WorldWideScience

Sample records for block control systems

  1. Traffic Modelling for Moving-Block Train Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Tao; LI Ke-Ping

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new cellular automaton (CA) model for train control system simulation.In the proposed CA model,the driver reactions to train movements are captured by some updated rules.The space-time diagram of traffic flow and the trajectory of train movement is used to obtain insight into the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow.A number of simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CA model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic.Not only the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow can be reproduced,but also the simulation values of the minimum time headway are close to the theoretical values.

  2. Control analysis of systems with reaction blocks that 'cross-talk'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscow, E K; Brand, M D

    1998-09-01

    Practical application of metabolic control analysis has been facilitated by use of the top-down approach, which divides a metabolic system into a small number of reaction blocks, linked by a few key intermediates. Previous papers have stressed that communication between blocks should be only through the explicit intermediates, 'cross-talk' between reaction blocks invalidated the approach. Here we show how the restriction is a result of the use of inhibitors of the blocks, and can be overcome if other system modulations are used. We also show a way to treat the related problem of enzymes that appear in more than one block such as the analysis of glycolytic substrate cycles into ATP consuming and net flux activities.

  3. Block backstepping design of nonlinear state feedback control law for underactuated mechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rudra, Shubhobrata; Maitra, Madhubanti

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a novel, generalized approach to the design of nonlinear state feedback control laws for a large class of underactuated mechanical systems based on application of the block backstepping method. The control law proposed here is robust against the effects of model uncertainty in dynamic and steady-state performance and addresses the issue of asymptotic stabilization for the class of underactuated mechanical systems. An underactuated system is defined as one for which the dimension of space spanned by the configuration vector is greater than that of the space spanned by the control variables. Control problems concerning underactuated systems currently represent an active field of research due to their broad range of applications in robotics, aerospace, and marine contexts. The book derives a generalized theory of block backstepping control design for underactuated mechanical systems, and examines several case studies that cover interesting examples of underactuated mechanical systems. The math...

  4. 49 CFR 236.401 - Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.401 Automatic... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. 236.401 Section 236.401 Transportation Other...

  5. Nonlinear state feedback controller design for underactuated mechanical system: a modified block backstepping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Shubhobrata; Barai, Ranjit Kumar; Maitra, Madhubanti

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the formulation of a novel block-backstepping based control algorithm to address the stabilization problem for a generalized nonlinear underactuated mechanical system. For the convenience of compact design, first, the state model of the underactuated system has been converted into the block-strict feedback form. Next, we have incorporated backstepping control action to derive the expression of the control input for the generic nonlinear underactuated system. The proposed block backstepping technique has further been enriched by incorporating an integral action additionally for enhancing the steady state performance of the overall system. Asymptotic stability of the overall system has been analyzed using Lyapunov stability criteria. Subsequently, the stability of the zero dynamics has also been analyzed to ensure the global asymptotic stability of the entire nonlinear system at its desired equilibrium point. The proposed control algorithm has been applied for the stabilization of a benchmarked underactuated mechanical system to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control law in real-time environment.

  6. Adaptive neural control of MIMO nonlinear systems with a block-triangular pure-feedback control structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenfeng; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Zhang, Yun; Li, Yanan

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents adaptive neural tracking control for a class of uncertain multiinput-multioutput (MIMO) nonlinear systems in block-triangular form. All subsystems within these MIMO nonlinear systems are of completely nonaffine pure-feedback form and allowed to have different orders. To deal with the nonaffine appearance of the control variables, the mean value theorem is employed to transform the systems into a block-triangular strict-feedback form with control coefficients being couplings among various inputs and outputs. A systematic procedure is proposed for the design of a new singularity-free adaptive neural tracking control strategy. Such a design procedure can remove the couplings among subsystems and hence avoids the possible circular control construction problem. As a consequence, all the signals in the closed-loop system are guaranteed to be semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Moreover, the outputs of the systems are ensured to converge to a small neighborhood of the desired trajectories. Simulation studies verify the theoretical findings revealed in this paper.

  7. A general U-block model-based design procedure for nonlinear polynomial control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q. M.; Zhao, D. Y.; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-10-01

    The proposition of U-model concept (in terms of 'providing concise and applicable solutions for complex problems') and a corresponding basic U-control design algorithm was originated in the first author's PhD thesis. The term of U-model appeared (not rigorously defined) for the first time in the first author's other journal paper, which established a framework for using linear polynomial control system design approaches to design nonlinear polynomial control systems (in brief, linear polynomial approaches → nonlinear polynomial plants). This paper represents the next milestone work - using linear state-space approaches to design nonlinear polynomial control systems (in brief, linear state-space approaches → nonlinear polynomial plants). The overall aim of the study is to establish a framework, defined as the U-block model, which provides a generic prototype for using linear state-space-based approaches to design the control systems with smooth nonlinear plants/processes described by polynomial models. For analysing the feasibility and effectiveness, sliding mode control design approach is selected as an exemplary case study. Numerical simulation studies provide a user-friendly step-by-step procedure for the readers/users with interest in their ad hoc applications. In formality, this is the first paper to present the U-model-oriented control system design in a formal way and to study the associated properties and theorems. The previous publications, in the main, have been algorithm-based studies and simulation demonstrations. In some sense, this paper can be treated as a landmark for the U-model-based research from intuitive/heuristic stage to rigour/formal/comprehensive studies.

  8. Establishment of control equations and adjoint equations using block-pulse functions for optimal control of linear systems with time delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴涛

    2002-01-01

    Control equation and adjoint equation are established by using block-pulse functions, which trans-forms the linear time-varying systems with time delays into a system of algebraic equations and the optimal con-trol problems are transformed into an optimization problem of multivariate functions thereby achieving the opti-mal control of linear systems with time delays.

  9. Properties of blocked linear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weitian; Anderson, Brian D O; Deistler, Manfred; Filler, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a systematic study on the properties of blocked linear systems that have resulted from blocking discrete-time linear time invariant systems. The main idea is to explore the relationship between the blocked and the unblocked systems. Existing results are reviewed and a number of important new results are derived. Focus is given particularly on the zero properties of the blocked system as no such study has been found in the literature.

  10. A novel 300 kW arc plasma inverter system based on hierarchical controlled building block structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To date, the high power arc plasma technology is widely used. A next generation high power arc plasma system based on building block structure is presented. The whole arc plasma inverter system is composed of 12 paralleled units to increase the system output capability. The hierarchical control system is adopted to improve the reliability and flexibility of the high power arc plasma inverter. To ensure the reliable turn on and off of the IGBT module in each building block unit, a special pulse drive circuit is designed by using pulse transformer. The experimental result indicates that the high power arc plasma inverter system can transfer 300 kW arc plasma energy reliably with high efficiency.

  11. Airborne Warning and Control System Block 40/45 Upgrade (AWACS Blk 40/45 Upgrade)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Cost Estimate Details Date of Estimate: July 31, 2015 Source of Estimate: SCP Quantity to Sustain: 24 Unit of Measure : Aircraft Service Life per...S cost is based on historical Block 30/35 O&S cost projected through FY 2035. These costs are used for comparison to Block 40/45 O&S costs . This...9 Performance 10 Track to Budget 12 Cost and Funding 13 Low Rate Initial Production 21 Foreign Military Sales 22 Nuclear Costs

  12. A Combinatorial Method Based on Function Block and Object-Orientation Concepts for Modeling Distributed Real-Time Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Sadighi Moshkenani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel modeling method for distributed real-time control systems. The method uses function blocks model of IEC 61499 standard related to industrial control systems in combination with object-oriented approach for software production. The new modeling technique is named OO+FB. This method models distribution characteristics and real-time constraints accurately and provides a proper background for analysis and design of controllers. The new methodology, gives a complete framework for facing with modern industrial processes, using the good characteristics of both fundamental method. In this paper, different steps of OO+FB is described and advantages of using such a model is discussed, so a reliable approach is introduced for modeling.

  13. Control of intrachain charge transfer in model systems for block copolymer photovoltaic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kerr; Huang, Ya-Shih; Huettner, Sven; Sommer, Michael; Brinkmann, Martin; Mulherin, Rhiannon; Niedzialek, Dorota; Beljonne, David; Clark, Jenny; Huck, Wilhelm T S; Friend, Richard H

    2013-04-01

    We report the electronic properties of the conjugated coupling between a donor polymer and an acceptor segment serving as a model for the coupling in conjugated donor-acceptor block copolymers. These structures allow the study of possible intrachain photoinduced charge separation, in contrast to the interchain separation achieved in conventional donor-acceptor blends. Depending on the nature of the conjugated linkage, we observe varying degrees of modification of the excited states, including the formation of intrachain charge transfer excitons. The polymers comprise a block (typically 18 repeat units) of P3HT, poly(3-hexyl thiophene), coupled to a single unit of F8-TBT (where F8 is dioctylfluorene, and TBT is thiophene-benzothiadiazole-thiophene). When the P3HT chain is linked to the TBT unit, we observe formation of a localized charge transfer state, with red-shifted absorption and emission. Independent of the excitation energy, this state is formed very rapidly (<40 fs) and efficiently. Because there is only a single TBT unit present, there is little scope for long-range charge separation and it is relatively short-lived, <1 ns. In contrast, when the P3HT chain and TBT unit are separated by the wider bandgap F8 unit, there is little indication for modification of either ground or excited electronic states, and longer-lived charge separated states are observed.

  14. Performance of controlled atmosphere/heating block systems for assessing insect thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heated controlled atmosphere (CA) treatments have potential as alternatives to chemical fumigation for disinfesting postharvest stored products. To determine accurately the minimal thermal requirements to kill target insects over a wide range of temperatures and CA conditions, it is desirable to dev...

  15. Block Copolymer Composites: A Bio-Optic Synthetic System for Dynamic Control of Refractive Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    solvents: 5 wt% in DCM, 4 wt% in CHCI3 (Tap=661 C) and 4 wt% 42:9955-67. in 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TCE, Tap= 147 °C). For the PLLA/TCE [23] Spivak ...AF, Dzenis YA. Appl Phys Lett 1998;73:3067-9. system, at 4 wt% mostly fibers with some beads were observed. In [24] Spivak AF, Dzenis YA, Reneker DH...42: 9955- 9967. [14] Spivak AF, Dzenis YA, Reneker DH. Mechanics Research Communications 2000; 27: 37-42. [15] Fridrikh SV, Yu JH, Brenner MP, Rutledge

  16. Architectures for block Toeplitz systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouras, Ilias; Glentis, George-Othon; Kalouptsidis, Nicholas

    1996-01-01

    In this paper efficient VLSI architectures of highly concurrent algorithms for the solution of block linear systems with Toeplitz or near-to-Toeplitz entries are presented. The main features of the proposed scheme are the use of scalar only operations, multiplications/divisions and additions, and th

  17. Vagal Blocking for Obesity Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Helene; Revesz, David; Kodama, Yosuke

    2017-01-01

    with leads placed around gastric vagal trunks through an abdominal incision and controlled by wireless device. Body weight, food intake, hunger/satiety, and metabolic parameters were monitored by a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system. Brain-gut responses were analyzed physiologically. RESULTS......: VBLOC reduced body weight and food intake, which was associated with increased satiety but not with decreased hunger. Brain activities in response to VBLOC included increased gene expression of leptin and CCKb receptors, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor, and transforming growth factor β1...... acid secretion were unchanged in response to VBLOC. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present study, we may suggest that VBLOC induces satiety through vagal signaling, leading to reduced food intake and loss of body weight....

  18. Controlling Structure in Sulfonated Block Copolymer Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Phuc; Stein, Gila; Strzalka, Joe

    2015-03-01

    In many ionic block copolymer systems, the strong incompatibility between ionic and non-ionic segments will trap non-equilibrium structures in the film, making it difficult to engineer the optimal domain sizes and transport pathways. The goal of this work is to establish a framework for controlling the solid-state structure of sulfonated pentablock copolymer membranes. They have ABCBA block sequence, where A is poly(t-butyl styrene), B is poly(hydrogenated isoprene), and C is poly(styrene sulfonate). To process into films, the polymer is dissolved in toluene/n-propanol solvent mixtures, where the solvent proportions and the polymer loading were both varied. Solution-state structure was measured with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We detected micelles with radii that depend on the solvent composition and polymer loading. Film structure was measured with grazing-incidence SAXS, which shows (i) domain periodicity is constant throughout film thickness; (ii) domain periodicity depends on solvent composition and polymer loading, and approximately matches the micelle radii in solutions. The solid-state packing is consistent with a hard sphere structure factor. Results suggest that solid-state structure can be tuned by manipulating the solution-state self-assembly.

  19. Optimal Backward Perturbation Analysis for the Block Skew Circulant Linear Systems with Skew Circulant Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We first give the block style spectral decomposition of arbitrary block skew circulant matrix with skew circulant blocks. Secondly, we obtain the singular value of block skew circulant matrix with skew circulant blocks as well. Finally, based on the block style spectral decomposition, we deal with the optimal backward perturbation analysis for the block skew circulant linear system with skew circulant blocks.

  20. Earthquake Resistant Submarine Drydock Block System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    acceleration time history. It Is observed that the block on block surfaces for this system had been painted. According to Rabinowicz (1987) [13J, a...Maryland, 1982, p. 272. 166 13. Rabinowicz , Ernest, Lecture, "Tribology", M.I.T., Course 2.800, Fall 1987. 14. Telephone conversation between Tingley

  1. Block circulant and block Toeplitz approximants of a class of spatially distributed systems-An LQR perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iftime, Orest V.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper block circulant and block Toeplitz long strings of MIMO systems with finite length are compared with their corresponding infinite-dimensional spatially invariant systems. The focus is on the convergence of the sequence of solutions to the control Riccati equations and the convergence o

  2. Controlling block copolymer phase behavior using ionic surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    The phase behavior of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide-poly(ethylene oxide) PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer [P85 (EO26PO39EO26)] in presence of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution as a function of temperature has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations (1 wt%) of block copolymer and surfactants. Each of the individual components (block copolymer and surfactant) and the nanoparticle-surfactant mixed system have been examined at varying temperature. The block copolymer P85 forms spherical micelles at room temperature whereas shows sphere-to-rod like micelle transition at higher temperatures. On the other hand, SDS surfactant forms ellipsoidal micelles over a wide temperature range. Interestingly, it is found that phase behavior of mixed micellar system (P85 + SDS) as a function of temperature is drastically different from that of P85, giving the control over the temperature-dependent phase behavior of block copolymers.

  3. Biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers containing functionalized PEO blocks:Controlled synthesis and biomedical potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A series of controllable amphiphilic block copolymers composed of poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO) as the hydrophilic block and poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL) as the hydrophobic block with the amino terminal group at the end of the PEO chain(PCL-b-PEO-NH2) were synthesized.Based on the further reaction of reactive amino groups,diblock copolymers with functional carboxyl groups(PCL-b-PEO-COOH) and functional compounds RGD(PCL-b-PEO-RGD) as well as the triblock copolymers with thermosensitive PNIPAAm blocks(PCL-b-PEO-b-PNIPAAM) were synthesized.The well-controlled structures of these copolymers with functional groups and blocks were characterized by gel permeation chromatography(GPC) and 1H NMR spectroscopy.These copolymers with functionalized hydrophilic blocks were fabricated into microspheres for the examination of biofunctions via cell culture experiments and in vitro drug release.The results indicated the significance of introducing functional groups(e.g.,NH2,COOH and RGD) into the end of the hydrophilic block of amphiphilic block copolymers for biomedical potentials in tissue engineering and controlled drug release.

  4. Block-decoupling vibration control using eigenstructure assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Mottershead, John E.

    2016-06-01

    A theoretical study is presented on the feasibility of applying active control for the purpose of vibration isolation in lightweight structures by block diagonalisation of the system matrices and at the same time assigning eigenvalues (natural frequencies and damping) to the chosen substructures separately. The methodology, based on eigenstructure assignment using the method of receptances, is found to work successfully when the eigenvalues of the open-loop system are controllable and the open- and closed-loop eigenvalues are distinct. In the first part of the paper results are obtained under the restriction that the mass matrix is diagonal (lumped). This is certainly applicable in the case of numerous engineering systems consisting of discrete masses with flexible interconnections of negligible mass. Later in the paper this restriction is lifted to allow bandedness of the mass matrix. Several numerical examples are used to illustrate the working of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Relative local control and the block source algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊恽

    1997-01-01

    The local control of pointed groups is generalized to the concept of relative local control,and it is proved that there exists a lifting for a covering of a block source algebra if the relative local control holds.As an application,a result is proved on the source algebras of blocks,whose defect groups are direct products of a normal subgroup and a subgroup that gives a relative local control.

  6. Family control, multiple institutional block-holders, and informed trading

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, X.; J. Piesse; Filatotchev, I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how large family shareholders and institutional block-holders jointly influence informed trading and firm valuation in the Hong Kong stock market. It combines market microstructure research with studies on the governance roles of multiple block-holders and finds that institutional block-holders rely on their relative controlling power vis-à-vis family owners to mitigate problems associated with informed trading. They also use their ownership rights to improve the struc...

  7. THE USE OF SIMULINK BLOCK DIAGRAM TO SOLVE MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND CONTROL EQUATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasem, N. M.; Departamento de Biología Facultad de Ciencias Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Hussain, M. A.; Department of Chemical Engineering University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, School of Engineering, Design and Technology, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK; Mujtaba, I. M.; Department of Chemical Engineering University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, School of Engineering, Design and Technology, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the simulink block diagram is used to solve a model consists of a set of ordinary differential and algebraic equations to control the temperature inside a simple stirred tank heater. The flexibility of simulink block diagram gives students a better understanding of the control systems. The simulink alsoallows solution of mathematical models and easy visualization of the system variables. A polyethylene fluidized bed reactor is considered as an industrial example and the effect ...

  8. System Synthesis for Networks of Programmable Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Mannion, Ryan; Cotterell, Susan; Vahid, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The advent of sensor networks presents untapped opportunities for synthesis. We examine the problem of synthesis of behavioral specifications into networks of programmable sensor blocks. The particular behavioral specification we consider is an intuitive user-created network diagram of sensor blocks, each block having a pre-defined combinational or sequential behavior. We synthesize this specification to a new network that utilizes a minimum number of programmable blocks in place of the pre-defined blocks, thus reducing network size and hence network cost and power. We focus on the main task of this synthesis problem, namely partitioning pre-defined blocks onto a minimum number of programmable blocks, introducing the efficient but effective PareDown decomposition algorithm for the task. We describe the synthesis and simulation tools we developed. We provide results showing excellent network size reductions through such synthesis, and significant speedups of our algorithm over exhaustive search while obtaining...

  9. BLOCK BIDIAGONALIZATION METHODS FOR MULTIPLE NONSYMMETRIC LINEAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴华

    2001-01-01

    The symmetric linear system gives us many simplifications and a possibility to adapt the computations to the computer at hand in order to achieve better performance. The aim of this paper is to consider the block bidiagonalization methods derived from a symmetric augmented multiple linear systems and make a comparison with the block GMRES and block biconjugate gradient methods.

  10. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  11. A Signal Coordination Control Based on Traversing Empty between Mid-Block Street Crossing and Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem in pedestrian Mid-Block street crossing, the method of signal coordination control between mid-block street crossing and intersection is researched in this paper. The paper proposes to use “distance-flow rate-time” graph as the tool for building coordination control system model which is for different situations of traffic control. Through alternating the linear optimization model, the system outputs the distribution of signal timing and system operational factors (delays in vehicles and mid-block street crossing. Finally, taking one section on the Taiping North Road in Nanjing as an example, the signal coordination control is carried out. And the results which are delays in the vehicles and mid-block street crossing are compared to those in the current distribution of signal timing.

  12. Simplifying Physical Realization of Gaussian Particle Filters with Block-Level Pipeline Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Bolić

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We present an efficient physical realization method of particle filters for real-time tracking applications. The methodology is based on block-level pipelining where data transfer between processing blocks is effectively controlled by autonomous distributed controllers. Block-level pipelining maintains inherent operational concurrency within the algorithm for high-throughput execution. The proposed use of controllers, via parameters reconfiguration, greatly simplifies the overall controller structure, and alleviates potential speed bottlenecks that may arise due to complexity of the controller. A Gaussian particle filter for bearings-only tracking problem is realized based on the presented methodology. For demonstration, individual coarse grain processing blocks comprising particle filters are synthesized using commercial FPGA. From the execution characteristics obtained from the implementation, the overall controller structure is derived according to the methodology and its temporal correctness verified using Verilog and SystemC.

  13. Thoracic sympathetic block reduces respiratory system compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ely Martins Benseñor

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA following thoracic surgery presents known analgesic and respiratory benefits. However, intraoperative thoracic sympathetic block may trigger airway hyperreactivity. This study weighed up these beneficial and undesirable effects on intraoperative respiratory mechanics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized, double-blind clinical study at a tertiary public hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients scheduled for partial lung resection were distributed using a random number table into groups receiving active TEA (15 ml 0.5% bupivacaine, n = 9 or placebo (15 ml 0.9% saline, n = 10 solutions that also contained 1:200,000 epinephrine and 2 mg morphine. Under general anesthesia, flows and airway and esophageal pressures were recorded. Pressure-volume curves, lower inflection points (LIP, resistance and compliance at 10 ml/kg tidal volume were established for respiratory system, chest wall and lungs. Student’s t test was performed, including confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: Bupivacaine rose 5 ± 1 dermatomes upwards and 6 ± 1 downwards. LIP was higher in the bupivacaine group (6.2 ± 2.3 versus 3.6 ± 0.6 cmH2O, p = 0.016, CI = -3.4 to -1.8. Respiratory system and lung compliance were higher in the placebo group (respectively 73.3 ± 10.6 versus 51.9 ± 15.5, p = 0.003, CI = 19.1 to 23.7; 127.2 ± 31.7 versus 70.2 ± 23.1 ml/cmH2O, p < 0.001, CI = 61 to 53. Resistance and chest wall compliance showed no difference. CONCLUSION: TEA decreased respiratory system compliance by reducing its lung component. Resistance was unaffected. Under TEA, positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers are advisable.

  14. Strategies for Controlled Placement of Nanoscale Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh SeongJin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe capability of placing individual nanoscale building blocks on exact substrate locations in a controlled manner is one of the key requirements to realize future electronic, optical, and magnetic devices and sensors that are composed of such blocks. This article reviews some important advances in the strategies for controlled placement of nanoscale building blocks. In particular, we will overview template assisted placement that utilizes physical, molecular, or electrostatic templates, DNA-programmed assembly, placement using dielectrophoresis, approaches for non-close-packed assembly of spherical particles, and recent development of focused placement schemes including electrostatic funneling, focused placement via molecular gradient patterns, electrodynamic focusing of charged aerosols, and others.

  15. The time keeping system for GPS block IIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawicz, H. C.; Epstein, M. A.; Rajan, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    The precision time keeping system (TKS) in the Global Positioning System (GPS), Block IIR satellites is designed to operate under severe natural and man made environmental conditions. The Block IIR TKS provides precise, autonomous time keeping for periods of up to seven months, without the intervention of the GPS Control Segment. The TKS is implemented using both linear and non-linear controls. The resulting TKS architecture uses a hybrid analog/digital phase locked loop (PLL). The paper provides details of the design and analysis of the TKS. The simulation techniques and the test bed activities used in performing the TKS design trade-offs are described. The effects of non-linear controls are analyzed using a TKS computer simulation of the PLL. The results from a hardware test bed are provided that verify desired TKS operation. The design criteria for the TKS computer simulation and the hardware test bed are indicated. The concepts for verification and testing of the TKS computer simulation and hardware test bed are presented.

  16. DIAGRAM SOLVE THE USE OF SIMULINK BLOCK DIAGRAM TO SOLVE MATHEMA THEMATICAL CONTROL EQU MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND CONTROL EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Ghasem

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the simulink block diagram is used to solve a model consists of a set of ordinary differential and algebraic equations to control the temperature inside a simple stirred tank heater. The flexibility of simulink block diagram gives students a better understanding of the control systems. The simulink also allows solution of mathematical models and easy visualization of the system variables. A polyethylene fluidized bed reactor is considered as an industrial example and the effect of the Proportional, Integral and Derivative control policy is presented for comparison.

  17. Solving block linear systems with low-rank off-diagonal blocks is easily parallelizable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkov, V. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An easily and efficiently parallelizable direct method is given for solving a block linear system Bx = y, where B = D + Q is the sum of a non-singular block diagonal matrix D and a matrix Q with low-rank blocks. This implicitly defines a new preconditioning method with an operation count close to the cost of calculating a matrix-vector product Qw for some w, plus at most twice the cost of calculating Qw for some w. When implemented on a parallel machine the processor utilization can be as good as that of those operations. Order estimates are given for the general case, and an implementation is compared to block SSOR preconditioning.

  18. Quantifying private benefits of control from a structural model of block trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albuquerque, R.; Schroth, E.

    2010-01-01

    We study the determinants of private benefits of control in negotiated block transactions. We estimate the block pricing model in Burkart, Gromb and Panunzi (2000) explicitly accounting for both block premiums and block discounts in the data. The evidence suggests that the occurrence of a block prem

  19. Block Preconditioners for Complex Symmetric Linear System with Two-by-Two Block Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Liang Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the previous work by Zhang and Zheng (A parameterized splitting iteration method for complex symmetric linear systems, Japan J. Indust. Appl. Math., 31 (2014 265–278, three block preconditioners for complex symmetric linear system with two-by-two block form are presented. Spectral properties of the preconditioned matrices are discussed in detail. It is shown that all the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrices are well-clustered. Numerical experiments are reported to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed preconditioners.

  20. NOVEL SYNTHESIS OF LONG MULTI-BLOCK HETEROPOLYMER CHAINS WITH AN ORDERED SEQUENCE AND CONTROLLABLE BLOCK LENGTHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi Wu; Zuo-wei Xie; Guang-zhao Zhang; Guo-fu Zi

    2001-01-01

    It had very long been a dream in polymer science to synthesize long multi-block polymer chains with an ordered chain sequence and controllable block lengths. Using ionic or living free radical polymerization or furnishing each end of polymer blocks with a reactive functional group, one can only prepare heteropolymer chains with few long blocks, such as diblock and triblock copolymers. The most plausible result so far was a pentablock copolymer. Recently, using a combination of polymer physics and synthetic chemistry, we have invented self-assembly assisted polycondensation (SAAP). This communication reports the results of using this novel method to connect 10-100 triblock polymer chains together to form long multi-block heteropolymer chains with an ordered sequence and controllable block lengths.``

  1. Kinetic control of block copolymer self-assembly into multicompartment and novel geometry nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingchao; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Ke; Wooley, Karen; Mays, Jimmy; Percec, Virgil; Pochan, Darrin

    2012-02-01

    Micelles with the segregation of hydrophobic blocks trapped in the same nanoparticle core have been produced through co-self-assembly of two block copolymers in THF/water dilute solution. The dissolution of two block copolymer sharing the same polyacrylic acid PAA blocks in THF undergoes consequent aggregation and phase separation through either slow water titration or quick water addition that triggers the micellar formation. The combination and comparison of the two water addition kinetic pathways are the keys of forming multicompartment structures at high water content. Importantly, the addition of organic diamine provides for acid-base complexation with the PAA side chains which, in turn, plays the key role of trapping unlike hydrophobic blocks from different block copolymers into one nanoparticle core. The kinetic control of solution assembly can be applied to other molecular systems such as dendrimers as well as other block copolymer molecules. Transmission electron microscopy, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, light scattering have been applied to characterize the micelle structures.

  2. New adhesive systems based on functionalized block copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, M.; Saunders, R.; Hurst, M.; Small, J.; Emerson, J.; Zamora, D.

    1997-05-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate chemically-functionalized block copolymers as adhesion promoters for metal/thermoset resin interfaces. Novel block copolymers were synthesized which contain pendant functional groups reactive toward copper and epoxy resins. In particular, imidazole and triazole functionalities that chelate with copper were incorporated onto one block, while secondary amines were incorporated onto the second block. These copolymers were found to self-assemble from solution onto copper surfaces to form monolayers. The structure of the adsorbed monolayers were studied in detail by neutron reflection and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The monolayer structure was found to vary markedly with the solution conditions and adsorption protocol. Appropriate conditions were found for which the two blocks form separate layers on the surface with the amine functionalized block exposed at the air surface. Adhesion testing of block copolymer-coated copper with epoxy resins was performed in both lap shear and peel modes. Modest enhancements in bond strengths were observed with the block copolymer applied to the native oxide. However, it was discovered that the native oxide is the weak link, and that by simply removing the native oxide, and then applying an epoxy resin before the native oxide can reform, excellent bond strength in the as-prepared state as well as excellent retention of bond strength after exposure to solder in ambient conditions are obtained. It is recommended that long term aging studies be performed with and without the block copolymer. In addition, the functionalized block copolymer method should be evaluated for another system that has inherently poor bonding, such as the nickel/silicone interface, and for systems involving metals and alloys which form oxides very rapidly, such as aluminum and stainless steel, where bonding strategies involve stabilizing the native oxide.

  3. Properties of train traffic flow in a moving block system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Min; Zeng Jun-Wei; Qian Yong-Sheng; Li Wen-Jun; Yang Fang; Jia Xin-Xin

    2012-01-01

    The development direction of railways is toward the improvement of capacity and service quality,where the service quality includes safety,schedule,high speed,and comfort.In light of the existing cellular automaton models,in this paper,we develop a model to analyze the mixed running processes of trains with maximal speeds of 500 km/h and 350 km/h respectively in the moving block system.In the proposed model,we establish some sound rules to control the running processes of a train,where the rules include the departure rules in the intermediate stations,the overtaking rules,and the conditions of speed limitation for a train stopping at a station or passing through a station.With the consideration of the mixed ratio and the distance between two adjacent stations,the properties of the train traffic flow (including capacity and average speed) are simulated.The numerical results show that the interactions among different trains will affect the capacity,and a proper increase of the spatial distance between two adjacent stations can enhance the capacity and the average speed under the moving block.

  4. Single Integrated Air Picture (SIAP) Block 1 Candidate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    to produce joint warfighting capability. Since there was no process for the Single Integrated Air Picture System Engineering Task Force ( SIAP SE TF...to inherit or leverage, the SIAP SE TF had to build a process to identify candidate systems that will be impacted by the SIAP Block I upgrade.

  5. Block Fusion Systems and the Center of the Group Ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Martin Wedel

    This thesis develops some aspects of the theory of block fusion systems. Chapter 1 contains a brief introduction to the group algebra and some simple results about algebras over a field of positive characteristic. In chapter 2 we define the concept of a fusion system and the fundamental property...

  6. Combined parametric-nonparametric identification of block-oriented systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mzyk, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    This book considers a problem of block-oriented nonlinear dynamic system identification in the presence of random disturbances. This class of systems includes various interconnections of linear dynamic blocks and static nonlinear elements, e.g., Hammerstein system, Wiener system, Wiener-Hammerstein ("sandwich") system and additive NARMAX systems with feedback. Interconnecting signals are not accessible for measurement. The combined parametric-nonparametric algorithms, proposed in the book, can be selected dependently on the prior knowledge of the system and signals. Most of them are based on the decomposition of the complex system identification task into simpler local sub-problems by using non-parametric (kernel or orthogonal) regression estimation. In the parametric stage, the generalized least squares or the instrumental variables technique is commonly applied to cope with correlated excitations. Limit properties of the algorithms have been shown analytically and illustrated in simple experiments.

  7. Controlled specific placement of nanoparticles into microdomains of block copolymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Joonwon, E-mail: joonwonbae@gmail.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Dongduk Women' s University, Seoul 136-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungwook [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jongnam, E-mail: jnpark@unist.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Conceptually attractive hybrid materials composed of nanoparticles and elegant block copolymers have become important for diverse applications. In this work, controlled specific placement of nanoparticles such as gold (Au) and titania (TiO{sub 2}) into microphase separated domains in poly(styrene)-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer thin films was demonstrated. The effect of nanoparticle surface functionality on the spatial location of particles inside polymer film was observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was revealed that the location of nanoparticles was highly dependent on the surface ligand property of nanoparticle. In addition, the microphase separation behavior of thin block copolymer film was also affected by the nanoparticle surface functional groups. This study might provide a way to understand the properties and behaviors of numerous block copolymer/nanoparticle hybrid systems. - Highlights: • Controlled location of nanoparticles in the block copolymer matrix • Tailoring surface functionality of metal nanocrystals • Fabrication of homogeneous nanocomposites using organic inorganic components • Possibility for the preparation of nanohybrids.

  8. [The development of the system of blood flow block by using magnetic compression abdominal large vascular].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaopeng; Lv, Yi; Ma, Feng; Ma, Jia; Wang, Haohua; Wang, Shanpei; Li, Dichen; Liu, Yaxiong; Jia, Shenli; Shi, Zongqian; Luo, Ruixue

    2014-03-01

    A new system of blood flow block for control of bleeding in abdominal operation is composed of an abdominal magnetic blocking unit, an abdominal external electromagnet unit and other non-magnetic operation instrument. The abdominal external electromagnetic unit is placed in advance in the operation bed. The abdominal magnetic blocking unit can be placed directly on the ventral of the large vessels when need to blocking the abdominal large vessels during the operation. According to the non-contact suction characteristics of magnetic materials, the two magnetic units will attract each other and compression the vessels. Using this system for vascular occlusion does not need clear exposure and without separating vessel. There is the advantage of rapid, accurate and reliable for the system.

  9. Air temperature regulation in mine workings on the basis of local and block ventilation systems with boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrov, A.I.; Batmanov, Y.K.; Lunev, S.G.; Martynov, A.A. [Makeyevka Safety in Mines Research Institute, Makeyevka (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The thermal factor is one of the main factors complicating coal mining in the Donetsk Basin (Ukraine). Local ventilation systems (small diameter boreholes to improve ventilation in individual headings at deep levels) and block ventilation systems (large diameter boreholes for ventilation and air temperature control in independently mined blocks and panels) are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Random matrix theory for pseudo-Hermitian systems: Cyclic blocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudhir R Jain; Shashi C L Srivastava

    2009-12-01

    We discuss the relevance of random matrix theory for pseudo-Hermitian systems, and, for Hamiltonians that break parity and time-reversal invariance . In an attempt to understand the random Ising model, we present the treatment of cyclic asymmetric matrices with blocks and show that the nearest-neighbour spacing distributions have the same form as obtained for the matrices with scalar entries. We also summarize the theory for random cyclic matrices with scalar entries. We have also found that for block matrices made of Hermitian and pseudo-Hermitian sub-blocks of the form appearing in Ising model depart from the known results for scalar entries. However, there is still similarity in trends even in log–log plots.

  11. Bidding for blocks and environmental control; Licitacao de blocos e o controle ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostinho, Magila Maria [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP em Direito do Petroleo e Gas Natural, PRH-36

    2004-07-01

    With the coming of the Constitutional Emend n. 9/95, the Brazilian market of oil and natural gas stopped being monopolized by PETROBRAS. Since then, the concession of blocks began to be preceded by the public tender procedure realized by ANP- National Agency of Oil. The activities of oil exploration and production are potentially damaging to environment, what brings necessary the environmental licence and the previous study of the environmental impacts caused in this activity. Considering that the environmental licence must be done after the tender process, the enterprises that bought the blocks would assume the risk of not being allowed to practice their activities because of the absence of the environmental licence. To avoid that the It's offered blocks in not viable areas for oil exploration, the ANP, responsible for the public tender must accomplish a previous environmental control, to assure to the enterprises involved the environmental viability of the blocks offered. This project will touch the question of how has been realized the previous environmental control of the blocks offered by ANP into the public tender process, detaching, the control done at the 6. Round. (author)

  12. Controlling Phase Separation of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks by Addition of Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Brian; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Robertson, Megan

    2015-03-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) offer a unique way to produce mechanically superior thermoset blends relative to the neat components. In this study, IPNs were prepared consisting of polydicyclopentadiene (polyDCPD), contributing high fracture toughness, and an epoxy resin (the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A cured with nadic methyl anhydride), contributing high tensile strength and modulus. In the absence of compatibilization, the simultaneous curing of the networks leads to a macroscopically phase separated blend that exhibits poor mechanical behavior. To control phase separation and drive the system towards more mechanically robust nanostructured IPNs, block copolymers were designed to compatibilize this system, where one block possesses affinity to polyDCPD (polynorbornene in this study) and the other block possesses affinity to DGEBA (poly(ɛ-caprolactone) in this study). The influence of the block copolymer composition on the degree of phase separation and interfacial adhesion in the IPN was studied using a combination of small-angle scattering and imaging techniques. The resultant mechanical properties were explored and structure-property relationships were developed in this blend system.

  13. Optimal allocation of building blocks between nutrient uptake systems in a microbe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Hugo A; Kiselev, Yuri N; Orlov, Michael V

    2002-03-01

    A bacterial cell must distribute its molecular building blocks among various types of nutrient uptake systems. If the microbe is to maximize its average growth rate, this allocation of building blocks must be adjusted to the environmental availabilities of the various nutrients. The adjustments can be found from growth balancing considerations. We give a full proof of optimality and uniqueness of the optimal allocation regime for a simple model of microbial growth and internal stores kinetics. This proof suggests likely candidates for optimal control regimes in the case of a more realistic model. These candidate regimes differ with respect to the information that the cell's control system must have access to. We pay particular attention to one of the three candidates, a feedback regime based on a cellular control system that monitors only internal reserve densities. We show that allocation converges rapidly to balanced growth under this control regime.

  14. Stability and Stabilization of Block-cascading Switched Linear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Hong Zhu; Dai-Zhan Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the problem of quadratic stability and stabilization in switched linear systems using reducible Lie algebra. First, we investigate the structure of all real invariant subspaces for a given linear system. The result is then used to provide a comparable cascading form for switching models. Using the commoncascading form, a common quadratic Lyapunov function is (QLFs) is explored by finding common QLFs of diagonal blocks.In addition, a cascading Quaker Lemma is proved. Combining it with stability results, the problem of feedback stabilization for a class of switched linear systems is solved.

  15. Causality in thermoelectric systems: Insights from block diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apertet, Y.

    2016-12-01

    While Carnot's model engines demonstrate ideal performances regarding conversion efficiency, they cannot be actually used as energy converters since they are non-causal systems. Such an unphysical behavior indeed restrains the working conditions to a single point where, in the case of a refrigerator (generator), the cooling power (output power) vanishes. Focusing on the example of a thermoelectric refrigerator, we study the impact of different dissipation sources on the causality of such systems. Basing our analysis on the block diagram description of this system, we discuss particularly the fact that heat conduction cannot ensure causality.

  16. Controlling Phase Separation of Tough Interpenetrating Polymer Networks via Addition of Amphiphilic Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Brian; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Robertson, Megan

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) offer a unique way to combine the mechanical properties of two thermoset systems. Often used to create a material that possesses both high toughness and tensile properties, here we use polydicyclopentadiene, cured via ring opening metathesis polymerization, to contribute high toughness and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A cured via anhydride chemistry to contribute high tensile strength and modulus. As the uncompatibilized system reacts in the presence of one another, mesoscopic phase separation occurs and dictates the overall efficacy of combining mechanical properties. To control phase separation and drive the system towards more mechanically robust nanostructed IPNs, amphiphilic block copolymers of polybutadiene- b-polyethylene oxide, where one block possesses strong affinity to polyDCPD and the other the DGEBA, were added to the system. Here we present a systematic study of the influence of block copolymer composition in the overall blend on degree of phase separation and morphology using a combination of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The resultant mechanical properties are then explored in an effort to link mechanical properties to blend morphology.

  17. Sequential Block Copolymer Self-Assemblies Controlled by Metal-Ligand Stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liyuan; Wu, Hongwei; Zhu, Mingjie; Zou, Qi; Yan, Qiang; Zhu, Liangliang

    2016-06-28

    While numerous efforts have been devoted to developing easy-to-use probes based on block copolymers for detecting analytes due to their advantages in the fields of self-assembly and sensing, a progressive response on block copolymers in response to a continuing chemical event is not readily achievable. Herein, we report the self-assembly of a 4-piperazinyl-1,8-naphthalimide based functional block copolymer (PS-b-PN), whose self-assembly and photophysics can be controlled by the stoichiometry-dependent metal-ligand interaction upon the side chain. The work takes advantages of (1) stoichiometry-controlled coordination-structural transformation of the piperazinyl moiety on PS-b-PN toward Fe(3+) ions, thereby resulting in a shrinkage-expansion conversion of the self-assembled nanostructures in solution as well as in thin film, and (2) stoichiometry-controlled competition between photoinduced electron transfer and spin-orbital coupling process upon naphthalimide fluorophore leading to a boost-decline emission change of the system. Except Fe(3+) ions, such a stoichiometry-dependent returnable property cannot be observed in the presence of other transition ions. The strategy for realizing the dual-channel sequential response on the basis of the progressively alterable nanomorphologies and emissions might provide deeper insights for the further development of advanced polymeric sensors.

  18. Comparative study between ultrasound guided tap block and paravertebral block in upper abdominal surgeries. Randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaya M. Elsayed

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block and thoracic paravertebral block were safe and effective anesthetic technique for upper abdominal surgery with longer and potent postoperative analgesia in thoracic paravertebral block than transversus abdominis block.

  19. Stabilization and controlled association of superparamagnetic nanoparticles using block copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frka-Petesic, Bruno [UPMC Univ Paris 6, Lab. des Liquides Ioniques et Interfaces Chargees (LI2C), CNRS-ESPCI UMR 7612 case 51, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Fresnais, Jerome; Berret, Jean-Francois [Laboratoire Matiere et Systemes Complexes (MSC), UMR 7057 CNRS and Universite Paris Diderot, Batiment Condorcet 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Codex 13 (France); Dupuis, Vincent [UPMC Univ Paris 6, Lab. des Liquides Ioniques et Interfaces Chargees (LI2C), CNRS-ESPCI UMR 7612 case 51, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Perzynski, Regine [UPMC Univ Paris 6, Lab. des Liquides Ioniques et Interfaces Chargees (LI2C), CNRS-ESPCI UMR 7612 case 51, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: regine.perzynski@upmc.fr; Sandre, Olivier [UPMC Univ Paris 6, Lab. des Liquides Ioniques et Interfaces Chargees (LI2C), CNRS-ESPCI UMR 7612 case 51, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2009-04-15

    Mixing in aqueous solutions polyelectrolyte-neutral block copolymers with oppositely charged species, spontaneously forms stable core-shell complexes, which are electrostatically driven. We report here on the structural and orientational properties of such mixed magnetic nanoclusters made of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) and polyelectrolyte-neutral block copolymers. Small angle neutron scattering and transmission electron microscopy experiments allows to probe the inner-core nanoparticle organization, leading to an average interparticle distance and confirming the hierarchical internal structure of the clusters. Thanks to the MNP optical anisotropy, we also probe the under-magnetic field orientational properties of the core-shell clusters and their dynamical rotational relaxation.

  20. Optically controlled welding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An optically controlled welding system (10) wherein a welding torch (12) having through-the-torch viewing capabilities is provided with an optical beam splitter (56) to create a transmitted view and a reflective view of a welding operation. These views are converted to digital signals which are then processed and utilized by a computerized robotic welder (15) to make the welding torch responsive thereto. Other features includes an actively cooled electrode holder (26) which minimizes a blocked portion of the view by virtue of being constructed of a single spoke or arm (28) and a weld pool contour detector (14) comprising a laser beam directed onto the weld pool with the position of specular radiation reflected therefrom being characteristic of a penetrated or unpenetrated condition of the weld pool.

  1. Control of Block Copolymer Morphology through End-functional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Gyuha; Park, Moon Jeong

    2014-03-01

    Recently, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-containing polymer electrolytes have attracted significant attention to be applied for lithium batteries. As the realization of high mechanical strength from the polymer electrolyte becomes of critical importance in high-energy lithium batteries, much effort has been devoted to developing PEO-based block copolymers comprising mechanically robust polymer chains. Interest in this topic has been further stimulated by multiple observations of significant electrolytic conductivity enhancement imparted by microphase separation of block copolymers. In the present study, we report an intriguing methodology for modulating the morphology of poly(styrene-ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) block copolymers with a single ionic group tethered at the chain end of PEO. Unique intra- and inter-chain interactions deduced from the end functional group afforded enriched nanostructures, i.e. disorder, lamellae, hexagonal cylinder, and gyroid, with significant differences in conductivities depending on lithium salt concentration. In particular, a gyorid morphology with a twofold-enhanced lithium ion transport efficiency was found for the end-functionalized PS-PEO block copolymer, attributed to the structural advantages of the gyroid having co-continuous ionic channels.

  2. Automatic Control System for Neutron Laboratory Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Xiao; ZHANG; Guo-guang; FENG; Shu-qiang; SU; Dan; YANG; Guo-zhao; ZHANG; Shuai

    2015-01-01

    In order to cooperate with the experiment of neutron generator,and realize the automatic control in the experiment,a set of automatic control system for the safety of the neutron laboratory is designed.The system block diagram is shown as Fig.1.Automatic control device is for processing switch signal,so PLC is selected as the core component

  3. Magnetothermally responsive star-block copolymeric micelles for controlled drug delivery and enhanced thermo-chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Ren, Jie; Li, Jianbo; Leng, Junzhao; Qu, Yang; Lin, Chao; Shi, Donglu

    2015-06-07

    Magnetothermally responsive drug-loaded micelles were designed and prepared for cancer therapy. These specially designed micelles are composed of the thermo-responsive star-block copolymer poly(ε-caprolactone)-block-poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate-co-oligo(ethylene glycol)methacrylate) and Mn, Zn doped ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MZF-MNPs). The thermo-responses of 6sPCL-b-P(MEO2MA-co-OEGMA) copolymers were shown to be dependent on the MEO2MA to OEGMA ratio. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the star-block copolymers was controlled at 43 °C by adjusting the feed molar ratios of MEO2MA/OEGMA at 92 : 8. With the anti-tumor drug doxorubicin (DOX) self-assembling into the carrier system, the thermo-responsive micelles exhibited excellent temperature-triggered drug release behavior. In vitro cytotoxicity results showed high biocompatibility of the polymer micelles. Efficient cellular proliferation inhibition by the drug-loaded micelles was found on the HepG2 cells under different treatments. The thermo-responsive polymer micelles are promising for controlled drug delivery in tumor therapy under an alternating magnetic field.

  4. Multi-block methods in multivariate process control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohonen, J.; Reinikainen, S.P.; Aaljoki, K.

    2008-01-01

    methods the effect of a sub-process can be seen and an example with two blocks, near infra-red, NIR, and process data, is shown. The results show improvements in modelling task, when a MB-based approach is used. This way of working with data gives more information on the process than if all data......In chemometric studies all predictor variables are usually collected in one data matrix X. This matrix is then analyzed by PLS regression or other methods. When data from several different sub-processes are collected in one matrix, there is a possibility that the effects of some sub-processes may...... vanish. If there is, for instance, mechanic data from one process and spectral data from another, the influence of the mechanic sub-process may not be detected. An application of multi-block (MB) methods, where the X-data are divided into several data blocks is presented in this study. By using MB...

  5. Optimization of block-floating-point realizations for digital controllers with finite-word-length considerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊; 胡协和; 陈生; 褚健

    2003-01-01

    The closed-loop stability issue of finite-precision realizations was investigated for digital control-lers implemented in block-floating-point format. The controller coefficient perturbation was analyzed resultingfrom using finite word length (FWL) block-floating-point representation scheme. A block-floating-point FWL closed-loop stability measure was derived which considers both the dynamic range and precision. To facilitate the design of optimal finite-precision controller realizations, a computationally tractable block-floating-point FWL closed-loop stability measure was then introduced and the method of computing the value of this measure for a given controller realization was developed. The optimal controller realization is defined as the solution that maximizes the corresponding measure, and a numerical optimization approach was adopted to solve the resulting optimal realization problem. A numerical example was used to illustrate the design procedure and to compare the optimal controller realization with the initial realization.

  6. Adaptive block dynamic surface control for integrated missile guidance and autopilot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Mingzhe; Liang Xiaoling; Duan Guangren

    2013-01-01

    A novel integrated guidance and autopilot design method is proposed for homing missiles based on the adaptive block dynamic surface control approach.The fully integrated guidance and autopilot model is established by combining the nonlinear missile dynamics with the nonlinear dynamics describing the pursuit situation of a missile and a target in the three-dimensional space.The integrated guidance and autopilot design problem is further converted to a state regulation problem of a time-varying nonlinear system with matched and unmatched uncertainties.A new and simple adaptive block dynamic surface control algorithm is proposed to address such a state regulation problem.The stability of the closed-loop system is proven based on the Lyapunov theory.The six degrees of freedom (6DOF) nonlinear numerical simulation results show that the proposed integrated guidance and autopilot algorithm can ensure the accuracy of target interception and the robust stability of the closed-loop system with respect to the uncertainties in the missile dynamics

  7. Precise Synthesis of Block Polymers Composed of Three or More Blocks by Specially Designed Linking Methodologies in Conjunction with Living Anionic Polymerization System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Hirao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the successful development of two specially designed linking methodologies in conjunction with a living anionic polymerization system for the synthesis of novel multiblock polymers, composed of three or more blocks, difficult to be synthesized by sequential polymerization. The first methodology with the use of a new heterofunctional linking agent, 2-(4-chloromethylphenylethyldimethylchlorosilane (1, was developed for the synthesis of multiblock polymers containing poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS blocks. This methodology is based on the selective reaction of the chain-end silanolate anion of living PDMS, with the silyl chloride function of 1, and subsequent linking reaction of the resulting ω-chain-end-benzyl chloride-functionalized polymer with either a living anionic polymer or living anionic block copolymer. With this methodology, various multiblock polymers containing PDMS blocks, up to the pentablock quintopolymer, were successfully synthesized. The second methodology using an α-phenylacrylate (PA reaction site was developed for the synthesis of multiblock polymers composed of all-vinyl polymer blocks. In this methodology, an α-chain-end-PA-functionalized polymer or block copolymer, via the living anionic polymerization, was first prepared and, then, reacted with appropriate living anionic polymer or block copolymer to link the two polymer chains. As a result, ACB (BCA, BAC (CAB, (ABn, (ACn, ABA, ACA, BCB, and ABCA multiblock polymers, where A, B, and C were polystyrene, poly(2-vinylpyridine, and poly(methyl methacrylate segments, could be successfully synthesized. The synthesis of triblock copolymers, BAB, CAC, and CBC, having molecular asymmetry in both side blocks, was also achieved. Furthermore, the use of living anionic polymers, derived from many other monomers, categorized as either of styrene, 2-vinylpyridine, or methyl methacrylate in monomer reactivity, in the linking methodology enabled the number of

  8. Optimization of block floating point realizations for digital controllers with finite word length considerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊; 胡协和; 陈生; 褚健

    2003-01-01

    The closed-loop stability issue of finite-precision realizations was investigated for digital controllers implemented in block-floating-point format. The controller coefficient perturbation was analyzed resulting from using finite word length (FWL) block-floating-point representation scheme. A block-floating-point FWL closed-loop stability measure was derived which considers both the dynamic range and precision. To facilitate the design of optimal finite-precision controller realizations, a computationally tractable block-floating-point FWL closed-loop stability measure was then introduced and the method of computing the value of this measure for a given controller realization was developed. The optimal controller realization is defined as the solution that maximizes the corresponding measure, and a numerical optimization approach was adopted to solve the resulting optimal realization problem. A numerical example was used to illustrate the design procedure and to compare the optimal controller realization with the initial realization.

  9. Thoracic paravertebral blocks in abdominal surgery - a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Boghdadly, K; Madjdpour, C; Chin, K J

    2016-09-01

    Thoracic paravertebral blocks (TPVBs) have an extensive evidence base as part of a multimodal analgesic strategy for thoracic and breast surgery and have gained popularity with the advent of ultrasound guidance. However, this role is poorly defined in the context of abdominal surgery. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, to clarify the impact of TPVB on perioperative analgesic outcomes in adult abdominal surgery. We identified 20 published trials involving a total of 1044 patients that met inclusion criteria; however there was significant heterogeneity in terms of type of surgery, TPVB technique, comparator groups and study quality. Pain scores and opioid requirements in the early postoperative period were generally improved when compared with systemic analgesia, but there was insufficient evidence for any definitive conclusions regarding comparison with epidural analgesia or other peripheral block techniques, or the benefit of continuous TPVB techniques. The reported primary block failure rate was 2.8% and the incidence of complications was 1.2% (6/504); there were no instances of pneumothorax. TPVB therefore appears to be a promising analgesic technique for abdominal surgery in terms of efficacy and safety. But further well-designed and adequately powered studies are needed to confirm its utility, particularly with respect to other regional anaesthesia techniques.

  10. Rateless Space Time Block Code for Massive MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Alqahtani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rateless space time block code (RSTBC for massive MIMO systems. The paper illustrates the basis of rateless space time codes deployments in massive MIMO transmissions over wireless erasure channels. In such channels, data may be lost or is not decodable at the receiver due to a variety of factors such as channel fading, interference, or antenna element failure. We show that RSTBC guarantees the reliability of the system in such cases, even when the data loss rate is 25% or more. In such a highly lossy channel, the conventional fixed-rate codes fail to perform well, particularly when channel state information is not available at the transmitter. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the BER performance and the spectral efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  11. The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after abdominal surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, John G

    2007-01-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a novel approach for blocking the abdominal wall neural afferents via the bilateral lumbar triangles of Petit. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy in patients during the first 24 postoperative hours after abdominal surgery, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  12. Control Configuration Selection for Multivariable Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Komareji, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Control configuration selection is the procedure of choosing the appropriate input and output pairs for the design of SISO (or block) controllers. This step is an important prerequisite for a successful industrial control strategy. In industrial practices, it is often the case that systems, which...

  13. INVERSE DDA OF A SYSTEM OF BLOCKS IN SPHERE COORDINATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuYun; WangHui; ZhouShuoyu; ShiShunying

    2003-01-01

    In accordance with the geometric equations of elastic-mechanics in the sphere-coordinates, the displacement equation of blocks on asphere consisting of 6 deforming parameters is developed. The formula for distance between blocks is derived under the supposition that all block boundaries are prime arcs. The kinematic constraint and the penalty function for reasonable contact between blocks are developed. The normal equations and their coefficient matrix, based on the Least Squares Principle, are derived. The problem of adjudging penetration between blocks is discussed, and a solution is proposed.

  14. Digital building blocks for controlling random waves based on supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Sunkyu; Park, Namkyoo

    2016-01-01

    Harnessing multimode waves allows high information capacity through modal expansions. Although passive multimode devices including waveguides, couplers, and multiplexers have been demonstrated for broadband responses in momentum or frequency domains, collective switching of multimodes remains a challenge, due to the difficulty in imposing consistent dynamics on all eigenmodes. Here we overcome this limitation by realizing digital switching of spatially random waves, based on supersymmetric pairs of multimode potentials. We reveal that supersymmetric transformations of any parity-symmetric potential derive the parity reversal of all eigenmodes, which allows the complete isolation of random waves at the 'off' state. Building blocks for binary and many-valued logics are then demonstrated for random waves: a harmonic pair for binary switching of arbitrary wavefronts and a P\\"oschl-Teller pair for multi-level switching which implements the fuzzy membership function. Our results establishing global phase matching c...

  15. FunBlocks. A Modular Framework for AmI System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Rafael; Rodríguez, José; Mendoza, Sonia; Decouchant, Dominique; Papis, Alfredo Piero Mateos

    2012-01-01

    The last decade has seen explosive growth in the technologies required to implement Ambient Intelligence (AmI) systems. Technologies such as facial and speech recognition, home networks, household cleaning robots, to name a few, have become commonplace. However, due to the multidisciplinary nature of AmI systems and the distinct requirements of different user groups, integrating these developments into full-scale systems is not an easy task. In this paper we propose FunBlocks, a minimalist modular framework for the development of AmI systems based on the function module abstraction used in the IEC 61499 standard for distributed control systems. FunBlocks provides a framework for the development of AmI systems through the integration of modules loosely joined by means of an event-driven middleware and a module and sensor/actuator catalog. The modular design of the FunBlocks framework allows the development of AmI systems which can be customized to a wide variety of usage scenarios. PMID:23112599

  16. Adductor canal block versus femoral nerve block for total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duan; Yang, Yang; Li, Qi; Tang, Shen-Li; Zeng, Wei-Nan; Xu, Jin; Xie, Tian-Hang; Pei, Fu-Xing; Yang, Liu; Li, Ling-Li; Zhou, Zong-Ke

    2017-01-01

    Femoral nerve blocks (FNB) can provide effective pain relief but result in quadriceps weakness with increased risk of falls following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Adductor canal block (ACB) is a relatively new alternative providing pure sensory blockade with minimal effect on quadriceps strength. The meta-analysis was designed to evaluate whether ACB exhibited better outcomes with respect to quadriceps strength, pain control, ambulation ability, and complications. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Wan Fang, China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) and the Cochrane Database were searched for RCTs comparing ACB with FNB after TKAs. Of 309 citations identified by our search strategy, 12 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Compared to FNB, quadriceps maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was significantly higher for ACB, which was consistent with the results regarding quadriceps strength assessed with manual muscle strength scale. Moreover, ACB had significantly higher risk of falling versus FNB. At any follow-up time, ACB was not inferior to FNB regarding pain control or opioid consumption, and showed better range of motion in comparison with FNB. ACB is superior to the FNB regarding sparing of quadriceps strength and faster knee function recovery. It provides pain relief and opioid consumption comparable to FNB and is associated with decreased risk of falls. PMID:28079176

  17. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  18. Electronic system for optical shutter control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, H. C.; Gaylord, T. K.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes a precise and versatile electronic system for shutter control in light beam experiments. Digital and analog circuitry is used to provide automatic timing, exposure control, manual operation, and remote programmability. A block diagram of the system is presented and the individual circuits - the timer control circuit, the clock control circuit, the comparator circuit, the exposure (integrator) circuit, and the shutter drive circuit are discussed in detail and diagrams are provided.

  19. Controlled release of cortisone drugs from block copolymers synthetized by ATRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, G.; La Carta, S.; Mazzotti, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Perna, S.; Di Gesù, R.; Giorgini, L.; Carbone, D.; Recca, G.; Rizzarelli, P.

    2016-05-01

    Diseases affecting posterior eye segment, like macular edema, infection and neovascularization, may cause visual impairment. Traditional treatments, such as steroidal-drugs intravitreal injections, involve chronic course of therapy usually over a period of years. Moreover, they can require frequent administrations of drug in order to have an adequately disease control. This dramatically reduce patient's compliance. Efforts have been made to develop implantable devices that offer an alternative therapeutic approach to bypass many challenges of conventional type of therapy. Implantable drug delivery systems (DDS) have been developed to optimize therapeutic properties of drugs and ensure their slow release in the specific site. Polymeric materials can play an essential role in modulating drug delivery and their use in such field has become indispensable. During last decades, acrylic polymers have obtained growing interest. Biocompatibility and chemical properties make them extremely versatile, allowing their use in many field such as biomedical. In particular, block methacrylate copolymer with a balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties can be suitable for prolonged DDS in biomedical devices. In this work, we focused on the realization of a system for controlled and long term release of betamethasone 17,21-dipropionate (BDP), a cortisone drug, from methacrylic block copolymers, to be tested in the treatment of the posterior eye's diseases. Different series of methyl methacrylate/hydroxyethyl methacrylate (MMA/HEMA) block and random copolymers, with different monomer compositions (10-60% HEMA), were synthetized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) to find the best hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio, able to ensure optimal kinetic release. Copolymer samples were characterized by NMR spectroscopy (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, CosY), SEC, TGA and DSC. Monitoring of drug release from films loaded with BDP was carried out by HPLC analysis. Evaluation of different kinetic

  20. POTENSI MAHASISWA REGULAR BLOCK SYSTEM (RBS UNIVERSITAS KANJURUHAN MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Anastasia Endang Susilawati

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Survey conducted to obtain get situation of quadran strategy determine elegibility of increase of maximum expense lecturing of program student of Regular Block System (RBS at institute education of University of Kanjuruhan Unlucky enlisting and active in year of akademic 2006/2007. Used variables shall be as follows: 1 psicografis, 2 social of demography and economics, 3 geografis, 4 benefit, 5 last experience, 6 physical medium, 7 expense, 8 advertisement, 9 word of mouth communication, 10 image of PTS, 11 quality of technical service, 12 quality of functional service, 13 satisfaction of student, and 14 student expectation. Technique data collecting use quesioner which consist of question closed and is open. Obtained to be data to be analysed to descriptive method and SWOT ( strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats. Result of survey indicate that University of Kanjuruhan unlucky reside in aggresive strategy ( strength 71.12% and opportunity 71.1% and also strategy diversify ( strength 71.12% and threat 69.8%, hence competent to boost up the expense of maximum study equal to 19.41% made balance to with diversification of program to overcome threats faced in this time and in the future.

  1. The response of high-impact blocking weather systems to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Daniel; Parker, Tess; Woollings, Tim; Harvey, Benjamin; Shaffrey, Len

    2016-07-01

    Midlatitude weather and climate are dominated by the jet streams and associated eastward moving storm systems. Occasionally, however, these are blocked by persistent anticyclonic regimes known as blocking. Climate models generally predict a small decline in blocking frequency under anthropogenic climate change. However, confidence in these predictions is undermined by, among other things, a lack of understanding of the physical mechanisms underlying the change. Here we analyze blocking (mostly in the Euro-Atlantic sector) in a set of sensitivity experiments to determine the effect of different parts of the surface global warming pattern. We also analyze projected changes in the impacts of blocking such as temperature extremes. The results show that enhanced warming both in the tropics and over the Arctic act to strengthen the projected decline in blocking. The tropical changes are more important for the uncertainty in projected blocking changes, though the Arctic also affects the temperature anomalies during blocking.

  2. Block copolymer libraries: modular versatility of the macromolecular Lego system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeijer, Bas G G; Wouters, Daan; Yin, Zhihui; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2004-12-21

    The synthesis and characterization of a new 4 x 4 library of block copolymers based on polystyrene and poly(ethylene oxide) connected by an asymmetrical octahedral bis(terpyridine) ruthenium complex at the block junction are described, while initial studies on the thin film morphology of the components of the library are presented by the use of Atomic Force Microscopy, demonstrating the impact of a library approach to derive structure-property relationships.

  3. Controllability of Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schirmer, S G; Solomon, A I

    2003-01-01

    An overview and synthesis of results and criteria for open-loop controllability of Hamiltonian quantum systems obtained using Lie group and Lie algebra techniques is presented. Negative results for open-loop controllability of dissipative systems are discussed, and the superiority of closed-loop (feedback) control for quantum systems is established.

  4. Block quasi-minimal residual iterations for non-Hermitian linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, R.W. [AT& T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Many applications require the solution of multiple linear systems that have the same coefficient matrix, but differ only in their right-hand sides. Instead of applying an iterative method to each of these systems individually, it is usually more efficient to employ a block version of the method that generates blocks of iterates for all the systems simultaneously. An example of such an iteration is the block conjugate gradient algorithm, which was first studied by Underwood and O`Leary. On parallel architectures, block versions of conjugate gradient-type methods are attractive even for the solution of single linear systems, since they have fewer synchronization points than the standard versions of these algorithms. In this talk, the author presents a block version of Freund and Nachtigal`s quasi-minimal residual (QMR) method for the iterative solution of non-Hermitian linear systems. He describes two different implementations of the block-QMR method, one based on a block version of the three-term Lanczos algorithm and one based on coupled two-term block recurrences. In both cases, the underlying block-Lanczos process still allows arbitrary normalizations of the vectors within each block, and the author discusses different normalization strategies. To maintain linear independence within each block, it is usually necessary to reduce the block size in the course of the iteration, and the author describes a deflation technique for performing this reduction. He also present some convergence results, and reports results of numerical experiments with the block-QMR method. Finally, the author discusses possible block versions of transpose-free Lanczos-based iterations such as the TFQMR method.

  5. A focusing system control upgrade of MMF linac

    CERN Document Server

    Grekhov, O V; Kiselev, I V

    2001-01-01

    In this report the main principles of upgrade of focusing system control are given, new programs of focusing element power sources control are described, block diagrams of programs are submitted and algorithms of their functioning are represented.

  6. Topology and Shape Control for Assemblies of Block Copolymer Blends in Solution

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno, Nicolas

    2015-10-27

    We study binary blends of asymmetric diblock copolymers (AB/AC) in selective solvents with a mesoscale model. We investigate the morphological transitions induced by the concentration of the AC block copolymer and the difference in molecular weight between the AB and AC copolymers, when segments B and C exhibit hydrogen-bonding interactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work modeling mixtures of block copolymers with large differences in molecular weight. The coassembly mechanism localizes the AC molecules at the interface of A and B domains and induces the swelling of the B-rich domains. The coil size of the large molecular weight block copolymer depends only on the concentration of the short block copolymer (AC or AB), regardless of the B–C interactions. However, the B–C interactions control the morphological transitions that occur in these blends.

  7. Prediction of Wintertime Northern Hemisphere Blocking by the NCEP Climate Forecast System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xiaolong; YANG Song; SONG Wenling; HE Bin

    2014-01-01

    Daily output from the hindcasts by the NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) is analyzed to understand CFSv2’s skill in forecasting wintertime atmospheric blocking in the Northern Hemisphere. Prediction skills of sector blocking, sector-blocking episodes, and blocking onset/decay are assessed with a focus on the Euro-Atlantic sector (20◦W-45◦E) and the Pacifi c sector (160◦E-135◦W). Features of associated circulation and climate patterns are also examined. The CFSv2 well captures the observed features of longitudinal distribution of blocking activity, but underestimates blocking frequency and intensity and shows a decreasing trend in blocking frequency with increasing forecast lead time. Within 14-day lead time, the Euro-Atlantic sector blocking receives a higher skill than the Pacifi c sector blocking. Skillful forecast (taking the hit rate of 50% as a criterion) can be obtained up to 9 days in the Euro-Atlantic sector, which is slightly longer than that in the Pacifi c sector (7 days). The forecast skill of sector-blocking episodes is slightly lower than that of sector blocking in both sectors, and it is slightly higher in the Euro-Atlantic sector than in the Pacifi c sector. Compared to block onset, the skill for block decay is lower in the Euro-Atlantic sector, slightly higher in the Pacifi c sector during the early three days but lower after three days in lead time. In both the Euro-Atlantic and the Pacifi c sectors, a local dipole pattern in 500-hPa geopotential height associated with blocking is well presented in the CFSv2 prediction, but the wave-train like pattern that is far away from the blocking sector can only maintain in the forecast of relative short lead time. The CFSv2 well reproduces the observed characteristics of local temperature and precipitation anomalies associated with blocking.

  8. Digital Optical Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, David H.; Tipton, Charles A.; Christmann, Charles E.; Hochhausler, Nils P.

    1988-09-01

    We describe the digital optical control system (DOGS), a state-of-the-art controller for electrical feedback in an optical system. The need for a versatile optical controller arose from a number of unique experiments being performed by the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. These experiments use similar detectors and actuator-controlled mirrors, but the control requirements vary greatly. The experiments have in common a requirement for parallel control systems. The DOGS satisfies these needs by allowing several control systems to occupy a single chassis with one master controller. The architecture was designed to allow upward compatibility with future configurations. Combinations of off-the-shelf and custom boards are configured to meet the requirements of each experiment. The configuration described here was used to control piston error to X/80 at a wavelength of 0.51 Am. A peak sample rate of 8 kHz, yielding a closed loop bandwidth of 800 Hz, was achieved.

  9. Discrete Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Taeyoung; McClamroch, N Harris

    2007-01-01

    Discrete control systems, as considered here, refer to the control theory of discrete-time Lagrangian or Hamiltonian systems. These discrete-time models are based on a discrete variational principle, and are part of the broader field of geometric integration. Geometric integrators are numerical integration methods that preserve geometric properties of continuous systems, such as conservation of the symplectic form, momentum, and energy. They also guarantee that the discrete flow remains on the manifold on which the continuous system evolves, an important property in the case of rigid-body dynamics. In nonlinear control, one typically relies on differential geometric and dynamical systems techniques to prove properties such as stability, controllability, and optimality. More generally, the geometric structure of such systems plays a critical role in the nonlinear analysis of the corresponding control problems. Despite the critical role of geometry and mechanics in the analysis of nonlinear control systems, non...

  10. Pectoralis Minor Nerve Block versus Thoracic Epidural and Paravertebral Block in Perioperative Pain Control of Breast Surgery - Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Sedra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pectoralis minor blocks are still relatively new and require further evaluation, but may have a place in peri-operative pain management for the appropriate cases. Still considered as less invasive procedure in comparison to thoracic epidurals and para-vertebral blocks. Complications of thoracic epidural and para-vertebral blocks like spinal cord injury and pneumothorax makes many anaesthetists interested in practising pectoralis minor block guided by ultrasound. Blanco first introduced the pectoralis minor block in 2011, he did study on 50 patients within 2 years. Results were very promising, all patients did not need any opiates but only paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID drugs got used.

  11. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  12. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  13. ADAPTIVE BLOCK QMRIOM(q)METHOD FOR SOLVING UNSYMMETRIC LINEAR SYSTEMS WITH MULTI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangZhengsheng

    2002-01-01

    Many applications require the solution of large un-symmetric linear systems with multiple right-hand sides.Instead of applying an iterative method to each of these systems individually,it is often more efficient to use a block version of the method that generates iterates for all the systems simultaneously.This paper proposes a new adaptive block QMR version based on the incomplete or-thogomalization method(IOM(q))for solving large multi-ple nusymmetric linear systems.How to incorporate de-flation to drop comverged linear systems,and how to delete linearly and almost liearly dependent vectors in the underlying block Krylov sequences are discussed.Nu-merical experiments show that the new adaptive block method has better practical performance and less compu-tational cost and CPU time than block GMRES and other proposed methods for the solution of systems with multi- ple right-hand sides.

  14. Volume shrinkage and rheological studies of epoxidised and unepoxidised poly(styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) triblock copolymer modified epoxy resin-diamino diphenyl methane nanostructured blend systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sajeev Martin; Puglia, Debora; Kenny, Josè M; Parameswaranpillai, Jyotishkumar; Vijayan P, Poornima; Pionteck, Jűrgen; Thomas, Sabu

    2015-05-21

    Styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene (SBS) copolymers epoxidised at different epoxidation degrees were used as modifiers for diglycidyl ether of the bisphenol A-diamino diphenyl methane (DGEBA-DDM) system. Epoxy systems containing modified epoxidised styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene (eSBS) triblock copolymer with compositions ranging from 0 to 30 wt% were prepared and the curing reaction was monitored in situ using rheometry and pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) analysis. By controlling the mole percent of epoxidation, we could generate vesicles, worm-like micelles and core-shell nanodomains. At the highest mole percent of epoxidation, the fraction of the epoxy miscible component in the triblock copolymer (epoxidised polybutadiene (PB)) was maximum. This gave rise to core-shell nanodomains having a size of 10-15 nm, in which the incompatible polystyrene (PS) becomes the core, the unepoxidised PB becomes the shell and the epoxidised PB interpenetrates with the epoxy phase. On the other hand, the low level of epoxidation gave rise to bigger domains having a size of ∼1 μm and the intermediate epoxidation level resulted in a worm-like structure. This investigation specifically focused on the importance of cure rheology on nanostructure formation, using rheometry. The reaction induced phase separation of the PS phase in the epoxy matrix was carefully explored through rheological measurements. PVT measurements during curing were carried out to understand the volume shrinkage of the blend, confirming that shrinkage behaviour is related to the block copolymer phase separation process during curing. The volume shrinkage was found to be maximum in the case of blends with unmodified SBS, where a heterogeneous morphology was observed, while a decrease in the shrinkage was evidenced in the case of SBS epoxidation. It could be explained by two effects: (1) solubility of the epoxidised block copolymer in the DGEBA leads to the formation of nanoscopic domains upon

  15. 49 CFR 236.828 - System, traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System, traffic control. 236.828 Section 236.828..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.828 System, traffic control. A block signal system under which train movements are authorized by...

  16. Controllability in nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschorn, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    An explicit expression for the reachable set is obtained for a class of nonlinear systems. This class is described by a chain condition on the Lie algebra of vector fields associated with each nonlinear system. These ideas are used to obtain a generalization of a controllability result for linear systems in the case where multiplicative controls are present.

  17. Signal-Conditioning Block of a 1 × 200 CMOS Detector Array for a Terahertz Real-Time Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ryul Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A signal conditioning block of a 1 × 200 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS detector array is proposed to be employed with a real-time 0.2 THz imaging system for inspecting large areas. The plasmonic CMOS detector array whose pixel size including an integrated antenna is comparable to the wavelength of the THz wave for the imaging system, inevitably carries wide pixel-to-pixel variation. To make the variant outputs from the array uniform, the proposed signal conditioning block calibrates the responsivity of each pixel by controlling the gate bias of each detector and the voltage gain of the lock-in amplifiers in the block. The gate bias of each detector is modulated to 1 MHz to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the imaging system via the electrical modulation by the conditioning block. In addition, direct current (DC offsets of the detectors in the array are cancelled by initializing the output voltage level from the block. Real-time imaging using the proposed signal conditioning block is demonstrated by obtaining images at the rate of 19.2 frame-per-sec of an object moving on the conveyor belt with a scan width of 20 cm and a scan speed of 25 cm/s.

  18. Signal-Conditioning Block of a 1 × 200 CMOS Detector Array for a Terahertz Real-Time Imaging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jong-Ryul; Lee, Woo-Jae; Han, Seong-Tae

    2016-03-02

    A signal conditioning block of a 1 × 200 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) detector array is proposed to be employed with a real-time 0.2 THz imaging system for inspecting large areas. The plasmonic CMOS detector array whose pixel size including an integrated antenna is comparable to the wavelength of the THz wave for the imaging system, inevitably carries wide pixel-to-pixel variation. To make the variant outputs from the array uniform, the proposed signal conditioning block calibrates the responsivity of each pixel by controlling the gate bias of each detector and the voltage gain of the lock-in amplifiers in the block. The gate bias of each detector is modulated to 1 MHz to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the imaging system via the electrical modulation by the conditioning block. In addition, direct current (DC) offsets of the detectors in the array are cancelled by initializing the output voltage level from the block. Real-time imaging using the proposed signal conditioning block is demonstrated by obtaining images at the rate of 19.2 frame-per-sec of an object moving on the conveyor belt with a scan width of 20 cm and a scan speed of 25 cm/s.

  19. Motion control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sabanovic, Asif

    2011-01-01

    "Presents a unified approach to the fundamental issues in motion control, starting from the basics and moving through single degree of freedom and multi-degree of freedom systems In Motion Control Systems, Šabanovic and Ohnishi present a unified approach to very diverse issues covered in motion control systems, offering know-how accumulated through work on very diverse problems into a comprehensive, integrated approach suitable for application in high demanding high-tech products. It covers material from single degree of freedom systems to complex multi-body non-redundant and redundant systems. The discussion of the main subject is based on original research results and will give treatment of the issues in motion control in the framework of the acceleration control method with disturbance rejection technique. This allows consistent unification of different issues in motion control ranging from simple trajectory tracking to topics related to haptics and bilateral control without and with delay in the measure...

  20. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  1. Control systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nise, Norman S

    1995-01-01

    This completely updated new edition shows how to use MATLAB to perform control-system calculations. Designed for the professional or engineering student who needs a quick and readable update on designing control systems, the text features a series of tightly focused examples that clearly illustrate each concept of designing control systems. Most chapters conclude with a detailed application from the two case studies that run throughout the book: an antenna asimuth control system and a submarine. The author also refers to many examples of design methods.

  2. Step Motor Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangShuochengt; WangDan; QiaoWeimin; JingLan

    2003-01-01

    All kinds of step motors and servomotors are widely used in CSR control system, such as many vacuum valves control that set on the HIRFL-CSR; all kinds of electric switches and knobs of ECR Ion Source; equipment of CSR Beam Diagnostics and a lot of large equipment like Inside Gun Toroid and Collector Toroid of HIRFL. A typical control system include up to 32 16-I/O Control boards, and each 16-I/O Control board can control 4 motors at the same time (including 8 Limit Switches).

  3. The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, John G

    2008-01-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an effective method of providing postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing midline abdominal wall incisions. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after cesarean delivery performed through a Pfannensteil incision, in a randomized controlled, double-blind, clinical trial.

  4. Ipsilateral transversus abdominis plane block provides effective analgesia after appendectomy in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carney, John

    2010-10-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block provides effective postoperative analgesia in adults undergoing major abdominal surgery. Its efficacy in children remains unclear, with no randomized clinical trials in this population. In this study, we evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after appendectomy performed through an open abdominal incision, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  5. Controlled orientation and ordering of nanostructured thin films from degradable block copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rong-Ming; She, Ming-Shiuan; Lo, Ting-Ya; Wu, Yi-Hsiu

    2014-03-01

    The fabrication of nanostructured thin films from the self-assembly of degradable block copolymers (BCPs) has attracted extensive attention. To create useful BCP thin films for practical uses, controlling the orientation of self-assembled nanostructures is essential. Here, we present a new method for forming well-ordered and oriented nanostructured thin films on a functionalized SiO2 surface, using homopolymers with hydroxyl group at the chain end to functionalize SiO2 surface, to give neutral substrate for the BCPs. To demonstrate the feasibility of suggested approaches, a series of degradable BCPs, polystyrene- b-poly(L-lactide) (PS-PLLA) with hexagonally packed cylinder and double gyroid phases, are used as model systems for creating nanostructured thin films with controlled orientation and ordering of BCP nanostructures. Different methods such as thermal and solvent annealing are utilized to exploit the fabricated neutral substrate for creating expected nanostructured thin films. By taking advantage of degradable character of PLLA, nanoporous PS thin film can be fabricated by hydrolysis and used as a template for synthesis of various nanohybrids and nanoporous materials.

  6. Orientational control of block copolymer microdomains by sub-tesla magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinadhan, Manesh; Choo, Youngwoo; Feng, Xunda; Kawabata, Kohsuke; di, Xiaojun; Osuji, Chinedum

    Magnetic fields offer a versatile approach to controlling the orientation of block copolymer (BCP) microdomains during self-assembly. To date however, such control has required the imposition of large magnetic fields (>3T), necessitating the use of complex magnet systems - either superconducting or very large conventional resistive magnets. Here we demonstrate the ability to direct BCP self-assembly using considerably smaller fields (<1T) which are accessible using simple rare-earth permanent magnets. The low field alignment is enabled by the presence of small quantities of mesogenic species that are blended into, and co-assemble with the liquid crystalline (LC) mesophase of the side-chain LC BCP under study. In situ SAXS experiments reveal a pronounced dependence of the critical alignment field strength on the stoichiometry of the blend, and the ability to generate aligned microdomains with orientational distribution coefficients exceeding 0.95 at sub-1 T fields for appropriate stoichiometries. The alignment response overall can be rationalized in terms of increased mobility and grain size due to the presence of the mesogenic additive. We use a permanent magnet to fabricate films with aligned nanopores, and the utility of this approach to generate complex BCP microdomain patterns in thin films by local field screening are highlighted. NSF DMR-1410568 and DMR-0847534.

  7. Discrete control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Discrete Control Systems establishes a basis for the analysis and design of discretized/quantized control systemsfor continuous physical systems. Beginning with the necessary mathematical foundations and system-model descriptions, the text moves on to derive a robust stability condition. To keep a practical perspective on the uncertain physical systems considered, most of the methods treated are carried out in the frequency domain. As part of the design procedure, modified Nyquist–Hall and Nichols diagrams are presented and discretized proportional–integral–derivative control schemes are reconsidered. Schemes for model-reference feedback and discrete-type observers are proposed. Although single-loop feedback systems form the core of the text, some consideration is given to multiple loops and nonlinearities. The robust control performance and stability of interval systems (with multiple uncertainties) are outlined. Finally, the monograph describes the relationship between feedback-control and discrete ev...

  8. Type WYZ-97 Eighteen-information Noninsulate Frequency-shift Automatic Blocking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Type WYZ-97 eighteen-information noninsulate frequency-shift automatic blocking system is the most advanced railroad signaling system in China nowadays.The article introduced its principles,technical targets,features and the applications.

  9. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  10. Controllability of Discontinuous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Veliov, V. M.; Krastanov, M.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents an approach to the local controllability problem for a discontinuous system. The approach is based on a concept of tangent vector field to a generalized dynamic system, which makes possible the differential geometry tools to be applied in the discontinuous case. Sufficient controllability conditions are derived.

  11. Block Copolymer Compatibilizers for Morphological Control on the Equilibrium Structural Characteristics of Polymer/Fullerene Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Dylan; Ganesan, Venkat

    2014-03-01

    We develop a single chain in mean field model for the equilibrium morphologies of solar cells based on the homopolymer/block copolymer/fullerene blend. Using our model, we study the ability of the block copolymer compatibilizer to provide morphological control on the domain and interfacial characteristics of the equilibrium structures. We focus our efforts on the case of a semiflexible homopolymer and a semiflexible/flexible diblock copolymer as these are emblematic of the kinds of molecules used in photovoltaic applications. Our results reveal a novel progression of morphologies in transitioning the ternary composition space, the rigidity of the semiflexible chains, and the flexible block ratio of the diblock copolymer. To elucidate the morphologies, we first present a series of ternary phase diagrams and then use a simple morphological characterization scheme to evaluate the domain sizes and interfacial quantities characterizing our equilibrium structures.

  12. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  13. Low-Complexity Block Turbo Equalization for OFDM Systems in Time-Varying Channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, K.; Rugini, L.; Leus, G.

    2008-01-01

    We propose low-complexity block turbo equalizers for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems in time-varying channels. The presented work is based on a soft minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) block linear equalizer (BLE) that exploits the banded structure of the frequency-domain cha

  14. PRECISE SYNTHESIS OF OLEFIN BLOCK COPOLYMERS USING A SYNDIOSPECIFIC LIVING POLYMERIZATION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-guo Cai; Hai-hui Su; Takeshi Shiono

    2013-01-01

    This feature article summarizes the synthesis of novel olefin block copolymers using fast syndiospecific living homo-and copolymerization of propylene,higher 1-alkene,and norbomene with ansa-fluorenylamidodimethyltitaniumbased catalyst according to the authors' recent results.The catalytic synthesis of monodisperse polyolefin and olefin block copolymer was also described using this living system.

  15. Joint impact of quantization and clipping on single- and multi-carrier block transmission systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H.; Schenk, T.C.W.; Smulders, P.F.M.; Fledderus, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    This work investigates the joint impact of quantization and clipping, caused by analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with low bit resolutions, on single- and multi-carrier block transmission systems in wireless multipath environments. We consider single carrier block transmission with frequency domai

  16. Common Control System Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an

  17. Drone Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Drones, subscale vehicles like the Firebees, and full scale retired military aircraft are used to test air defense missile systems. The DFCS (Drone Formation Control System) computer, developed by IBM (International Business Machines) Federal Systems Division, can track ten drones at once. A program called ORACLS is used to generate software to track and control Drones. It was originally developed by Langley and supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center). The program saved the company both time and money.

  18. Digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  19. Control Oriented System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The research goals for this grant were to obtain algorithms for control oriented system identification is to construct dynamical models of systems...and measured information. Algorithms for this type of nonlinear system identification have been given that produce models suitable for gain scheduled

  20. IGISOL control system modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, J., E-mail: jukka.ae.koponen@jyu.fi; Hakala, J.

    2016-06-01

    Since 2010, the IGISOL research facility at the Accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä has gone through major changes. Comparing the new IGISOL4 facility to the former IGISOL3 setup, the size of the facility has more than doubled, the length of the ion transport line has grown to about 50 m with several measurement setups and extension capabilities, and the accelerated ions can be fed to the facility from two different cyclotrons. The facility has evolved to a system comprising hundreds of manual, pneumatic and electronic devices. These changes have prompted the need to modernize also the facility control system taking care of monitoring and transporting the ion beams. In addition, the control system is also used for some scientific data acquisition tasks. Basic guidelines for the IGISOL control system update have been remote control, safety, usability, reliability and maintainability. Legacy components have had a major significance in the control system hardware and for the renewed control system software the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been chosen as the architectural backbone.

  1. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  2. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators.

  3. Vertical Continuity and Alignment of Block Copolymer Domains by Kinetically Controlled Electrospray Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hanqiong; Woo, Youngwoo; Feng, Xunda; Osuji, Chinedum; Osuji Lab Team

    2015-03-01

    We report the fabrication of vertically aligned cylindrical block copolymer (BCP) domains using continuous electrospray deposition (ESD) onto bare wafer surfaces. The out-of-plane orientation of hexagonally packed styrene cylinders was achieved in a ``fast-wet'' deposition regime where rapid evaporation of solvent in droplets of polymer solution drove the vertical alignment of SBS domains. The deposition conditions were optimized such that thermally activated crosslinking of the polybutadiene matrix provided kinetic control of the morphology, locking in the vertical alignment and preventing relaxation of the system to its preferred parallel orientation on the non-treated substrate. Physically continuous and vertically oriented domains is achieved over several microns of film thickness. We describe the effects of flow rate, collection distance and substrate temperature on thin film morphology and demonstrate selective etching capabilities. The ability of ESD to fabricate well-ordered and aligned BCP films on non-treated substrates, the low utilization of material relative to spin-coating and the continuous nature of the deposition may open up new opportunities for BCP thin films. We are exploring ESD as a new platform for sequential deposition of BCPs with different functionalities.

  4. Paracervical block with 1% lidocaine for pain control during intrauterine device insertion: a prospective, single-blinded, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Akdag Cirik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this prospective controlled study we aimed to investigate efficacy of paracervical block with 1% Lidocaine for pain control and demographic variables which may affect pain perception during intrauterine device insertion in Turkish women. Data from 95 women assigned to paracervical block (n=34, placebo (n=30 and no treatment (n=31 arms and asked to grade the pain level they felt during tenaculum placement, intrauterine device insertion and 5 minutes after the procedure using a visual pain scale. Demographic variables were also recorded. Pain scores were found to be lower in paracervical block group when compared to other 2 groups during tenaculum placement (p=0.00, intrauterine device insertion (p=0.00 and 5 minutes after the procedure (p=0.00. Level of pain was unrelated to mode of previous deliveries and current breastfeeding. Paracervical block is an easy, safe and effective way of pain control during intrauterine device insertion. Lack of vaginal birth history is not a reason to draw back from intrauterine device use. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(3.000: 263-267

  5. Control systems under attack?

    CERN Document Server

    Lüders, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The enormous growth of the Internet during the last decade offers new means to share and distribute both information and data. In Industry, this results in a rapprochement of the production facilities, i.e. their Process Control and Automation Systems, and the data warehouses. At CERN, the Internet opens the possibility to monitor and even control (parts of) the LHC and its four experiments remotely from anywhere in the world. However, the adoption of standard IT technologies to Distributed Process Control and Automation Systems exposes inherent vulnerabilities to the world. The Teststand On Control System Security at CERN (TOCSSiC) is dedicated to explore the vulnerabilities of arbitrary Commercial-Of-The-Shelf hardware devices connected to standard Ethernet. As such, TOCSSiC should discover their vulnerabilities, point out areas of lack of security, and address areas of improvement which can then be confidentially communicated to manufacturers. This paper points out risks of accessing the Control and Automa...

  6. Control and Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Zahradnik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with main tends of scientific research activities of Department of Control and Information Systems at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of University of Zilina and its perspectives in this area.

  7. Nonselective Blocking of the Sympathetic Nervous System Decreases Detrusor Overactivity in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Shin Park

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The involuntary dual control systems of the autonomic nervous system (ANS in the bladder of awake spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs were investigated through simultaneous registrations of intravesical and intraabdominal pressures to observe detrusor overactivity (DO objectively as a core symptom of an overactive bladder. SHRs (n = 6 showed the features of overactive bladder syndrome during urodynamic study, especially DO during the filling phase. After injection of the nonselective sympathetic blocking agent labetalol, DO disappeared in 3 of 6 SHRs (50%. DO frequency decreased from 0.98 ± 0.22 min−1 to 0.28 ± 0.19 min−1 (p < 0.01, and DO pressure decreased from 3.82 ± 0.57 cm H2O to 1.90 ± 0.86 cm H2O (p < 0.05. This suggests that the DO originating from the overactive parasympathetic nervous system is attenuated by the nonselective blocking of the sympathetic nervous system. The detailed mechanism behind this result is still not known, but parasympathetic overactivity seems to require overactive sympathetic nervous system activity in a kind of balance between these two systems. These findings are consistent with recent clinical findings suggesting that patients with idiopathic overactive bladder may have ANS dysfunction, particularly a sympathetic dysfunction. The search for newer and better drugs than the current anticholinergic drugs as the mainstay for overactive bladder will be fueled by our research on these sympathetic mechanisms. Further studies of this principle are required.

  8. Reset Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baños, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Reset Control Systems addresses the analysis for reset control treating both its basic form which requires only that the state of the controller be reinitialized to zero (the reset action) each time the tracking error crosses zero (the reset condition), and some useful variations of the reset action (partial reset with fixed or variable reset percentage) and of the reset condition (fixed or variable reset band and anticipative reset). The issues regarding reset control – concepts and motivation; analysis tools; and the application of design methodologies to real-world examples – are given comprehensive coverage. The text opens with an historical perspective which moves from the seminal work of the Clegg integrator and Horowitz FORE to more recent approaches based on impulsive/hybrid control systems and explains the motivation for reset compensation. Preliminary material dealing with notation, basic definitions and results, and with the definition of the control problem under study is also included. The fo...

  9. Tautological control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents a description of a new modelling framework for nonlinear/geometric control theory. The framework is intended to be—and shown to be—feedback-invariant. As such, Tautological Control Systems provides a platform for understanding fundamental structural problems in geometric control theory. Part of the novelty of the text stems from the variety of regularity classes, e.g., Lipschitz, finitely differentiable, smooth, real analytic, with which it deals in a comprehensive and unified manner. The treatment of the important real analytic class especially reflects recent work on real analytic topologies by the author. Applied mathematicians interested in nonlinear and geometric control theory will find this brief of interest as a starting point for work in which feedback invariance is important. Graduate students working in control theory may also find Tautological Control Systems to be a stimulating starting point for their research.

  10. Internal control system

    OpenAIRE

    Pavésková, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Dissertation focuse on the internal control system in the enterprises, aims to map the control system by focusing on the purchasing department. I focused on the purchasing process, because with an increasing trends of outsourcing services and the increasing interconnectedness of enterprises increases the risk of fraud currently in the purchasing process. To the research was selected the sample of companies from the banking and non-banking environment, to which were sent a questionnaire focusi...

  11. Nonlinear Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , AC- 48, pp. 1712-1723, (2003). [14] C.I. Byrnes, A. Isidori...Nonlinear internal models for output regulation,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , AC-49, pp. 2244-2247, (2004). [15] C.I. Byrnes, F. Celani, A...approach,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , 48 (Dec. 2003), 2172–2190. 2. C. I. Byrnes, “Differential Forms and Dynamical Systems,” to appear

  12. Methods for Setting up a Three-Dimensional Industrial Surveying System of "Building Blocks Type"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Wenhao

    2004-01-01

    This paper is to advance some relevant techniques to set up a three-dimensional industrial surveying system of "building blocks type", making use of the electronic theodolite, standard ruler and portable computer.

  13. FABRIC QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem KISAOĞLU

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Woven fabric quality depends on yarn properties at first, then weaving preparation and weaving processes. Defect control of grey and finished fabric is done manually on the lighted tables or automatically. Fabrics can be controlled by the help of the image analysis method. In image system the image of fabrics can be digitized by video camera and after storing controlled by the various processing. Recently neural networks, fuzzy logic, best wavelet packet model on automatic fabric inspection are developed. In this study the advantages and disadvantages of manual and automatic, on-line fabric inspection systems are given comparatively.

  14. Controllability of delay systems with restrained controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwu, E. N.

    1979-01-01

    Using a geometric growth condition, both the function space and Euclidean controllability of a nonlinear delay system which has a compact and convex control set are characterized. This extends analogous results for ordinary differential systems, and it yields conditions under which perturbed nonlinear delay controllable systems are controllable.

  15. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  16. The ISOLDE control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, I.; Pace, A.

    1994-12-01

    The two CERN isotope separators named ISOLDE have been running on the new Personal Computer (PC) based control system since April 1992. The new architecture that makes heavy use of the commercial software and hardware of the PC market has been implemented on the 1700 geographically distributed control channels of the two separators and their experimental area. Eleven MSDOS Intel-based PCs with approximately 80 acquisition and control boards are used to access the equipment and are controlled from three PCs running Microsoft Windows used as consoles through a Novell Local Area Network. This paper describes the interesting solutions found and discusses the reduced programming workload and costs that have been obtained.

  17. CNEOST Control Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Zhao, H. B.; Xia, Y.; Lu, H.; Li, B.

    2015-03-01

    In 2013, CNEOST (China Near Earth Object Survey Telescope) adapted its hardware system for the new CCD camera. Based on the new system architecture, the control software is re-designed and implemented. The software system adopts the message passing mechanism via WebSocket protocol, and improves its flexibility, expansibility, and scalability. The user interface with responsive web design realizes the remote operating under both desktop and mobile devices. The stable operating of software system has greatly enhanced the operation efficiency while reducing the complexity, and has also made a successful attempt for the future system design of telescope and telescope cloud.

  18. Torque exerted on the side of crustal blocks controls the kinematics of Ethiopian Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluneh, Ameha A.; Kidane, Tesfaye; Cuffaro, Marco; Doglioni, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Plate tectonic stress at active plate boundary can arises from 1) a torque applied on the side of lithospheric blocks and 2) a torque at the base of the lithosphere due to the flow of the underlying mantle. In this paper we use a simple force balance analysis to compare side and basal shear stresses and their contribution in driving kinematics and deformation in the Ethiopian Rift (ER), in the northern part of the East African Rift System (EARS). Assuming the constraints of the ER given by the dimension of the lithospheric blocks, the strain rate, the viscosity of the low velocity zone (LVZ) and the depth of the brittle-ductile transition zone, the lateral torque is several orders of magnitude higher than the basal torque. The minor contribution of basal torque might be due to low viscosity in the LVZ. Both Africa and Somalia plates are moving to the "west" relative to the mantle and there are not slabs that can justify this pull and consequent motion. Therefore, we invoke that westerly oriented tidal torque on Africa and Somalia plates in providing the necessary side torque in the region. This plate motion predicts significant sinistral transtension along the ER and rift parallel strike-slip faulting similar to the estimated angular velocity vector for tectonic blocks and GPS observations. Vertical axis block rotations are observed in areas where the lithospheric mantle is removed and strain is widely distributed.

  19. Iron regulatory proteins control a mucosal block to intestinal iron absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, Bruno; Ferring-Appel, Dunja; Becker, Christiane; Gretz, Norbert; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Schümann, Klaus; Hentze, Matthias W

    2013-03-28

    Mammalian iron metabolism is regulated systemically by the hormone hepcidin and cellularly by iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that orchestrate a posttranscriptional regulatory network. Through ligand-inducible genetic ablation of both IRPs in the gut epithelium of adult mice, we demonstrate that IRP deficiency impairs iron absorption and promotes mucosal iron retention via a ferritin-mediated "mucosal block." We show that IRP deficiency does not interfere with intestinal sensing of body iron loading and erythropoietic iron need, but rather alters the basal expression of the iron-absorption machinery. IRPs thus secure sufficient iron transport across absorptive enterocytes by restricting the ferritin "mucosal block" and define a basal set point for iron absorption upon which IRP-independent systemic regulatory inputs are overlaid.

  20. Morphology-controlled growth of perylene derivative induced by double-hydrophilic block copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled growth of technically relevant perylene derivative 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic acid potassium salt (PTCAPS, with tuneable morpologies, has been successfully realized by a recrystallization method using a double-hydrophilic block copolymer poly (ethylene glycol-block poly (ethyleneimine (PEG-b-PEI as the structure directing agent. The {001} faces of PTCAPS are most polar and adsorb the oppositively charged polymer additive PEG-b-PEI well by electrostatic attraction. By simply adjusting the PEG-b-PEI concentration, systematic morphogenesis of PTCAPS from plates to microparticles composed of various plates splaying outwards could be realized. Furthermore, the variation of pH value of the recrystallization solution could induce the change of the interaction strength between PEG-b-PEI additive and PTCAPS and thus modify the morphology of PTCAPS from microparticles composed of various plates to ultralong microbelts.

  1. Fabrication of aligned nanofibers by electric-field-controlled electrospinning: insulating-block method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wontae; Pang, Changhyun; Chae, Heeyeop

    2016-10-01

    Aligned nanofiber arrays and mats were fabricated with an electrospinning process by manipulating the electric field. The electric field was modified by insulating blocks (IBs) that were installed between the nozzle and the substrate as guiding elements to control the trajectory of the electrospinning jet flow. Simulation results showed that the electric field was deformed near the IBs, resulting in confinement of the electrospinning jet between the blocks. The balance of the electric field in the vertical direction and the repulsive force by space charges in the confined electrified jet stream was attributed to the aligned motion of the jet. Aligned arrays of 200 nm thick polyethylene oxide nanofibers were obtained, exhibiting wave-shaped and cross patterns as well as rectilinear patterns. In addition, 40 μm thick quasi-aligned carbon-nanofiber mats with anisotropic electrical property were also attained by this method.

  2. Terminal groups control self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelakowski, M.; Kita-Tokarczyk, K.

    2016-03-01

    The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability.The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1: Particle diameters for hydrated NH2-ABA-NH2 polymers with different degrees of functionalization; Fig. S2: TEM characterization of compound micelles from BA-OH polymer after extrusion; Fig. S3: Cryo-TEM and stopped flow characterization of lipid vesicles; Fig. S4 and S5: NMR spectra for ABA and BA polymers

  3. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S.A.

    and isolation, remedial action decision, and reconfiguration. The integration of these modules in software were considered. The general methodology covered the analysis, design, and implementation of fault tolerant control systems on an overall level. Two detailed studies were presented, one on fault detection......, as for example a variable being zero, low or high. Examples were given that illustrate how such models can be established by simple means, and yet provide important information when combined into a complete system. A special achievement was a method to determine how control loops behave in case of faults......This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...

  4. Controllability of nonlinear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmann, H. J.; Jurdjevic, V.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the controllability of nonlinear systems described by the equation dx/dt - F(x,u). Concepts formulated by Chow (1939) and Lobry (1970) are applied to establish criteria for F and its derivatives to obtain qualitative information on sets which can be obtained from x which denotes a variable of state in an arbitrary, real, analytical manifold. It is shown that controllability implies strong accessibility for a large class of manifolds including Euclidean spaces.-

  5. Optical controlled keyboard system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzyński, Łukasz; Długosz, Dariusz; Niewiarowski, Bartosz; Zajkowski, Maciej

    2011-06-01

    Control systems of our computers are common devices, based on the manipulation of keys or a moving ball. Completely healthy people have no problems with the operation of such devices. Human disability makes everyday activities become a challenge and create trouble. When a man can not move his hands, the work becomes difficult or often impossible. Controlled optical keyboard is a modern device that allows to bypass the limitations of disability limbs. The use of wireless optical transmission allows to control computer using a laser beam, which cooperates with the photodetectors. The article presents the construction and operation of non-contact optical keyboard for people with disabilities.

  6. Supervisory Control of Networked Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-15

    REPORT: January 15, 2006 Problem Statement: A networked control system is a control system whose feedback path is realized over a computer...theoretical bounds derived in [Ling03a]. 6. The feedback information in a networked control system is quantized due to the digital nature of

  7. Control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Albertos, Pedro; Blanke, Mogens; Isidori, Alberto; Schaufelberger, Walter; Sanz, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The world of artificial systems is reaching complexity levels that es­ cape human understanding. Surface traffic, electricity distribution, air­ planes, mobile communications, etc. , are examples that demonstrate that we are running into problems that are beyond classical scientific or engi­ neering knowledge. There is an ongoing world-wide effort to understand these systems and develop models that can capture its behavior. The reason for this work is clear, if our lack of understanding deepens, we will lose our capability to control these systems and make they behave as we want. Researchers from many different fields are trying to understand and develop theories for complex man-made systems. This book presents re­ search from the perspective of control and systems theory. The book has grown out of activities in the research program Control of Complex Systems (COSY). The program has been sponsored by the Eu­ ropean Science Foundation (ESF) which for 25 years has been one of the leading players in stimula...

  8. Reliable regulation in decentralised control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Arturo; Schiavoni, Nicola

    2011-03-01

    This article addresses the design of decentralised regulators which supply the control systems with signal tracking and disturbance rejection. This property has to be attained, to the maximum possible extent, even when instrumentation faults occur, thus causing the opening of some feedback loops. The problem is tackled for LTI asymptotically stable plants, subject to perturbations, under the assumption that the Laplace transforms of the exogenous signals have multiple poles on the imaginary axis. The proposed regulator is composed of an LTI nominal controller supervised by a reconfiguration block. Once the actions of the reconfiguration block have been settled, the synthesis of the nominal controller is reformulated as a suitable regulation problem. A constructive sufficient condition for its solvability is established. This condition turns out to be also necessary if the exogenous signals are polynomial in time.

  9. A completely transparent, adhesively bonded soda-lime glass block masonry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Oikonomopoulou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pioneering, all transparent, self-supporting glass block facade is presented in this paper. Previously realized examples utilize embedded metal components in order to obtain the desired structural performance despite the fact that these elements greatly affect the facade’s overall transparency level. Undeniably, the oxymoron ‘transparency and strength’ remains the prime concern in such applications. In this paper, a new, innovative structural system for glass block facades is described, which demonstrably meets both criteria. The structure is exclusively constructed by monolithic glass blocks, bonded with a colourless, UV-curing adhesive, obtaining thus a maximum transparency. In addition, the desired structural performance is achieved solely through the masonry system, without any opaque substructure. Differing from previous realized projects, solid soda-lime glass blocks are used rather than borosilicate ones. This article provides an overview of the integrated architectural and structural design and discusses the choice of materials. The structural verification of the system is demonstrated. The results show that the adhesively bonded glass block structure has the required self-structural behaviour, but only if strict tolerances are met in the geometry of the glass blocks.

  10. Development of the Functional Flow Block Diagram for the J-2X Rocket Engine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas; Stoller, Sandra L.; Greene, WIlliam D.; Christenson, Rick L.; Bowen, Barry C.

    2007-01-01

    The J-2X program calls for the upgrade of the Apollo-era Rocketdyne J-2 engine to higher power levels, using new materials and manufacturing techniques, and with more restrictive safety and reliability requirements than prior human-rated engines in NASA history. Such requirements demand a comprehensive systems engineering effort to ensure success. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne system engineers performed a functional analysis of the engine to establish the functional architecture. J-2X functions were captured in six major operational blocks. Each block was divided into sub-blocks or states. In each sub-block, functions necessary to perform each state were determined. A functional engine schematic consistent with the fidelity of the system model was defined for this analysis. The blocks, sub-blocks, and functions were sequentially numbered to differentiate the states in which the function were performed and to indicate the sequence of events. The Engine System was functionally partitioned, to provide separate and unique functional operators. Establishing unique functional operators as work output of the System Architecture process is novel in Liquid Propulsion Engine design. Each functional operator was described such that its unique functionality was identified. The decomposed functions were then allocated to the functional operators both of which were the inputs to the subsystem or component performance specifications. PWR also used a novel approach to identify and map the engine functional requirements to customer-specified functions. The final result was a comprehensive Functional Flow Block Diagram (FFBD) for the J-2X Engine System, decomposed to the component level and mapped to all functional requirements. This FFBD greatly facilitates component specification development, providing a well-defined trade space for functional trades at the subsystem and component level. It also provides a framework for function-based failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), and a

  11. Electric turbocompound control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algrain, Marcelo C. (Dunlap, IL)

    2007-02-13

    Turbocompound systems can be used to affect engine operation using the energy in exhaust gas that is driving the available turbocharger. A first electrical device acts as a generator in response to turbocharger rotation. A second electrical device acts as a motor to put mechanical power into the engine, typically at the crankshaft. Apparatus, systems, steps, and methods are described to control the generator and motor operations to control the amount of power being recovered. This can control engine operation closer to desirable parameters for given engine-related operating conditions compared to actual. The electrical devices can also operate in "reverse," going between motor and generator functions. This permits the electrical device associated with the crankshaft to drive the electrical device associated with the turbocharger as a motor, overcoming deficient engine operating conditions such as associated with turbocharger lag.

  12. Controllability of Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2013-03-01

    We review recent work on controllability of complex systems. We also discuss the interplay of our results with questions of synchronization, and point out key directions of future research. Work done in collaboration with Yang-Yu Liu, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University and Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Albert-László Barabási, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University; Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School.

  13. A fast direct method for block triangular Toeplitz-like with tri-diagonal block systems from time-fractional partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Rihuan; Ng, Michael K.; Sun, Hai-Wei

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study the block lower triangular Toeplitz-like with tri-diagonal blocks system which arises from the time-fractional partial differential equation. Existing fast numerical solver (e.g., fast approximate inversion method) cannot handle such linear system as the main diagonal blocks are different. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a fast direct method for solving this linear system, and to illustrate that the proposed method is much faster than the classical block forward substitution method for solving this linear system. Our idea is based on the divide-and-conquer strategy and together with the fast Fourier transforms for calculating Toeplitz matrix-vector multiplication. The complexity needs O (MNlog2 ⁡ M) arithmetic operations, where M is the number of blocks (the number of time steps) in the system and N is the size (number of spatial grid points) of each block. Numerical examples from the finite difference discretization of time-fractional partial differential equations are also given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  14. Microprocessor control for standardized power control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D. G.; Perry, E.

    1978-01-01

    The use of microcomputers in space-oriented power systems as a replacement for existing inflexible analog type controllers has been proposed. This study examines multiprocessor systems, various modularity concepts and presents a conceptualized power system incorporating a multiprocessor controller as well as preliminary results from a breadboard model of the proposed system.

  15. Efficacy of an energy block containing Duddingtonia flagrans in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagüés, María F; Fusé, Luis A; Fernández, Alicia S; Iglesias, Lucía E; Moreno, Fabiana C; Saumell, Carlos A

    2011-09-01

    The efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans incorporated into an energy block was evaluated for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. Four naturally parasitised sheep with average nematode egg counts of 2,470 eggs per gram grazed by pairs on two similar parasite-free paddocks for 30 days. During that period, one pair of sheep (treated animals, T1) received an energy block containing chlamydospores of D. flagrans at a dose of 200,000 chlamydopores/kg bw/day, while the second pair (control animals, C1) received a fungus-free energy block. The animals in both groups were taken off the paddocks after contaminating the pastures for a month with either nematode eggs plus fungal chlamydospores (T1) or nematode eggs alone (C1). Twelve parasite-free sheep were divided into two groups of six animals each, the treated group (T2) was placed on the paddock previously contaminated with parasites and fungus, while the control group (C2) was placed on the parasite-only paddock. These two groups grazed on their respective paddocks during 30 days and were then housed for 15 days, after which period they were slaughtered in order to determine the parasite burden present in each animal. Results showed that animals in group T2 harboured significantly less nematodes than their counterpart in group C2. The efficacy of D. flagrans was 92% against the total parasite burden, 100% against Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta, 89.9% against Trichostrongylus colubriformis, 87.5% against Cooperia onchopora, and 90% against Trichostrongylus axei. No efficacy was detected against Nematodirus spathiger, Trichuris ovis and T. skrjabini.

  16. The ISOLDE control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deloose, I. (CERN, PS Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)); Pace, A. (CERN, PS Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland))

    1994-12-15

    The two CERN isotope separators named ISOLDE have been running on the new Personal Computer (PC) based control system since April 1992. The new architecture that makes heavy use of the commercial software and hardware of the PC market has been implemented on the 1700 geographically distributed control channels of the two separators and their experimental area. Eleven MSDOS Intel-based PCs with approximately 80 acquisition and control boards are used to access the equipment and are controlled from three PCs running Microsoft Windows used as consoles through a Novell Local Area Network. This paper describes the interesting solutions found and discusses the reduced programming workload and costs that have been obtained. ((orig.))

  17. Cryogenic Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goloborod' ko, S.; /Fermilab

    1989-02-27

    The control system (CS) for the cryogenic arrangement of the DO Liquid Argon Calorimeter consists of a Texas instruments 560/565 Programmable Logical Controller (PLC), two remote bases with Remote Base Controllers and a corresponding set of input/output (I/O) modules, and a PC AST Premium 286 (IBM AT Compatible). The PLC scans a set of inputs and provides a set of outputs based on a ladder logic program and PID control loops. The inputs are logic or analog (current, voltage) signals from equipment status switches or transducers. The outputs are logic or analog (current or voltage) signals for switching solenoids and positioning pneumatic actuators. Programming of the PLC is preformed by using the TISOFT2/560/565 package, which is installed in the PC. The PC communicates to the PLC through a serial RS232 port and provides operator interface to the cryogenic process using Xpresslink software.

  18. Control of Linear Systems Over Commutative Normed Algebras with Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Identify by block number) System Theory, Linear Systems, Control, Systems with Time Delays, Time - Varying Systems, State- Space Models, Pole...modes for the class of linear time -varying systems. These concepts are defined in terms of a noncommutative factorization of opera- tor polynomials...classes of complex linear systems, including systems with time delays, systems with unknown parameters and time -varying systems. In the work on

  19. Control over Catenation in Metal−Organic Frameworks via Rational Design of the Organic Building Block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farha, Omar K.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Hupp, Joseph T. (NWU)

    2010-02-19

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a hybrid class of materials comprising inorganic nodes and organic struts, have potential application in many areas due to their high surface areas and uniform pores and channels. One of the key challenges to be overcome in MOF synthesis is the strong propensity for catenation (growth of multiple independent networks within a given crystal), as catenation reduces cavity sizes and diminishes porosity. Here we demonstrate that rational design of organic building blocks, which act as strut-impervious scaffolds, can be exploited to generate highly desired noncatenated materials in a controlled fashion.

  20. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of bacteria’s heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria’s heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample’s thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS’s performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria’s thermo-tolerances.

  1. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-07-28

    Knowledge of bacteria's heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria's heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample's thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS's performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria's thermo-tolerances.

  2. Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Hirofumi; Koike, Minoru; Takeuchi, Seiichi; Douhara, Noriyoshi

    2007-12-01

    Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK (robot block system) and the rational formula of robots were proposed. ROBO-BLOCK is composed of servo motors, the parts for servomotor rotor, the brackets for servomotor fixation, the board parts and the controllers. A robot can be assembled easily by ROBO-BLOCK. Meanwhile, it is convenient when the structure of the robot can be described easily as a character. The whole structure of the robot is expressed as rational formula of the robot to show molecule structure in chemistry. ROBO-BLOCK can be useful for not only the research but also the education. Creative student experiment was done in the college of industrial technology.

  3. QuaBingo: A Prediction System for Protein Quaternary Structure Attributes Using Block Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hua Tung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Quaternary structures of proteins are closely relevant to gene regulation, signal transduction, and many other biological functions of proteins. In the current study, a new method based on protein-conserved motif composition in block format for feature extraction is proposed, which is termed block composition. Results. The protein quaternary assembly states prediction system which combines blocks with functional domain composition, called QuaBingo, is constructed by three layers of classifiers that can categorize quaternary structural attributes of monomer, homooligomer, and heterooligomer. The building of the first layer classifier uses support vector machines (SVM based on blocks and functional domains of proteins, and the second layer SVM was utilized to process the outputs of the first layer. Finally, the result is determined by the Random Forest of the third layer. We compared the effectiveness of the combination of block composition, functional domain composition, and pseudoamino acid composition of the model. In the 11 kinds of functional protein families, QuaBingo is 23% of Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC higher than the existing prediction system. The results also revealed the biological characterization of the top five block compositions. Conclusions. QuaBingo provides better predictive ability for predicting the quaternary structural attributes of proteins.

  4. Dynamitron control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisanti, Thomas F.

    2005-12-01

    The Dynamitron control system utilizes the latest personal computer technology in control circuitry and components. Both the DPC-2000 and newer Millennium series of control systems make use of their modular architecture in both software and hardware to keep up with customer and engineering demands. This also allows the main structure of the software to remain constant for the user while software drivers are easily changed as hardware demands are modified and improved. The system is presented as four units; the Remote I/O (Input/Output), Local Analog and Digital I/O, Operator Interface and the Main Computer. The operator is provided with a selection of many informative screen displays. The control program handles all graphic screen displays and the updating of these screens directly; it does not communicate to a display terminal. This adds to the quick response and excellent operator feedback received while operating the accelerator. The CPU also has the ability to store and record all process variable setpoints for each product that will be treated. All process parameters are printed to a report at regular intervals during a process run for record keeping.

  5. Wireless Remote Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Tigauan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a wireless remote control system based on the ZigBee communication protocol. Gathering data from sensors or performing control tasks through wireless communication is advantageous in situations in which the use of cables is impractical. An Atmega328 microcontroller (from slave device is used for gathering data from the sensors and transmitting it to a coordinator device with the help of the XBee modules. The ZigBee standard is suitable for low-cost, low-data-rate and low-power wireless networks implementations. The XBee-PRO module, designed to meet ZigBee standards, requires minimal power for reliable data exchange between devices over a distance of up to 1600m outdoors. A key component of the ZigBee protocol is the ability to support networking and this can be used in a wireless remote control system. This system may be employed e.g. to control temperature and humidity (SHT11 sensor and light intensity (TSL230 sensor levels inside a commercial greenhouse.

  6. A solution for applying IEC 61499 function blocks in the development of substation automation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad, Valentin; Popa, Cezar D.; Turcu, Corneliu O.; Buzduga, Corneliu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a solution for applying IEC 61499 function blocks along with IEC 61850 specifications in modeling and implementing control applications for substations automation. The IEC 61499 artifacts are used for structuring the control logic, while the IEC 61850 concepts for communication and information exchange between the automation devices. The proposed control architecture was implemented and validated in a simple fault protection scenario with simulated power equipment.

  7. GENIE(++): A Multi-Block Structured Grid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tonya; Nadenthiran, Naren; Thornburg, Hugh; Soni, Bharat K.

    1996-01-01

    The computer code GENIE++ is a continuously evolving grid system containing a multitude of proven geometry/grid techniques. The generation process in GENIE++ is based on an earlier version. The process uses several techniques either separately or in combination to quickly and economically generate sculptured geometry descriptions and grids for arbitrary geometries. The computational mesh is formed by using an appropriate algebraic method. Grid clustering is accomplished with either exponential or hyperbolic tangent routines which allow the user to specify a desired point distribution. Grid smoothing can be accomplished by using an elliptic solver with proper forcing functions. B-spline and Non-Uniform Rational B-splines (NURBS) algorithms are used for surface definition and redistribution. The built in sculptured geometry definition with desired distribution of points, automatic Bezier curve/surface generation for interior boundaries/surfaces, and surface redistribution is based on NURBS. Weighted Lagrance/Hermite transfinite interpolation methods, interactive geometry/grid manipulation modules, and on-line graphical visualization of the generation process are salient features of this system which result in a significant time savings for a given geometry/grid application.

  8. Model Predictive Wind Turbine Control with Move-Blocking Strategy for Load Alleviation and Power Leveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassmann, U.; Dickler, S.; Zierath, J.; Hakenberg, M.; Abel, D.

    2016-09-01

    This contribution presents a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) with moveblocking strategy for combined power leveling and load alleviation in wind turbine operation with a focus on extreme loads. The controller is designed for a 3 MW wind turbine developed by W2E Wind to Energy GmbH and compared to a baseline controller, using a classic control scheme, which currently operates the wind turbine. All simulations are carried out with a detailed multibody simulation turbine model implemented in alaska/Wind. The performance of the two different controllers is compared using a 50-year Extreme Operation Gust event, since it is one of the main design drivers for the wind turbine considered in this work. The implemented MPC is able to level electrical output power and reduce mechanical loads at the same time. Without de-rating the achieved control results, a move-blocking strategy is utilized and allowed to reduce the computational burden of the MPC by more than 50% compared to a baseline MPC implementation. This even allows to run the MPC on a state of the art Programmable Logic Controller.

  9. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-09-17

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I&C) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I&C systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures that

  10. Fixed-complexity vector perturbation with Block diagonalization for MU-MIMO systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mohaisen, Manar; Chang, KyungHi; Ji, Seunghwan; Joung, Jinsoup

    2009-01-01

    Block diagonalization (BD) is an attractive technique that transforms the multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) channel into parallel single-user MIMO (SU-MIMO) channels with zero inter-user interference (IUI). In this paper, we combine the BD technique with two deterministic vector perturbation (VP) algorithms that reduce the transmit power in MU-MIMO systems with linear precoding. These techniques are the fixed-complexity sphere encoder (FSE) and the QR-decomposition with M-algorithm encoder (QRDM-E). In contrast to the conventional BD VP technique, which is based on the sphere encoder (SE), the proposed techniques have fixed complexity and a tradeoff between performance and complexity can be achieved by controlling the size of the set of candidates for the perturbation vector. Simulation results and analysis demonstrate the properness of the proposed techniques for the next generation mobile communications systems which are latency and computational complexity limited. In MU-MIMO system with ...

  11. Surface Modification for Controlling the Orientation of Block Copolymers in thin film and in Cylindrical Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin-Guan; Lin, Feng-Cheng; Tung, Shih-Huang

    2012-02-01

    A series of benzocyclobutene-functionalized random copolymers of styrene and 4-vinylpyridine were synthesized by nitroxide-mediated controlled radical polymerization with BPO and TEMPO. Our research was to use these random copolymers of P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP) to control the orientation of microdomains in block copolymers(BCPs) of poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine)(PS-b-P4VP) thin films and in cylindrical nanopores of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. On P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP)-modified substrate,we found that in some particular compositions of random copolymer ,the parallel orientation of the microdomains is switched to be perpendicular in PS-b-P4VP thin film. We also introduced P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP) solution into the nanopores of the AAO and nanotubes formed after solvent evaporation and pyrolysis. And then BCPs of PS-b-P4VP were drawn into the P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP)-modified nanopores in the melt via capillary action to form P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP) coated nanorods of PS-b-P4VP.Similarly,in some particular compositions of random copolymer, we observed that the interactions of the blocks with the walls are not strong or if the interactions are balanced, then the orientation of the microdomains will change from being parallel to being perpendicular to the confining walls.

  12. CONTROLLED SYNTHESIS OF AMPHIPHILIC BLOCK POLYMERS HAVING GLUCOSE RESIDUES AND THEIR STRUCTURE FORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takeaki Miyamoto; Masahiko Minoda; Yoshinobu Tsujii

    1999-01-01

    Vinyl ether (VE)-based amphiphilic block copolymers with D-glucose residues as hydrophilic pendants were synthesized by CH3CH(OiBu)Cl/ZnI2-initiated sequential living cationic copolymerization of 3-O-(vinyloxy)ethyl-1, 2:5, 6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-glucofuranose (IGVE) and isobutyl VE (IBVE) and subsequent deprotection. The precursor block copolymers had a narrow molecular weight distribution(Mw/Mn~1.1) and a controlled segmental composition. The solubility characteristics of the amphiphilic copolymer depended strongly on composition. Their solvent-cast thin films were examined, under a transmission electron microscope, and could be seen to exhibit various microphase-separated surface morphologies such as spheres, cylinders, and lamellae, depending on composition. The amphiphilic copolymers with the appropriate segmental composition were found to form a stable monolayer at the airwater interface, which was successfully transferred onto a substrate by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB)technique. The layered structure of the built-up LB films was controlled by blending the homopolymer.

  13. Nuclotron Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, V.; Gorchenko, V.; Kirichenko, A.; Kovalenko, A.; Kulikov, I.; Romanov, S.; Sveshnikov, B.; Vasilishin, B.

    1997-05-01

    The superconducting synchrotron named Nuclotron based on a miniature iron-shaped field SC-magnets was put into operation at the LHE JINR in 1993.The Nuclotron Control System (NCS) project,which is still under development,started in 1992 and has provided efficient support for the machine commissioning through all its phases.This paper presents the current status of the NCS. The control system architecture is hierarc- hical in nature and consists of two physical levels. High performance workstations,together with a general purpose server computers, are used at the top level.Workstations act as an operator consoles,while the servers provide massive disk data storage,printing utilities,a common database, program library and data exchange between Nuclotron and its experiments. The front-end level comprises as industrial com- puters equipped with I/O boards and data acquisition modules, as in- telligent CAMAC crate-controllers with embedded micro-PCs. NCS is distributed system,in which subsytems geographically separated by as much as 500 m.The total number of computers presently installed is 25. An Ethernet Local Area Network,which runs IPX/SPX and TCP/IP communi- cation protocols ,connects the console computers to the front-end le- vel and physicists workstations.

  14. The switching between zonal and blocked mid-latitude atmospheric circulation: a dynamical system perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faranda, Davide; Masato, Giacomo; Moloney, Nicholas; Sato, Yuzuru; Daviaud, Francois; Dubrulle, Bérengère; Yiou, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric mid-latitude circulation is dominated by a zonal, westerly flow. Such a flow is generally symmetric, but it can be occasionally broken up by blocking anticyclones. The subsequent asymmetric flow can persist for several days. In this paper, we apply new mathematical tools based on the computation of an extremal index in order to reexamine the dynamical mechanisms responsible for the transitions between zonal and blocked flows. We discard the claim that mid-latitude circulation features two distinct stable equilibria or chaotic regimes, in favor of a simpler mechanism that is well understood in dynamical systems theory: we identify the blocked flow as an unstable fixed point (or saddle point) of a single basin chaotic attractor, dominated by the westerlies regime. We also analyze the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation atmospheric indices, whose behavior is often associated with the transition between the two circulation regimes, and investigate analogies and differences with the bidimensional blocking indices. We find that the Arctic Oscillation index, which can be thought as a proxy for a hemispheric average of the Tibaldi-Molteni blocking index, tracks unstable fixed points. On the other hand, the North Atlantic Oscillation, representative only for local properties of the North Atlantic blocking dynamics, does not show any trace of the presence of unstable fixed points of the dynamics.

  15. Space-Time Block Coding for Time Slotted CDMA Systems with Frequency-Selective Fading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYingmin; YIKechu; NIUZhongxia; TIANHongxin

    2003-01-01

    The radio channel fading is one of the most important physical limitations for wireless mobile communications. Space-time coding is a coding technique that is designed for use with multiple transmit antennas and offers an effective transmit diversity technique to combat fading. However, most existing space-time coding schemes assume fiat fading that may not be valid for wideband wireless mobile communication channels. In this paper, a novel spacetime block coding scheme based on block processing is proposed for time slotted CDMA systems with frequencyselective fading. In order to get quasi-orthogonality, we encode the information based on the two data fields (blocks) of a burst, other than the symbols in a data field (block). As a consequence, it is convenient for block processing of joint detection which can be used with just some small modifications of the algorithms with no space-time coding. For decoding the new space time codes, block linear joint detection algorithms are developed. Then, we simplify these algorithms with an iterative procedure. With moderate iterative times, the computation complexity of the simplified algorithms is much less than that of the exact algorithms. Simulation results show that the performance of the simplified joint detection algorithms approximates to that of the exact ones.

  16. Differential Space-Time Block Code Modulation for DS-CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jianhua

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A differential space-time block code (DSTBC modulation scheme is used to improve the performance of DS-CDMA systems in fast time-dispersive fading channels. The resulting scheme is referred to as the differential space-time block code modulation for DS-CDMA (DSTBC-CDMA systems. The new modulation and demodulation schemes are especially studied for the down-link transmission of DS-CDMA systems. We present three demodulation schemes, referred to as the differential space-time block code Rake (D-Rake receiver, differential space-time block code deterministic (D-Det receiver, and differential space-time block code deterministic de-prefix (D-Det-DP receiver, respectively. The D-Det receiver exploits the known information of the spreading sequences and their delayed paths deterministically besides the Rake type combination; consequently, it can outperform the D-Rake receiver, which employs the Rake type combination only. The D-Det-DP receiver avoids the effect of intersymbol interference and hence can offer better performance than the D-Det receiver.

  17. Block-Sparsity-Induced Adaptive Filter for Multi-Clustering System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuyang; Gu, Yuantao

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the performance of least mean square (LMS)-based adaptive filtering for identifying block-sparse systems, a new adaptive algorithm called block-sparse LMS (BS-LMS) is proposed in this paper. The basis of the proposed algorithm is to insert a penalty of block-sparsity, which is a mixed \\$l_{2, 0}\\$ norm of adaptive tap-weights with equal group partition sizes, into the cost function of traditional LMS algorithm. To describe a block-sparse system response, we first propose a Markov-Gaussian model, which can generate a kind of system responses of arbitrary average sparsity and arbitrary average block length using given parameters. Then we present theoretical expressions of the steady-state misadjustment and transient convergence behavior of BS-LMS with an appropriate group partition size for white Gaussian input data. Based on the above results, we theoretically demonstrate that BS-LMS has much better convergence behavior than \\$l_0\\$-LMS with the same small level of misadjustment. Finally, numerical experiments verify that all of the theoretical analysis agrees well with simulation results in a large range of parameters.

  18. Adaptive Multi-Layered Space-Time Block Coded Systems in Wireless Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ghadhban, Samir

    2014-12-23

    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Multi-layered space-time block coded systems (MLSTBC) strike a balance between spatial multiplexing and transmit diversity. In this paper, we analyze the block error rate performance of MLSTBC. In addition, we propose an adaptive MLSTBC schemes that are capable of accommodating the channel signal-to-noise ratio variation of wireless systems by near instantaneously adapting the uplink transmission configuration. The main results demonstrate that significant effective throughput improvements can be achieved while maintaining a certain target bit error rate.

  19. System Performance of Concatenated STBC and Block Turbo Codes in Dispersive Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Tai Chan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A new scheme of concatenating the block turbo code (BTC with the space-time block code (STBC for an OFDM system in dispersive fading channels is investigated in this paper. The good error correcting capability of BTC and the large diversity gain characteristics of STBC can be achieved simultaneously. The resulting receiver outperforms the iterative convolutional Turbo receiver with maximum- a-posteriori-probability expectation maximization (MAP-EM algorithm. Because of its ability to perform the encoding and decoding processes in parallel, the proposed system is easy to implement in real time.

  20. Controllable synthesis of spongy carbon nanotube blocks with tunable macro- and microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xuchun; Lin, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Zhiping; Wang, Kunlin; Wu, Dehai; Tang, Zikang

    2013-03-01

    Macroscopic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with uniform structures are in great demand for use in composites and environmental materials. Here we demonstrate the controlled synthesis of spongy CNT blocks with isotropic properties and flexible, freestanding structures. The formation mechanism of the isotropic CNT sponges is discussed, based on its open-ended structure and initial formation in the vapor phase. The microstructure of the CNT sponges can be tuned by changing the flow rate of the carrier gas, resulting in CNT sponges with diameters ranging from 30.2 to 47.8 nm and wall thicknesses from 7 to 16 nm. The bulk density (5-25 mg cm(-3)), mechanical strength of the CNT sponges, and filling rate of ferromagnetic catalyst in the CNT sponges can also be modulated by controlling the supply rate of the carbon source, suggesting potential applications in mechanical energy absorption and environmental materials.

  1. Novel layered two-dimensional semiconductors as the building blocks for nano-electronic/photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guoxiong; De, Debtanu; Hadjiev, Viktor G.; Peng, Haibing

    2014-06-01

    Layered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors beyond graphene have been emerging as potential building blocks for the next-generation electronic/photonic applications. Representative metal chalcogenides, including the widely studied MoS2, possess similar layered crystal structures with weak interaction between adjacent layers, thus allowing the formation of stable thin-layer crystals with thickness down to a few or even single atomic layer. Other important chalcogenides, involving earth-abundant and environment-friendly materials desirable for sustainable applications, include SnS2 (band gap: 2.1 eV) and SnS (band gap: 1.1 eV). So far, commonly adopted for research purpose are mechanical and liquid exfoliation methods for creating thin layers of such 2D semiconductors. Most recently, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was attracting significant attention as a practical method for producing thin films or crystal grains of MoS2. However, critical yet still absent is an effective experimental approach for controlling the positions of thin crystal grains of layered 2D semiconductors during the CVD process. Here we report the controlled CVD synthesis of thin crystal arrays of representative layered semiconductors (including SnS2 and SnS) at designed locations on chip, promising large-scale optoelectronic applications. Our work opens a window for future practical applications of layered 2D semiconductors in integrated nano-electronic/photonic systems.

  2. Buprenorphine for postoperative analgesia: Axillary brachial plexus block versus intramuscular administration in a placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Peripheral administration of opioids has been suggested for prolongation of regional analgesia. This prospective, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study was undertaken to compare the effect of regional (axillary brachial plexus block [ABPB] versus intramuscular (IM buprenorphine (2 μg/kg in adults. Material and Methods: Seventy-five adults undergoing upper limb surgery received ABPB with local anaesthetic (15 ml 0.5% bupivacaine, 15 ml 2% lignocaine with adrenaline 1:200,000, 9 ml normal saline [NS]. In addition, regional group RB (n = 25 received buprenorphine 2 μg/kg in ABPB and 1 ml NS IM. Systemic Group SB (n = 25 received 1 ml NS in ABPB and buprenorphine 2 μg/kg IM. Group C (n = 25 received 1 ml NS in ABPB and IM. Onset, duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic parameters, sedation score, pain scores using visual analog scale, duration of postoperative analgesia, rescue analgesic (RA requirement, adverse events, and patient satisfaction were noted. Results: Demographics, onset and duration of sensory, motor block were similar. RB group had longest duration of analgesia (20.61 ± 1.33 h compared to SB (10.91 ± 0.90 h and control group (5.86 ± 0.57 h (P < 0.05 RB vs. SB/C and SB vs. C. RA requirement was highest in the control group and least in RB group (P = 0.000 RB vs. SB/C and SB vs. C. SB group had a maximum number of side effects (P = 0.041, SB vs. RB/C. Patient satisfaction was highest with group RB (P < 0.05 RB vs. SB/C, and P = 0.06 SB vs. C. Conclusion: Buprenorphine 2 μg/kg in axillary plexus block provides significantly prolonged analgesia with less RA requirement and greater patient satisfaction compared to IM administration. This is highly suggestive of action on peripheral opioid receptors.

  3. Polypeptoids: A model system for exploring sequence and shape effects on block copolymer self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalman, Rachel

    2015-03-01

    While our ability to understand the detailed relationship between block copolymer chemistry and mesoscopic self-assembly has made remarkable progress over the last many years, yet we are still limited to a relatively small number of blocks in terms of structure-property understanding. Thus, there is a need to explore self-assembly phase space with sequence using a model system. Polypeptoids are non-natural, sequence specific polymers that offer the opportunity to probe the effect of sequence on self-assembly with much simpler molecular interactions and more scalable synthesis than traditional polypeptides. In this talk, I will discuss the use of this model system to understand the role of sequence on chain collapse and globule formation in solution, polymer crystallization, and block copolymer self-assembly. I will then discuss potential application as surface active agents for anti-fouling.

  4. MIRADAS control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosich Minguell, Josefina; Garzón Lopez, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS, a near-infrared multi-object echelle spectrograph operating at spectral resolution R=20,000 over the 1-2.5μm bandpass) was selected in 2010 by the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) partnership as the next-generation near-infrared spectrograph for the world's largest optical/infrared telescope, and is being developed by an international consortium. The MIRADAS consortium includes the University of Florida, Universidad de Barcelona, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. This paper shows an overview of the MIRADAS control software, which follows the standards defined by the telescope to permit the integration of this software on the GTC Control System (GCS). The MIRADAS Control System is based on a distributed architecture according to a component model where every subsystem is selfcontained. The GCS is a distributed environment written in object oriented C++, which runs components in different computers, using CORBA middleware for communications. Each MIRADAS observing mode, including engineering, monitoring and calibration modes, will have its own predefined sequence, which are executed in the GCS Sequencer. These sequences will have the ability of communicating with other telescope subsystems.

  5. Macrocell Builder: IP-Block-Based Design Environment for High-Throughput VLSI Dedicated Digital Signal Processing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urard Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an efficient IP-block-based design environment for high-throughput VLSI systems. The flow generates SystemC register-transfer-level (RTL architecture, starting from a Matlab functional model described as a netlist of functional IP. The refinement model inserts automatically control structures to manage delays induced by the use of RTL IPs. It also inserts a control structure to coordinate the execution of parallel clocked IP. The delays may be managed by registers or by counters included in the control structure. The flow has been used successfully in three real-world DSP systems. The experimentations show that the approach can produce efficient RTL architecture and allows to save huge amount of time.

  6. Robust H∞ control for networked control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Weiguo; Shao Cheng

    2008-01-01

    The robust H∞ control for networked control systems with both stochastic network-induced delay and data packet dropout is studied.When data are transmitted over network,the stochastic data packet dropout process can be described by a two-state Markov chain.The networked control systems with stochastic network-induced delay and data packet dropout are modeled as a discrete time Markov jump linear system with two operation modes.The sufficient condition of robust H∞ control for networked control systems stabilized by state feedback controller is presented in terms of linear matrix inequality.The state feedback controller can be constructed via the solution of a set of linear matrix inequalities.An example is given to verify the effectiveness of the method proposed.

  7. Effective System for Automatic Bundle Block Adjustment and Ortho Image Generation from Multi Sensor Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilan, A.; Nagasubramanian, V.; Chaudhry, A.; Reddy, D. Rajesh; Sudheer Reddy, D.; Usha Devi, R.; Tirupati, T.; Radhadevi, P. V.; Varadan, G.

    2014-11-01

    Block Adjustment is a technique for large area mapping for images obtained from different remote sensingsatellites.The challenge in this process is to handle huge number of satellite imageries from different sources with different resolution and accuracies at the system level. This paper explains a system with various tools and techniques to effectively handle the end-to-end chain in large area mapping and production with good level of automation and the provisions for intuitive analysis of final results in 3D and 2D environment. In addition, the interface for using open source ortho and DEM references viz., ETM, SRTM etc. and displaying ESRI shapes for the image foot-prints are explained. Rigorous theory, mathematical modelling, workflow automation and sophisticated software engineering tools are included to ensure high photogrammetric accuracy and productivity. Major building blocks like Georeferencing, Geo-capturing and Geo-Modelling tools included in the block adjustment solution are explained in this paper. To provide optimal bundle block adjustment solution with high precision results, the system has been optimized in many stages to exploit the full utilization of hardware resources. The robustness of the system is ensured by handling failure in automatic procedure and saving the process state in every stage for subsequent restoration from the point of interruption. The results obtained from various stages of the system are presented in the paper.

  8. A Parallel Algorithm for Solving Block-diagonal Structured Large Linear System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jie; ZHANG Zhong-lin; CHENG Ji-lin

    2001-01-01

    A parallel algorithm for solving block-diagonal structured large linear system is presented.This algorithm is based on the "gradient-simplex" method. It partitions a large linear system into several small linear subsystems so that they can be solved in parallel. The algorithm has the merit of high speed and is suitable for the large linear systems with less coupling constrains. The efficiency and applicability of the method is also analyzed.

  9. Quality assurance plan for the High Level Controller for the CBMS Block II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, R.W.; Robbins, I.F.; Stewart, K.A.; Terry, C.L.; Whitaker, R.A.; Wolf, D.A.; Zager, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    This document establishes the software Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) for the High Level Controller for the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II (HLC/CBMS-II) project activities under the Computing, Robotics, and Education (CRE) Directorate management. It defines the requirements and assigns responsibilities for ensuring, with a high degree of confidence, that project objectives will be achieved as planned. The CBMS Program was awarded to ORNL by the US Army Chemical and Biological Defense command, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, to design the next version (Block II) mass spectrometer for the detection and identification of chemical and biological warfare agents, to fabricate four engineering prototypes, and to construct eight preproduction units. Section 1 of this document provides an introduction to the HLC/CBMS-II project QAP. Sections 2 and 3 describe the specific aspects of quality assurance as applicable to the project. Section 4 reviews the project approach to risk management. The Risk Management Matrix given in Appendix A is a tool to assess, prioritize, and prevent problems before they occur; therefore, the matrix will be reviewed and revised on a periodic basis. Appendix B shows the quality assurance criteria of the DOE Order 5700.6C and their applicability to this project.

  10. Iron Regulatory Proteins Control a Mucosal Block to Intestinal Iron Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Galy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian iron metabolism is regulated systemically by the hormone hepcidin and cellularly by iron regulatory proteins (IRPs that orchestrate a posttranscriptional regulatory network. Through ligand-inducible genetic ablation of both IRPs in the gut epithelium of adult mice, we demonstrate that IRP deficiency impairs iron absorption and promotes mucosal iron retention via a ferritin-mediated “mucosal block.” We show that IRP deficiency does not interfere with intestinal sensing of body iron loading and erythropoietic iron need, but rather alters the basal expression of the iron-absorption machinery. IRPs thus secure sufficient iron transport across absorptive enterocytes by restricting the ferritin “mucosal block” and define a basal set point for iron absorption upon which IRP-independent systemic regulatory inputs are overlaid.

  11. An embeddable control system for astronomical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirami, Roberto; Comari, Maurizio; Corte, Claudio; Golob, Damjan; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Plesko, Mark; Pucillo, Mauro; Santin, Paolo; Sekoranja, Matej; Vuerli, Claudio

    2004-09-01

    Large experimental facilities, like telescopes and focal plane instrumentation in the astronomical domain, are becoming more and more complex and expensive, as well as control systems for managing such instruments. The general trend, as can be learned by realizations carried out in the most recent years, clearly drives to most cost-effective solutions: widespread, stable standards in the software field, COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) components and industry standards in the hardware field. Therefore a new generation of control system products needs to be developed, in order to help the scientific community to minimize the cost and efforts required for maintenance and control of their facilities. In the spirit of the aforementioned requirements and to provide a low-cost software and hardware environment we present a working prototype of a control system, based on RTAI Linux and on ACS (Advanced Control System) framework ported to an embedded platform. The hardware has been chosen among COTS components: a PC/104+ platform equipped with a PMAC2A motion controller card and a commercial StrongARM single board controller. In this way we achieved a very powerful, inexpensive and robust real-time control system which can be used as a general purpose building block in the design of new instruments and could also be proposed as a standard in the field.

  12. Blocking Probability Based Hierarchical Storage Design in VoD Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the relationship between the blocking probability and the configuration of storage hierarchy in a Video on Demand (VoD) server using the queueing model we propose. With this model , the optimal configuration of the storage system can be obtained.

  13. Modelling of composite concrete block pavement systems applying a cohesive zone model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skar, Asmus; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the fracture behaviour of the cement bound base material in composite concrete block pavement systems, using a cohesive zone model. The functionality of the proposed model is tested on experimental and numerical investigations of beam bending tests...

  14. Parametrization of Contractive Block Operator Matrices and Passive Discrete-Time Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arlinskii, Yury M.; Hassi, Seppo; de Snoo, Henk S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Passive linear systems tau = {A, B, C, D; h, m, n} have their transfer function Theta(tau) (lambda) = D + lambda C(I - lambda A)(-1) B in the Schur class S(m, n). Using a parametrization of contractive block operators the transfer function Theta(tau) (lambda) is connected to the Sz.-Nagy-Foias chara

  15. Performance of multi-service system with retrials due to blocking and called-party-busy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanov, S.N.; Kokina, O.A.; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we construct a model of a multi-service system with an arbitrary number of bandwidth flow demands, taking into account retrials due to both blocking along the route and to called-party-busy. An approximate algorithm for estimation of key performance measures is proposed...

  16. Normal mode analysis of macromolecular systems with the mobile block Hessian method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghysels, An; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Van Neck, Dimitri; Waroquier, Michel [Center for Molecular Modeling, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Brooks, Bernard R. [Laboratory for Computational Biology, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5636 Fisher' s Ln, Rockville, MD 20851 (United States)

    2015-01-22

    Until recently, normal mode analysis (NMA) was limited to small proteins, not only because the required energy minimization is a computationally exhausting task, but also because NMA requires the expensive diagonalization of a 3N{sub a}×3N{sub a} matrix with N{sub a} the number of atoms. A series of simplified models has been proposed, in particular the Rotation-Translation Blocks (RTB) method by Tama et al. for the simulation of proteins. It makes use of the concept that a peptide chain or protein can be seen as a subsequent set of rigid components, i.e. the peptide units. A peptide chain is thus divided into rigid blocks with six degrees of freedom each. Recently we developed the Mobile Block Hessian (MBH) method, which in a sense has similar features as the RTB method. The main difference is that MBH was developed to deal with partially optimized systems. The position/orientation of each block is optimized while the internal geometry is kept fixed at a plausible - but not necessarily optimized - geometry. This reduces the computational cost of the energy minimization. Applying the standard NMA on a partially optimized structure however results in spurious imaginary frequencies and unwanted coordinate dependence. The MBH avoids these unphysical effects by taking into account energy gradient corrections. Moreover the number of variables is reduced, which facilitates the diagonalization of the Hessian. In the original implementation of MBH, atoms could only be part of one rigid block. The MBH is now extended to the case where atoms can be part of two or more blocks. Two basic linkages can be realized: (1) blocks connected by one link atom, or (2) by two link atoms, where the latter is referred to as the hinge type connection. In this work we present the MBH concept and illustrate its performance with the crambin protein as an example.

  17. The Role Played by Blocking Systems over Europe in Abnormal Weather over Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in Summer 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Hafez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the role played by blocking high systems over Europe in abnormal weather over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA in summer 2010. The NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data of several meteorological elements such as surface air temperature, wind, sea level pressure, relative humidity, outgoing long wave radiation, precipitation rate, and geopotential height at level 500 hpa for summer seasons for the period 1948–2012 and in particular of summer 2010 have been used and analyzed through the present work. Furthermore, the corresponding daily and monthly mean values of climatic indices NAO index, SOI, and El-Nino3.4 have been analyzed. The results uncovered that air current in the upper atmosphere over Europe and NAO, SOI and El-Nino3.4 have impacts on the weather conditions over KSA through the study period 1948–2012. During the period of persistence of blocking system over Europe in summer 2010, results revealed that; weather in KSA was fully controlled by two abnormal weather regimes. The first one is the European blocking system and negative anomaly of NAO from the north. The second one is the positive anomaly of SOI and negative anomaly of El-Nino3.4.

  18. Methylphenidate blocks effort-induced depletion of regulatory control in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Chandra; Kessler, Daniel; Jonides, John

    2014-06-01

    A recent wave of studies--more than 100 conducted over the last decade--has shown that exerting effort at controlling impulses or behavioral tendencies leaves a person depleted and less able to engage in subsequent rounds of regulation. Regulatory depletion is thought to play an important role in everyday problems (e.g., excessive spending, overeating) as well as psychiatric conditions, but its neurophysiological basis is poorly understood. Using a placebo-controlled, double-blind design, we demonstrated that the psychostimulant methylphenidate (commonly known as Ritalin), a catecholamine reuptake blocker that increases dopamine and norepinephrine at the synaptic cleft, fully blocks effort-induced depletion of regulatory control. Spectral analysis of trial-by-trial reaction times revealed specificity of methylphenidate effects on regulatory depletion in the slow-4 frequency band. This band is associated with the operation of resting-state brain networks that produce mind wandering, which raises potential connections between our results and recent brain-network-based models of control over attention.

  19. A convergence analysis for a sweeping preconditioner for block tridiagonal systems of linear equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan

    2014-11-11

    We study sweeping preconditioners for symmetric and positive definite block tridiagonal systems of linear equations. The algorithm provides an approximate inverse that can be used directly or in a preconditioned iterative scheme. These algorithms are based on replacing the Schur complements appearing in a block Gaussian elimination direct solve by hierarchical matrix approximations with reduced off-diagonal ranks. This involves developing low rank hierarchical approximations to inverses. We first provide a convergence analysis for the algorithm for reduced rank hierarchical inverse approximation. These results are then used to prove convergence and preconditioning estimates for the resulting sweeping preconditioner.

  20. Precise Control over the Rheological Behavior of Associating Stimuli-Responsive Block Copolymer Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Brassinne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available “Smart” materials have considerably evolved over the last few years for specific applications. They rely on intelligent macromolecules or (supra-molecular motifs to adapt their structure and properties in response to external triggers. Here, a supramolecular stimuli-responsive polymer gel is constructed from heterotelechelic double hydrophilic block copolymers that incorporate thermo-responsive sequences. These macromolecular building units are synthesized via a three-step controlled radical copolymerization and then hierarchically assembled to yield coordination micellar hydrogels. The dynamic mechanical properties of this particular class of materials are studied in shear flow and finely tuned via temperature changes. Notably, rheological experiments show that structurally reinforcing the micellar network nodes leads to precise tuning of the viscoelastic response and yield behavior of the material. Hence, they constitute promising candidates for specific applications, such as mechano-sensors.

  1. The impact of domestic rainwater harvesting systems in storm water runoff mitigation at the urban block scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, A; Gnecco, I; La Barbera, P

    2017-04-15

    In the framework of storm water management, Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH) systems are recently recognized as source control solutions according to LID principles. In order to assess the impact of these systems in storm water runoff control, a simple methodological approach is proposed. The hydrologic-hydraulic modelling is undertaken using EPA SWMM; the DRWH is implemented in the model by using a storage unit linked to the building water supply system and to the drainage network. The proposed methodology has been implemented for a residential urban block located in Genoa (Italy). Continuous simulations are performed by using the high-resolution rainfall data series for the ''do nothing'' and DRWH scenarios. The latter includes the installation of a DRWH system for each building of the urban block. Referring to the test site, the peak and volume reduction rate evaluated for the 2125 rainfall events are respectively equal to 33 and 26 percent, on average (with maximum values of 65 percent for peak and 51 percent for volume). In general, the adopted methodology indicates that the hydrologic performance of the storm water drainage network equipped with DRWH systems is noticeable even for the design storm event (T = 10 years) and the rainfall depth seems to affect the hydrologic performance at least when the total depth exceeds 20 mm.

  2. Guaranteed cost control for networked control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linbo XIE; Huajing FANG; Ying ZHENG

    2004-01-01

    The guaranteed cost control problem for networked control systems (NCSs) is addressed under communication constraints and varying sampling rate. First of all, a simple information-scheduling scheme is presented to describe the scheduling approach of system signals in NCSs. Then, based on such a scheme and given sampling method, the design procedure in dynamic output feedback manner is also derived which renders the closed loop system to be asymptotically stable and guarantees an upper bound of the LQ performance cost function.

  3. A novel method for simulation of brushless DC motor servo-control system based on MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Keyan; Yan, Yingmin

    2006-11-01

    This paper provides a research about the simulation of brush-less DC motor (BLDCM) servo control system. Based on the mathematical model of Brush-less DC motor (BLDCM), built the system simulation model with the MATLAB software. When the system model is made, the isolated functional blocks, such as BLDCM block, the rotor's position detection block, change-phase logic block etc. have been modeled. By the organic combination of these blocks, the model of BLDCM can be established easily. The reasonability and validity have been testified by the simulation results and this novel method offers a new thought way for designing and debugging actual motors.

  4. New degradation call admission control for increasing WCDMA system capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ningqing; Lu Zhi; Gu Xuemai

    2006-01-01

    Propose a new degradation call admission control(DCAC)scheme, which can be used in wideband code division multiple access communication system. So-called degradation is that non-real time call has the characteristic of variable bit rate, so decreasing its bit rate can reduce the load of the system, consequently the system can admit new call which should be blocked when the system is close to full load, therefore new call's access probability increases. This paper brings forward design project and does system simulation, simulation proves that DCAC can effectively decrease calls' blocking probability and increase the total number of the on-line users.

  5. CICERO: Control Information system Concepts based\

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    RD38 : Modern High Energy Physics experiments and accelerators require sophisticated control systems to ensure their safe operation and to optimise their performance. Due to their complexity and to the large number of sensors needed for these purposes, they turn out to be difficult and costly to maintain with the present technology. The situation will seriously worsen with the LHC era. Various R\\&D departments of industrial companies are directly concerned with similar difficulties in power plants and complex automated systems. We propose to combine our efforts to study the various aspects of this problem. We intend to outline the main building blocks of generic control information system. As a result of this study we aim to provide technical solutions which could later be the major components of a basic turnkey system for medium to large scale HEP experiments and accelerators.

  6. Peak Power Demand and Energy Consumption Reduction Strategies for Trains under Moving Block Signalling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the moving block signalling (MBS system where the tracking target point of the following train is moving forward with its leading train, overload of the substations occurs when a dense queue of trains starts (or restarts in very close distance interval. This is the peak power demand problem. Several methods have been attempted in the literature to deal with this problem through changing train’s operation strategies. However, most existing approaches reduce the service quality. In this paper, two novel approaches—“Service Headway Braking” (SHB and “Extending Stopping Distance Interval” (ESDI—are proposed according to available and unavailable extra station dwell times, respectively. In these two methods, the restarting times of the trains are staggered and traction periods are reduced, which lead to the reduction of peak power demand and energy consumption. Energy efficient control switching points are seen as the decision parameters. Nonlinear programming method is used to model the process. Simulation results indicate that, compared with ARL, peak power demands are reduced by 40% and 20% by applying SHB and ESDI without any arrival time delay, respectively. At the same time, energy consumptions are also reduced by 77% and 50% by applying SHB and ESDI, respectively.

  7. Comparison between Epidural Block vs. High Intensity Laser Therapy for Controlling Chronic Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiozaman Radpay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic low back pain is among a wide spread musculoskeletal conditions that is related to disability with high economy cost. There are several treatment modalities for controlling chronic low back pain (CLBP, among them high intensity laser therapy (HILT and epidural blocks (EB use more commonly. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits and hazards of each of these two methods.Materials and Methods: We designed a randomized controlled double blind study during 24 months.101 patients divided in 2 groups (52 in EB and 49 in HILT group. Pain intensity was assessed by using faces pain scales (FPS and LINKERT questionaries' before procedure and during one, four, 12, and 24 weeks after beginning the procedures.Results: There were no differences between two groups in FPS lumber tenderness, straight leg rising test (SLRT, paresthesia, deep tendon reflex (DTR, and imaging changes. Motor problems seem was less in HILT group comparing EB.Conclusion: This study showed both EB and HILT approaches can control the pain intensity and motor activities in CLBP patients. Future studies will clarify the precise importance of each these methods.

  8. Reconfigurable Control of Input Affine Nonlinear Systems under Actuator Fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a fault tolerant control method for input-affine nonlinear systems using a nonlinear reconfiguration block (RB). The basic idea of the method is to insert the RB between the plant and the nominal controller such that fault tolerance is achieved without re-designing the nominal...

  9. Spontaneous emission control in a tunable hybrid photonic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frimmer, M.; Koenderink, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS).

  10. Concept and System of Personification Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai,Fengshuang; Yin,Yixin; Tu,Xuyan; Zhang,Ying

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides the system and conception of the Personification Control System (PCS) on the basis of Intelligent Control System based on Artificial life (ICS/AL), Artificial Emotion, Humanoid Control, and Intelligent Control System based on Field bus. According to system science and deciding of organize of biology, the Pyramid System of PCS are created. Then Pyramid System of PCS which is made up of PCS1/H, PCS1/S, PCS1/O, PCS1/C and PCS1/G is described.

  11. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    A new distributed intelligence control system has become operational at the AGS for transport, injection, and acceleration of heavy ions. A brief description of the functionality of the physical devices making up the system is given. An attempt has been made to integrate the devices for accelerator specific interfacing into a standard microprocessor system, namely, the Universal Device Controller (UDC). The main goals for such a generic device controller are to provide: local computing power; flexibility to configure; and real time event handling. The UDC assemblies and software are described. (LEW)

  12. Coordination control of distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Tiziano

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how control of distributed systems can be advanced by an integration of control, communication, and computation. The global control objectives are met by judicious combinations of local and nonlocal observations taking advantage of various forms of communication exchanges between distributed controllers. Control architectures are considered according to  increasing degrees of cooperation of local controllers:  fully distributed or decentralized controlcontrol with communication between controllers,  coordination control, and multilevel control.  The book covers also topics bridging computer science, communication, and control, like communication for control of networks, average consensus for distributed systems, and modeling and verification of discrete and of hybrid systems. Examples and case studies are introduced in the first part of the text and developed throughout the book. They include: control of underwater vehicles, automated-guided vehicles on a container terminal, contro...

  13. Block Copolymer Modified Epoxy Amine System for Reactive Rotational Molding: Structures, Properties and Processability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Eva; Nony, Fabien; Tcharkhtchi, Abbas; Gérard, Jean-François

    2011-05-01

    Poly(styrene-butadiene-methylmethacrylate) (SBM) and poly(methylmethacrylate-butyle-acrylate-methylmethacrylate) (MAM) triblock copolymers have been dissolved in liquid DGEBA epoxy resin which is subsequently polymerized by meta-xylene diamine (MXDA) or Jeffamine EDR-148. A chemorheology study of these formulations by plate-plate rheology and by thermal analysis has allowed to conclude that the addition of these copolymer blocks improve the reactive rotational moulding processability without affecting the processing time. Indeed, it prevents the pooling of the formulation at the bottom of the mould and a too rapid build up of resin viscosity of these thermosetting systems. The morphology of the cured blends examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows an increase of fracture surface area and thereby a potential increase of the toughness with the modification of epoxy system. Dynamic mechanical spectroscopy (DMA) and opalescence of final material show that the block PMMA, initially miscible, is likely to induce phase separation from the epoxy-amine matrix. Thereby, the poor compatibilisation between the toughener and the matrix has a detrimental effect on the tensile mechanical properties. The compatibilisation has to be increased to improve in synergy the processability and the final properties of these block copolymer modified formulations. First attempts could be by adapting the length and ratio of each block.

  14. On Restructurable Control System Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athans, M.

    1983-01-01

    The state of stochastic system and control theory as it impacts restructurable control issues is addressed. The multivariable characteristics of the control problem are addressed. The failure detection/identification problem is discussed as a multi-hypothesis testing problem. Control strategy reconfiguration, static multivariable controls, static failure hypothesis testing, dynamic multivariable controls, fault-tolerant control theory, dynamic hypothesis testing, generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) methods, and adaptive control are discussed.

  15. Division 1137 property control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An automated data processing property control system was developed by Mobile and Remote Range Division 1137. This report describes the operation of the system and examines ways of using it in operational planning and control.

  16. Adaptability of the Logistics System in National Economic Mobilization Based on Blocking Flow Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyuan Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of national economic mobilization, the logistics system usually suffers from negative impact and/or threats of such emergency events as wars and accidents, which implies that adaptability of the logistics system directly determines realization of economic mobilization. And where the real-time rescue operation is concerned, heavy traffic congestion is likely to cause a great loss of or damage to human beings and their properties. To deal with this situation, this article constructs a blocking-resistance optimum model and an optimum restructuring model based on blocking flow theories, of which both are illustrated by numerical cases and compared in characteristics and application. The design of these two models is expected to eliminate or alleviate the congestion situation occurring in the logistics system, thus effectively enhancing its adaptability in the national economic mobilization process.

  17. A novel image block cryptosystem based on a spatiotemporal chaotic system and a chaotic neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Bao Xue-Mei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a novel block cryptographic scheme based on a spatiotemporal chaotic system and a chaotic neural network (CNN).The employed CNN comprises a 4-neuron layer called a chaotic neuron layer (CNL),where the spatiotemporal chaotic system participates in generating its weight matrix and other parameters.The spatiotemporal chaotic system used in our scheme is the typical coupled map lattice (CML),which can be easily implemented in parallel by hardware.A 160-bit-long binary sequence is used to generate the initial conditions of the CML.The decryption process is symmetric relative to the encryption process.Theoretical analysis and experimental results prove that the block cryptosystem is secure and practical,and suitable for image encryption.

  18. Standard practice for fabrication and control of metal, other than aluminum, reference blocks used in ultrasonic testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for fabrication and control of metal alloy reference blocks used in ultrasonic examination that have a flat-surface sound entry, are cylindrical in shape, and contain flat-bottom holes (FBH) which may be used for checking the performance of ultrasonic examination instrumentation and search units and for standardization and control of ultrasonic examination of metal alloy products. The reference blocks described are suitable for use with either the direct-contact method or immersion pulse-echo ultrasonic methods. Note 1—Use of flat-surface reference blocks may not be suitable for cylindrical materials (3) . 1.2 While this procedure is basically designed for the fabrication and control of carbon and alloy steel blocks to be used in conjunction with the examination of these materials, the fabrication and control procedures may also be suitable for the preparation of blocks for other types of materials such as nickel-base alloys, certain types of aluminum alloys, and so fo...

  19. Performance evaluation of railway blocking system based on markov chain and queuing theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin; Chen, Hongxia; Yang, Yang

    2005-12-01

    Railway blocking system is the system with the high demanding of real-time performance. Firstly, the tasks and the time limits, which had to be handled for the blocking system, were introduced. The FCFS and the Markov chain were used to set the model for it. By analyzing the performance of the system with the FCFS model found out that it was not satisfied to the real-time performance. Secondly, NPPR model to evaluate the software real-time performance of the blocking processor was proposed. By evaluation, analysis and comparison, the results indicate that the NPPR model is prevail over the model of (M/M/1): (N/N/FCFS) in real-time performance. And the priorities of the tasks in the system should be given according to their time limit. With the principle of (M/M/1): (N/N/NPPR), if the priority was given to the tasks properly, the satisfied real-time performance will be gotten. The models were tested in forms software and the satisfied result has been gotten in practice.

  20. Block copolymers : controlling nanostructure to generate functional materials : synthesis, characterization, and engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Epps, Thomas H.; O'Reilly, Rachel K.

    2016-01-01

    n this perspective, we survey recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of block copolymers, discuss several key materials opportunities enabled by block copolymers, and highlight some of the challenges that currently limit further realization of block copolymers in promising nanoscale applications. One significant challenge, especially as the complexity and functionality of designer macromolecules increases, is the requirement of multiple complementary techniques to fully charact...

  1. CONTROLLABILITY OF IOTA-2-SYSTEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FAGNANI, F; WILLEMS, JC

    1992-01-01

    This paper is devoted to an investigation of controllability and almost controllability of l2-systems. These concepts are defined in terms of the possibility of steering one system trajectory to another. It is proved that a controllable l2-system always has finite memory The main result on almost co

  2. Microstructured block copolymer surfaces for control of microbe capture and aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ryan R [ORNL; Shubert, Katherine R [ORNL; Morrell, Jennifer L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lokitz, Bradley S [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The capture and arrangement of surface-associated microbes is influenced by biochemical and physical properties of the substrate. In this report, we develop lectin-functionalized substrates containing patterned, three-dimensional polymeric structures of varied shapes and densities and use these to investigate the effects of topology and spatial confinement on lectin-mediated microbe capture. Films of poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA) were patterned on silicon surfaces into line or square grid patterns with 5 m wide features and varied edge spacing. The patterned films had three-dimensional geometries with 900 nm film thickness. After surface functionalization with wheat germ agglutinin, the size of Pseudomonas fluorescens aggregates captured was dependent on the pattern dimensions. Line patterns with edge spacing of 5 m or less led to the capture of individual microbes with minimal formation of aggregates, while grid patterns with the same spacing also captured individual microbes with further reduction in aggregation. Both geometries allowed for increases in aggregate size distribution with increased in edge spacing. These engineered surfaces combine spatial confinement with affinity-based microbe capture based on exopolysaccharide content to control the degree of microbe aggregation, and can also be used as a platform to investigate intercellular interactions and biofilm formation in microbial populations of controlled sizes.

  3. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  4. TO EVALUATE THE ANALGESIC EFFICACY OF IPSILATERAL TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS PLANE BLOCK FOR LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES IN CHILDREN: A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMISED CONTROLLED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paleti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Appendectomies and lower abdominal surgeries are associated with significant postoperative pain in children. Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP block provides effective analgesia for patients undergoing lower abdominal surgeries. Our aim is to evaluate its analgesic efficacy for lower abdominal surgeries in children when compared to standard systemic analgesia. METHODOLOGY: After institutional Ethics Committee approval, 50 children, ASA I/II 7-13 yrs. undergoing lower abdominal surgeries were randomized into groups A and B of 25 each. All patients received standard General Anesthetic with standard monitoring. In Group A, TAP block was performed under land mark technique with 2.5mg/kg of 0.5% ropivacaine which is equivalent to 0.3ml/kg after General Anesthesia. In Group B, standard systemic analgesia was given which served as the control group. In addition, patients of both groups received regular IV paracetamol 15mg/kg immediately after completion of surgery. STATISTICS AND RESULTS: Statistical analysis was performed with student’s t-test and Fisher’s exact test. P<0.05 was considered significant. TAP block with ropivacaine reduced mean tramadol requirements in the 1st 24hrs postoperative period [42+15.89 vs. 80.35+19.16mg; p<0.001]. Postoperative VAS scores significantly reduced in TAP block group until 24hrs after surgery. No complications were reported with TAP block in our study. CONCLUSION: Land mark based TAP block, as a part of balanced analgesia regimen provides superior analgesia than systemic analgesia alone in children undergoing lower abdominal surgeries.

  5. Holographic view on quantum correlations and mutual information between disjoint blocks of a quantum critical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Vilaplana, Javier; Sodano, Pasquale

    2011-10-01

    In ( d + 1) dimensional Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz (MERA) networks, tensors are connected so as to reproduce the discrete, ( d + 2) holographic geometry of Anti de Sitter space (AdS d+2) with the original system lying at the boundary. We analyze the MERA renormalization flow that arises when computing the quantum correlations between two disjoint blocks of a quantum critical system, to show that the structure of the causal cones characteristic of MERA, requires a transition between two different regimes attainable by changing the ratio between the size and the separation of the two disjoint blocks. We argue that this transition in the MERA causal developments of the blocks may be easily accounted by an AdS d+2 black hole geometry when the mutual information is computed using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. As an explicit example, we use a BTZ AdS3 black hole to compute the MI and the quantum correlations between two disjoint intervals of a one dimensional boundary critical system. Our results for this low dimensional system not only show the existence of a phase transition emerging when the conformal four point ratio reaches a critical value but also provide an intuitive entropic argument accounting for the source of this instability. We discuss the robustness of this transition when finite temperature and finite size effects are taken into account.

  6. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  7. System for controlling apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzrichter, John F

    2015-05-05

    An implanted stimulation device or air control device are activated by an external radar-like sensor for controlling apnea. The radar-like sensor senses the closure of the air flow cavity, and associated control circuitry signals (1) a stimulator to cause muscles to open the air passage way that is closing or closed or (2) an air control device to open the air passage way that is closing or closed.

  8. Space Shuttle flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinar, W. J.; Kubiak, E. T.; Peters, W. H.; Saldana, R. L.; Smith, E. E., Jr.; Stegall, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is a control stabilized vehicle with control provided by an all digital, fly-by-wire flight control system. This paper gives a description of the several modes of flight control which correspond to the Shuttle mission phases. These modes are ascent flight control (including open loop first stage steering, the use of four computers operating in parallel and inertial guidance sensors), on-orbit flight control (with a discussion of reaction control, phase plane switching logic, jet selection logic, state estimator logic and OMS thrust vector control), entry flight control and TAEM (terminal area energy management to landing). Also discussed are redundancy management and backup flight control.

  9. An Optimization Approach for Selecting Blocks of Embedding Process in Robust Watermarking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ababneh M.F. Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, discusses several kinds of attacks that may meet the watermarked image such as JPEG compression, Gaussian noise and median filter. The study introduces an approach capable of selecting the optimal blocks in cover image to be used in embedding process. Also, in this study, we propose a technique in robust digital watermarking system looking for finding a relation between the contrast of cover image and robustness to increase the resistance of previous attacks.

  10. Prototypic implementations of the building block for component based open Hypermedia systems (BB/CB-OHSs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Omer I. Eldai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the prototypic implementations of the BuildingBlock (BB/CB-OHSs) that proposed to address some of the Component-based Open Hypermedia Systems (CB-OHSs) issues, including distribution and interoperability [4, 11, 12]. Four service implementations were described below. The....... These are the math service, navigational service, naming and location service and the storage service in addition to two communication protocols (TCP/IP and JAVA RMI)....

  11. Security Analysis of a Block Encryption Algorithm Based on Dynamic Sequences of Multiple Chaotic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Mao-Kang; HE Bo; WANG Yong

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the cryptosystem based on chaos has attracted much attention. Wang and Yu (Commun. Nonlin. Sci. Numer. Simulat. 14(2009)574) proposed a block encryption algorithm based on dynamic sequences of multiple chaotic systems. We analyze the potential Saws in the algorithm. Then, a chosen-plaintext attack is presented. Some remedial measures are suggested to avoid the flaws effectively. Furthermore, an improved encryption algorithm is proposed to resist the attacks and to keep all the merits of the original cryptosystem.

  12. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Randle

    2000-01-07

    interfaced (Section 6.2). (3) Develop a preliminary design for the overall Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture and graphically depict the operational features of this design through a series of control system functional block diagrams (Section 6.2). (4) Develop a physical architecture that presents a viable yet preliminary physical implementation for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture (Section 6.3). (5) Develop an initial concept for an overall subsurface data communications network that can be used to integrate the various control systems comprising the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.4). (6) Develop a preliminary central control room design for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.5). (7) Identify and discuss the general safety-related issues and design strategies with respect to development of the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.6). (8) Discuss plans for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System's response to off-normal operations (Section 6.7). (9) Discuss plans and strategies for developing software for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.8).

  13. Adaptive control of Hammerstein-Wiener nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bi; Hong, Hyokchan; Mao, Zhizhong

    2016-07-01

    The Hammerstein-Wiener model is a block-oriented model, having a linear dynamic block sandwiched by two static nonlinear blocks. This note develops an adaptive controller for a special form of Hammerstein-Wiener nonlinear systems which are parameterized by the key-term separation principle. The adaptive control law and recursive parameter estimation are updated by the use of internal variable estimations. By modeling the errors due to the estimation of internal variables, we establish convergence and stability properties. Theoretical results show that parameter estimation convergence and closed-loop system stability can be guaranteed under sufficient condition. From a qualitative analysis of the sufficient condition, we introduce an adaptive weighted factor to improve the performance of the adaptive controller. Numerical examples are given to confirm the results in this paper.

  14. MICRO ROTOR ENHANCED BLOCK CIPHER DESIGNED FOR EIGHT BITS MICRO-CONTROLLERS (MREBC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed ElShafee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sensor network is a wireless network environment that consists of the many sensors of lightweight and low-power. Authentication between nodes is very vital for network reliability and the integrity ofinformation collected by these nodes. Therefore, encryption algorithm for the implementation of reliable sensor network environments is required to the applicable sensor network. This paper gives a newproposed cryptosystem (MREBC that is designed for 8 bits microcontroller systems. MREBC uses the concept of rotor enhanced block cipher which was initially proposed by the author in [NRSC 2002] on the first version of REBC. MREBC uses rotors to achieve two basic cryptographic operations; permutation,and substitution. Round key is generated using rotor too, which is used to achieve ciphertext key dependency. Rotors implemented using 8 bits successive affine transformation, which achieves memoryless,normalized ciphertext statistics, and small processing speed trend. The strength of this system is compared with the RIJNDAEL (AES cipher. MREBC cipher gives excellent results from security characteristics and statistical point of view of. communication efficiency of MREBC is compared with AESthrough measuring performance by plaintext size, and cost of operation per hop according to the network scale. Arduino microcontroller board is used to implement both MREBC, and AES in order to compare the performance of algorithms. Authors suggests to use MREBC to implement a reliable sensor network environments.

  15. Efficient spread space-time block coding scheme in multiple antenna systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Ling; Zheng Xiayu

    2006-01-01

    Space-time coding is an important technique that can improve transmission performance at fading environments in mobile communication systems. In this paper, we propose a novel diversity scheme using spread spacetime block coding (SSTBC) in multiple antenna systems. At the transmitter, the primitive data are serial to parallel converted to multiple data streams, and each stream is rotated in constellation. Then Walsh codes are used to spread each symbol to all antenna space in a space-time block. The signals received from all receiver antennas are combined with the maximum ratio combining (MRC), equalized with linear equalizer to eliminate the inter-code interference and finally demodulated to recover to transmit data by using the one-symbol maximum likelihood detector. The proposed scheme does not sacrifice the spectrum efficiency meanwhile maintains the transceiver with low complexity. Owing to the transmission symbols of different transmit antennas passing through all the spatial subchannels between transceiver antenna pairs, the system obtains the partial additional space diversity gain of all spatial paths. It is also shown that the diversity gain is better than the previous space-time block coding (STBC) schemes with full transmission rate.

  16. Developing the basic building blocks of mathematics to be employed in practical embedded systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tickle, A J; Harvey, P K; Smith, J S [Intelligence Engineering and Industrial Automation Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Wu, F, E-mail: a.j.tickle@liverpool.ac.u [RF Engines Ltd, Innovation Centre, St. Cross Business Park, Newport, Isle of Wight, PO30 5WB (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Mathematics is vitally important as it is used in many areas of science and engineering, in particular are functions such as sine, cosine and the exponent in addition to being to able to carry out such tasks as decimal division. The sine wave is vitally important in physics and communications due to its ability to retain its waveshape when added to another sine wave of the same frequency and arbitrary phase. It is the only periodic waveform that has this property and leads to techniques such as Fourier analysis. Unfortunately these blocks are not included in the standard DSP Builder blockset in Simulink and so a method of creating these operations must be created if this methodology is to be employed in real world tasks such as power relay protection and stereo vision systems. Shown here is a method of performing these calculations using the limited blocks provided for a 50-bit based embedded system with a discussion about the accuracy when compared to traditional digital system counterparts. The order of the equations used and the scaling factors of the blocks are investigated to provide evidence of why certain values need to be changed depending upon the calculation being performed.

  17. Information modeling system for blast furnace control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N. A.; Gileva, L. Y.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Modern Iron & Steel Works as a rule are equipped with powerful distributed control systems (DCS) and databases. Implementation of DSC system solves the problem of storage, control, protection, entry, editing and retrieving of information as well as generation of required reporting data. The most advanced and promising approach is to use decision support information technologies based on a complex of mathematical models. The model decision support system for control of blast furnace smelting is designed and operated. The basis of the model system is a complex of mathematical models created using the principle of natural mathematical modeling. This principle provides for construction of mathematical models of two levels. The first level model is a basic state model which makes it possible to assess the vector of system parameters using field data and blast furnace operation results. It is also used to calculate the adjustment (adaptation) coefficients of the predictive block of the system. The second-level model is a predictive model designed to assess the design parameters of the blast furnace process when there are changes in melting conditions relative to its current state. Tasks for which software is developed are described. Characteristics of the main subsystems of the blast furnace process as an object of modeling and control - thermal state of the furnace, blast, gas dynamic and slag conditions of blast furnace smelting - are presented.

  18. Function complex for automated system of coke machinery remote control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonov, N.F.; Pankrat' ev, O.N.; Bannikov, L.S.; Slatin, E.I.; Parfenov, G.I.

    1979-05-01

    this paper discusses a functional control system for remote control of coking plants introduced at the KBAiM of the Giprokoks. The control block allows for three modes of operation: fully automatic, by predesignated program according to oven design and technology; semi-automatic, in which individual programs perform automatically, checked and initiated by the operator; and remote, in which the operator controls each operation from the control console. The functions of selecting the location for the coke machinery, signal transmission and control selection have been incorporated as three autonomous but interfacing systems. (In Russian)

  19. Theory for dynamical self arrest and gelation in microemulsions and the block copolymer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sangwook [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to investigate the glassy behavior of microemulsions and block copolymers. The origin of glassy behavior in microemulsions and block copolymers is frustration due to a competition between short-range interaction and long range interaction. According to the charge frustrated Ising model, the competition between ferromagnetic interaction and antiferromagnetic interaction is the origin of frustration in microemulsions. The competition between entropic effects and stoichiometric constraints responsible for the formation of micelles in microemulsions can lead to the emergence of a self generated glassy behavior in these systems. In the block copolymer, the competition between the repulsive short range interaction between monomers in polymer chains and the long range interaction by chemical bonds can lead to the emergence of a self generated glassy behavior. The criteria for the fluctuation induced first order transition and our microemulsion and block copolymer glasses are essentially the same. Both are a consequence of the large phase space of low energy excitations (14) (62) (all states with momenta q which fulfill |q| = qm) and are of at the most a moderate supercooling of the liquid state is required. This is strongly supported by the observation in Ref. (14) that the metastable states which are first to appear at a fluctuation induced first order transition are the ones build by a superposition of large amplitude waves of wavenumber qm, but with random orientations and phases, i.e. just the ones which form the metastable states of our microemulsion and block copolymer glass. (38)

  20. Integration between anticipatory blocking and redox signaling by the peroxiredoxin/thioredoxin/thioredoxin-reductase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggio, Gianluca; Coelho, Pedro M B M; Salvador, Armindo

    2014-10-01

    Cells are occasionally exposed to high H2O2 concentrations, often preceding exposure to other electrophylic compounds. Both H2O2 and these compounds can irreversibly modify protein thiols, with deleterious consequences. Induction of enzymatic defenses against those agents is too slow to avoid significant damage. Cells may solve this conundrum by reversibly "blocking" the thiols once H2O2 concentrations begin to increase. We term this mechanism "anticipatory blocking" because it acts in anticipation of irreversible damage upon detection of early signs of stress. Here we examine the design requirements for the Peroxiredoxin/Thioredoxin/Thioredoxin-Reductase/Protein-Dithiol System (PTTRDS) to effectively integrate H2O2 signaling and anticipatory blocking of protein dithiols as disulfides, and we compared them to the designs found in cells. To that effect, we developed a minimal model of the PTTRDS, and we defined a set of quantitative performance criteria that embody the requirements for (a) efficient scavenging capacity, (b) low NADPH consumption, (c) effective signal propagation, and (d) effective anticipatory blocking. We then sought the design principles (relationships among rate constants and species concentrations) that warrant fulfillment of all these criteria. Experimental data indicates that the design of the PTTRDS in human erythrocytes fulfills these principles and thus accomplishes effective integration between anticipatory blocking, antioxidant protection and redox signaling. A more general analysis suggests that the same principles hold in a wide variety of cell types and organisms. We acknowledge grants PEst-C/SAU/LA0001/2013-2014, PEst-OE/QUI/UI0612/2013, FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-020978 (PTDC/QUI-BIQ/119657/2010) financed by FEDER through the "Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade, COMPETE" and by national funds through "FCT, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia".

  1. Theory for dynamical self arrest and gelation in microemulsions and the block copolymer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sangwook

    2005-05-01

    The main purpose of this work is to investigate the glassy behavior of microemulsions and block copolymers. The origin of glassy behavior in microemulsions and block copolymers is frustration due to a competition between short-range interaction and long range interaction. According to the charge frustrated Ising model, the competition between ferromagnetic interaction and antiferromagnetic interaction is the origin of frustration in microemulsions. The competition between entropic effects and stoichiometric constraints responsible for the formation of micelles in microemulsions can lead to the emergence of a self generated glassy behavior in these systems. In the block copolymer, the competition between the repulsive short range interaction between monomers in polymer chains and the long range interaction by chemical bonds can lead to the emergence of a self generated glassy behavior. The criteria for the fluctuation induced first order transition and our microemulsion and block copolymer glasses are essentially the same. Both are a consequence of the large phase space of low energy excitations (14) (62) (all states with momenta q which fulfill |q| = q{sub m}) and are of at the most a moderate supercooling of the liquid state is required. This is strongly supported by the observation in Ref. (14) that the metastable states which are first to appear at a fluctuation induced first order transition are the ones build by a superposition of large amplitude waves of wavenumber q{sub m}, but with random orientations and phases, i.e. just the ones which form the metastable states of our microemulsion and block copolymer glass. (38)

  2. NERVE BLOCKING (PAIN CONTROL AFTER THORACOTOMY WITH BUPIVACAINE:EPIDURAL VS INTERCOSTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A GHAFOURI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of analgesics is an evitable and necessary part of thoracic surgery. This study was designed to compare analgesic effects of persistent thoracic epidural anesthesia versus persistent intercostal nerve block and determine their role in opioid need after thoracotomy. Methods. 116 patients above 20 years old who were candidate for thoracotomy through either posterolateral or thoracoabdominal incision were situatedin one of three group for pain relief. For the first group, pain relieved by petidine and pentazosin. In 2nd group, pain relived by thoracic epidural anesthesia with bupivacaine catheters which were inserted between costal and plural space. In 3rd group, bupivacaine was introduced through 3rd and 4th intercostal space by catheter (2 mg/kg in devided doses. Pain was meseared by visual analogue scale and quantified by surgical residents through a method bupivacaine was injected. If Bupivacaine did not relieve pain, then opioid was used as adjuvant. Results. The study showed that epidural group needed less opioids and had more cooperation in comparison with two other group. The intercostal group complained of pain at chest tube site. Discussion. In thoracotomized patients, pain control is more effective via epidural anesthesia in turns of opioid side effects, expenses and patient comfort.

  3. Partial PIC-MRC Receiver Design for Single Carrier Block Transmission System over Multipath Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juinn-Horng Deng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Single carrier block transmission (SCBT system has become one of the most popular modulation systems due to its low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR, and it is gradually considered to be used for uplink wireless communication systems. In this paper, a low complexity partial parallel interference cancellation (PIC with maximum ratio combining (MRC technology is proposed to use for receiver to combat the intersymbol interference (ISI problem over multipath fading channel. With the aid of MRC scheme, the proposed partial PIC technique can effectively perform the interference cancellation and acquire the benefit of time diversity gain. Finally, the proposed system can be extended to use for multiple antenna systems to provide excellent performance. Simulation results reveal that the proposed low complexity partial PIC-MRC SIMO system can provide robust performance and outperform the conventional PIC and the iterative frequency domain decision feedback equalizer (FD-DFE systems over multipath fading channel environment.

  4. Effect of clonidine as adjuvant in bupivacaine-induced supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Susmita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clonidine has been used as adjuvant to local anesthetics in order to extend the duration of analgesia in various regional and central neuraxial blocks. It is previously reported that clonidine added to bupivacaine increases analgesia duration in brachial plexus block. We evaluated the effect of this combination in supraclavicular brachial plexus block for upper limb orthopedic procedures. Materials and Methods: A randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial was done with 70 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I or II status undergoing upper limb orthopedic procedures. Group A (n = 35 patients received 25 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine and 0.2 ml (30 mcg clonidine, whereas group B (n = 35 received 25 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine and 0.2 ml normal saline through a supraclavicular approach for brachial plexus block. Vital parameters were recorded 10 min prior to block placement and every 3 min thereafter till the end of the procedure. Onset and duration of both sensory and motor blocks and sedation score were recorded. All patients were observed in postanesthesia care unit and received tramadol injection as soon as they complained of pain as rescue analgesic. Duration of analgesia was taken as the time from placement of block till injection of rescue analgesic. Results: Analgesia duration was 415.4 ± 38.18 min (mean ± standard deviation in Group A (clonidine compared to 194.2 ± 28.74 min in Group B (control. No clinically significant difference was observed in heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation. Sedation score was higher in the clonidine group. Conclusion: Addition of a small dose of clonidine to 0.5% bupivacaine significantly prolonged the duration of analgesia without producing any clinically important adverse reactions other than sedation.

  5. D0 Cryo System Control System Autodialer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-04-17

    The DO cryogenic system is controlled by a TI565-PLC based control system. This allows the system to be unmanned when in steady state operation. System experts will need to be contacted when system parameters exceed normal operating points and reach alarm setpoints. The labwide FIRUS system provides one alarm monitor and communication link. An autodialer provides a second and more flexible alarm monitor and communication link. The autodialer monitors contact points in the control system and after receiving indication of an alarm accesses a list of experts which it calls until it receives an acknowledgement. There are several manufacturers and distributors of autodialer systems. This EN explains the search process the DO cryo group used to fmd an autodialer system that fit the cryo system's needs and includes information and specs for the unit we chose.

  6. Block preconditioners for linear systems arising from multiscale collocation with compactly supported RBFs

    KAUST Repository

    Farrell, Patricio

    2015-04-30

    © 2015John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Symmetric collocation methods with RBFs allow approximation of the solution of a partial differential equation, even if the right-hand side is only known at scattered data points, without needing to generate a grid. However, the benefit of a guaranteed symmetric positive definite block system comes at a high computational cost. This cost can be alleviated somewhat by considering compactly supported RBFs and a multiscale technique. But the condition number and sparsity will still deteriorate with the number of data points. Therefore, we study certain block diagonal and triangular preconditioners. We investigate ideal preconditioners and determine the spectra of the preconditioned matrices before proposing more practical preconditioners based on a restricted additive Schwarz method with coarse grid correction. Numerical results verify the effectiveness of the preconditioners.

  7. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  8. Linux block IO: introducing multi-queue SSD access on multi-core systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørling, Matias; Axboe, Jens; Nellans, David;

    2013-01-01

    The IO performance of storage devices has accelerated from hundreds of IOPS five years ago, to hundreds of thousands of IOPS today, and tens of millions of IOPS projected in five years. This sharp evolution is primarily due to the introduc- tion of NAND-flash devices and their data parallel design...... generation block layer that is capable of handling tens of millions of IOPS on a multi-core system equipped with a single storage device. Our experiments show that our design scales graciously with the number of cores, even on NUMA systems with multiple sockets....

  9. Delays and networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hetel, Laurentiu; Daafouz, Jamal; Johansson, Karl

    2016-01-01

    This edited monograph includes state-of-the-art contributions on continuous time dynamical networks with delays. The book is divided into four parts. The first part presents tools and methods for the analysis of time-delay systems with a particular attention on control problems of large scale or infinite-dimensional systems with delays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the use of time-delay models for the analysis and design of Networked Control Systems. The third part of the book focuses on the analysis and design of systems with asynchronous sampling intervals which occur in Networked Control Systems. The last part of the book exposes several contributions dealing with the design of cooperative control and observation laws for networked control systems. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of control theory, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  10. Asynchronous control for networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rubio, Francisco; Bencomo, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    This book sheds light on networked control systems; it describes different techniques for asynchronous control, moving away from the periodic actions of classical control, replacing them with state-based decisions and reducing the frequency with which communication between subsystems is required. The text focuses specially on event-based control. Split into two parts, Asynchronous Control for Networked Systems begins by addressing the problems of single-loop networked control systems, laying out various solutions which include two alternative model-based control schemes (anticipatory and predictive) and the use of H2/H∞ robust control to deal with network delays and packet losses. Results on self-triggering and send-on-delta sampling are presented to reduce the need for feedback in the loop. In Part II, the authors present solutions for distributed estimation and control. They deal first with reliable networks and then extend their results to scenarios in which delays and packet losses may occur. The novel ...

  11. Optimal Control of Mechanical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vadim Azhmyakov

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, we consider a class of nonlinear optimal control problems, which can be called “optimal control problems in mechanics.” We deal with control systems whose dynamics can be described by a system of Euler-Lagrange or Hamilton equations. Using the variational structure of the solution of the corresponding boundary-value problems, we reduce the initial optimal control problem to an auxiliary problem of multiobjective programming. This technique makes it possible to apply some ...

  12. Thoracic epidural catheter for postoperative pain control following an ineffective transversus abdominis plane block using liposome bupivacaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Brian D; Espinoza, David; Stehman, Charles C; Rodriguez, Gabriel A; Connolly, Nicholas C

    2017-01-01

    A 24-year-old female with a history of ulcerative colitis underwent colectomy. The patient received an ineffective transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with liposome bupivacaine (Exparel) intraoperatively and was started on a hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia 5 hours after the TAP block, which did not relieve her pain. A continuous thoracic epidural (CTE) was then placed after blood levels of bupivacaine were drawn, and the patient immediately experienced significant pain relief. The combined use of liposome bupivacaine and bupivacaine CTE infusion in the postoperative management of this patient demonstrated no safety concerns, provided excellent analgesia and plasma concentrations of bupivacaine remained far below toxic levels. PMID:28144162

  13. ON COMPLEX DYNAMIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Daizhan

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents some recent works on the control of dynamic systems, which have certain complex properties caused by singularity of the nonlinear structures, structure-varyings, or evolution process etc. First, we consider the structure singularity of nonlinear control systems. It was revealed that the focus of researches on nonlinear control theory is shifting from regular systems to singular systems. The singularity of nonlinear systems causes certain complexity. Secondly, the switched systems are considered. For such systems the complexity is caused by the structure varying. We show that the switched systems have significant characteristics of complex systems. Finally, we investigate the evolution systems. The evolution structure makes complexity, and itself is a proper model for complex systems.

  14. Structure-property relationships in multilayered polymeric system and olefinic block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariwala, Devang

    Chapter 1. The effect of tie-layer thickness on delamination behavior of polypropylene/tie-layer/Nylon-6 multilayers is examined in this study. Various maleated polypropylene resins were compared for their effectiveness as tie-layers. Delamination failure occurred cohesively in all the multilayer systems. Two adhesion regimes were defined based on the change in slope of the linear relationship between the delamination toughness and the tie-layer thickness. The measured delamination toughness of the various tie-layers was quantitatively correlated to the damage zone length formed at the crack tip. In addition, the effect of tie-layer thickness on the multilayer tensile properties was correlated with the delamination behavior. The fracture strain of the multilayers decreased with decreasing tie-layer thickness. Examination of the prefracture damage mechanism of stretched multilayers revealed good correlation with the delamination toughness of the tie-layers. In thick tie-layers (>2microm) the delamination toughness of the tie-layers was large enough to prevent delamination of multilayers when they were stretched. In the thin tie-layers (organized lamellar crystals with the orthorhombic unit cell and high melting temperature. The lamellae are organized into space-filling spherulites in all compositions even in copolymers with only 18 wt% hard block. The morphology is consistent with crystallization from a miscible melt. Crystallization of the hard blocks forces segregation of the noncrystallizable soft blocks into the interlamellar regions. Good separation of hard and soft blocks in the solid state is confirmed by distinct and separate beta- and alpha-relaxations in all the block copolymers. Compared to statistical ethylene-octene copolymers, the blocky architecture imparts a substantially higher crystallization temperature, a higher melting temperature and a better organized crystalline morphology, while maintaining a lower glass transition temperature. The

  15. BLOCK CODING SCHEME FOR REDUCING PAPR IN OFDM SYSTEMS WITH LARGE NUMBER OF SUBCARRIERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Tao; Zhu Guangxi; Zheng Jianbin

    2004-01-01

    The major drawback in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system is due to the high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR), so the performance of the system is significantly degraded by the nonlinearity of a High Power Amplifier (HPA) in the transmitter.In order to mitigate distortion, a block coding scheme for reducing PAPR in OFDM systems with large number of subcarriers based on complementary sequences and predistortion is proposed,which is capable of both error correction and PAPR reduction. Computer simulation results show that the proposed scheme significantly improves Bit Error Rate(BER) performance as compared to an uncoded system when an HPA is employed or a coded system without predistortion.

  16. Large Block Test Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W

    2001-12-01

    This report documents the Large-Block Test (LBT) conducted at Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The LBT was a thermal test conducted on an exposed block of middle non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff (Tptpmn) and was designed to assist in understanding the thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes associated with heating and then cooling a partially saturated fractured rock mass. The LBT was unique in that it was a large (3 x 3 x 4.5 m) block with top and sides exposed. Because the block was exposed at the surface, boundary conditions on five of the six sides of the block were relatively well known and controlled, making this test both easier to model and easier to monitor. This report presents a detailed description of the test as well as analyses of the data and conclusions drawn from the test. The rock block that was tested during the LBT was exposed by excavation and removal of the surrounding rock. The block was characterized and instrumented, and the sides were sealed and insulated to inhibit moisture and heat loss. Temperature on the top of the block was also controlled. The block was heated for 13 months, during which time temperature, moisture distribution, and deformation were monitored. After the test was completed and the block cooled down, a series of boreholes were drilled, and one of the heater holes was over-cored to collect samples for post-test characterization of mineralogy and mechanical properties. Section 2 provides background on the test. Section 3 lists the test objectives and describes the block site, the site configuration, and measurements made during the test. Section 3 also presents a chronology of events associated with the LBT, characterization of the block, and the pre-heat analyses of the test. Section 4 describes the fracture network contained in the block. Section 5 describes the heating/cooling system used to control the temperature in the block and presents the thermal history of the block during the test

  17. Approximate controllability of distributed systems by distributed controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzion Shklyar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximate controllability problem for a linear distributed control system with possibly unbounded input operator, connected in a series to another distributed system without control is investigated. An initial state of the second distributed system is considered as a control parameter. Applications to control partial equations governed by hyperbolic controller, and to control delay systems governed by hereditary controller are considered.

  18. Perineural Dexamethasone to Improve Postoperative Analgesia with Peripheral Nerve Blocks: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildasio S. De Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The overall effect of perineural dexamethasone on postoperative analgesia outcomes has yet to be quantified. The main objective of this quantitative review was to evaluate the effect of perineural dexamethasone as a nerve block adjunct on postoperative analgesia outcomes. Methods. A systematic search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of perineural dexamethasone as a block adjunct on postoperative pain outcomes in patients receiving regional anesthesia. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effect model. Results. Nine randomized trials with 760 subjects were included. The weighted mean difference (99% CI of the combined effects favored perineural dexamethasone over control for analgesia duration, 473 (264 to 682 minutes, and motor block duration, 500 (154 to 846 minutes. Postoperative opioid consumption was also reduced in the perineural dexamethasone group compared to control, −8.5 (−12.3 to −4.6 mg of IV morphine equivalents. No significant neurological symptoms could have been attributed to the use of perineural dexamethasone. Conclusions. Perineural dexamethasone improves postoperative pain outcomes when given as an adjunct to brachial plexus blocks. There were no reports of persistent nerve injury attributed to perineural administration of the drug.

  19. PID Daylight Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horaţiu Ştefan Grif

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation and the tuning of a digital PID controller used in a daylight control application. Due to the fact that the process is unknown, an experimental method, Ziegler-Nichols, for the tuning of the PID controller was used. The obtained PID parameters do not offer a good behavior of the ALCS. To improve the performances of the ALCS, supplementary tuning of the PID parameters, via step response analysis, was made. The step response acquiring and analysis may have an expensive time cost. To avoid the time cost the present paper offers an algorithm which guide the designer to chose, in a slight manner, not only a set but a set family of the PID parameters for which the ALCS has a good behavior. Also, the algorithm presents the way how the ALCS user can set his desired ALCS speed reaction to the daylight variations.

  20. COMPLEMENT BLOCK CODING SCHEME FOR REDUCING PEAK-TO-AVERAGE POWER RATIO OF OFDM SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Tao; Zhu Guangxi

    2004-01-01

    A new scheme termed as Complement Block Coding (CBC) technique is proposed to reduce the Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of OFDM signals. Utilizing the complement bits which are added to the original information bits,this method can effectively reduce the PAPR of OFDM systems with random frame size N and the coding rate R ≤ (N - k)/N, where kis a positive integer and k ≤ N/2. The performance results obtained with CBC are given and compared with that of some well known schemes, such as Simple Block Coding (SBC), Modified Simple Block Coding (MSBC) and Simple Odd Parity Code (SOPC) for the same purpose. The results show that, at the same coding rate 3/4, the CBC can achieve almost the same performance as SBC, MSBC, but with lower complexity, and that the same performance can be obtained with higher coding rate by using CBC. At the same coding rate (N - 1)/N, the PAPR reduction of CBC is almost the twice as that of SOPC when N ≥ 16. Further more, the PAPR reductions with coding rate (N - 1)/N are almost the same as that with coding rate less than (N - 1)/N,so the proposed scheme CBC is more suitable for the large frame size with high coding rate and can provide error detection.

  1. Communicating Networked Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-31

    Bahamas, pages 1010-1015. 64. Carmen Del Vecchio and I.C. Paschalidis, “Supply Contracts with Service Level Requirements”, Proceedings of the IFAC...control using Monte Carlo sensing,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 3058-3063, 2005. 10. S.B. Andersson, A.A. Handzel, V...Analysis, Madrid Spain. 20. S. Andersson and D. Hristu-Varsakelis, “Language-based feedback control using Monte -Carlo sensing”, to be subm. To IEEE Int’l

  2. Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    elbow) and a pinned first joint (shoul- der) (see Figure 2); it is termed an underactuated system since it is a mechanical system with fewer...Montreal, PQ, Canada, 1998. [10] M. W. Spong. Partial feedback linearization of underactuated mechanical systems . In Proceedings, IROS󈨢, pages 314-321...control mechanism and search for optimal combinations of control variables. Besides the nonlinear and hybrid nature of powertrain systems , hardware

  3. Information management system breadboard data acquisition and control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallary, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a breadboard configuration of an advanced information management system based on requirements for high data rates and local and centralized computation for subsystems and experiments to be housed on a space station. The system is to contain a 10-megabit-per-second digital data bus, remote terminals with preprocessor capabilities, and a central multiprocessor. A concept definition is presented for the data acquisition and control system breadboard, and a detailed account is given of the operation of the bus control unit, the bus itself, and the remote acquisition and control unit. The data bus control unit is capable of operating under control of both its own test panel and the test processor. In either mode it is capable of both single- and multiple-message operation in that it can accept a block of data requests or update commands for transmission to the remote acquisition and control unit, which in turn is capable of three levels of data-handling complexity.

  4. The CARMA Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, C.; Beard, A. D.; Daniel, P.; Hobbs, R.; Scott, S. L.; Kraybill, J. C.; Leitch, E.; Mehringer, D. M.; Plante, R.; Amarnath, N. S.; Pound, M. W.; Rauch, K. P.; Teuben, P. J.

    2004-07-01

    The Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) will be the combination of the BIMA, OVRO, and SZA millimeter arrays. With first light scheduled for 2005, CARMA will be the first heterogeneous millimeter array, combining antennas varying from 3.5 m to 10.4 m in diameter. The controls for CARMA involve creating a uniform interface for all antennas. The antennas are grouped into five independently-controlled sub-arrays, which will be used for scientific observations, engineering, or maintenance. The sub-arrays are controlled by two components: the Sub-array Command Processor (SCP) and the Sub-array Tracker (SAT). While each sub-array has a dedicated SCP for handling command processing, a single SAT computes and distributes slowly varying parameters to the necessary sub-arrays. The sub-array interface uses CORBA distributed objects to physically separate the user interface from the array. This allows for stability in the core engine controlling the array while enabling flexibility in the user interface implementation.

  5. Electrochemically controlled supramolecular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Christian A.; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2007-01-01

    Large and complex molecular structures can be assembled by supramolecular chemistry and self-organization. For practical purposes it is required that the assembly and disassembly of supramolecular complexes and materials can be directed and controlled by external stimuli in order to build, for insta

  6. Holographic View on Quantum Correlations and Mutual Information between Disjoint Blocks of a Quantum Critical System

    CERN Document Server

    Molina-Vilaplana, Javier

    2011-01-01

    We exploit the Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz (MERA) to explicitly build the bulk AdSd+2 space associated to a (d+1) dimensional conformal field theory describing a critical system lying at the boundary of the AdS space. We show that, when computing the quantum correlations between two disjoint blocks of the boundary critical system, the structure of the causal cones characteristic of MERA requires a transition between two different regimes attainable by changing the ratio between the size and the separation of the two disjoint blocks. We argue that this transition may be easily accounted for if the metric of the MERA induced holographic dual bulk spacetime is described by an AdSd+2 black hole and the mutual information is computed using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. As an explicit example, we use a BTZ AdS3 black hole to compute the MI and the quantum correlations between two disjoint intervals of a one dimensional boundary critical system. Our results for this low dimensional system not only s...

  7. Development of a Simulink/RTW-Based Realtime Control System for an Induction Motor Vector Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, M. H. [Sunmoon University, Chonan (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    In this research a Simulink/RTW-based realtime control system was developed for an induction motor vector control. On the Simulink window, the control system is designed in the form of block diagrams, program codes are produced automatically with the RTW(Real Time Workshop), then an DSP c compiles the program codes. With this automatic program producing method rapid prototyping is realized with the least time-consuming manual programming procedures. To show effectiveness of the proposed system designing scheme a DSP-based induction motor vector controller was constructed and implemented. (author). 10 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Biophysics and Thermodynamics: The Scientific Building Blocks of Bio-inspired Drug Delivery Nano Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, Costas

    2015-06-01

    Biophysics and thermodynamics are considered as the scientific milestones for investigating the properties of materials. The relationship between the changes of temperature with the biophysical variables of biomaterials is important in the process of the development of drug delivery systems. Biophysics is a challenge sector of physics and should be used complementary with the biochemistry in order to discover new and promising technological platforms (i.e., drug delivery systems) and to disclose the 'silence functionality' of bio-inspired biological and artificial membranes. Thermal analysis and biophysical approaches in pharmaceuticals present reliable and versatile tools for their characterization and for the successful development of pharmaceutical products. The metastable phases of self-assembled nanostructures such as liposomes should be taken into consideration because they represent the thermal events can affect the functionality of advanced drug delivery nano systems. In conclusion, biophysics and thermodynamics are characterized as the building blocks for design and development of bio-inspired drug delivery systems.

  9. Water distributions in polystyrene-block-poly[styrene-g-poly(ethylene oxide)] block grafted copolymer system in aqueous solutions revealed by contrast variation small angle neutron scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Hong, Kunlun; Liu, Yun; Shew, Chwen-Yang; Liu, Emily; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Smith, Gregory S.; Zhao, Junpeng; Zhang, Guangzhao; Pispas, Stergios; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2010-10-01

    We develop an experimental approach to analyze the water distribution around a core-shell micelle formed by polystyrene-block-poly[styrene-g-poly(ethylene oxide (PEO)] block copolymers in aqueous media at a fixed polymeric concentration of 10 mg/ml through contrast variation small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study. Through varying the D2O/H2O ratio, the scattering contributions from the water molecules and the micellar constituent components can be determined. Based on the commonly used core-shell model, a theoretical coherent scattering cross section incorporating the effect of water penetration is developed and used to analyze the SANS I(Q ). We have successfully quantified the intramicellar water distribution and found that the overall micellar hydration level increases with the increase in the molecular weight of hydrophilic PEO side chains. Our work presents a practical experimental means for evaluating the intramacromolecular solvent distributions of general soft matter systems.

  10. Robust power system frequency control

    CERN Document Server

    Bevrani, Hassan

    2008-01-01

    Emphasizes the physical and engineering aspects of the power system frequency control design problem while providing a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation and application of robust control techniques. This book summarizes the author's research outcomes, contributions and experiences with power system frequency regulation.

  11. Double CAN communicating building block based on embedded system μC/OS-Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mo,Chuanmeng; Feng,Xiaoyu

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of transplanting successfully a suit of RTOS μC/OS-Ⅱ to MB90F543 MCU, double CAN communicating program module have been embedded into μC/OS-Ⅱ as a building block. Double CAN redundant communication have been realized among several hardware nodes based on μC/OS-Ⅱ. The design mechanism, hardware and software of double CAN communication were described in detail. The paper analyze the differences of CAN communication based on μC/OS-Ⅱ and traditional foreground/background system.Key Word:RTOS; μC/OS-Ⅱ;CAN bus;MB90F543 MCU;redundancy

  12. Optimal Control of Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Azhmyakov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we consider a class of nonlinear optimal control problems, which can be called “optimal control problems in mechanics.” We deal with control systems whose dynamics can be described by a system of Euler-Lagrange or Hamilton equations. Using the variational structure of the solution of the corresponding boundary-value problems, we reduce the initial optimal control problem to an auxiliary problem of multiobjective programming. This technique makes it possible to apply some consistent numerical approximations of a multiobjective optimization problem to the initial optimal control problem. For solving the auxiliary problem, we propose an implementable numerical algorithm.

  13. Postoperative pain management for arthroscopic shoulder surgery: interscalene block versus patient-controlled infusion of 0.25% bupivicaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, David; Young, Shaun; Cawley, Patrick

    2006-05-01

    We compared an interscalene block with a patient-controlled regional anesthesia device (Pain Care 2000; Breg, Inc, Vista, Calif) for pain management after outpatient arthroscopic shoulder surgery (subacromial decompression as principal procedure). The 41 patients in this prospective study were randomized to receive either the block or the device. During the postoperative period, all patients in both groups received standardized oral medications and continuous cold therapy and used continuous passive motion machines. Patients were given diaries and instruction in making entries upon waking and before retiring on postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10. Data collected were number of pain medications used each day; number of nighttime awakenings; and subjective pain, activity, and quality-of-life levels rated on a visual analog scale. All data were statistically analyzed with the Mann-Whitney test. Compared with patients using the block, patients using the device awoke significantly fewer times the first night after surgery (P = .023), were significantly more active during postoperative days 1 and 2 (Ps = .018, .042), and took significantly fewer pain medications on postoperative day 2 (P = .034). On all other measures, results were equivalent or were better with the device, though these findings were not statistically significant. Patient-controlled subacromial infusion of bupivicaine is an effective alternative to interscalene block for outpatient pain management after arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

  14. Addition of lidocaine to levobupivacaine reduces intrathecal block duration: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Yazicioglu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The duration of the spinal block is a concern for anesthetists. Low dose intrathecal lidocaine has vasodilatory effects and increases the local anesthetic clearance from the intrathecal space. The aim was to investigate whether this effect of lidocaine can be used to increase the resolution of levobupivacaine spinal anesthesia. Method: After obtaining ethical approval and informed patient consent, 40 patients underwent transurethral prostate resection were studied. Patients were randomized into two groups and patients received either levobupivacaine 6.75 mg + 0.3 mL 2% lidocaine (Group L or levobupivacaine 6.75 mg + saline (Group C. The main outcome measures were the difference between groups regarding the duration of the spinal block and PACU stay. Secondary outcome measures were the difference between groups in onset and resolution of the spinal block, adverse events and treatments were also investigated. Results: Spinal block resolved faster in Group L than Group C; 162.43 ± 39.4 min vs 219.73 ± 37.3 min (p = 0.000. PACU time was shorter in Group L (109 ± 49.9 min in Group L vs 148 ± 56.8 min in Group C (p = 0.036. There was no difference between groups with respect to the incidence of adverse events and treatments. Groups were also similar regarding complications. PDPH and TNS were not observed in any group. Conclusion: Addition of low dose lidocaine to hyperbaric levobupivacaine reduces the duration of the intrathecal block provided by hyperbaric levobupivacaine. This technique can be used to reduce the spinal block duration for relatively short procedures like TUR-P.

  15. Control principles of complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Barabási, Albert-László

    2016-07-01

    A reflection of our ultimate understanding of a complex system is our ability to control its behavior. Typically, control has multiple prerequisites: it requires an accurate map of the network that governs the interactions between the system's components, a quantitative description of the dynamical laws that govern the temporal behavior of each component, and an ability to influence the state and temporal behavior of a selected subset of the components. With deep roots in dynamical systems and control theory, notions of control and controllability have taken a new life recently in the study of complex networks, inspiring several fundamental questions: What are the control principles of complex systems? How do networks organize themselves to balance control with functionality? To address these questions here recent advances on the controllability and the control of complex networks are reviewed, exploring the intricate interplay between the network topology and dynamical laws. The pertinent mathematical results are matched with empirical findings and applications. Uncovering the control principles of complex systems can help us explore and ultimately understand the fundamental laws that govern their behavior.

  16. Uzaybimer Radio Telescope Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbay, R.; Öz, G. K.; Arslan, Ö.; Özeren, F. F.; Küçük, İ.

    2016-12-01

    A 13 meters former NATO radar is being converted into a radio telescope. The radio telescope is controlled by a system which has been developed at UZAYBİMER. The Telescope Control System(TCS) has been designed using modern industrial systems. TCS has been developed in LabView platform in which works Windows embedded OS. The position feedback used on radio telescopes is an industrial EtherCAT standard. ASCOM library is used for astronomical calculations.

  17. Microprocessor control of photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, A. R.; Kaufman, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The present low power CMOS microprocessor controller for photovoltaic power systems possesses three programs, which are respectively intended for (1) conventional battery-charging systems with state-of-charge estimation and sequential shedding of subarrays and loads, (2) maximum power-controlled battery-charging systems, and (3) variable speed dc motor drives. Attention is presently given to the development of this terrestrial equipment for spacecraft use.

  18. Iterative multi-user detection and decoding for space-time block coding systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yi-dan; ZHANG Feng; WU Wei-ling

    2006-01-01

    To restrain the interference of co-channel users using space-time block coding (STBC), the proposed Gaussian-forcing soft decision multi-user detection (GFSDMUD) algorithm is applied in flat-fading channels by using the relation among the users' signals, which can enhance the capacity by introducing co-channel users. During iterations, extrinsic information is calculated and exchanged between a soft multi-user detector and a bank of turbo decoders to achieve refined estimates of the users' signals. The simulations show that the proposed iterative receiver techniques provide significant performance improvement around 2 dB over conventional noniterative methods. Furthermore, iterative multi-user space-time processing techniques offer substantial performance gains around 8 dB by adding the number of receiver antennas from 4to 6, and the system performance can be enhanced by using this strategy in multi-user STBC systems, which is very important for enlarging the system capacity.

  19. Distributed Stepping Motor Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The beam diagnostic devices used at RIBLL are driven by stepper motors, which are controlled by I/O modules based on ISA-bus in an industrial computer. The disadvantages of such mode are that a large number of long cables are used and one computer to control is unsafe. We have developed a distributed stepping motor control system for the remote, local and centralized control of the stepping motors. RS-485 bus is used for the connection between the remote control unit and the local control units. The con...

  20. Aircraft control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  1. Transversus abdominis plane block for analgesia in renal transplantation: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Freir, Noelle M

    2012-10-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has proven effective in reducing opioid requirements and pain scores for some procedures involving the lower abdominal wall. In this study we assessed its efficacy in patients with end-stage renal failure undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation.

  2. An Aid for Mechanisation of Flight Control Systems on Micro-Computers

    OpenAIRE

    T.V. Rama Murthy; Seshadri, V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of an automated aid to translate the block diagram of flight control system (FCS) to assembly level code. By defining a suitable syntax and by building a matrix of inputs and outputs of the blocks, it becomes easy to translate the block diagram. It is also shown how the process of fault detection can be automated. The results obtained through the automated aid have been validated by ORACLE library using the block diagram of Cstar controller of F8 a...

  3. An Aid for Mechanisation of Flight Control Systems on Micro-Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Rama Murthy

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of an automated aid to translate the block diagram of flight control system (FCS to assembly level code. By defining a suitable syntax and by building a matrix of inputs and outputs of the blocks, it becomes easy to translate the block diagram. It is also shown how the process of fault detection can be automated. The results obtained through the automated aid have been validated by ORACLE library using the block diagram of Cstar controller of F8 aircraft.

  4. Control of Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, Eduardo F; Rubio, Francisco R; Martínez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Control of Solar Energy Systems details the main solar energy systems, problems involved with their control, and how control systems can help in increasing their efficiency.  After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts associated with the use of solar energy in both photovoltaic and thermal plants, specific issues related to control of solar systems are embarked upon. Thermal energy systems are then explored in depth, as well as  other solar energy applications such as solar furnaces and solar refrigeration systems. Problems of variable generation profile and of the contribution of many solar plants to the same grid system are considered with the necessary integrated and supervisory control solutions being discussed. The text includes material on: ·         A comparison of basic and advanced control methods for parabolic troughs from PID to nonlinear model-based control; ·         solar towers and solar tracking; ·         heliostat calibration, characterization and off...

  5. Ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block for pain control in an infant with a femur fracture due to nonaccidental trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Oron; Mansour, Karim; Fischer, Jason W J

    2012-02-01

    A 3-month-old infant girl was transferred to our emergency department (ED) with a subtrochanteric femoral neck fracture due to nonaccidental trauma. She received multiple doses of parenteral analgesics both before arrival and in our ED. We performed an ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block using 2.0 mL of 0.25% bupivicaine (approximately 1.25 mg/kg) before placing the patient in a Pavlik harness. Successful pain control was achieved within 15 minutes of the procedure allowing pain-free manipulation of the affected extremity. The patient required only a single dose of parenteral narcotics during the ensuing 18 hours. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block used in the ED for pain control in a pediatric patient.

  6. Analysis of Crown Block Weighing System%天车称重系统解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钰捷

    2012-01-01

    The hardware architecture, working principle, transmission mode, instrument fimction, weighing sensor princi- ple, wire rope supplement and correction, signal transmission,weighing instruments of crown block weighing system are intro- duced using the example of 240t crown block weighing system of steel making and rolling plant of Hebei Tangshan Iron & Steel Co., LTD. Combing with practical operation in production, the common problems in maintenance are summarized and the solutions are given.%以河北钢铁集团唐山钢铁有限责任公司一钢轧厂240t天车称重系统为例,介绍天车称重系统的硬件结构、工作原理、传输方式、仪表功能、称重传感器原理、钢丝绳补偿、信号传输、称重仪表等,结合在生产中的实际运行状况,总结出在生产维护中的常见问题,并提出具体的解决方法。

  7. Reduced-density-matrix spectrum and block entropy of permutationally invariant many-body systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Mario; Popkov, Vladislav

    2010-07-01

    Spectral properties of the reduced density matrix (RDM) of permutational invariant quantum many-body systems are investigated. The RDM block diagonalization which accounts for all symmetries of the Hamiltonian is achieved. The analytical expression of the RDM spectrum is provided for arbitrary parameters and rigorously proved in the thermodynamical limit. The existence of several sum rules and recurrence relations among RDM eigenvalues is also demonstrated and the distribution function of RDM eigenvalues (including degeneracies) characterized. In particular, we prove that the distribution function approaches a two-dimensional Gaussian in the limit of large subsystem sizes n>1. As a physical application we discuss the von Neumann entropy (VNE) of a block of size n for a system of hard-core bosons on a complete graph, as a function of n and of the temperature T. The occurrence of a crossover of VNE from purely logarithmic behavior at T=0 to a purely linear behavior in n for T≥Tc, is demonstrated.

  8. Frictional energy barrier and blocking temperature in water molecules and carbon nanotubes system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianwei; Li, Jiaxi; Li, Wenfeng

    2015-03-01

    Water transport through hydrophobic channels of single-walled carbon nanotubes has attracted a lot interests, especially, various potential applications of SWCNTs have been proposed for designing novel nanofluidic devices. By adopting Molecular dynamics method, we investigated mechanics and statistics properties of water molecules escaping from a confined single-walled carbon nanotube. From our numerical MD simulations and statistical model, we determined the friction energy barrier of water molecules in (10.10) SWCNT is 9.88 kcal/mol, and which is the minimal energy for flowing a water molecules in CNT. By only using friction energy barrier and relaxation time parameter, our model can fit all different situations MD simulation results. In order to describing the frictional lock behavior of water molecules, we introduced a new blocking temperature, below this temperature (391K for our system), water is locked in CNT due to friction energy barrier. We found that the blocking temperature is closely related to system response time, and it also shows a linear behavior to frictional energy barrier. Furthermore, we found several other interesting statistics results when a water molecules leaving SWCNTs. This work was supported by NSFC No. 11274240 and NO. 51471119.

  9. Block copolymer micelles as nanocontainers for controlled release of proteins from biocompatible oil phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew C; Bershteyn, Anna; Tan, Wuisiew; Hammond, Paula T; Cohen, Robert E; Irvine, Darrell J

    2009-04-13

    Biocompatible oils are used in a variety of medical applications ranging from vaccine adjuvants to vehicles for oral drug delivery. To enable such nonpolar organic phases to serve as reservoirs for delivery of hydrophilic compounds, we explored the ability of block copolymer micelles in organic solvents to sequester proteins for sustained release across an oil-water interface. Self-assembly of the block copolymer, poly(-caprolactone)-block-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (PCL-b-P2VP), was investigated in toluene and oleic acid, a biocompatible naturally occurring fatty acid. Micelle formation in toluene was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging of micelles cast onto silicon substrates. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy confirmed a spherical morphology in oleic acid. Studies of homopolymer solubility implied that micelles in oleic acid consist of a P2VP corona and a PCL core, while P2VP formed the core of micelles assembled in toluene. The loading of two model proteins (ovalbumin (ova) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)) into micelles was demonstrated with loadings as high as 7.8% wt of protein per wt of P2VP in oleic acid. Characterization of block copolymer morphology in the two solvents after protein loading revealed spherical particles with similar size distributions to the as-assembled micelles. Release of ova from micelles in oleic acid was sustained for 12-30 h upon placing the oil phase in contact with an aqueous bath. Unique to the situation of micelle assembly in an oily phase, the data suggest protein is sequestered in the P2VP corona block of PCL-b-P2VP micelles in oleic acid. More conventionally, protein loading occurs in the P2VP core of micelles assembled in toluene.

  10. Control Evaluation Information System Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Sutedjo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the control of information system savings in the banking and to identify the weaknesses and problem happened in those saving systems. Research method used are book studies by collecting data and information needed and field studies by interview, observation, questioner, and checklist using COBIT method as a standard to assess the information system control of the company. The expected result about the evaluation result that show in the problem happened and recommendation given as the evaluation report and to give a view about the control done by the company. Conclusion took from this research that this banking company has met standards although some weaknesses still exists in the system.Index Terms - Control Information System, Savings

  11. Emission control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, J. Landy (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. The methods and apparatus may further be modified to reduce NOx emissions. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals. Where removal of NOx emissions is included, nitric acid may also be isolated for use in fertilizer or other industrial applications.

  12. Traction Control System for Motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Conti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traction control is a widely used control system to increase stability and safety of four wheel vehicles. Automatic stability control is used in the BMW K1200R motorcycle and in motoGP competition, but not in other motorcycles. This paper presents an algorithm and a low-cost real-time hardware implementation for motorcycles. A prototype has been developed, applied on a commercial motorcycle, and tested in a real track. The control system that can be tuned by the driver during the race has been appreciated by the test driver.

  13. Commutated automatic gain control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for the prototype Loran-C receiver is discussed. The current version of the prototype receiver, the Mini L-80, was tested initially in 1980. The receiver uses a super jolt microcomputer to control a memory aided phase loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The AGC control adjusts the level of each station signal, such that the early portion of each envelope rise is about at the same amplitude in the receiver envelope detector.

  14. Acuity systems and control charting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaha, S H

    1995-01-01

    The strengths of control charting and other statistical process control (SPC) tools have not previously been applied to acuity systems. Intermountain Health Care, Salt Lake City, Utah, developed a new acuity system that relies heavily upon control charting for an array of purposes, including immediate feedback to caregivers regarding decisions, ongoing feedback to managers regarding decision patterns, and longer-term feedback regarding trends and budget-relevant information. The use of control charts has eliminated the need for auditing acuity-based staffing and has maintained the reliability of classifications at levels above 95 percent. Implications for other novel applications are offered.

  15. Perioperative pain control after total knee arthroplasty: An evidence based review of the role of peripheral nerve blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danninger, Thomas; Opperer, Mathias; Memtsoudis, Stavros G

    2014-07-18

    Over the last decades, the number of total knee arthroplasty procedures performed in the United States has been increasing dramatically. This very successful intervention, however, is associated with significant postoperative pain, and adequate postoperative analgesia is mandatory in order to allow for successful rehabilitation and recovery. The use of regional anesthesia and peripheral nerve blocks has facilitated and improved this goal. Many different approaches and techniques for peripheral nerve blockades, either landmark or, more recently, ultrasound guided have been described over the last decades. This includes but is not restricted to techniques discussed in this review. The introduction of ultrasound has improved many approaches to peripheral nerves either in success rate and/or time to block. Moreover, ultrasound has enhanced the safety of peripheral nerve blocks due to immediate needle visualization and as consequence needle guidance during the block. In contrast to patient controlled analgesia using opioids, patients with a regional anesthetic technique suffer from fewer adverse events and show higher patient satisfaction; this is important as hospital rankings and advertisement have become more common worldwide and many patients use these factors in order to choose a certain institution for a specific procedure. This review provides a short overview of currently used regional anesthetic and analgesic techniques focusing on related implications, considerations and outcomes.

  16. Linux in Industrial Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Riesco, T

    2001-01-01

    Today the Linux operating system has become a real alternative for industrial control systems. Linux supports all layers in control systems starting with Real-Time or embedded systems for data acquisition, following with treatment, storage, communication and data adaptation, and finally, with supervision and user interfaces. In the last years the Linux development has grown being incorporated in several industrial systems demonstrating high performance, availability and stability for complex processes in chemical, automobile or petrol industries. In many of these industries Linux architectures have been tested and validated successfully. The new CERN policy supporting Linux, as well as the emergence of cheap and robust Linux solutions, motivates its implementation in our safety control and supervision systems in the near future.

  17. Performance of Turbo Interference Cancellation Receivers in Space-Time Block Coded DS-CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Oluremi Bejide

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the performance of turbo interference cancellation receivers in the space time block coded (STBC direct-sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA system. Depending on the concatenation scheme used, we divide these receivers into the partitioned approach (PA and the iterative approach (IA receivers. The performance of both the PA and IA receivers is evaluated in Rayleigh fading channels for the uplink scenario. Numerical results show that the MMSE front-end turbo space-time iterative approach receiver (IA effectively combats the mixture of MAI and intersymbol interference (ISI. To further investigate the possible achievable data rates in the turbo interference cancellation receivers, we introduce the puncturing of the turbo code through the use of rate compatible punctured turbo codes (RCPTCs. Simulation results suggest that combining interference cancellation, turbo decoding, STBC, and RCPTC can significantly improve the achievable data rates for a synchronous DS-CDMA system for the uplink in Rayleigh flat fading channels.

  18. An Iterative Power Allocation Algorithm for Group-wise Space-Time Block Coding Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-wei; ZHANG Hai-bin; SONG Wen-tao; LUO Han-wen; LIU Xing-zhao

    2007-01-01

    An iterative transmit power allocation (PA) algorithm was proposed for group-wise space-time block coding (G-STBC) systems with group-wise successive interference cancellation (GSIC) receivers.Group-wise interference suppression (GIS) filters are employed to separate each group's transmit signals from other interfer ences and noise.While the total power on all transmit symbols is constrained, all transmit PA coefficients are updated jointly according to the channel information at each iteration.Through PA, each detection symbol has the same post-detection signal to interference-and-noise ratio (SINR).The simulation results verify that the proposed PA algorithm converges at the equilibrium quickly after few iterations, and it achieves much lower bit error rates than the previous single symbol SIC PA and the fixed ratio PA algorithms for G-STBC systems with GSIC receivers.

  19. Application of Block Copolymer in Three-Liquid-Phase Extraction System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel three-liquid-phase extraction system (TES) composed of butyl acetate, block copolymer polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide and ammonium sulphate aqueous solution [(NH4)2SO4] as top, middle, and bottom phase, respectively, has been developed. The copolymer recycling and partitioning behavior of penicillin V has been studied in this system. Results show that the copolymer could be purified and recycled and penicillin V of the filtrated ferment broth could be partitioned unevenly among the phases and purified in the top phase of this TES. About 90 wt.% of penicillin V could be distributed into the top phase around pH 2.5 and only less than 0.1 wt.% left in the bottom phase.

  20. Comparison of automatic control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppelt, W

    1941-01-01

    This report deals with a reciprocal comparison of an automatic pressure control, an automatic rpm control, an automatic temperature control, and an automatic directional control. It shows the difference between the "faultproof" regulator and the actual regulator which is subject to faults, and develops this difference as far as possible in a parallel manner with regard to the control systems under consideration. Such as analysis affords, particularly in its extension to the faults of the actual regulator, a deep insight into the mechanism of the regulator process.

  1. VA National Bed Control System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  2. A novel microsatellite control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, K.R.; Frigo, J.R.; Tilden, M.W.

    1998-02-01

    The authors are researching extremely simple yet quite capable analog pulse-coded neural networks for ``smaller-faster-cheaper`` spacecraft attitude and control systems. The will demonstrate a prototype microsatellite that uses their novel control method to autonomously stabilize itself in the ambient magnetic field and point itself at the brightest available light source. Though still in design infancy, the ``Nervous Net`` controllers described could allow for space missions not currently possible given conventional satellite hardware. Result, prospects and details are presented.

  3. Pump control system for windmills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Don E.

    1983-01-01

    A windmill control system having lever means, for varying length of stroke of the pump piston, and a control means, responsive to the velocity of the wind to operate the lever means to vary the length of stroke and hence the effective displacement of the pump in accordance with available wind energy, with the control means having a sensing member separate from the windmill disposed in the wind and displaceable thereby in accordance with wind velocity.

  4. Robust power system frequency control

    CERN Document Server

    Bevrani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition of the industry standard reference on power system frequency control provides practical, systematic and flexible algorithms for regulating load frequency, offering new solutions to the technical challenges introduced by the escalating role of distributed generation and renewable energy sources in smart electric grids. The author emphasizes the physical constraints and practical engineering issues related to frequency in a deregulated environment, while fostering a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation and robust control techniques. The resulting control strategi

  5. Contamination Control: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Contamination influences a wide variety of industrial processes. For complex systems, contamination control, the collective effort to control contamination to such a level that it guarantees or even improves process or product functionality, offers a way for finding workable solutions. Central in th

  6. Preservation of controllability-observability in expanded systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bakule, Lubomir; Rodellar Benedé, José; Rossell Garriga, Josep Maria; Rubio Díaz, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    The result contributed by the article is that controllability-observability of an original continuous-time LTI dynamic system can always be simultaneously preserved in expanded systems within the inclusion principle when using block structured complementary matrices. This new structure offers more degrees of freedom for the selection of specific complementary matrices than well known used cases, such as aggregations and restrictions, which enable such preservation only in certain special case...

  7. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Schlenker, S; Kersten, S; Hirschbuehl, D; Braun, H; Poblaguev, A; Oliveira Damazio, D; Talyshev, A; Zimmermann, S; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Hartert, J; Mindur, B; Tsarouchas, CA; Caforio, D; Sbarra, C; Olszowska, J; Hajduk, Z; Banas, E; Wynne, B; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Nemecek, S; Thompson, PD; Mandic, I; Deliyergiyev, M; Polini, A; Kovalenko, S; Khomutnikov, V; Filimonov, V; Bindi, M; Stanecka, E; Martin, T; Lantzsch, K; Hoffmann, D; Huber, J; Mountricha, E; Santos, HF; Ribeiro, G; Barillari, T; Habring, J; Arabidze, G; Boterenbrood, H; Hart, R; Marques Vinagre, F; Lafarguette, P; Tartarelli, GF; Nagai, K; D'Auria, S; Chekulaev, S; Phillips, P; Ertel, E; Brenner, R; Leontsinis, S; Mitrevski, J; Grassi, V; Karakostas, K; Iakovidis, G.; Marchese, F; Aielli, G

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub-detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS enables equipment supervision of all ATLAS sub-detectors by using a system of >130 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. This highly distributed system reads, processes and archives of the order of 106 operational parameters. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, and manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC. This contribution firstly describes the status of the ATLAS DCS and the experience gained during the LHC commissioning and the first physics data taking operation period. Secondly, the future evolution and maintenance constraints for the coming years an...

  8. The analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena K Parikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is suitable for lower abdominal surgeries. Blind TAP block has many complications and uncertainty of its effects. Use of ultrasonography increases the safety and efficacy. This study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound (USG-guided TAP block for retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy (RDN. Methods: In a prospective randomized double-blind study, 60 patients undergoing laparoscopic donor nephrectomy were randomly divided into two groups by closed envelope method. At the end of surgery, USG-guided TAP block was given to the patients of both the groups. Study group (group S received inj. Bupivacaine (0.375%, whereas control group (group C received normal saline. Inj. Tramadol (1 mg/kg was given as rescue analgesic at visual analog scale (VAS more than 3 in any group at rest or on movement. The analgesic efficacy was judged by VAS both at rest and on movement, time to first dose of rescue analgesic, cumulative dose of tramadol, sedation score, and nausea score, which were also noted at 30 min, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h postoperatively. Total tramadol consumption at 24 h was also assessed. Results: Patients in group S had significantly lower VAS score, longer time to first dose of rescue analgesic (547.13±266.96 min vs. 49.17±24.95 min and lower tramadol consumption (103.8±32.18 mg vs. 235.8±47.5 mg in 24 h. Conclusion: The USG-guided TAP block is easy to perform and effective as a postoperative analgesic regimen in RDN, with opioids-sparing effect and without any complications.

  9. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  10. Updated overview of the Tevatron control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, P.

    1987-10-01

    A single unified control system is used for all of the Fermilab accelerators and storage rings, from the LINAC to the Tevatron and antiproton source. A review of the general features is given - these include a 'host' system consisting of a number of minicomputers integrated with many distributed microprocessors in a variety of subsystems, usage of an in-house developed protocol, GAS, for communication between the two classes of machines, and a Parameter Page program, designed in conjunction with the system database, which allows a wide variety of quantities to be read and set in a coherent fashion. Recent developments include the implementation of a block transfer and 'fast time plot' facility through CAMAC, inclusion of several new computers in the host, a better understanding of system throughput, greatly improved reliability, advent of programs which sequence a large number of independent operations, and the construction of new hardware subsystems. Possible future system upgrades will be briefly presented. A summary of the utilization of a quite large software staff, at a time when the system is no longer under construction, will be discussed.

  11. An efficient user scheduling scheme for downlink Multiuser MIMO-OFDM systems with Block Diagonalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Esslaoui

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination of multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO technology with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM is an attractive solution for next generation of wireless local area networks (WLANs, currently standardized within IEEE 802.11ac, and the fourth-generation (4G mobile cellular wireless systems to achieve a very high system throughput while satisfying quality of service (QoS constraints. In particular, Block Diagonalization (BD scheme is a low-complexity precoding technique for MU-MIMO downlink channels, which completely pre-cancels the multiuser interference. The major issue of the BD scheme is that the number of users that can be simultaneously supported is limited by the ratio of the number of base station transmit antennas to the number of user receive antennas. When the number of users is large, a subset of users must be selected, and selection algorithms should be designed to maximize the total system throughput. In this paper, the BD technique is extended to MU-MIMO-OFDM systems and a low complexity user scheduling algorithm is proposed to find the optimal subset of users that should transmit simultaneously, in light of the instantaneous channel state information (CSI, such that the total system sum-rate capacity is maximized. Simulation results show that the proposed scheduling algorithm achieves a good trade-off between sum-rate capacity performance and computational complexity.

  12. Space-Frequency Block Code with Matched Rotation for MIMO-OFDM System with Limited Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thushara D. Abhayapala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel matched rotation precoding (MRP scheme to design a rate one space-frequency block code (SFBC and a multirate SFBC for MIMO-OFDM systems with limited feedback. The proposed rate one MRP and multirate MRP can always achieve full transmit diversity and optimal system performance for arbitrary number of antennas, subcarrier intervals, and subcarrier groupings, with limited channel knowledge required by the transmit antennas. The optimization process of the rate one MRP is simple and easily visualized so that the optimal rotation angle can be derived explicitly, or even intuitively for some cases. The multirate MRP has a complex optimization process, but it has a better spectral efficiency and provides a relatively smooth balance between system performance and transmission rate. Simulations show that the proposed SFBC with MRP can overcome the diversity loss for specific propagation scenarios, always improve the system performance, and demonstrate flexible performance with large performance gain. Therefore the proposed SFBCs with MRP demonstrate flexibility and feasibility so that it is more suitable for a practical MIMO-OFDM system with dynamic parameters.

  13. A Physics-Based Charge-Control Model for InP DHBT Including Current-Blocking Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Ji; JIN Zhi; SU Yong-Bo; CHENG Wei; WANG Xian-Wai; CHEN Gao-Peng; LIU Xin-Yu

    2009-01-01

    We develop a physics-based charge-control InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor model including three important effects: current blocking, mobile-charge modulation of the base-collector capacitance and velocity-field modulation in the transit time. The bias-dependent base-collector depletion charge is obtained analytically, which takes into account the mobile-charge modulation. Then, a measurement based voltage-dependent transit time formulation is implemented. As a result, over a wide range of biases, the developed model shows good agreement between the modeled and measured S-parameters and cutoff frequency. Also, the model considering current blocking effect demonstrates more accurate prediction of the output characteristics than conventional vertical bipolar inter company results.

  14. Balanced bridge feedback control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Boris J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In a system having a driver, a motor, and a mechanical plant, a multiloop feedback control apparatus for controlling the movement and/or positioning of a mechanical plant, the control apparatus has a first local bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of voltage and current at the output driver, and a second bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of force and velocity at the output of the motor. The control apparatus may further include an outer loop for feeding back a signal representing the angular velocity and/or position of the mechanical plant.

  15. Structural insight into RNA recognition motifs: versatile molecular Lego building blocks for biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2012-01-01

    'RNA recognition motifs (RRMs)' are common domain-folds composed of 80-90 amino-acid residues in eukaryotes, and have been identified in many cellular proteins. At first they were known as RNA binding domains. Through discoveries over the past 20 years, however, the RRMs have been shown to exhibit versatile molecular recognition activities and to behave as molecular Lego building blocks to construct biological systems. Novel RNA/protein recognition modes by RRMs are being identified, and more information about the molecular recognition by RRMs is becoming available. These RNA/protein recognition modes are strongly correlated with their biological significance. In this review, we would like to survey the recent progress on these versatile molecular recognition modules.

  16. Multiple solutions to dense systems in radar scattering using a preconditioned block GMRES solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyse, W.E. [Advanced Software Resources, Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Multiple right-hand sides occur in radar scattering calculations in the computation of the simulated radar return from a body at a large number of angles. Each desired angle requires a right-hand side vector to be computed and the solution generated. These right-hand sides are naturally smooth functions of the angle parameters and this property is utilized in a novel way to compute solutions an order of magnitude faster than LINPACK The modeling technique addressed is the Method of Moments (MOM), i.e. a boundary element method for time harmonic Maxwell`s equations. Discretization by this method produces general complex dense systems of rank 100`s to 100,000`s. The usual way to produce the required multiple solutions is via LU factorization and solution routines such as found in LINPACK. Our method uses the block GMRES iterative method to directly iterate a subset of the desired solutions to convergence.

  17. Learning fuzzy logic control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Leung Kam

    1994-01-01

    The performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Control System (LFLCS), developed in this thesis, has been evaluated. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller (LFLC) learns to control the motor by learning the set of teaching values that are generated by a classical PI controller. It is assumed that the classical PI controller is tuned to minimize the error of a position control system of the D.C. motor. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller developed in this thesis is a multi-input single-output network. Training of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented off-line. Upon completion of the training process (using Supervised Learning, and Unsupervised Learning), the LFLC replaces the classical PI controller. In this thesis, a closed loop position control system of a D.C. motor using the LFLC is implemented. The primary focus is on the learning capabilities of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller. The learning includes symbolic representation of the Input Linguistic Nodes set and Output Linguistic Notes set. In addition, we investigate the knowledge-based representation for the network. As part of the design process, we implement a digital computer simulation of the LFLCS. The computer simulation program is written in 'C' computer language, and it is implemented in DOS platform. The LFLCS, designed in this thesis, has been developed on a IBM compatible 486-DX2 66 computer. First, the performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is evaluated by comparing the angular shaft position of the D.C. motor controlled by a conventional PI controller and that controlled by the LFLC. Second, the symbolic representation of the LFLC and the knowledge-based representation for the network are investigated by observing the parameters of the Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the links at each layer of the LFLC. While there are some limitations of application with this approach, the result of the simulation shows that the LFLC is able to control the angular shaft position of the

  18. Chaos Control in Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A. Savi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaos has an intrinsically richness related to its structure and, because of that, there are benefits for a natural system of adopting chaotic regimes with their wide range of potential behaviors. Under this condition, the system may quickly react to some new situation, changing conditions and their response. Therefore, chaos and many regulatory mechanisms control the dynamics of living systems, conferring a great flexibility to the system. Inspired by nature, the idea that chaotic behavior may be controlled by small perturbations of some physical parameter is making this kind of behavior to be desirable in different applications. Mechanical systems constitute a class of system where it is possible to exploit these ideas. Chaos control usually involves two steps. In the first, unstable periodic orbits (UPOs that are embedded in the chaotic set are identified. After that, a control technique is employed in order to stabilize a desirable orbit. This contribution employs the close-return method to identify UPOs and a semi-continuous control method, which is built up on the OGY method, to stabilize some desirable UPO. As an application to a mechanical system, a nonlinear pendulum is considered and, based on parameters obtained from an experimental setup, analyses are carried out. Signals are generated by numerical integration of the mathematical model and two different situations are treated. Firstly, it is assumed that all state variables are available. After that, the analysis is done from scalar time series and therefore, it is important to evaluate the effect of state space reconstruction. Delay coordinates method and extended state observers are employed with this aim. Results show situations where these techniques may be used to control chaos in mechanical systems.

  19. Vagal Blocking Improves Glycemic Control and Elevated Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shikora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. An active device that downregulates abdominal vagal signalling has resulted in significant weight loss in feasibility studies. Objective. To prospectively evaluate the effect of intermittent vagal blocking (VBLOC on weight loss, glycemic control, and blood pressure (BP in obese subjects with DM2. Methods. Twenty-eight subjects were implanted with a VBLOC device (Maestro Rechargeable System at 5 centers in an open-label study. Effects on weight loss, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and BP were evaluated at 1 week to 12 months. Results. 26 subjects (17 females/9 males, 51±2 years, BMI 37±1 kg/m2, mean ± SEM completed 12 months followup. One serious adverse event (pain at implant site was easily resolved. At 1 week and 12 months, mean excess weight loss percentages (% EWL were 9±1% and 25±4% (P<0.0001, and HbA1c declined by 0.3±0.1% and 1.0±0.2% (P=0.02, baseline 7.8±0.2%. In DM2 subjects with elevated BP (n=15, mean arterial pressure reduced by 7±3 mmHg and 8±3 mmHg (P=0.04, baseline 100 ± 2 mmHg at 1 week and 12 months. All subjects MAP decreased by 3 ± 2 mmHg (baseline 95 ± 2 mmHg at 12 months. Conclusions. VBLOC was safe in obese DM2 subjects and associated with meaningful weight loss, early and sustained improvements in HbA1c, and reductions in BP in hypertensive DM2 subjects. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00555958.

  20. Integration of Fire Control, Flight Control and Propulsion Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    system, the answer was by a comprehensive programme of simulation and rig testing. ix In the only paper in the programme deailing with systems for civil ...be used otherwise. At one time there was an explosive growth in the application of automatic flight control to civil transport aircraft, culminating in...nombre at l’ampleur des 6quipesenta de maintenance extgrieurs a lavion, 11 faut s’efforcer I ce qua 1. mayan privil~gif pareattant lea 6changss

  1. Development and characterization of a modular acquisition system for a 4D PET block detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcatili, Sara, E-mail: MarcatiliS@cardiff.ac.uk [University of Pisa, Department of Physics, I 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy); Belcari, Nicola; Bisogni, Maria G. [University of Pisa, Department of Physics, I 56127 Pisa (Italy); Collazuol, Gianmaria [INFN sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy); Ambrosi, Giovanni [INFN sezione di Perugia, I 06100 Perugia (Italy); Corsi, Francesco; Foresta, Maurizio; Marzocca, Cristoforo; Matarrese, Gianvito [Politecnico di Bari, I 70100 Bari (Italy); INFN Sezione di Bari, I 70100 Bari (Italy); Sportelli, Giancarlo; Guerra, Pedro; Santos, Andres [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E 28040 Madrid (Spain); CIBER-BBN (Spain); Del Guerra, Alberto [University of Pisa, Department of Physics, I 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-12-11

    Next generation PET scanners should fulfill very high requirements in terms of spatial, energy and timing resolution. Modern scanner performances are inherently limited by the use of standard photomultiplier tubes. The use of Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) matrices is proposed for the construction of a 4D PET module based on LSO continuous crystals, which is envisaged to replace the standard PET block detector. The expected spatial resolution of the module for the photon hit position is below 1 mm, and it will perform at the same time, the Depth Of Interaction (DOI) calculation and the Time Of Flight (TOF) measurement. The use of large area multi-pixel Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors requires the development of a multichannel Digital Acquisition system (DAQ) as well as of a dedicated front-end in order not to degrade the intrinsic detector performances. We have developed a flexible and modular DAQ system for the read-out of two modules in time coincidence for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) applications. The DAQ system is based on a previously developed custom front-end ASIC chip (BASIC) which allows to read-out SiPM matrices preserving their spectroscopy and timing capabilities. Here we describe the acquisition system architecture and its characterization measurements.

  2. The CERN SPS Control System

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Neyrac Films

    2012-01-01

    Part of the series of films produced by CERN about the SPS. Names, facts and credits added on the 1975 version by Bengt Sagnell, Meyrin, Oct 2012. The project leader for the SPS accelerator (with 400 staff) was John Adams - later Sir John. The group responsible for the design and installation of the control system was led by Michael Crowley-Milling. 00:02:14 Bernard Sutton00:02:48 Michael Crowley-Milling, Head of the Controls Group00:03:01 Designed in the Controls Group, this was probably the first use of touch screens in an industrial control system00:04:37 Louis Burnod, Section leader, Beam Instrumentation00:05:36 Claes Frisk, Computer technician 00:06:03 The system contained 24 Norsk Data NORD-10 16-bit mini computers with 16-64 kB of magnetic core memory and external hard disks of from 5MB to 256 MB in size00:06:23 Frank Beck, Section leader, Central Controls00:06:26 Véronique Frammery, Programmer 00:06:31 Hans-Karl Kuhn, Power Supply Controls00:07:55 Raymond Rausch, Control electronics00:10:23 Paul Acti...

  3. Analysis of the call blocking rate of two-hop-relay cellular system in the dead spots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei-feng; WU Meng

    2007-01-01

    In a traditional cellular system, the call requests initiated by mobile stations (MSs) must be carried through a base station (BS) via the cellular interface, but when MSs are located in the dead spots, their call requests will be blocked because the MSs cannot communicate with the BS. It is considered to relay these blocked calls requested using Ad-hoc network, which will improve the performance of the system as a whole. This article first introduces a novel architecture of the two-hop-relay cellular system in the dead spots, and then analyzes and compares the call blocking rate of the traditional cellular and the two-hop-relay cellular system respectively under three different conditions. The first and second conditions are the traditional cellular system without and with taking account of the effect of the dead spots. The third condition is the two-hop-relay cellular system with taking account of the effect of the dead spots. Numerical analytical result shows that the two-hop-relay cellular system can obtain lower call blocking rate than the traditional cellular system when considering the effect of dead spots. Consequently, this novel architecture can resolve the problem of coverage limitation of a traditional cellular system effectively.

  4. On a useful functional representation of control system structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchow, Harvey L.

    1988-01-01

    An alternative structure for control systems is proposed. The structure is represented by a three-element block diagram and three functional definitions. It is argued that the three functional elements form a canonical set. The set includes the functions description, estimation and control. General overlay of the structure on parallel state and nested-state control systems is discussed. Breakdown of two real nested-state control systems into the proposed functional format is displayed. Application of the process to the mapping of complex control systems R and D efforts is explained with the Mars Rover Sample and Return mission as an example. A previous application of this basic functional structure to Space Station performance requirements organization is discussed.

  5. Study of the control-equilibrium of control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qiaoge; Fu Mengyin; Sun Changsheng

    2008-01-01

    Not so much had been talked about equilibrium in control area.On the basis of the phenomenon of balance,the concept of control-equilibrium and control-equilibrium of a control system is proposed.According to this theory,a perfect control method should not only guarantee stability of the system,but also ensure the control-equilibrium of the system.To achieve the control-equilibrium,feed-forward control is required.

  6. Design of Controllers and Observer-Based Controllers for Time-Delay Singularly Perturbed Systems via Composite Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juing-Shian Chiou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel and general approach, which is based on the composite control method, to synthesize the controller and observer-based state feedback to stabilize the singularly perturbed time-delay systems. First, the equivalent models of the original systems and the subsystems reduced via singular perturbation techniques are derived. Through these equivalent models, approximation of the stabilization and observer design for the original systems can be achieved through separate analyses for the slow and fast subsystems via a transformation of block diagonalization.

  7. Phase control of excitable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano, S; Seoane, J M; Marino, I P; Sanjuan, M A F [Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos Group, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Euzzor, S; Meucci, R; Arecchi, F T [CNR-Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata, Largo E. Fermi, 6 50125 Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: samuel.zambrano@urjc.es, E-mail: jesus.seoane@urjc.es, E-mail: ines.perez@urjc.es

    2008-07-15

    Here we study how to control the dynamics of excitable systems by using the phase control technique. Excitable systems are relevant in neuronal dynamics and therefore this method might have important applications. We use the periodically driven FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) model, which displays both spiking and non-spiking behaviours in chaotic or periodic regimes. The phase control technique consists of applying a harmonic perturbation with a suitable phase {phi} that we adjust in search of different behaviours of the FHN dynamics. We compare our numerical results with experimental measurements performed on an electronic circuit and find good agreement between them. This method might be useful for a better understanding of excitable systems and different phenomena in neuronal dynamics.

  8. The CMS Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN is one of the Large Hadron Collider multi-purpose experiments. Its large subsystems size sum up to around 6 million Detector Control System (DCS) channels to be supervised. A cluster of ~100 servers is needed to provide the required processing resources. To cope with such a size a scalable approach has been chosen factorizing the DCS system as much as possible. CMS DCS has made a clear division between its computing resources and functionality by creating a computing framework allowing for plugging in functional components. DCS components are developed by the subsystems expert groups while the computing infrastructure is developed centrally. To ease the component development task, a framework based on PVSSII [1] has been developed by the CERN Joint Controls Project [2] (JCOP). This paper describes the current status of CMS Detector Control System, giving an overview of the DCS computing infrastructure, the integration of DCS subsystem functional components an...

  9. Power system dynamics and control

    CERN Document Server

    Kwatny, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    This monograph explores a consistent modeling and analytic framework that provides the tools for an improved understanding of the behavior and the building of efficient models of power systems. It covers the essential concepts for the study of static and dynamic network stability, reviews the structure and design of basic voltage and load-frequency regulators, and offers an introduction to power system optimal control with reliability constraints. A set of Mathematica tutorial notebooks providing detailed solutions of the examples worked-out in the text, as well as a package that will enable readers to work out their own examples and problems, supplements the text. A key premise of the book is that the design of successful control systems requires a deep understanding of the processes to be controlled; as such, the technical discussion begins with a concise review of the physical foundations of electricity and magnetism. This is followed by an overview of nonlinear circuits that include resistors, inductors, ...

  10. Proton beam therapy control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael A.; Beloussov, Alexandre V.; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B.; Salem, Dana

    2008-07-08

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  11. Hydrogeochemical processes controlling the high fluoride concentration in groundwater: a case study at the Boden block area, Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, R K; Swain, S K; Mishra, Sulagna; Sharma, Prachi; Patnaik, Tanushree; Singh, V K; Dehury, B N; Jha, Usha; Patel, R K

    2012-05-01

    The present investigation reports the assessment of hydrochemical/geochemical processes controlling the concentration of fluoride in groundwater of a village in India (Boden block, Orissa). Boden block is one of the severely affected fluoride-contaminated areas in the state of Orissa (India). The sampling and subsequent analysis of water samples of the study area was carried out following standard prescribed methods. The results of the analysis indicate that 36.60% groundwater F(-) concentration exceeds the limit prescribed by the World Health Organization for drinking water. The rock interaction with groundwater containing high concentration of HCO(3)(-) and Na(+) at a higher pH value of the medium could be one of the important reasons for the release of F(-) from the aquatic matrix into groundwater. Geochemical classification of groundwater based on Chadha rectangular diagram shows that most of the groundwater samples having fluoride concentration more than 1.5 mg L(-1) belongs to the Na-K-HCO(3) type. The saturation index values evaluated for the groundwater of the study area indicated that it is oversaturated with respect to calcite, whereas the same is undersaturated with respect to fluorite content. The deficiency of calcium ion concentration in the groundwater from calcite precipitation favors fluorite dissolution leading to excess of fluoride concentration. The risk index was calculated as a function of fluoride level in drinking water and morbidity of fluorosis categorizes high risk for villages of Amera and Karlakote panchayat of Boden block.

  12. Control synthesis of switched systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xudong; Niu, Ben; Wu, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    This book offers its readers a detailed overview of the synthesis of switched systems, with a focus on switching stabilization and intelligent control. The problems investigated are not only previously unsolved theoretically but also of practical importance in many applications: voltage conversion, naval piloting and navigation and robotics, for example. The book considers general switched-system models and provides more efficient design methods to bring together theory and application more closely than was possible using classical methods. It also discusses several different classes of switched systems. For general switched linear systems and switched nonlinear systems comprising unstable subsystems, it introduces novel ideas such as invariant subspace theory and the time-scheduled Lyapunov function method of designing switching signals to stabilize the underlying systems. For some typical switched nonlinear systems affected by various complex dynamics, the book proposes novel design approaches based on inte...

  13. Advanced Light Source control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Cork, C.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Ritchie, A.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.

    1989-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation 1--2 GeV synchrotron radiation source designed to provide ports for 60 beamlines. It uses a 50 MeV electron linac and 1.5 GeV, 1 Hz, booster synchrotron for injection into a 1--2 GeV storage ring. Interesting control problems are created because of the need for dynamic closed beam orbit control to eliminate interaction between the ring tuning requirements and to minimize orbit shifts due to ground vibrations. The extremely signal sensitive nature of the experiments requires special attention to the sources of electrical noise. These requirements have led to a control system design which emphasizes connectivity at the accelerator equipment end and a large I/O bandwidth for closed loop system response. Not overlooked are user friendliness, operator response time, modeling, and expert system provisions. Portable consoles are used for local operation of machine equipment. Our solution is a massively parallel system with >120 Mbits/sec I/O bandwidth and >1500 Mips computing power. At the equipment level connections are made using over 600 powerful Intelligent Local Controllers (ILC-s) mounted in 3U size Eurocard slots using fiber-optic cables between rack locations. In the control room, personal computers control and display all machine variables at a 10 Hz rate including the scope signals which are collected though the control system. Commercially available software and industry standards are used extensively. Particular attention is paid to reliability, maintainability and upgradeability. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  14. 14 CFR 27.395 - Control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system. 27.395 Section 27.395... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Control Surface and System Loads § 27.395 Control system. (a) The part of each control system from the pilot's controls to the control stops must...

  15. Rock blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, W.

    2007-01-01

    Consider representation theory associated to symmetric groups, or to Hecke algebras in type A, or to q-Schur algebras, or to finite general linear groups in non-describing characteristic. Rock blocks are certain combinatorially defined blocks appearing in such a representation theory, first observed by R. Rouquier. Rock blocks are much more symmetric than general blocks, and every block is derived equivalent to a Rock block. Motivated by a theorem of J. Chuang and R. Kessar in the case of sym...

  16. Conduction block in the peripheral nervous system in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, M. P.; Sears, T. A.

    1982-04-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been widely studied as a model of multiple sclerosis, a central nervous system (CNS) disease of unknown aetiology. The clinical features of both EAE and multiple sclerosis provide the only guide to the progress and severity of these diseases, and are used to assess the response to treatment. In such comparisons the clinical features of EAE are assumed to be due to lesions in the CNS, but in this disease there is also histological evidence of damage to the peripheral nervous system1-8. However, the functional consequences of such peripheral lesions have been entirely ignored. To examine this we have studied nerve conduction in rabbits with EAE. We report here that most of the large diameter afferent fibres are blocked in the region of the dorsal root ganglion and at the dorsal root entry zone, thus accounting for the loss of tendon jerks and also, through the severe loss of proprioceptive information, the ataxia of these animals. We conclude that whenever clinical comparisons are made between EAE and multiple sclerosis, the pathophysiology associated with the histological damage of the peripheral nervous system must be taken into account.

  17. Control System of the Bepcii

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, J; Kong, X C; Lei, G; Xu, S F; Le, Q

    2001-01-01

    Recently the Chinese Academy of Sciences has chosen BEPCII as the future development of the BEPC, i.e. upgrade of both the machine and detector. The luminosity of the machine is expected to increase to 1.0x1033cm-2s-1. The project will be started at the beginning of 2002 and finished with in 3-4 years. The BEPC control system was built in 1987 and upgraded in 1994. According to the design of the BEPCII, a double ring schema will be adopted and a number of new devices will be added in the system. The existing control system has to be upgraded. The BEPCII will be distributed architecture and developed by EPICS. We are going to apply the standard hardware interfaces and mature technologies in the system. A number of VME IOCs will be added in the system and the feildbus, PLCs will be used as device control for some kind of equipment. We will keep the existing system in use, such as CAMAC modules and PC front-ends, and merge it into EPICS system. Recently the development of the prototype is in progress. This paper...

  18. Correlation between peak and median blocking temperatures by magnetization measurement on isolated ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic particle systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Mørup, Steen

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the particle size distribution on the ratio of the peak temperature, T-peak, to the blocking temperature, T-Bm, in zero field cooled (ZFD) magnetization curves has studied for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic particle systems. In both systems the ratio beta=T-peak/T-Bm does...

  19. Controlled titania sponge structures templated with block copolymers for applications in inorganic-organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawolle, M.; Sarkar, K.; Prams, S.M.; Zhong, Q.; Mueller-Buschbaum, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Funktionelle Materialien; Lellig, P.; Memesa, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany); Gutmann, J.S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany); Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Perlich, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Funktionelle Materialien; DESY, Hamburg (Germany). HASYLAB; Roth, S.V. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). HASYLAB

    2010-07-01

    Titania films with a well-defined morphology which have a huge application potential in photovoltaics are prepared by combining sol-gel chemistry and an amphiphilic diblock copolymer as structure directing agent in a 'good-poor' solvent induced microphase separation process. Using the diblock copolymer poly(dimethyl siloxane)-block-methyl methacrylate poly(ethylene oxide) PDMS-b-MA(PEO) we can create a sponge structure with pores on two different size scales in a reproducible way. On the one hand mesoporous structures with pores on the nanometer scale provide a large surface area for charge generation. On the other hand macropores on a micrometer scale ensure an easier infiltration of holeconducting material and enhance the surface roughness for better light absorption. (orig.)

  20. Controlling dynamics in diatomic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Praveen Kumar; Harjinder Singh

    2007-09-01

    Controlling molecular energetics using laser pulses is exemplified for nuclear motion in two different diatomic systems. The problem of finding the optimized field for maximizing a desired quantum dynamical target is formulated using an iterative method. The method is applied for two diatomic systems, HF and OH. The power spectra of the fields and evolution of populations of different vibrational states during transitions are obtained.

  1. The QUIJOTE TGI control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Reñasco, M. F.; Martín, Y.; Aguiar-González, M.; Cozar, J.; González-Cobos, N.; Hoyland, R.; Núñez Cagical, M.; Pérez-de-Taoro, M. R.; Sánchez-de la Rosa, V.; Vega-Moreno, A.; Viera-Curbelo, T.

    2016-07-01

    The QUIJOTE-CMB experiment (Q-U-I JOint TEnerife CMB experiment) has been described in previous publications. In particular, the architecture of the MFI instrument control system, the first of the three QUIJOTE instruments, was presented in [1]. In this paper we describe the control system architecture, hardware, and software, of the second QUIJOTE instrument, the TGI (Thirty GHz Instrument), which has been in the process of commissioning for a few weeks now. It is a 30 pixel 26-36 GHz polarimeter array mounted at the focus of the second QUIJOTE telescope. The polarimeter design is based on the QUIET polarimeter scheme, implementing phase switches of 90° and 180° to generate four states of polarisation. The TGI control system acquires the scientific signal of the four channels for each of the 30 polarimeters, sampled at 160 kHz; it controls the commutation of the 30 x 4 phase switches at 16 kHz or 8 kHz; it performs the acquisition and monitoring of the health of the complete instrument, acquiring housekeeping from the various subsystems and also controls the different operational modes of the telescope. It finally, implements a queue system that permits automation of the observations by allowing the programming of several days of observations with the minimum of human intervention. The acquisition system is based on a PXI-RT host from NI, the commutations of the phase switches are performed by a PXI-FPGA subsystem and the telescope control is based on an EtherCAT bus from Beckhoff.

  2. Control of Unknown Chaotic Systems Based on Neural Predictive Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDong-Mei; WANGZheng-Ou

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the predictive control into the control of chaotic system and propose a neural network control algorithm based on predictive control. The proposed control system stabilizes the chaotic motion in an unknown chaotic system onto the desired target trajectory. The proposed algorithm is simple and its convergence speed is much higher than existing similar algorithms. The control system can control hyperchaos. We analyze the stability of the control system and prove the convergence property of the neural controller. The theoretic derivation and simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  3. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Block 3.0 Communications Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Ottinger, K.

    2015-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The JPSS program is the follow-on for both space and ground systems to the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a globally distributed, multi-mission system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate multiple missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. In a highly successful international partnership between NOAA and the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), the CGS currently provides data routing from McMurdo Station in Antarctica to the EUMETSAT processing center in Darmstadt, Germany. Continuing and building upon that partnership, NOAA and EUMETSAT are collaborating on the development of a new path forward for the 2020's. One approach being explored is a concept of operations where each organization shares satellite downlink resources with the other. This paper will describe that approach, as well as modeling results that demonstrate its feasibility and expected performance.

  4. SMS BASED REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reecha Ranjan Singh , Sangeeta Agrawal , Saurabh Kapoor ,S. Sharma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A modern world contains varieties of electronic equipment and systems like: TV, security system, Hi-fi equipment, central heating systems, fire alarm systems, security alarm systems, lighting systems, SET Top Box, AC (Air Conditioner etc., we need to handle, ON/OFF or monitor these electrical devices remotely or to communicate with these but, if you are not at the home or that place and you want to communicate with these device. So the new technology for handled these devices remotely and for communication to required the GSM, mobile technology, SMS (short message service and some hardware resources. SMS based remote control for home appliances is beneficial for the human generation, because mobile is most recently used technology nowadays.

  5. Optimizing Blocking and Nonblocking Reduction Operations for Multicore Systems: Hierarchical Design and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath [ORNL; Shamis, Pavel [ORNL; Graham, Richard L [ORNL; Ladd, Joshua S [ORNL; Sampath, Rahul S [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many scientific simulations, using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming model, are sensitive to the performance and scalability of reduction collective operations such as MPI Allreduce and MPI Reduce. These operations are the most widely used abstractions to perform mathematical operations over all processes that are part of the simulation. In this work, we propose a hierarchical design to implement the reduction operations on multicore systems. This design aims to improve the efficiency of reductions by 1) tailoring the algorithms and customizing the implementations for various communication mechanisms in the system 2) providing the ability to configure the depth of hierarchy to match the system architecture, and 3) providing the ability to independently progress each of this hierarchy. Using this design, we implement MPI Allreduce and MPI Reduce operations (and its nonblocking variants MPI Iallreduce and MPI Ireduce) for all message sizes, and evaluate on multiple architectures including InfiniBand and Cray XT5. We leverage and enhance our existing infrastructure, Cheetah, which is a framework for implementing hierarchical collective operations to implement these reductions. The experimental results show that the Cheetah reduction operations outperform the production-grade MPI implementations such as Open MPI default, Cray MPI, and MVAPICH2, demonstrating its efficiency, flexibility and portability. On Infini- Band systems, with a microbenchmark, a 512-process Cheetah nonblocking Allreduce and Reduce achieves a speedup of 23x and 10x, respectively, compared to the default Open MPI reductions. The blocking variants of the reduction operations also show similar performance benefits. A 512-process nonblocking Cheetah Allreduce achieves a speedup of 3x, compared to the default MVAPICH2 Allreduce implementation. On a Cray XT5 system, a 6144-process Cheetah Allreduce outperforms the Cray MPI by 145%. The evaluation with an application kernel, Conjugate

  6. TUNING OF GAUSSIAN STOCHASTIC-CONTROL SYSTEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSCHUPPEN, JH

    1994-01-01

    A closed-loop system consisting of a control system and an adaptive controller will be called tuning for a specified control objective if the real system and the ideal system defined below achieve the same value for the control objective. The real system is the system consisting of the unknown contr

  7. Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Conti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Future space missions will involve satellites with great autonomy and stringent pointing precision, requiring of the Attitude Control Systems (ACS with better performance than before, which is function of the control algorithms implemented on board computers. The difficulties for developing experimental ACS test is to obtain zero gravity and torque free conditions similar to the SCA operate in space. However, prototypes for control algorithms experimental verification are fundamental for space mission success. This paper presents the parameters estimation such as inertia matrix and position of mass centre of a Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator (SACSS, using algorithms based on least square regression and least square recursive methods. Simulations have shown that both methods have estimated the system parameters with small error. However, the least square recursive methods have performance more adequate for the SACSS objectives. The SACSS platform model will be used to do experimental verification of fundamental aspects of the satellite attitude dynamics and design of different attitude control algorithm.

  8. Version control friendly project management system for FPGA designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabołotny, Wojciech M.

    2016-09-01

    In complex FPGA designs, usage of version control system is a necessity. It is especially important in the case of designs developed by many developers or even by many teams. The standard development mode, however, offered by most FPGA vendors is the GUI based project mode. It is very convenient for a single developer, who can easily experiment with project settings, browse and modify the sources hierarchy, compile and test the design. Unfortunately, the project configuration is stored in files which are not suited for use with Version Control System (VCS). Another important problem in big FPGA designs is reuse of IP cores. Even though there are standard solutions like IEEE 1685-2014, they suffer from some limitations particularly significant for complex systems (e.g. only simple types are allowed for IP-core ports, it is not possible to use parametrized instances of IP-cores). Additionally, the overhead associated with packaging of IP-cores is significant and not justified for simple reusable blocks. This paper presents a system aimed at storing the whole design in a VCS oriented form. The hierarchy of sources is described with textual "extended project (EPRJ) files" which are fully controlled by the user and may also be put in a VCS. The IP blocks may be easily added to the project just by including the accompanying EPRJ file. Both absolute and relative file paths may be used which allows the flexible structure of directories. The sources of locally developed IP blocks may be stored in directories located inside the main source tree, while sources of independently developed blocks, using separate VCS repositories, may be located outside that tree. The environment allows splitting the design into smaller parts, which are synthesized independently. That reduces the time needed to recompile the whole design if only a few blocks are modified. The system creates the standard project, which can be used for convenient interactive work with the design. After the

  9. Simulation and Comparison of Channel Estimation Based on Block-type Pilot Frequency in OFDM System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Weiguo; Li, Zhendong; Yang, Ming; Zhao, Xiaobo

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) splits a high-speed data stream into a number of lower-speed data streams that are transmitted simultaneously over a number of subcarriers. The capability of resistance of intersymbol interference and bandwidth efficiency are improved, and multipath fading is effectively combated. In order to improve communication efficiency and communication quality, it is necessary to make a dynamic estimation of the current characteristics of the channel. In OFDM system, the technology of channel estimation based on the pilot frequency of block-type distribution is that pilot signal is inserted at regular intervals of time on the transmitting terminal, and on the receiving terminal extract pilot signal from the received data stream, and according to that the channel characteristics are estimated at the period of time. Three common methods of channel estimation based on pilot frequency: MMSE estimation, LS estimation and SVD estimation are discussed with comparison in OFDM system. Through the simulation of matlab, three channel estimation methods and their characteristics are analyzed and compared. The results show that the performance of MMSE estimation is far better than that of the LS estimation, but MMSE estimation has high computational complexity. The performance and computational complexity of SVD estimation are ranged between that of the MMSE estimation and LS estimation.

  10. Center for Intelligent Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    CENTER FOR INTELLIGENT CONTROL SYSTEMS Brown Umiversity Harvard University Marsachomtta Institute of Tecnology PUBLICATIONS LIST CICS Number Authors...Equivalence of the Auction Algorithm for 11/1/92 Assignment and die e-Relaxation (Preflow- Push ) Method for Min Cost Flow 26

  11. The Control System Modeling Language

    CERN Document Server

    Zagar, K; Sekoranja, M; Tkacik, G; Vodovnik, A; Zagar, Klemen; Plesko, Mark; Sekoranja, Matej; Tkacik, Gasper; Vodovnik, Anze

    2001-01-01

    The well-known Unified Modeling Language (UML) describes software entities, such as interfaces, classes, operations and attributes, as well as relationships among them, e.g. inheritance, containment and dependency. The power of UML lies in Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools such as Rational Rose, which are also capable of generating software structures from visual object definitions and relations. UML also allows add-ons that define specific structures and patterns in order to steer and automate the design process. We have developed an add-on called Control System Modeling Language (CSML). It introduces entities and relationships that we know from control systems, such as "property" representing a single controllable point/channel, or an "event" specifying that a device is capable of notifying its clients through events. Entities can also possess CSML-specific characteristics, such as physical units and valid ranges for input parameters. CSML is independent of any specific language or technology...

  12. The ALMA Telescope Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, A.; Marson, Ralph; Kern, Jeff

    2005-10-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between North America, Europe and Japan. ALMA is an aperture synthesis radio telescope consisting of 50 12-meter antennas located at an elevation of 5,000 meters in Llano de Chajnantor, Chile. These antennas will operate at frequencies ranging from 31.3 GHz to 950 GHz. The antennas can be moved and placed in different configurations, with baselines between the antennas varying from 150 meters to 20 km. The 50 antennas are supplemented by sixteen additional ones, known as the ALMA Compact Array (ACA): 12 7-meter antennas and 4 12-meter antennas. The ALMA control system will consist of over 70 computers separated by distances of over 20 km. Two aspects of the system are apparent: its distributed nature and its need to accurately synchronize events across many computers separated by large distances. In this paper we describe key features of the architecture of the ALMA Control System, focusing on its properties as a distributed system and on the mechanisms employed to achieve its time synchronization goals. This control system is a distributed system that uses the ALMA Common Software (ACS) as a middleware system layered on top of CORBA. The architecture of the control system extensively employs the component/container model in ACS. In addition, the use of CORBA allows us to employ Java in the higher levels of the control system, leaving C++ to the lower time-critical levels. Python as a scripting language is used by astronomers, to craft standard observing programs, and engineers, in a testing and debugging mode. Key to the concept of an aperture synthesis telescope is a special purpose hardware system known as a correlator, responsible for making various delay model corrections and correlating the signals from the antennas. There are two correlators in ALMA, one for the array of 50 antennas and one for the ACA. This entire system operates under a control system that must synchronize events across the

  13. Lighting system with illuminance control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an illumination control system comprising a plurality of outdoor luminaries and a motorized service vehicle. Each luminaire comprises a controllable light source producing a light illuminance. The motorized service vehicle comprises a light sensor configured...... to detect the light illuminance generated by the controllable light source at the motorized service vehicle. The motorized service vehicle computes light illuminance data based on the detected light illuminance and transmits these to the outdoor luminaire through a wireless communication link or stores...... the light illuminance data on a data recording device of the motorized service vehicle. The outdoor luminaire receives may use the light illuminance data to set or adjust a light illuminance of the controllable light source....

  14. Feedback control of quantum system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Dao-yi; CHEN Zong-hai; ZHANG Chen-bin; CHEN Chun-lin

    2006-01-01

    Feedback is a significant strategy for the control of quantum system.Information acquisition is the greatest difficulty in quantum feedback applications.After discussing several basic methods for information acquisition,we review three kinds of quantum feedback control strategies:quantum feedback control with measurement,coherent quantum feedback,and quantum feedback control based on cloning and recognition.The first feedback strategy can effectively acquire information,but it destroys the coherence in feedback loop.On the contrary,coherent quantum feedback does not destroy the coherence,but the capability of information acquisition is limited.However,the third feedback scheme gives a compromise between information acquisition and measurement disturbance.

  15. Modelling on fuzzy control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Hongxing(李洪兴); WANG; Jiayin(王加银); MIAO; Zhihong(苗志宏)

    2002-01-01

    A kind of modelling method for fuzzy control systems is first proposed here, which is calledmodelling method based on fuzzy inference (MMFI). It should be regarded as the third modelling method thatis different from two well-known modelling methods, that is, the first modelling method, mechanism modellingmethod (MMM), and the second modelling method, system identification modelling method (SlMM). Thismethod can, based on the interpolation mechanism on fuzzy logic system, transfer a group of fuzzy inferencerules describing a practice system into a kind of nonlinear differential equation with variable coefficients, calledHX equations, so that the mathematical model of the system can be obtained. This means that we solve thedifficult problem of how to get a model represented as differential equations on a complicated or fuzzy controlsystem.

  16. Mathematical Control of Complex Systems 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Zidong Wang; Hamid Reza Karimi; Bo Shen; Jun Hu; Hongli Dong; Xiao He

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical control of complex systems have already become an ideal research area for control engineers, mathematicians, computer scientists, and biologists to understand, manage, analyze, and interpret functional information/dynamical behaviours from real-world complex dynamical systems, such as communication systems, process control, environmental systems, intelligent manufacturing systems, transportation systems, and structural systems. This special issue aims to bring together the latest...

  17. Liposomal Bupivacaine vs Interscalene Nerve Block for Pain Control After Shoulder Arthroplasty: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Casey V; Albrecht, Matthew J; Petersen, Steve A; Srikumaran, Uma

    The aim of this study was to compare liposomal bupivacaine and interscalene nerve block (ISNB) for analgesia after shoulder arthroplasty. We compared 37 patients who received liposomal bupivacaine vs 21 who received ISNB after shoulder arthroplasty by length of hospital stay (LOS), opioid consumption, and postoperative pain. Pain was the same in both groups for time intervals of 1 hour and 8 to 14 hours postoperatively. Compared with ISNB patients, liposomal bupivacaine patients reported less pain at 18 to 24 hours (P = .001) and 27 to 36 hours (P = .029) and had lower opioid consumption on postoperative days 2 (P = .001) and 3 (P = .002). Mean LOS for liposomal bupivacaine patients was 46 ± 20 hours vs 57 ± 14 hours for ISNB patients (P = .012). Sixteen of 37 liposomal bupivacaine patients vs 2 of 21 ISNB patients were discharged on the first postoperative day (P = .010). Liposomal bupivacaine was associated with less pain, less opioid consumption, and shorter hospital stays after shoulder arthroplasty compared with ISNB.

  18. Doubly Fed Induction Machine Control For Wind Energy Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    this_block) % Revision History: % % 18-Dec-2008 (15:15 hours): % Original code was machine generated by Xilinx’s System Generator % after...this_block.setTopLevelLanguage(’VHDL’); this_block.setEntityName(’code’); % System Generator has to assume that your entity has a combinational % feed through

  19. Drug repurposing: sulfasalazine sensitizes gliomas to gamma knife radiosurgery by blocking cystine uptake through system Xc-, leading to glutathione depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleire, L; Skeie, B S; Netland, I A; Førde, H E; Dodoo, E; Selheim, F; Leiss, L; Heggdal, J I; Pedersen, P-H; Wang, J; Enger, P Ø

    2015-12-03

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are aggressive brain tumors that always recur after radiotherapy. Cystine, mainly provided by the system X(c)(-) antiporter, is a requirement for glioma cell synthesis of glutathione (GSH) which has a critical role in scavenging free radicals, for example, after radiotherapy. Thus, we hypothesized that the X(c)(-)-inhibitor sulfasalazine (SAS) could potentiate the efficacy of radiotherapy against gliomas. Here, we show that the catalytic subunit of system X(c)(-), xCT, was uniformly expressed in a panel of 30 human GBM biopsies. SAS treatment significantly reduced cystine uptake and GSH levels, whereas it significantly increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in glioma cells in vitro. Furthermore, SAS and radiation synergistically increased DNA double-strand breaks and increased glioma cell death, whereas adding the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reversed cell death. Moreover, SAS and gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) synergistically prolonged survival in nude rats harboring human GBM xenografts, compared with controls or either treatment alone. In conclusion, SAS effectively blocks cystine uptake in glioma cells in vitro, leading to GSH depletion and increased ROS levels, DNA damage and cell death. Moreover, it potentiates the anti-tumor efficacy of GKRS in rats with human GBM xenografts, providing a survival benefit. Thus, SAS may have a role as a radiosensitizer to enhance the efficacy of current radiotherapies for glioma patients.

  20. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  1. Multiagent voltage and reactive power control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Arkhipov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the research of multiagent voltage and reactive power control system development. The prototype of the system has been developed by R&D Center at FGC UES (Russia. The control system architecture is based on the innovative multiagent system theory application that leads to the achievement of several significant advantages (in comparison to traditional control systems implementation such as control system efficiency enhancement, control system survivability and cyber security.

  2. Encyclopedia of systems and control

    CERN Document Server

    Samad, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Systems and Control collects a broad range of short expository articles that describe the current state of the art in the central topics of control and systems engineering as well as in many of the related fields in which control is an enabling technology. The editors have assembled the most comprehensive reference possible, and this has been greatly facilitated by the publisher’s commitment continuously to publish updates to the articles as they become available in the future. Although control engineering is now a mature discipline, it remains an area in which there is a great deal of research activity, and as new developments in both theory and applications become available, they will be included in the online version of the encyclopedia. A carefully chosen team of leading authorities in the field has written the well over 200 articles that comprise the work. The topics range from basic principles of feedback in servomechanisms to advanced topics such as the control of Boolean networks...

  3. CONSTRUCTION OF POLYNOMIAL MATRIX USING BLOCK COEFFICIENT MATRIX REPRESENTATION AUTO-REGRESSIVE MOVING AVERAGE MODEL FOR ACTIVELY CONTROLLED STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunxiang; ZHOU Dai

    2004-01-01

    The polynomial matrix using the block coefficient matrix representation auto-regressive moving average (referred to as the PM-ARMA) model is constructed in this paper for actively controlled multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) structures with time-delay through equivalently transforming the preliminary state space realization into the new state space realization. The PM-ARMA model is a more general formulation with respect to the polynomial using the coefficient representation auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) model due to its capability to cope with actively controlled structures with any given structural degrees of freedom and any chosen number of sensors and actuators. (The sensors and actuators are required to maintain the identical number.) under any dimensional stationary stochastic excitation.

  4. Hepatic venous outflow block in a young patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghavidel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatic venous outflow block or Budd-Chiari syndrome is a severe liver disease with a 3 years survival rate of 50%. Several conditions have been implicated as a cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome, including myeloproliferative disorders, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, the presence of lupus anti-coagulant, oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and others. In a small number of cases, Budd-Chiari syndrome is associated with the presence of lupus anticoagulant. Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA are similar to lupus anti-coagulant antiphospholipid antibodies (APLAs, which have been described in patients with recurrent arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, fetal loss, or miscarriage. Case Report: A 23-year-old woman is reported with Budd-Chiari syndrome in whom lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies were shown; 9 months after diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE treatment with steroids admitted with gastrointestinal problems, abdominal pain and ascites and treated oral anticoagulants induced a considerable improvement. This treatment was continued after 1 year, but interruption was followed by redevelopment of ascites. Further treatment with anticoagulants was continued for 5 years with noticeable improvement. Conclusion: Patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome should be tested for lupus anticoagulants and anticardiolipin antibodies, Budd-Chiari syndrome resulting from this cause may have a good response to treatment with oral anticoagulants; this treatment should be maintained permanently, and pregnancy in such patients may initiate serious difficulties. The condition of the patient at follow-up was good.

  5. Curing kinetics and morphology of a nanovesicular epoxy/stearyl-block-poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, K; Lavrenova, A; Spoelstra, A B; Boyard, N; Goderis, B

    2015-08-21

    Brittle epoxy based thermosets can be made tougher by introducing structural inhomogeneities at the micro- or nanoscale. In that respect, nano vesicles and worm-like micelles from self-assembling blockcopolymers have been shown to be very effective. This paper describes the curing kinetics and morphology of an epoxy composed of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA), modified by 20% of the surfactant stearyl-block-poly(ethylene oxide). Time resolved, synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering demonstrates that at any time during the epoxy curing process, the surfactant predominantly adopts a bilayer vesicular nano-morphology. Transmission electron microscopy on fully cured systems reveals the coexistence of spherical and worm-like micelles. Differential scanning calorimetry experiments prove that the presence of surfactant reduces the epoxy curing rate but that ultimately full curing is accomplished. The material glass transition temperature falls below that of the pure resin due to plasticization. It is suggested that favorable secondary interactions between the PEO segments and the epoxy resin are responsible for the observed phenomena.

  6. Protective Effects of Blocking Renin-Angiotensin System on the Progression of Renal Injury in Glomerulosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zequan Ji; Cuiwen Huang; Chengjie Liang; Bo Chen; Shengqiang Chen; Weiwen Sun

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the protective effects of blocking rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) on the progression of renal injury in glomerulosclerosis, a glomerulosclerosis model was made for SD rats by unilateral nephrectomy and being injected with Adriamycin into caudal vein. The rats with glomerulosclerosis were randomly divided as ten pergroup into those without further treatment (group D) and those treated with Benazepril (group DB), Losartan (group DL), or sham-operation (group C), respectively. After 6 weeks of administration of Benazepril or Losartan,the mRNA expressions of TGF-β1, Col Ⅳ, Fn, ET-1 and iNOS in renal cortex were measured by RT-PCR. Besides,the expressions of TGF-β1, ET-1 and iNOS at protein level were detected by Western blotting and the concentrations of Col Ⅳ and Fn were analyzed with immunohistochemistry respectively. Results showed that the rats in group D appeared as obvious proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and hypercholesterolemia, which had a significant difference compared with group C (p<0.05), and most of their mesangiums were detected with cellular proliferation and significant increasing for extracellular matrix. Renal cortex TGF-β1, Col Ⅳ, Fn, ET-1 and iNOS in rats of group D were increased by 3.59, 2.57, 2.21, 2.58 and 3.28 times at mRNA level, and by 2.60, 1.40, 0.75, 1.83 and 2.15 times at protein level, respectively, compared with group C. When the animals were treated with Benazepril (group DB) or Losartan (group DL), however, the biochemical and pathological damages were significantly recovered, and protein expressions of TGF-β, Col Ⅳ, Fn, ET-1 and iNOS were also significantly diminished (p<0.05). This study suggested that blocking RAS using Benazepril or Losartan can have protective effects on the renal injury in glomerulosclerosis by down-regulating the expressions of TGF-β1, Col Ⅳ, Fn, ET-1 and iNOS. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(2):150-154.

  7. Protective Effects of Blocking Renin-Angiotensin System on the Progression of Renal Injury in Glomerulosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZequanJi; CuiwenHuang; ChengjieLiang; BoChen; ShengqiangChen; WeiwenSun

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the protective effects of blocking rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) on the progression of renal injury in glomerulosclerosis, a glomerulosclerosis model was made for SD rats by unilateral nephrectomy and being injected with Adriamycin into caudal vein. The rats with glomerulosclerosis were randomly divided as ten per group into those without further treatment (group D) and those treated with Benazepril (group DB), Losartan (group DL), or sham-operation (group C), respectively. After 6 weeks of administration of Benazepril or Losartan, the mRNA expressions of TGF-β1, Col IV, Fn, ET-1 and iNOS in renal cortex were measured by RT-PCR. Besides, the expressions of TGF-β1, ET-1 and iNOS at protein level were detected by Western blotting and the concentrations of Col IV and Fn were analyzed with immunohistochemistry respectively. Results showed that the rats in group D appeared as obvious proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and hypercholesterolemia, which had a significant difference compared with group C (p < 0.05), and most of their mesangiums were detected with cellular proliferation and significant increasing for extracellular matrix. Renal cortex TGF-β1, Col IV, Fn, ET-1 and iNOS in rats of group D were increased by 3.59, 2.57, 2.21, 2.58 and 3.28 times at mRNA level, and by 2.60, 1.40, 0.75, 1.83 and 2.15 times at protein level, respectively, compared with group C. When the animals were treated with Benazepril (group DB) or Losartan (group DL), however, the biochemical and pathological damages were significantly recovered, and protein expressions of TGF-β1, Col IV, Fn, ET-1 and iNOS were also significantly diminished (p < 0.05). This study suggested that blocking RAS using Benazepril or Losartan can have protective effects on the renal injury in glomerulosclerosis by down-regulating the expressions of TGF-β1, Col IV, Fn, ET-1 and iNOS. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(2):150-154.

  8. Microprocessor controlled portable TLD system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Feher, I.

    1996-01-01

    An up-to-date microprocessor controlled thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system for environmental and space dose measurements has been developed. The earlier version of the portable TLD system, Pille, was successfully used on Soviet orbital stations as well as on the US Space Shuttle, and for environmental monitoring. The new portable TLD system, Pille'95, consists of a reader and TL bulb dosemeters, and each dosemeter is provided with an EEPROM chip for automatic identification. The glow curve data are digitised and analysed by the program of the reader. The measured data and the identification number appear on the LED display of the reader. Up to several thousand measured data together with the glow curves can be stored on a removable flash memory card. The whole system is supplied either from built-in rechargeable batteries or from the mains of the space station.

  9. Unilateral paravertebral block compared with subarachnoid anesthesia for the management of postoperative pain syndrome after inguinal herniorrhaphy: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Pierfrancesco; Cofini, Vincenza; Petrucci, Emiliano; Scimia, Paolo; Paladini, Giuseppe; Behr, Astrid U; Gobbi, Fabio; Pozone, Tullio; Danelli, Giorgio; Di Marco, Mauro; Vicentini, Roberto; Necozione, Stefano; Marinangeli, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Inguinal herniorrhaphy is a common surgical procedure. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether unilateral paravertebral block could provide better control of postoperative pain syndrome compared with unilateral subarachnoid block (SAB). A randomized controlled study was conducted using 50 patients with unilateral inguinal hernias. The patients were randomized to receive either paravertebral block (S group) or SAB (C group). Paravertebral block was performed by injecting a total of 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine from T9 to T12 under ultrasound guidance, whereas SAB was performed by injecting 13 mg of 0.5% levobupivacaine at the L3 to L4 level. Data regarding anesthesia, hemodynamic changes, side effects, time spent in the postanesthesia care unit, the Karnofsky Performance Status, acute pain and neuropathic disturbances were recorded. Paravertebral block provided good anesthesia of the inguinal region without patient or surgeon discomfort, with better hemodynamic stability and safety and with a reduced time to discharge from the postanesthesia care unit compared with SAB. During the postsurgical and posthospital discharge follow-ups, rest and incident pain and neuropathic positive phenomena were better controlled in the S group than in the C group. The consumption of painkillers was higher in the C group than in the S group throughout the follow-up period. Paravertebral block can be considered a viable alternative to common anesthetic procedures performed for inguinal hernia repair surgery. Paravertebral block provided good management of acute postoperative pain and limited neuropathic postoperative disturbances.

  10. Controls and Machine Protection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carrone, E

    2016-01-01

    Machine protection, as part of accelerator control systems, can be managed with a 'functional safety' approach, which takes into account product life cycle, processes, quality, industrial standards and cybersafety. This paper will discuss strategies to manage such complexity and the related risks, with particular attention to fail-safe design and safety integrity levels, software and hardware standards, testing, and verification philosophy. It will also discuss an implementation of a machine protection system at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory's Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS).

  11. Autonomous grain combine control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  12. Analysis of accuracy in dose and position in calculations of a treatment planning system for blocked photon fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vantVeld, AA

    1997-01-01

    Accuracy in dose and position, defined as complementary criteria, was determined for blocked photon field calculations with a pencil beam based treatment planning system. The concept of field accuracy has been defined as a combination of deviations in dose and position. Absolute dose deviations were

  13. Performance evaluation of block-diagonal preconditioners for the divergence-conforming B-spline discretization of the Stokes system

    KAUST Repository

    Côrtes, A.M.A.

    2015-02-20

    The recently introduced divergence-conforming B-spline discretizations allow the construction of smooth discrete velocity–pressure pairs for viscous incompressible flows that are at the same time inf-sup stable and pointwise divergence-free. When applied to discretized Stokes equations, these spaces generate a symmetric and indefinite saddle-point linear system. Krylov subspace methods are usually the most efficient procedures to solve such systems. One of such methods, for symmetric systems, is the Minimum Residual Method (MINRES). However, the efficiency and robustness of Krylov subspace methods is closely tied to appropriate preconditioning strategies. For the discrete Stokes system, in particular, block-diagonal strategies provide efficient preconditioners. In this article, we compare the performance of block-diagonal preconditioners for several block choices. We verify how the eigenvalue clustering promoted by the preconditioning strategies affects MINRES convergence. We also compare the number of iterations and wall-clock timings. We conclude that among the building blocks we tested, the strategy with relaxed inner conjugate gradients preconditioned with incomplete Cholesky provided the best results.

  14. Control of Unknown Chaotic Systems Based on Neural Predictive Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong-Mei; WANG Zheng-Ou

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the predictive control into the control of chaotic system and propose a neural networkcontrol algorithm based on predictive control. The proposed control system stabilizes the chaotic motion in an unknownchaotic system onto the desired target trajectory. The proposed algorithm is simple and its convergence speed is muchhigher than existing similar algorithms. The control system can control hyperchaos. We analyze the stability of thecontrol system and prove the convergence property of the neural controller. The theoretic derivation and simulationsdemonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  15. System Identification and Robust Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøffner-Clausen, S.

    for mixed real and complex perturbation sets. A novel method, denoted m - K iteration, has been develop to solve the mixed m problem. A general feature of all robust control design methods is the need for specifying not only a nominal model but also some kind of quantification of the uncertainty is, however......, a non-trivial problem which to some extent has been neglected by the theoreticians of robust control. An uncertainty specification has simply been assumed given. One way of obtaining a perturbation model is by physical modelling. Application if the fundamental laws of thermodynamics, mechanics, physics...... estimate frequency domain uncertainty estimates may be obtained. In classical (i.e. Ljungian) system identification, model quality has been assessed under the structure of the model is assumed to be correct. This is, however, often an inadequate assumption in connection with control design. Recently...

  16. Learning System Center App Controller

    CERN Document Server

    Naeem, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for IT professionals working with Hyper-V, Azure cloud, VMM, and private cloud technologies who are looking for a quick way to get up and running with System Center 2012 R2 App Controller. To get the most out of this book, you should be familiar with Microsoft Hyper-V technology. Knowledge of Virtual Machine Manager is helpful but not mandatory.

  17. Control Systems for Logistics Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Virolainen, V.-M.

    1991-01-01

    This text is concerned with identifying and outlining the various aspects of logistics control and performance measurement process. The objective is to identify, based on available literature, methods and techniques which can be used to measure the performance of logistics. Logistics management is essentially a task of balancing between minimizing cost and ensuring availability objectives. Availability can be seen as the output of logistics system. On the input side, management is concer...

  18. Lyapunov control of quantum systems with impulsive control fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Sun, Jitao

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the Lyapunov control of finite-dimensional quantum systems with impulsive control fields, where the studied quantum systems are governed by the Schrödinger equation. By three different Lyapunov functions and the invariant principle of impulsive systems, we study the convergence of quantum systems with impulsive control fields and propose new results for the mentioned quantum systems in the form of sufficient conditions. Two numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  19. Contemporary kinematics of the Ordos block, North China and its adjacent rift systems constrained by dense GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Caihong; Wang, Dongzhen; Huang, Yong; Tan, Kai; Du, Ruilin; Liu, Jingnan

    2017-03-01

    The detailed kinematic pattern of the Ordos block, North China and its surrounding rift systems remains uncertain, mainly due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of the Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity data and the lack of GPS stations in this region. In this study, we have obtained a new and dense velocity field by processing GPS data primarily collected from the Crustal Motion Observation Network of China and from other GPS networks between 1998 and 2014. The GPS velocities within the Ordos block can be interpreted as counterclockwise rotation of the block about the Euler pole with respect to the Eurasia plate. Velocity profiles across the graben-bounding faults show relatively rapid right-lateral strike-slip motion along the Yinchuan graben, with a rate of 0.8-2.6 mm/a from north to south. In addition, a right-lateral slip rate of 1.1-1.6 mm/a is estimated along the central segment of the Shanxi rift. However, strike-slip motion is not detected along the northern and southern margins of the Ordos block. Conversely, significant extension motion is detected across the northwestern corner of the block, with a value of 1.6 mm/a, and along the northern segment of the Shanxi rift, where an extensional rate of 1.3-1.7 mm/a is measured. Both the Daihai and Datong basins are experiencing crustal extension. On the southwestern margin of the block, deformation across the compressional zone of the Liupanshan range is subtle; however, the far-field shorting rate is as high as 3.0 mm/a, implying that this region is experiencing ongoing compression. The results reveal that present-day fault slip occurs mainly along the block bounding faults, with the exception of faults along the northern and southern margins of the block. These results provide new insights into the nature of tectonic deformation around the Ordos block, and are useful for assessing the seismic activity in this region.

  20. Plug-and-Play Control – Modifying Control Systems Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, K; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Often, when new sensor or actuator hardware be- comes available for use in a control system, it is desirable to retain the existing control system and apply the new control capabilities in a gradual fashion rather than decommissioning the entire existing system and replacing it with an altogether...... new control system. However, this requires that the existing controller remains in action, and the new control law component is added to the existing system. This paper formally introduces the concept of Plug-and-Play control and proposes two different methods of introducing new control components...... in a smooth manner, providing stability guarantees during the transition phase as well as retaining the original control structure. The applicability of the methods is illustrated on two different practical example systems, a livestock stable climate control system and a laboratory-scale model of a district...

  1. Semantic Linkage of Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Control systems are sets of interconnected hardware and software components which regulate the behaviour of processes. The software of modern control systems rises for some years by requirements regarding the flexibility and functionality. Thus the force of innovation grows on enterprises, since ever newer products in ever shorter time intervals must be made available. Associated hereby is the crucial shortening of the product life cycle, whose effects show up in reduced care of the software and the spares inventory. The aim, the concept presented here and developed in a modeling environment, is proved and ensures a minimum functionality of software components. Replacing software components of a control system verified for functionality by a framework at run-time and if necessary the software conditions will become adapted. Quintessential point of this implementation is the usage of an abstract syntax tree. Within its hierarchical structure meta information is attached to nodes and processed by the framework. With the development of the concept for semantic proving of software components the lifetime of software-based products is increased.

  2. Research on Web Press Tension Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sheng Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tension control of press is a key and difficult point of the whole machine control. The stand or fall of tension is directly related to the quality of the products. According to the characteristics of the web press tension control, this paper expounds the main factors influencing tension and the purpose of tension control, researches on the tension control principle of web tape, analyzes control rule and control circuit of tension control system, illustrates the advantages of PID control law adopted in the tension control system, and concludes the influencing factors of paper tape tension control system and the corresponding problems needed to solve in the control.

  3. BlockSolve95 users manual: Scalable library software for the parallel solution of sparse linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.T.; Plassmann, P.E.

    1995-12-01

    BlockSolve95 is a software library for solving large, sparse systems of linear equations on massively parallel computers or networks of workstations. The matrices must be symmetric in structure; however, the matrix nonzero values may be either symmetric or nonsymmetric. The nonzeros must be real valued. BlockSolve95 uses a message-passing paradigm and achieves portability through the use of the MPI message-passing standard. Emphasis has been placed on achieving both good professor performance through the use of higher-level BLAS and scalability through the use of advanced algorithms. This report gives detailed instructions on the use of BlockSolve95 and descriptions of a number of program examples that can be used as templates for application programs.

  4. Research of Liquid Level Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominykas Beištaras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents liquid level control system model and analysis of dynamic characteristics. The system consists of scalar controlled induction motor drive, fuzzy logic controller, water tank and centrifugal pump. Simulink models of water tank, pump and controller are presented. The simulation of the system shows that the use of fuzzy logic controller reduces valve opening time and reservoir filling time.

  5. HTGR Resilient Control System Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-09-01

    A preeminent objective for corporate and government organizations is the protection of major investments, which is attained by achieving state awareness, a comprehensive understanding of security and safety, for critical infrastructures. Given the dependence of critical infrastructure on control systems for automation, the integrity of these systems and their ability to provide owner/operators a high degree of state awareness is essential in attaining a high degree of investment protection and public acceptance. Operators as well as government are therefore burdened to ensure they have a timely understanding of the status of their plant or all plants, respectively, to ensure efficient operations and investment and public protection. “This characterization is a significant objective that must consider many aspects of instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems in order to achieve the required result. These aspects include sensory, communication, analysis, decision, and human system interfaces necessary to achieve fusion of data and presentation of results that will provide an understanding of what issues are important and why.

  6. Does suprascapular nerve block reduce shoulder pain following stroke: a double-blind randomised controlled trial with masked outcome assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crotty Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is a common complication of a stroke which can impede participation in rehabilitation programs and has been associated with poorer outcomes. The evidence base for current medical and therapeutic management options of hemiplegic shoulder pain is limited. This study will evaluate the use of suprascapular nerve block injection as part of an interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of shoulder pain following stroke. The technique has previously been proven safe and effective in the treatment of shoulder pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis and degenerative shoulder conditions but its usefulness in a stroke population is unclear. Methods/Design A double blind randomised placebo controlled trial will assess the effect of a suprascapular nerve block compared with placebo in a population of 66 stroke patients. The trial will measure effect of injection on the primary outcome of pain, and secondary outcomes of function and quality of life. Measurements will take place at baseline, and 1, 4 and 12 weeks post intervention. Both groups will continue to receive routine physiotherapy and standard ward care. Discussion The results of this study could reduce pain symptoms in persons with mechanical shoulder pain post stroke and provide improvement in upper limb function. Trial Registration This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR - ACTRN12609000621213.

  7. High holding voltage segmentation stacking silicon-controlled-rectifier structure with field implant as body ties blocking layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiang-Shiou; Cheng, Chun-Hu; Lan, Yu-Pin; Chiu, Yu-Chien; Fan, Chia-Chi; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsuan; Chang, Shao-Chin; Jiang, Zhe-Wei; Hung, Li-Yue; Tsai, Chi-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-04-01

    High electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection robustness and good transient-induced latchup immunity are two important issues for high voltage integrate circuit application. In this study, we report a high-voltage-n-type-field (HVNF) implantation to act as the body ties blocking layer in segmented topology silicon-controlled-rectifier (SCR) structure in 0.11 µm 32 V high voltage process. This body ties blocking layer eliminate the elevated triggered voltage in segmented technique. Using a large resistance as shunt resistor in resistor assisted triggered SCRs stacking structure, the double snapback phenomenon is eliminate. The series SCR could be decoupled a sufficient voltage drop to turned-on when a very low current flow through the shunt resistor. The holding voltage and the failure current of 22 V and 3.4 A are achieved in the best condition of segmented topology SCR stacking structure, respectively. It improves the latchup immunity at high voltage ICs application. On the other hand, the triggered voltage almost keep the same value which is identical to SCR single cell without using segmented topology.

  8. Dynamic Response Analysis of an Asymmetric Coupled Vehicle-Track System Generated by Voided Elastic Two-Block Sleeper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxing He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on vehicle-track coupled dynamic theory, a three-dimensional asymmetric vehicle-track coupling vibration model is developed to investigate the effect of voided elastic two-block sleepers on vehicle and track system dynamic responses. For the vehicle system, one car body, two frames, and four wheel sets are assumed to be rigid, with 35 degrees of freedom (DOF. For the track system, the rails and the concrete two-block sleepers are the main vibration components. The rails are modelled as Timoshenko beams, and the concrete two-block sleepers are assumed to be rigid mass with vertical and lateral movement. The pads under the rails and the rubber boots under the sleepers provide greater vertical and lateral elasticity for the track. The Hertz nonlinear elastic contact theory is used to calculate the normal wheel/rail force. The wheel/rail tangent creep force is first calculated using Kalker’s linear creep theory and then modified by the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins theory. The results show that the asymmetric voided elastic two-block sleepers have greater effects on the dynamic responses for fasteners and sleepers than on the car body and the wheel/rail forces under measured geometric irregularity and random irregularity. Two or more voided sleepers will greatly affect the vehicle running safety.

  9. 49 CFR 193.2619 - Control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control systems. 193.2619 Section 193.2619...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2619 Control systems. (a) Each control system must be properly adjusted to operate within design limits. (b) If a control system is out of service for 30 days or more,...

  10. 14 CFR 25.395 - Control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system. 25.395 Section 25.395... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.395 Control system. (a) Longitudinal, lateral, directional, and drag control system and their supporting structures...

  11. Stochastic stabilization analysis of networked control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Changlin; Fang Huajing

    2007-01-01

    Considering the stochastic delay problems existing in networked control systems, a new control mode is proposed for networked control systems whose delay is longer than a sampling period. Under the control mode, the mathematical model of such a system is established. A stochastic stabilization condition for the system is given. The maximum delay can be derived from the stabilization condition.

  12. The control system of intelligent wheelchair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>A control system of intelligent wheelchair based on spce061A and C8051 is introduced in this discourse.It also introduces the theory of the control system,and the design of hardware and software.The control system including the speech control system of SPCE061 and the keyboard control system of C8051.The movement including marching,countermarching,speedup,slowdown,turning left,turning right,uphill and downhill were realized.The speech control system control based on SPCE061A and C8051 is simple,a high ratio of capability to price.The system can be easily realized and enlarged.

  13. Exact Controllability for a Class of Nonlinear Evolution Control Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L¨u Yue; Li Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the exact controllability of the nonlinear control systems. The controllability results by using the monotone operator theory are es-tablished. No compactness assumptions are imposed in the main results.

  14. Controlled loading of building blocks into temporary self-assembled scaffolds for directed assembly of organic nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, L Todd; Danila, Delia C; Sharpe, Katie; Durkin, Melissa; Clayton, Benjamin; Anderson, Ben; Richter, Andrew; Pinkhassik, Eugene

    2008-10-21

    Using temporary self-assembled scaffolds to preorganize building blocks is a potentially powerful method for the synthesis of organic nanostructures with programmed shapes. We examined the underlying phenomena governing the loading of hydrophobic monomers into lipid bilayer interior and demonstrated successful control of the amount and ratio of loaded monomers. When excess styrene derivatives or acrylates were added to the aqueous solution of unilamellar liposomes made from saturated phospholipids, most loading occurs within the first few hours. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy revealed no evidence of aggregation caused by monomers. Bilayers appeared to have a certain capacity for accommodating monomers. The total volume of loaded monomers is independent of monomer structure. X-ray scattering showed the increase in bilayer thickness consistent with loading monomers into bilayer interior. Loading kinetics is inversely proportional to the hydrophobicity and size of monomers. Loading and extraction kinetic data suggest that crossing the polar heads region is the rate limiting step. Consideration of loading kinetics and multiple equilibria are important for achieving reproducible monomer loading. The total amount of monomers loaded into the bilayer can be controlled by the loading time or length of hydrophobic lipid tails. The ratio of loaded monomers can be varied by changing the ratio of monomers used for loading or by the time-controlled replacement of a preloaded monomer. Understanding and controlling the loading of monomers into bilayers contributes to the directed assembly of organic nanostructures.

  15. NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR GLOBAL CONTROLLABILITY OF A CLASS OF AFFINE NONLINEAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yimin SUN; Shengwei MEI; Qiang LU

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the global controllability of a class of n-dimensional affine nonlinear systems with n - 1 controls and constant control matrix. A necessary and sufficient condition for its global controllability has been obtained by using the methods recently developed. Furthermore,we generalize the above result to a class of affine nonlinear systems with a block-triangular-like structure.Finally, we will give three examples to show the applications of our results.

  16. Feedback control system for walking in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, J S; Phillips, C A; Heaton, H H

    1984-01-01

    A computer control stimulation system is described which has been successfully tested by allowing a paraplegic subject to stand and walk through closed loop control. This system is a Z80 microprocessor system with eight channels of analog to digital and 16 channels of digital to analog control. Programming is written in CPM and works quite successfully for maintaining lower body postural control in paraplegics. Further expansion of this system would enable a feedback control system for multidirectional walking in man.

  17. Building blocks for actively-aligned micro-optical systems in rapid prototyping and small series production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, Gunnar; Queisser, Marco; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years there has been considerable progress in utilizing fully automated machines for the assembly of microoptical systems. Such systems integrate laser sources, optical elements and detectors into tight packages, and efficiently couple light to free space beams, waveguides in optical backplanes, or optical fibers for longer reach transmission. The required electrical-optical and optical components are placed and aligned actively in more than one respect. For one, all active components are actually operated in the alignment process, and, more importantly, the placing of all components is controlled actively by camera systems and power detectors with live feedback for an optimal coupling efficiency. The total number of optical components typically is in the range of 5 to 50, whereas the number of actors with gripping tools for the actual handling and aligning is limited, with little flexibility in the gripping width. The assembly process therefore is strictly sequential and, given that an automated tool changing has not been established in this class of machines yet, there are either limitations in the geometries of components that may be used, or time-consuming interaction by human operators is needed. As a solution we propose and present lasered glass building blocks with standardized gripping geometries that enclose optical elements of various shapes and functionalities. These are cut as free form geometries with green short pulse and CO2 lasers. What seems to add cost at first rather increases freedom of design and adds an economical flexibility to create very hybrid assemblies of various micro-optical assemblies also in small numbers.

  18. Instrumentation, Control, and Intelligent Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-09-01

    Abundant and affordable energy is required for U.S. economic stability and national security. Advanced nuclear power plants offer the best near-term potential to generate abundant, affordable, and sustainable electricity and hydrogen without appreciable generation of greenhouse gases. To that end, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been charged with leading the revitalization of nuclear power in the U.S. The INL vision is to become the preeminent nuclear energy laboratory with synergistic, world-class, multi-program capabilities and partnerships by 2015. The vision focuses on four essential destinations: (1) Be the preeminent internationally-recognized nuclear energy research, development, and demonstration laboratory; (2) Be a major center for national security technology development and demonstration; (3) Be a multi-program national laboratory with world-class capabilities; (4) Foster academic, industry, government, and international collaborations to produce the needed investment, programs, and expertise. Crucial to that effort is the inclusion of research in advanced instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems (ICIS) for use in current and advanced power and energy security systems to enable increased performance, reliability, security, and safety. For nuclear energy plants, ICIS will extend the lifetime of power plant systems, increase performance and power output, and ensure reliable operation within the system's safety margin; for national security applications, ICIS will enable increased protection of our nation's critical infrastructure. In general, ICIS will cost-effectively increase performance for all energy security systems.

  19. Acceleromyography and mechanomyography for establishing potency of neuromuscular blocking agents: a randomized-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Viby-Mogensen, J; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2009-01-01

    and opioid. Neuromuscular blockade was induced with rocuronium 100, 150, 200 or 250 microg/kg. Neuromuscular monitoring was performed with AMG (TOF-Watch SX) with pre-load (Hand Adapter) at one arm and MMG (modified TOF-Watch SX) on the other, using 0.1 Hz single twitch stimulation. Dose......) for this purpose. The aim of this study was to compare AMG and MMG for establishing dose-response relationship and potency, using rocuronium as an example. METHODS: We included 40 adult patients in this randomized-controlled single-dose response study. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol...

  20. Online Delay-Evaluation Control for Networked Control Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马向华; 魏震; 谢剑英

    2003-01-01

    This paper presented an evaluation approach of time delays for networked control systems (NCS). Animproved scheme based on optimal LQG control was designed to achieve desired performance despite the uncertaindelays in the system. The experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design and satis-factory performance of the closed-loop system.

  1. Advances and applications in nonlinear control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Volos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The book reports on the latest advances and applications of nonlinear control systems. It consists of 30 contributed chapters by subject experts who are specialized in the various topics addressed in this book. The special chapters have been brought out in the broad areas of nonlinear control systems such as robotics, nonlinear circuits, power systems, memristors, underwater vehicles, chemical processes, observer design, output regulation, backstepping control, sliding mode control, time-delayed control, variables structure control, robust adaptive control, fuzzy logic control, chaos, hyperchaos, jerk systems, hyperjerk systems, chaos control, chaos synchronization, etc. Special importance was given to chapters offering practical solutions, modeling and novel control methods for the recent research problems in nonlinear control systems. This book will serve as a reference book for graduate students and researchers with a basic knowledge of electrical and control systems engineering. The resulting design proce...

  2. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  3. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern

    2004-08-31

    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed.

  4. Model predictive control for a thermostatic controlled system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Rasmussen, Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a model predictive control scheme to provide temperature set-points to thermostatic controlled cooling units in refrigeration systems. The control problem is formulated as a convex programming problem to minimize the overall operating cost of the system. The foodstuff temperat......This paper proposes a model predictive control scheme to provide temperature set-points to thermostatic controlled cooling units in refrigeration systems. The control problem is formulated as a convex programming problem to minimize the overall operating cost of the system. The foodstuff...

  5. Advanced Fuzzy Logic Based Admission Control for UMTS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kejik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access systems is interference limited. Therefore radio resources management (RRM functions are used. They are responsible for supplying optimum coverage, ensuring efficient use of physical resources, and providing the maximum planned capacity. This paper deals with admission control techniques for UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System. A UMTS system model and four fuzzy logic based admission control algorithms are presented in this paper. Two new versions of fuzzy logic based admission control algorithms are presented there. All algorithms are mutually compared via simulations. Simulations show that the novel advanced fuzzy algorithm outperforms the other simulated algorithms (in terms of blocking probability, dropping probability and the number of active UEs in cell.

  6. Formation of Anisotropic Block Copolymer Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Chya Yan; Shull, Kenneth; Henderson, Kevin; Joester, Derk

    2011-03-01

    Anisotropic, fibrillar gels are important in a variety of processes. Biomineralization is one example, where the mineralization process often occurs within a matrix of collagen or chitin fibers that trap the mineral precursors and direct the mineralization process. We wish to replicate this type of behavior within block copolymer gels. Particularly, we are interested in employing gels composed of cylindrical micelles, which are anisotropic and closely mimic biological fibers. Micelle geometry is controlled in our system by manipulating the ratio of molecular weights of the two blocks and by controlling the detailed thermal processing history of the copolymer solutions. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and Dynamic Light Scattering are used to determine the temperature dependence of the gel formation process. Initial experiments are based on a thermally-reversible alcohol-soluble system, that can be subsequently converted to a water soluble system by hydrolysis of a poly(t-butyl methacrylate) block to a poly (methacrylic acid) block. MRSEC.

  7. HVAC control system for building automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. S.; Song, I. T.; Cho, S. W.; Cho, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of the project is to design and construction of the HVAC control system for building automation. The HVAC control system can accomplish the function which are the optimum operation condition and operation time, and the operation pattern analysis. Also, this control system can effectively manage energy saving, building environment control, facilities safety monitoring etc. The HVAC control system consisted of the central control and monitoring system (CCMS) and the direct digital controller (DDC). 1) CCMS: -Main Compute -Graphic Board -Printer -Console Desk -Intercom. 2) DDC : -IMC-M (System Control Unit Main Module) -IMC-1,2,3,4(System Control Unit Module). Following this report will be used important data for the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the HVAC control system. 12 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  8. Autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baret, Marc; Bomer, Thierry T.; Calesse, C.; Dudych, L.; L'Hoist, P.

    1995-01-01

    Autonomous intelligent cruise control (AICC) systems are not only controlling vehicles' speed but acting on the throttle and eventually on the brakes they could automatically maintain the relative speed and distance between two vehicles in the same lane. And more than just for comfort it appears that these new systems should improve the safety on highways. By applying a technique issued from the space research carried out by MATRA, a sensor based on a charge coupled device (CCD) was designed to acquire the reflected light on standard-mounted car reflectors of pulsed laser diodes emission. The CCD is working in a unique mode called flash during transfer (FDT) which allows identification of target patterns in severe optical environments. It provides high accuracy for distance and angular position of targets. The absence of moving mechanical parts ensures high reliability for this sensor. The large field of view and the high measurement rate give a global situation assessment and a short reaction time. Then, tracking and filtering algorithms have been developed in order to select the target, on which the equipped vehicle determines its safety distance and speed, taking into account its maneuvering and the behaviors of other vehicles.

  9. 14 CFR 31.49 - Control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control systems. 31.49 Section 31.49... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.49 Control systems. (a) Each control must operate... and subsequent inadvertent operation. (b) Each control system and operating device must be...

  10. Analysis of the blocking behaviour of schema transformations in relational database systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, Lesley; Hofstra, Matthijs; Tammens, Menno; Huisman, Marieke; Keulen, van Maurice

    2015-01-01

    In earlier work we have extended the TPC-C benchmark with basic and complex schema transformations. This paper uses this benchmark to investigate the blocking behaviour of online schema transformations in PostgreSQL, MySQL and Oracle 11g. First we discuss experiments using the data definition langua

  11. Structural analysis of superposed fault systems of the Bornholm horst block, Tornquist Zone, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    The Bornholm horst block is composed of Precambrian crystalline basement overlain by Palaeozoicand Mesozoic cover rocks. The cover intervals are separated by an angular unconformity and a hiatus spanning the Devonian through Middle Triassic interval. Late Palaeozoic faulting of the Early Palaeozoic...

  12. Simulation Study on Heat Value Control System of Natural Gas Used for Color TV Tubes Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Bin

    2006-01-01

    In order to know the character of the heat value control system, determine the influence of natural gas quality and flow on the heat value, and learn how to adjust the parameters of control system, the model of the whole system is established, and simulation of the system is adopted in Matlab/Simulink. The simulation result shows that the feedback system with feed-forward block controls the heat value very well, and the simulation result can effectively guide the engineering design of the heat value control system, and the efficiency of engineering is improved.

  13. Response prediction techniques and case studies of a path blocking system based on Global Transmissibility Direct Transmissibility method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zengwei; Zhu, Ping; Zhao, Jianxuan

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the prediction capabilities of the Global Transmissibility Direct Transmissibility (GTDT) method are further developed. Two path blocking techniques solely using the easily measured variables of the original system to predict the response of a path blocking system are generalized to finite element models of continuous systems. The proposed techniques are derived theoretically in a general form for the scenarios of setting the response of a subsystem to zero and of removing the link between two directly connected subsystems. The objective of this paper is to verify the reliability of the proposed techniques by finite element simulations. Two typical cases, the structural vibration transmission case and the structure-borne sound case, in two different configurations are employed to illustrate the validity of proposed techniques. The points of attention for each case have been discussed, and conclusions are given. It is shown that for the two cases of blocking a subsystem the proposed techniques are able to predict the new response using measured variables of the original system, even though operational forces are unknown. For the structural vibration transmission case of removing a connector between two components, the proposed techniques are available only when the rotational component responses of the connector are very small. The proposed techniques offer relative path measures and provide an alternative way to deal with NVH problems. The work in this paper provides guidance and reference for the engineering application of the GTDT prediction techniques.

  14. Research on Web Press Tension Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Sheng Jiang; Zhang Chun Feng; Wang Zhong You; Li Qing Lin

    2016-01-01

    Tension control of press is a key and difficult point of the whole machine control. The stand or fall of tension is directly related to the quality of the products. According to the characteristics of the web press tension control, this paper expounds the main factors influencing tension and the purpose of tension control, researches on the tension control principle of web tape, analyzes control rule and control circuit of tension control system, illustrates the advantages of PID control law ...

  15. Networked Control System – A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brindha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Networked Control System (NCS is a synthetic application which combines control science, computer science and network technology. It is a kind of feedback control systems wherein the control loops are closed through real time control network. NCS technology is applied in industry control system because of its simple structure, easy maintenance and high reliability. Networked control systems (NCSs have been gaining popularity with their high potential in widespread applications and becoming realizable with the rapid developments in computer, communication and control technologies. This paper reviews the development history of the NCS, and point out the field of further researches.

  16. Development of valence-directed nanoparticle building blocks on the basis of controlled bio/nano-interfacing chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan

    The assembly of nanoparticles in controllable and predictable ways would not only aid practical nanoscale assembly, which requires accurate and scalable assembly of large and complex nanoscale structures, but also would increase their utility for many applications, including electronics, optics, sensing and imaging, medical diagnostics, etc. Well-defined and controlled functionality and directionality of the building blocks are essential to actively control the molecular assembly processes at the nanometer scale. Such controls over the functionality and directionality would enable us to construct sophisticated nanostructures to take advantage of the increasing number of available nanocomponents and ultimately to approximate the complexity and the functionality of current microfabrication. We have developed a serial solid-phase placement approach to synthesize anisotropically or symmetrically functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), in which the functionality and directionality (e.g., numbers, locations, and orientations) of the functional ligands are controlled. Two types of bi-functionalized (bif-) AuNPs were synthesized at a site-specific manner with increased yield and accuracy: (1) homo-bif-AuNPs with two carboxyl groups at ˜180° angle (para-configuration) and (2) hetero-bif-AuNPs with one carboxyl and one amine functional groups at less than 180°, but greater than 90° angle (meta-configuration). With such control, we successfully demonstrated the assembly of intentionally designed one-dimensional (1D) chains with homo-bif-AuNPs and two-dimensional (2D) rings with hetero-bif-AuNPs, confirming the high functional as well as directional selectivity of the functionalized NPs. This study represents an important step towards accurate, reliable, and scaled-up manufacturing of complex nanoscale structures, potentially making 'bottom-up' nanofabrication of practical use. We have further developed the ligand replacement technology to achieve such active controls

  17. Output constrained IMC controllers in control systems of electromechanical actuators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piotr M MARUSAK; Suwat KUNTANAPREEDA

    2015-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators are widely used in many industrial applications. There are usually some constraints existing in a designed system. This paper proposes a simple method to design constrained controllers for electromechanical actuators. The controllers merge the ideas exploited in internal model control and model predictive control. They are designed using the standard control system structure with unity negative feedback. The structure of the controllers is relatively simple as well as the design process. The output constraint handling mechanism is based on prediction of the control plant behavior many time steps ahead. The mechanism increases control performance and safety of the control plant. The benefits offered by the proposed controllers have been demonstrated in real-life experiments carried out in control systems of two electromechanical actuators:a DC motor and an electrohydraulic actuator.

  18. Description and verification of switched control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺风华; 姚郁; 赵霞; 张猛

    2003-01-01

    A modeling framework has been constructed using the theory of hybrid control systems for the switched control systems (SCS) and it can be more effectively used to describe the behavior of the systems and to more easily realize the simulation of the closed loop SCS under the MATLAB environment. On the other hand, a hybrid automaton model is established to analyze and verify the switched control systems. The proposed method is illustrated by an example of switched inverted pendulum control system.

  19. Globalization and localization of Management Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Through an empirical case study this article examines the operation of multiple management control systems as a package in a Danish manufacturing company. The analysis focuses on four different management control systems; cybernetic controls, planning controls, reward controls, and administrative...... controls, through the theoretical lens of globalization, localization, and glocalization. The analysis documents that these different management control systems are affected differently by the processes of globalization and localization, whereby some are universal throughout the organization and others...... have more particular characteristics. Specifically, this study finds that cybernetic controls and administrative controls are designed as global management control systems. Planning controls are glocal systems and reward & compensation controls assume local characteristics. The finding leads...

  20. Nonlinear State Space Modeling and System Identification for Electrohydraulic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with nonlinear modeling and identification of an electrohydraulic control system for improving its tracking performance. We build the nonlinear state space model for analyzing the highly nonlinear system and then develop a Hammerstein-Wiener (H-W model which consists of a static input nonlinear block with two-segment polynomial nonlinearities, a linear time-invariant dynamic block, and a static output nonlinear block with single polynomial nonlinearity to describe it. We simplify the H-W model into a linear-in-parameters structure by using the key term separation principle and then use a modified recursive least square method with iterative estimation of internal variables to identify all the unknown parameters simultaneously. It is found that the proposed H-W model approximates the actual system better than the independent Hammerstein, Wiener, and ARX models. The prediction error of the H-W model is about 13%, 54%, and 58% less than the Hammerstein, Wiener, and ARX models, respectively.

  1. CONTROLLABILITY OF DELAY DEGENERATE CONTROL SYSTEMS WITH INDEPENDENT SUBSYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋威

    2003-01-01

    The controllability of delay degenerate differential control systems is discussed. Firstly, delay degenerate differential control system was transformed to be canonical form, and the connected terms were gotten rid of, had delay degenerate differential control systems with independent subsystems. For the general delay degenerate differnetial control systems, it was gotten that the necessary and sufficient condition of that they are controllable is that their reachable set is equal to the whole space For the delay degenerate differential control systems with independent subsystems, it was gotten that the necessary and sufficient conditions of that they are controllable are that their reachable sets are equal to their corresponding subspaces. Then some algebra criteria were gotten. Finally, an example was given to illustrate the main results.

  2. Evolving Systems and Adaptive Key Component Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new framework called Evolving Systems to describe the self-assembly, or autonomous assembly, of actively controlled dynamical subsystems into an Evolved System with a higher purpose. An introduction to Evolving Systems and exploration of the essential topics of the control and stability properties of Evolving Systems is provided. This chapter defines a framework for Evolving Systems, develops theory and control solutions for fundamental characteristics of Evolving Systems, and provides illustrative examples of Evolving Systems and their control with adaptive key component controllers.

  3. Towards Autonomous Control of Hydraulic Actuator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Conrad, Finn

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of new developed control algorithms to increase autonomy and intelligence of hydraulic control systems. A refinement of relaytuning method is used to determine the control parameters of a lag/lead controller and a poleplacement controller. Further, a fail-safe function is developed...... to hinder surges and mechanical fractures. Experimental results verify the performance of the controllers....

  4. Controllability for single-input mechanical control systems with dissipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianling KANG; Hong WANG; Huawen YE

    2005-01-01

    Within the affine connection framework of Lagrangian control systems,based on the results of Sussmann on small-time locally controllability of single-input affine nonlinear control systems,the controllability results for mechanical control systems with single-input are extended to the case of the systems with isotropic damping,where the Lagrangian is the kinetic energy associated with a Riemannian metric.A sufficient condition of negative small-time locally controllability for the system is obtained.Then,it is demonstrated that such systems are small-time locally configuration controllable if and only if the dimension of the configuration manifold is one.Finally,two examples are given to illustrate the results.Lie bracketting of vector fields and the symmetric product show the advantages in the discussion.

  5. Non-linear controllers in ship tracking control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LESZEK M

    2005-01-01

    The cascade systems which stabilize the transverse deviation of the ship in relation to the set path is presented. The ship's path is determined as a broken line with specified coordinates of way points. Three controllers are used in the system. The main primary controller is the trajectory controller. The set value of heading for the course control system or angular velocity for the turning control system is generated. The course control system is used on the straight line of the set trajectory while the turning controller is used during a change of the set trajectory segment. The characteristics of the non-linear controllers are selected in such a way that the properties of the control system with the rate of turn controller are modelled by the first-order inertia, while the system with the course keeping controller is modelled by a second-order linear term. The presented control system is tested in computer simulation. Some results of simulation tests are presented and discussed.

  6. Automatic oscillator frequency control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A frequency control system makes an initial correction of the frequency of its own timing circuit after comparison against a frequency of known accuracy and then sequentially checks and corrects the frequencies of several voltage controlled local oscillator circuits. The timing circuit initiates the machine cycles of a central processing unit which applies a frequency index to an input register in a modulo-sum frequency divider stage and enables a multiplexer to clock an accumulator register in the divider stage with a cyclical signal derived from the oscillator circuit being checked. Upon expiration of the interval, the processing unit compares the remainder held as the contents of the accumulator against a stored zero error constant and applies an appropriate correction word to a correction stage to shift the frequency of the oscillator being checked. A signal from the accumulator register may be used to drive a phase plane ROM and, with periodic shifts in the applied frequency index, to provide frequency shift keying of the resultant output signal. Interposition of a phase adder between the accumulator register and phase plane ROM permits phase shift keying of the output signal by periodic variation in the value of a phase index applied to one input of the phase adder.

  7. Control Reconfiguration of LPV Systems Using Virtual Sensor and Virtual Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bak, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a fault tolerant control method for linear parameter varying (LPV) systems using a virtual actuator and a virtual sensor is proposed. The basic idea of the method is to insert a reconfiguration block, which consists of an LPV virtual actuator and an LPV virtual sensor, between...... the plant and the nominal controller such that the fault tolerant goal is achieved without re-designing the nominal controller. The role of the reconfiguration block is to transform the signals from the faulty system such that its behavior is similar to the nominal system from the point of view...... of the controller and to transform the output of the controller for the faulty system such that the stability and performance goals are preserved. In this paper, we consider the weak fault-hiding goal and stability of the closed loop system. Input to state stabilizing LPV gains of the virtual actuator and sensor...

  8. Overview of progress in quantum systems control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONG Shuang; ZHENG Yisong; JI Beichen; DAI Yi

    2007-01-01

    The development of the theory on quantum systems control in the last 20 years is reviewed in detail.The research on the controllability of quantum systems is first introduced,then the study on the quantum open-loop control methods often used for controlling simple quantum systems is analyzed briefly.The learning control method and the feedback control method are mainly discussed for they are two important methods in quantum systems control and their advantages and disadvantages are presented.According to the trends in quantum systems control development,the paper predicts the future trends of its development and applications.A complete design procedure necessary for the quantum control system is presented.Finally,several vital problems hindering the advancement of quantum control are pointed out.

  9. Intravenous patient-controlled fentanyl with and without transversus abdominis plane block in cirrhotic patients post liver resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serag Eldin M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Manar Serag Eldin,1 Fatma Mahmoud,1 Rabab El Hassan,2 Mohamed Abdel Raouf,1 Mohamed H Afifi,2 Khaled Yassen,1 Wesam Morad31Department of Anaesthesia, Liver Institute, 2Department of Anaesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Liver Institute, Menoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, EgyptBackground: Coagulation changes can complicate liver resection, particularly in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this prospective hospital-based comparative study was to compare the postoperative analgesic efficacy of intravenous fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA with and without transversus abdominis plane (TAP block.Methods: Fifty patients with Child’s A cirrhosis undergoing liver resection were randomly divided into two groups for postoperative analgesia, ie, an IVPCA group receiving a 10 µg/mL fentanyl bolus of 15 µg with a 10-minute lockout and a maximum hourly dose of 90 µg, and an IVPCA + TAP group that additionally received TAP block (15 mL of 0.375% bupivacaine on both sides via a posterior approach with ultrasound guidance before skin incision. Postoperatively, bolus injections of bupivacaine 0.375% were given every 8 hours through a TAP catheter inserted by the surgeon in the open space during closure of the inverted L-shaped right subcostal with midline extension (subcostal approach guided by the visual analog scale score (<3, 5 mL; 3 to <6, 10 mL; 6–10, 15–20 mL according to weight (maximum 2 mg/kg. The top-up dosage of local anesthetic could be omitted if the patient was not in pain. Coagulation was monitored using standard coagulation tests.Results: Age, weight, and sex were comparable between the groups (P<0.05. The visual analog scale score was significantly lower at 12, 18, 24, 48, and 72 hours (P<0.01 in IVPCA + TAP group. The Ramsay sedation score was lower only after 72 hours in the IVPCA + TAP group when compared with the IVPCA group (1.57±0.74 versus 2.2±0.41, respectively, P

  10. From blood dialysis to desalination: A one-size fits all block copolymer based membrane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna Kotrappanavar, Nataraj; Zavala-Rivera, Paul; Chonnon, Kevin; Almuhtaseb, Shaheen S. A.; Sivaniah, Easan; University of Cambridge Team; Qatar University Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    Asymmetric membrane with ultrahigh selective self-assembled nanoporous block copolymer layer were developed successfully on polyimide (PI) support, which demonstrated excellent thermal, chemical and mechanical stability. Membranes with specific nano- structural architectures and optimized cascades of block assemblies on the top selective skin have been used largely for separation of colour from aqueous streams, wastewater treatment, desalination, blood filtration and gas separation with dense layer transformation. A consistent and reliable method of membrane preparation and measuring separation performance has been adopted. A homologous series of ethylene oxide oligomers covering a large range was used to characterise MWCO of Membrane and were able to provide many points to give a comprehensive description of the membrane performance in the nanofiltration range.

  11. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern

    2005-01-28

    The objective of this program is to develop a system to both monitor the vibration of a bottomhole assembly, and to adjust the properties of an active damper in response to these measured vibrations. Phase I of this program, which entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype, was completed on May 31, 2004. The principal objectives of Phase II are: more extensive laboratory testing, including the evaluation of different feedback algorithms for control of the damper; design and manufacture of a field prototype system; and, testing of the field prototype in drilling laboratories and test wells. The redesign and upgrade of the laboratory prototype was completed on schedule and it was assembled during the last period. Testing was begin during the first week of October. Initial results indicated that the dynamic range of the damping was less than predicted and that the maximum damping was also less than required. A number of possible explanations for these results were posited, and test equipment was acquired to evaluate the various hypotheses. Testing was just underway at the end of this period.

  12. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern

    2004-10-29

    The objective of this program is to develop a system to both monitor the vibration of a bottomhole assembly, and to adjust the properties of an active damper in response to these measured vibrations. Phase I of this program, which entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype, was completed on May 31, 2004. Phase II began on June 1, and the first month's effort were reported in the seventh quarterly report on the project.1 The principal objectives of Phase II are: more extensive laboratory testing, including the evaluation of different feedback algorithms for control of the damper; design and manufacture of a field prototype system; and, testing of the field prototype in drilling laboratories and test wells. The redesign and upgrade of the laboratory prototype was completed on schedule during this period, and assembly was complete at the end of this period. Testing will begin during the first week of October. This aspect of the project is thus approximately six weeks behind schedule. Design of the field prototype is progressing per schedule.

  13. Control System of the H~- Ion Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The control system is of primary importance to the accelerator operation. This paper presents a brief introduction to the new ion source control system. The research is to build a new H- ion source based on

  14. Control-based operating system design

    CERN Document Server

    Leva, Alberto; Papadopoulos, AV; Terraneo, F

    2013-01-01

    This book argues that computer operating system components should be conceived from the outset as controllers, synthesised and assessed in the system-theoretical world of dynamic models, and then realised as control algorithms.

  15. Consistent Design of Dependable Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.

    1996-01-01

    Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed, and a method for consistent design is presented.......Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed, and a method for consistent design is presented....

  16. Zitongdong Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ The Zitongdong Block (Eastern Zitong Block) is located in the northwest of the Sichuan Basin. Tectonically, it is situated in the east part of Zitong Depression, southeast of mid-Longmenshan folded and faulted belt( as shown on Fig. 8 ), covering an area of 1 730 km2. The traffic is very convenient, the No. 108 national highway passes through the north of the block. Topographically, the area belongs to low hilly land at the elevation of 500-700 m.

  17. A digital control system for neutron spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Knud Bent; Skaarup, Per

    1968-01-01

    A description is given of the principles of a digital system used to control neutron spectrometers. The system is composed of independent functional units with the control programme stored on punched paper tape or in a computer.......A description is given of the principles of a digital system used to control neutron spectrometers. The system is composed of independent functional units with the control programme stored on punched paper tape or in a computer....

  18. Artificial Intelligence Theory and Reconfigurable Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-30

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , Vol...AC-iS, No. 1, Feb 1970. 5. Sklansky, J., "Learning Systems for Automatic Control", IEEE = Transactions on Automatic Control , Vol...34A Gerfcale itellihoode Raio ,-. ~Aproc tohemesecio and Ca Suis nwEtimat eeion" (: Jump in-Linea & -,"Ŗ. Systems", IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control ,

  19. 75 FR 59108 - Positive Train Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 236 RIN 2130-AC03 Positive Train Control Systems AGENCY..., and use of Positive Train Control (PTC) systems for railroads as mandated by the Rail Safety... installation and operation of Positive Train Control (PTC) systems. On January 15, 2010, FRA issued...

  20. 50 CFR 600.420 - Control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control system. 600.420 Section 600.420..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Confidentiality of Statistics § 600.420 Control system. (a) The Assistant Administrator maintains a control system to protect the identity of submitters...

  1. 14 CFR 29.395 - Control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system. 29.395 Section 29.395... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Control Surface and System Loads § 29.395 Control system. (a) The reaction to the loads prescribed in § 29.397 must be provided by— (1) The...

  2. Phase control system for SSRF linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Chongxian; YU Luyang; LIU Dekang

    2008-01-01

    The design of phase control system in Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) linac is presented in this paper. And digital phase detecting algorithm, the key for phase control system, is fully described. The testing results for phase control system in 100MeV linac are discussed in detail.

  3. Switching Control System Based on Robust Model Reference Adaptive Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Qiong; FEI Qing; MA Hongbin; WU Qinghe; GENG Qingbo

    2016-01-01

    For conventional adaptive control,time-varying parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics are ticklish problems,which will lead to undesirable performance or even instability and nonrobust behavior,respectively.In this study,a class of discrete-time switched systems with unmodeled dynamics is taken into consideration.Moreover,nonlinear systems are here supposed to be approximated with the class of switched systems considered in this paper,and thereby switching control design is investigated for both switched systems and nonlinear systems to assure stability and performance.For robustness against unmodeled dynamics and uncertainty,robust model reference aclaptive control (RMRAC) law is developed as the basis of controller design for each individual subsystem in the switched systems or nonlinear systems.Meanwhile,two different switching laws are presented for switched systems and nonlinear systems,respectively.Thereby,the authors incorporate the corresponding switching law into the RMRAC law to construct two schemes of switching control respectively for the two kinds of controlled systems.Both closed-loop analyses and simulation examples are provided to illustrate the validity of the two proposed switching control schemes.Furthermore,as to the proposed scheme for nonlinear systems,its potential for practical application is demonstrated through simulations of longitudinal control for F-16 aircraft.

  4. Programmable System on Chip Distributed Communication and Control Approach for Human Adaptive Mechanical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A.M. Faudzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Communication and control are two main components in any Mechatronics system. They can be designed either by centralized or decentralized approach. Both approaches can be chosen based on application designed and specific requirements of the designer. In this study, decentralized or normally called distributed approach was selected to solved communication and control of a human adaptive mechanical system namely Intelligent Chair Tools (ICT. The ICT seating system is powered by thirty six intelligent pneumatic actuators to facilitate investigation of chair shapes from spring and damping effect of seating and backrest surface. Three studies are proposed from the sitting experiments namely chair shapes, chair spring and chair damping properties. Approach: PSoC microcontroller was selected based on its features of having configurable analog and digital blocks. Its flexible modules and programmable peripherals ease designer in designing the communication and control of ICT in improved and faster way. Three protocols of USB, SPI and I2C were used for the communication system of ICT using PSoC. Flow charts of each communication protocols algorithms were discussed. On the other hand, the control system used PSoC’s ADC and counter modules to read inputs of pressure and encoder respectively. PWM module is used to control the valve and data communication was achieved using I2C module. Block diagram of unified control was discussed for further understandings of the control algorithms. Results: The PSoC specification, development design and experimental evaluation of ICT system are presented and discussed. Three studies of chair shapes, chair spring property and chair damping property from sitting experiment were shown. Conclusion/Recommendations: The PSoC microcontroller selection was discussed and application of its distributed communication and control was successfully applied to ICT. This distributed approach can be applied to other

  5. Design and implementation of a new fuzzy PID controller for networked control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, A; Salahshoor, K

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a practical network platform to design and implement a networked-based cascade control system linking a Smar Foundation Fieldbus (FF) controller (DFI-302) and a Siemens programmable logic controller (PLC-S7-315-2DP) through Industrial Ethernet to a laboratory pilot plant. In the presented network configuration, the Smar OPC tag browser and Siemens WinCC OPC Channel provide the communicating interface between the two controllers. The paper investigates the performance of a PID controller implemented in two different possible configurations of FF function block (FB) and networked control system (NCS) via a remote Siemens PLC. In the FB control system implementation, the desired set-point is provided by the Siemens Human-Machine Interface (HMI) software (i.e, WinCC) via an Ethernet Modbus link. While, in the NCS implementation, the cascade loop is realized in remote Siemens PLC station and the final element set-point is sent to the Smar FF station via Ethernet bus. A new fuzzy PID control strategy is then proposed to improve the control performances of the networked-based control systems due to an induced transmission delay degradation effect. The proposed strategy utilizes an innovative idea based on sectionalizing the error signal of the step response into three different functional zones. The supporting philosophy behind these three functional zones is to decompose the desired control objectives in terms of rising time, settling time and steady-state error measures maintained by an appropriate PID-type controller in each zone. Then, fuzzy membership factors are defined to configure the control signal on the basis of the fuzzy weighted PID outputs of all three zones. The obtained results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy PID control scheme in improving the performances of the implemented NCS for different transportation delays.

  6. Implementation of the DIAC control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Dae-Sik; Jang, Doh-Yun; Jin, Jeong-Tae; Oh, Byung-Hoon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    DIAC (Daejeon Ion Accelerator Complex) system was developed, and operated at JAEA of Japan by KEK team with a name of TRIAC (Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex) during 2004 to 2010. The TRIAC control system was based on LabView and had two independent control units for ion source and accelerator. To be an efficient system, it is necessary to have an integrated control capability. And the control software, which had implemented by using LabView at TRIAC, will be changed with EPICS in order to give an effective beam service to the users. In this presentation, the old TRIAC control system is described, and a new control system for DIAC is discussed. The control system of DIAC is based on TRIAC. But it is gradually improved performance using EPICS toolkits and changing some digital interface hardware of it. Details of the control system will be demonstrated during the conference.

  7. Pre-surgical regional blocks in orthognathic surgery: prospective study evaluating their influence on the intraoperative use of anaesthetics and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y A; Rivera-Serrano, C M; Chen, C; Chen, Y R

    2016-06-01

    In orthognathic surgery, maxillary (CNV2) and mandibular (CNV3) divisions of the trigeminal nerve can be blocked successfully prior to surgery. In this study, it was hypothesized that regional blocks (nerve block over a particular region: bilateral CNV2 and CNV3 divisions of the trigeminal nerve) would decrease the total requirement for intraoperative anaesthetic agents and facilitate the process of hypotensive anaesthesia. Local anaesthesia containing 1/100,000 epinephrine and 10ml 0.5% levobupivacaine was injected into the planned incisions in 50 patients. Twenty-five patients (group A) underwent orthognathic surgery without regional blocks and another 25 patients (group B) underwent surgery with regional blocks. The anaesthetic protocol was the same in both groups and administered by a single anaesthesiologist. The mean arterial pressure was recorded at several points throughout the operation, as well as all the medications used. The blood loss and the amounts of medications administered were lower in group B than in group A. In patients receiving regional blocks, the amounts of fentanyl and nicardipine required were significantly lower. The use of pre-emptive anaesthesia in orthognathic surgery may reduce the overall amounts of medications required for hypotensive anaesthesia, facilitate the intraoperative control of blood pressure, and decrease intraoperative blood loss.

  8. Cathodic Protection of Pipeline Using Distributed Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Jayapalan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed control system (DCS is available in most of the compressor stations of cross-country pipeline systems. Programmable logic controller (PLC is used in all the intermediate pigging (IP stations/sectional valve (SV stations to collect the field data and to control the remote actuated valves. This paper presents how DCS or PLC can be used for cathodic protection of gas pipelines. Virtual instrumentation (VI software is used here for simulation and real-time implementation purpose. Analog input channels available in DCS/PLC can be used to measure pipe to soil potential (PSP with the help of half-cell and voltage transducer. Logic blocks available in DCS can be used as low selector switch to select the lowest PSP. Proportional-integral (PI controller available in DCS/PLC can be used for taking the controlling action. PI controller output varies the firing angle of AC phase controller. Phase controller output is rectified, filtered, and fed to the pipeline as cathodic protection current. Proposed scheme utilizes existing infrastructure to control pipeline corrosion.

  9. Underwater hydraulic shock shovel control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU He-ping; LUO A-ni; XIAO Hai-yan

    2008-01-01

    The control system determines the effectiveness of an underwater hydraulic shock shovel.This paper begins by analyzing the working principles of these shovels and explains the importance of their control systems.A new type of control system's mathematical model was built and analyzed according to those principles.Since the initial control system's response time could not fulfill the design requirements,a PID controller was added to the control system.System response time was still slower than required,so a neural network was added to nonlinearly regulate the proportional element,integral element and derivative element coefficients of the PID controller.After these improvements to the control system,system parameters fulfilled the design requirements.The working performance of electrically-controlled parts such as the rapidly moving high speed switch valve is largely determined by the control system. Normal control methods generally can't satisfy a shovel's requirements,so advanced and normal control methods were combined to improve the control system,bringing good results.

  10. Lesson Thirteen Trifascicular Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁端; 王劲

    2005-01-01

    @@ A complete trifascicular block would result in complete AV block. The idio ventricular rhythm has a slower rate and a wide QRS complex because the pacemaker is located at the peripheral part of the conduction system distal to the sites of the block1. Such a rhythm may be difficult to differentiate from bifascicular or bundle branch block combined with complete block at a higher level such as the AV node or His bundle2. Besides a slower ventricular rate, a change in the morphology of the QRS complex from a previous known bifascicular pattern would be strongly suggestive of a trifascicular origin of the complete AV block3. A His bundle recording is required for a definitive diagnosis, however.

  11. ITER Fast Plant System Controller prototype based on PXIe platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, M., E-mail: mariano.ruiz@upm.es [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, CAEND CSIC-UPM Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 (Spain); Vega, J.; Castro, R. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Sanz, D.; Lopez, J.M.; Arcas, G. de; Barrera, E.; Nieto, J. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, CAEND CSIC-UPM Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 (Spain); Goncalves, B.; Sousa, J.; Carvalho, B. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Utzel, N.; Makijarvi, P. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implementation of Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) for ITER CODAC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient data acquisition and data movement using EPICS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance of PCIe technologies in the implementation of FPSC. - Abstract: The ITER Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) is based on embedded technologies. The FPSC will be devoted to both data acquisition tasks (sampling rates higher than 1 kHz) and control purposes (feedback loop actuators). Some of the essential requirements of these systems are: (a) data acquisition and data preprocessing; (b) interfacing with different networks and high speed links (Plant Operation Network, timing network based on IEEE1588, synchronous data transference and streaming/archiving networks); and (c) system setup and operation using EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) process variables. CIEMAT and UPM have implemented a prototype of FPSC using a PXIe (PCI eXtension for Instrumentation) form factor in a R and D project developed in two phases. The paper presents the main features of the two prototypes developed that have been named alpha and beta. The former was implemented using LabVIEW development tools as it was focused on modeling the FPSC software modules, using the graphical features of LabVIEW applications, and measuring the basic performance in the system. The alpha version prototype implements data acquisition with time-stamping, EPICS monitoring using waveform process variables (PVs), and archiving. The beta version prototype is a complete IOC implemented using EPICS with different software functional blocks. These functional blocks are integrated and managed using an ASYN driver solution and provide the basic functionalities required by ITER FPSC such as data acquisition, data archiving, data pre-processing (using both CPU and GPU) and streaming.

  12. Energy performance of a ventilation system for a block of apartments with a ground source heat pump as generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchi, M.; Lorenzini, M.; Valdiserri, P.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a numerical simulation of the annual performance of two different systems: a traditional one composed by a gas boiler-chiller pair and one consisting of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) both coupled to two thermal storage tanks. The systems serve a bloc of flats located in northern Italy and are assessed over a typical weather year, covering both the heating and cooling seasons. The air handling unit (AHU) coupled with the GSHP exhibits excellent characteristics in terms of temperature control, and has high performance parameters (EER and COP), which make conduction costs about 30% lower than those estimated for the traditional plant.

  13. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern

    2005-04-27

    The objective of this program is to develop a system to both monitor the vibration of a bottomhole assembly, and to adjust the properties of an active damper in response to these measured vibrations. Phase I of this program, which entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype, was completed on May 31, 2004. The principal objectives of Phase II are: more extensive laboratory testing, including the evaluation of different feedback algorithms for control of the damper; design and manufacture of a field prototype system; and, testing of the field prototype in drilling laboratories and test wells. As a result of the lower than expected performance of the MR damper noted last quarter, several additional tests were conducted. These dealt with possible causes of the lack of dynamic range observed in the testing: additional damping from the oil in the Belleville springs; changes in properties of the MR fluid; and, residual magnetization of the valve components. Of these, only the last was found to be significant. By using a laboratory demagnetization apparatus between runs, a dynamic range of 10:1 was achieved for the damper, more than adequate to produce the needed improvements in drilling. Additional modeling was also performed to identify a method of increasing the magnetic field in the damper. As a result of the above, several changes were made in the design. Additional circuitry was added to demagnetize the valve as the field is lowered. The valve was located to above the Belleville springs to reduce the load placed upon it and offer a greater range of materials for its construction. In addition, to further increase the field strength, the coils were relocated from the mandrel to the outer housing. At the end of the quarter, the redesign was complete and new parts were on order. The project is approximately three months behind schedule at this time.

  14. CONTROLLING HYPERCHAOS IN A NEW HYPERCHAOTIC SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,the control strategies for a new hyperchaotic system is investiga-ted. Several kinds of feedback controllers are constructed,such as the linear,speed,nonlinear doubly-periodic function feedback controllers. These controllers are used to prevent the new hyperchaos becoming an unstable equilibrium. Finally,numerical simulations are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

  15. Fuzzy logic control and optimization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xinsheng [West Hartford, CT

    2012-04-17

    A control system (300) for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input signal (369) and an output for outputting an output signal (367), and a hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) operably connected to the chemical loop. The hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) includes a plurality of fuzzy controllers (330). The hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) receives the output signal (367), optimizes the input signal (369) based on the received output signal (367), and outputs an optimized input signal (369) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.

  16. Towards Autonomous Control of HVAC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brath, P.

    This thesis considered development of an autonomous control system for heating ventilation and air conditioning applications. By including auto-tuning, adaptation, diagnosis and supervision functions in the control system used in the HVAC industry will move the control of HVAC systems towards...... autonomous control. Together with better tuned controllers and more dedicated control it would be possible to decrease the energy consumption, save money and increase the indoor air climate. A flexible HVAC test system was designed and implemented. Standard components and sensors were used in the design...

  17. Predictive Approaches to Control of Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Karer, Gorazd

    2013-01-01

    A predictive control algorithm uses a model of the controlled system to predict the system behavior for various input scenarios and determines the most appropriate inputs accordingly. Predictive controllers are suitable for a wide range of systems; therefore, their advantages are especially evident when dealing with relatively complex systems, such as nonlinear, constrained, hybrid, multivariate systems etc. However, designing a predictive control strategy for a complex system is generally a difficult task, because all relevant dynamical phenomena have to be considered. Establishing a suitable model of the system is an essential part of predictive control design. Classic modeling and identification approaches based on linear-systems theory are generally inappropriate for complex systems; hence, models that are able to appropriately consider complex dynamical properties have to be employed in a predictive control algorithm. This book first introduces some modeling frameworks, which can encompass the most frequ...

  18. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  19. The cryogenic control system of BEPCII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Ke-Xiang; Zhao, Ji-Jiu; Yue, Ke-Juan; Dai, Ming-Hui; Huang, Yi-Ling; Jiang, Bo

    2008-04-01

    A superconducting cryogenic system has been designed and deployed in the Beijing Electron- Positron Collider Upgrade Project (BEPCII). The system consists of a Siemens PLC (S7-PLC, Programmable Logic Controller) for the compressor control, an Allen Bradley (AB) PLC for the cryogenic equipments, and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) that integrates the PLCs. The system fully automates the superconducting cryogenic control with process control, PID (Proportional-Integral-Differential) control loops, real-time data access and data storage, alarm handler and human machine interface. It is capable of automatic recovery as well. This paper describes the BEPCII cryogenic control system, data communication between S7-PLC and EPICS Input/Output Controllers (IOCs), and the integration of the flow control, the low level interlock, the AB-PLC, and EPICS.

  20. The cryogenic control system of BEPCⅡ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; WANG Ke-Xiang; ZHAO Ji-Jiu; YUE Ke-Juan; DAI Ming-Sui; HUANG Yi-Ling; JIANG Bo

    2008-01-01

    A superconducting cryogenic system has been designed and deployed in the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider Upgrade Project(BEPCⅡ).The system consists of a Siemens PLC(ST-PLC,Programmable Logic Controller)for the compressor control,an Allen Bradley(AB)PLC for the cryogenic equipments,and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System(EPICS)that integrates the PLCs.The system fully automates the superconducting cryogenic control with process control,PID(Proportional-Integral-Differential)control loops,real-time data access and data storage,alarm handler and human machine interface.It is capable of automatic recovery as well.This paper describes the BEPCⅡ cryogenic control system,data communication between ST-PLC and EPICS Input/Output Controllers(IOCs),and the integration of the flow control,the low level interlock,the AB-PLC,and EPICS.

  1. Control and estimation of piecewise affine systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    As a powerful tool to study nonlinear systems and hybrid systems, piecewise affine (PWA) systems have been widely applied to mechanical systems. Control and Estimation of Piecewise Affine Systems presents several research findings relating to the control and estimation of PWA systems in one unified view. Chapters in this title discuss stability results of PWA systems, using piecewise quadratic Lyapunov functions and piecewise homogeneous polynomial Lyapunov functions. Explicit necessary and sufficient conditions for the controllability and reachability of a class of PWA systems are

  2. Control Systems and Number Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhuo Li

    2012-01-01

    and PID-controllers are applied successfully in the EV control by J.-Y. Cao and B.-G. Cao 2006 and Cao et al. 2007, which we may unify in our framework. Finally, we mention some similarities between control theory and zeta-functions.

  3. System Optimization by Periodic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-30

    extended re- sults are now contained in a single report [3] which will appear as a regular paper in the December, 1979 issue of the IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control . The...Test Revisited, " to appear in the IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control . 4. D. J. Lyons, "Improved Aircraft Cruise by Periodic Control," Ph. D

  4. Real time control engineering systems and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Tian Seng

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the two broad areas of the electronics and electrical aspects of control applications, highlighting the many different types of control systems of relevance to real-life control system design. The control techniques presented are state-of-the-art. In the electronics section, readers will find essential information on microprocessor, microcontroller, mechatronics and electronics control. The low-level assembly programming language performs basic input/output control techniques as well as controlling the stepper motor and PWM dc motor. In the electrical section, the book addresses the complete elevator PLC system design, neural network plant control, load flow analysis, and process control, as well as machine vision topics. Illustrative diagrams, circuits and programming examples and algorithms help to explain the details of the system function design. Readers will find a wealth of computer control and industrial automation practices and applications for modern industries, as well as the educat...

  5. ON FEEDBACK CONTROL OF DELAYED CHAOTIC SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽香; 彭海朋; 卢辉斌; 关新平

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two different types of feedback control technique are discussed: the standard feedback control and the time-delay feedback control which have been successfully used in many control systems. In order to understand to what extent the two different types of control technique are useful in delayed chaotic systems, some analytic stabilization conditions for chaos control from the two types of control technique are derived based on Lyapunov stabilization arguments. Similarly, we discuss the tracking problem by applying the time-delay feedback control. Finally, numerical examples are provided.

  6. Fault tolerant control design for hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Jiang, Bin [Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Cocquempot, Vincent [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-07-01

    This book intends to provide the readers a good understanding on how to achieve Fault Tolerant Control goal of Hybrid Systems. The book can be used as a reference for the academic research on Fault Tolerant Control and Hybrid Systems or used in Ph.D. study of control theory and engineering. The knowledge background for this monograph would be some undergraduate and graduate courses on Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control theory, linear system theory, nonlinear system theory, Hybrid Systems theory and Discrete Event System theory. (orig.)

  7. System Identification Tools for Control Structure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    DT! FILE COPY AL-TR-89-054 AD: 00 Final Report System Identification Tools for O for the period - September 1988 to Control Structure Interaction May...Classification) System Identification Tools for Control Structure Interaction (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Kosut, Robert L.; Kabuli, Guntekin M. 13a. TYPE OF...identification, dynamics, 22 01 system identification , robustness, dynamic modeling, robust 22 02 control design, control design procedure 19. ABSTRACT

  8. Effect of Perineural Dexamethasone on the Duration of Single Injection Saphenous Nerve Block for Analgesia After Major Ankle Surgery. A Randomized, Controlled Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Siska; Linde, Frank; Nielsen, Kristian Kibak;

    2016-01-01

    prolongs the duration of analgesia and postpones as well as reduces opioid-requiring pain. METHODS: Forty patients were included in this prospective, randomized, controlled study. All patients received a continuous sciatic catheter and were randomized to receive a single-injection saphenous nerve block...

  9. Intelligent control system of autonomous objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E. A.; Kovalev, I. V.; Engel, N. E.; Brezitskaya, V. V.; Prohorovich, G. A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an intelligent control system of autonomous objects as framework. The intelligent control framework includes two different layers: a reflexive layer and a reactive layer. The proposed multiagent adaptive fuzzy neuronet combines low-level reaction with high-level reasoning in an intelligent control framework. The formed as the multiagent adaptive fuzzy neuronet the intelligent control system on the base of autonomous object’s state, creates the effective control signal under random perturbations.

  10. Secure transmission of images based on chaotic systems and cipher block chaining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhani, Mahdieh Karimi; Behnam, Hamid; Karimi, Arash

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing penetration of communication networks, digital and Internet technologies in our everyday lives has the transmission of text data, as well as multimedia data such as images and videos, possible. Digital images have a vast usage in a number of applications, including medicine and providing security authentication, for example. This applicability becomes evident when images, such as walking or people's facial features, are utilized in their identification. Considering the required security level and the properties of images, different algorithms may be used. After key generation using logistic chaos signals, a scrambling function is utilized for image agitation in both horizontal and vertical axes, and then a block-chaining mode of operation may be applied to encrypt the resultant image. The results demonstrate that using the proposed method drastically degrades the correlation between the image components and also the entropy is increased to an acceptable level. Therefore, the image will become greatly resistant to differential attacks. However, the increasing scrambling rounds and the decreasing number of bits of the blocks result in increasing the entropy and decreasing the correlation.

  11. Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Beibei; Chen, Chang; Fua, Cheng-Heng; Lee, Tong Heng

    2012-01-01

    Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems provides a comprehensive treatment of helicopter systems, ranging from related nonlinear flight dynamic modeling and stability analysis to advanced control design for single helicopter systems, and also covers issues related to the coordination and formation control of multiple helicopter systems to achieve high performance tasks. Ensuring stability in helicopter flight is a challenging problem for nonlinear control design and development. This book is a valuable reference on modeling, control and coordination of helicopter systems,providing readers with practical solutions for the problems that still plague helicopter system design and implementation. Readers will gain a complete picture of helicopters at the systems level, as well as a better understanding of the technical intricacies involved. This book also: Presents a complete picture of modeling, control and coordination for helicopter systems Provides a modeling platform for a general class of ro...

  12. A new generation control system for astrophysical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirami, R.; Comari, M.; Corte, C.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Pucillo, M.; Santin, P.; Vuerli, C.

    A new generation control system for telescopes and astrophysical instruments, both by the software and hardware point of view, has been developed and tested at the laboratories of INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Trieste. In this paper we present a working prototype of such a system: a lightweight, portable, adaptive system, based on the most diffuse standards; such a prototype can be used as a general purpose building block in the design of new instruments. The software environment is based on Linux, Java and CORBA for the communications among the components of the system. The hardware has been chosen among COTS components; in particular the prototype presented here runs on a PC104+ platform.

  13. Multiple levels paravertebral block versus morphine patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative analgesia following breast cancer surgery with unilateral lumpectomy, and axillary lymph nodes dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summayah Fallatah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative pain after breast cancer surgery is not uncommon. Narcotic based analgesia is commonly used for postoperative pain management. However, the side-effects and complications of systemic narcotics is a significant disadvantage. Different locoregional anesthetic techniques have been tried including, single and multiple levels paravertebral block (PVB, which seems to have a significant reduction in immediate postoperative pain with fewer side-effects. The aim of this study was to compare unilateral multiple level PVB versus morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA for pain relief after breast cancer surgery with unilateral lumpectomy and axillary lymph nodes dissection. Materials and Methods: Forty patients scheduled for breast cancer surgery were randomized to receive either preoperative unilateral multiple injections PVB at five thoracic dermatomes (group P, 20 patients or postoperative intravenous PCA with morphine (group M, 20 patients for postoperative pain control. Numerical pain scale, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, Time to first analgesic demand, 24-h morphine consumption side-effects and length of hospital stay were recorded. Results: PVB resulted in a significantly more postoperative analgesia, maintained hemodynamic, more significant reduction in nausea and vomiting, and shorter hospital stay compared with PCA patients. Conclusion: Multiple levels PVB is an effective regional anesthetic technique for postoperative pain management, it provides superior analgesia with less narcotics consumption, and fewer side-effects compared with PCA morphine for patients with breast cancer who undergo unilateral lumpectomy, with axillary lymph nodes dissection.

  14. FORCED OSCILLATIONS IN NONLINEAR FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since a nonlinear feedback control system may possess more than one type of forced oscillations, it is highly desirable to investigate the type of...method for finding the existence of forced oscillations and response curve characteristics of a nonlinear feedback control system by means of finding the...second order feedback control system are investigated; the fundamental frequency forced oscillation for a higher order system and the jump resonance

  15. Exchange bias beyond the superparamagnetic blocking temperature of the antiferromagnet in a Ni-NiO nanoparticulate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.roy@ua.pt, E-mail: aparnaroy15@gmail.com; Ferreira, J. M. F. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); De Toro, J. A.; Muniz, P.; Riveiro, J. M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Amaral, V. S. [Department of Physics and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2014-02-21

    We report magnetic and exchange bias studies on Ni-NiO nanoparticulate systems synthesized by a two-step process, namely, chemical reduction of a Ni salt followed by air annealing of the dried precipitate in the temperature range 400–550 °C. Size of Ni and NiO crystallites as estimated from X–ray diffraction line broadening ranges between 10.5–13.5 nm and 2.3–4 nm, respectively. The magneto-thermal plots (M-T) of these bi-magnetic samples show a well developed peak in the vicinity of 130 K. This has been identified as the superparamagnetic blocking temperature “T{sub B}” of NiO. Interestingly, all samples exhibit exchange bias even above their respective NiO blocking temperatures, right up to 300 K, the maximum temperature of measurement. This is in contrast to previous reports since exchange bias requires the antiferromagnetic NiO to have a stable direction of its moment in order to pin the ferromagnet (Ni) magnetization, whereas such stability is unlikely above T{sub B} since the NiO is superparamagnetic, its moment flipping under thermal activation. Our observation is elucidated by taking into account the core-shell morphology of the Ni-NiO nanoparticles whereby clustering of some of these nanoparticles connects their NiO shells to form extended continuous regions of NiO, which because of their large size remain blocked at T > T{sub B}, with thermally stable spins capable of pinning the Ni cores and giving rise to exchange bias. The investigated samples may thus be envisaged as being constituted of both isolated core-shell Ni-NiO nanoparticles as well as clustered ones, with T{sub B} denoting the blocking temperature of the NiO shell of the isolated particles.

  16. Application of Improved Fuzzy Controller in Networked Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; GUO Xi-jin; WANG Zhen; TIAN Xi-lan

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of network-induced delay and data dropout in networked control system, an improved fuzzy controller is proposed in this paper. Considering the great influence of a controller on the performance of control system, an improved controller with a second order fuzzy controller and network-induced delay compensator being added to the basic fuzzy controller is proposed to realize self-regulation on-line. For this type of controller, neither plant model nor measurement of network delay is required. So it is capable of automatically adjusting quantified factor, proportional factor, and integral factor according to the control system error and its derivative. The design makes full use of the advantages of quickness in operation and reduction of steady state error because of its integral function. The controller has a good control effect on time-delay and can keep a better performance by self-regulation on-line in the network with data dropout and interference. It is good in quickness, adaptability, and robustness, which is favorable for controlling the long time-delay system.

  17. Linearizing Control of Induction Motor Based on Networked Control Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Ren; Chun-Wen Li; De-Zong Zhao

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to speed control of induction motors is developed by introducing networked control systems (NCSs) into the induction motor driving system. The control strategy is to stabilize and track the rotor speed of the induction motor when the network time delay occurs in the transport medium of network data. First, a feedback linearization method is used to achieve input-output linearization and decoupling control of the induction motor driving system based on rotor flux model, and then the characteristic of network data is analyzed in terms of the inherent network time delay. A networked control model of an induction motor is established. The sufficient condition of asymptotic stability for the networked induction motor driving system is given, and the state feedback controller is obtained by solving the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Simulation results verify the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  18. Performance of a space-time block coded code division multiple access system over Nakagami-m fading channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiangbin; Dong, Tao; Xu, Dazhuan; Bi, Guangguo

    2010-09-01

    By introducing an orthogonal space-time coding scheme, multiuser code division multiple access (CDMA) systems with different space time codes are given, and corresponding system performance is investigated over a Nakagami-m fading channel. A low-complexity multiuser receiver scheme is developed for space-time block coded CDMA (STBC-CDMA) systems. The scheme can make full use of the complex orthogonality of space-time block coding to simplify the high decoding complexity of the existing scheme. Compared to the existing scheme with exponential decoding complexity, it has linear decoding complexity. Based on the performance analysis and mathematical calculation, the average bit error rate (BER) of the system is derived in detail for integer m and non-integer m, respectively. As a result, a tight closed-form BER expression is obtained for STBC-CDMA with an orthogonal spreading code, and an approximate closed-form BER expression is attained for STBC-CDMA with a quasi-orthogonal spreading code. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve almost the same performance as the existing scheme with low complexity. Moreover, the simulation results for average BER are consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  19. A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanyang, Li; Hao, Jiang

    2014-03-01

    A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks is presented for enhancing the signal processing accuracy of the hearing aid. Compared with the conventional system, the accuracy optimized system is characterized by the dual feedback network and the gain compensation technique used in the front- and back-end blocks, respectively, so as to alleviate the nonlinearity distortion caused by the output swing. By using the technique, the accuracy of the whole hearing aid system can be significantly improved. The prototype chip has been designed with a 0.13 μm standard CMOS process and tested with 1 V supply voltage. The measurement results show that, for driving a 16 Ω loudspeaker with a normalized output level of 300 mVp-p, the total harmonic distortion reached about -60 dB, achieving at least three times reduction compared to the previously reported works. In addition, the typical input referred noise is only about 5 μVrms.

  20. Model-based control of networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Eloy; Montestruque, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    This monograph introduces a class of networked control systems (NCS) called model-based networked control systems (MB-NCS) and presents various architectures and control strategies designed to improve the performance of NCS. The overall performance of NCS considers the appropriate use of network resources, particularly network bandwidth, in conjunction with the desired response of the system being controlled.   The book begins with a detailed description of the basic MB-NCS architecture that provides stability conditions in terms of state feedback updates . It also covers typical problems in NCS such as network delays, network scheduling, and data quantization, as well as more general control problems such as output feedback control, nonlinear systems stabilization, and tracking control.   Key features and topics include: Time-triggered and event-triggered feedback updates Stabilization of uncertain systems subject to time delays, quantization, and extended absence of feedback Optimal control analysis and ...

  1. Robust tuning of robot control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minis, I.; Uebel, M.

    1992-01-01

    The computed torque control problem is examined for a robot arm with flexible, geared, joint drive systems which are typical in many industrial robots. The standard computed torque algorithm is not directly applicable to this class of manipulators because of the dynamics introduced by the joint drive system. The proposed approach to computed torque control combines a computed torque algorithm with torque controller at each joint. Three such control schemes are proposed. The first scheme uses the joint torque control system currently implemented on the robot arm and a novel form of the computed torque algorithm. The other two use the standard computed torque algorithm and a novel model following torque control system based on model following techniques. Standard tasks and performance indices are used to evaluate the performance of the controllers. Both numerical simulations and experiments are used in evaluation. The study shows that all three proposed systems lead to improved tracking performance over a conventional PD controller.

  2. Response Based Emergency Control System for Power System Transient Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiyuan Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A transient stability control system for the electric power system composed of a prediction method and a control method is proposed based on trajectory information. This system, which is independent of system parameters and models, can detect the transient stability of the electric power system quickly and provide the control law when the system is unstable. Firstly, system instability is detected by the characteristic concave or convex shape of the trajectory. Secondly, the control method is proposed based on the analysis of the slope of the state plane trajectory when the power system is unstable. Two control objectives are provided according to the methods of acquiring the far end point: one is the minimal cost to restore the system to a stable state; the other one is the minimal cost to limit the maximum swing angle. The simulation indicates that the mentioned transient stability control system is efficient.

  3. Optimal Control of Switched Systems based on Bezier Control Points

    OpenAIRE

    FatemeGhomanjani; Mohammad HadiFarahi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for solving optimal control problems for switched systems. We focus on problems in which a pre-specified sequence of active subsystems is given. For such problems, we need to seek both the optimal switching instants and the optimal continuous inputs. A Bezier control points method is applied for solving an optimal control problem which is supervised by a switched dynamic system. Two steps of approximation exist here. First, the time interval is divided into ...

  4. Access control and personal identification systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Dan M

    1988-01-01

    Access Control and Personal Identification Systems provides an education in the field of access control and personal identification systems, which is essential in selecting the appropriate equipment, dealing intelligently with vendors in purchases of the equipment, and integrating the equipment into a total effective system. Access control devices and systems comprise an important part of almost every security system, but are seldom the sole source of security. In order for the goals of the total system to be met, the other portions of the security system must also be well planned and executed

  5. A Fuzzy Control Irrigation System For Cottonfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Yandong; Wang, Yiming; Li, Jinping

    A fuzzy control irrigation system for cotton field is presented in this paper. The system is composed of host computer, slave computer controller, communication module, soil water sensors, valve controllers, and system software. A fuzzy control model is constructed to control the irrigation time and irrigation quantity for cotton filed. According to the water-required rules of different cotton growing periods, different irrigation strategies can be carried out automatically. This system had been used for precision irrigation of the cotton field in Langfang experimental farm of Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in 2006. The results show that the fuzzy control irrigation system can improve cotton yield and save much water quantity than the irrigation system based on simple on-off control algorithm.

  6. Geometric Control of Patterned Linear Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Sarah C

    2012-01-01

    This monograph is aiming at researchers of systems control, especially those interested in multiagent systems, distributed and decentralized control, and structured systems. The book assumes no prior background in geometric control theory; however, a first year graduate course in linear control systems is desirable.  Since not all control researchers today are exposed to geometric control theory, the book also adopts a tutorial style by way of examples that illustrate the geometric and abstract algebra concepts used in linear geometric control. In addition, the matrix calculations required for the studied control synthesis problems of linear multivariable control are illustrated via a set of running design examples. As such, some of the design examples are of higher dimension than one may typically see in a text; this is so that all the geometric features of the design problem are illuminated.

  7. A new control system for ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, D; Brand, H; Herfurth, F; Schwarz, S

    2004-01-01

    A new LabVIEW-based control system for the ISOLTRAP facility at ISOLDE/CERN has been implemented by using the Control System (CS) framework which has been developed by DVEE/GSI during the last two years. CS is an object-oriented, multi-threaded, event-driven framework with Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) functionality. It allows one to implement distributed control systems by adding experiment specific add-ons. This paper gives an overview on the CS framework, describes the requirements for ISOLTRAP and reports on the implementation of the new control system.

  8. Zitongxi Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Zitongxi Block (Western Zitong Block), is located in Zitong County, northwest of Sichuan Province (as shown on Fig. 8 ). Geologically. it is situated in the Zitong Depression, southwest of the middle Longmenshan faulted and folded belt, covering an area of 1 830 km2. Transportation is very convenient. A crisscross network of highways run through the block and the Baocheng railway is nearby. The climate is moderate. Most area belongs to hilly land with the elevation of 500-600 m.The Tongjiang River runs across the area.

  9. Self-optimising control of sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Montero-Castro, Ignacio; Mollerup, Ane Loft;

    The design of sewer system control is a complex task given the large size of the sewer networks, the transient dynamics of the water flows and the stochastic nature of rainfall. This contribution presents a generic methodology for the design of a self-optimising controller in sewer systems...... to design an optimising control strategy for a subcathcment area in Copenhagen....

  10. Evolved Finite State Controller For Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary methodology to automatically generate nite state automata (FSA) controllers to control hybrid systems. FSA controllers for a case study of two-tank system have been successfully obtained using the proposed evolutionary approach. Experimental results show...

  11. Non-Linear Detection for Joint Space-Frequency Block Coding and Spatial Multiplexing in OFDM-MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Imadur Mohamed; Marchetti, Nicola; Fitzek, Frank;

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we have analyzed a joint spatial diversity and multiplexing transmission structure for MIMO-OFDM system, where Orthogonal Space-Frequency Block Coding (OSFBC) is used across all spatial multiplexing branches. We have derived a BLAST-like non-linear Successive Interference Cancellation...... in this paper. We have found that a linear two-stage receiver for the proposed system [1] performs very close to the non-linear receiver studied in this work. Finally, we compared the system performance in spatially correlated scenario. It is found that higher amount of spatial correlation at the transmitter...... (SIC) receiver where the detection is done on subcarrier by sub-carrier basis based on both Zero Forcing (ZF) and Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) nulling criterion for the system. In terms of Frame Error Rate (FER), MMSE based SIC receiver performs better than all other receivers compared...

  12. Design Error Performance of Space-Frequency Block Coded OFDM Systems with Different Equalizers and For Different Modulation Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijhun Tripathi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available —Multiple transmit and receive antennas can be used to form multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO channels to increase the capacity (by a factor of the minimum number of transmit and receive antennas and data rate. In this paper, the combination of MIMO technology and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM systems is considered for wideband transmission to mitigate inter symbol interference and to enhance system capacity. It owns the advantages of both MIMO and OFDM. MIMO-OFDM system exploits the space and frequency diversity simultaneously to improve the performance of system. The coding is done across OFDM subcarriers rather than OFDM symbols. In this paper, the performance of Space-Frequency (SF block coding for MIMO-OFDM along with different equalizers is investigated. Bit Error Rate (BER analysis is presented using different equalizers and then optimum equalization method is suggested.

  13. Comparison of Periodontal Ligament Injection and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Mandibular Primary Molars Pulpotomy: A Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgoo, Roza; Taleghani, Ferial

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inferior alveolar nerve block is a common technique for anesthesia of the primary mandibular molars. A number of disadvantages have been shown to be associated with this technique. Periodontal ligament (PDL) injection could be considered as an alternative to inferior alveolar nerve block. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PDL injection in the anesthesia of primary molar pulpotomy with mandibular block. Methods: This study was performed using a sequential double-blind randomized trial design. 80 children aged 3-7 years old who required pulpotomy in symmetrical mandibular primary molars were selected. The teeth of these children were anesthetized with periodontal injection on one side of the mandible and block on the other. Pulpotomy was performed on each patient during the same appointment. Signs of discomfort, including hand and body tension and eye movement, the verbal complaint and crying (SEM scale), were evaluated by a dental assistant who was blinded to the treatment allocation of the patients. Finally, the data were analyzed using the exact Fisher test and Pearson Chi-squared exact test. Results: Success rate was 88/75 and 91/25 in the PDL injection and nerve block groups, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the two techniques (P = 0.250). Conclusion: Results showed that PDL injection can be used as an alternative to nerve block in pulpotomy of the mandibular primary molars. PMID:26028895

  14. Filtering and control of wireless networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Dan; Yu, Li

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained book, written by leading experts, offers a cutting-edge, in-depth overview of the filtering and control of wireless networked systems. It addresses the energy constraint and filter/controller gain variation problems, and presents both the centralized and the distributed solutions. The first two chapters provide an introduction to networked control systems and basic information on system analysis. Chapters (3–6) then discuss the centralized filtering of wireless networked systems, presenting different approaches to deal with energy efficiency and filter/controller gain variation problems. The next part (chapters 7–10) explores the distributed filtering of wireless networked systems, addressing the main problems of energy constraint and filter gain variation. The final part (chapters 11–14) focuses on the distributed control of wireless networked systems. systems for communication and control applications, the bo...

  15. Jefferson Lab Data Acquisition Run Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardan Gyurjyan; Carl Timmer; David Abbott; William Heyes; Edward Jastrzembski; David Lawrence; Elliott Wolin

    2004-10-01

    A general overview of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition run control system is presented. This run control system is designed to operate the configuration, control, and monitoring of all Jefferson Lab experiments. It controls data-taking activities by coordinating the operation of DAQ sub-systems, online software components and third-party software such as external slow control systems. The main, unique feature which sets this system apart from conventional systems is its incorporation of intelligent agent concepts. Intelligent agents are autonomous programs which interact with each other through certain protocols on a peer-to-peer level. In this case, the protocols and standards used come from the domain-independent Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA), and the implementation used is the Java Agent Development Framework (JADE). A lightweight, XML/RDF-based language was developed to standardize the description of the run control system for configuration purposes.

  16. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Abbott; V. Gyurjyan; G. Heyes; E. Jastrzembski; C. Timmer; E. Wolin

    2003-03-01

    A control system with the capabilities to combine heterogeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents' engineering aspects are addressed by adopting the domain independent software standard, formulated by FIPA. Jade core Java classes are used as a FIPA specification implementation. A special, lightweight, XML RDFS based, control oriented, ontology markup language is developed to standardize the description of the arbitrary control system data processor. Control processes, described in this language, are integrated into the global system at runtime, without actual programming. Fault tolerance and recovery issues are also addressed.

  17. Improving industrial process control systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Epting, U; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2004-01-01

    System providers are today creating process control systems based on remote connectivity using internet technology, effectively exposing these systems to the same threats as corporate computers. It is becoming increasingly difficult and costly to patch/maintain the technical infrastructure monitoring and control systems to remove these vulnerabilities. A strategy including risk assessment, security policy issues, service level agreements between the IT department and the controls engineering groups must be defined. In addition an increased awareness of IT security in the controls system engineering domain is needed. As consequence of these new factors the control system architectures have to take into account security requirements, that often have an impact on both operational aspects as well as on the project and maintenance cost. Manufacturers of industrial control system equipment do however also propose progressively security related solutions that can be used for our active projects. The paper discusses ...

  18. Improved control of delayed measured systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Jens Christian; Schuster, Heinz Georg

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, we address the question of how the control of delayed measured chaotic systems can be improved. Both unmodified Ott-Grebogi-Yorke control and difference control can be successfully applied only for a certain range of Lyapunov numbers depending on the delay time. We show that this limitation can be overcome by at least two classes of methods, namely, by rhythmic control and by the memory methods of linear predictive logging control and memory difference control.

  19. Control system for garbage disposition. Gomi shori seigyo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, S.; Kaneko, H. (Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-06-10

    This paper introduces the latest incinerator instrument control system (IICS), and pneumatic refuse transportation and optimal operation systems for incineration plants. Garbage disposition facilities have introduced discrete control systems and a centralized control system using computers, and structured an overall incineration plant control system containing incineration facilities, electric power generation facilities, and other facilities. The IICS comprises softwares packaging control functions required particularly for garbage disposition and a control system mounting the softwares. The optimal incineration plant operation system governs control data in each plant to execute efficient drives and operations mutually in various plants, and reflects the data to plant operation programs. The pneumatic refuse transportation system has large-diameter pipelines laid in a limited area to collect refuses pneumatically through refuse chutes installed in the area to transport them to a refuse collection center. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Flexible AC transmission systems modelling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Pal, Bikash

    2012-01-01

    The extended and revised second edition of this successful monograph presents advanced modeling, analysis and control techniques of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). The book covers comprehensively a range of power-system control problems: from steady-state voltage and power flow control, to voltage and reactive power control, to voltage stability control, to small signal stability control using FACTS controllers. In the six years since the first edition of the book has been published research on the FACTS has continued to flourish while renewable energy has developed into a mature and