The research is of a deductive nature and complemented by a descriptive quantitative approach containing the Chi-Square analysis. The results show that there is no association between the wage level and the level of corruptibility of employees in the private purchasing sector. This outcome contributes to the underresearched field of corruption in the private sector and gives further insight into the influence of wages on corruptibility, as well as the usability of the principal-agent theory in the field of corruption.
Academic corruption in China's higher education institutions has become a serious issue in the last decade. This paper provides a critical discussion of the Chinese Ministry of Education's policy developments aimed to strengthen academic ethics and control academic corruption. It suggests that while the reactions of policy-makers to the apparent…
... by deterring investment and growth and exacerbating poverty Although no Bank-wide estimates of the magnitude of this problem have been developed, levels of corruption vary from country to country...
Full Text Available Accounting errors and fraud are common in most businesses, but there is a difference between fraud and misinterpretation of communication or accounting regulations. The role of management in preventing fraud becomes important in the last decades and the importance of auditing in curbing corruption is increasingly revealed. There is a strong connection between fraud and corruption, accelerated by electronic systems and modern platforms. The most recent developments tend to confirm that external auditing is curbing corruption, due to international accounting and auditing standards at national and regional levels. Thus, a better implementation of accounting standards and high quality of external control could prevent errors and fraud in accounting, and reduce corruption, as well. The aim of this paper is to present some particular aspects of errors and fraud in accounting, and how external audit could ensure accuracy and accountability in financial reporting.
Gabriela de la Torre Campos; Katharina Radler; Bramantio Utomo Saptoadi
The purpose of this research is to see whether different wage levels in the private purchasing sector relate to the level of corruptibility. An experiment was conducted that put participants in the role of employees of a purchasing department of a multinational enterprise. The employees were allotted to different wage levels and had to choose between options with different levels of corruption. The research is of a deductive nature and complemented by a descriptive quanti...
Luciana Dutra de Oliveira Silveira
Full Text Available The economic globalization and market opening process initiated in the early 1990s generated several effects, among them, the growth of opportunities for the practice of corruption in the field of international trade. The present article addresses this debate aiming to discuss the challenges to improve multilateral anti-corruption rules and suggest possible mechanisms that allow a more engaged participation of the WTO in the anticorruption movement.
Full Text Available The fire occurred at the #Colectiv Club in the Romanian capital city, Bucharest, on October 31st, 2015 and caused 64 deaths. The reactions of all public institutions, which should have provided explanations to the public opinion, were delayed and incomplete. The aim of this study is to explain the role played by the social media, especially Facebook, in the events that followed the tragedy at ‘Colectiv’ Club. Summarizing the literature, we are going to illustrate how Romanian citizens have turned to social media as a channel which managed to: a provide reliable information in real time about the unfortunate event, b organize protests against the political actors held responsible and c rally people and the medical or financial resources necessary either for the proper treatment of the people hospitalized in Romania or for moving them in hospitals abroad. The protests involving tens of thousands of people in all major cities, being directed against the political class considered corrupt were organized and promoted in the social media and led to the resignation of the government held responsible for the tragedy at the club. Keywords: social media, anti-corruption, Romania, 2015, 2.0 protests, framing theory
Full Text Available For the Russian and Turkish Empire the nineteenth century is the period of adopting reform laws to modernize the country in order to be competitive in the course of time. Although the reform process in Russia was obstructed by the Arakcheyev regime and reactionary politics of Nicholas I of Russia, the government made a serious step in the fight against systemic corruption, enacting the Criminal Code of 1845. On the other hand, Turkey was undoubtedly under considerable foreign pressure concerning modernization processes. The Tanzimat period represents a significant epoch in which Turkey, among other countries, was faced with widespread corruption. The crown success of reformatory work in Turkey was adoption of the Criminal Code of 1856. This paper analyzes the specific laws which sanctioned corruption in these two empires.
Euroopa Komisjoni korruptsiooniaruandest ja Transparency Internationali korruptsioonitajumise indeksist, 2014. aasta olulisemad kohtulahendid korruptsioonist riigiasutustes ja -ettevõtetes, kohalikes omavalitsustes, piirikorruptsioonist
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the economic and not on the political impact of corruption. Corruption delegitimizes the working of a market economy, as well as the outcomes of political processes. This paper highlights ways in which corruption, by distorting economic decisions and the working of the market economy, inevitably reduces a country’s rate of growth. The paper also discusses some of the channels through which corruption distorts various economic decisions. Finally, the paper reports on some actions that have been taken by countries in their attempt to reduce corruption stressing that the fight against corruption cannot rely on a magic bullet but has to be fought on many fronts.
Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti
Full Text Available There is no sustainable economic development without a functioning rule of law. Besides sustainable economic policies like low interest rates, low inflation, low budget deficit, reasonable taxes and economic freedom for business development, the necessary ones for country’s economic growth are functioning of state institutions, support and development of reforms as well as successful fight against corruption. Corruption is a phenomena often encountered and spread in countries that have problems with rule of law as well as with judiciary system. Corruption manifestation is inevitable in circumstances when state institutions are weak. The phenomena is especially problematic in countries that go through transition periods since these countries are often characterized as nonefficient in fighting this phenomena1 . Countries in transition continue to have the image of countries with high level of corruption, which causes serious crisis from local opinion and continuous demand from international community due to the unsuccessful fight against this malevolence. World Bank considers corruption as the biggest obstacle in the fight for poverty eradication, since it undermines the rule of law, weakens state institutions and most of all it affects the poor. Politically, it undermines democracy and good governance, economic equal growth and development, as well as people’s trust in state institutions. Lately, several anti-corruption laws have been adopted in Kosovo, but they have not been implemented in practice and were not sufficient in fight against corruption. Kosovo’s long lasting dream of integrating in European Union, necessarily demands to built and functionalize anti-corruptive measures with priority, as a fundamental precondition for EU pre-accession process
Kuyuni, Stephen Muhala
Corruption has been a worldwide issue in the contemporary world today. Many parts the world including Kenya is affected by corruption. Many writers and critics have shown that it's spreading at a very high rate just like HIV/AIDS and environmental degradation. They have noted that corruption is caused by the following factors: poor governance,…
Simplice A Asongu
We build on existing literature and contemporary challenges to African development to assess the role of political stability in fighting corruption and boosting corruption-control in 53 African countries for the period 1996-2010. We postulate that on the one hand, an atmosphere of political instability should increase the confidence of impunity owing to less corruption-control. On the other hand, in the absence such impunity from corruption, political instability further fuels corruption. Our...
Scott MacWilliam; Mike Rafferty
In development policy circles, corruption has become a pressing global issue. Yet the contemporary relationship between corruption and development is complex and contested. For many, corruption robs people of economic resources and social wealth, and denudes the state of important capacities. That is, corruption prevents or blocks development. For others, corruption often occurs in the process of development as the form in which a class of developers accumulates wealth. That is, corruption is...
Idalia Patricia Espinosa Leal
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain what you meant by corruption, expose theories, analyze the classifications, manifest expressions of public corruption and institutional review and Mexican federal law used to fight against it.
Pecujlija, M; Cosic, I; Nesic-Grubic, L; Drobnjak, S
This study was conducted in Serbian companies on licensed engineers and in its first part included a total of 336 licensed engineers who voluntarily completed the questionnaires about their ethical orientation and attitudes toward corruption and in the second part 214 engineers who participated in the first survey, who voluntarily evaluated their company's business operations characteristics. This study has clearly shown that there is a direct significant influence of the engineer's ethical orientations and attitudes toward corruption on their evaluation of the characteristics of their respective companies regarding business operations. This research also clearly shows that only engineers with a strong deontological orientation, low ethical subjectivity, and strong readiness to fight corruption, low corruption acceptance and high awareness of corruption can successfully fight corruption, improve the business operations of their companies and make beneficial changes to society. Otherwise, they should be considered as corruption perpetrators, not just as its victims.
Larmour, Peter; Wolanin, Nick
There is new international attention being given to the old problem of corruption. It has been taken up by international organisations, and driven by economic analysis. It is impatient of cultural justifications, and suspicious of state action. It is concerned with corruption prevention as much as detection, investigation and prosecution. Corruption and Anti-Corruption deals with the international dimensions of corruption, including campaigns to recover the assets of former dictators, and...
Corruption is attracting a lot of attention around the world. This paper surveys and discusses issues related to the causes, consequences, and scope of corruption, and possible corrective actions. It emphasizes the costs of corruption in terms of economic growth. It also emphasizes that the fight against corruption may not be cheap and cannot be independent from the reform of the state. If certain reforms are not made, corruption is likely to continue to be a problem regardless of actions dir...
Teresa Cristina Coelho Matos
Full Text Available RESUMO O artigo aborda as ações empreendidas na sociedade brasileira para o enfrentamento da corrupção, prática recorrente no Brasil, considerada como um dos principais problemas do mundo atual. Focaliza o protagonismo da Sociedade Civil, destacando êxitos e barreiras para o controle e a fiscalização dos investimentos públicos, sem a intermediação de representantes. Traz como ilustração a experiência da Força Tarefa Popular (FTP, um movimento de articulação da Sociedade Civil que atua no Estado do Piauí, utilizando como principal estratégia de ação a “Marcha Contra a Corrupção e pela Vida”, a fim de sensibilizar e mobilizar pessoas e entidades para a luta anticorrupção, sendo, a Marcha, o ambiente empírico da pesquisa de Doutorado em Políticas Públicas, pela Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI, utilizando o estudo de caso como método de análise e como instrumentos metodológicos as entrevistas narrativas e a observação direta, à luz da observação participante. Palavras-chave: Participação social. Sociedade civil. Luta anticorrupção. ABSTRACT The article deals with actions taken in the Brazilian society to face the corruption, a recurring practice in Brazil which is considered one of the main problems of the world nowadays. It focuses on the protagonism of the civil society, highlighting successes and barriers toward the control and monitoring of the public investments, without the intermediation of representatives. It is an illustration of the experience of the Popular Task Force (FTP, a civil society movement that has been active in the State of Piauí using as main action strategy the "March Against Corruption and for Life", to raise to awareness and mobilize people and organizations to the anti-corruption fight, being the March, the empirical environment of the PhD research in Public Policies, by the Federal University of Piauí (UFPI, using the case study as its method of analysis, and
Mamitova, Zhanat A.; Kumarbekkyzy, Zhaniya; Tapenova, Asem R.; Mahanov, Talgat G.
One of the biggest problems of developing countries, including Kazakhstan, is corruption. Corruption significantly decelerates the development of economic and social institutions, which may cause distrust in the authorities and a social crisis. Therefore, fighting corruption is a top-priority task of the government of Kazakhstan; this task…
Corruption is a scandal that has been with human beings from antiquity to the present (Tylor, 1871). It pervades and permeates society. Corruption in Nigeria has assumed a enormous proportion and has constituted a serious national problem. Government put in place some machinery to fight corruption but to no avail.
Kraay, Aart; Murrell, Peter
Estimates of the extent of corruption rely largely on self-reports of individuals, business managers, and government officials. Yet it is well known that survey respondents are reticent to tell the truth about activities to which social and legal stigma are attached, implying a downward bias in survey-based estimates of corruption. This paper develops a method to estimate the prevalence of...
Sommersguter-Reichmann, Margit; Wild, Claudia; Stepan, Adolf; Reichmann, Gerhard; Fried, Andrea
In recent years, the fight against healthcare corruption has intensified. Estimates from the European Healthcare Fraud and Corruption Network calculate an approximate €56 billion annual loss to Europe as a result of corruption. To promote understanding of the complexity and interconnection of corrupt activities, we aim to present healthcare-related corruption typologies of the European Union and European Healthcare Fraud and Corruption Network. We subsequently link them to the typology of individual and institutional corruption introduced by Dennis Thompson in the context of investigating misconduct of US Congressional members. According to Thompson, individual corruption is the personal gain of individuals performing duties within an institution in exchange for nurturing private interests, while institutional corruption pertains to the failure of the institution in directing the individual's behaviour towards the achievement of the institution's primary purpose because the institutional design promotes the pursuit of individual goals. Effective anti-corruption activities not only require the enactment of anti-corruption laws but also the monitoring and, where appropriate, revision of institutional frameworks to prevent the undermining of the primary purposes of health systems or institutions. To gain further understanding of the similarities and differences of the three typologies, prime examples of corrupt activities in the health sector in the European Union and USA (along with their potential remedies) are provided. Linking corruption cases to Thompson's typology revealed that many corrupt activities may show elements of both individual and institutional corruption because they are intertwined, partly overlap and may occur jointly. Hence, sanctioning individual actors only does not target the problem.
Full Text Available Corruption is divided into small low-level corruption and high-level corruption. Small level little corruption is defined as the area of corruption which does not prejudice the interests of the majority of individuals. This category can be covered by a health care professional, the corruption of a clerk, etc through their decisions is an individual or group of individuals at the expense of others, but this kind of injustice is limited in time and space. Corruption, means high-level corruption of a dignitary, clerk, etc. This kind of corruption and the main effect over the entire State characteristic and the individuals who compose it. The consequences of this kind of corruption can translate into direct and indirect costs that will be supported in the end by all taxpayers. The objectives of corruption are double: profit and power. The international economic crisis has its origin in the manifestations of high level corruption in the governments of different countries. All the state now have to fight against corruption in order to settle new rules to avoid the effects af the crisis and to prevent a deepening of this crisis with devastating effects upon tha population. Here we try to emphasize the importance that we all should give corruption and measures had to be taken by everyone.
Full Text Available In development policy circles, corruption has become a pressing global issue. Yet the contemporary relationship between corruption and development is complex and contested. For many, corruption robs people of economic resources and social wealth, and denudes the state of important capacities. That is, corruption prevents or blocks development. For others, corruption often occurs in the process of development as the form in which a class of developers accumulates wealth. That is, corruption is a phase of development. This article explores the contested relationship through two case studies: in Sub-Saharan Africa; and in the former Soviet Union. The article also links contemporary debates about corruption and development with earlier thinking about capitalist progress and development.
The work generally examined the past and present government leaderships' efforts at curbing corruption in Nigeria and the imperatives of good leadership. The study, specifically, analyzed the relationship between effectively fighting and curbing corruption and the leadership style in Nigeria. The basic finding is that ...
... teaching of business ethics can/will have a positive effect on the fight against corruption in companies. It is written from a (South) African perspective. Statistics about the alarming state of corruption in South African businesses are provided in the beginning. A Hegelian approach to the problem, in terms of which theory can ...
This paper examines the measures and means used to fight against corruption in public procurement in Albania. Because public procurement is one of the key areas where the public sector and the private sector interact financially and this interaction is based on public money, it is a prime candidate for corrupt activity, cronyism and favoritism as well as outright bribery. The question marks that this paper raises are: what are the means used in the war against corruption in the public ...
Nov 4, 2010 ... Githongo made international headlines in 2003 when President Mwai ... Nations, the Organization of American States, and the African Union have ... Despite these gains, the general perception in the West remains one of ...
from agriculture while only 8.2 percent of Colombia‘s land is dedicated to agriculture. On these lands, Colombians grow bananas, coffee , cut flowers... obsession with dismantling the cartels, but not addressing the conditions that had allowed the drug trade to flourish, would need to be addressed
Certain cases from any single country might provide examples for consideration of corruption issues for other countries or regions. Corruption cases and the strategies of fighting them in Georgian flagship universities might be noteworthy and useful for other countries facing similar problems. The paper discusses the features of corruption in…
Sandra Sequeira; Simeon Djankov
This paper investigates how corruption affects firrm behavior. Firms can engage in two types of corruption when seeking a public service: cost-reducing "collusive" corruption and cost increasing "coercive" corruption. Using an original and unusually rich dataset on bribe payments at ports matched to firrm-level data, we observe how firms respond to each type of corruption by adjusting their shipping and sourcing strategies. "Collusive" corruption is associated with higher usage of the corrupt...
The paper believes that fighting corruption at all levels is a priority, as it constitutes a serious barrier to effective resource mobilisation and allocation, and diverts resources away from activities that are vital to poverty eradication and sustainable economic development. NESG Economic Indicators Vol. 14 (1) 2008: pp. 36-44.
A.O. Makinwa (Abiola)
textabstractThere is a shift taking place in the fight against corruption. Increasingly attention is turning to the role of the private actor.2 This can be characterized as a shift from a public approach that sees the state and government as the primary driving force in the fight against
Serritzlew, Søren; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
Two separate literatures suggest that corruption and social trust, respectively, are related to economic growth, although the strengths of the relationships, and the direction of causality, are still debated. In this paper, we review these literatures and evaluate the evidence for causal effects...... of corruption and trust on economic growth, and discuss how corruption and trust are interrelated. The reviews show that absence of corruption and high levels of social trust foster economic growth. The literatures also indicate that corruption has a causal effect on social trust, while the opposite effect...... is more uncertain. In the conclusion, we offer the suggestion that fighting corruption may yield a “double dividend”, as reduced corruption is likely to have both direct and indirect effects on growth....
Full Text Available Corruption stands as one of the many obstacles to the political and economic security of the Eastern European region. Thus, despite the political and economic instability in the region, Eastern European countries, in and outside of the European Union need to fight corruption collectively and individually. The task is difficult, but hope is justified because the causes of corruption in this part of the region are similar and anti-corruption expertise is available. We believe that a deeper analysis of corruption’s drivers can produce a better articulated and more efficient anti-corruption strategy. This strategy will create an anti-corruption infrastructure that will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership. As a prelude to the deeper analysis that we believe must be a part of this strategy, this paper identifies the main drivers of corruption in the Eastern European Partnership countries and explains why addressing these drivers will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership.
Neeman, Zvika; Paserman, M. Daniele; Simhon, Avi
We consider a neoclassical growth model with endogenous corruption. Corruption and wealth, which are co-determined in equilibrium, are shown to be negatively correlated. Richer countries tend to be less corrupt, and corrupt economies tend to be poorer. This observation gives rise to the following puzzle: If poorer countries do indeed experience higher levels of corruption, and if indeed as suggested by a number of empirical studies corruption hampers growth, then how did rich countries, who w...
Full Text Available Unethical practices and corruption issues have become one of the greatest challenges to Africans and their leaders, threatening to undermine economic growth, democratic stability and sustenance, and general developmental efforts. Against this background, this paper examines corruption perception in Africa using indicators of Transparency International as benchmark. The costs of corruption to the continent’s progress were highlighted. The paper also focuses on Botswana’s efforts to fight corruption through its Directorate on Corruption and Economic Crime (DCEC. The factors that have aided the qualified successes of the anti-corruption efforts as well as lessons that may be learnt by other African countries are discussed.
Full Text Available Among the many consequences of colonialism that are still present in postcolonial societies are corruption and the lack of strong institutions to fight against this phenomenon. What used to be unequal power relations between the colonizers and the colonies have been replaced by the dominance of the local elites over ordinary citizens, who have practically given the former a lot of leeway to commit acts of corruption with a sense of impunity and without regard for accountability. One case in point is Mexico which, in recent times, has made international news headlines because of incidences of drug trafficking, violence, and corruption in the country. This article delineates the historical relationship between corruption and colonialism, and how these forces have shaped Mexican culture. The discussion tackles the presence of corruption since the colonial times to the present. Specif ically, it starts with an analysis of the role of colonialism in the incidence of corruption. Secondly, it describes the discrepancy between the law and its application, from the arrival of the Spanish colonizers to the present. Finally, it examines the cultural, educational, and social challenges that should be addressed in order to surmount the colonial legacies that breed corruption.
Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon
interests are aligned with health system goals are critical interventions in the fight against corruption. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
Heyneman, Stephen P.
This paper will draw on standard international definitions of "corruption" and apply them to the education sector. It will define corruption in education, explain why it is important, and describe various types of corruption and their causes. Emphasis will be placed on the role of higher education institutions in educational corruption, but the…
Seldadyo, H.; de Haan, J.
Theoretical and empirical research on corruption generally concludes that corruption is persistent. However, using International Country Risk Guide data for the period 1984-2008 for 101 countries, we find strong evidence that corruption changes over time. In the present study, corruption levels of
Traditionally, typical measures of corruption have been broad, composite indices which are often meant to measure overall corruption level in a country. In this thesis I study how different types of corruption can have different effects on development, measured by GDP growth, GDP per capita growth and GDP per capita. Thereby, I wanted to see if some types of corruption could be concluded as more damaging than others. I have discussed and empirically tested the consequences of corruption in pu...
Krause Hansen, Hans
, and societal levels, as well as how corruption is and can be responded to through public scandals and more elaborate communicative strategies of corruption control, or anti-corruption. A focus on corruption and corruption control provides organizational communication scholars with entry points to explore...... the powerful communicative dynamics playing out between the local organizational meanings of particular practices and externally imposed definitions of what constitutes appropriate organizational behavior....
The author attempts to give a general picture of corruption, especially in the area of healthcare. Corruption ranges from fraud, through deceit, bribery and dehumanisation, to immeasurable moral decay. As a bioethicist who has challenged corruption in various ways, the author approaches this worldwide plague mainly on the basis of his personal experience. He does not offer a recipe for successfully combating corruption, but tries to provide some ways and means to fight immorality without self-defeat. Bioethics is not a discipline whose task is to investigate, expose, or punish corrupt people. A number of agencies exist for this "noble" job. Nevertheless, an ethics teacher should not be completely indifferent to obvious and harmful immoral behaviour, regardless of his/her personal compulsions. It is not the "patient rights" that threaten the prestige of the medical profession; it is rather the bad apples that infiltrate the moral mission of this esteemed work. It seems that the hardest challenges in the struggle against corruption are bad laws-laws that provide loopholes and immunity to immoral dealings. In a stable, strong democracy, morally unfounded laws can, and will be changed. Where real democracy exists, they would not even have come into effect.
Dhillon, Amrita; Nicolo, Antonio; Xu, Fei
Do higher wages prevent corruption (bribe taking)? We investigate a setting where individuals who apply for public sector jobs are motivated not just by monetary incentivesbut also by intrinsic motivation and concern for the collective reputation of their profession. We show that an increase in monetary compensation may cause reputation concerned individuals to be more prone to participate in corruption due to an "overjustification" effect. The overall effect of monetaryincentives on fighting...
Ojewumi, Florence Oluwabukola
Transnational Business relations have assumed phenomenal importance in the globalised world of the 21st Century. Corruption in international business relations however has become a global problem with a distorting effect on the international markets. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act 1977 (Hereinafter, FCPA) and the UK Bribery Act 2010 (Hereinafter, UKBA) are part of a few anti-corruption laws adopted to fight bribery and corruption beyond the national level. However, the application of natio...
Helder Ferreira de Mendonça
Full Text Available This article presents an empirical analysis based on cross-country data concerned with two points regarding corruption: (i its effects on income; and (ii how to mitigate corruption. The findings can be highlighted in two points. Firstly the idea that corruption is intrinsically connected with income is confirmed. Secondly, the traditional argument that an increase in rule of law represents a good strategy in the fight against corruption is valid for developing countries. Furthermore, this study reveals that the search for increasing the human development index represents a rule of thumb for high levels of income and to control corruption.
Full Text Available The spirit of fighting corruption in Indonesia based on the spirit of the Declaration of the 8th International Conference against Corruption and Indonesia United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC UN 58/ 4 dated October 31, 2003, and Law No. 7 of 2006 on the Ratification of the UN Convention on Anti-Corruption of 2003 and Act No. 20 of 2001. The implementation of the Law on Corruption tends not optimal. As a new breakthrough reached the imposition of criminal sanctions in the form of revocation of political rights for the accused of corruption. Although in practice the criminal is considered unconstitutional. Given the enormous impact of corruption, namely the loss suffered by the people and the state, the current criminal disenfranchisement for perpetrators of political corruption has been duly applied.
Full Text Available In Romania, a lot of practices proper to corruption became widely common and are integrated in a real national bureaucratic culture. Romanian citizens seem to accept and tolerate informal payments in order to obtain the desired or the necessary services. Public officials are doing well, impersonal and they don’t realize they affect social welfare. That’s why fight against corruption must involve complex actions performed on many areas. Such action must be focused on measures that reduce the opportunities for corruption and increase the probability of detection and punish the offences.
Roldan, Antonio C., Jr.
Examines types of corruption (white-collar crime) in Philippine society, including political, bureaucratic, and corporate corruption. Identifies three major causes of corruption, individuals most prone to corruption, organizations most vulnerable to corruption, and societies most supportive of corruption. (Author/NB)
Uslaner, Eric M.
Economic inequality provides a fertile breeding ground for corruption and, in turn, leads to further inequalities. Most corruption models focus on the institutional determinants of government dishonesty. However, such accounts are problematic. Corruption is remarkably sticky over time. There is a very powerful correlation between crossnational measures corruption in 1980 and in 2004. In contrast, measures of democracy such as the Freedom House scores are not so strongly correlated over time, ...
This paper focuses on the economic and not on the political impact of corruption. Corruption delegitimizes the working of a market economy, as well as the outcomes of political processes. This paper highlights ways in which corruption, by distorting economic decisions and the working of the market economy, inevitably reduces a country’s rate of growth. The paper also discusses some of the channels through which corruption distorts various economic decisions. Finally, the paper reports o...
Michael Breen; Robert Gillanders
We analyze the effects of corruption and institutional quality on the quality of business regulation. Our key findings indicate that corruption negatively aspects the quality of regulation and that general institutional quality is insignificant once corruption is controlled for. These findings hold over a number of specifications which include additional exogenous historical and geographic controls. The findings imply that policy-makers should focus on curbing corruption to improve regulat...
Johann Graf Lambsdorff; Sitki Utku Teksoz
Because corruption must be hidden from the public and is not enforced by courts it entails transaction costs, which are larger than those from legal exchange. This suggests that corrupt contracts are primarily relational contracts where legal exchange serves as a basis for sealing and enforcing corrupt agreements. Legal exchange not only provides for corrupt opportunities, but for the necessary enforcement mechanisms. Examples of such legal exchange are long-term business exchange, belonging ...
KARYMSHAKOV, Kamalbek; ABDYKAPAROV, Yzat
This paper proceeding from the results of recent empirical studies and theoretical arguments on corruption in economic literature attempts to show the factors causing corruption and focuses on some facts of its consequences inKyrgyzstan. Literature on corruption defines main causes of corruption as: 1) Excessive regulatory burden; 2) Weak juridical system; 3) Level of political competition and democracy; 4) Sociological factors; 5) Low wages in public sector Results of application of regressi...
Brianzoni, Serena; Campisi, Giovanni; Russo, Alberto
Based on Brianzoni et al.  in the present work we propose an economic model regarding the relationship between corruption in public procurement and economic growth. We extend the benchmark model by introducing endogenous labor force growth, described by the logistic equation. The results of previous studies, as Del Monte and Papagni  and Mauro , show that countries are stuck in one of the two equilibria (high corruption and low economic growth or low corruption and high economic growth). Brianzoni et al.  prove the existence of a further steady state characterized by intermediate levels of capital per capita and corruption. Our aim is to investigate the effects of the endogenous growth around such equilibrium. Moreover, due to the high number of parameters of the model, specific attention is given to the numerical simulations which highlight new policy measures that can be adopted by the government to fight corruption.
This article presents a comparative-historical analysis of access to higher education in Georgia. It describes the workings of corrupt channels during the Soviet and early post-Soviet periods and the role of standardized tests in fighting corruption in higher education admission processes after introduction of the Unified National Entrance…
Aviral Kumar TIWARI
Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of corruption with democracy and bureaucracy in the 82 countries in a panel framework. For the analysis we use rule of law, regulatory quality, control over corruption and secondary school enrollment ratio as control variables. We find that democracy, rule of law and control over corruption decreases the level of corruption. When we allowed for interaction effect among independent variables we find the evidence of strong interaction effect between all of the explanatory variables. We also find that, surprisingly, higher democracy and rule of law are positively associated with the level of corruption while higher bureaucracy negatively.
Krause Hansen, Hans; Hove Henriksen, Morten
Contemporary scholarship on corruption control has put much emphasis on analyzing the surge of anti-corruption legislations, principles and regulatory modes at the macro level. This paper examines the micro practice of corruption control, as exemplified by the deployment of due diligence...... in corporate anti-corruption work, building on concepts from studies of the cultural political economy, risk and classifications in examination process. Empirically we focus on anti-corruption due diligence in a Danish law firm specialized in corporate mergers and acquisitions....
M. Emranul Haque; Richard Kneller
The relationship between corruption and economic development is characterised by three stylised facts: (i) a strong negative correlation between corruption and development (ii) countries can remain trapped in high corruption-low development or low corruption-high development equilibria (iii) amongst intermediate levels of development corruption levels are more variable, some countries have high corruption and others low corruption. This paper argues that existing models are consistent with th...
Yu, Yao; Martek, Igor; Hosseini, M Reza; Chen, Chuan
Corruption in the construction industry is a serious problem in China. As such, fighting this corruption has become a priority target of the Chinese government, with the main effort being to discover and prosecute its perpetrators. This study profiles the demographic characteristics of major incidences of corruption in construction. It draws on the database of the 83 complete recorded cases of construction related corruption held by the Chinese National Bureau of Corruption Prevention. Categorical variables were drawn from the database, and 'association rule mining analysis' was used to identify associations between variables as a means of profiling perpetrators. Such profiling may be used as predictors of future incidences of corruption, and consequently to inform policy makers in their fight against corruption. The results signal corruption within the Chinese construction industry to be correlated with age, with incidences rising as managers' approach retirement age. Moreover, a majority of perpetrators operate within government agencies, are department deputies in direct contact with projects, and extort the greatest amounts per case from second tier cities. The relatively lengthy average 6.4-year period before cases come to public attention corroborates the view that current efforts at fighting corruption remain inadequate.
Krause Hansen, Hans
This article investigates the emerging engagement of private actors and specifically Western corporations in international anti-corruption, drawing on Foucauldian studies of governmentality. It explores this engagement as governing practices that have emanated quite independently from the inter......-state system commonly understood to be at the core of the anti-corruption regime. It demonstrates how corporate anti-corruption ties in with a relatively new way of perceiving corruption. In this framing, anti-corruption comes out as risk management, which is latched on to notions of corporate social...... responsibility and business ethics. Moreover, the constitution of corruption risk relates to the rise of new actors and networks engaged in a wider business of anti-corruption, including commercial and hybrid actors that supply corporations with managerial instruments, benchmarks for best practice, rankings...
Joseph Ato Forson
Full Text Available This study explores the causes of corruption in 22 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 1996 to 2013. The sources of corruption are grouped into three main thematic areas – historical roots, contemporary causes and institutional causes to make way for subjective and objective measures. The subjective measures allow for assessment of the effectiveness of anticorruption policies. Using pooled OLS, fixed-effect and instrumental-variable approaches, and focusing on the perceived level of corruption as the dependent variable, we find that ethnic diversity, resource abundance and educational attainment are markedly less associated with corruption. In contrast, wage levels of bureaucrats and anticorruption measures based on government effectiveness and regulatory quality breed substantial corruption. Press freedom is found to be variedly associated with corruption. On the basis of these findings, we recommend that the fight against corruption on the continent needs to be reinvented through qualitative and assertive institutional reforms. Anticorruption policy decisions should focus on existing educational systems as a conduit for intensifying awareness of the devastating effect of corruption on sustainable national development.
Full Text Available Corruption is a global challenge which may impact negatively on economic growth and sustainable development of the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. All of these five countries have been held back by corruption, in varying ways, but their rising importance to the global economic system ensures the spotlight now shines brighter than ever on them. Yet some of the BRICS countries have handled the issue better than others. According to Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index (2017, in the BRICS bloc of major emerging economies, South Africa is ranked the best (71st, followed by China (77th and India (81st, with Brazil is 96th and Russia 135th out of 180 countries. These five nations support the strengthening of international cooperation against corruption, including through the BRICS Anti-Corruption Working Group, as well as on matters related to asset recovery and persons sought for corruption. This article provides a detailed analysis of anti-corruption legislation of four of the BRICS countries (Brazil, South Africa, China and India, as well as a brief overview of the efforts of these countries in the fight against corruption.
Krause Hansen, Hans; Tang-Jensen, Morten Hove
Contemporary scholarship on corruption control lacks an analytical focus on anti-corruption in practice. We examine corruption control at the micro-level as exemplified by the use of anti-corruption due diligence in a Danish law firm. Building on concepts from studies of the cultural economy, anti......-policy, risk theory and classifications in examination processes, we argue that careful analysis of the subtle processes involved in the conduct of due diligence by professionals provides insights into the ambiguous implications of mobilizing particular forms of knowledge and expertise in practical corruption...... control work. By providing also an extended view on the operations of due diligence in the wider corruption control regime the paper problematizes clear-cut distinctions and categories used in established literatures....
Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer
High-quality data on state-level inequality and incomes, panel data on corruption convictions, and careful attention to the consequences of including or excluding fixed effects in the panel specification allow us to estimate the impact of income considerations on the decision to undertake corrupt...... acts. Following efficiency wage arguments, for a given institutional environment the corruptible employee's or official's decision to engage in corruption is affected by relative wages and expected tenure in the public sector, the probability of detection, the cost of fines and jail terms......, and the degree of inequality, which indicate diminished prospects facing those convicted of corruption. In US states over 25 years we show that inequality and higher government relative wages significantly and robustly produce less corruption. This reverses other findings of a positive association between...
Hatem Bedaiwi Al-Shammari حاتم بديوي الشمري
Full Text Available still the phenomenon of corruption is a threat to citizens in all parts of the globe and growing pressure in his living and limit his freedom and became one of the most serious risks that threaten life everywhere, as far as the corruption of the factors and causes of the spread remains the media 's role to eliminate it because of its active role in raising awareness and disclosure of his hideouts and mroger and reduce zhardh through matnqlh media diverse and specialized audience of news and events variety, which is one of the main functions to him, hence the relationship between the media and society, if the media have a directive in its destruction and the warning in a broad sense so described methods of the most dangerous methods are not very effective and with a broad impact, according to media definition as an attempt to influence the minds of the masses and their souls and to control their behavior , so the address is ( the media the role of our research in the fight against the phenomenon of corruption in iraq model are searching three sections included the first part , the research methodology of the problem and the importance of the objectives and methodology and terminology as well as research tools and assumptions. the second section on corruption its causes the forms, methods and ways of its spread and the third section to ensure the media 's role in reducing these phenomenon outlined goals and means media yeh to limit this phenomenon in addition the findings and recommendations and sources for research.
Harald Badinger; Elisabeth Nindl
This paper presents new empirical evidence on the determinants of corruption, focussing on the role of globalization and inequality. The estimates for a panel of 102 countries over the period 1995-2005 point to three main results: i) Detection technologies, reflected in a high level of development, human capital, and political rights reduce corruption, whereas natural resource rents increase corruption. ii) Globalization (in terms of both trade and financial openness) has a neg...
Marius PROFIROIU; Tudorel ANDREI; Gheorghe POPESCU; Alina PROFIROIU
This paper attempts to examine, from the Romanian perspective, the degree to which decentralization process and improvement of local governance contributes to the reduction of corruption in the short and medium term. Through the methodology that is used the paper is consistent with the international trend that endeavors to analyze the impact of corruption on economic and social processes at the local level. In addition, recent research on corruption issues has focused upon the measurement of ...
Picking up a theme that runs through David Hayton's work, this article examines corruption in the later Stuart period through a case study of Samuel Pepys. The latter's diary can be read alongside the public record of parliamentary inquiries and vilification in the press, allowing us a rare opportunity to study corruption simultaneously through the eyes of a perpetrator and his critics. Pepys reveals ambiguities in how corruption was defined and defended. At the same time as he criticized cor...
This paper examines the impact of corruption on foreign direct investment (FDI). It argues that corruption results not only in a reduction in FDI, but also in a change in the composition of country of origin of FDI. It presents two key findings. First, corruption results in relatively lower FDI from countries that have signed the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. This sugges...
Why do people give money to the police? Because they have to! Or face the violent consequences! This book addresses policing torture and corruption as interlinked practices. Rather than separating corruption and torture, the collection suggests exploring their linkages in the everyday encounter...... attempt to navigate to stay safe and maybe even express claims of belonging and rights. As such this book will provide a welcome contribution to policing and corruption studies as well as NGOs, human rights organizations and policy makers within the fields of state violence and corruption....
In this new feature of the "Academe" journal, work by faculty members is highlighted who are mobilizing in support of academic freedom on their campuses and beyond. This September-October issue of the journal includes the following brief reflections from faculty all relating to the central theme of "fighting back": "Free…
Natasha Georgieva Hadji Krsteski
Full Text Available Corporate security should commit to ethical management and raising the quality of companies and markets through improving cooperation and transparency by applying anticorruption measures such as accepting a code of ethics; respect and follow international business principles for dealing with bribery; improve their transparency - via access to information; involvement in politics to protect persons who disclose corruption cases; and improving corporate governance - through active mutual discussions on adjustment of legal regulations. Research methods used in the paper are: qualitative analysis of secondary data obtained from relevant institutions. Results obtained from the survey include fighting corruption in corporations must find a unique solution that is long-term strategy developed transparent society crucial criteria and principles to meet the political criteria by the fulfillment of anti-corruption standards; it requires continuous cooperation of public and private sector, NGOs and the general corpus of all stakeholders in the country against corruption; the lack of a legal framework or platform for establishing public and private partnerships, is an important factor for anti-corruption measures to improve corporate governance; mechanisms for cooperation does not seem sufficiently developed between the public, private, political and civil society; the most important factor to tackle corruption is to adopt a law on public prosecutors and determination of higher norms and standards. Conclusions drawn from the survey: in the area of pre-trial procedure requires shifting responsibilities of Interior Ministry body training in the area of the judicial system; it is necessary to change the Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure Code by changing certain legal provisions which refer to the Agency for money laundering SCCP, a financial police and overall legislation.
Vito Tanzi; Hamid R Davoodi
The paper discusses some channels through which corruption affects growth such as the impact of corruption on enterprises, on the allocation of talent, and on investment. It also discusses the impact of corruption on some aspects of public finance.
Full Text Available In the article an analysis of the impact of corruption, both administrative and state capture, on the tax structure is carried out. The authors established a negative correlation between the degree of corruption and the height of the effective tax burden, while isolating a simultaneous directly proportional impact of the nominal tax burden (which could reflect state intervention - the main corruption factor on the scope of corruption. The effects of corruption on the decrease of individual taxes' share in GDP are diversified, with impact on direct taxes as a whole being more observable. The mode of tax assessment significantly determines exposure of certain tax to the administrative corruption: it is generally larger in case of taxes assessed by the decision of the competent tax officials who are carrying out both assessment and audit, while in the case of self-assessment and withholding they just perform audits implying limited exposure to corruption. Corruptive state capture is present in the case of taxes which are important for influential corruptors. That is why in Serbia laws preventing taxation of capital gains or heavier taxation of dividends and other income paid to non-residents located in the tax havens were adopted, while by-laws which should have enabled implementation of prescribed lump sum taxation based on external signs of wealth have not been enacted. The authors concluded that the anti-corruption strategy should rely on the increasing role of self-assessment, which could reduce the room for administrative corruption. Unclear and imprecise formulations of the tax norms facilitate corruption, because they create room for arbitrariness in interpretation and implementation of the laws and by-laws. It is therefore necessary to surprises discretion, simplify tax procedure and diminish the number of tax relief's.
Social Studies Education in the 21st Century, a Tool for Fighting Corruption in Nigeria. ... African Research Review ... The thrust of the paper is that corruption and indiscipline exemplified in social and political vices constitute obstacles for integrated national development, and that social studies as a subject has a role to play ...
Full Text Available Nowadays, corruption is still the most and biggest problem facing by Indonesian, due to its impacts on the nation. It caused huge loss to the state finance and even to the democratic life in this country. Various efforts have been resorted to fight corruption, but the results are unfruitful. Until recently, Indonesia is still the third most corrupt country in Asia according to the survey of Transparency International Indonesia (TII in 2015, with the Corruption Perceptions Index of 36 points. The fight in eradicating corruption cannot be separated from the effort to deter the criminals through severe punishment. However, ICW’s most recent data shows otherwise. During the first half of 2014, there were 261 accused of corruption, with 242 of them were convicted guilty by the Corruption Courts. Among them, 193 were sentenced lenient (between 1-4 years imprisonment, 44 moderate (4-10 years, and only 4 with over 10 years imprisonment. The average length of sentence is therefore 2,9 years. The lenient sentence can also be found in criminal restitution. Only in 87 of the total cases state compensation is imposed, amounting 87.04 billion rupiahs in total. The amount is only 0.022% of the total financial loss of 3.863 trillion rupiahs. The weak penalty triggered then the idea of impoverishing corruptors as a strategic step to accelerate the eradication of corruption while restoring the loss to the state. In contrast to the criminal restitution, which is restricted only to the state loss caused by the perpetrators, criminal confiscation of assets has no limit in amount.
Defines "grand" corruption as that occurring at the higher levels of a political system and involving large sums of money. Discusses the impact and incentives for this level of corruption as well as various government responses. Identifies multinational corporations as the major malefactors. (MJP)
Using a general model of corruption that explains and accounts for corruption across different corporate and professional activities, the paper will examine how certain practices in the media, especially in areas where journalism, advertising and public relations regularly intersect and converge,
James E., Alt; Lassen, David Dreyer
corrupt acts. Consistent with "system capacity" arguments, we find that greater prosecutor resources result in more convictions for corruption, other things equal. We find more limited, recent evidence for the deterrent effect of increased prosecutions. We control for and confirm in a panel context...
Full Text Available Corruption as a phenomenon is of great interest for the society we live in. As there is no unit of measurement to determine the scale of this phenomenon, comparative studies are chosen most often for the areas concerned. The present paper describes a study focused on all counties in Romania, Bucharest included. The purpose of this research is to establish the determinant factors that influence the size and spread of corruption, as it manifests strong negative effects on the society we live in. Thus, using a set of regressions over the main variables, some correlation coefficients have been set, which after processing rendered a ranking of all the 42 analysed territorial units, sorted by the estimated size of corruption. The whole scientific approach was completed with a map of corruption, which synthesizes and presents the corruption spread nationwide
In this paper, we analyse implications of corruption on growth. We extend existing growth models by incorporating ubiquitous corruption as a by-product of the public sector. Corruption affects both taxation and public good provision, and therefore causes income redistribution and inefficiencies in the public sector. These effects of corruption lead to lower growth through distortions of investment incentives and resources allocation.
Jong, E. de; Udo, E.
Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses
Jong, E. de; Bogmans, C.W.J.
We use measures of trade-related corruption to investigate the effects of corruption on international trade and compare the results with those of corruption in general. We distinguish corruption in an exporting economy from that in an importing economy. Both distinctions appear to be important.
Junghagen, Sven; Wagner, Mads Frederik
The purpose of this research is to examine the susceptibility of the formal FIFA network to a grand vote rigging corruption scheme of the FIFA World Cup host elections. To date, little research has been published on the vulnerabilities of FIFA’s inter-organisational network structure. Following...... the elections of Russia to host the World Cup in 2018 and Qatar to host the World Cup in 2022, 34 FIFA officials and two corporations were indicted by the FBI on charges of different forms of corruption. The indictments reveal an organisation deeply embedded with corruption and with complete disregard...
Through a content analysis of 8,800 news items and six months of front pages in three Brazilian newspapers, all dealing with corruption and political transgression, this article documents the remarkable skew of media attention to corruption scandals. The bias is examined as an information...... phenomenon, arising from systemic and commercial factors of Brazil’s news media: An information cascade of news on corruption formed, destabilizing the governing coalition and legitimizing the impeachment process of Dilma Rousseff. As this process gained momentum, questions of accountability were disregarded...
Through a content analysis of 8,800 news items and six months of front pages in three Brazilian newspapers, all dealing with corruption and political transgression, this article documents the remarkable skew of media attention to corruption scandals. The bias is examined as an information...... phenomenon, arising from systemic and commercial factors of Brazil’s news media: An information cascade of news on corruption formed, destabilizing the governing coalition and legitimizing the impeachment process of Dilma Rousseff. As this process gained momentum, questions of accountability were disregarded...... by the media, with harmful effects on democracy....
Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
the environmentalists) demand changes in behaviour on moral grounds. In contrast, the Bootleggers (the producers of renewable energy), who profit from the very regulation, keep a low profile. The actual heavy subsidisation of renewable energy sources, such as wind energy, can be viewed as a successful policy outcome...... to be just as tough as fighting windmills and needs to be addressed in future and more rigorous empirical research. At the end of the day, transparent incentives of relevant stakeholders in the climate change issue are necessary preconditions for progress in the climate change negotiations....
Dahlström, Tobias; Johnson, Andreas
This paper adds to the limited number of studies analysing the relationship between host country corruption and FDI inflows. A model describes the incentives foreign MNEs and host country bureaucrats have for engaging in corruption and shows how corruption increases the MNE costs of operations in the host country. The model predicts that the costs caused by corruption reduce FDI inflows. Regression analysis using panel data finds that host country corruption has a significant negative effect ...
Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine, from the Romanian perspective, the degree to which decentralization process and improvement of local governance contributes to the reduction of corruption in the short and medium term. Through the methodology that is used the paper is consistent with the international trend that endeavors to analyze the impact of corruption on economic and social processes at the local level. In addition, recent research on corruption issues has focused upon the measurement of the level of corruption level and on its impact on the growing rate of the GDP (Mauro 1, Abed and Davoodi2, Krueger 3, on the impact upon some of the national economical sectors (Tanzi 4, Shang-Jin Wei 5, or on the decentralization processes (Shah 6.
Malafeyev, O. A.; Nemnyugin, S. A.; Rylow, D.; Kolpak, E. P.; Awasthi, Achal
The corruption dynamics is analyzed by means of the lattice model which is similar to the three-dimensional Ising model. Agents placed at nodes of the corrupt network periodically choose to perfom or not to perform the act of corruption at gain or loss while making decisions based on the process history. The gain value and its dynamics are defined by means of the Markov stochastic process modelling with parameters established in accordance with the influence of external and individual factors on the agent's gain. The model is formulated algorithmically and is studied by means of the computer simulation. Numerical results are obtained which demonstrate asymptotic behaviour of the corruption network under various conditions.
Graeff, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
Why are the Scandinavian countries in the European Union significantly richer than South-ern/Eastern European countries? We try to answer this question from an empirical social capital perspective. In particular, we are interested in the interplay of social trust as a positive and corruption...... capital by applying a path model that accounts for Granger-like causal effects. Our empirical results, referring to a sample of up to 25 EU countries, show that corruption might harm poor European countries but is not able to affect social trust. However, corruption in itself means that resources end up...... in the wrong places and not in socioeconomically optimal investments. There is, therefore, a direct damaging effect of corruption on wealth. This implies that economic actors have to invest higher transaction and control costs which will bind resources to non-productive purposes and thus destroy economic...
Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer
. Consistent with system capacity arguments, we find that greater prosecutor resources result in more convictions for corruption, other things equal. By explicitly determining the allocation of prosecutorial resources endogenously from partisan and administrative considerations, we show that this specification...
S. M. Ivasenko
Full Text Available The article analyses directions of perfection of organizational support of prevention and counteraction of corruption in the bodies of State fiscal service of Ukraine. It is noted that fight against corruption in tax authorities is the most important component of increasing the efficiency of tax administration and tax crime reducing. In its importance it can be equated to such important problems as the fighting against tax crimes. The author, generalizing theoretical approaches, highlights priority activities aimed at improving the efficiency of detecting and exposing corrupt employees of the fiscal authorities.
Úbeda, Francisco; Duéñez-Guzmán, Edgar A
Cooperation is ubiquitous in the natural world. What seems nonsensical is why natural selection favors a behavior whereby individuals would lose out by benefiting their competitor. This conundrum, for almost half a century, has puzzled scientists and remains a fundamental problem in biology, psychology, and economics. In recent years, the explanation that punishment can maintain cooperation has received much attention. Individuals who punish noncooperators thrive when punishment does not entail a cost to the punisher. However when punishment is costly, cooperation cannot be preserved. Most literature on punishment fails to consider that punishers may act corruptly by not cooperating when punishing noncooperators. No research has considered that there might be power asymmetries between punishers and nonpunishers that turn one of these type of individuals more or less susceptible to experiencing punishment. Here, we formulate a general game allowing corruption and power asymmetries between punishers and nonpunishers. We show that cooperation can persist if punishers possess power and use it to act corruptly. This result provides a new interpretation of recent data on corrupt policing in social insects and the psychology of power and hypocrisy in humans. These results suggest that corruption may play an important role in maintaining cooperation in insects and human societies. In contrast with previous research, we contend that costly punishment can be beneficial for social groups. This work allows us to identify ways in which corruption can be used to the advantage of a society. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Kirill A. Belokrylov
Full Text Available The paper proves the effectiveness of the using of statistical methods for evaluation of the corruption level as a result of its, on the one hand, latency, concealment of official statistical accounting, and on the other - the scale of corruption in Russia. The comparative analysis of the substantial characteristics of the nature of corruption by Russian and foreign scientists, as well as their reflection in the law has allowed to develop a questionnaire to adequately assess the levels, causes and the effectiveness of implementation of the policy on the fight against corruption as the most important social indicator of inefficient institutions. Analysis of the results of the economic and sociological survey of the population of the Rostov region revealed a shift of corruption performance in the region in the direction of the education system as a result of the dominance in the selection of students, but it led to the conclusion about the need to tighten legislation on the fight against corruption (72% of respondents, including the confiscation of the property (79,1%, the dismissal of corrupt officials, the ban on public office. The necessity of further in-depth statistical studies of corruption on the development of more effective measures is improved to combat it as a tool for removal of the Russian economy from the crisis and ensure that it is more sustainable growth than projected in the 2020s (the lost decade 1,5% positive GDP dynamics.
Full Text Available Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's Constitution, which aims at establishing freedom and security for everyone and a democracy 'for the people, by the people'. The aim of this article is to determine whether South African public education is safe from the corruption 'bogey', where reflection is made on professional public school management, which is the responsibility of school principals. Our objectives include designing an education-specific definition of corruption to advance accountable and transparent leadership; establishing the degree to which corruption has infiltrated the public education sphere; and making recommendations to fight corruption in public schools at professional public school management level. Among other findings, we found that even though some principals actively advocate upholding high morals, their conduct proves differently.
Full Text Available This article discusses the development and implementation of anti-corruption ethics and compliance programme in the African business environment. In the past decade, an international legal framework has been developed to tackle corruption both in public and private sectors. This framework includes the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC, which entered into force in 2005, and the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, which entered into force in 1999. These instruments mandate that State Parties must criminalise and punish a variety of corrupt practices. Relevant domestic laws have a direct impact on business, especially in States Parties instruments that require the establishment of liability of legal persons for corrupt acts. The African Union Convention also requires States Parties to establish mechanisms to encourage participation by the private sector in the fight against unfair competition, respect of the tender procedures and property rights. The paper details various steps needed to efficiently and effectively implement anti-corruption ethics and compliance programme in the African context. The first part of the paper develops the primary objective of the corruption risk assessment which is to better understand the risk exposure so that informed risk management decisions may be taken. A structured approach for how enterprises could conduct an anti-corruption risk assessment will be outlined in this first section. The author argued in this same first section that each enterprise’s own risk assessment exercise is unique, depending on that enterprise’s industry, size, location, and other factors inherent to that organisation. The second part of the paper drafts the development and the implementation of an anti-corruption programme. The paper concludes by stating that an anti-corruption and compliance programme is not a panacea for fighting all the ills on
Saeed Sehhat; Mehdi Jafarzadeh kenari; Mohsen Mijani
Bureaucratic corruption is an organizational phenomenon, which faces the trend of countries’ development with serious problems. In spite of all planning and respects of countries to fight against this phenomenon, we are still observing its growth in various aspects of the community. The basic approach emphasized by present study is that it is necessary to establish a corruption prevention system whose central element is social culture and organizational culture rather than relying upon the tr...
The question marks that this paper raises are: what are the means used in the war against corruption in the public procurement field in Albania? Did they had any real impact or they just reshaped the ways of doing corruption? The main finding of this paper is that introduction of e-procurement system was one of the most appropriate means to fight corruption in Albania, because this system fixed one of the biggest problems of the Albanian Public Procurement system; lack of transparency. The electronic system is transparent, since it provides the increasing of information passing through it, and the most important, it enhances the responsibility in relations between the contracting authorities and economic operators, enabling a more effective and efficient use of the tax payers’ money.
Full Text Available Corruption represents one of the major causes of poverty all over the world and European Union is fighting against it. In the last few years, the corruption phenomenon registered a high level in some European countries and became one of the most problematic factors for doing business, due to the evolution of the perceived top five global risks: interstate conflict and regional consequences, extreme weather events, failure of national governance, state collapse or crises, high structural unemployment or underemployment (WEF-Global Risk Report 2015, p. 14. One of the modalities in combating corruption is implementing the internal control and most of the governments and organizations adopted strong control techniques. Most of the control weaknesses are related to the financial procedures and the number of controllers. Some of the controllers do not have enough financial expertise or do not understand the importance of informatics systems.
Mariani, Maria Paola
When responses from the US and EU to the fight against bribery in international business transactions are compared, it becomes evident that there is little record of EU member States enforcing their bribery laws. The successful enforcement of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), which criminalizes the bribing of foreign government officials, is relatively new. Indeed, only over the last decade have the twin regulators, the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Securities and Exchange Commi...
Nugroho, Hibnu; Raharjo, Agus; Pranoto
Prevention and eraducation of corruption case are the strategy which can't be implemented separatly it should be done synergistically, integrated and concurrently to prevent a new corruptor generation and other new corruptor. So the problem comes on how the strategy which are prevention and eraducation corruption by Indonesian goverment to reach Indonesia free from corruption and what the obsacles in order to reach strategy prevention and eraducation of corruption that already done by Indones...
Wientjens, Wim; Cairns, Douglas
In the fight against discrimination, the IDF launched the first ever International Charter of Rights and Responsibilities of People with Diabetes in 2011: a balance between rights and duties to optimize health and quality of life, to enable as normal a life as possible and to reduce/eliminate the barriers which deny realization of full potential as members of society. It is extremely frustrating to suffer blanket bans and many examples exist, including insurance, driving licenses, getting a job, keeping a job and family affairs. In this article, an example is given of how pilots with insulin treated diabetes are allowed to fly by taking the responsibility of using special blood glucose monitoring protocols. At this time the systems in the countries allowing flying for pilots with insulin treated diabetes are applauded, particularly the USA for private flying, and Canada for commercial flying. Encouraging developments may be underway in the UK for commercial flying and, if this materializes, could be used as an example for other aviation authorities to help adopt similar protocols. However, new restrictions implemented by the new European Aviation Authority take existing privileges away for National Private Pilot Licence holders with insulin treated diabetes in the UK. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article is about increase corruption in private sector as commercial corruption. This establishes a wide understanding of that phenomenon in social science and law. Corruption and bribery are types of fraud and are linked with the private sector too. Although certain types of corruption will decline as the private sector grows and consolidates, other new types involving private sector firms may increase. The commercial corruption can be described as relation inside of an organization and as relation between firms. Corruption in private sector in Poland is connected with social distrust and specific organizational culture, too. Commercial corruption is a familiar feature of their societies and has been the focus of law enforcement and institutional reform. Many others problems do not change the fact that such corruption is a new important problem and causes lost of competitiveness and creates a substitute for fair market and competition in Polish economy and abroad.
Schultz, Jessica; Søreide, Tina
Corruption in emergency procurement reduces the resources available for life-saving operations, lowers the quality of products and services provided, and diverts aid from those who need it most.(1) It also negatively influences public support for humanitarian relief, both in the affected country and abroad. This paper aims to unpack and analyse the following question in order to mitigate risk: how and where does corruption typically occur, and what can be done? Suggested strategies reflect a multi-layered approach that stresses internal agency control mechanisms, conflict-sensitive management, and the need for common systems among operators.
I examine the causal relation between social capiatl and corruption. A simple model illustrates potential mechanisms and yields testable implications, which I estimate in a sample of European countries. The estimated effect of social capital on corruption is found to be robust to the inclusion...... of a number of other variables and supplementing the sample with slightly older data from non-European countries. The evidence of the reverse causal direction is weak. I suggest that it is possible to build social capiatl through investing in education, interest in society and some level of income...
Tanzi, Vito; 中村, まづる
Corruption, particularly political or “grand” corruption, distorts the entire decision-making process connected with public investment projects. The degree of distortions is higher with weaker auditing institutions. The evidence presented shows that higher corruption is associated with (i) higher public investment; (ii) lower government revenues; (iii) lower expenditures on operations and maintenance; and (iv) lower quality of public infrastructure. The evidence also shows that corruption inc...
Marasović Šušnjara, Ivana
Corruption is a global problem that takes special place in health care system. A large number of participants in the health care system and numerous interactions among them provide an opportunity for various forms of corruption, be it bribery, theft, bureaucratic corruption or incorrect information. Even though it is difficult to measure the amount of corruption in medicine, there are tools that allow forming of the frames for possible interventions.
Paper discusses the factors that contribute to the spread of corruption as well as the implications of corruption for markets and for public sector activities. It is argued that corruption can be contained mainly by a scaling down of the public sector activities that stimulate its growth.
Rajeev K. Goel
Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of corruption control depending upon whether the bribe taker or the bribe giver initiates the corrupt interaction. The probability of corrupt exchanges depends upon the bribe and the corrupt market structure. The probability of apprehension is set but punishment can be influenced via bribes. Results show that the effectiveness of apprehension hinges on whether higher bribes invite harsher fines. Competition for favors intimidates the bribe giver into offering lower bribes, while greater agency competition has a similar effect on the bribe demanded. Consistent with intuition, better paid bureaucrats demand smaller bribes. Some implications for anti-corruption policy are discussed.
immunity clause and its sphere, extent and limits as it relates to the officers protected ..... of the Schooner Exchange v Mcfaddon24 where Chief Justice Marshall of .... Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act 1976 could lead to financial transactions.
Botswana is the only country in sub-Saharan Africa to have sustained uninterrupted record of liberal democracy and political stability as well as good governance since independence. However, as observed by Transparency International, there is evidence to suggest that even the most democratic countries are prone to ...
Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Full Text Available The present paper tries to put together a modest study on the actions taken at EU level in order to fight economic crime. A series of measures have been implemented at national and European level to create a framework for fighting criminality. The European institutions and the national authorities are improving their cooperation in order to fight the increasing number of economic crimes committed both in the private and public sector, while Member States are approximating their legislation to the provisions of the Community acquis. We have divided these efforts into five categories corresponding to the five main areas of economic crime identified at EU level: fight against fraud, which affects the financial interests of the European Union and mainly comprises fraudulent practices in the use of EU funds and in taxation, fight against piracy and counterfeiting, public and private corruption, money laundering and organised crime. In order to combat the negative influence criminality exerts on the development of the economy and of the overall society, for each of the above mentioned areas legislative, institutional, technical and administrative measures have been adopted. We have presented these measures considering their efficiency in meeting the targets set out and the role played in their implementation by the European and national institutions.
Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh
Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...
Corruption is bad for donor business. Corruption reduces popular support for aid in donor countries. However, aid agencies should pay attention to corruption because it is the right thing to do, rather than just the smart thing to do. Donor anti-corruption policies require a strong grounding in ethics. Corruption produces bad development outcomes. This is the reasoning largely underlying donor anti-corruption efforts. The focus on consequences of corruption makes donor anticorruptioneffo...
Corruption is generally defined as the misuse of public authority, and political corruption is here defined as corruption in which the political decision-makers are involved. In addition to a review of the various definitions of corruption a classification of the various forms of corruption (bribery, embezzlement, fraud and extortion), this paper presents two alternative theories on corruption ("extractive" and "redistributive") in order to illustrate the effects of corruption in various regi...
Vera Martínez, Martín Cutberto
Full Text Available The following article analyzes public policies of administrative reform and related to the institutionalization of access to public information in Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. It analyzes these policies in relation with the modernization and improvement of public administration and the fight against corruption.
Full Text Available In fighting corruption, good governance efforts rely on principles such as accountability, transparency and participation to shape anti-corruption measures. Initiatives may include establishing institutions such as anti-corruption commissions, creating mechanisms of information sharing, and monitoring governments’ use of public funds and implementation of policies. Good governance and human rights are mutually reinforcing. Human rights principles provide a set of values to guide the work of governments and other political and social actors. They also provide a set of performance standards against which these actors can be held accountable. Moreover, human rights principles inform the content of good governance efforts: they may inform the development of legislative frameworks, policies, programmers, budgetary allocations and other measures. Corruption is recognized as a serious crime in the EU, which is reflected in its many anti-corruption instruments covering existing member states. Countries wishing to join still face considerable systemic corruption issues in their public institutions. In Macedonia as one of these countries the most significant human rights problems stemmed from pervasive corruption and from the government’s failure to respect fully the rule of law. This article introduces anti-corruption work, good governance, and attempts to identify the various levels of relationship between that work and human rights with particular reference to Macedonia as an EU candidate country
This essay documents the state of the medical profession which was once a respected line of work but today is corrupted at every level, from medical education to medical practice, and ir both the private and government sectors. It calls for doctors, thE government and the public to act against dishonest doctors restore the dignity of the profession and work for the benefit of society.
Graf Lambsdorff, Johann; Frank, Björn
We let students play a corruption game, embedded into a variant of the ultimatum game. Those allotted the role of public servants chose between whistleblowing, opportunism and reciprocity by delivery (of a contract) and those acting as businesspeople chose how to frame the game and whether to blow the whistle. While opportunism and abstaining from whistleblowing is the Nash equilibrium, another likely outcome was that businesspeople allocate resources to punishing public servants for non-deli...
Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci
This subject, whence the name of this paper originates from, must be addressed with courage and intellectual integrity by all of us, the different parts of the civil society, the public institutions, the entrepreneurs and the legal professionals, the youth and the new generations. All the public policies of the European governments share the belief of a direct correlation between the criminal density connected to corruption of States political and economic protagonists and the lack of ava...
Full Text Available Corruption has become a global issue, whereas almost every country, whatever tough or slight it is, got to fight against it. It means that none of single country in the world is corruption free, in spite of the Government’s struggles to eradicate corruption. This study analyzes anti-corruption policies and educational strategies enforced by Indonesian and Japanese Government. Data was collected through documentation and literature review, and to some extend, cultural behavior of both countries were observed. The research findings indicate several points: firstly, Indonesia has very complex socio-cultural background if compared to Japan. However, weak economic conditions, high levels of poverty, lack of political will, cultural orderly, honest and discipline attitudes, and a weak rule of law were found predominantly in Indonesia. Those conditions could be considered as a preceding background conducive to corruption behavior. Indonesia's anti-corruption policies enforced today is Act Number 31 of 1999 on Corruption Eradication, while the anti-corruption policy in Japan consist of several interrelated law compiled in Penal Codes (PC, Japan Unfair Competition Prevention Act (JUCPA, etc. Secondly, the implementation strategy for anti-corruption education in Indonesia is preventive, detective and repressive strategies. Meanwhile, Japan applies integrated strategies and approaches in whole socio-political, economic, cultural and education dimension. It is expected that the results of this study can contribute to the prevention and eradication of corruption in Indonesia more comprehensively, not only through legal means but education, especially higher education through internalization of moral and religious values of anti-corruption in all aspects of live.
Ushie James Ebuara
Full Text Available The fact that Nigeria is a corrupt nation is no longer news. Nigeria is ranked internationally as one of the most corrupt nations in the world. As embarrassing as this status is, it is indeed the reality of our situation. The general public and now even the executive arm of the Federal government have continued to question how members of the legal profession discharge their role in applying the law because they have absolute belief in the law as their protection against the tendencies that are depriving them of their well being, dehumanizing them and even threatening the existence of their country, they waited for the law to respond to these tendencies by putting them in check, stop them completely or control them, they have watched helplessly the inability of law to effectively respond to these tendencies and have watched the tendencies continue unabated and escalated into the conditions we found ourselves today The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of lawyers as Judges, as Prosecutors and defence Attorneys in promoting and encouraging corruption in our body politics. It further examines in contrast the role lawyers should play in the renewed fight against corruption. Lawyers as agents of social change should be in the vanguard for the reorientation of the mind set of Nigerian in the renewed fight against corruption and social rebirth generally. To effectively play this role members of the legal profession must purge themselves of corrupt tendencies and must be seen to be above board.
Juneman Abraham; Murty Magda Pane
This research investigated the relation between conscientiousness, collectivism, and corrupt tendency–which is represented by moral emotions (shame and guilt proneness). The study was conducted on 117 students (76 male, 41 female; M = 18.93 years old; SD = 1.67 years old) in Jakarta. The result shows that collectivism has positive predictive correlation with the tendency of not doing corruption and that conscientiousness is not able to predict corrupt tendencies. Collectivism of which every g...
This essay makes a distinction between two different meanings of the word «corruption»: moral corruption and legal corruption. The thesis is that in Mandeville's thought vice can be useful, while crime is always damaging. In this perspective, law is fundamental to tell vice from crime. Three points are examined: 1) the relationships between law and human nature, law and ethics, law and society; 2) the analysis of Mandeville's theory of law, in particular its nature and development; 3) the the...
Ledeneva, A. V.
To understand corporate corruption in Russia and to develop both effective anti-corruption policies at the macro level and anti-corruption strategies at the firm level one has to move beyond the predominant paradigm and to disaggregate its measurement. This article outlines the results of a pilot survey of CEOs of leading companies operating in the Russian regions with regard to their use of informal practices.
Olga Yurievna Adams
Full Text Available This paper explores institutional and normative developments in the area of anti-corruption efforts in three Chinese-speaking countries/territories with the latest emphasis on fostering all-encompassing corruption-intolerable environment. Hong Kong’s experience is often regarded as the high standard in establishing efficient anti-corruption institutions in inhospitable conditions. Over relatively short period of time – Hong Kong’s Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC was established in 1974 – the city made great strides against official corruption and has upheld its clean reputation ever since. ICAC’s former Deputy Commissioner and Head of Operations cites the 2000 public opinion poll in which Hong Kong residents named ICAC’s establishment the 6th most important event in the city’s 1 50-year history. ICAC is an example of a successful reactive approach to anti-corruption. Taiwan has its own success story. The Control Yuan – part of a unique five-branch government structure – combines watchdog and ombudsman functions which nowadays are considered prerequisite for successful fight against corruption and even more important for preventive efforts. This institution – supported by legitimacy of tradition – has a potential to become a coordinating center for comprehensive anti-corruption policy with more specialized agencies handling various aspects of corruption and economic crimes. Lately the Control Yuan’s role in Taiwan’s political structure has been debated, but it remains an example of effective proactive approach to fighting malfeasance. China’s anti-corruption strategy for 2013-17 aims to put forth a “dense net” of regulations, institutions and ethic norms towards country-wide corruption-intolerable environment. Preventive measures that include citizens’ awareness-raising and increasing ethical requirements of government workers warrant additional attention.
Full Text Available In popular view, the term accountability generally refers to a wide spectrum of public expectations dealing with organizational performance, responsiveness, good governance, and even morality of government and nonprofit organizations. These expectations often include implicit performance criteria – related to obligations and responsibilities – that are subjectively interpreted and sometimes even contradictory. And in this broader conception of accountability, the range of people and institutions to whom public and nonprofit organizations must account include not only higher authorities in the institutional chain of command but also the general public, the news media, peer agencies, donors, and many other stakeholders (Kearns, 1996. Government could build its accountability by implementing good and proper financial management. Financial management is a tool for government to show its performance and accountability to the public. Meanwhile, corruption is the misuse of public office for private gain. As such, it involves the improper and unlawful behavior of public-service officials, both politicians and civil servants, whose positions create opportunities for the diversion of money and assets from government to them and their accomplices (Langseth, 1999. The more corruption, the more far away from good governance, and the less public accountability. According to Klitgaard (1988, power minus accountability is corruption. This paper explains about the influences of implementing government financial management to corruption fighting and good governance in broadly view. Discussion will be derived to find out the understanding of financial management, corruption, and good governance terminology fits for Indonesia environment. The purpose of this paper is to achieve common knowledge that financial management should be implemented by public organization from strategic management for public organization approaches. Besides, reader will find out
This paper derives from the contemporary concern facing good governance and the sustainability of democratic government in Nigeria. The phenomenon of corruption i.e. bureaucratic corruption has negative implications on the nation and therefore capable of terminating our nascent democracy, hence, the need to curb or ...
Corruption is a universal problem that is taking place all over the world, either in developed countries or developing or under developing countries. It is caused by some issues such as poorly designed economic policies, low levels of education, underdeveloped civil society, and the weak accountability of public institution. Those causes of corruption can be separated in some different types of corruption. The types are bureaucratic corruption, political corruption, grand corruption, and comm...
Full Text Available Corruption within public services has devastated negative impact on a state, a society, its economy and its citizens. It represents a major threat to the rule of law, democracy, enjoyment of human rights, fairness and social justice. It hinders economic development and endangeres sustainable development, empowerishes national economies, and facilitates the emergence of other threats, such as organized crime. Fighting corruption has become more urgent than ever. This paper deals with the public liability of domestic public officials, highlighting the substantive main international standards for fighting corruption in public services in the international legal instruments adopted by the United Nations and the Council of Europe, such as the United Nations Conventions against Corruption, and the two Convention of Council of Europe, on Civil Law and on Criminal Law. The paper argues that corruption can be prosecuted after the fact, but first and foremost it requires prevention. Preventive policies include the establishment of anti-corruption bodies and enhanced transparency in the financing of election campaigns and political parties. States must endeavour to ensure that their public services are subject to safeguards that promote efficiency, transparency and recruitment based on merit. Once recruited, public servants should be subject to codes of conduct, requirements for financial and other disclosures, and appropriate disciplinary measures. Transparency and accountability in matters of public finance must also be promoted, and specific requirements are established for the prevention of corruption in particularly critical areas of the public sector such as the judiciary and public procurement. Those who use public services must expect a high standard of conduct from their public servants. Preventing public corruption also requires an effort from all members of society at large.
I estimate the impact of bank cred it to the private sector on corruption using indicators of a country's legal origin as instrumental variables to assess causality. I find that bank credit reduces corruption, with the result robust to instrumenting for bank credit and for different controls.
Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on…
Holmberg, Sören; Rothstein, Bo
In many poor countries, over 80% of the population have experienced corrupt practices in the health sector. In rich countries, corruption takes other forms such as overbilling. The causal link between low levels of the quality of government (QoG) and population health can be either direct or indirect. Using cross-sectional data from more than 120 countries, our findings are that more of a QoG variable is positively associated with higher levels of life expectancy, lower levels of mortality rates for children and mothers, higher levels of healthy life expectancies and higher levels of subjective health feelings. In contrast to the strong relationships between the QoG variables and the health indicators, the relationship between the health-spending measures and population health are rather weak most of the time and occasionally non-existent. Moreover, for private health spending as well as for private share of total health spending, the relation to good health is close to zero or slightly negative. The policy recommendation coming out of our study to improve health levels around the world, in rich countries as well as in poor countries, is to improve the QoG and to finance health care with public, not private, money.
Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal
A recently published article on corruption in Indian healthcare in the BMJ has triggered a hot debate and numerous responses (1, 2, 3, 4). We do agree that corruption in Indian healthcare is a colossal issue and needs to be tackled urgently (5). However, we want to highlight that corruption in healthcare is not a local phenomenon confined to the Indian subcontinent, though India does serve as a good case study and intervention area due to the magnitude of the problem and the country's large population (6). Good governance, strict rules, transparency and zero tolerance are some of the strategies prescribed everywhere to tackle corruption. However, those entrusted with implementing good governance and strict rules in India need to go through a process of introspection to carry out their duties in a responsible fashion. At present, it looks like a no-win situation. In this article, we recommend education in medical ethics as the major intervention for dealing with corruption in healthcare.
Varvara M. Vasileva; Anton N. Vorobyev
Assuming that there is a “missing factor” in the modern corruption studies, authors develop a new conceptual approach to the study of corruption and effectiveness of anti-corruption regulations in the public service. This “missing factor” is a “corruption market”, particularly, its size, type and nature. Conflict of interest regulations aim at controlling key channels of corruption behavior, and corruption market in its turn determines prevailing channels of existing corruption behavior. Misi...
While in an initial legal and academic anti-corruption wave corruption itself was at the center of analysis, research is now increasingly focused on anti-corruption discourse and praxis. The latter analyses have generated numerous criticisms of anti-corruption activities and anti-corruption research, and these are presented in this literature review. These criticisms range from the anti-corruption norm's legitimacy deficit, to the difficulty of defining and measuring corruption, to the discou...
Full Text Available In the context of global capitalism the so-called developing countries are considered ‘commodities’ in offer in the global economy as emerging markets or for foreign investment. Countries need to show they are potentially highly competitive with low risk. The value of country characteristics is set by globalised managerial discourses, based on postcolonial ideologies that rate cultures and societies in terms of linear notions of progress and civilisation. Cultures and behaviours are judged positively or negatively according to the position countries supposedly have in the evolution of world society. In this framework one element that countries need to eradicate or reduce in order to be seen as ‘attractive’ is corruption. Towards this aim international and national government and non-government organisations have put in place anti-corruption campaigns. In communications with the general public, these schemes represent actors and acts of corruption through discursive strategies that characterize world cultures and their links with corruption in terms of postcolonial ideologies. In this paper I focus on the implications of the metaphor ‘culture of corruption’ for rating countries, questioning its effectiveness in anti-corruption campaigns. I argue that anti-corruption instruments based on postcolonial ideologies corrupt representations of national cultures and peoples behaviours, instead of targeting local and global sectors that gain from institutionalised corruption. Through the analysis of anti-corruption cultural texts publicly available in Mexico I illustrate how the ideological misrepresentation of corruption fails its stated aim, to transform a ‘culture of corruption’ into a ‘culture of legality’.
Many countries do not have the facilities necessary to process their nuclear waste. They have to export it to another country with suitable facilities. Some countries in Europe both export their own waste and import other peoples. This situation is described with details of facilities available and current practices of who sends what where. The problem of nuclear waste processing and disposal has led to corruption and widespread malpractice, in particular in West Germany and Belgium. Although not involved with these scandals Britain will receive large amounts of spent nuclear fuel once the THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant) is ready at BNFL's site at Sellafield. Britain will then have to deal with companies and countries whose record on the transportation of nuclear waste is bad. (U.K.)
Review of the monograph “Corruption: nature, revelation, interaction” / editor-in-chief Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences T. Ya. Khabrieva. Мoscow: “Yurisprudentsiya” Publishers, 2014, 688 p.
Sergey F. Milyukov
Full Text Available The review presents the authorsrsquo opinion of the monograph ldquoCorruption nature revelation interactionrdquo editorinchief Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences T. Ya. Khabrieva. Selected chapters and paragraphs are reviewed and analyzed. The authors note both positive and negative sides of the monograph. The concept of corruption as a social phenomenon is discussed as well as the need to implement international norms in national legislation the legal framework for combating corruption in Russia the activities of the various institutions to fight against corruption combating corruption in state and municipal service ways of overcoming the corruption potential of legal acts impact of corruption on business and methods of combating corruption abroad. The team of authors including a large number of wellknown scientists and politicians S. B. Ivanov S. B. Naryshkin S. V. Stepashin Yu. A. Tikhomirov A. V. Fedorov T. Ya. Khabrieva etc. view corruption as a social phenomenon highlight the issues of international cooperation on corruption issues give a detailed review of legislation including international on combating corruption and name individual institutions to counteract this dangerous phenomenon. Special chapters are devoted to corruption in the system of state and municipal service and corruption in the business sector. Detailed attention in a separate chapter is given to the institution of anticorruption expertise. nbsp
Lech, Marcel Lysgaard
That Cock-fighting was extremely popular the ancient Greece, is clearly showed by the numerous depictions on vases and its symbolic and metaphorical range among the language of the Athenians. Greek comedy exploits and expands the metaphorical use of cock-fighting in both the linguistic and the pe...
The article qualifies the nature of psychosociological perspective in analysing corruption in organizations. Corruption is analysed as a mental event and social conditions of corruption are investigated. In particular six social and organizational factors are identified as relevant in determining the diffusion of corruption: meaning, work wellbeing, consistency, social recognition, reflexivity, social relations. The main hypothesis explored in the article is that to take managerial care of the organisational factors above mentioned is a strong and active prevention of the risk of corruption.
Hatti, Neelambar; Hoadley, Mason
An actor perspective within a moralistic approach to corruption in india and Southeast Asia contrasts to a (Weberian) institutional one. This emphasizes local values which help explain apparent lack of social constraints to everyday corrupt practices as bribery. In Karnataka the approach indicates that status and power within one’s own community gained by amassing wealth however acquired overrides morality; overstepping moral taboos can easily be rectified through an appropriate ritual. In po...
Juan J. Ganuza; Esther Hauk
We study the link between corruption and economic integration. We show that if an economic union establishes a common regulation for public procurement, the country more prone to corruption benefits more from integration. However, if the propensities to corruption are too distinct, the less corrupt country will not be willing to join the union. This difference in corruption propensities can be offset by a difference in efficiency. We also show that corruption is lower if integration occurs. A...
Full Text Available Fighting public-sector corruption has become a priority for most governments and international organizations. The public sector is the source of many benefits. Realizing improper private gains from these benefits has long been the core definition of corruption. As the public sector grows and expands its activities, the complexity of its activities also increases. The opportunities for improper private gains grow, too. Therefore, not surprisingly, the EU admits that the public sector, including political parties and public administrations, are especially vulnerable to corruption. Political parties, for instance, depend on the funding destined for their capability to win elections and otherwise to influence public policies. In turn, this dependency creates opportunities for a variety of corrupt activities. Ensuring that campaign funding promotes democracy and not corruption requires well-crafted, vigorously enforced laws. This article analyzes the legal framework of political party financing in the Eastern and South-eastern European EU member states, in order to assess how well it works in preventing political party corruption.
Full Text Available The need to fight corruption, with the focus on official corruption in Kosovo continues to be addressed by both national and international reports. The objective of this paper is to find out the number of the cases and analyse the sactions against official corruption and other offences against official duty delivered by Municipality Courts in Kosovo during the period 2008-2015 with the aim to assess the developments during a period of eight years since most of the other researches are focused on annual performance of the courts. All data presented in this article are taken from the Kosovo Statistical Office and include statistical information on the types and frequency of criminal sanctions to perpetrators of the official corruption and other offences against official duty. Case study is also applied to analyse some court judgments. The study shows there is a slight incresase of the number of convicted perpetrators over years, the number of corruption cases addressed by the courts remained very limited, followed by low sentences or even prescription of cases. The findings will add additional scientific insights to the existing knowledge about preventing and fighting official corruption and it can be useful for scholars, policy makers and practitioners in Kosovo.
Full Text Available Corruption is a universal problem that is taking place all over the world, either in developed countries or developing or under developing countries. It is caused by some issues such as poorly designed economic policies, low levels of education, underdeveloped civil society, and the weak accountability of public institution. Those causes of corruption can be separated in some different types of corruption. The types are bureaucratic corruption, political corruption, grand corruption, and common corruption. In terms of tackling some problems of corruption, there are so many things to do including international law commitment. Some international law commitment can be seen like OAS Convention, OECD’s anti-bribery Convention, the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and the United Nation Convention against Corruption (UNCAC. Those laws must be analyzed not only in context of substantive of those laws but also how they are implemented in state practices.
Vuković Slobodan V.
Full Text Available Corruption is old almost as human societies and it was developed simultaneously with enlargement of social and political power, bureaucracy and involvement of the state into market transactions. Specific conditions that are characteristic of Serbian society and that have favorably influenced the growth of corruption are: dissolution/break up of Yugoslavia war in surroundings, economic sanctions and NATO bombing. Besides these basic causes of corruption in Serbia are state control over the economy, lack of the rule of law, and breakdown of social values, that is, anomy and poverty. The lack of the rule of law and the state control of economy, which often occur together, are older conditions, while distorted social values, that is, moral crisis and poverty are newer. Subordination of judicial system to the executive authorities enabled different sorts of bribe and corruption to be tolerated. Therefore, the corruption has spread and became contemporary method of conducting business and almost a common thing, regardless of the party composition of the authorities. This thesis is confirmed by the empirical data: 17.9% of citizens claim that all local officials and corrupted and 48.4% claim that majority of them are. On the other side, only 27.5% of citizens claim that local party officials (all of them or majority accept bribe, and 31.1% claim that only some do. Therefore, we are faced with higher interest in political engagement, because it is becoming a highly profitable occupation and posts in local government are highly appreciated because corruption profit is calculated in advance.
Ajeng Tri Wahyuni
Full Text Available Toward a Progressive Public Prosecutor’s Office: a Study on Investigation, Prosecution and Adjudication of Criminal Acts of Corruption (The Book is one of the reliable resources in capturing the real picture of Indonesian Law Enforcement Institution–namely Attorney General Offices (AGO– for its centralistic bureaucracy nature. Written by Dr. Yudi Kristiana, S.H., M.Hum. (Yudi, the idea of The Book came in reaction to ‘the-never-ending’ corruption phenomenon, its massive impacts and the underlying problems to eradicate corruption. Choosing one of the important stake holder to fight corruption, The Book is providing several reasons why the AGO seems not fully-functioned and successful in serving the justice for the state. The (allegedly fault mainly lies upon AGO’s conventional case-handling methods, which in general is bureaucratic and centralistic and adopts hierarchical accountability and the command system.
HULPUŞ IOANA ALEXANDRA
Full Text Available The current demands require an increased responsibility of the judicial institutions that must meet quality requirements in accordance with European standards, legislative progress and not least the expectations and needs of the customer of justice. In this context, the quality of courts should include the guiding principles of justice among which ethical behavior is paramount. The research aims to demonstrate the role of ethics in the current context, to highlight the link between quality and ethics, and formulate proposals on corruption regarded as unethical behavior. Besides analyzing the definitions and legislation on corruption, the article emphasizes the role of managers in the fight against this scourge. Stressing that coercive measures are not enough to eradicate corruption, we try to highlight the important role of the leadership of courts in quality planning by promoting ethical values, in creating and maintaining an organizational culture based on quality and ethics, in identifying preventive measures in the fight against corruption. Without the involvement of management and adopting a proactive behavior without constant communication with staff on ethical and unethical, legal regulations in the field will have a limited effect.
Full Text Available Corruption still subsists as one of the greatest challenges facing Nigeria. The existence of this phenomenon in virtually all aspects of the nation’s socio-economic life is said to be one reason why poverty level remains high irrespective of her position as the six highest suppliers of oil to the whole wide world, and a possessor of numerous other human and natural resources. A recent attempt by the Federal Government of Nigeria to curb this societal ill led to the establishment of Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC, the Independent Corrupt Practices & Related Offences Commission (ICPC among others bodies. This paper historically explores the anti-corruption war in Nigeria and specifically zeros itself to review EFCC’s role in this war. The methodology adopted in this paper is the narrative-textual case study (NTCS, a research method that sources the required quantitative and qualitative secondary data on the phenomenon of study from secondary sources like the internet, World Wide Web, online databases, e-libraries et cetera. On the strength of the qualitative data sourced, it was discovered that the agency has made some successes but is being hindered by political, administrative and judicial bureaucracy from efficient performance. The paper therefore boldly recommends that transparency be enshrined into all aspect Nigerian political and administrative life and extant anti-graft laws be reviewed, harmonized and strengthened to enhance the effectiveness of fight against corruption and breach of corporate governance ethics by those holding political and non-political positions in Nigeria.
Kodila-Tedika, Oasis; Azia-Dimbu, Florentin; Kalemasi-Mosengo, Cedrick
This paper aims at identifying the effects of divorce alongside on corruption controlling. We find no significant effect of divorce on corruption. The same conclusion is found in cross-section and panel data.
Jensen, Nathan M.; Rahman, Aminur
Research on the economic consequences of corruption has been hampered by the inability to directly measure corruption. Using an innovative methodology that allows respondents to report individual experiences with corruption while minimizing self-incrimination and an objective diagnostic to evaluate lying (false responses), this paper explores the extent of business corruption in Bangladesh...
Rosas, Guillermo; Manzetti, Luigi
This is a guest post by Guillermo Rosas and Luigi Manzetti. It summarizes their recent paper, ‘Reassessing the trade-off hypothesis: How misery drives the corruption effect on presidential approval’ that was published in Electoral Studies, Volume 39, September 2015, pp. 26–38.......This is a guest post by Guillermo Rosas and Luigi Manzetti. It summarizes their recent paper, ‘Reassessing the trade-off hypothesis: How misery drives the corruption effect on presidential approval’ that was published in Electoral Studies, Volume 39, September 2015, pp. 26–38....
The economic crunch created a specific context for activity and profitability failing. The corruption is more and more common in our days. In the same time, the amount of money lost by businesses and the public sector to larger frauds increased last year to unthinkable limits. The shareholders expect the directors to take care to protect their company’s assets. This is why the financial controller has a very important role in each organization. The techniques to detect corruption or a fraud a...
Barkemeyer, Ralf; Preuss, Lutz; Lee, Lindsay
Building on an institutionalist framework of the various organizational field-level pressures on firms to engage with the challenge of corruption, we analyse anti-corruption disclosures across a sample of 933 sustainability reports. Such reporting complements anti-corruption initiatives, as it allows the company to demonstrate its commitment. Our results show clear country- and sector-level differences in the extent to which companies communicate their anti-corruption engagement. However, the...
Alexander W. Butler; Larry Fauver; Sandra Mortal
We show that state corruption and political connections have strong effects on municipal bond sales and underwriting. Higher state corruption is associated with greater credit risk and higher bond yields. Corrupt states can eliminate the corruption yield penalty by purchasing credit enhancements. Underwriting fees were significantly higher during an era when underwriters made political contributions to win underwriting business. This pay-to-play underwriting fee premium exists only for negoti...
Anna A. Ivanova
Full Text Available Objective to present the author39s concept of the victimological aspect of corruption crime. Methods dialectical method of cognition mainly the systemic approach analysis. Results the article discusses the concept of corruption deal as an unlawful act statutory offence bribery and subornation law abuse by the authorized entity. The illegal most common and manipulative types of corruption deals and their mechanisms are defined as well as the ways of their implementation which include mutually beneficial bilateral trade extortion and initiative active bribery. The diverse negative effects of corruption on the legal relationships are proved. The danger of the crime deal is shown as the factor of corrupt behavior and active means of formation of corruption networks which increases victimogenity of corruption acts doing harm not only to physical but also legal entities. In accordance with this the point of view supported and proved that it is necessary to expand the notion of victim of corruption offences to legal persons. The conclusion is made about the feasibility of a legal assessment of corruption deals as a qualifying feature of a criminal offense. Scientific novelty the article justifies the author39s position in relation to an assessment of corruption victimization of the deal victimological characteristic of a corrupt deals victim are given critical analysis of basic victimological concepts is made to identify the potential corrupt deals victims and ensure victim safety. Practical significance the idea is expressed of reorienting public consciousness views on corruption as a way of solving problems of changing tolerance to corruption due to which the legal subjects become victims of corrupt deals of amending the anticorruption policies towards more careful attention to the protection of the legal relations subjects against the corruption threat. nbsp
Wang, Y.; You, J.
Corruption is one of the most pervasive obstacles to economic and social development. However, in the existing literature it appears that corruption seems to be less harmful in some countries than in others. The most striking examples are well known as the "East Asian paradox": countries displaying exceptional growth records despite having thriving corruption cultures. The aim of this paper is to explain the high corruption but fast economic growth puzzle in China by providing firm-level evid...
Lennerfors, Thomas Taro
In a time when corruption is receiving increasing media coverage and when many claim to wage a war on corruption, this book brings up the need for a problematisation and an increased understanding of the different manifestations – the vicissitudes – of corruption and also what measures are taken against it. The book advances the claim that corruption is tightly related to modernity and particularly to a transgression of the public / private dichotomy. It furthermore explores ancient, postmode...
Graf Lambsdorff, Johann
Recent empirical studies claim that, in addition to levels of corruption, investors are deterred by its unpredictability. I claim instead that it is petty corruption that deters investors. I employ seven subcomponents of corruption for a sample of 102 countries that appear in the 2003 Global Competitiveness Report of the WEF. The second principal component of this data depicts a grand, political type, embracing corruption in government policymaking and in judicial decisions as opposed to corr...
Jayoti Das; Cassandra DiRienzo
Some researchers have argued that globalization has increased the opportunity for corrupt practices, while others state that globalization has lead to a decrease in corruption as countries wishing to join the global economy must comply with international anti-corruption rules and regulations. This study empirically explores this paradox using the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) and the Konjunkturforschungsstelle (KOF) globalization Index. The results suggest that a nonlinear relationship e...
Corruption makes budget support ineffective, and sometimes counter-productive. Budget support is particularly unsuitable in partner countries where political corruption is rampant. As donors increase budget support, it is a paradox that corruption is not more of an issue in evaluations and public financial management assessment methods.
Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym
Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable. Nations can even be arranged along a hierarchy by the degree to which they are…
The results of the 2010 Corruption Perceptions Index of Transparency International indicate the seriousness of the worldwide corruption problem. Although recent decades have witnessed a global public awareness and an increase in attempts to eradicate corruption, it is an ongoing problem. It is evident that legislation is ...
Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.
This article explores the phenomenon of corruption that has become common in higher education in developing countries around the world. Cases of educational corruption include, among others, paying bribes for grades, buying diplomas, and admissions to universities. An available body of literature on educational corruption does not provide…
One of the new avenues in the study of political corruption is that of neo-institutional economics, of which the principal-agent theory is a part. In this article a principal-agent model of corruption is presented, in which there are two principals (one of which is corrupting), and one agent (who is
Abramov Fedir V.
The article is aimed at determining the efficiency of repressive anti-corruption measures in conditions of high-level corruption. It is shown that the formal rules regulating the use of repressive methods of countering corruption are characterized by a significant level of the target inefficiency of formal rules. Resulting from ignorance as to the causes of both occurence and spread of corruption – the inefficiency of the current formal rules – repressive anti-corruption measures are fundamen...
Panaitescu, M.; Panaitescu, F. V.; Voicu, I.; Dumitrescu, L. G.
The paper presents a case study for a crisis management analysis which address to fire fighting plants. The procedures include the steps of FTA (Failure tree analysis). The purpose of the present paper is to describe this crisis management plan with tools of FTA. The crisis management procedures have applicability on anticipated and emergency situations and help to describe and planning a worst-case scenario plan. For this issue must calculate the probabilities in different situations for fire fighting plants. In the conclusions of paper is analised the block diagram with components of fire fighting plant and are presented the solutions for each possible risk situations.
Mackey, Tim K; Kohler, Jillian; Lewis, Maureen; Vian, Taryn
Corruption is a critical challenge to global health efforts, and combating it requires international action, advocacy, and research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
This paper introduces ‘harassment’ in a model of bribery and corruption. We characterize the harassment equilibrium and show that taxpayers, with all possible levels of income, participate in such equilibrium. Harassment has a regressive bias. Harassment costs as such may not affect tax revenue.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of provincial corruption on the performance of local development bank, specifically to the profitability and credit quality. We use the data of 26 local development banks in 2012 and 2013. For the provincial corruption measurement we use “Public Institution Openness Index”. Results of this study are first, corruption significantly has a negative effect on the profitability of local development bank. Second, corruption doesn’t affect the credit quality of local development bank. These results are expected to enrich the within country corruption effect to the economic studies, particularly to the local development bank which is infrequently investigated.
Köbis, Nils C; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A M
Major forms of corruption constitute a strong threat to the functioning of societies. The most frequent explanation of how severe corruption emerges is the slippery-slope metaphor-the notion that corruption occurs gradually. While having widespread theoretical and intuitive appeal, this notion has barely been tested empirically. We used a recently developed paradigm to test whether severely corrupt acts happen gradually or abruptly. The results of four experimental studies revealed a higher likelihood of severe corruption when participants were directly given the opportunity to engage in it (abrupt) compared with when they had previously engaged in minor forms of corruption (gradual). Neither the size of the payoffs, which we kept constant, nor evaluations of the actions could account for these differences. Contrary to widely shared beliefs, sometimes the route to corruption leads over a steep cliff rather than a slippery slope.
Full Text Available The war against corruption should not only by exposing the various cases of corruption, but the most important thing is to punish the corrupt in an extraordinary way to have a deterrent effect and not replicable by potential criminals that have been queued. Corruption is more structured and systematic, from the center to the regions. In fact, gave birth to a new generation of fat accounts with the discovery of a number of civil servants who are still young. Stop the robbery of money the state cannot just with rhetoric, let alone just a call that seemed hot chicken droppings. Blurred portrait of corruption is characterized by a large number of cases the defendant is acquitted of corruption Anticorruption Court. Similarly, many major cases involving alleged power elite and the ruling political party that is not completed, such as the Bank Century case, the case Hambalang project, as well as allegations of corruption Pensions SEA Games athletes
Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Landes, Xavier
Status inequalities seem to play a fairly big role in creating inequalities in health. This article assumes that there can be good reasons to fight status inequalities in order to reduce inequalities in health. It examines whether the neorepublican ideal of non-dominance does a better job as a th...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 2. Flavonoids Fight Diseases. G Nagendrappa. Article-in-a-Box Volume 9 Issue 2 February 2004 pp 5-5. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/02/0005-0005. Author Affiliations.
Abramov Fedir V.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at determining the efficiency of repressive anti-corruption measures in conditions of high-level corruption. It is shown that the formal rules regulating the use of repressive methods of countering corruption are characterized by a significant level of the target inefficiency of formal rules. Resulting from ignorance as to the causes of both occurence and spread of corruption – the inefficiency of the current formal rules – repressive anti-corruption measures are fundamentally incapable of achieving a significant reduction in the level of corruptness. It has been proved that, in addition to significant target inefficiency, repressive anti-corruption methods can potentially lead to increased levels of corruption because of abusing by supervisory officials of their official duties and the spread of internal corruption within anti-corruption structures. The potential threats from the uncontrolled anti-corruption structures towards other controlling organizations were considered. It is shown that in conditions of high-level corruption repressive anti-corruption measures can lead to expansion of imitation of anti-corruption activity.
Leonid A. Zhigun
Full Text Available Objective to determine the specific forms of corruption and promising methods to counteract corruption in network trade. Methods the combination of inductive observations comparisons generalizations facts and trends of corruption in network trade with a logical analytical deduction of economic theories and the corruption concept are the basis of the study and provide an opportunity on the one hand to assess the level of compliance of theoretical concepts of corruption with the practice and on the other handnbsp to determine their applicability to organize opposition and create conditions to prevent its occurrence to summarize the features of corruption in the form of a kickback the discourse method was applied in this work. Results on the basis of theoretical provisions and facts of corruption in trade it is proved that it has typical characteristics of corruption in commercial and nonprofit organizations. The key reasons are identified why corruption occurs in trade. Among them supply of poor quality goods at inflated prices leading to bribery in the form of laquopersonal bonusraquo to administrator of the trading organization when selling goods by an unscrupulous supplier and also supply goods to the trade organizations which will not buy without kickback. Most of these corrupt deals are carried out by natural monopolies in the form of state and municipal procurement. In some cases the kickback is the argument stimulating the decision to introduce new and advanced technologies. The factors that lead to corruption in trade are listed and reasonable methods to counteract it are grounded allowing to create conditions for its eradication in other branches of business as well. Scientific novelty for the first time a generalization has been made about the deficit as the driving force in the mechanism when the bribegivers and bribetakers change places. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the
Natasha Georgieva Hadzi Krsteski
Full Text Available The business corruption is established and active in the circle of the businesses partners that express a gratitude, return a service or bribes (apart from ordinary price for a business transfer to be provided. Those prohibited transfers differs from the usual business transfers, such as activities related to marketing and public relations where they have a specific goal to use illegal means in order to infringe the recipients` identity of prohibited value in an interchange for a inducement. That is a procedure of enticement, which prevents the useful instruments in the permitted bazaar and not solitary that it is harmful for the businesses whose representatives accept bribe, however it is also harmful for the civilisation as an entire. The occurrence of business corruption is intended as a amount of companies that presented cash, a gratitude or a service in return, in adding to every usual deal of any person who is working for a business entity from the private sector in any capacity, including the one through a mediator, happening to at minimum single juncture in the past 12 months previous to this research. The usual commonness of the business-to-corruption in the Republic of Macedonia is 3% compared to 4% at a regional level. While it is fewer than the regular pervasiveness of salaried briberies by enterprises to civic bureaucrats, this discovery designates that bribery in the secluded segment is a difficult in the Republic of Macedonia.
Osipian, Ararat L.
Corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. Forms of corruption are multiple. Measuring corruption is necessary not only for getting ideas about the scale and scope of the problem, but for making simple comparisons between the countries and conducting comparative analysis of corruption. While the total impact of corruption is indeed…
Full Text Available There are many studies that look into the relationship between public debt and economic growth. It is hard to find, however, research addressing the role of corruption between these two variables. Noticing this vacancy in current literature, we strive to investigate the effect of corruption on the relationship between public debt and economic growth. For this purpose, the pooled ordinary least squares (OLS, fixed effects models and the dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM models (Arellano-Bond, 1991 are estimated with data of 77 countries from 1990 to 2014. The empirical results show that the interaction term between public debt and corruption is statistically significant. This confirms the hypothesis that the effect of public debt on economic growth is a function of corruption. The sign of the marginal effect is negative in corrupt countries, but public debt enhances economic growth within countries that are not corrupt, i.e., highly transparent.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to explore economic effects of corruption in judiciary. The examination included the analysis of economic features of judiciary and economic mechanisms of corruption in judiciary within the theoretical framework of Backer's model of criminal behavior. The analysis demonstrates that corruption in judiciary violates the rule of law, hence undermines the fundaments of market economy and specialization, i.e. social division of labor as the ground for improving economic efficiency. As to the static economic efficiency, the most important effect of corruption in judiciary is transaction costs that are generated and the consequent allocative inefficiency. As to the dynamic economic efficiency, corruption decreases economic growth rates and reallocates recourses from productive to distributive activities. The effects of corruption in judiciary to economic inequality are not significant, particularly not comparing with the already identified effects to the economic efficiency.
Full Text Available Corruption in bank lending can seriously adversely affect credit allocation. Besides banking factors, national culture can also affect the corruption of bank officials. Prior studies have shown that collectivism increases bank corruption. This paper aims to assess the effects of cultural dimensions, besides collectivism, on the corruption of bank officials. Instead of using Hofstede's cultural data, this paper uses the data from the GLOBE project which is more recent and reports more cultural dimensions than Hofstede’s. Using the data covering more than 3000 firms in 32 countries, this paper finds that humane orientation increases the corruption of bank officials. The effect of humane orientation on the corruption of bank officials is not only statistically significant but also economically relevant. The magnitude of its effect is relatively comparable to that of collectivism.
Gaitonde, Rakhal; Oxman, Andrew D; Okebukola, Peter O; Rada, Gabriel
doctors from accepting any form of benefits from the pharmaceutical industry may improve doctors' attitudes about the influence of pharmaceutical companies on their choice of medicines (low certainty of the evidence). A study in the USA, evaluated the effects of introducing a law that required pharmaceutical companies to report the gifts they gave to healthcare workers. Another study in the USA evaluated the effects of a variety of internal control mechanisms used by community health centres to stop corruption. The effects of these strategies is unclear because the evidence was of very low certainty. Authors' conclusions There is a paucity of evidence regarding how best to reduce corruption. Promising interventions include improvements in the detection and punishment of corruption, especially efforts that are coordinated by an independent agency. Other promising interventions include guidelines that prohibit doctors from accepting benefits from the pharmaceutical industry, internal control practices in community health centres, and increased transparency and accountability for co-payments combined with reduced incentives for informal payments. The extent to which increased transparency alone reduces corruption is uncertain. There is a need to monitor and evaluate the impacts of all interventions to reduce corruption, including their potential adverse effects. Interventions to reduce corruption in the health sector What is the aim of this review? The aim of this Cochrane review is to assess the effectiveness of strategies to reduce corruption in the health sector. Cochrane researchers searched for all potentially relevant studies, and found nine studies that met their criteria. Key messages The review suggests that some strategies to fight corruption in the health sector can have an effect on corruption. These strategies include the use of independent agencies to investigate and punish corruption, telling healthcare workers that they are not allowed to accept payments from
Corruption is morally condemnable but what about its economical effect on the efficiency of on economy? Different transmission channels positively and negatively correlated with growth exist. The aim of this work is to catch the overall reality behind this impressively high number of transmission channels. Another task is to show the concrete consequences of corruption on a little economy like Haïti and what could be the consequences of the weaknesses induced by corruption. A presentation of ...
Dong, Bin; Torgler, Benno
This paper presents theoretical and empirical evidence on the nexus between corruption and democracy. We establish a political economy model where the effect of democracy on corruption is conditional on income distribution and property rights protection. Our empirical analysis with cross-national panel data provides evidence that is consistent with the theoretical prediction. Moreover, the effect of democratization on corruption depends on the protection of property rights and income equality...
Jellal, Mohamed; Bouzahzah, Mohamed
Under Principal-Agent-Supervisor paradigm, we examine in this paper how a tax collection agency changes optimal schemes in order to lessen the occurrence of corruption between the tax collector and the taxpayer. Indeed, the Principal, who maximizes the expected net fiscal revenue, reacts by decreasing tax rates when the supervisor is likely to engage in corrupt transaction with taxpayer. Therefore, the optimal policy against collusion and corruption may explain the rational of the greater rel...
Firms may evade taxes on profits and can also avoid fulfilling legal restrictions on production activities by bribing bureaucrats. It is shown that the existence of tax evasion does not affect corruption activities at the firm level, while the budgetary repercussions of tax evasion induce less corruption. Policy measures which alter the gains or losses from corruption have a non-systematic impact on tax evasion behaviour.
This dissertation contains four separate studies in the fields of corruption and cooperation. The first chapter explicates the mechanism that links the fractionalization of society with its level of corruption within a theoretical model of relational contracting. The other three chapters describe experimental studies. The second and third chapters evaluate two popular anti-corruption policies, the ‘Four-Eyes-Principle’ and ‘Whistle- Blowing’, with respect to their effectiveness in decreasing ...
Ghulam Nabi Naz
After independence, the popular belief that Gandhian will not indulge in corruption got a setback, post-independence setup paved the way for heavy corruption. The menace which would have dealt with strong legal provisions has become a way of life of Indian society. Corruption is recognized as the single biggest problem facing the country today. It undermines democracy and rule of law, violates human rights, distorts market and corrodes the moral fibre of people. The paper discusses the causes...
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the main manifestations of corruption in the states of Eastern Europe, and, first of all, in Ukraine, which since 2014 has been actively carrying out multiple anti-corruption transformations, although the state is becoming increasingly corrupt every year. The author defines the main groups of manifestations of corruption and analyzes their constituent elements, in the light of which, delineates such categories as "gratitude", bribe, and corruption "gratitude". Particular attention is paid to the study of corruption intercession, which unites nepotism, cronyism and corruption lobbying. It is noted that to date nepotism is essentially supplanted by the rabble, which is the advantage of "privatization" of the state in the light of the clan capitalism. It is concluded that bribery and deviant intercession (corruption protection, as the main manifestations of corruption, the facts that corruption behavior is life-affirming security and protective actions of people, to which they resort, on the one hand, because of the insolvency of the state and society, but, on the other hand, to optimize the achievement of the good that is provided by the state and society, however, in an improper way. Meanwhile, if the discrepancy measures and methods of granting the benefits of state benefits (i.e., on average, the measure and method is applicable, then ignoring the state provision of certain goods as such (i.e., they can be provided only in the corruption plane - this phenomenon is completely objective. On this basis, it is argued that the policy of counteracting corrupt practices in the state should focus, first of all, on the solution of such problems and objective problems, the refusal to account, which will lead to further criminalization of the society, which is observed, in particular, in modern Ukraine.
In this paper we start with a discussion of some of the different denotations of the problem of corruption. We then consider the ways in which the damaging consequences of corruption operate in a developing economy, while not ignoring its possible redeeming features in some cases. We pursue the question of why corruption is perceptibly so different in different societies and also persistent. Finally, we examine the feasible policy issues that arise in this context.
Smith, Daniel Jordan
Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Article is devoted to determination of starting conceptual positions of a concept and signs of corruption. In article it is noted that qualification of this type of crimes is rather difficult. To a basis of a corruption crime the illegal transaction having criminal character constitutes. The government employee, having the rights and obligations of the government employee, he sells to other persons that he by right doesn’t belong to it. The corruption crime becomes result of this transaction. It always has mercenary character and is made for the sake of receipt of benefit of property nature. Corruption in the state has system nature.
Full Text Available Corruption is widely overspread phenomenon in all transition countries. In this sense Serbia is not exception, on the contrary, it was always highly ranked in all corruption indices of Transparency International. Among social areas which are considered as saturated with corruption highly ranked is the field of university education. In order to check justification of such perceptions, we have conducted a survey among Belgrade University employees. The findings confirmed that there exist corruption in high education on one side and that there is not too much readiness of employees to oppose it, if not to tear it out, than at least to diminish it.
Weisel, Ori; Shalvi, Shaul
Cooperation is essential for completing tasks that individuals cannot accomplish alone. Whereas the benefits of cooperation are clear, little is known about its possible negative aspects. Introducing a novel sequential dyadic die-rolling paradigm, we show that collaborative settings provide fertile ground for the emergence of corruption. In the main experimental treatment the outcomes of the two players are perfectly aligned. Player A privately rolls a die, reports the result to player B, who then privately rolls and reports the result as well. Both players are paid the value of the reports if, and only if, they are identical (e.g., if both report 6, each earns €6). Because rolls are truly private, players can inflate their profit by misreporting the actual outcomes. Indeed, the proportion of reported doubles was 489% higher than the expected proportion assuming honesty, 48% higher than when individuals rolled and reported alone, and 96% higher than when lies only benefited the other player. Breaking the alignment in payoffs between player A and player B reduced the extent of brazen lying. Despite player B's central role in determining whether a double was reported, modifying the incentive structure of either player A or player B had nearly identical effects on the frequency of reported doubles. Our results highlight the role of collaboration-particularly on equal terms-in shaping corruption. These findings fit a functional perspective on morality. When facing opposing moral sentiments-to be honest vs. to join forces in collaboration-people often opt for engaging in corrupt collaboration.
Weisel, Ori; Shalvi, Shaul
Cooperation is essential for completing tasks that individuals cannot accomplish alone. Whereas the benefits of cooperation are clear, little is known about its possible negative aspects. Introducing a novel sequential dyadic die-rolling paradigm, we show that collaborative settings provide fertile ground for the emergence of corruption. In the main experimental treatment the outcomes of the two players are perfectly aligned. Player A privately rolls a die, reports the result to player B, who then privately rolls and reports the result as well. Both players are paid the value of the reports if, and only if, they are identical (e.g., if both report 6, each earns €6). Because rolls are truly private, players can inflate their profit by misreporting the actual outcomes. Indeed, the proportion of reported doubles was 489% higher than the expected proportion assuming honesty, 48% higher than when individuals rolled and reported alone, and 96% higher than when lies only benefited the other player. Breaking the alignment in payoffs between player A and player B reduced the extent of brazen lying. Despite player B's central role in determining whether a double was reported, modifying the incentive structure of either player A or player B had nearly identical effects on the frequency of reported doubles. Our results highlight the role of collaboration—particularly on equal terms—in shaping corruption. These findings fit a functional perspective on morality. When facing opposing moral sentiments—to be honest vs. to join forces in collaboration—people often opt for engaging in corrupt collaboration. PMID:26261341
In this article, we analyze the behavior of three objective measures of corruption: absolute corruption incidence, relative corruption incidence, and corruption rents. We present a theoretical model of bribery and investment in which these measures of corruption are defined and compared. We then study the changes that arise when key parameters of the model change and show that, under identical circumstances, the behavior of any particular corruption measure can differ completely from the beha...
Full Text Available This paper aims to establish how organization and management research, an extensive field that has contributed a great deal to research on corruption, could apply insights from other disciplines in order to advance the understanding of corruption, often considered as a form of unethical behavior in organizations. It offers an analysis of important contributions of corruption research, taking a ‘rationalist perspective’, and highlights the central tensions and debates within this vast body of literatures. It then shows how these debates can be addressed by applying insights from corruption studies, adopting anthropological lens. The paper thus proposes a cross-disciplinary approach, which focuses on studying corruption by looking at what it means to individuals implicated by the phenomenon while engaging in social relations and situated in different contexts. It also offers an alternative approach to the study of corruption amidst claims that anti-corruption efforts have failed to achieve desirable results.
Gupta, A.; Siebert, U.
This article describes the strategies and activities of the Forest Integrity Network. One of the most important underlying causes of forest degradation is corruption and related illegal logging. The Forest Integrity Network is a timely new initiative to combat forest corruption. Its approach is to
Ivanov, Alexei; Bogun, Ivan
The article reviews issues of corruption and political crisis in Ukraine in the context of international organisations reports that estimate corruption levels and entrepreneurial climate worldwide. The article examines countries of the European Union and member states of the Customs Union, asseses the political crisis in Ukraine.
This article describes an incident involving twelve teachers at Anhui Haozhou Normal Junior College who used purchased dissertations to apply for professional titles over three consecutive years. Academic corruption is not merely today's problem, and the academic corruption at the institutions of higher learning that the author discloses in this…
Full Text Available According to recent conceptual proposals, institutional corruption should be understood within the boundaries of the institution and its purpose. Political corruption in democracies, prominent scholars suggest, is characterized by the violation of institutional ideals or behaviors that tend to harm democratic processes and institutions. This paper rejects the idea that compromises, preferences, political agreements, or consent can be the baseline of conceptualization of political corruption. In order to improve the identification of abuse of power, the concept of political corruption should not be related directly to democratic institutions and processes; rather, it should be related to ideals whose content is independent of citizens’ preferences, institutions and processes. More specifically, I articulate the relations between political corruption and the notion of subjection, and include powerful citizens in the category of political corruption. Yet, I also suggest redefining under what conditions agents are culpable for their motivations in promoting private gain. By doing this, we better realize how democratic institutions can be the source of corruption and not just its victims. Such a redefinition, I propose finally, is the basis for the distinction between individual and institutional corruption.
The Court's approach and these apparent requirements are compared with current provisions for political 'independence' of anti-corruption agencies in Australia and Indonesia, raising, in particular, an assessment of the arguments for and against (a) the need for an anti-corruption investigative agency to be separate from ...
Glaser, Daniel; Fry, Lincoln J.
Qualitative study of New Jersey State Prison (Sykes, 1956) concluded that authority of guards was corrupted by inmates. This study analyzed quantitative and qualitative research from three California prisons which supports Sykes' conclusion and agrees that reciprocity and default are factors in the corruption. (Author/NB)
Full Text Available This paper presents a conception of corruption informed by epistemic democratic theory. I first explain the view of corruption as a disease of the political body. Following this view, we have to consider the type of actions that debase a political entity of its constitutive principal in order to assess corruption. Accordingly, we need to consider what the constitutive principle of democracy is. This is the task I undertake in the second section where I explicate democratic legitimacy. I present democracy as a procedure of social inquiry about what ought to be done that includes epistemic and practical considerations. In the third section, I argue that the problem of corruption for a procedural conception of democracy is that the epistemic value of the procedure is diminished by corrupted agents’ lack of concern for truth. Corruption, according to this view, consists in two deformities of truth: lying and bullshit. These deformities corrupt since they conceal private interests under the guise of a concern for truth. In the fourth section, I discuss the difficulties a procedural account may face in formulating solutions to the problem of corruption.
de Graaf, G.; von Maravić, P.; Wagenaar, F.P.
From conceptualization to ideas on practical policy recommendations, The Good Cause presents a state-of-the-art study on the causes of corruption. A cohort of internationally-recognized researchers from the various academic fields that study corruption come together to explain their different
Full Text Available The author discusses corruption as a primarily socio-economic construction. This paper tests the hypothesis of corruption as a systemic problem. The system is (economic, political, legal the main source of corruption. There are, regarding to this, the system generators of corruption: state, property and market. They are the key institutions of society that are placed in a destructive political system, create corruption, which undermines the economic, political, legal and moral foundations of society. Corruption is the inevitable partner of administrative, bureaucratic, party, non-market societies, societies in which dominate monopoly on coercion and obligation (and the prohibition of coercion. Disorganized, monopolized markets and asymmetric information is also an important source of corruption. All this, in terms of the collective (public, government property, which is 'used as its own, and kept as others', on a system of vicious cycle, develop and rise corruption. Therefore, the system changes (reforms are necessary at all levels of government, and introduction of ethical standards in order to eradicate the causes of this social scourge.
B.J. van der Walt
Full Text Available The prevalence of corruption poses a serious threat to our nation. This paper intends to investigate, apart from the various forms of corruption and our reactions to them, the causes of and the possible cures for this evil in our society.
Abstract. This study discusses issues bordering on corruption, corrupt practices and monitory rights as articulated in the above play. This shall be achieved through the careful appraisal of the conflicts in The. Gods and the Scavengers, with particular attention to some specific characters and or group of characters, ...
Full Text Available In the last decades a growing awareness emerged of the relevance of corruption as an hidden factor which may negatively affect political and economic decision-making processes. In spite of a lively scientific debate there is no general consensus on a commonly accepted definition of what corruption is.The A. distinguishes three main paradigms, focusing on different (though not irreconcilable variables.The first is the economic paradigm, which usually takes the principal-agent model of corruption as its founding pillar. In this paradigm corruption is considered the outcome of rational individual choices, and its spread within a certain organization is influenced by the factors defining the structure of expected costs and rewards.A second approach – the cultural paradigm – looks at the differences in cultural traditions, social norms and interiorized values which shape individuals’ moral preferences and consideration of his social and institutional role. These are a leading forces that can push a corrupt public or private agent (not to violate legal norms.A third neo-institutional approach considers also mechanisms which allow the internal regulation of social interactions within corrupt networks, and their effects on individuals’ beliefs and preferences. Though the corrupt agreements cannot be enforced with legal sanctions, several informal, non-written rules, contractual provisos and conventions may regulate the corrupt exchange between agent and corruptor.The A. underlines that corruption is the outcome of a multitude of individual and collective choices which change public opinion towards corruption and its diffusion throughout the state, markets and civil society. There is no univocal recipe to deal with anti-bribery measures, since corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon.Reforms aimed at dismantling systemic corruption have to be finely tuned against its hidden governance structures, i.e. its internal regulation of
Full Text Available The economic crunch created a specific context for activity and profitability failing. The corruption is more and more common in our days. In the same time, the amount of money lost by businesses and the public sector to larger frauds increased last year to unthinkable limits. The shareholders expect the directors to take care to protect their company’s assets. This is why the financial controller has a very important role in each organization. The techniques to detect corruption or a fraud are developing every year. Thus, the introduction of computerized accounting has created the opportunities to conduct very comprehensive tests at relatively little cost. However, the fraudsters became more and more clever, and the controllers are responsible for the prevention and detection of fraud. The procedures that controllers should adopt with regard to fraud depend on the risk that fraud could occur and remain undetected and also the risk of that fraud impairing the truth and fairness of the statement.
Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.
Paulus, Michal; Kristoufek, Ladislav
We inspect a possible clustering structure of the corruption perception among 134 countries. Using the average linkage clustering, we uncover a well-defined hierarchy in the relationships among countries. Four main clusters are identified and they suggest that countries worldwide can be quite well separated according to their perception of corruption. Moreover, we find a strong connection between corruption levels and a stage of development inside the clusters. The ranking of countries according to their corruption perfectly copies the ranking according to the economic performance measured by the gross domestic product per capita of the member states. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one to present an application of hierarchical and clustering methods to the specific case of corruption.
Rodwin, Marc A
Today, the goals of pharmaceutical policy and medical practice are often undermined due to institutional corruption - that is, widespread or systemic practices, usually legal, that undermine an institution's objectives or integrity. In this symposium, 16 articles investigate the corruption of pharmaceutical policy, each taking a different look at the sources of corruption, how it occurs, and what is corrupted. We will see that the pharmaceutical industry's own purposes are often undermined. Furthermore, pharmaceutical industry funding of election campaigns and lobbying skews the legislative process that sets pharmaceutical policy. Moreover, certain practices have corrupted medical research, the production of medical knowledge, the practice of medicine, drug safety, the Food and Drug Administration's oversight of the pharmaceutical market, and the trustworthiness of patient advocacy organizations. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
How well do corruption perception measures reflect actual levels of public sector corruption? Leading cross-national corruption perception measures have come under much theoretical and empirical scrutiny in recent years, with serious implications for the validity and reliability of the data...... in this ever growing sub-field. Critics argue that perceptions – in particular those of outside experts – do not reflect actual corruption in that they are far too ‘noisy’ or simply biased by external factors such as economic performance. Moreover, a number of recent empirical studies, focused on developing...... areas, have put forth evidence that outside expert assessments of corruption correspond little, if at all, with the experiences and views of actual citizens, and that such a lack of correspondence demonstrates pessimism for existing perception measures. This study offers a systematic analysis...
Full Text Available This article considers corruption in Australia in relation to the exploitation and preservation of natural resources. In doing so, it examines issues pertaining to a proposed pulp mill and the forestry industry in Tasmania, the development of mining and ports in Queensland, and international agreements pertaining to deep-sea oil drilling in the Timor Sea. Corruption relating to the environment is interpreted in this article as implying both moral corruption and/or direct corruption. Gaining unfair advantage, protecting specific sectoral interests and over-riding existing environmental regulations are all features of the types of corruption associated with the exploitation of natural resources. The result is lack of transparency, a substantial democratic deficit, and expenditure of public monies, time and resources in support of environmentally and socially dubious activities.
Bellettini, Carlo; Rrushi, Julian
Memory corruption attacks on SCADA devices can cause significant disruptions to control systems and the industrial processes they operate. However, despite the presence of numerous memory corruption vulnerabilities, few, if any, techniques have been proposed for addressing the vulnerabilities or for combating memory corruption attacks. This paper describes a technique for defending against memory corruption attacks by enforcing logical boundaries between potentially hostile data and safe data in protected processes. The technique encrypts all input data using random keys; the encrypted data is stored in main memory and is decrypted according to the principle of least privilege just before it is processed by the CPU. The defensive technique affects the precision with which attackers can corrupt control data and pure data, protecting against code injection and arc injection attacks, and alleviating problems posed by the incomparability of mitigation techniques. An experimental evaluation involving the popular Modbus protocol demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the defensive technique.
Heiselberg, Maj Hedegaard
‘relational spaces’ that allow them to preserve intimate relationships despite geographical distances. Besides dealing with the practical responsibilities of everyday life, soldiers’ partners also fight to maintain the sense of closeness associated with normative ideals about family relations and a ‘good......The article explores how military deployment affects the everyday lives of Danish soldiers’ families. By approaching the challenges faced by soldiers and their partners from an anthropological perspective of the family, the article provides new insights into the social consequences of military...... deployment and the processes of militarization at home. Drawing on ethnographic examples from recent fieldwork among women, children, and soldiers at different stages of deployment, the article demonstrates how soldiers and their families attempt to live up to ideals about parenthood and family by creating...
Little, Miles; Lipworth, Wendy; Kerridge, Ian
Corruption is a word used loosely to describe many kinds of action that people find distasteful. We prefer to reserve it for the intentional misuse of the good offices of an established social entity for private benefit, posing as fair trading. The currency of corruption is not always material or financial. Moral corruption is all too familiar within churches and other ostensibly beneficent institutions, and it happens within medicine and the pharmaceutical industries. Corrupt behavior reduces trust, costs money, causes injustice, and arouses anger. Yet it persists, despite all efforts since the beginnings of societies. People who act corruptly may lack conscience and empathy in the same way as those with some personality disorders. Finding ways to prevent corruption from contaminating beneficent organizations is therefore likely to be frustratingly difficult. Transparency and accountability may go some way, but the determined corruptor is unlikely to feel constrained by moral and reporting requirements of this kind. Punishment and redress are complicated issues, unlikely to satisfy victims and society at large. Both perhaps should deal in the same currency-material or social-in which the corrupt dealing took place.
... ruler got in the Roman senate a viral school of bribery. Interestingly, the episode of corruption ended when the will of the corrupt Roman senators was thwarted. Therefore, mitigating corruption could begin from the West that hosts its influential accomplices. Key words: Africa, Corruption, Sallust, Western Collaborators ...
This paper studies the effect of corruption on foreign direct investment. The sample covers bilateral investment from fourteen source countries to forty-five host countries during 1990-91. There are three central findings. (1) A rise in either the tax rate on multinational firms or the corruption level in a host country reduces inward foreign direct investment (FDI). An increase in the corruption level from that of Singapore to that of Mexico is equivalent to raising the tax rate by over twen...
Fritzen, Scott A.; Serritzlew, Søren; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
Corruption and trust are two important determinants of the quality of public sectors. Empirical studies in different literatures suggest that corruption and trust have effects on factors such as economic growth, the quality of democratic institutions, life quality, the size and effectiveness....... The aim is to show that these two concepts are highly relevant to each other, and that their interconnections are important to understand the public sector consequences of corruption and trust. By focusing on these concepts, we hope that this special issue can pave the road for further comparative...
Full Text Available In the context of globalisation, the issue of corruption acquires specificity, deriving, on one hand, from the diversification of the modalities to corrupt or to be corrupted and, on the other hand, from multiplication of the means to fight against this phenomenon. The binom corruption-public integrity becomes a motto of the speeches held by politicians and generally those invested with leadership functions by the society. It is unanimously recognised the fact that a relevant indicator of an ethical leadership refers to the level and social perception of corruption. Speaking about “the devastating effect of globalisation on the developing countries and especially on poor populations”, J. Stiglitz (2002 allocates large spaces to corruption, referring to “the cases of foreign investments”, “capitalism based on favouritisms and mafiatyped connection” or “privatisation”. Including integration into the European Union as a form for expressing globalisation in the European area, it is worth to analyse some consequences of this process on the evolution of the binom corruption-public integrity. When we speak about “globalisation of corruption” we refer to some conclusions emphasized by the specialized literature and studies. Without trying to make a hierarchy of those conclusions, we shall refer, first of all, to its multiple facets that, by chance or not, are overlapping the modalities for expressing globalisation on economic, cultural, political level and as well as on the public sector reform. If we analyse an outstanding paper about corruption of Rose-Ackerman (1999, we shall find out that three from the four basic chapters focus on approaching corruption as an “economic, cultural or political problem”(1.In the context of globalisation, the issue of corruption acquires specificity, deriving, on one hand, from the diversification of the modalities to corrupt or to be corrupted and, on the other hand, from multiplication of the
Noerlina; Wulandhari, L. A.; Sasmoko; Muqsith, A. M.; Alamsyah, M.
Government plays an important role in nation economic growth. Nevertheless, there are still many occurrences of government officers abusing their offices to do an act of corruption. In this order, the central government should pay attention to every area in the nation to avoid corruption case. Meanwhile, the news media always constantly preach about corruption case, this makes the news media relevant for being one of the sources of measurement of corruption perception index (CPI). It is required to map the corruption case in Indonesia so the central government can pay attention to every region in Indonesia. To develop the mapping system, researchers use Naïve Bayes Classifier to classify which news articles talk about corruption and which news articles are not, before implementing a Naïve Bayes Classifier there are some text processing such as tokenizing, stopping, and stemming.
Fazekas, Mihaly; Kocsis, G
Measuring high-level corruption is subject to extensive scholarly and policy interest, which has achieved moderate progress in the last decade. This article develops two objective proxy measures of high-level corruption in public procurement: single bidding in competitive markets and a composite score of tendering ‘red flags’. Using official government data on 2.8 million contracts in twenty-eight European countries in 2009–14, we directly operationalize a common definition of corruption: unj...
M Ali Zaidan
Corruption is an extraordinary crime, even though the laws have been revised and has a more progressive character has also established Anti-Corruption Commission the number of crimes of corruption still do not show any significant change. In the midst of public pessimism, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights has initiated efforts to revise the Government Regulation Number 99 Year 2012. The tightening of remission meant that the convict is not easy to get their sentences reduced. Attempts ...
M Ali Zaidan
Full Text Available Corruption is an extraordinary crime, even though the laws have been revised and has a more progressive character has also established Anti-Corruption Commission the number of crimes of corruption still do not show any significant change. In the midst of public pessimism, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights has initiated efforts to revise the Government Regulation Number 99 Year 2012. The tightening of remission meant that the convict is not easy to get their sentences reduced. Attempts to revise the provisions concerning remission, it should consider how far can reduce corruption and its impact on inmates and the public
This paper addresses the ethical dimensions of corruption. Corruption in the form of bribery is widespread in the developing world and this includes Mauritius. Corruption assessed in absolute terms is unethical. However, if one were to use relativistic views, one would make allowances for ‘mild’ forms of corruption like seeking favours to obtain unwarranted advantages or paying bribes in the form of ‘speed-up gratuities’. Our study shows that in many contexts, acts of corruption are acc...
Banerjee, Ritwik; Baul, Tushi; Rosenblat, Tanya
Do corrupt people self select themselves in professions where the scope of corruption is high? We conduct a corruption experiment with private sector job aspirants and aspirants of Indian bureaucracy. The game models embezzlement of resources in which “supervisors” evaluate the performance of “wo...... of “workers” and then pay them. We find that aspirant bureaucrats indulge in more corruption than private sector aspirants but the likelihood of being corrupt is same across two sectors....
Gundlach, Erich; Paldam, Martin
Measures of corruption and income are highly correlated across countries. We use prehistoric measures of biogeography as instruments for modern income levels to identify an exogenous long-run income effect. We find that our corruption-free incomes explain the cross-country pattern of corruption just as well as actual incomes. This result suggests that the long-run causality is exclusively from income to corruption. As countries get rich, corruption vanishes and there is a transition of corrup...
Garcia Fortuny, Judit
Many countries around the world suffer from corruption. In a monetary union, corruption varies from one country to another. It is possible corruption in one country may affect another country in a monetary union. We demonstrate that this feature has important implications in a monetary union with two asymmetric countries. Country 1 has a corrupted government while country 2 does not. Within this framework, we determine under which conditions corruption damages or benefits both countr...
Sugata Ghosh; Andros Gregoriou
In an endogenous growth model with two public goods, we analytically derive the optimal composition of government spending in the presence of corruption. Although corruption results in a loss of productivity per se, an increase in corruption in the category of public spending that is harmed relatively more by corruption could have a favourable effect on growth, as it would encourage a benevolent government to divert spending towards the public good that is more productive, net of corruption.
Full Text Available Corruption is a problem that needs to be dealt with in both the public and private sectors. Singapore has adopted a comprehensive approach in tackling corruption in both sectors for a long time. The anti‐ corruption successes of Singapore have encouraged the establishment of strong, centralized anti‐corruption agencies across the globe. In this article, it is accentuated the importance of the effectiveness of anti-corruption policy in the general context of public administration in Singapore.
Measures of corruption are based on the concept of bribes as extra business costs. Drawing evidence from corruption surveys of business and tax service in Bulgaria, this paper looks at the bribe as a price paid by the taxpayer in exchange for income-maximizing services supplied by corrupt tax officials. It distinguishes between corruption for tax evasion and corruption related to excessive voluntary compliance costs. The latter is closer to the concept of bribes as costs imposed on business, ...
Belousova, Veronika; Rajeev, K. Goel; Korhonen, Iikka
This paper examines determinants of corruption across Russian regions. Key contributions include: (i) a formal study of economic corruption determinants across Russian regions; (ii) comparisons of determinants of perceived corruption versus those of actual corruption; and (iii) studying the influence of market competition and other factors on corruption. The results show that economic prosperity, population, market competition and urbanization are significant determinants of Russian corruptio...
Nguyen, Ngoc Anh; Doan, Quang Hung; Tran-Nam, Binh
This article aims to examine the impact of tax corruption on private sector development in Vietnam. It is motivated by two separate but related considerations. First, despite the seriousness of the phenomenon of corruption, there is a paucity of rigorous empirical research of corruption, particularly tax corruption, in Vietnam. Secondly, ineffective control of corruption is viewed as a cause of Vietnam’s recent total factor productivity (TFP) slowdown or its poor industrial policy, both of wh...
of practical theology in an attempt to address the issue of corruption. Finally, one ... and ethical behavior is becoming a relative, intellectualised concept, the question .... business and politics, and a closed culture within government. However,.
Dean SPGS NAU
and economic phenomenon that affect all facets and the fabric of. Nigerian society. ... ethnic resistant to change, gender inequality, political corruption and the reckless misuse ..... man and the priest who took the bribe died in a mysterious fire.
Coskun Can Aktan
Full Text Available Unethicalbehavior in government is viewed as a situation where there isfraudulent or dishonest conduct or improper behaviour by people who are in aposition or power. Bribery, extortion, embezzlement,the use of legislated powersby government officials for illegitimate private gain, nepotism, rent seeking etc.are some examples forunethical behavior in government.How to deal with unethical behavior in government?. How to curb corruption?Experience demonstrates that establishing an ethical government is not an easytask. There is no single approach to curb (political corruption effectively. Instead,controlling (political corruption requires a wide range of strategies.Thisdescriptive survey aims to explore the anti-corruptions measures in general.
Park, Soo Bin
After a four-month investigation, a court in South Korea has indicted 100 officials and suppliers on corruption charges over bogus safety certifications for parts that were supplied to some of the country's 23 nuclear reactors.
Full Text Available The paper gives an outline of Nigeria’s experience on corruption in the context of poverty and Development. It discusses the effects of corruption which are rooted in the political and economic situation of the polity. The challenge of corruption is at the root of our underdevelopment .It has become so pervasive that many essential public projects for which vast sums of money have been paid to concerned contractors have been abandoned. And when such public projects have been completed, their costs are always higher in comparison with the costs of similar projects in other countries. In Nigeria corruption stifle economic growth, reduce economic efficiency and development despite the enormous resources in the country. It depends essentially on data from secondary sources such as books, journal articles, government publications, among other relevant documents. The data were analyzed qualitatively using the descriptive analytical method in order to achieve the primary objective of the paper.
Colonial Taxation, Corruption and Resistance in Igbominaland. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... While taxation definitely stimulated economic activities in Igbominaland at ...
Full Text Available It can be said that Rousseau is one of the most acute thinkers of the corruption of civilization. In fact, the Second Discourse and the Essay on the Origins of Languages could be read as elaborate analyses of advancing social and cultural decline inasmuch as mankind is continually moving away from the original state of natural innocence. But Rousseau’s idea of corruption is not straightforward. I try to show that in the Essay, Rousseau emphasizes the natural causes for corruption. I argue that an opposition between necessity and contingency, which more accurately represents the two modes operating in Rousseau’s doctrine, should replace the standard nature/culture divide. The contingency of natural catastrophes is found to be ultimately responsible for the corruption in the social realm, which is therefore largely driven by natural causes.
This paper demonstrates that high and rising corruption increases income inequality and poverty by reducing economic growth, the progressivity of the tax system, the level and effectiveness of social spending, and the formation of human capital, and by perpetuating an unequal distribution of asset ownership and unequal access to education. These findings hold for countries with different growth experiences, at different stages of development, and using various indices of corruption. An import...
Charron, Nicholas; Dahlström, Carl; Fazekas, Mihály
the interplay between politics and bureaucracy. It suggests that corruption risks are minimized when the two groups involved in decision-making on public contracts—politicians and bureau-crats—have known different interests. This is institutionalized when politicians are accountable to the electorate, while.......4 million procurement contracts. Both show a remarkable sub-national variation across Europe. The study finds corruption risks significantly lower where bureau-crats’ careers do not depend on political connections....
Federal Laboratory Consortium — A wave research basin at the ERDC Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory has been modified specifically for testing of temporary, barrier-type, flood fighting products....
Natasha Georgieva Hadji Krsteski
Full Text Available Corruption in South Africa includes the private use of public resources, bribery and improper favouritism. South Africa scored 45 points out of 100 on the 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index reported by Transparency International. Corruption Index in South Africa averaged 46.97 Points from 1996 until 2016, reaching an all-time high of 56.80 Points in 1996 and a record low of 41 Points in 2011. A tenderpreneur is common corruption in South Africa. It is an individual who enriches themselves through corrupting the awarding of government tender contracts, mostly based on personal connections and corrupt relationships - although outright bribery might also take place - and sometimes involving an elected or politically appointed official (or his or her family members holding simultaneous business interests. This is often accompanied by overcharging and shoddy workmanship. BEE-fronting is an abuse of the rules governing Black Economic Empowerment (BEE, where qualifying persons are given a seat on the Board of Directors of a company while having no decision-making power in the company, in order to qualify the company for government contracts in terms of BEE.
Din Alina Valentina
Full Text Available Fiscal evasion is mainly found within the underground economy, came to the specialistsâ€™ attention within the 1960s, moment in which it took a great extent. The main cause which leads to activities within the underground economy is represented by the increase of direct taxes, which has the largest influence, followed by the intensity of the regulations and the complexity of the fiscal system. The imposed taxes determine more and more countries to act within the underground economy, as long as there is not a proper offer of public goods and infrastructure. In his study, Vito Tanzi indicated as the main cause of the underground economy the level of taxes.(Tanzi,1983:11-15 He adds the instability of the legislative framework, legislative restrictions imposed within certain states, corruption and bureaucracy. Corruption and the activities specific to the underground economy are realities all the states confront with. Gathering information about the dimensions of corruption and the connection with the underground economy proves to be a task which is impossible to achieve, because all the people involved within these mechanisms prefer not to be identified. Even if the underground economy and corruption are considered as being twins, the questions which appear are: who needs them and who fights against them? Theoretically speaking, corruption and the underground economy can be complementary or substitutable.The anticorruption efforts have to focus on a real reform of the administrative system, whereas the citizenâ€™s perception on corruption is mainly based on his personal experiences in direct connection with the state institutions. Both the public sector as well as the private sector should become more responsible, so that the public institutions to be able to carry out their obligations under integrity conditions and without external pressure or implication. Corruption attracts the economic agents to the underground economy, which leads
Богдан Миколайович Головкін
Full Text Available According to the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA, the volume of the "shadow" economy in Ukraine is 1.1 trillion hryvnias or 45.1 % of the gross domestic product. Estimates of the Federation of Employers of Ukraine show that only 50 % of payments to the state budget comes from the clearance of goods, while the rest comprise a corruption component of 40 billion UAH for a year. Much of the large companies move non-declared goods across the state border and do not pay taxes. However, at the official level in Ukraine, it is still not accepted to talk about the servicing of the shadow foreign trade by the customs administration and the collection of corrupt rents from illegal trade in the state. Understanding the essence of the problem gives grounds to assert that the corruption risks in the work of customs are laid down in imperfect customs legislation, high tariff rates of duties and taxes, discrete powers of customs inspectors, the regime of customs procedures in the customs control zone, low level of their automation and physical contact of declarants from customs officers. In the customs case, the main type of corruption is bribery and abuse of influence related to the assistance of illegal and criminal activity in the foreign economic sphere. Subjects of foreign economic activity reduce costs and receive revenues through customs fraud or smuggling. Without corruption, this activity is impossible. On the illegal movement of goods and vehicles, smuggling and counterfeiting through the customs border, a criminal corruption business was created for all bodies and services that carry out various types of state control and law enforcement activities in the customs sphere. The most profitable are corruption schemes related to the illegal import / export of three groups of highly liquid products: tobacco products, counterfeit IT products, petroleum products, cars with foreign registration. For an independent study, illegal
Cai, Hongbin; Henderson, J Vernon; Zhang, Qinghua
This paper studies the urban land market in China in 2003-2007. In China, all urban land is owned by the state. Leasehold use rights for land for (re)development are sold by city governments and are a key source of city revenue. Leasehold sales are viewed as a major venue for corruption, prompting a number of reforms over the years. Reforms now require all leasehold rights be sold at public auction. There are two main types of auction: regular English auction and an unusual type which we call a "two stage auction". The latter type of auction seems more subject to corruption, and to side deals between potential bidders and the auctioneer. Absent corruption, theory suggests that two stage auctions would most likely maximize sales revenue for properties which are likely to have relatively few bidders, or are "cold", which would suggest negative selection on property unobservables into such auctions. However, if such auctions are more corruptible, that could involve positive selection as city officials divert hotter properties to a more corruptible auction form. The paper finds that, overall, sales prices are lower for two stage auctions, and there is strong evidence of positive selection. The price difference is explained primarily by the fact that two stage auctions typically have just one bidder, or no competition despite the vibrant land market in Chinese cities.
Full Text Available Since 2011 youth movements have staged large protests in African countries for presidential term limits. These have been discussed as struggles against de-democratization. Looking at the movements Y'en a marre in Senegal and Balai citoyen in Burkina Faso we argue that these protests were just as much triggered by socio-economic grievances linked to a corrupt patronage system. Indeed, corruption has been a major issue for both campaigns. We ask how the movement leaders linked the fight against corruption with their struggle against third term amendments in a way that sparked mass mobilization. We use the framing approach as our theoretical framework and show that a framing based on the concept of citizenship enabled both movements to link the issue of corruption to the issue of presidential term amendments and at the same time create a sense of agency in the constituency. This explains at least partly why both Y'en a marre and Balai Citoyen succeeded in their mobilizing efforts.
Methods and means for coaling sodium fire fighting are analyzed. Their advantages and drawbacks are considered. Comparative data on sodium fire fighting using some of considered compositions are presented. High efficiency of self-expanding compositions (Grafeks SK-23 and RS) is noted. Properties of MGS new composition for sodium fire fighting are considered. High fighting ability of the composition independent of burning metal layer width is shown. It is noted that fire fighting MGS efficiency decreases with growth of time of free fire burning which affects fire fighting methods. Technical means of powder delivery to burning sodium are reported
Full Text Available Bureaucratic corruption is an organizational phenomenon, which faces the trend of countries’ development with serious problems. In spite of all planning and respects of countries to fight against this phenomenon, we are still observing its growth in various aspects of the community. The basic approach emphasized by present study is that it is necessary to establish a corruption prevention system whose central element is social culture and organizational culture rather than relying upon the trends based on punishment after corruption. To perceive the relationship between organizational culture and bureaucratic health of organizations, we used a field approach and selected four governmental organizations namely “governorship”, “municipality”, “traffic police” and “customs to gather the data. We used two questionnaires A and B to gather the data on organizational culture and the relationship between culture and corruption, respectively. Initially, by distributing questionnaire A, we evaluated all four organizations in a manner that two organizations have bureaucratic culture and two organizations with organic culture. Then, questionnaire B was distributed among employees and clients of studied organizations (to acquire realer information on bureaucratic health rate to study the relationship between the type of organizational culture and bureaucratic health. Research statistical population consists of all employees and clients of bureaucratic organizations in Chabahar province located in south east of Iran. Statistical sample consists of 146 clients and 146 employees of all four studied organizations. The results from data analysis show that there is no significant relationship between organic or mechanic organizational culture and employees’ bureaucratic health.
Hanf, Matthieu; Van-Melle, Astrid; Fraisse, Florence; Roger, Amaury; Carme, Bernard; Nacher, Mathieu
Information on the global risk factors of children mortality is crucial to guide global efforts to improve survival. Corruption has been previously shown to significantly impact on child mortality. However no recent quantification of its current impact is available. The impact of corruption was assessed through crude Pearson's correlation, univariate and multivariate linear models coupling national under-five mortality rates in 2008 to the national "perceived level of corruption" (CPI) and a large set of adjustment variables measured during the same period. The final multivariable model (adjusted R(2)= 0.89) included the following significant variables: percentage of people with improved sanitation (p.valueCorruption Perception Index (p.valuecorruption) was associated with an increase in the log of national under-five mortality rate of 0.0644. According to this result, it could be roughly hypothesized that more than 140000 annual children deaths could be indirectly attributed to corruption. Global response to children mortality must involve a necessary increase in funds available to develop water and sanitation access and purchase new methods for prevention, management, and treatment of major diseases drawing the global pattern of children deaths. However without paying regard to the anti-corruption mechanisms needed to ensure their proper use, it will also provide further opportunity for corruption. Policies and interventions supported by governments and donors must integrate initiatives that recognise how they are inter-related.
Full Text Available Bureaucracy and corruption represent major causes of fiscal crises, and structural unemployment all over the world. According to WEF 2014 Global Risk Report, the bureaucracy has a high level in European countries and appreciation is growing that high historical rates of economic progress, especially those experienced by emerging markets, may not be sustainable in the future. Corruption is growing in a changing global environment and is considered one of the most important geopolitical risks. Most of the time, corruption is associated with fraud and money laundering. European growing cities and public administration have a strong influence over bureaucracy in public sector accounting and more time to process the accounting and fiscal information.
Satirical drama, political corruption and development implications for Nigeria: a reflection on Ola Rotimi's Our husband has gone mad again. ... The corrupt tendencies of this select few, which come in various forms, have ... from 32 Countries:.
Dreher, A.; Herzfeld, T.
This paper reviews the empirical literature on the economic costs of corruption. Corruption affects economic growth, the level of GDP per capita, investment activity, international trade and price stability negatively. Additionally, it biases the composition of government expenditures. The second
Full Text Available Globalization has led to the fact that corruption in one country can affect the situation in other states. A number of top managers worldwide who are willing to pay bribes to keep or expand their business is increasing. However, the most common and dangerous corruption is in the government structures and corruption that associated with the use of administrative resources. The level of corruption in Ukraine is very high and remained stable for the past ten years. One of the factors of increasing corruption in Ukraine is considered the problem of political leadership. Using the Y.Engvalya theory of corruption allows re-evaluating mass and rationality of what is happening, indicates the fallacy of traditionally definition of corruption as unacceptable for majority. Existing corruption model today can be recognized as a widespread one, which significantly increases the role of political leadership. Implementation of new management standards is an important task for many states.
Asif Reza Anik
Full Text Available By analyzing experiences of 210 rice farmers belonging to six villages of six different districts in Bangladesh this article estimates the impact of corruption on farm production and profit. Unlike existing literature corruption here is defined in broader term. Both explicit and implicit cost items are included while calculating the cost of corruption. Through estimating the marginal physical product of fertilizer, a relative impact of corruption on farm production is estimated. Then by hypothesizing different scenarios with different levels of corruption, changes in a farmer's benefit cost ratio is estimated. It has been observed that with reducing cost of corruption farmers observe higher benefit cost ratio and vice versa. Cost of corruption is found to be relatively higher in restricted input market situation and relatively lower when the market is more competitive. Thus our results are suggestive for competitive market policy to reduce corruption which will ultimately result in more farm production and profit.
centralized authority in the name of expanding government intervention in the economy. In both cases, corruption has tended to go unchecked due to insufficient government accountability. Therefore, although economic policies and political rhetoric have changed dramatically, government corruption remains...
Corrupt Practices and other Related Offences Act,13 corruption is defined to include: ... duty and the rights of others; a fiduciary's or official's use of a station or ... manipulation of the voters register, the falsification of election results and other.
development theory which focuses mainly on socio-economic factors. Another approach ... corruption and the social instability that plagues the country. A healthier ... Corruption, the State and the Challenge of Social Stability in Nigeria - Rev.
Full Text Available The paper continues the story of corruption as a socially harmful phenomenon that affected all societies, from ancient times, through mediaeval times, to modern age. Although the concept of corruption changed in the course of history, the essence has remained the same: it encompasses the abuse of power, corruption, bribery, and offering gratuities in exchange for favors. We shall here focus on the manifestations of corruption in the Middle Ages, the period which coincided with the feudal socio-economic formation, both in its western European variety and in the Byzantine type of feudal society. In the twelfth century, the Byzantine emperors introduced the practice of granting property in land or some other source of income - pronoia - to prominent individuals as a reward for their merits. In contrast, what could be observed from the very beginning in barbarian countries, which were established in the territory of the former Western Roman Empire, were the classic vassal relations, where a fief presented the foundation of the medieval social order; it was land property which the feudal lord (suzerain granted to his vassals (military commanders and units to enjoy, manage, but not control independently. By giving land property - a pronoia or fief to a pronoiario or vassal, the feudal lord (suzerain, in a way, 'bought' their personal loyalty. Particularly conductive to corruption was the hierarchically arranged and ramified bureaucratic apparatus of the mediaeval state. Although the Byzantine highest-ranking bureaucracy was paid for their work, their arbitrariness, bribery, coarseness, and incompetence resulted in strengthening corruption. On the other hand, the greatest influence on the kings in the barbaric mediaeval states was exerted by their commanders (dukes and entourage, who often selfishly abused the benefits bestowed upon them by the kings. Polybius' statement that 'the government has made people prone to bribery and greedy' proved to be
Full Text Available This article investigates how activists employ Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs and engage with data-activism in grassroots struggles against corruption. Based on a comparative research design that triangulates three qualitative data sources — in-depth interviews, movements' documents and participatory platforms — the article analyses two campaigns: Riparte il Futuro in Italy and 15MpaRato in Spain. In so doing, the article casts light on how activists engage with digital data, revealing how their employment is connected to and consistent with the type of organizational structure and communication strategy of the campaign. Moreover, the article evaluates how activists engage with three specific digital data-related practices — digital data creation, data usage and data transformation. Finally, the article illustrates that grasping the features of digital data-related practices also reflects how activists perceive and enact distinct ideas of active citizenship and data transparency in their fight against corruption.
Dhikru A. Yagboyaju
Full Text Available For so long, development theories and practices have either deliberately neglected or simply overlooked the possible interconnections between religion, culture and the attainment of development goals. Against this background, this article reviews the literature on corruption, as a major factor of underdevelopment in Nigeria, particularly as it relates to religion and culture in the country. In its analysis, this article argues that corruption in Nigeria, especially in view of the country’s multi-ethnic and multi-religious status, must be conceived as a phenomenon transcending legal, political and economic boundaries. The study adopts an interpretative and descriptive methodology for its analysis.
Estache, Antonio; Goicoechea, Ana; Trujillo, Lourdes
This paper shows empirically that 'privatization' in the energy, telecommunications, and water sectors, and the introduction of independent regulators in those sectors, have not always had the expected effects on access, affordability, or quality of services. It also shows that corruption leads to adjustments in the quantity, quality, and price of services consistent with the profit-maximizing behavior that one would expect from monopolies in the sector. Finally, our results suggest that privatization and the introduction of independent regulators have, at best, only partial effects on the consequences of corruption for access, affordability, and quality of utilities services. (author)
Estache, Antonio [ECARES, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Goicoechea, Ana [The World Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Trujillo, Lourdes [DAEA, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Centre for Transport Studies, University College of London (United Kingdom)
This paper shows empirically that 'privatization' in the energy, telecommunications, and water sectors, and the introduction of independent regulators in those sectors, have not always had the expected effects on access, affordability, or quality of services. It also shows that corruption leads to adjustments in the quantity, quality, and price of services consistent with the profit-maximizing behavior that one would expect from monopolies in the sector. Finally, our results suggest that privatization and the introduction of independent regulators have, at best, only partial effects on the consequences of corruption for access, affordability, and quality of utilities services. (author)
This thesis points to a possible weakness of the empirical literature on corruption and government spending. That corruption affects the composition of government spending, and in particular that it affects education and health spending adversely, seems to be empirically well established. However, there exist additional literature closely related to corruption and government spending, treating(i) a relationship between corruption and decentralization, and (ii) a relationship between decentral...
This paper empirically traces out the impacts of corruption on government revenue. The total amount of government revenue decreases as corruption reduces tax revenues if it contributes to tax evasion, improper tax exemptions or weak tax administration. In addition, corruption may distort the composition of government revenue: that is, a country with a higher level of corruption increases the proportion of international tax revenue rather than domestic tax one as the source of government reven...
2011; Treisman 2011, 2014). At present, though, oil prices have collapsed, wage arrears have recommenced, inflation is high, pensions endangered, and...personal corrupt behavior and political attitudes. We show that participation in everyday corruption lowers a person’s support for the political regime... corruption are less, not more, happy with the regime. Street-level corruption is corrosive of the body politic. Our 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4
This essay explores the nature, causes, and consequences of corruption as it pertains to entire regimes. Grand corruption is modeled as a type of unproductive rent-seeking at the highest levels of government. The economic costs of corruption are assumed to increase in the decentralization (and relaxation) of its governance, increase convexly in the percentage extracted, and decreasing in the opportunities for productive rent-seeking. Combining these assumptions with the benefits of corruption...
Arusha Cooray; Friedrich Schneider
This paper examines the relationship between corruption and public debt in 106 countries. Results suggest that corruption leads to an increase in public debt. We also investigate if the effect of corruption on pblic debt is increased by government expenditure, the shadow economy and military expenditure. We find that the effect of corruption on public debt is compounded by increased government expenditure and increased size of the shadow economy.
Axel Dreher; Christos Kotsogiannis; Steve McCorriston
This paper analyzes a simple model that captures the relationship between institutional quality, the shadow economy and corruption. It shows that an improvement in institutional quality reduces the shadow economy and affects the corruption market. The exact relationship between corruption and institutional quality is, however, ambiguous and depends on the relative effectiveness of the institutional quality in the shadow and corruption markets. The predictions of the model are empirically test...
Corruption at all levels of all societies is a behavioural consequence of power and greed. With no rulebook, corruption is covert, opportunistic, repetitive and powerful, reliant upon dominance, fear and unspoken codes: a significant component of the 'quiet violence'. Descriptions of financial corruption in China, Italy and Africa lead into a discussion of 'grand', 'political' and 'petty' corruption. Social consequences are given emphasis but elude analysis; those in Bangladesh and the Philip...
This contribution attempts a delimitation of the concept of corruption in sport and gives an overview of topical instances. It is thereby demonstrated why the definition of corruption in sport is especially problematic. The causes of the corruption and their social costs are analysed. The anti-corruption measures of the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) and the German Football Association (DFB) are described. These are based on two fundamentally different approaches and can be r...
Koechlin, Lucy; Quan, Julian; Mulukutla, Hari
International surveys such as the Global Corruption Barometer and the East African Bribery Index have shown that institutions responsible for land management are among the most corrupt. The paper analyses the causes, types and effects of corruption in land governance and provides evidence-based recommendations on how governments, donors and the private sector can address land corruption, with a particular focus on Sub-Saharan Africa. It identifies prevalence of discretionary power within land...
This paper examines the impact of corruption on entrepreneurship in Kenya. The findings indicate that when formal institutions are inefficient corruption which subverts these institutions is beneficial in terms of economic development. Conversely, where formal institutions are relatively efficient, corruption is detrimental.
Corruption is the use of public resources for private gain. This is common in most countries though reduced in some and alarming in others. It affects all sectors of the economy and the healthcare system is not spared. Medical corruption is increasing in countries with high rates of corruption and all healthcare professionals ...
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine how organizational and individual factors, in concert, shape corruption. We examined whether the ethical climate of organizations is related to corruption, and if so, whether it affects corruption through individual motives for corruption. A large-scale questionnaire study was conducted among public officials (n = 234 and business employees (n = 289 who were in a position to make corrupt decisions. The findings suggest that public and private sector employees who perceive their organizational climate as more egoistic and less ethical are more prone to corruption. This relationship was fully mediated by individual motives, specifically by personal and social norms on corruption. These results indicate that employees who perceive their organization’s ethical climate as more egoistic and less ethical experience weaker personal and social norms to refrain from corruption, making them more corruption-prone. Hence, strategies addressing the interplay between organizational factors and individual motives seem promising in curbing corruption. To effectively withhold employees from engaging in corruption, organizations could deploy measures that strengthen an organizations’ ethical climate and encourage ethical decision-making based on concern for the wellbeing of others, as well as measures increasing the strength of personal and social norms to refrain from corruption.
Huang, Feng; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long
Punishment is widely recognized as a potential promoter in sustaining or even enhancing public cooperation, but it meanwhile induces the problem of second-order free-riders. Particularly, recent evidence shows that costly punishment can be maintained if punishers may engage in corruption. However, how to reduce or eliminate incidents of corruption has been the enduring conundrum in human society. As power asymmetries are associated with hierarchies, we investigate how costly punishment affects the evolution of cooperation in the cases without and with corruption control. In the absence of corruption control, altruistic punishers are incapable of punishing corrupt punishers. Corrupt punishment maintains civilian cooperation but undermines the evolution of altruistic punishment. Otherwise, altruistic punishers can enforce symmetrical or asymmetrical punishment on both corrupt punishers and civilian defectors. In this case, both civilian cooperation and altruistic punishment can be promoted. And as an instrument of corruption control, the policy of asymmetrical punishment is more effective in fostering public cooperation and improving social welfare than symmetrical punishment. Moreover, no matter whether corruption control is considered or not, spiteful corruption that non-cooperative punishers penalize defectors is a more effective form for enhancing cooperation compared with bribery. Our work may thus offer an insight into the effects of corruption on public cooperation and the policy of anti-corruption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Osipian, Ararat L.
This paper considers corruption in higher education in Russia as reflected in the national media, including such aspects as corruption in admissions to higher education institutions and corruption in administering the newly introduced standardized test. The major focus is on the opinions of the leading figures of the education reform as related to…
Almaganbetov, Pernebay; Kenzhibekova, Elmira; Khvedelidze, Teimuraz; Buranbayeva, Saliman; Sailibayeva, Zhanel
Corruption is the main obstacle on the way toward state's economic and political growth. Corrupt practices are one of the oldest forms of crime that arose with an appearance of nationhood. Nowadays, corruption harms the economies of developing countries that are undergoing a process of an economic model transformation. Kazakhstan is among these…
Huang, Francis Lim
Corruption is a problem that continues to plague developed and developing countries worldwide. Previous studies have explored the negative implications of corruption on several aspects of human development, but, despite its serious and long-lasting consequences, the impact of corruption on educational outcomes has started to receive attention only…
This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…
Corruption is entrenched in the public space in Nigeria. Various attempts by policymakers to stamp out this social cankerworm seem not to be yielding positive results, as more incidences of corruption continue to ravage the polity. This paper therefore contributes to the campaign for anti-corruption in Nigeria by drawing on ...
We examined the impact of corruption on governance in Nigeria based on an analysis of secondary data. Our analysis showed that corruption has become pervasive and widespread in the Nigeria society; it is a re-occurring decimal in the process of governance. The pervasiveness of corruption has ferociously eroded the ...
There is no doubt that corruption has eaten deep into the fabric of the Nigerian society. Successive governments in the country since independence in 1960 had in recognition of the evil of corruption established programmes and agencies to deal with it. These include the War Against Indiscipline and Corruption (WAIC); ...
In the recent times, the issue of executive corruption has taken a front burner. Simply defined as corruptive practices involving politicians, policy makers, bureaucrats, top members of business community, the paper argued that the phenomenon is very rampant in Nigeria. Tracing the evolution of executive corruption in the ...
Jin, Xia; Bin, Feng
This paper presents a perspective of the various types of academic corruption that is currently running rife in society, a theoretical analysis of the roots of academic corruption, and proposals for a number for countermeasures to put a stop to academic corruption. (Contains 3 notes.) [This article was translated by Ted Wang.
Hayford, Marc D.
The author combines the supply and demand model of taxes with a Cournot model of bribe takers to develop a simple and useful framework for understanding the effect of corruption on economic activity. There are many examples of corruption in both developed and developing countries. Because corruption decreases the level of economic activity and…
This study basically assesses the phenomenal rise of corruption in Nigeria. While the study recognizes the varying perspectives of the causes of corruption among developing nations, the study asserts that the dramatic rise of corruption to the present level of impurity is caused by bad leadership and institutional failure.
The Ethiopian FEACC is a dedicated anti-corruption agency, invested with expansive powers to combat corruption in the country. It was established in 2001 in the context of the accelerated internationalisation of anti-corruption law. The mandate of the FEACC is wide, spanning the prevention, investigation and prosecution ...
Corruption and Economic Development in Nigeria: A Theoretical Review. ... By using a theoretical method of analysis, the study reveals that corruption has been a deterrent to economic development in Nigeria. ... Section two discusses the theoretical and conceptual issues in corruption and economic development. Section ...
... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Nerve Blocks A nerve block is an injection to ... the limitations of Nerve Block? What is a Nerve Block? A nerve block is an anesthetic and/ ...
Kate D L Umbers
Full Text Available Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual's role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders. Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group.
Umbers, Kate D. L.; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E.
Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual’s role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725
Fight Bac! Fight Bac! Fight Bac! Partnership for Food Safety Education Supporting consumers to & Symptoms Food Safety Glossary Food Safety Education Food Safety Education Month 2017 Don't Wing Spanish Resources Food Safety Education Food Safety Education Month 2017 Don't Wing It The Story of Your
This article explores the relationships, or the lack thereof, between gender and grand corruption ... Unfortunately, women's growing participation in Nigerian public sphere has not ..... sponsor;” and “allow Uba control over all important government appointments ..... African Women and Political Development: A Case Study of.
Habiyaremye, A.; Raymond, W.
In this paper, we examine how transnational corruption affects host country firms’ innovation behaviour and performance in transition economies of Eastern Europe and Central and Western Asia. Using firm-level data from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey, we show that the
della Porta, Donatella
Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)
Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer
This paper investigates the effects of checks and balances on corruption. Within a presidential system, effective separation of powers is achieved under a divided government, with the executive and legislative branches being controlled by different political parties. When government is unified...
Krause Hansen, Hans
How are we to understand the proliferating attempts amongst transnational corporations (TNCs) at collectively reducing the risk of corruption in business operations and interactions with state officials around the world? How are these endeavors linked to transformations of public and private auth...
Osipian, Ararat L.
Higher education corruption is an emerging sub-field of research that has yet to develop its terminological apparatus and own specific research methodologies. The interdisciplinary nature of this sub-field predetermines its dependency on other well-established fields, such as microeconomics, organizational theory, political economy, education…
The Nigerian State is a victim of high-level corruption, bad governance, political instability and cyclical legitimacy crisis. In the absence of support from civil society, the effective power of government was eroded and patron-client relationships took a prime role over the formal aspects of politics, such as the rule of law, ...
Investigative journalism is critical to the advancement and preservation of a country's democratic institutions and way of life and in helping to catalyse equitable development. Thus, the study focuses on how to curb corruption in Nigeria, through investigative journalism, so as to engender development at all levels. The study ...
Aug 7, 2017 ... to be abused due to the influence of social evils such as corruption, favouritism, dishonesty, fraud, tribalism, ethnicity and even villagism. These social problems are not peculiar to the Nigeria Police alone. They are ..... At this stage, the suspect sometimes through his lawyer has to negotiate with the Police ...
Rand, John; Tarp, Finn
and government contracts. Third, the observed decrease in bribe incidence between 2005 and 2007 is largely driven by significant behavioral changes. These behavioral changes seem to be associated with policy initiatives to improve law enforcement and increased media focus on punitive actions against corruption....
Rand, John; Tarp, Finn
This paper uses a unique panel dataset on firm-level corruption. It contains quantitative information on bribe payments by a sample of formal and informal Vietnamese firms. We show that bribe incidence is highly associated with firm-level differences in (i) visibility, (ii) sunk costs, (iii...
Mohammed Nuruddeen Suleiman
Full Text Available This article argues that bad governance and corruption particularly in the Northern part of Nigeria have been responsible for the persistent rise in the activities of Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad (JASLWJ, Arabic for “people committed to the propagation of the tradition and jihad.” It is also known as “Boko Haram,” commonly translated as “Western education is sin.” Based on qualitative data obtained through interviews with Nigerians, this article explicates how poor governance in the country has created a vicious cycle of corruption, poverty, and unemployment, leading to violence. Although JASLWJ avows a religious purpose in its activities, it takes full advantage of the social and economic deprivation to recruit new members. For any viable short- or long-term solution, this article concludes that the country must go all-out with its anti-corruption crusade. This will enable the revival of other critical sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing, likely ensuring more employment. Should the country fail to stamp out corruption, it will continue to witness an upsurge in the activities of JASLWJ, and perhaps even the emergence of other violent groups. The spillover effects may be felt not only across Nigeria but also within the entire West African region.
corruption is also an outcrop of the integration of Africa into the world capitalist ... Nigeria, like most other developing democracies and economies, perceive .... Ekekwe further avers that every mode of production introduces its own super ... in its widest sense, can be regarded as a process of trade in social rewards (Scolt,.
Ermira Hoxha Kalaj
Full Text Available This article focuses on survey data and qualitative evidence from Albanian manufacturing firms to examine the scale and consequences of corruption and tax evasion at the enterprise level. It discusses the costs and benefits from the entrepreneur’s perspective. The vector of covariates includes information about; use of external finance, policy influence, experience of corruption, firms size and ownership structure. To control for differences in the availability of collateral, the proportion of the fixed assets is included. The models used in the paper are probit where the dependent variable is binary and ordered probit where the dependent variable is categorical and orderable. Empirical results show that manufacturing firms operating in an environment in which tax evasion is more prevalent are more likely to suffer demands for bribes from corrupt officials. The regression analysis shows that tax evasion is a matter of degree and that is not limited to small and medium-sized enterprises. Even quite large firms acknowledge concealing part of their sales from tax authorities. Enterprises that are evading taxes are less likely to obtain an external audit. In addition, the data predict that corruption and tax evasion is more likely to occur when the principal owner is male rather than female. Moreover, findings show that the main effect of the separation of ownership on the likelihood of bribery is insignificant.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on the global risk factors of children mortality is crucial to guide global efforts to improve survival. Corruption has been previously shown to significantly impact on child mortality. However no recent quantification of its current impact is available. METHODS: The impact of corruption was assessed through crude Pearson's correlation, univariate and multivariate linear models coupling national under-five mortality rates in 2008 to the national "perceived level of corruption" (CPI and a large set of adjustment variables measured during the same period. FINDINGS: The final multivariable model (adjusted R(2= 0.89 included the following significant variables: percentage of people with improved sanitation (p.value<0.001, logarithm of total health expenditure (p.value = 0.006, Corruption Perception Index (p.value<0.001, presence of an arid climate on the national territory (p = 0.006, and the dependency ratio (p.value<0.001. A decrease in CPI of one point (i.e. a more important perceived corruption was associated with an increase in the log of national under-five mortality rate of 0.0644. According to this result, it could be roughly hypothesized that more than 140000 annual children deaths could be indirectly attributed to corruption. INTERPRETATIONS: Global response to children mortality must involve a necessary increase in funds available to develop water and sanitation access and purchase new methods for prevention, management, and treatment of major diseases drawing the global pattern of children deaths. However without paying regard to the anti-corruption mechanisms needed to ensure their proper use, it will also provide further opportunity for corruption. Policies and interventions supported by governments and donors must integrate initiatives that recognise how they are inter-related.
whistleblowing and his importance to prevent and fight the corruption is another issue elaborate in this paper. This research paper also aims to give some advice on how we can overcome challenges and obstacles during the Albanian whistleblower law implementation in practice. Research methodology used in this paper consists on a comparison of several international instruments and reports on whistleblower protection.
Pisor, Anne C; Gurven, Michael
The decision to engage in corruption-public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement-is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS), we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners) are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities-that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor's valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs.
Anne C Pisor
Full Text Available The decision to engage in corruption-public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement-is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS, we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities-that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor's valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs.
Anna V. Shashkova
Full Text Available The present article is dedicated to the analysis of "corruption" from point of view of political practice and political theory. The present article studies historical examples of corruption: corruption during the era of Alexander the Great, Carthage, Roman Republic. The article gives the evolution of the term "corruption", pointing out current aspects of the term. The article provides positive and negative results of corruption, gives resume. The present article analyses corruption results: economical, political and social. Most important economical consequences of corruption are the following: increase of shadow economy, decrease of tax payments, weakening of the state budget, breach of market competition, decrease of market effectiveness, destabilization of the idea of market economy. Most important social consequences of corruption are the following: great distinction between the declared and real values, which creates a "double standard" of the moral and behavior, distraction of great sums from public and humanitarian development, increase of property disproportion, increase of social tension. The present article names most important political consequences of corruption: shift of ideas from public development to the security of power of oligarchy, decrease of trust to the state, decrease of image of the country at the international arena, increase of its economical and political isolation, decrease of political competition. The present article gives one of the resumes that the globalization process increases corruption. Together with globalization most important role is given to corporations and corporate corruption comes to the front raw.
Maxwell, Daniel; Bailey, Sarah; Harvey, Paul; Walker, Peter; Sharbatke-Church, Cheyanne; Savage, Kevin
Corruption is a threat to the purpose of humanitarian assistance. Until fairly recently, humanitarian assistance has not been considered an important arena in broader efforts aimed at curbing corruption, and corruption has not always been considered a particularly important concern for humanitarian assistance despite the obviously challenging nature of the context of humanitarian emergencies. Corruption, though, is a threat to humanitarian action because it can prevent assistance from getting to the people who most need it, and because it can potentially undermine public support for such assistance. This paper examines perceptions of corruption and its affects, documents best practices, and outlines gaps in understanding. It suggests recommendations for improving the capacity of humanitarian agencies to prevent and manage the risk of corruption. Agencies have taken steps to combat corruption and improve accountability--downwards and upwards--but scope remains for improvement and for greater sharing of learning and good practice. © 2012 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.
Moaz Alsherfawi Aljazaerli
Full Text Available The theoretical relationship between corruption and stock market development has been debated quite extensively in the literature, yet the evidence on the impact of corruption on stock market development remains contradictory and ambiguous. This paper investigates the impact of corruption, as measured by Corruption Perception Index (CPI published by Transparency International, on stock market development focusing exclusively on Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries with its special characteristics of combining richness with relatively high level of corruption. Results from an estimation of alternative regression models on a panel of six GCC countries over the period 2003–2011, through which CPI is legitimately comparable, confirms a positive impact of corruption on stock market development, where the latter is measured by market capitalization. This is consistent with the view that corruption greases the wheels of economy by expediting transactions and allowing private firms to overcome governmentally imposed inefficiencies.
Full Text Available Nowadays the agenda of corruption eradication have been undertaken by various institutions such as the judiciary the police the Corruption Eradication Commission and other bodies related to the corruption eradication. The type of research used in this study is normative-jurisdiction and empirical-jurisdiction. To obtain the necessary data in this study the researcher conducted library research as a reference in some libraries are quite representative. Results shows that the effectiveness of corruption eradication that conducted by regulatory authorities in order to combat corruption has not been implemented maximally because each institution as a subsystem has not carried out an interdependent relationship both vertical and horizontal nature. If we expect the eradication of corruption can be implemented optimally it is recommended that the coordination between law enforcement agencies in the integrated criminal justice system is necessary to build their common vision interpretation and perception in the implementation of the duties for the institution authorized to eradicate corruption.
Owusu, Emmanuel Kingsford; Chan, Albert P C; Shan, Ming
The development of efficient and strategic anti-corruption measures can be better achieved if a deeper understanding and identification of the causes of corruption are established. Over the past years, many studies have been devoted to the research of corruption in construction management (CM). This has resulted in a significant increase in the body of knowledge on the subject matter, including the causative factors triggering these corrupt practices. However, an apropos systematic assessment of both past and current studies on the subject matter which is needful for the future endeavor is lacking. Moreover, there is an absence of unified view of the causative factors of corruption identified in construction project management (CPM). This paper, therefore, presents a comprehensive review of the causes of corruption from selected articles in recognized construction management journals to address the mentioned gaps. A total number of 44 causes of corruption were identified from 37 publications and analyzed in terms of existing causal factors of corruption, annual trend of publications and the thematic categorization of the identified variables. The most identifiable causes were over close relationships, poor professional ethical standards, negative industrial and working conditions, negative role models and inadequate sanctions. A conceptual framework of causes of corruption was established, after categorizing the 44 variables into five unique categories. In descending order, the five constructs are Psychosocial-Specific Causes, Organizational-Specific Causes, Regulatory-Specific Causes, Project-Specific Causes and Statutory-Specific Causes. This study extends the current literature of corruption research in construction management and contributes to a deepened understanding of the causal instigators of corruption identified in CPM. The findings from this study provide valuable information and extended knowledge to industry practitioners and policymakers as well as
Full Text Available Serbia is widely believed to be a country flooded with corruption. The question naturally arises as to what might be the causes of this unwelcome phenomenon. The basic stand extensively elaborated in this text is that the causes of the corruption are institutional, i.e. systemic. Without recourse to the systemic causes, the alternative would be that corruption arises from some special anthropological traits of this people. Upon rejecting such an explanation of corruptive practices, the institutional roots are further elaborated. Economic and other policies can also be conducive to corruption, but they are made in an environment structured in the spirit of public choice - policies themselves are motivated by the systemic peculiarities - so that the ultimate determinants are again to be sought in the institutional order of the given society. It might appear at first sight that corruption should be easy to eliminate, as institutions are man-made and not an unchangeable given coming from nature or some uncontrollable entity. However, institutional development is constrained by many factors - knowledge, competent people, information systems, real resources, and financial means - and it is argued that it can be as painful, uncertain, costly and slow as the economic development itself. The complexity of the corruption as an economic, social and even ethical phenomenon is demonstrated by the multiplicity of its definitions and by the conspicuous succession of alternative definitions in time. The problems of measurement are elaborated to some length. Corruption is illegal and therefore, unlike most economic aggregates, cannot be measured directly; it is the perception of the corruption rather than the corruption itself that is being measured in widely cited national and international surveys. The respondents are not centered exclusively at revealing the truth, but are subject to a wide variety of motivations. Some of them are motivated to overstate the
Banerjee, Panchali; Mukherjee, Vivekananda
The paper theoretically explores the impact of introducing bureaucratic competition on corruption. For this purpose it considers three different measures of corruption such as corruption incidence (CI), relative corruption incidence (CRI) and corruption rents (CR) in two different types of economies namely corruption-tolerant economies and corruption-reliant economies. As it compares both intensive margin (i.e. the magnitude of bribe) and extensive margin (i.e. the number of bribe incident) o...
There has been a lot of works on corruption cases. We must think that corruption is a cultural aspect in a social life. We cannot separate the corruption with the cultural system where the corruption raised. Indonesia has been recorded to be one of the countries of the worst economic and political system on corruption case. The paper is introducing the usage of agent based simulation for analyzing the corruption specifically in Indonesia as the biggest corruption level. The model showed is na...
Dian Puji Simatupang
Full Text Available Since eradicating corruption having been continously encouraged by late governments – and until now – , there would not be less important as to retracting the corrupted assets. There are many aspects to be considered in doing such action, such as manifesting the legal aspects of administrative law, and so other applied national regulations. By these regulations, such as Law No. 7 of 2006 on Ratification of United Nations Convention against Corruption, 2003 (Konvensi Perserikatan Bangsa Bangsa Anti-Korupsi, 2003, Law Number 25 of 2003 On Amendment to Law Number 15 of 2002 on Money Laundering, Act 30 of 2002 on Corruption Eradication Commission, Law Number 20 Year 2001 regarding Amendment to Law Number 31 Year 1999 on the Eradication of Corruption, and Government Regulation Number 65 of 1999 on Implementation Procedures for Examination of State Property, retraction the corrupted assets should be define in order to get known about eradicating corruption.
This thesis consists of four essays. The first essay looks at pollution taxation under capital mobility, and analyzes the role of pre-commitment by countries to their pollution tax rate. A polluting firm sells its product in two countries, and can locate and produce in a single country or in both countries. Due to the discrete-choice nature of the firm's location problem, the countries' welfare functions are discontinuous in their pollution tax rate. We show that when the countries cannot pre-commit to their pollution tax, the firm can still engender tax competition between them by strategically locating in both the countries. Moreover, pre-commitment pollution taxation may not be welfare improving for the countries, although it always makes the firm better off. The second essay studies the effect of liberalization on corruption. Corruptible inspectors enforce an environmental regulation on firms, and are monitored by an honest regulator. Liberalization not only increases the variety of goods and the marginal utility of accepting a bribe, but also puts pressure on the regulator to curb corruption. The interaction of these two effects can cause corruption to initially increase with liberalization, and then decrease beyond a threshold. Moreover, equilibrium corruption is lower when the regulator is able to pre-commit to her monitoring frequency. The third essay analyzes optimal labeling (information revelation) procedures for hidden attributes of credence goods. Consumers are heterogeneous in their preference for the hidden attribute, and producers can either self-label their products, or have them certified by a third party. The government can impose self or third-party labeling requirements on either the "green" or the "brown" producers. When corrupt producers can affix spurious labels, the government needs to monitor them. A mandatory self-labeling policy is shown to generally dominate mandatory third-party labeling. The fourth essay develops formulas for
Ítalo Sérgio Lopes Campos
Full Text Available Considering the complexity of judo and the ample energy and neuromuscular demands, a whole process of competitive preparation must be directed to different physical capacities allowing the athlete to perform his combat actions with the best suitability possible. Mapping the behaviour of a judo athlete from observations of behaviour units in a real fighting situation would be a way of trying to identify the best topography or the best "aptitude" to achieve victory. The present investigation analysed the judo from the interactions of a real competition situation, aiming to verify, between winners and losers, possible differences or correlations between anthropometric parameters, motor performance and functional behaviours in a competitive situation. The results showed that: a the experience is decisive between winning or losing; b leg techniques are the most used between winners and losers, and losers use them more frequently; c there are different strategies between fights; d The energy cost in judo depends on the configuration of the fights. It is believed that such results can help coaches and athletes in guiding and rationalizing the training process in relation to performance determinants in judo.
Lexchin, Joel; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Gagnon, Marc André; Crombie, James; Thacker, Paul; Shnier, Adrienne
Corruption in healthcare generally and specifically in the pharmaceutical arena has recently been highlighted in reports by Transparency International. This article focuses on four areas of corruption: legislative/regulatory, financial, ideological/ethical, and communications. The problems identified and the solutions considered focus on structural considerations affecting how pharmaceuticals are discovered, developed, distributed, and ultimately used in clinical settings. These include recourse to user fees in the regulatory sphere, application of intellectual property rights to medical contexts (patents and access to research data), commercial sponsorship of ghost writing and guest authors, linkage/delinkage of the funding of research and overall health objectives to/from drug pricing and sales, transparency of payments to healthcare professionals and institutions, and credible regulatory sanctions. In general, financial and other incentives for all actors in the system should be structured to align with desired social outcomes - and to minimise conflicts of interest among researchers and clinicians.
Full Text Available This paper analyses the scale and sources of views on the prevalence of corruption in the education sector in Poland. Through the use of public opinion surveys, I answer questions on how the corruption level in Polish educational institutions has changed over time and how it compares to other public institutions (such as the health care sector and police and to the situation in other European countries. My goal is to investigate the effect of individual-level predictors of perceiving schools as corrupt in Poland, with special attention given to structural determinants and previous bribe-giving experiences of respondents. The results reveal that in Poland relatively few respondents have experienced recent acts of giving bribes in schools or perceive educational institutions as corrupt. However, there is a structural pattern behind the sources of negative opinions. The effect of socio-economic determinants on views relating to corruption in Polish schools is strongly pronounced and trends in the opposite direction compared to the effects reported in other European countries.
Aktan, Coşkun Can
Unethicalbehavior in government is viewed as a situation where there isfraudulent or dishonest conduct or improper behaviour by people who are in aposition or power. Bribery, extortion, embezzlement,the use of legislated powersby government officials for illegitimate private gain, nepotism, rent seeking etc.are some examples forunethical behavior in government.How to deal with unethical behavior in government?. How to curb corruption?Experience demo...
Deretić Nataša Lj.
Full Text Available Corruption has always been regarded as a special form of enrichment, based on prohibited and unethical grounds. Hence 'political corruption' could be defined as the immorality of the powerful; as the use of political power for the purpose of getting rich without any legal basis. Immorality of the powerful is the root of all the abuses that occur in the society. Those who are at the top of the pyramid of power have been particularly prominent in acquiring as large a fortune as possible. The phenomenon of 'political corruption' has been known in all societies, from the oldest to modern ones. In the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia, there was an established custom of reciprocity between deliberate gifts and requested services. This phenomenon could be observed with Pericles, who is, among other things, attributed the idea of compensation for participation in state affairs. The phenomenon of 'political corruption' is referred to in Cicero's Rome, where bribery as a form of wealth acquisition without legal basis was formally condemned, but also widespread. Even today we can see that there are powerful persons who persist in the violation or circumvention of rules which guide any structured society: their wealth originates from the enormous acquisition of material things, but also the acquisition of various privileges which they are not entitled to, such as titles, promotions, etc. They are the ones who have brought about the demise of the Latin sentence that the basis of any developed society is: 'To live an honest life, hurt no one, and grant everyone their due.'.
Pérez, Orlando J.
ABSTRACT In 2016 Panama was buffeted by corruption scandals and a decelerating economy, which had negative consequences for the political standing of President Juan Carlos Varela. The “Panama Papers” revealed the underlying pathology in Panama's political and economic system. After a decade of rapid economic growth, Panama's economy showed signs of slowing down. However, the completion of the Panama Canal expansion project provided hope for an economic boost as the waterway was able to servic...
The presence of business-corruption in a market provokes firms to make choices between legal business approaches and illegal bribery. The outcome of a chosen strategy will usually be uncertain at the time the decision is made, and a firm's decision will depend partly on its attitude towards risk. Drawing on the empirical data provided by a survey of 82 Norwegian exporting businesses, the paper proposes a theory about firm's choices between legal and illegal business practices. It begins by de...
The phenomenon referred to as corruption has now been generating a high degree of interest for over twenty years. It has in fact spawned not only an abundant literature but also a monitoring and advisory industry whose specific outlook heavily shapes the debate on integrity issues. This industry is widely supported by aid providers, be it the international financing institutions or national development agencies. At this juncture, it therefore seemed worthwhile to examine more critically an ar...
PAPIOTI, Katerina Chara
Defence date: 1 December 2014 Examining Board: Professor Massimo Morelli, Bocconi University, Supervisor; Professor Andrea Mattozzi, EUI; Professor Marco Celentani, Universidad Carlos III; Professor Matthias Dahm, University of Nottingham. This thesis contributes to the understanding of corruption and auctions. It consists of three chapters focusing on diverse aspects of these two general topics as well as their combinations, from an applied microeconomic theory perspective: (i) the eff...
Studying the relation between corruption and economic factors and examining its consequences for economic development have attracted many economists and physicists in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the role of stock market development on corruption. Analyzing a data set of corruption and stock market development measures such as market capitalization and total value of share trading for 46 countries around the world for the period 2007-2009, we examine the dependence of the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) on stock market development. Our findings suggest that there exists a power-law dependence between corruption and stock market development. We also observe a negative relation between level of corruption and financial system improvement.
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper is dedicated to estimating the influence of corruption upon Romania’s economic growth by means of an econometric model ARMA component. In order to quantify the impact, firstly some indicators have been identified to properly assess the economic condition and corruption. The most important economic growth indicator is real GDP growth rate (or chain index of real GDP. In order to estimate the level of corruption, the authors have used the Corruption Perceptions Index, annually launched and calculated by Transparency International. The model chosen for this paper has an ARMA component and expresses the dependence of the economic variable on the corruption variable by a straight-line relationship. The model shows that one of the factors having a significant negative impact upon the economic growth is corruption.
Vuković Slobodan V.
Full Text Available The author is analyzing intensity and outspread of corruption in Serbian judicial system, with special emphasis on business courts. After the introductory part, the analysis starts with the trust of the citizens and economic subjects in the institution of judiciary. Then author elaborates the extent to which Serbian judiciary is liable to corruption, how large is the corruptive pressure, in what scope it is corrupted and what actors bear crucial responsibility for the present situation. Hence, basic causes of corruption, the scope and locations and the channels through which it spreads are being analyzed. At the end, a point view of entrepreneurs regarding the causes of corruption in business courts will be presented.
Nugraha, Muhammad Ridwan Reza; Nuraini, Nuning
Based on data from transparency.org, in 2015 Indonesia was ranked 88 out of 168 most corrupt countries in the world, with a score of 36 (high corruption levels 0 - 100 free of corruption). Scores of corruption in Indonesia increased from 32 to 36 since 2012 until 2015. Since 2002, the eradication of corruption in Indonesia conducted by Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi. The number of legal actions undertaken by the Commission since 2002 to 2015 increased. In the mathematical model, we want to know the tendency of many legal actions carried out by the Commission for the foreseeable future. By knowing these trends, we can take a variety of strategies that can make Indonesia free from corruption.
Kolesin, Igor; Malafeyev, Oleg; Andreeva, Mariia; Ivanukovich, Georgiy
A mathematical model of corruption with regard to psychological mimicry in the administrative apparatus with three forms of corruption is constructed. It is assumed that the change of officials forms of corruption is due to situational factors, and anti-corruption laws imply the change of the dominant form. Form's changing is modeled by the system of four differential equations (including groups of corrupt officials), describing the number of groups. The speed of the transition from group to group is expressed through the frequency of meetings. The controlling influence is expressed through the force of anticorruption laws. Two cases are discussed: strictly constant and variable (depending on the scope of one or another form). The equilibrium states that allow to specify the dominant form and investigate its stability, depending on the parameters of the psychological mimicry and rigor of anti-corruption laws are found and discussed.
guillotine spreads in all of France and brings to justice all the traitors. There is no other means to inspire the...the end, we shall fight in France , we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we...deprivation: “Any ideology—even the very best, even Marxism -Leninism itself—is ineffective unless it is linked with objective realities, meets
Full Text Available The corruption phenomenon in Romania is one of the factors that have slowed the progress of economic and political development, and therefore the fight against this phenomenon constitutes a primaryconcern of the entire Romanian society, in order to increase the level of integrity and trust towards state institutions and in order to integrate the Romanian society in the European community. Law no. 286/2009 regarding the new Criminal Code brings a number of changes in terms of corruption offenses, changes that have drawn much criticism. The faulty wording in the general part has resulted in the decriminalization of the largest part of the corruption crimes already committed and, as such, a partial indirect amnesty of thecorruption acts, which have seriously affected the social system and Romania's development. The manner in which a crime is defined by law or the ambiguity of the definitions regarding the criminal nature of an act seriously affects the clarity and predictability of the criminal policy. Moreover, the draft Criminal Code and the draft Criminal Procedure Code contain a number of provisions which are contrary to the Constitutional Court's jurisprudence and may affect the efficiency of the law.
Patrick X.W. Zou
Corruption is a social phenomenon deep rooted in the history of mankind. It is similar to other kinds of crime which are likely to occur in procurement of works by governments and local authorities, due to the large amount of money involved in a single transaction and the difficulty in monitoring project expenditure. Therefore, it is necessary to develop strategies to minimize any corruption risks and corrupt behaviour in procurement of construction projects. The aim of this paper is to revie...
Kar, Saibal; Saha, Shrabani
A number of recent studies for Latin America show that as the size of the informal economy grows, corruption is less harmful to inequality. We investigate if this relationship is equally compelling for developing countries in Asia where corruption, inequality and shadow economies are considerably large. We use Panel Least Square and Fixed Effects Models for Asia to find that both 'Corruption Perception Index' and 'ICRG' index are sensitive to a number of important macroeconomic variables. We ...
Garnett, Stephen T.; Joseph, Liana N.; Watson, James E. M.; Zander, Kerstin K.
In many sectors, freedom in capital flow has allowed optimization of investment returns through choosing sites that provide the best value for money. These returns, however, can be compromised in countries where corruption is prevalent. We assessed where the best value for money might be obtained for investment in threatened species that occur at a single site, when taking into account corruption. We found that the influence of corruption on potential investment decisions was outweighed by th...
Løvdahl, Sebastian Rosten
In the view of the latest corporate scandals in Norway and increased focus on ethics and anti-corruption, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate the roles of Purchasing and Supply Management and Organizational Culture when fostering ethical behavior and preventing corruption. More specifically, this research attempts to investigate and theorize how organizations can foster ethical behavior and prevent corruption in their respective activities. The research methodology is qualitative...
Tøndel, Line; Søreide, Tina
This paper explores how the relationship between bureaucratic complexity and corruption affects the performance in utilities. We observe considerable variation in the performance of the utilities across countries, also across countries which appear to be relatively similar in terms of GDP per capita. Our hypothesis is that corruption is an important explanatory factor. In particular, corruption coupled with a complex regulatory structure can have negative effects on performance in this sector...
Johnmary, Ani Kelechi
Corruption is the direct or indirect act of violence aimed at exploiting unmerited gain and or advantage from a person, structure, institution or environment. In Nigeria, corruption has grown to an unquantifiable level. The major causes of corruption include absence of political will, progressive suppression of the culture of accountability, geometric societal poverty and negative socio-economic conditions as well as greed and the get-rich-quick syndrome etc. The paper presents the multi-dime...
Corruption may affect voter turnout either by mobilizing citizens to go to the polls or by promoting voter disaffection. Using Spanish local and survey data, we study whether these effects depend on partisan leanings or the timing of scandals. Our results show that repeated episodes of corruption increase the boost abstentionism. Independent voters – those with no political attachments – are the only group that that abstains in response to corruption. The incumbent’s core supporters fail to r...
Noor Sulastry Yurni Ahmad
The war against corruption is vital to a nation. No one can dispute the negative consequences of corruption, but still, there are those who tend to condone its practice and view it as a necessary evil of economic development. Governments in several Asian and African countries tend to accept this as part and partial of economic development. However, the fallacy of this argument was exposed following the 1997 Asian financial crisis, which demonstrated how corruption had short-changed the countr...
Chandler, JD; Graham, JL
This study explores the general problems associated with marketing across international markets and focuses specifically on the role of corruption in deterring international marketing success. The authors do this by introducing a broader conceptualization of corruption. The dimensions of corruption and their importance in explaining the exporters' successes in international markets are developed empirically. Partial Least Squares formative indicators are used in a comprehensive model includin...
U. Weitzel; S. Berns
We use a panel of 4979 cross-border and domestic takeovers to test the relation between host country corruption and premiums paid for local targets. Host country corruption is negatively associated with target premiums, after correcting for other governance-related factors such as political stability, legal systems, and financial disclosure standards. We estimate that deterioration in the corruption index by one point (on a 10-point scale) is, on average, associated with a reduction of 21&per...
Corruption today is quite a complex phenomenon in Kosovo, which is a serious obstacle for an efficient state. Today experience shows that corruption is bad and affects economic development. Corruption leads governments to intervene where they do not need, and this impairs their ability to formulate and implement policies in the areas in which government intervention is needed, such as: health, environment, welfare people and economic development in general. This paper will address the nature ...
Epp, Lena; Leszczynska, Nastassia
This study investigates the impact of a public officials' fairness considerations towards citizens in a petty corruption situation. Other-regarding preferences, and, more particularly, fairness concerns are widely acknowledged as crucial elements of individual economic decision-making. In petty corruption contexts, public officials are to a large extent aware of differences between citizens. Here, we experimentally investigate how fairness considerations may impact on corrupt behaviour. Our n...
Andvig, Jens Chr.; Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge
Crime and the fear of being hit by crime and small-scale violence are key economic and social problems in most developing countries, not least felt strongly by the poor. Extensive corruption in the police, experienced or perceived, contributes seriously to the problem. A key question raised in the paper is: How is police corruption linked to the wider processes of development - including crime, violence and poverty? The paper examines (i) how and why corruption may arise in the daily routines...
Increasing scale and scope of corruption in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic transformations as it touches upon issues of organizational structures. This paper presents an overview of the research on corruption in organizations and develops models of corrupt organizations, including the vertical structure, the horizontal structure, and the hierarchy, as applied to transition economies.
Corruption becomes the greatest enemy most countries face including Indonesia. Commitment to eradicate corruption significantly increases yet it would be meaningless if it is not supported by adequate legislation to implement the law effectively. Reversal burden of proof essentially aims to facilitate law enforcers to seek and disclose assets a suspect owns allegedly as corruption crime. The principle of reversal burden of proof was originated from Anglo-Saxon countries and this still applies...
CERN Mail Service
Spam problem constantly increases its severity: currently about 90% of e-mails received daily by CERN Mail servers are unsolicited messages - called ‘Spam' - and spammers are doing their best to bypass anti-spam filters. In these conditions, users' feedback is priceless. It allows the CERN Mail Service to improve Spam fighting performance, and of course reduce the number of received unsolicited mails. Outlook users should note the existence of anti-Spam buttons': Check Spam classification of an e-mail', Update personal whitelist' and Report Spam'. The Report Spam' button is very important: it removes the selected Spam from your Inbox, and sends a copy to the CERN Mail Service. Those reports are used to build new filters nearly in real time; a new Spam might be blocked in less than 15 minutes! Therefore, every Outlook user is warmly encouraged to get rid of the Spam messages received in the Inbox folder by using the Report Spam' button and not b...
Li, Qiang; An, Lian; Xu, Jing; Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina
This paper investigates the effect of corruption on health outcomes by using cross-country panel data covering about 150 countries for the period of 1995 to 2012. We employ ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed-effects and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation methods, and find that corruption significantly increases mortality rates, and reduces life expectancy and immunization rates. The results are consistent across different regions, gender, and measures of corruption. The findings suggest that reducing corruption can be an effective method to improve health outcomes.
Elina L. Sidorenko
Full Text Available Objective to summarize criminological social and economic indicators of development of the Russian Federation subjects to identify and assess the hidden system dependencies between social indicators and levels of corruption to define the links between individual indicators and to develop the methodology of anticorruption ranking of the regions. Methods comparison analysis synthesis mathematical modeling correlation comparisons and extrapolation. Results in the work the author describes the methodology of the complex analysis of corruption in the Russian Federation subjects and elaborates forecasts for its development short term and medium term. Scientific novelty for the first time in domestic criminology the algorithm is proposed of studying and forecasting regional corruption on the basis of polyfactorial analysis of criminological social and political indicators. For profound and comprehensive study of the regional aspects of corruption a model was developed to monitor and forecast on the basis of measuring the polyfactorial corruption index PCI. PCI consists of two groups of parameters corruption potential of the region of the country CPR and corruption risk in the region CRR. Practical significance the research results can be used in the process of developing regional strategies of corruption counteraction as well as in adjustment of the existing methods of corruption prevention.
Patrick X.W. Zou
Full Text Available Corruption is a social phenomenon deep rooted in the history of mankind. It is similar to other kinds of crime which are likely to occur in procurement of works by governments and local authorities, due to the large amount of money involved in a single transaction and the difficulty in monitoring project expenditure. Therefore, it is necessary to develop strategies to minimize any corruption risks and corrupt behaviour in procurement of construction projects. The aim of this paper is to review the current corruption prevention practices in China’s construction industry and suggest ways for improvement. To collect useful and insightful information, desktop studies, focus-group workshops and face-to-face interviews were conducted with supervisory and construction officers at different levels – state, province and municipal in China, who have direct responsibilities and experience in cracking down construction corruption. It was found that corruption happens in different forms during any stage of construction project procurement, and the current anti-corrupt practices are reactive rather than proactive. It was also found that improvements on the legal system, inspection strategies and processes, and promotion of ethical culture are all required. Based on the research findings, corruption prevention strategies were developed. The paper concludes that institution of random and regular checks, severe punishment and prosecution to corrupt personnel, and promotion of a healthy and clean construction culture are all necessary to mitigate the scourge.
Full Text Available Corruption today is quite a complex phenomenon in Kosovo, which is a serious obstacle for an efficient state. Today experience shows that corruption is bad and affects economic development. Corruption leads governments to intervene where they do not need, and this impairs their ability to formulate and implement policies in the areas in which government intervention is needed, such as: health, environment, welfare people and economic development in general. This paper will address the nature of corruption, its causes and its effects on the country's economic and social development.
The history of foreign aid has been inextricably linked with corruption. Since the inception of International Development Association(IDA) in 1960, with its concessional lending to developing countries, a large body of writings has emerged on the corrosive effect of corruption that undermines the effectiveness of foreign aid. In view of the pervasiveness of corruption, the international development community has taken a firm stance against it. This essay begins with a brief discussion of the ...
... corruption. 6701.107 Section 6701.107 Administrative Personnel GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL..., fraud, abuse and corruption. GSA employees shall disclose immediately any waste, fraud, abuse, and corruption to appropriate authorities, such as the Office of Inspector General. ...
Duțulescu, Silviu; Nișulescu-Ashrafzadeh, Ileana
Corruption is becoming an increasingly acute problem lately for Romania and the authorities are trying to find solutions in this regard. Until now the anti-corruption strategy has undergone four stages, by approving as many sets of anti-corruption strategic documents (National Anti-corruption Strategies in 2001, 2005, 2008 and 2012). In this research, we started from the assumption that there is a correlation between corruption in the public sector and the corruption in the private s...
Smith, Daniel Jordan
This article examines corruption in Nigeria’s development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains. PMID:24265511
McCafferty, F L; McCafferty, M A
In the closed society of a law enforcement agency, factors such as the conspiracy of silence, authoritarian supervision, and police discretion contribute to corruption. This article describes various types of corrupt behavior by police officers, reports the incidence of corruption in law enforcement agencies, discusses psychiatric conditions that may arise from corruption and also contribute to further corruption, and reviews proposed remedies for corruption. It also suggests that an understanding of corruption in law enforcement might be helpful in understanding, correcting, and preventing corruption in other professions, including medicine.
This study investigated the prevalence, causes and effects of academic corruption in Rivers State universities, Nigeria. Data were collected from 400 respondents using a 'Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Academic Corruption Questionnaire' (PCEACQ). The data were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages.
This article uses representative data for firms for Latin American firms and show that corruption decreases employment in firms. This result is robust to changes in specification and also consistent with the use of an instrumental variables approach. Corruption appears to negatively impact the growth and wealth in a country, not by introducing labour distortion in firms, but by keeping them small.
Corruption, Politics and Societal values in Tanzania: An evaluation of the Mkapa administration's anti corruption efforts. Bruce Heilman, Lawrean Ndumbaro. Abstract. (Af. J. Political Science: 2001 7(1): 1-20). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
... causes and effects of corruption on service delivery in Africa. It is within this context that this paper explored Principal Agent Theory to explain the relationship between corruption, public governance, customer due diligence and the various aspects of development including economic growth and sustainable development.
Full Text Available The background of this paper is found in recent theories why corruption prevalence menaces the safety of business environment. In order to examine if exposure to corruption derogates business results of firms in Croatia we have tested the hypothesis that higher corruption perceptions of business leaders in small, medium and large firms in Croatia are associated with firms’ worse financial results. As a seminal research we measure corruption perceptions of business by employing unique data from three annual surveys conducted in more than one hundred firms in Croatia. The constructed index of corruption perceptions of business is used in the empirical analysis how higher corruption perceptions of firms in Croatia are affecting financial results in terms of total revenue per employee, net profit per employee and total sales per employee. The years of observation are 2002, 2003 and 2004. The extension of our research to three groups of small, medium and large firms in Croatia aims to separately examine the correlation between corruption perceptions indices and financial results for each group of firms. The preliminary results indicate that corruption is more affecting small firms in Croatia. Policy recommendations and lines of further research are discussed.
Dorozhkin, Evgenij M.; Kislov, Alexander G.; Syuzeva, Natalya V.; Ozhegova, Anna P.; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.
The urgency of the problem under investigation is due to the danger and at the same time the prevalence of corruption, so special attention is given to the need to supplement the repressive state and awareness-raising measures forming, especially in educational institutions of special subculture, raising a categorical rejection of corruption. The…
Osipian, Ararat L.
Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…
Agbo, Aaron Adibe; Iwundu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi
Psychologically oriented studies on corruption are lacking despite the fact that psychology has contributed enormously to the understanding of criminal behaviors over the past decades. Part of this problem relates to the lack of psychological tone in the definition and measurement of corruption. Taking a clue from the extensive psychological discourse on crime, which provides strong evidence for the existence of criminal tendencies, we conceptualized corruption here in terms of propensity. Possible personality and motivation determinants of this propensity were then explored. Results revealed that extraversion and conscientiousness positively and inversely predicted corruption tendencies, respectively. Results further showed that extrinsic motivation positively potentiates corruption tendencies, whereas intrinsic motivation was inversely related to corruption tendencies. Analysis of demographic variables revealed that males were more likely to be corrupt than their female counterparts. In general, findings here are consistent with the criminal behavior literature, which strongly suggests that the study of corruption is indeed amenable to psychological theories and methods and that individual differences variables constitute important explanatory variables in this regard.
Serfontein, Erika; de Waal, Elda
Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's Constitution, which aims at…
Osipian, Ararat L.
A substantial body of literature considers excessive corruption an indicator of a weak state. However, in nondemocratic societies, corruption--whether informally approved, imposed, or regulated by public authorities--is often an indicator of a vertical power rather than an indicator of a weak state. This article explores the interrelations between…
Corruption presents a major challenge to democratic oversight of public finance and development in general. John Githongo is a founding member of the Kenyan chapter of Transparency International and has gained a reputation as one of Africa's most distinguished opponents of corruption. Mr Githongo served as ...
In the research on 'Corruption: Threat to Democracy and Market Economy', the researchers critically explore the issue of corruption and how it threatens the democracy and market economy in Nigeria. Relevant literature was revised, which formed the secondary data. The theoretical framework of the study is political ...
The bane of the Nigerian economy has been mainly corruption in all sectors. This work is an in depth analysis on the meaning, kinds, causes and the economic implications to the country. It x-rayed how various leaders past and present have contributed to the underdevelopment of the country through corruption and proffers ...
Corruption decreases government efficiency and effectiveness, and influences the way citizens perceive the overall quality of the government. The main focus of this paper is to examine why perceptions of public corruption did not change during the Kibaki administration. This administration was in power for 10 years ...
Corruption is a universal problem which compromises people's quest for development, peace, democracy, and human rights though its degree of severity varies. Due to its universality, there was global campaign against corruption and has resulted in an international regime of law. Law is one of the strategies of combating ...
Abe, Kazutomo; Wilson, John S.
This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that ...
Yongning, Yuan; Jian, Zhang; Haibo, Wang
Combating corruption is an important condition for bringing about the flourishing of academic research. There are many reasons for the emergence and proliferation of academic corruption today. These are closely related to the long-term lack of training among our country's scholars in modern academic standards and the absence of an academic spirit…
Idialu, Jeremiah Uwaifo; Oghuma, Richard Iyere
There has been widespread corruption in almost all societies and a general belief that without the involvement of Accountants, or if accountants carry out their duties effectively, there will be no corruption. Therefore this paper is designed to look at the current approach educating accountants in order to discover the educational arrangement put…
Pellegrini, L.; Gerlagh, R.
A common finding of recent theoretical and empirical literature is that corruption has a negative effect on economic growth. In the paper, through growth regression analysis, we estimate the direct and indirect effects of corruption on economic growth. The indirect transmission channels,
Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); E.A. de Groot (Bert)
textabstractCorruption may lead to tax evasion and unbalanced favors and this may lead to extraordinary wealth amongst a few. We study for 13 countries 6 years of Forbes rankings data and we examine whether corruption leads to more inequality amongst the wealthiest. When we correct in our panel
Ferwerda, J.; Deleanu, I.S.; Unger, B.
Red flags are widely used to minimize the risk of various forms of economic misconduct, among which corruption in public procurement. Drawing on criminal investigations, the literature has developed several indicators of corruption in public procurements and has put them forward as viable risk
Herzfeld, T.; Weiss, Ch.
A common finding of many analytical models is the existence of multiple equilibria of corruption. Countries characterized by the same economic, social and cultural background do not necessarily experience the same levels of corruption. In this article, we use Kernel Density Estimation techniques to
Ferwerda, Joras; Deleanu, Ioana; Unger, Brigitte
Red flags are widely used to minimize the risk of various forms of economic misconduct, among which corruption in public procurement. Drawing on criminal investigations, the literature has developed several indicators of corruption in public procurements and has put them forward as viable risk
The paper examines the link between corruption and development, using a contextual analysis of the Nigerian experience from Independence (1960) to this present day (2010). It conceptualizes corruption as “putrefaction, tainting, debasement, perversion or venality, spoiling, destruction of purity or falling away from ...
This instrument was used for data collection. Three research questions were asked and the findings of the research show that allegations of corruption in Nigerian Universities are not imaginary and false. Intervention strategies were offered, in view that the menace of corruption in Nigerian Universities will be ameliorated.
Book review of: Corruption. A Very Short Introduction / by Leslie Holmes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. 143pp., £7.99 (p/b), ISBN 9780199689699.......Book review of: Corruption. A Very Short Introduction / by Leslie Holmes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. 143pp., £7.99 (p/b), ISBN 9780199689699....
Ani Kelechi Johnmary
Full Text Available Corruption is the direct or indirect act of violence aimed at exploiting unmerited gain and or advantage from a person, structure, institution or environment. In Nigeria, corruption has grown to an unquantifiable level. The major causes of corruption include absence of political will, progressive suppression of the culture of accountability, geometric societal poverty and negative socio-economic conditions as well as greed and the get-rich-quick syndrome etc. The paper presents the multi-dimensional phases of corruption in Nigeria and the salient mandate of the Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal Act, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC as well as Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC. Unfortunately, the work reveal that the effectiveness of the above institutions and other corruption-watchdog setups has being watered-down by the negative push and pull effects of what is popularly known as the ‘Nigerian factor’. Finally, it argues that the most dangerous implications of corruption are the recurrence of social violence and the near-total collapse of ethical culture in every sector of the Nigerian national life, while recommending multidimensional transformative cultures of corruption management that must be collectively championed by the citizenry.
Weitzel, U.; Berns, S.
We use a panel of 4979 cross-border and domestic takeovers to test the relation between host country corruption and premiums paid for local targets. Host country corruption is negatively associated with target premiums, after correcting for other governance related factors such as political
There is abundant evidence in extant literatures which have documented the endemic nature of corruption and its devastating effects on the Nigerian socio political structures. The colossal corruptions have resulted in the loss of the capacity to function. The structure of the Nigerian nation, as it is presently structured cannot ...
Beekman, G.; Bulte, E.H.; Nillesen, E.E.M.
We study how corruption affects economic activities of households in rural Liberia. A proxy of corruption of community leaders is obtained by directly monitoring the diversion of inputs associated with a development project. We measure quantities of these inputs twice; before and after the chief
Ogbewere Bankole Ijewereme
Full Text Available Corruption is a clog in the wheel of progress in Nigeria and has incessantly frustrated the realization of noble national goals, despite the enormous natural and human resources in Nigeria. The article reviews the concept of corruption in line with its forms and effects on the Nigerian State, as well as corruption in public service from Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa’s era to President Goodluck Jonathan’s administration. The article examines the idealistic, resource curse, two public, low risk–high benefit and anomie theories, and consequently adopts resource curse, low risk–high benefit theories to explain causes of corruption in Nigeria. Also, some personal observations and data from Transparency International are utilized to explain corrupt practices in Nigeria. The article concludes that there is corruption in the Nigerian Public Sector because of societal pressure, tribalism, nepotism, low risk–high benefits of involving in corruption among others. The article recommends some measures to combat corruption in Nigeria.
Herzfeld, T.; Weiss, Ch.
Numerous studies have investigated the causes and measured the consequences of differences in corruption among countries. An effective legal system has been viewed as a key component in reducing corruption. However, estimating cross-sectional as well as panel data models, we find a significant
This review synthesizes the literature studying illegality and government corruption in forest management. After discussing the theoretical connections between different types of corruption and illegal forest-related activities it describes the major trends in previous studies, examining cross-national patterns as well as local in-depth studies. Both theory and available empirical findings provide a straightforward suggestion: Bribery is indeed a "door opener" for illegal activities to take place in forest management. It then discusses the implications for conservation, focusing first on international protection schemes such as the REDD+ and second on efforts to reduce illegality and bribery in forest management. Key aspects to consider in the discussion on how to design monitoring institutions of forest regulations is how to involve actors without the incentive to engage in bribery and how to make use of new technologies that may publicize illegal behavior in distant localities. The review concludes by discussing avenues for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abdallah, Sherief; Sayed, Rasha; Rahwan, Iyad; Leveck, Brad L; Cebrian, Manuel; Rutherford, Alex; Fowler, James H
Centralized sanctioning institutions have been shown to emerge naturally through social learning, displace all other forms of punishment and lead to stable cooperation. However, this result provokes a number of questions. If centralized sanctioning is so successful, then why do many highly authoritarian states suffer from low levels of cooperation? Why do states with high levels of public good provision tend to rely more on citizen-driven peer punishment? Here, we consider how corruption influences the evolution of cooperation and punishment. Our model shows that the effectiveness of centralized punishment in promoting cooperation breaks down when some actors in the model are allowed to bribe centralized authorities. Counterintuitively, a weaker centralized authority is actually more effective because it allows peer punishment to restore cooperation in the presence of corruption. Our results provide an evolutionary rationale for why public goods provision rarely flourishes in polities that rely only on strong centralized institutions. Instead, cooperation requires both decentralized and centralized enforcement. These results help to explain why citizen participation is a fundamental necessity for policing the commons.
Abdallah, Sherief; Sayed, Rasha; Rahwan, Iyad; LeVeck, Brad L.; Cebrian, Manuel; Rutherford, Alex; Fowler, James H.
Centralized sanctioning institutions have been shown to emerge naturally through social learning, displace all other forms of punishment and lead to stable cooperation. However, this result provokes a number of questions. If centralized sanctioning is so successful, then why do many highly authoritarian states suffer from low levels of cooperation? Why do states with high levels of public good provision tend to rely more on citizen-driven peer punishment? Here, we consider how corruption influences the evolution of cooperation and punishment. Our model shows that the effectiveness of centralized punishment in promoting cooperation breaks down when some actors in the model are allowed to bribe centralized authorities. Counterintuitively, a weaker centralized authority is actually more effective because it allows peer punishment to restore cooperation in the presence of corruption. Our results provide an evolutionary rationale for why public goods provision rarely flourishes in polities that rely only on strong centralized institutions. Instead, cooperation requires both decentralized and centralized enforcement. These results help to explain why citizen participation is a fundamental necessity for policing the commons. PMID:24478283
Vuković Slobodan V.
Full Text Available The most outspread kind of corruption according to the experience of private entrepreneurs, is in the acquisition of a building location, then during acquisition of import-export licenses, acquiring of government contracts, and acquisition of telephone and electric power services. In contrast to this, bribery is present the least in the fields of tax administration, company registration, and approval of new sales prices Outspread of corruption is large. More than a half of private entrepreneurs (57,8% have declared that they have paid to the public officials so called additional services. Contrary to this, one quarter (24,8% declared that have not done something like that. Most frequent amount of this additional payment goes between 1 and 10% of their income. They not denied that sometimes is possible to avoid this payment, at the cost of spending large amount of time. There is also no guarantee that paid 'service' will be consumed for sure, so one third and often one fifth of entrepreneurs are in need to pay same service again. Service that is matter of deal can be obtain: always in 8,3% cases, usually in 40,1%, often in 15,0%, sometimes in 11,9%, rare in 3,4% and never in 5% of cases.
Érica Rodrigues D'Alencar
Full Text Available Art therapy is the therapeutic use of artistic activity in the context of the professional relationship with people affected by disease, injury or by seeking personal development. This study aims to report the experience of art therapy activities with a group of patients and their caregivers in a university hospital. This is an experience report, in Fortaleza - CE, during September 2010 to February 2011. In the meetings, participated 49 people, who performed activities, using the methods of art therapy, like painting, cutting, drawing, collage, creative visualization and color therapy. In the assessments, after the groups, the participants demonstrated the effects of art therapy, which described that the intervention allowed speak from the process of facing life to cancer fight. It is concluded that the techniques of art therapy provided self-knowledge, self-esteem and redemption sense of well-being with relaxation, and promote happiness and reduce stress.
Kolwitz, Marcin; Gąsiorowski, Jakub
The article describes the problem of corruption occurring in the relationship between doctor and patient. The doctor-patient relationship, including the provision of health services, is one of several potential areas of corruption in the health care system. Among the reasons for the existence of corruption in these relationships are the need to obtain better healthcare for the patient, and higher earnings in the case of a doctor. Indications of corruption are utilitarian (action for personal advantage without ethical aspects), but may also be (actually or in the patient's opinion) the only way to obtain services and save health and even life. Corruption between the doctor and the patient can be limited by better organization of the health care system, including the financing of benefits and education of medical personnel and patients, as well as traditional legal measures, such as prevention or the application of criminal sanctions.
S. E. Parkhomenko
Several groups of definitions of corruption have been identified in the article: corruption as the use of their official position by an official, who dispose another’s resources in order to achieve personal goals and their own material enrichment; corruption as a kind of black market of goods and services, where there are (as in a normal economy, the laws of supply and demand, and constantly fulfilled transactions between different subjects; corruption as a strategy of behavior of the two social groups – representatives of the government and private businesses or citizens (in this context, the corruption is considered depending on the fact, which of the parties is trying to establish control over the other.
Elena L. Iakovleva
Full Text Available Objective to analyze the game component in the form of motivation and action which stimulate the specific corruption form of conduct in the space of social glamorous. Methods a complex of classical and postclassical research methods including analytical phenomenological and dialectical methods of cognition in relation to game to gaming motivations and actions setting a variety of game forms attesting to its attractiveness flexibility and plasticity as well as postmodern paradigm of interpretation of the glamour ideology and a special type of personality ndash the corrupt official with the characteristics of a trickster. Results Russian society being in anomia condition exacerbated by corruption however does not give cause for pessimism. Anticorruption policy promoting the scientific search of the motivational causes and effects of personality showing the corrupt behavior and corrupt activity makes the research results known to a wide audience and introduces them into the practical anticorruption activity associated with upbringing education and promotion of anticorruption and inclusive way of living that embodies the included state in the mode of ldquoto Berdquo. Scientific novelty the analysis of the game phenomenon can help to detect corruption in the space where the phenomenon presents itself as motivation and action determined by its ontological inclusiveness and gamification of the modern social. The difficulty to identify the game within the context of its epistemological corruption is caused by its gnosiological incomprehensiveness transformation in the modernity as well as foggy goals and actions of the corruptionist. The study leads to the identification of a new type of personality ndash the corruptionisttrickstertrickstercorruptionist. Knowledge of the gaming motivations and actions of the corruptionist allows to navigate through the complex situations of today having corrupt motives. Practical significance the main provisions and
N.A. den Nieuwenboer (Niki); S.P. Kaptein (Muel)
textabstractTo date, theory and research on corruption in organizations have primarily focused on its static antecedents. This paper focuses on the spread and growth of corruption in organizations. For this purpose three downward organizational spirals are formulated: the spiral of divergent norms,
Köbis, Nils C; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A M
Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context) influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior--both when measured before (Study 1) or after (Study 2) the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3). Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research.
Köbis, Nils C.; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A. M.
Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context) influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior—both when measured before (Study 1) or after (Study 2) the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3). Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research. PMID:26121127
Nils C Köbis
Full Text Available Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior--both when measured before (Study 1 or after (Study 2 the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3. Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research.
Beatriz Miranda Batisti
Full Text Available The Law 12,846 / 2013 has the scope to fight it and enable companies to become active agents in this intent. The repressive aspect of the legislation can be mitigated if the company adopts strategies of prevention through compliance programs. The preventive effectiveness of this law will depend on the analysis of legal aspects and business management topics. The risk analysis methodology and the adoption of objective parameters for the management of anti-corruption risks, allows companies to build an integrity program that puts in focus the ethical actions necessary for companies willing to negotiate with the government.
Arosteguí, Jorge; Hernandez, Carlos; Suazo, Harold; Cárcamo, Alvaro; Reyes, Rosa Maria; Andersson, Neil; Ledogar, Robert J
Four social audits in 1998, 2003, 2006 and 2009 identified actions that Nicaragua could take to reduce corruption and public perception in primary health care and other key services. In a 71-cluster sample, weighted according to the 1995 census and stratified by geographic region and settlement type, we audited the same five public services: health centres and health posts, public primary schools, municipal government, transit police and the courts. Some 6,000 households answered questions about perception and personal experience of unofficial and involuntary payments, payments without obtaining receipts or to the wrong person, and payments "to facilitate" services in municipal offices or courts. Additional questions covered complaints about corruption and confidence in the country's anti-corruption struggle. Logistic regression analyses helped clarify local variations and explanatory variables. Feedback to participants and the services at both national and local levels followed each social audit. Users' experience of corruption in health services, education and municipal government decreased. The wider population's perception of corruption in these sectors decreased also, but not as quickly. Progress among traffic police faltered between 2006 and 2009 and public perception of police corruption ticked upwards in parallel with drivers' experience. Users' experience of corruption in the courts worsened over the study period--with the possible exception of Managua between 2006 and 2009--but public perception of judicial corruption, after peaking in 2003, declined from then on. Confidence in the anti-corruption struggle grew from 50% to 60% between 2003 and 2009. Never more than 8% of respondents registered complaints about corruption.Factors associated with public perception of corruption were: personal experience of corruption, quality of the service itself, and the perception that municipal government takes community opinion into account and keeps people informed
Full Text Available Many countries experience various degrees of corruption. South Africa is no exception. The undeniable fact is that corruption cannot be reckoned as a mere country- or region- specific problem; it is a far wider phenomenon. However, there has been a growing global movement to condemn corrupt practices, resulting in the removal of certain leaders from office. South Africa has formulated and promulgated legislation that is considered an international example of good practice and has established agencies for the purpose of combating corruption. The Institute for Security Studies (2007:1 proposes that anti-corruption legislation, if enforced, should equip the country’s anti-corruption agencies with a tool that could effectively be utilised as a punitive instrument for offenders and a deterrent for those contemplating corrupt activities. This article examines whether anti-corruption agencies are apolitical and capable of detecting and punishing corruption or whether they are only a response to international demands by international agreements. In this regard the United Nations Convention against Corruption, the SADC Protocol against Corruption and the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption are discussed. The article concludes with recommendations based on an empirical survey of anti- corruption legislation and anti-corruption agencies conducted in the Eastern Cape and Northern Cape Provinces.
Mohsen Zarei Jlyany; Gholam Reza Sharafi; Mustafa Tavani; Mansour Haghighatian; Moslem Tavani
certain principles Observance and non- Observance on organizing a social system will have Indisputable effect at the Organization. And administrative systems are not exempt from this, also the selection of the Administration components and also How to Place the components together can affect its performance. Meanwhile, the government's role in the prevalence or no-prevalence, the extent type and the way of administrative corruption influence, in this article, researchers wants to explore the ...
Zhou, Liming; Jin, Zhangfeng; Wang, Zheng
Original Open Access Repository: https://hydra.hull.ac.uk/resources/hull:13057 This article empirically investigates why in a corruption-pervasive country only a minority of the firms get caught for bribery while the majority get away with it. By matching manufacturing firms to a blacklist of bribers in the healthcare sector of a province in China, we show that the government-led blacklisting is selective: while economically more visible firms are slightly more likely to be blacklisted, st...
Pollet, Thomas V.; Stulp, Gert; Groothuis, Ton G. G.
Given the heritability of human left-handedness and its purported associations with fitness-lowering traits, the persistence of the minority of left-handedness in human populations is an evolutionary puzzle. The fighting hypothesis proposes that these negative fitness costs are offset by fitness gains for left-handers when involved in fights with right-handers, as being a minority would generate a surprise effect increasing the chance of winning. The finding that left-handers are overrepresen...
Full Text Available The article is about the phenomenon of corruption in a comprehensive school. It analyses the expression forms of corruption and their peculiarities and disputes the main reasons stimulating educators to take part in corrupt interchanges thus tolerate it. On the ground of empirical research in Vilnius secondary schools it discloses attitudes of teachers, schoolchildren and parents towards corruption. The research was carried out in Vilnius Salomėja Nėris gymnasium, Vilnius Mikalojus Daukša secondary school, Mindaugas secondary school, Užupys gymnasium, Antakalnis gymnasium, Naujamiestis secondary school and Stanevičius secondary school. Overall 500 respondents were questioned: 300 pupils of ninth – twelfth forms, 100 teachers and 100 parents of schoolchildren. Difficult financial circumstances were pointed out as the main reason stimulating teachers to take part in corrupt interchanges. This answer was chosen by 42 per cent of respondents. Most of them think that raising wages would reduce corruption crimes. The research data show it is an important problem in schools though 70 per cent of respondents state it is not the biggest problem in their school. Only 15 per cent of questioned schoolchildren, 4 per cent of parents and 14 percent of teachers safely state that corruption is the main problem in their school. About 20 per cent of respondents (21.4 per cent of schoolchildren, 19 per cent of parents and 21 per cent of teachers acknowledge of making a payoff or receiving an offer to take it. Respondents state that 30 per cent of their friends and relatives made a payoff to school staff. 26.7 percent of schoolchildren and 27 per cent of parents’ acquaintances made a payoff to school staff. Only the answers of teachers did not change – 21 per cent of their colleagues were offered a payoff. These results do not let affirm that corruption is very widely spread in schools and therefore could be named as the biggest problem here. Though
Full Text Available This research is aimed to investigate and identify the pattern and classification of corruptors in Indonesia, especially the state officials being imprisoned. This research used the qualitative method. The data were collected through documentations and interviews. The source of the data was chosen by purposive sampling technique. The researcher interviewed deeply 9 suspects of corruption cases being imprisoned. The results of the research show that the classification of corruptors in Indonesia includes all types of corruptions constructed by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE, namely: conflict of interest, bribery, illegal gratuities, and economic extortion. Based on the interview, it is found that the interviewees perform different types of corruptions as follows: there are some suspects perform more than one type of corruptions; there are some suspects perform single corruptions with the same type, and there are some suspects perform single corruptions with the different type. In Indonesia, it is not only the people of executive, legislative, and judiciary who can perform corruptions, but also the people of private sections.
Full Text Available The Anti Corruption course is one of several ways of anti-corruption’s campaign in Indonesia’s higher education system. In terms of education, the Anti Corruption’s curriculum were prepared and developed by Indonesia’s ministry of education, but in practice it is possible for lecturers to creatively modify the way of delivering subjects to students. The purpose of this study is to explore student perspectives on what causes corruption. The researches itself is a classroom action research, and discuss through intrepretative approach. Sampling technique were done through judgemental sampling. Respondents involved were students who attend the anti-corruption class year 2013 (n = 20. Data collection is done by using open question form in e-learning (elearning.paramadina.ac.id. Questions will lead to response of students about their perspectives of what causes corruption and as a results, students perspectives are then classified into three kinds of responses, they are internal causes of corruption, external and internal causes of corruption and external causes of corruption.
T. I. Ovchinnikova
Full Text Available The article explores the concept of corruption, defined as an obstacle to economic and social development, created by representatives of the power structures of the country, region, enterprise, weakening the efficiency of management and the institutional foundation of society. Anticorruption activity is presented in the article as conditions created by the state and ensuring that the country's economy is not irreparably damaged by internal and external economic threats. The estimated characteristics of the anti-corruption activities of the regions and the country as a whole, as a rule, are studied in the domestic sources and among foreign authors. Statistical evaluation of the relationship between the level of corruption and indicators: the dynamics of GRP growth, the index of real incomes of the population, the costs of training, health care is made on the basis of the coefficient Pearson correlation. Based on the correlation analysis, stable links were established between the level of corruption and the socio-economic indicators of the region's development: an increase in the level of corruption associated with an increase in the population's spending on education and medicine; a reduction in the level of corruption, as a result of increased incomes of the population and higher wages. The consequences of corruption are presented: legal (the undeveloped legislative base, which involves bribery of powerful people, the growth of corruption in the society, the increase in corruption crimes, the inefficiency of the regulatory framework, social (moral violation, low public evaluation of the activities of power structures, low level of culture and upbringing , economic (bias financial, investment decisions, illegal distribution of property and non-property benefits, the impossibility of competitors Vat with developed countries and others.
Song, Xuguang; Cheng, Wenhao
Perception surveys remain an important tool to measure corruption. However, most existing perception surveys only analyze corruption at the national or international level, and do not provide information about corruption at local levels. But it is corruption in local areas that really influences the everyday life of ordinary people. In order to…
Kobis, N.C.; van Prooijen, J-W.; Righetti, F.; van Lange, P. A. M.
Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do
Osipian, Ararat L.
Corruption in higher education is a newly emerging topic in the field of education research. There is a phenomenal growth in the number of media reports on corruption in higher education over the last decade. However, the rigorous systematic research on education corruption is virtually nonexistent. This paper considers corruption in higher…
Gnassingbe, A; Flahault, A; Geissbuhler, A; Sprumont, D; Awesso, A
The extent of medicines sales and consumption in the informal market in Togo raises many ethical and public health issues. In order to report on the situation of public action in the fight against this practice, we conducted a qualitative survey from 15 to 25 February 2016 in the commune of Lomé and in the Maritime Region among the actors of control system and resource people in the general population. This was supplemented by an analysis of Togo's pharmaceutical and health policy documents and a literature review on the illicit drug market issues relating to public health, political science, the social sciences applied to health. In spite of the existence of national and international tools, household poverty, cultural self-medication, ignorance of the population concerning the health risks of informal market medicines, weak political commitment, weakness regulation and enforcement, corruption, constitute obstacles to the success of actions to combat this practice.
Full Text Available The paper studies the impact of corruption on the GDP per capita. A panel data covers the period between 2003 and 2011. The objective is to test the hypothesis that there is a strong negative impact of corruption on the GDP per capita. Three tests were conducted, the pool OLS, The Fixed Effect and the Random effect estimations. The main result of this study is that all three tests had shown strong statistically significant negative impact of corruption on the GDP per capita.
Bågenholm, Andreas; Charron, Nicholas
. It then empirically tests two aspects of this campaign strategy. First, what are the factors that are systematically associated with a party's decision to politicise corruption? Second, what are the electoral effects in terms of relative vote share for parties that politicise corruption? Using an original data......, district magnitude and public party financing. Second, it is found that the main opposition and new parties that use such a campaign strategy make significant electoral gains relative to the previous election compared to parties that do not politicise corruption. Yet gains are offset in low...
Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A
Corruption is a serious threat to global health outcomes, leading to financial waste and adverse health consequences. Yet, forms of corruption impacting global health are endemic worldwide in public and private sectors, and in developed and resource-poor settings alike. Allegations of misuse of funds and fraud in global health initiatives also threaten future investment. Current domestic and sectorial-level responses are fragmented and have been criticized as ineffective. In order to address this issue, we propose a global health governance framework calling for international recognition of "global health corruption" and development of a treaty protocol to combat this crucial issue.
Neverova, Elena G.; Malafeyef, Oleg A.
The paper provides a model of interaction between anticorruption unit and corruption groups. The main policy functions of the anticorruption unit involve reducing corrupt practices in some entities through an optimal approach to resource allocation and effective anticorruption policy. We develop a model based on Markov decision-making process and use Howard’s policy-improvement algorithm for solving an optimal decision strategy. We examine the assumption that corruption groups retaliate against the anticorruption authority to protect themselves. This model was implemented through stochastic game
Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Bentzen, Jeanet; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars
We hypothesize that the spread of the Internet has reduced corruption, chiefly through two mechanisms. First, the Internet facilitates the dissemination of information about corrupt behavior, which raises the detection risks to shady bureaucrats and politicians. Second, the Internet has reduced...... is a strong instrument for changes in Internet penetration; and we proceed to show that the spread of the Internet has reduced the extent of corruption across the globe and across the U.S. The size of the impact is economically and statistically significant...
Neverova, Elena G.; Malafeyef, Oleg A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 35, Universitetskii prospekt, Petrodvorets, 198504 Email:email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org (Russian Federation)
The paper provides a model of interaction between anticorruption unit and corruption groups. The main policy functions of the anticorruption unit involve reducing corrupt practices in some entities through an optimal approach to resource allocation and effective anticorruption policy. We develop a model based on Markov decision-making process and use Howard’s policy-improvement algorithm for solving an optimal decision strategy. We examine the assumption that corruption groups retaliate against the anticorruption authority to protect themselves. This model was implemented through stochastic game.
Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
Why does bureaucratic corruption occur in the EU system? Several examples suggest that bureaucratic corruption exists and that the Commission’s anti-fraud agency, OLAF, is not a fully independent authority. We thus develop a novel interpretation of the principalsupervisor-agent model to cope...... with non-independent anti-fraud units. This model shows that corruption is likely to occur when the expected value to the client from bribing the agent is larger than the expected value to the principal of truth-telling by the supervisor. Overall, this analysis points to the risks of flawed incentives...
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Smith, Martin H.
Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…
Sushanta Kumar Bhowmik
Full Text Available Objective to study the types of corruption. To research sources of corruption and defects of corruption control mechanism. To propose ways of solving the problem of corruption. Methods methods of analysis synthesis analogy and summarizing were used. Result The reveals the imperfections of the systemic mechanism of corruption counteraction and analyzes its causes. The stages and scope of imperfections are also indentified. The world economical inequality which determines the lawmakersrsquo activities is a big concern of corruption controlling system. Biometric signature may be used as individual identification at all financerelated performance will identify the corrupt personals at all levels. Scientific novelty As it is stated in the article many dimensions of corruptions may be eliminated with the help of regulatory devices or a total digital controlling system. Practical significance introduction of the digital controlling system will allow to identify and control the corrupt officials at all levels and help to efficient struggle against corruption. nbsp
Full Text Available In the presented text the author points out to anthropological as well as axiological foundations of the boxing fight from the viewpoint of Hegel’s philosophy. In the genial idealist’s views it is possible to perceive the appreciation of the body, which constitutes a necessary basis for the man’s physical activity, for his work oriented towards the self-transformation and the transformation of the external world, as well as for rivalry and the hand-to-hand fight. While focusing our attention on the issue of rivalry and on the situation of the fight - and regarding it from the viewpoint of the master - slave theory (included in the phenomenology of spirit, it is possible to proclaim that even a conventionalised boxing fight - that is, restricted by cultural and sports rules of the game - has features of the fight to the death between two Hegelian forms of selfknowledge striving for self-affirmation and self-realisation. In the boxing fight, similarly as in the above mentioned Hegelian theory, a problem of work and of the development of the human individual (that is, of the subject, self-knowledge, the participant of the fight appears. There appears also a prospect of death as a possible end of merciless rivalry. The fight revalues the human way in an important way, whereas the prospect for death, the awareness of its proximity, the feeling that its close and possible, saturates the life with additional values. It places the boxer, just like every subject fighting in a similar or a different way, on the path towards absolute abstraction - that is, it brings him closer to his self-fulfilment in the Absolute, to the absolute synthesis. The Hegelian viewpoint enables also to appreciate the boxing fight as a manifestation of low culture (being in contrast with high culture, to turn attention to the relations which - according to Hegel - take place between the Absolute and the man, as well as to show which place is occupied by the subject both in
Andreas Assiotis; Kevin Sylwester
Many studies examining whether corruption lowers economic growth do not consider if the effects of corruption differ across countries. Whether corruption produces the same effects everywhere or whether its effects are conditional on some country characteristics is an important question. We investigate the association between corruption and growth, where the marginal impact of corruption is allowed to differ across democratic and non democratic regimes. Using cross-country, annual data from 19...
Aquinas J. Purcell
This paper offers a local government perspective on the behavioural factors which can be the precursors for corruption and misconduct and those factors which can prevent corruption and misconduct. The investigation centred on corruption and misconduct evidenced from local government investigation reports in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. A corruption and misconduct taxonomy was developed and the role of the audit committee in the oversight of corruption and misconduct allegati...
As corruption gains public attention, there is an increased acknowledgement of its impact on business. Circumstances around a corrupt may act differ, but thesis seeks to understand some common factors. Corruption might be embedded in a country or occur sporadically. One of the many ways a business can participate in corrupt acts, willingly or reluctantly, is via bribery of public officials. This thesis seeks to examine corruption and bribery in relation to the government from t...
Johnsøn, Jesper; Mason, Phil
Practitioners working in anti-corruption face perennial challenges in measuring changes in corruption levels and evaluating whether anti-corruption efforts are successful. These two challenges are linked but not inseparable. To make progress on the latter front, that is, evaluating whether anti-corruption efforts are having an impact, the U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre and the UK Department for International Development are launching an exploration into the use of proxy indicators. Proxy ...
Nekovee, Maziar; Pinto, Jonathan
We complement the rich conceptual work on organizational corruption by quantitatively modelling the spread of corruption within organizations. We systematically vary four organizational culture-related parameters, i.e., organization structure, location of bad apple, employees propensity to become corrupted (corruption probability), and number of whistle-blowers. Our simulation studies find that in organizations with flatter structures, corruption permeates the organization at a lower threshol...
examines the issues of leadership, corruption and governance with a view to adumbrate ..... public realm” and the latter a “moral primordial public realm”. Therefore ... This notion and virus has affected the conduct of government business and.
between selected socio-economic characteristics of women marketers and their perceived level of severity of identified corrupt ... Women participation in agricultural produce marketing is not a ... economic growth, democratic culture, national.
Full Text Available Islamic banking is developing rapidly around the world and is increasingly recognized as a viable alternative mode of financing especially these last years when capitalism has shown its limits and weaknesses. However, this astronomical growth of banking and Islamic finance was associated with a high level of corruption that plagues many Muslim countries. This ailment of corruption can deter Islamic banking to be a better effective and meaningful pathway for poverty reduction and economic development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of corruption on the soundness of Islamic banks (IBs. Using a panel of 69 IBs over the period 2008–2010, we provide robust evidence that the corruption level aggravates the problem of impaired financing.
Garnett, Stephen T.; Joseph, Liana N.; Watson, James E. M.; Zander, Kerstin K.
In many sectors, freedom in capital flow has allowed optimization of investment returns through choosing sites that provide the best value for money. These returns, however, can be compromised in countries where corruption is prevalent. We assessed where the best value for money might be obtained for investment in threatened species that occur at a single site, when taking into account corruption. We found that the influence of corruption on potential investment decisions was outweighed by the likely value for money in terms of pricing parity. Nevertheless global conservation is likely to get best returns in terms of threatened species security by investing in “honest” countries than in corrupt ones, particularly those with a high cost of living. PMID:21818383
The role of the Executive, the Judiciary and the Parliament in nation building and in ..... of parliamentary role in combating corruption vide control of public finance ... Administrative and executive heads as well as the chief accounting officers of ...
Garnett, Stephen T; Joseph, Liana N; Watson, James E M; Zander, Kerstin K
In many sectors, freedom in capital flow has allowed optimization of investment returns through choosing sites that provide the best value for money. These returns, however, can be compromised in countries where corruption is prevalent. We assessed where the best value for money might be obtained for investment in threatened species that occur at a single site, when taking into account corruption. We found that the influence of corruption on potential investment decisions was outweighed by the likely value for money in terms of pricing parity. Nevertheless global conservation is likely to get best returns in terms of threatened species security by investing in "honest" countries than in corrupt ones, particularly those with a high cost of living.
that the appointees grossly abused their offices by involving themselves in all manner of corrupt practices. ..... This explains why Yoruba people train their children right from infancy to show contentment by initially ... have neglected this reality.
Past studies on laboratory corruption games have not been able to find consistent evidence that subjects make “immoral” decisions. A possible reason, and also a critique of laboratory corruption games, is that the experiment may fail to trigger the intended immorality frame in the minds...... of the participants, leading many to question the very raison d’être of laboratory corruption games. To test this idea, we compare behavior in a harassment bribery game with a strategically identical but neutrally framed ultimatum game. The results show that fewer people, both as briber and bribee, engage...... in corruption in the bribery frame than in the alternative and the average bribe amount is lesser in the former than in the latter. These suggest that moral costs are indeed at work. A third treatment, which relabels the bribery game in neutral language, indicates that the observed treatment effect arises...
Charron, Nicholas; Bågenholm, Andreas
What is the impact of corruption on citizens' voting behavior? There is a growing literature on an increasingly ubiquitous puzzle in many democratic countries: that corrupt officials continue to be re-elected by voters. In this study we address this issue with a novel theory and newly collected...... original survey data for 24 European countries. The crux of the argument is that voters' ideology is a salient factor in explaining why citizens would continue voting for their preferred party despite the fact that it has been involved in a corruption scandal. Developing a theory of supply (number...... of effective parties) and demand (voters must have acceptable ideological alternatives to their preferred party), we posit that there is a U-shaped relationship between the likelihood of corruption voting and where voters place themselves on the left/right spectrum. The further to the fringes, the more likely...
Full Text Available In the last decade, Romania implemented a strong legislation and a comprehensive program of public financial management reform in order to improve the national fiscal transparency and to reduce corruption. Corruption is a growing phenomenon all over the world, affecting economic development and aggravated by the legacy of the global economic crisis. The global risks are different from the past due to notably cyber attacks, new economic realities and geopolitical risks. Most of the time, corruption is associated with financial crime, fraud and bribery. Corruption is a major factor of reducing economic development and the governments must increase of macroeconomic and fiscal forecasts in order to facilitate access to the public funds.
Assessment of Perceived Corrupt Practices in Marketing of Agricultural Produce Among Women Marketers in Ogbomoso Agricultural of Oyo State, Nigeria. ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...
Review of the monograph:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press, 2013, ISBN 9783869562483, 300 pp.
Banerjee, Ritwik; Mitra, Arnab
The paper studies the relative effectiveness of extrinsic monetary disincentives and intrinsic non-monetary disincentives to corruption. In doing so, we also test the Beckarian prediction that at the same level of expected payoff, a low probability of detection with high penalty is a stronger deterrent to corruption than a high probability of detection with low penalty. In Experiment 1, two treatments are designed to study the effect of a low probability of detection with high penalty, and a ...
Di Tella, Rafael M.; Franceschelli, Ignacio
We construct measures of the extent to which the 4 main newspapers in Argentina report government corruption in their front page during the period 1998-2007 and correlate them with the extent to which each newspaper is a recipient of government advertising. The correlation is negative. The size is considerable: a one standard deviation increase in monthly government advertising (0.26 million pesos of 2000) is associated with a reduction in the coverage of the government's corruption scandals ...
In 2016, the Office of the Attorney General of Switzerland sanctioned a Swiss corporation for having bribed a Libyan Minister. The same year, it opened a criminal proceeding against the Swiss bank BSI for its involvement in the corruption scandals surrounding the Malaysian company 1MDB. Swiss corporations are also currently under investigation in the Brazilian Petrobras scandal. At the international level, anti-corruption treaties encourage states to make corporations criminally liable for tr...
Lee, Joung-Hun; Sigmund, Karl; Dieckmann, Ulf; Iwasa, Yoh
Corruption is one of the most serious obstacles for ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation. In particular, more than half of the loss of forested area in many tropical countries is due to illegal logging, with corruption implicated in a lack of enforcement. Here we study an evolutionary game model to analyze the illegal harvesting of forest trees, coupled with the corruption of rule enforcers. We consider several types of harvesters, who may or may not be committed towards supporting an enforcer service, and who may cooperate (log legally) or defect (log illegally). We also consider two types of rule enforcers, honest and corrupt: while honest enforcers fulfill their function, corrupt enforcers accept bribes from defecting harvesters and refrain from fining them. We report three key findings. First, in the absence of strategy exploration, the harvester-enforcer dynamics are bistable: one continuum of equilibria consists of defecting harvesters and a low fraction of honest enforcers, while another consists of cooperating harvesters and a high fraction of honest enforcers. Both continua attract nearby strategy mixtures. Second, even a small rate of strategy exploration removes this bistability, rendering one of the outcomes globally stable. It is the relative rate of exploration among enforcers that then determines whether most harvesters cooperate or defect and most enforcers are honest or corrupt, respectively. This suggests that the education of enforcers, causing their more frequent trialing of honest conduct, can be a potent means of curbing corruption. Third, if information on corrupt enforcers is available, and players react opportunistically to it, the domain of attraction of cooperative outcomes widens considerably. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Franses, Philip Hans; de Groot, Bert
Corruption may lead to tax evasion and unbalanced favors and this may lead to extraordinary wealth amongst a few. We study for 13 countries 6 years of Forbes rankings data and we examine whether corruption leads to more inequality amongst the wealthiest. When we correct in our panel model for current and one-year lagged competitiveness and GDP growth rates, we find no such effect. In fact, we find that more competitiveness decreases inequality amongst the wealthiest.
Joseph Ato Forson; Theresa Yaaba Baah-Ennumh; Ponlapat Buracom; Guojin Chen; Peng Zhen
This study explores the causes of corruption in 22 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 1996 to 2013. The sources of corruption are grouped into three main thematic areas – historical roots, contemporary causes and institutional causes to make way for subjective and objective measures. The subjective measures allow for assessment of the effectiveness of anticorruption policies. Using pooled OLS, fixed-effect and instrumental-variable approaches, and focusing on the perceived level of corrupti...
Fazekas, Mihály; Tóth, István János
Public procurement, one of the largest areas of public spending worldwide, gives public officials wide discretion. It is therefore unsurprising that it is also one of the government functions most often vulnerable to corruption. While there have been many qualitative accounts of high-level corruption in public contracting, it is only recently that quantitative indicators have become available. By making use of big data generated by governments on contracts, companies, and individuals, it is p...
This paper presents a novel theory of corruption in public procurement. It considers an agency setting of contract execution where the principal is a politician who can commit to a contract auditing policy. It is found that a benevolent politician, by choosing a sufficiently strict auditing, deters the contracting firm from padding costs, conversely, a selfish politician chooses a relatively lax auditing in order to create an incentive for cost-padding, and engages in corruption with the firm...
The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the impact of corruption on foreign direct investment (FDI) flows. Using data from the International Monetary Fund, Transparency International and United Nations conference about commerce and development data bases a cross-section econometric model was estimated to evaluate in which way and how strong corruption influence FDI inflows. Econometric modelling covers the period from year 2000 to 2007 and the data about 82 world countries that con...
Claire R. La Roche; Mary A. Flanigan
Bribery discriminates against honest companies by creating a barrier to entry in the form of a competitive disadvantage. An important legal issue with significant implications is whether recent international anti-corruption laws have leveled the playing field for firms doing business abroad. One of the first laws proscribing illicit payments to foreign public officials is the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), initially enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1977. From its inception, the FCPA has...
Corruption as a societal bane has afflicted homes, families, societies, businesses, governments and nations for ages. Some have traced it to the days of Adam. Under every culture, the phenomenon has been considered detestable although its exact definition has defied definite expression. Its pervasiveness has also been recognised by sociologists for ages. It has appeared in households, offices, churches, marriages and all facets of social endeavours and interactions. When corruption rears its ...
Gaitonde, Rakhal; Oxman, Andrew D; Okebukola, Peter O; Rada, Gabriel
Background Corruption is the abuse or complicity in abuse, of public or private position, power or authority to benefit oneself, a group, an organisation or others close to oneself; where the benefits may be financial, material or non-material. It is wide-spread in the health sector and represents a major problem. Objectives Our primary objective was to systematically summarise empirical evidence of the effects of strategies to reduce corruption in the health sector. Our secondary objective w...
Winardi Rijadh Djatu
Full Text Available This study implements behavioural economics and fraud auditing approach. This study looks at several factors that have been cited in previous studies as determinants of bribery. The result shows that long tenure increases the probability of corruption between civilian and public servant and penalty can be a good disincentive for corrupt behaviour but it is more effective towards the recipient instead of briber.
Rana, MP; Blackbourn, K; Neanidis, KC
We develop a framework for studying the interactions between organized crime and corruption, together with the individual and combined effects of these phenomena on economic growth. Criminal organizations co-exist with law-abiding productive agents and potentially corrupt law enforcers. The crime syndicate obstructs the economic activities of agents through extortion, and may pay bribes to law enforcers in return for their compliance in this. We show how organized crime has a negative effect ...
Keith Blackburn; Kyriakos C. Neanidis; Maria Paola Rana
We develop a framework for studying the interactions between organized crime and corruption, together with the individual and combined effects of these phenomena on economic growth. Criminal organizations co-exist with law-abiding productive agents and potentially corrupt law enforcers. The crime syndicate obstructs the economic activities of agents through extortion, and may pay bribes to law enforcers in return for their compliance in this. We show how organized crime has a negative e¤ect o...
Blackburn, Keith; Neanidis, Kyriakos; Rana, Maria Paola
We develop a framework for studying the interactions between organized crime and corruption, together with the individual and combined e¤ects of these phenomena on economic growth. Criminal organizations co-exist with law-abiding productive agents and potentially corrupt law enforcers. The crime syndicate obstructs the economic activities of agents through extortion, and may pay bribes to law enforcers in return for their compliance in this. We show how organized crime has a negative e¤ect on...
Full Text Available Corruption has become one of the most vicious mass phenomena, affecting, in most cases, the general wealth of the population. The paper closely surveys a set of measurable variables which have a very high impact over the dimensions of corruption as a phenomenon. Two of the aforementioned variables are part of a bureaucratic component, specific to the public system – the number of taxes, duties and contributions that an economic entity has to pay for the right to conduct business on the territory of a state, and the amount of time assigned for the payment of the duties for a year’s interval. The variable, generally called the taxation level, assumes an economic perspective over the phenomenon of corruption, which may be encouraged or, on the contrary, inhibited by the government’s fiscal strategy. The last component, called Human Development Index (HDI, assumes a social perspective over corruption, surveying the people’s behavior, which is also able to amplify or decrease the dimensions of corruption as a phenomenon. The whole scientific attempt is synthesized in the form of a corruption map, based on the estimated spread of the phenomenon for each surveyed country.
Full Text Available Corruption as a societal bane has afflicted homes, families, societies, businesses, governments and nations for ages. Some have traced it to the days of Adam. Under every culture, the phenomenon has been considered detestable although its exact definition has defied definite expression. Its pervasiveness has also been recognised by sociologists for ages. It has appeared in households, offices, churches, marriages and all facets of social endeavours and interactions. When corruption rears its ugly head in the process through which governments acquire goods, works and services for the purpose of running their business, it is highly unacceptable and particularly dangerous to such nations. But why is there the cause to worry about corruption? Why is corruption unacceptable? A theoretical basis is provided to elucidate societal abhorrence to corruption as it affects public procurement in particular using the deontologist-consequentialist dichotomised ethical and moral explanations. It has been concluded that corruption in procurement is awful not only because of its negative consequences but because it is inherently wrong, unethical, immoral and above all an illegality.
Rönnerstrand, Björn; Lapuente, Victor
The aim of this article is to investigate the association between corruption and antibiotic use at sub-national level. We explore the correlation between, on the one hand, two measures of corruption (prevalence of corruption in the health sector and prevalence of bribes in the society) at regional level from the European Quality of Government Index; and, on the other, the consumption of antibiotics in those European regions from a 2009 Special Euro Barometer. In a multivariate regression model, we control for potential confounders: purchasing power of standardized regional gross domestic product, inhabitants per medical doctor and age-standardized all-cause mortality rates. We find that there is a strong positive association between both measures of corruption (i.e. in the health sector, and in the society at large) and antibiotics use; and that this association is robust to the introduction of the control variables. These results support previous findings in the literature linking corruption to higher antibiotic use at cross-national level. We show that corruption does seem to account for some of the remarkable between-region variation in antibiotic consumption in Europe. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson
Full Text Available Political control is an important value of democratic governance and without it democratic accountability can hardly mean much. This is why a number of authors have seen politicization of public service appointments and greater control by the centre as a potential counterweight against trends in recent decades towards more networked and less hierarchical organizational forms of directing public policy. It may help to reassert democratic control. The option of strengthening political control, however, has not been much studied with regard to its likely effects on corruption. Power has the potential to corrupt unless adequately controlled and strengthening political power in a networked environment may create a structure of temptation which conventional deterrents to corruption are unable to curb. The impact of strong political leadership on corruption is here studied in the context of Icelandic local government, making use of institutional variations in the office of Mayor, which provide a unique opportunity for testing the effects of strong political control on corruption. The analysis indicates that municipalities with strong political mayors are likely to be associated with perceptions of corruption even when other factors, such as the structure of temptation and deterrents, are accounted for.
Reinhart Kößler; Arnold-Bergstraesser-Institut
Review of the monograph:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press, 2013, ISBN 9783869562483, 300 pp. Besprechung der Monographie:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press...