WorldWideScience

Sample records for bloch theory

  1. A theory of generalized Bloch oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggen, Lars; Lew Yan Voon, L C; Lassen, Benny; Willatzen, Morten

    2016-04-20

    Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact calculation is given to confirm this phenomenon. Our results allow for a greater freedom of design for experimentally observing Bloch oscillations. For strongly coupled oscillator systems displaying Bloch oscillations, it is further demonstrated that reordering of oscillators leads to destruction of Bloch oscillations. We stipulate that the presented theory of generalized Bloch oscillations can be extended to other systems such as acoustics and photonics.

  2. A theory of generalized Bloch oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Lassen, Benny;

    2016-01-01

    Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact cal...... oscillations. We stipulate that the presented theory of generalized Bloch oscillations can be extended to other systems such as acoustics and photonics.......Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact...... calculation is given to confirm this phenomenon. Our results allow for a greater freedom of design for experimentally observing Bloch oscillations. For strongly coupled oscillator systems displaying Bloch oscillations, it is further demonstrated that reordering of oscillators leads to destruction of Bloch...

  3. The Bloch-Kato Conjecture and Galois Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Karagueuzian, Dikran; Miná\\vc, Ján

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the relations in Galois groups of maximal p-extensions of fields, the structure of their natural filtrations, and their relationship with the Bloch-Kato conjecture proved by Rost and Voevodsky with Weibel's patch. Our main focus is on the third degree, but we provide examples for all degrees.

  4. Quantum Theory of Conducting Matter Newtonian Equations of Motion for a Bloch Electron

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Shigeji

    2007-01-01

    Quantum Theory of Conducting Matter: Newtonian Equations of Motion for a Bloch Electron targets scientists, researchers and graduate-level students focused on experimentation in the fields of physics, chemistry, electrical engineering, and material sciences. It is important that the reader have an understanding of dynamics, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, electromagnetism and solid-state physics. Many worked-out problems are included in the book to aid the reader's comprehension of the subject. The Bloch electron (wave packet) moves by following the Newtonian equation of motion. Under an applied magnetic field B the electron circulates around the field B counterclockwise or clockwise depending on the curvature of the Fermi surface. The signs of the Hall coefficient and the Seebeck coefficient are known to give the sign of the major carrier charge. For alkali metals, both are negative, indicating that the carriers are "electrons." These features arise from the Fermi surface difference...

  5. Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory engine implementation using symbolic processing software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprov, Ilya; Wagner-Rundell, Nicola; Hore, P J

    2007-02-01

    We describe a general method for the automated symbolic processing of Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness relaxation theory equations for liquid-phase spin dynamics in the algebraically challenging case of rotationally modulated interactions. The processing typically takes no more than a few seconds (on a contemporary single-processor workstation) and yields relaxation rate expressions that are completely general with respect to the spectral density functions, relative orientations, and magnitudes of the interaction tensors, with all cross-correlations accounted for. The algorithm easily deals with fully rhombic interaction tensors, and is able, with little if any modification, to treat a large variety of the relaxation mechanisms encountered in NMR, EPR, and spin dynamics in general.

  6. Deformed Harmonic Oscillators for Metal Clusters and Balian-Bloch Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatsos, D; Raychev, P P; Terziev, P A; Bonatsos, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    The predictions for the shell structure of metal clusters of the three-dimensional q-deformed harmonic oscillator (3D q-HO), utilizing techniques of quantum groups and having the symmetry Uq(3)$\\supset$SOq(3), are compared to the restrictions imposed by the periodic orbit theory of Balian and Bloch, of electrons moving in a spherical cavity. It is shown that agreement between the predictions of the two models is established through the introduction of an additional term to the Hamiltonian of the 3D q-HO, which does not influence the predictions for supershells. This term preserves the Uq(3)$\\supset$SOq(3) symmetry, while in addition it can be derived through a variational procedure, analogous to the one leading from the usual harmonic oscillator to the Morse oscillator by introducing the concept of the Variable Frequency Oscillator (VFO).

  7. A two-level atom and the problem of the radiation reaction in the semiclassical theory: optical Bloch equations revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdutovich, G. I.; Ghiner, A. V.

    2000-08-01

    A famous model of a two-level atom interacting with the classical electromagnetic field is used to illustrate the fundamental problem of the relationship between the dynamical and relaxation processes under the interaction of radiation with a quantum-mechanical system and, as a result, to derive nonlinear Bloch-like equations. The presented considerations are based on the analysis of the balance of the fluxes of energy between atomic and field subsystems. It is shown that the generally accepted model of the exponential relaxation deduced for an isolated excited atom and inserted customarily into optical Bloch equations (OBE) describing atom in an external field always leads to a very strange result: spontaneous emission of an atom should be accompanied by the radiation of the coherent field into the external field's mode. Making use of only the energetic considerations, we found the relaxation mechanism (in the form of additional terms in the OBE) which, on the one hand, guarantees the fulfillment of the energetic balance and, on the other hand, allows to introduce arbitrary additional collision-like relaxation mechanism without violation of this balance. Note that these additional terms introduced into OBE from the energetic considerations in a remarkable manner exactly correspond to the renormalization of the external field with the allowance of the classical radiation damping (RD) effect. The revisited OBE may be used as the starting point for considering the dynamics of an atom by making allowance for the quantum properties of an external field.

  8. Resonant Bloch-wave beatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Torner, Lluis

    2014-07-01

    We introduce Bloch-wave beatings in arrays of multimode periodically bent waveguides with a transverse refractive index gradient. The new phenomenon manifests itself in the periodic drastic increase of the amplitude of the Bloch oscillations that accompanies resonant conversion of modes guided by the individual waveguides. The Bloch-wave beatings are found to be most pronounced when the length of the resonant mode conversion substantially exceeds the longitudinal period of the Bloch oscillations. The beating frequency decreases when the amplitude of waveguide bending decreases, while the beating amplitude is restricted by the amplitude of the Bloch oscillations that emerge from the second allowed band of the Floquet-Bloch lattice spectrum.

  9. Resonant Bloch-wave beatings

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Torner, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    We introduce Bloch-wave beatings in arrays of multimode periodically bent waveguides with a transverse refractive index gradient. The new phenomenon manifests itself in the periodic drastic increase of the amplitude of the Bloch oscillations that accompanies resonant conversion of modes guided by the individual waveguides. The Bloch-wave beatings are found to be most pronounced when the length of the resonant mode conversion substantially exceeds the longitudinal period of the Bloch oscillations. The beating frequency decreases when the amplitude of waveguide bending decreases, while the beating amplitude is restricted by the amplitude of the Bloch oscillations that emerge from the second allowed band of the Floquet-Bloch lattice spectrum.

  10. CF3 Rotation in 3-(Trifluoromethyl)phenanthrene: Solid State 19F and 1H NMR relaxation and Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Peter A; Rosenberg, Jessie; Nordstrom, Kerstin; Mallory, Clelia W; Mallory, Frank B

    2006-03-23

    We have observed and modeled the 1H and 19F solid-state nuclear spin relaxation process in polycrystalline 3-(trifluoromethyl)phenanthrene. The relaxation rates for the two spin species were observed from 85 to 300 K at the low NMR frequencies of omega/2pi = 22.5 and 53.0 MHz where CF3 rotation, characterized by a mean time tau between hops, is the only motion on the NMR time scale. All motional time scales (omegatau 1) are observed. The 1H spins are immobile on the NMR time scale but are coupled to the 19F spins via the unlike-spin dipole-dipole interaction. The temperature dependence of the observed relaxation rates (the relaxation is biexponential) shows considerable structure and a thorough analysis of Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory for this coupled spin system is provided. The activation energy for CF3 rotation is 11.5 +/- 0.7 kJ/mol, in excellent agreement with the calculation in a 13-molecule cluster provided in the companion paper where the crystal structure is reported and detailed ab initio electronic structure calculations are performed [Wang, X.; Mallory F. B.; Mallory, C. W; Beckmann, P. A.; Rheingold, A. L.; Francl, M. M J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 3954].

  11. Tunable Bloch Wave Resonances and Bloch Gaps in Uniform Materials with Reconfigurable Boundary Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebnyak, Victor A.; Furlani, Edward P.

    2016-05-01

    We study wave propagation in uniform materials with periodic boundary profiles and introduce for the first time Bloch resonances and Bloch gaps. Bloch resonances are due to transverse phase matching, i.e., the coupling of two transverse standing waves corresponding to different harmonics. These are distinct from well-known Bragg resonances that result from longitudinal phase matching. We show that Bloch gaps can be engineered over the entire first Brillouin zone up to an infinite wavelength, i.e., kx=0 , where kx is the wave number in the direction of propagation. This is in contrast to Bragg gaps that open at a fixed wavelength, twice the period of the structure. Bloch resonances and gaps can be tuned by reconfiguring the boundary profile and we derive analytical expressions that predict these phenomena when the amplitude of the profile is small. The theory is fundamental as it broadly applies to wave phenomena that span the quantum to continuum scale with applications that range from condensed matter to acoustics. We validate the theory experimentally for the electromagnetic field at GHz frequencies. We also discuss potential photonic and electronic applications of the theory such as a white-light distributed feedback laser and a two-dimensional electron gas transistor.

  12. ON UNIVALENT BLOCH FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new characterization of univalent Bloch functions is given by investigating the growth order of an essentially increasing function. Our contribution can be considered as a slight improvement of the well-known Pommerenke's result and its all generalizations, and the proof presented in this paper is independently developed.

  13. Generalized Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield Kinetic Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Fatkullin, Nail

    2011-01-01

    We present a compact and general derivation of the generalized Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield kinetic equations for systems with the static spin Hamiltonian utilizing the concept of the Liouville space. We show that the assumptions of short correlation times and large heat capacity of the lattice are sufficient to derive the kinetic equations without the use of perturbation theory for the spin-lattice interaction operator. The perturbation theory is only applied for calculation of the kinetic coeff...

  14. Resummations in the Bloch-Nordsieck model

    CERN Document Server

    Jakovac, A

    2011-01-01

    We studied different levels of resummations of the exactly solvable Bloch-Nordsieck model in order to be able to compare the approximations with an exact result. We studied one-loop perturbation theory, 2PI resummation and Schwinger-Dyson equations truncated in a way to maintain Ward-identities. At all levels we carefully performed renormalization. We found that although the 2PI resummation does not exhibit infrared sensitivity at the mass shell (the one-loop perturbation theory does), but it is still far from the exact solution. The method of truncated Schwinger-Dyson equations, however, is exact in this model, so it provides a new way of solving the Bloch-Nordsieck model. This method can also be generalized to other, more complicated theories.

  15. Symmetric States on the Octonionic Bloch Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    Finite-dimensional homogeneous self-dual cones arise as natural candidates for convex sets of states and effects in a variety of approaches towards understanding the foundations of quantum theory in terms of information-theoretic concepts. The positive cone of the ten-dimensional Jordan-algebraic spin factor is one particular instantiation of such a convex set in generalized frameworks for quantum theory. We consider a projection of the regular 9-simplex onto the octonionic projective line to form a highly symmetric structure of ten octonionic quantum states on the surface of the octonionic Bloch ball. A uniform subnormalization of these ten symmetric states yields a symmetric informationally complete octonionic quantum measurement. We discuss a Quantum Bayesian reformulation of octonionic quantum formalism for the description of two-dimensional physical systems. We also describe a canonical embedding of the octonionic Bloch ball into an ambient space for states in usual complex quantum theory.

  16. Green's function and Bloch theory for the analysis of the dynamic response of a periodically supported beam to a moving load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassoued, R.; Lecheheb, M.; Bonnet, G.

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes an analytical method for the wave field induced by a moving load on a periodically supported beam. The Green's function for an Euler beam without support is evaluated by using the direct integration. Afterwards, it introduces the supports into the model established by using the superposition principle which states that the response from all the sleeper points and from the external point force add up linearly to give a total response. The periodicity of the supports is described by Bloch's theorem. The homogeneous system thus obtained represents a linear differential equation which governs rail response. It is initially solved in the homogeneous case, and it admits a no null solution if its determinant is null, this permits the establishment the dispersion equation to Bloch waves and wave bands. The Bloch waves and dispersion curves contain all the physics of the dynamic problem and the wave field induced by a dynamic load applied to the system is finally obtained by decomposition into Bloch waves, similarly to the usual decomposition into dynamic modes on a finite structure. The method is applied to obtain the field induced by a load moving at constant velocity on a thin beam supported by periodic elastic supports.

  17. Polychromatic optical Bloch oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2009-07-15

    Bloch oscillations (BOs) of polychromatic beams in circularly curved optical waveguide arrays are smeared out owing to the dependence of the BO spatial period on the wavelength. Here it is shown that restoring of the self-imaging property of the array and approximate BOs over relatively broad spectral ranges can be achieved by the insertion of suitable lumped phase slips uniformly applied across the array.

  18. Entangled Bloch Spheres: Bloch Matrix And Two Qubit State Space

    CERN Document Server

    Gamel, Omar

    2016-01-01

    We represent a two qubit density matrix in the basis of Pauli matrix tensor products, with the coefficients constituting a Bloch matrix, analogous to the single qubit Bloch vector. We find the quantum state positivity requirements on the Bloch matrix components, leading to three important inequalities, allowing us to parameterize and visualize the two qubit state space. Applying the singular value decomposition naturally separates the degrees of freedom to local and nonlocal, and simplifies the positivity inequalities. It also allows us to geometrically represent a state as two entangled Bloch spheres with superimposed correlation axes. It is shown that unitary transformations, local or nonlocal, have simple interpretations as axis rotations or mixing of certain degrees of freedom. The nonlocal unitary invariants of the state are then derived in terms of local unitary invariants. The positive partial transpose criterion for entanglement is generalized, and interpreted as a reflection, or a change of a single ...

  19. Optical BLOCH oscillations and Zener tunneling with nonclassical light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2008-11-01

    A quantum theory of optical Bloch oscillations and Zener tunneling (ZT) in arrays of coupled waveguides is theoretically presented, and the particlelike behavior of photons undergoing ZT is highlighted. In singly-periodic arrays excited by a photon-number-state input beam, each photon behaves as a classical particle which independently undergoes a coin-toss ZT event with a probability described by classical Zener theory. In binary arrays, excitation with two tilted beams enables us to observe the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference for two photons undergoing Bloch-Zener oscillations.

  20. Fundamentals and applications of the Landau–Lifshitz–Bloch equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atxitia, U.; Hinzke, D.; Nowak, U.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of thermal excitations on magnetic materials is a topic of increasing relevance in the theory of magnetism. The Landau–Lifshitz–Bloch equation describes magnetisation dynamics at finite temperatures. It can be considered as an extension of already established micromagnetic methods with a comparable numerical effort. This review is a brief summary of this new field of research, with a focus on the fundamentals of the Landau–Lifshitz–Bloch equation, its connection with the stochastic Landau–Lifshitz equation, and its applications in modern magnetism.

  1. Generation of 1D interference patterns of Bloch surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadomina, E. A.; Bezus, E. A.; Doskolovich, L. L.

    2016-09-01

    Interference patterns of Bloch surface waves with a period that is significantly less than the wavelength of incident radiation are formed using dielectric diffraction gratings located on the surface of photonic crystal. The simulation based on electromagnetic diffraction theory is used to demonstrate the possibility of high-quality interference patterns due to resonant enhancement of higher evanescent diffraction orders related to the excitation of the Bloch surface waves. The contrast of the interference patterns is close to unity, and the period is less than the period of the diffraction structure by an order of magnitude.

  2. Observation of anharmonic Bloch oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisow, Felix; Wang, Gang; Heinrich, Matthias; Keil, Robert; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander

    2011-10-15

    We report on the experimental observation of Bloch oscillations of an optical wave packet in a lattice with second-order coupling. To this end, we employ zigzag waveguide arrays, in which the second-order coupling can be precisely tuned.

  3. EPR studies of the Mo-enzyme aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas: an application of the Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory to a system containing weakly-coupled paramagnetic redox centers with different relaxation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Pablo J; Barrera, Guillermo I; Rizzi, Alberto C; Moura, José J G; Passeggi, Mario C G; Brondino, Carlos D

    2009-10-01

    Electron transfer proteins and redox enzymes containing paramagnetic redox centers with different relaxation rates are widespread in nature. Despite both the long distances and chemical paths connecting these centers, they can present weak magnetic couplings produced by spin-spin interactions such as dipolar and isotropic exchange. We present here a theoretical model based on the Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory to analyze the dependence with temperature of EPR spectra of interacting pairs of spin 1/2 centers having different relaxation rates, as is the case of the molybdenum-containing enzyme aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas. We analyze the changes of the EPR spectra of the slow relaxing center (Mo(V)) induced by the faster relaxing center (FeS center). At high temperatures, when the relaxation time T(1) of the fast relaxing center is very short, the magnetic coupling between centers is averaged to zero. Conversely, at low temperatures when T(1) is longer, no modulation of the coupling between metal centers can be detected.

  4. Bloch oscillations in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jódar, Esther; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio; Rojas, Fernando

    2009-05-27

    Bloch oscillations arise when electrons are in a one-dimensional linear chain of atoms under a constant electric field. In this paper we show numerically that electrons in different types of carbon nanotubes show oscillations with a Bloch frequency proportional to the constant electric field applied along the nanotube axis. We show these oscillations, calculating the quadratic displacement as a function of the electric field. Because of the double periodicity of the nanotubes' geometry (the lattice constant and the lines of atoms) two frequencies appear, one twice the value of the other. These frequencies coincide perfectly with those predicted for a linear chain of atoms, taking into account the periodicity considered in each case.

  5. Bloch oscillations in carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodar, Esther; Perez-Garrido, Antonio [Departamento Fisica Aplicada, Antiguo Hospital de Marina Campus Muralla del Mar, UPCT, Cartagena 30202 Murcia (Spain); Rojas, Fernando [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia-UNAM, Apartado Postal 356, Ensenada, Baja California 22800 (Mexico)], E-mail: ejodar@upct.es

    2009-05-27

    Bloch oscillations arise when electrons are in a one-dimensional linear chain of atoms under a constant electric field. In this paper we show numerically that electrons in different types of carbon nanotubes show oscillations with a Bloch frequency proportional to the constant electric field applied along the nanotube axis. We show these oscillations, calculating the quadratic displacement as a function of the electric field. Because of the double periodicity of the nanotubes' geometry (the lattice constant and the lines of atoms) two frequencies appear, one twice the value of the other. These frequencies coincide perfectly with those predicted for a linear chain of atoms, taking into account the periodicity considered in each case. (fast track communication)

  6. Bloch state tomography using Wilson lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tracy; Duca, Lucia; Reitter, Martin; Grusdt, Fabian; Demler, Eugene; Endres, Manuel; Schleier-Smith, Monika; Bloch, Immanuel; Schneider, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    Topology and geometry are essential to our understanding of modern physics, underlying many foundational concepts from high-energy theories, quantum information, and condensed-matter physics. In condensed-matter systems, a wide range of phenomena stem from the geometry of the band eigenstates, which is encoded in the matrix-valued Wilson line for general multiband systems. Using an ultracold gas of rubidium atoms loaded in a honeycomb optical lattice, we realize strong-force dynamics in Bloch bands that are described by Wilson lines and observe an evolution in the band populations that directly reveals the band geometry. Our technique enables a full determination of band eigenstates, Berry curvature, and topological invariants, including single- and multiband Chern and Z2 numbers.

  7. Reexamination of Bloch-Messiah reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco; Pierobon, Gianfranco

    2016-06-01

    The Bloch-Messiah (BM) reduction allows the decomposition of an arbitrarily complicated Gaussian unitary into a very simple scheme in which linear optical components are separated from nonlinear ones. It is based on the combined application of the eigendecomposition (EID) and singular value decomposition (SVD) of the two matrices associated to the Bogoliubov transformation of the given Gaussian unitary, with the constraint that the unitary matrices appearing in the SVDs must verify a stringent condition, called in the paper "rotation condition". Thus, for a correct evaluation of the BM reduction, one has to choose, among the possible SVD pairs, the pair that meets this condition. The paper develops an approach to this problem, which is based on the introduction of a balancing matrix in the SVDs to fulfill the rotation condition. The theory is illustrated with a few application examples.

  8. Hybrid Bloch-Anderson localization of light

    CERN Document Server

    Stutzer, Simon; Vysloukh, Victor A; Konotop, Vladimir V; Nolte, Stefan; Torner, Lluis; Szameit, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the interplay of Bloch oscillations and Anderson localization in optics. Gradual washing out of Bloch oscillations and the formation of nearly stationary averaged intensity distributions, which are symmetric for narrow and strongly asymmetric for broad input excitations, are observed experimentally in laser-written waveguide arrays. At large disorder levels Bloch oscillations are completely destroyed and both narrow and wide excitations lead to symmetric stationary averaged intensity distributions with exponentially decaying tails.

  9. Optical analogue of electronic Bloch oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Riccardo; Costantino, Paola; Wiersma, Diederik; Ghulinyan, Mher; Oton, Claudio J; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2003-12-31

    We report on the observation of Bloch oscillations in light transport through periodic dielectric systems. By introducing a linear refractive index gradient along the propagation direction the optical equivalent of a Wannier-Stark ladder was obtained. Bloch oscillations were observed as time-resolved oscillations in transmission, in direct analogy to electronic Bloch oscillations in conducting crystals where the Wannier-Stark ladder is obtained via an external electric field. The observed oscillatory behavior is in excellent agreement with transfer matrix calculations.

  10. Hybrid Bloch-Anderson localization of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stützer, Simon; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Konotop, Vladimir V; Nolte, Stefan; Torner, Lluis; Szameit, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the interplay of Bloch oscillations and Anderson localization in optics. Gradual washing out of Bloch oscillations and the formation of nearly stationary averaged intensity distributions, which are symmetric for narrow and strongly asymmetric for broad input excitations, are observed experimentally in laser-written waveguide arrays. At large disorder levels Bloch oscillations are completely destroyed and both narrow and wide excitations lead to symmetric stationary averaged intensity distributions with exponentially decaying tails.

  11. Hybrid Bloch-Anderson localization of light

    OpenAIRE

    Stutzer, Simon; Yaroslav V. Kartashov; Vysloukh, Victor A.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Nolte, Stefan; Torner, Lluis; Szameit, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the interplay of Bloch oscillations and Anderson localization in optics. Gradual washing out of Bloch oscillations and the formation of nearly stationary averaged intensity distributions, which are symmetric for narrow and strongly asymmetric for broad input excitations, are observed experimentally in laser-written waveguide arrays. At large disorder levels Bloch oscillations are completely destroyed and both narrow and wide excitations lead to symmetric stationary averaged int...

  12. Damping of Bloch oscillations in the Hubbard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Martin; Werner, Philipp

    2011-10-28

    Using nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory, we study the isolated Hubbard model in a static electric field in the limit of weak interactions. Linear response behavior is established at long times, but only if the interaction exceeds a critical value, below which the system exhibits an ac-type response with Bloch oscillations. The transition from ac to dc response is defined in terms of the universal long-time behavior of the system, which does not depend on the initial condition.

  13. Weak solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Kim Ngan

    2016-12-01

    The Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch (LLB) equation is a formulation of dynamic micromagnetics valid at all temperatures, treating both the transverse and longitudinal relaxation components important for high-temperature applications. We study LLB equation in case the temperature raised higher than the Curie temperature. The existence of weak solution is showed and its regularity properties are also discussed. In this way, we lay foundations for the rigorous theory of LLB equation that is currently not available.

  14. Stable BLOCH oscillations of cold atoms with time-dependent interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, C; Lima, R P A; Díaz, E; Müller, C A; Domínguez-Adame, F

    2009-06-26

    We investigate Bloch oscillations of interacting cold atoms in a mean-field framework. In general, atom-atom interaction causes dephasing and destroys Bloch oscillations. Here we show that Bloch oscillations are persistent if the interaction is modulated harmonically with suitable frequency and phase. For other modulations, Bloch oscillations are rapidly damped. We explain this behavior in terms of collective coordinates whose Hamiltonian dynamics permits one to predict a whole family of stable solutions. In order to describe also the unstable cases, we carry out a stability analysis for Bogoliubov excitations. Using Floquet theory, we are able to predict the unstable modes as well as their growth rate, found to be in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  15. Bloch oscillations in atom interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Cladé, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In Paris, we are using an atom interferometer to precisely measure the recoil velocity of an atom that absorbs a photon. In order to reach a high sensitivity, many recoils are transferred to atoms using the Bloch oscillations technique. In this lecture, I will present in details this technique and its application to high precision measurement. I will especially describe in details how this method allows us to perform an atom recoil measurement at the level of $1.3 \\times 10^{-9}$. This measurement is used in the most precise determination of the fine structure constant that is independent of quantum electrodynamics.

  16. Electric dipoles on the Bloch sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Vutha, Amar C

    2014-01-01

    The time evolution of a two-level quantum mechanical system can be geometrically described using the Bloch sphere. By mapping the Bloch sphere evolution onto the dynamics of oscillating electric dipoles, we provide a physically intuitive link between classical electromagnetism and the electric dipole transitions of atomic & molecular physics.

  17. Bloch-Zener oscillations in binary superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisow, F; Szameit, A; Heinrich, M; Pertsch, T; Nolte, S; Tünnermann, A; Longhi, S

    2009-02-20

    Bloch-Zener oscillations, i.e., the coherent superposition of Bloch oscillations and Zener tunneling between minibands of a binary lattice, are experimentally demonstrated for light waves in curved femtosecond laser-written waveguide arrays. Visualization of double-periodicity breathing and oscillation modes is reported, and synchronous tunneling leading to wave reconstruction is demonstrated.

  18. Magnetic Bloch oscillations in nanowire superlattice rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrin, D S

    2004-05-14

    The recent growth of semiconductor nanowire superlattices encourages hope that Bloch-like oscillations in such structures formed into rings may soon be observed in the presence of a time-dependent magnetic flux threading the ring. These magnetic Bloch oscillations are a consequence of Faraday's law; the time-dependent flux produces an electromotive force around the ring, thus leading to the Bloch-like oscillations. In the spectroscopic domain, generalized Wannier-Stark states are found that are manifestations of the emf-induced localization of the states.

  19. Wave impedance retrieving via Bloch modes analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Ha, S.; Sukhorukov, A.;

    2011-01-01

    of the Bloch mode, respectively. Case studies prove that our ap-proach can determine material and wave effective parameters of lossy and lossless metamaterials. In some examples when the passivity is violated we made further analysis and showed that this is due to the failure of concept of impedance retrieving......-ciples violation, like antiresonance behaviour with Im(ε) mode analysis of periodic metamaterials to extract the dominating (fundamental) Bloch mode. Then it is possible to determine the Bloch and wave impedances by the surface and volume aver-aging of the electromagnetic field......The main bottleneck in the restoration of electromagnetic effective parameters is connected to the impedance retrieving. The S-parameters method gives the input (Bloch) impedance, which, being then used for permittivity and permeability determination, causes some fundamental physics prin...

  20. Bloch oscillations in optical dissipative lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremidis, Nikolaos K; Christodoulides, Demetrios N

    2004-11-01

    We show that Bloch oscillations are possible in dissipative optical waveguide lattices with a linearly varying propagation constant. These oscillations occur in spite of the fact that the Bloch wave packet experiences coupling gain and (or) loss. Experimentally, this process can be observed in different settings, such as in laser arrays and lattices of semiconductor optical amplifiers. In addition, we demonstrate that these systems can suppress instabilities arising from preferential mode noise growth.

  1. Experimental observation of spectral Bloch oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersch, Christoph; Onishchukov, Georgy; Peschel, Ulf

    2009-08-01

    We report on the first, to our knowledge, experimental observation of spectral Bloch oscillations in an optical fiber employing the interaction between a probe signal and a traveling-wave periodic potential. The spectrum of weak probe pulses is shown to oscillate on account of their group-velocity mismatch to the periodic field. The behavior of a cw probe spectrum reveals the actual discrete nature of the effect. Recurrences of the spectrum after one and two Bloch periods are demonstrated.

  2. Integral type operators from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyi GU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Operator theory is an important research content of the analytic function space theory. The discussion of simultaneous operator and function space is an effective way to study operator and function space. Assuming that  is an analytic self map on the unit disk Δ, and the normal weighted bloch space μ-B is a Banach space on the unit disk Δ, defining a composition operator C∶C(f=f on μ-B for all f∈μ-B, integral type operator JhC and CJh are generalized by integral operator and composition operator. The boundeness and compactness of the integral type operator JhC acting from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces are discussed, as well as the boundeness of the integral type operators CJh acting from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces. The related sufficient and necessary conditions are given.

  3. Plasmonic Bloch oscillations in monolayer graphene sheet arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang; Wang, Bing; Huang, He; Wang, Kai; Long, Hua; Lu, Peixiang

    2014-12-15

    We investigate the spatial plasmonic Bloch oscillations (BOs) in the monolayer graphene sheet arrays (MGSAs) as the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) between graphene in the arrays experience weak coupling. In order to realize BOs, linear gradient of the potential is introduced by changing the chemical potentials of individual graphene sheets or the interlayer space between graphene. Numerical simulations show that the complete plasmonic BOs can be observed in the former MGSAs. However, only harmonic oscillations occur in the latter of varying interlayer space. Theoretical analysis based on the coupled-mode theory agrees well with the numerical simulations.

  4. Entanglement and the three-dimensionality of the Bloch ball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masanes, Ll., E-mail: ll.masanes@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Müller, M. P. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 19, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Pérez-García, D. [Departamento de Analisis Matematico and IMI, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Augusiak, R. [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    We consider a very natural generalization of quantum theory by letting the dimension of the Bloch ball be not necessarily three. We analyze bipartite state spaces where each of the components has a d-dimensional Euclidean ball as state space. In addition to this, we impose two very natural assumptions: the continuity and reversibility of dynamics and the possibility of characterizing bipartite states by local measurements. We classify all these bipartite state spaces and prove that, except for the quantum two-qubit state space, none of them contains entangled states. Equivalently, in any of these non-quantum theories, interacting dynamics is impossible. This result reveals that “existence of entanglement” is the requirement with minimal logical content which singles out quantum theory from our family of theories.

  5. Resonant delocalization and Bloch oscillations in modulated lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ganainy, R; Christodoulides, D N; Rüter, C E; Kip, D

    2011-04-15

    We study the propagation of light in Bloch waveguide arrays exhibiting periodic coupling interactions. Intriguing wave packet revival patterns as well as beating Bloch oscillations are demonstrated. A new resonant delocalization phase transition is also predicted.

  6. Fractional Bloch oscillations in photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrielli, Giacomo; Crespi, Andrea; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Longhi, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Bloch oscillations, the oscillatory motion of a quantum particle in a periodic potential, are one of the most fascinating effects of coherent quantum transport. Originally studied in the context of electrons in crystals, Bloch oscillations manifest the wave nature of matter and are found in a wide variety of different physical systems. Here we report on the first experimental observation of fractional Bloch oscillations, using a photonic lattice as a model system of a two-particle extended Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. In our photonic simulator, the dynamics of two correlated particles hopping on a one-dimensional lattice is mapped into the motion of a single particle in a two-dimensional lattice with engineered defects and mimicked by light transport in a square waveguide lattice with a bent axis.

  7. Fractional Bloch oscillations in photonic lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Corrielli, Giacomo; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Longhi, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto; 10.1038/ncomms2578

    2013-01-01

    Bloch oscillations, the oscillatory motion of a quantum particle in a periodic potential, are one of the most fascinating effects of coherent quantum transport. Originally studied in the context of electrons in crystals, Bloch oscillations manifest the wave nature of matter and are found in a wide variety of different physical systems. Here we report on the first experimental observation of fractional Bloch oscillations, using a photonic lattice as a model system of a two-particle extended Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. In our photonic simulator, the dynamics of two correlated particles hopping on a one-dimensional lattice is mapped into the motion of a single particle in a two-dimensional lattice with engineered defects and mimicked by light transport in a square waveguide lattice with a bent axis.

  8. Observation of Bloch oscillations in molecular rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Floß, Johannes; Averbukh, Ilya Sh; Bucksbaum, Philip H

    2015-01-01

    The periodically kicked quantum rotor is known for non-classical effects such as quantum localisation in angular momentum space or quantum resonances in rotational excitation. These phenomena have been studied in diverse systems mimicking the kicked rotor, such as cold atoms in optical lattices, or coupled photonic structures. Recently, it was predicted that several solid state quantum localisation phenomena - Anderson localisation, Bloch oscillations, and Tamm-Shockley surface states - may manifest themselves in the rotational dynamics of laser-kicked molecules. Here, we report the first observation of rotational Bloch oscillations in a gas of nitrogen molecules kicked by a periodic train of femtosecond laser pulses. A controllable detuning from the quantum resonance creates an effective accelerating potential in angular momentum space, inducing Bloch-like oscillations of the rotational excitation. These oscillations are measured via the temporal modulation of the refractive index of the gas. Our results int...

  9. Bloch oscillations in complex crystals with PT symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, S

    2009-09-18

    Bloch oscillations in complex lattices with PT symmetry are theoretically investigated with specific reference to optical Bloch oscillations in photonic lattices with gain or loss regions. Novel dynamical phenomena with no counterpart in ordinary lattices, such as nonreciprocal Bloch oscillations related to violation of the Friedel's law of Bragg scattering in complex potentials, are highlighted.

  10. Terahertz Bloch oscillator with a modulated bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyart, Timo; Alexeeva, Natalia V; Mattas, Jussi; Alekseev, Kirill N

    2009-04-10

    Electrons performing Bloch oscillations in an energy band of a dc-biased superlattice in the presence of weak dissipation can potentially generate THz fields at room temperature. The realization of such a Bloch oscillator is a long-standing problem due to the instability of a homogeneous electric field in conditions of negative differential conductivity. We establish the theoretical feasibility of stable THz gain in a long superlattice device in which the bias is quasistatically modulated by microwave fields. The modulation waveforms must have at least two harmonics in their spectra.

  11. Observation of Bloch Oscillations in Molecular Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floß, Johannes; Kamalov, Andrei; Averbukh, Ilya Sh; Bucksbaum, Philip H

    2015-11-13

    We report the observation of rotational Bloch oscillations in a gas of nitrogen molecules kicked by a periodic train of femtosecond laser pulses. A controllable detuning from the quantum resonance creates an effective accelerating potential in angular momentum space, inducing Bloch-like oscillations of the rotational excitation. These oscillations are measured via the temporal modulation of the refractive index of the gas. Our results introduce room-temperature laser-kicked molecules as a new laboratory for studies of localization phenomena in quantum transport.

  12. Electronic Bloch oscillation in bilayer graphene gradient superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hemeng; Li, Changan; Song, Yun [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Tianxing, E-mail: txma@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Li-Gang, E-mail: sxwlg@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lin, Hai-Qing [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-08-18

    We investigate the electronic Bloch oscillation in bilayer graphene gradient superlattices using transfer matrix method. By introducing two kinds of gradient potentials of square barriers along electrons propagation direction, we find that Bloch oscillations up to terahertz can occur. Wannier-Stark ladders, as the counterpart of Bloch oscillation, are obtained as a series of equidistant transmission peaks, and the localization of the electronic wave function is also signature of Bloch oscillation. Furthermore, the period of Bloch oscillation decreases linearly with increasing gradient of barrier potentials.

  13. Fractional Bloch Oscillations in photonic lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrielli G.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the photonic analogy of the Fractional Bloch Oscillations [1]: the oscillatory motion of interacting particles moving in a periodic potential, under the presence of a static force. The analogy is implemented with the propagation of classical light in a specially engineered photonic waveguides lattice, fabricated in fused silica substrate via femtosecond laser micromachining.

  14. On the origin of the Bloch correction in stopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodyrev, V. A.

    2000-11-01

    The energy loss in the collision of a moving charged projectile with a free electron is described in a rigorous approach. The collision is treated as stationary scattering of an electron in the projectile Coulomb field. In the laboratory frame, the picture can be represented as a spatial distribution of energy losses to the electron. It has been shown that the local rate of the energy gain can be presented as a product of the induced electron current and the projectile electric field. The analytical results and numerical calculations reveal a principal disagreement with the generally recognized condition for the classical description, η = Z1e2/ℎv≳1 (Z1e and v are, respectively, the charge and velocity of the projectile): for any value of η, the quantum effects appear to be significant in the close vicinity of the projectile trajectory (small impact parameters) restricted by the distance ~λ = ℎ/mv. Essentially, the problem has been cleared in the qualitative analysis of collisions with electron wavepackets. The main results of the Bloch theory are reproduced in a simpler way. The clearer basis permits us to eliminate the ambiguity in the interpretation of the origin of the Bloch correction, which reflects in fact the evolution of the classical features in the quantum mechanical picture.

  15. Bloch oscillations in plasmonic waveguide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, A; Etrich, C; Limboeck, T; Bleckmann, F; Soergel, E; Rockstuhl, C; Linden, S

    2014-05-12

    The combination of modern nanofabrication techniques and advanced computational tools has opened unprecedented opportunities to mold the flow of light. In particular, discrete photonic structures can be designed such that the resulting light dynamics mimics quantum mechanical condensed matter phenomena. By mapping the time-dependent probability distribution of an electronic wave packet to the spatial light intensity distribution in the corresponding photonic structure, the quantum mechanical evolution can be visualized directly in a coherent, yet classical wave environment. On the basis of this approach, several groups have recently observed discrete diffraction, Bloch oscillations and Zener tunnelling in different dielectric structures. Here we report the experimental observation of discrete diffraction and Bloch oscillations of surface plasmon polaritons in evanescently coupled plasmonic waveguide arrays. The effective external potential is tailored by introducing an appropriate transverse index gradient during nanofabrication of the arrays. Our experimental results are in excellent agreement with numerical calculations.

  16. Bloch oscillations of path-entangled photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Yaron; Lahini, Yoav; Silberberg, Yaron

    2010-12-31

    We show that when photons in N-particle path-entangled |N,0)+|0,N) or N00N states undergo Bloch oscillations, they exhibit a periodic transition between spatially bunched and antibunched states. The period of the bunching-antibunching oscillation is N times faster than the period of the oscillation of the photon density, manifesting the unique coherence properties of N00N states. The transition occurs even when the photons are well separated in space.

  17. Photonic Bloch oscillations of correlated particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2011-08-15

    A photonic realization of Bloch oscillations (BOs) of two correlated electrons that move on a one-dimensional periodic lattice, based on spatial light transport in a square waveguide array with a defect line, is theoretically proposed. The signature of correlated BOs, such as frequency doubling of the oscillation frequency induced by particle interaction, can be simply visualized by monitoring the spatial path followed by an optical beam that excites the array near the defect line.

  18. Quantum state transfer via Bloch oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamascelli, Dario; Olivares, Stefano; Rossotti, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto; Paris, Matteo G A

    2016-05-18

    The realization of reliable quantum channels, able to transfer a quantum state with high fidelity, is a fundamental step in the construction of scalable quantum devices. In this paper we describe a transmission scheme based on the genuinely quantum effect known as Bloch oscillations. The proposed protocol makes it possible to carry a quantum state over different distances with a minimal engineering of the transmission medium and can be implemented and verified on current quantum technology hardware.

  19. Bloch-Messiah reduction of Gaussian unitaries by Takagi factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco; Pierobon, Gianfranco

    2016-12-01

    The Bloch-Messiah (BM) reduction allows the decomposition of an arbitrarily complicated Gaussian unitary into a very simple scheme in which linear optical components are separated from nonlinear ones. The nonlinear part is due to the squeezing possibly present in the Gaussian unitary. The reduction is usually obtained by exploiting the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the matrices appearing in the Bogoliubov transformation of the given Gaussian unitary. This paper discusses a different approach, where the BM reduction is obtained in a straightforward way. It is based on the Takagi factorization of the (complex and symmetric) squeeze matrix and has the advantage of avoiding several matrix operations of the previous approach (polar decomposition, eigendecomposition, SVD, and Takagi factorization). The theory is illustrated with an application example in which the previous and present approaches are compared.

  20. Compact composition operators on the Bloch space in polydiscs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Zehua

    2001-01-01

    [1]Timoney, R., Bloch function in several complex variables, I, Bull. London Math. Soc., 1980, 12(37): 241.[2]Shi, J. H., Luo, L., Composition operators on the Bloch space of several complex variables, Acta Math. Sinica, 2000, 16(1): 85.[3]Madigan, K., Matheson, A., Compact composition operators on the Bloch space, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 1995, 347(7): 2679.

  1. Bloch oscillations in the presence of plasmons and phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh; Jonsson; Wilkins

    2000-07-31

    The coupling between Bloch oscillating electrons and longitudinal optical phonons in a superlattice leads to resonant phonon excitation but no gap in the Bloch-phonon spectrum. In addition, we predict a sharp transition from plasma to Bloch oscillations at nu(B) = 2nu(P). From a microscopic description with phenomenological dampings, we numerically map out the behavior of coupled Bloch-plasmon-phonon modes for a wide range of parameters, and mimic experimental conditions. Our results are in good agreement with recent experiments by Dekorsy et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1080 (2000)].

  2. The formulation and implementation of analytic energy gradients for periodic density functional calculations with STO/NAO Bloch basis set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadantsev, Eugene S.; Klooster, Rob; De Boeij, Paul L.; Ziegler, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Analytic energy gradients with respect to atomic coordinates for systems with translational invariance are formulated within the framework of Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory. The energy gradients are implemented in the BAND program for periodic DFT calculations which directly employs a Bloch bas

  3. Entangled Bloch spheres: Bloch matrix and two-qubit state space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamel, Omar

    2016-06-01

    We represent a two-qubit density matrix in the basis of Pauli matrix tensor products, with the coefficients constituting a Bloch matrix, analogous to the single qubit Bloch vector. We find the quantum state positivity requirements on the Bloch matrix components, leading to three important inequalities, allowing us to parametrize and visualize the two-qubit state space. Applying the singular value decomposition naturally separates the degrees of freedom to local and nonlocal, and simplifies the positivity inequalities. It also allows us to geometrically represent a state as two entangled Bloch spheres with superimposed correlation axes. It is shown that unitary transformations, local or nonlocal, have simple interpretations as axis rotations or mixing of certain degrees of freedom. The nonlocal unitary invariants of the state are then derived in terms of local unitary invariants. The positive partial transpose criterion for entanglement is generalized, and interpreted as a reflection, or a change of a single sign. The formalism is used to characterize maximally entangled states, and generalize two qubit isotropic and Werner states.

  4. Bloch spaces on bounded symmetric domains in complex Banach spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG; Fangwen

    2006-01-01

    We give a definition of Bloch space on bounded symmetric domains in arbitrary complex Banach space and prove such function space is a Banach space. The properties such as boundedness, compactness and closed range of composition operators on such Bloch space are studied.

  5. Synchronization of Bloch oscillations by a ring cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoylova, M; Piovella, N; Robb, G R M; Bachelard, R; Courteille, Ph W

    2015-06-01

    We consider Bloch oscillations of ultracold atoms stored in a one-dimensional vertical optical lattice and simultaneously interacting with a unidirectionally pumped optical ring cavity whose vertical arm is collinear with the optical lattice. We find that the feedback provided by the cavity field on the atomic motion synchronizes Bloch oscillations via a mode-locking mechanism, steering the atoms to the lowest Bloch band. It also stabilizes Bloch oscillations against noise, and even suppresses dephasing due to atom-atom interactions. Furthermore, it generates periodic bursts of light emitted into the counter-propagating cavity mode, providing a non-destructive monitor of the atomic dynamics. All these features may be crucial for future improvements of the design of atomic gravimeters based on recording Bloch oscillations.

  6. Bloch-Like Oscillations in Finite Quantum Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten; Lassen, Benny;

    Inspired by several attempts to generate Bloch-like oscillations in different fields of physics [1,2], we examine a multitude of oscillator systems and interactions that lead to Bloch oscillations in finite quantum structures. A general requirement is the existence of a common period in the time...... of individual quantum wells and changing the coupling strength as a function of position. It is, furthermore, demonstrated that the application of a magnetic field to a structure of quantum wells may lead to the observation of Bloch oscillations (similar to Bloch oscillations stemming from the Stark effect......) and derive rather general mathematical relations between quantum systems that allow the existence of Bloch oscillations. References: [1]: G. Corrielli, A. Crespi, G. Della Valle, S. Longhi, and R. Osellame, Nature Communications 4, 1555 (2013) [2]: H. Sanchis-Alepuz, Y. A. Kosevich, and J. Sanchez...

  7. Experimental observation of N00N state Bloch oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebugle, Maxime; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Perez-Leija, Armando; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander

    2015-09-22

    Bloch oscillations of quantum particles manifest themselves as periodic spreading and relocalization of the associated wave functions when traversing lattice potentials subject to external gradient forces. Albeit this phenomenon is deeply rooted into the very foundations of quantum mechanics, all experimental observations so far have only contemplated dynamics of one and two particles initially prepared in separable local states. Evidently, a more general description of genuinely quantum Bloch oscillations will be achieved on excitation of a Bloch oscillator by nonlocal states. Here we report the observation of Bloch oscillations of two-particle N00N states, and discuss the nonlocality on the ground of Bell-like inequalities. The time evolution of two-photon N00N states in Bloch oscillators, whether symmetric, antisymmetric or partially symmetric, reveals transitions from particle antibunching to bunching. Consequently, the initial states can be tailored to produce spatial correlations akin to those of bosons, fermions and anyons, presenting potential applications in photonic quantum simulation.

  8. An approximation formula for the Bloch-Siegert shift of the Rabi model

    CERN Document Server

    Rapedius, K

    2015-01-01

    So far the Bloch-Siegert shift of the Rabi model has only been calculated numerically or by means of perturbation theory valid in either the weak or strong driving regime only. Recently Yan, L\\"u, and Zheng [Phys.~Rev.~A {\\bf 91}, 053834 (2015)] showed how to reduce the problem to solving a system of three nonlinear equations. Here, we pursue an alternative approach based on a perturbation expansion extrapolation technique. We are thus able to derive an explicit analytical approximation formula for the Bloch-Siegert shift of the Rabi model which is valid for all parameter regimes from weak to strong driving. Comparison with numerically exact results reveals an excellent agreement over the entire driving-strength range.

  9. On unorthodox solutions of the Bloch equations

    CERN Document Server

    Moroz, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    A systematic, rigorous, and complete investigation of the Bloch equations in time-harmonic driving classical field is performed. Our treatment is unique in that it takes full advantage of the partial fraction decomposition over real number field, which makes it possible to find and classify all analytic solutions. Torrey's analytic solution in the form of exponentially damped harmonic oscillations [Phys. Rev. {\\bf 76}, 1059 (1949)] is found to dominate the parameter space, which justifies its use at numerous occasions in magnetic resonance and in quantum optics of atoms, molecules, and quantum dots. The unorthodox solutions of the Bloch equations, which do not have the form of exponentially damped harmonic oscillations, are confined to rather small detunings $\\delta^2\\lesssim (\\gamma-\\gamma_t)^2/27$ and small field strengths $\\Omega^2\\lesssim 8 (\\gamma-\\gamma_t)^2/27$, where $\\gamma$ and $\\gamma_t$ describe decay rates of the excited state (the total population relaxation rate) and of the coherence, respectiv...

  10. Bloch oscillations in chirped layered structures with metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoyan, Arthur R; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Sukhorukov, Andrey A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2008-03-01

    We analyze the Bloch oscillations of electromagnetic waves in chirped layered structures with alternating layers of negative-index metamaterial and conventional dielectric under the condition of the zero average refractive index. We consider the case when the chirp is introduced by varying the thickness of the layers linearly across the structure. We demonstrate that such structures can support three different types of the Bloch oscillations for electromagnetic waves associated with either propagating or evanescent guided modes. In particular, we predict a novel type of the Bloch oscillations associated with coupling between surface waves excited at the interfaces separating the layers of negative-index metamaterial and the layers of the conventional dielectric.

  11. Bloch oscillations of THz acoustic phonons in coupled nanocavity structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzillotti-Kimura, N D; Fainstein, A; Perrin, B; Jusserand, B; Mauguin, O; Largeau, L; Lemaître, A

    2010-05-14

    Nanophononic Bloch oscillations and Wannier-Stark ladders have been recently predicted to exist in specifically tailored structures formed by coupled nanocavities. Using pump-probe coherent phonon generation techniques we demonstrate that Bloch oscillations of terahertz acoustic phonons can be directly generated and probed in these complex nanostructures. In addition, by Fourier transforming the time traces we had access to the proper eigenmodes in the frequency domain, thus evidencing the related Wannier-Stark ladder. The observed Bloch oscillation dynamics are compared with simulations based on a model description of the coherent phonon generation and photoelastic detection processes.

  12. Bloch oscillations in a one-dimensional spinor gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangardt, D M; Kamenev, A

    2009-02-20

    A force applied to a spin-flipped particle in a one-dimensional spinor gas may lead to Bloch oscillations of the particle's position and velocity. The existence of Bloch oscillations crucially depends on the viscous friction force exerted by the rest of the gas on the spin excitation. We evaluate the friction in terms of the quantum fluid parameters. In particular, we show that the friction is absent for integrable cases, such as an SU(2) symmetric gas of bosons or fermions. For small deviations from the exact integrability the friction is very weak, opening the possibility to observe Bloch oscillations.

  13. Bloch inductance in small-capacitance Josephson junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorin, A B

    2006-04-28

    We show that the electrical impedance of a small-capacitance Josephson junction also includes, in addition to the capacitive term -i/(omega)CB, an inductive term i(omega)LB. Similar to the known Bloch capacitance CB(q), the Bloch inductance LB(q) also depends periodically on the quasicharge, q, and its maximum value achieved at q=e(mod 2e) always exceeds the value of the Josephson inductance of this junction LJ(phi) at fixed phi=0. The effect of the Bloch inductance on the dynamics of a single junction and a one-dimensional array is described.

  14. A Bloch-Wigner complex for SL_2

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchinson, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a refinement of the Bloch-Wigner complex of a field F. This is a complex of modules over the multiplicative group of the field. Instead of computing K_2 and indecomposable K_3 - as the classical Bloch-Wigner complex does - it calculates the second and third integral homology of SL_2 of the field. On passing to coinvariants for the action of the multiplicative group we recover the classical Bloch-Wigner complex. The case of finite fields is included throughout the article.

  15. Spin wave vortex from the scattering on Bloch point solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho-Santos, V.L., E-mail: vagson.carvalho@usach.cl [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Baiano - Campus Senhor do Bonfim, Km 04 Estrada da Igara, 48970-000 Senhor do Bonfim, Bahia (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Elías, R.G., E-mail: gabriel.elias@usach.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Nunez, A.S., E-mail: alnunez@dfi.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-12-15

    The interaction of a spin wave with a stationary Bloch point is studied. The topological non-trivial structure of the Bloch point manifests in the propagation of spin waves endowing them with a gauge potential that resembles the one associated with the interaction of a magnetic monopole and an electron. By pursuing this analogy, we are led to the conclusion that the scattering of spin waves and Bloch points is accompanied by the creation of a magnon vortex. Interference between such a vortex and a plane wave leads to dislocations in the interference pattern that can be measurable by means of magnon holography.

  16. Bloch vector, disclination and exotic quantum holonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atushi, E-mail: tanaka-atushi@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Cheon, Taksu [Laboratory of Physics, Kochi University of Technology, Tosa Yamada, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan)

    2015-09-04

    A topological formulation of the eigenspace anholonomy, where eigenspaces are interchanged by adiabatic cycles, is introduced. The anholonomy in two-level systems is identified with a disclination of the director (headless vector) of a Bloch vector, which characterizes eigenprojectors. The covering map structure behind the exotic quantum holonomy and the role of the homotopy classification of adiabatic cycles are elucidated. The extensions of this formulation to nonadiabatic cycles and N-level systems are outlined. - Highlights: • A topological formulation of the eigenspace anholonomy is proposed. • The covering map structure behind the anholonomy is identified. • The role of homotopy classification of adiabatic cycles is explained. • The anholonomy in two-level systems is associated with disclinations. • The present formulation offers an extension to nonadiabatic cycles.

  17. Large momentum beam splitter using Bloch oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladé, Pierre; Guellati-Khélifa, Saïda; Nez, François; Biraben, François

    2009-06-19

    The sensitivity of an inertial sensor based on an atomic interferometer is proportional to the velocity separation of atoms in the two arms of the interferometer. In this Letter we describe how Bloch oscillations can be used to increase this separation and to create a large momentum transfer (LMT) beam splitter. We experimentally demonstrate a separation of 10 recoil velocities. Light shifts during the acceleration introduce phase fluctuations which can reduce the fringes contrast. We precisely calculate this effect and demonstrate that it can be significantly reduced by using a suitable combination of LMT pulses. We finally show that this method seems to be very promising to realize a LMT beam splitter with several tens of recoils and a very good efficiency.

  18. Coherent amplification and noise in gain-enhanced nanoplasmonic metamaterials: a Maxwell-Bloch Langevin approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusch, Andreas; Wuestner, Sebastian; Hamm, Joachim M; Tsakmakidis, Kosmas L; Hess, Ortwin

    2012-03-27

    Nanoplasmonic metamaterials are an exciting new class of engineered media that promise a range of important applications, such as subwavelength focusing, cloaking, and slowing/stopping of light. At optical frequencies, using gain to overcome potentially not insignificant losses has recently emerged as a viable solution to ultra-low-loss operation that may lead to next-generation active metamaterials. Maxwell-Bloch models for active nanoplasmonic metamaterials are able to describe the coherent spatiotemporal and nonlinear gain-plasmon dynamics. Here, we extend the Maxwell-Bloch theory to a Maxwell-Bloch Langevin approach-a spatially resolved model that describes the light field and noise dynamics in gain-enhanced nanoplasmonic structures. Using the example of an optically pumped nanofishnet metamaterial with an embedded laser dye (four-level) medium exhibiting a negative refractive index, we demonstrate the transition from loss-compensation to amplification and to nanolasing. We observe ultrafast relaxation oscillations of the bright negative-index mode with frequencies just below the THz regime. The influence of noise on mode competition and the onset and magnitude of the relaxation oscillations is elucidated, and the dynamics and spectra of the emitted light indicate that coherent amplification and lasing are maintained even in the presence of noise and amplified spontaneous emission.

  19. Coupled bloch-phonon oscillations in semiconductor superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekorsy; Bartels; Kurz; Kohler; Hey; Ploog

    2000-07-31

    We investigate coherent Bloch oscillations in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs superlattices with electronic miniband widths larger than the optical phonon energy. In these superlattices the Bloch frequency can be tuned into resonance with the optical phonon. Close to resonance a direct coupling of Bloch oscillations to LO phonons is observed which gives rise to the coherent excitation of LO phonons. The density necessary for driving coherent LO phonons via Bloch oscillations is about 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the density necessary to drive coherent LO phonons in bulk GaAs. The experimental observations are confirmed by the theoretical description of this phenomenon [A.W. Ghosh et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1084 (2000)].

  20. Estimates on Bloch constants for planar harmonic mappings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Bloch constants for quasiregular harmonic mappings and open planar harmonic mappings are considered. Better estimates are obtained. The results, presented in this paper, improve the one made by Chen et al. and Grigoryan.

  1. Composition Operators on Dirichlet Spaces and Bloch Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan CHENG; Sanjay KUMAR; Ze Hua ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we give a Carleson measure characterization for the compact composition operators between Dirichlet type spaces. We use this characterization to show that every compact composition operator on Dirichlet type spaces is compact on the Bloch space.

  2. Calculation of the relativistic Bloch correction to stopping power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlen, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    Bloch's technique of joining the nonrelativistic Bethe and Bohr stopping-power expressions by taking into account wave-packet effects for close collisions is extended to the relativistic case. It is found that Bloch's nonrelativistic correction term must be modified and that charge asymmetric terms appear. Excellent agreement is observed by comparing the results of these calculations to recent data on the stopping power of relativistic heavy ions.

  3. Bloch-mode analysis for retrieving effective parameters of metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Ha, Sangwoo; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.;

    2012-01-01

    by our method with a high accuracy. We employ both surface and volume averaging of the electromagnetic fields of the dominating (fundamental) Bloch modes to determine the Bloch and wave impedances, respectively. We discuss how this method works for several characteristic examples, and demonstrate...... that this approach can be useful for retrieval of both material and wave effective parameters of a broad range of metamaterials....

  4. Spontaneous emission of Bloch oscillation radiation under the competing influences of microcavity enhancement and inhomogeneous interface degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, V. N. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute for Semiconductor Physics, NASU, Pr. Nauki 41, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Iafrate, G. J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8617 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    A theory for the spontaneous emission (SE) of terahertz radiation for a Bloch electron traversing a single energy miniband of a superlattice (SL) in a cavity, while undergoing elastic scattering is presented. The Bloch electron is accelerated under the influence of a superimposed external constant electric field and an internal inhomogeneous electric field, while radiating into a microcavity. The analysis of the SE accounts for both the spectral structure of nonharmonic miniband components and the Bloch oscillation degradation effects arising from elastic scattering due to SL interface roughness. The interface roughness effects are decomposed into contributions arising from independent planar and cross-correlated neighboring planar interfaces; parametric numerical estimates show that the cross-correlated contribution to the SE relaxation rate is relatively small, representing less than roughly 10% of the total relaxation rate. It is shown that the degradation effects from SL interface roughness can be more than compensated for by the enhancements derived from microcavity-based tuning of the emission frequency to the cavity density of states peak. The theoretical approach developed herein has general applicability beyond its use for elastic scattering due to interface roughness. As well, the results obtained in this analysis can be useful in the development of SL-based Bloch-oscillator terahertz devices.

  5. Polarization controlled directional excitation of Bloch surface waves (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalevich, Tatiana; Boyer, Philippe; Bernal, Maria-Pilar; Kim, Myun-Sik; Herzig, Hans Peter; Grosjean, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Bloch surface waves (BSWs) are electromagnetic surface waves which can be excited at the interface between periodic dielectric multilayer and a surrounding medium. In comparison with surface plasmon polaritons these surface states perform high quality factor due to low loss characteristics of dielectric materials and can be exited both by TE and TM polarized light. A platform consisting of periodic stacks of alternative SiO2 and Si3N4 layers is designed and fabricated to work at the wavelength of 1.55 µm. The platform has an application in sensing and in integrated optics domain. A standard way of BSW excitation is coupling via Kretschmann configuration, but in this work we investigate a grating coupling of BSWs. Grating parameters are analytically and numerically optimized by RCWA and FDTD methods in order to obtain the best coupling conditions. The light is launched orthogonally to the surface of the photonic crystal and the grating. Due to a special grating configuration we demonstrate directionality of the BSW propagation depending on polarization of the incident light. The structure was experimentally realized on the surface of the photonic crystal by FIB milling. Experimental results are in a good agreement with a theory. The investigated configuration can be successfully used as a BSW launcher in on-chip all-optical integrated systems and work as a surface wave switch or modulator.

  6. High sensitivity, low-systematics atom interferometers using Bragg diffraction and Bloch oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Estey, Brian; Müller, Holger; Kuan, Pei-Chen; Lan, Shau-Yu

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new scheme for atom interferometry based on both large-momentum transfer Bragg beam splitters and Bloch oscillations. Combining the advantages of previous approaches to recoil-sensitive interferometers, we increase the signal and suppress a systematic phase shift caused by Bragg diffraction at least 60-fold, matching experiment to theory; the systematic shift can be eliminated from Mach-Zehnder interferometers. We demonstrate high contrast, interference with up to 4.4 million radians of phase difference between freely evolving matter waves, and a resolution of $\\delta \\alpha/\\alpha=0.33\\,$ppb$\\sqrt{\\rm 6h}$ available to measurements of the fine structure constant.

  7. Bloch Oscillations of Cold Atoms in a Cavity: Effects of Quantum Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Venkatesh, B Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    In this communication we extend our theory of Bloch oscillations of cold atoms inside an optical cavity [Venkatesh et al., Phys. Rev. A 80, 063834 (2009)] to include the effects of quantum noise. By solving the coupled dynamics of linearized fluctuations about the atomic and optical meanfields, we are able to include the effects of quantum measurement backaction upon the atoms and ultimately examine how this influences the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement of external forces using this system. One of the hurdles we overcome along the way is the proper treatment of fluctuations about time-dependent meanfields in the cold atom cavity-QED context.

  8. Measurement of group-velocity dispersion of Bloch modes in photonic-crystal-fiber rocking filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G K L; Zang, L; Kang, M S; Russell, P St J

    2010-12-01

    We use low-coherence interferometry to measure the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) of the fast and slow Bloch modes of structural rocking filters, produced by twisting a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber to and fro while scanning a focused CO(2) laser beam along it. The GVD curves in the vicinity of the resonant wavelength differ dramatically from those of the unperturbed fiber, suggesting that rocking filters could be used in the optimization of, e.g., four-wave mixing and supercontinuum generation. Excellent agreement is obtained between theory and experiment.

  9. Supercurrent enhancement in Bloch domain walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J W A; Chiodi, F; Egilmez, M; Halász, Gábor B; Blamire, M G

    2012-01-01

    Conventional spin-singlet Cooper pairs convert into spin-triplet pairs in ferromagnetic Josephson junctions in which the superconductor/ferromagnet interfaces (S/F) are magnetically inhomogeneous. Although much of the theoretical work describing this triplet proximity effect has considered ideal junctions with magnetic domain walls (DW) at the interfaces, in practice it is not easily possible to isolate a DW and propagate a supercurrent through it. The rare-earth magnet Gd can form a field-tuneable in-plane Bloch DW if grown between non-co-linearly aligned ferromagnets. Here we report supercurrents through magnetic Ni-Gd-Ni nanopillars: by field annealing at room temperature, we are able to modify the low temperature DW-state in Gd and this result has a striking effect on the junction supercurrent at 4.2 K. We argue that this result can only be explained in terms of the interconversion of triplet and singlet pairs, the efficiency of which depends on the magnetic helicity of the structure.

  10. Landau-Zener Bloch Oscillations with Perturbed Flat Bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomeriki, Ramaz; Flach, Sergej

    2016-06-17

    Sinusoidal Bloch oscillations appear in band structures exposed to external fields. Landau-Zener (LZ) tunneling between different bands is usually a counteracting effect limiting Bloch oscillations. Here we consider a flat band network with two dispersive and one flat band, e.g., for ultracold atoms and optical waveguide networks. Using external synthetic gauge and gravitational fields we obtain a perturbed yet gapless band structure with almost flat parts. The resulting Bloch oscillations consist of two parts-a fast scan through the nonflat part of the dispersion structure, and an almost complete halt for substantial time when the atomic or photonic wave packet is trapped in the original flat band part of the unperturbed spectrum, made possible due to LZ tunneling.

  11. Bloch Oscillations of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen States

    CERN Document Server

    Lebugle, Maxime; Heilmann, René; Perez-Leija, Armando; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Bloch Oscillations (BOs) of quantum particles manifest themselves as periodic spreading and re-localization of the associated wave functions when traversing lattice potentials subject to external gradient forces. Albeit BOs are deeply rooted into the very foundations of quantum mechanics, all experimental observations of this phenomenon so far have only contemplated dynamics of one or two particles initially prepared in separable local states, which is well described by classical wave physics. Evidently, a more general description of genuinely quantum BOs will be achieved upon excitation of a Bloch-oscillator lattice system by nonlocal states, that is, containing correlations in contradiction with local realism. Here we report the first experimental observation of BOs of two-particle Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states (EPR), whose associated N-particle wave functions are nonlocal by nature. The time evolution of two-photon EPR states in Bloch-oscillators, whether symmetric, antisymmetric or partially symmetric, r...

  12. Weighted Composition Operators from Hardy Spaces into Logarithmic Bloch Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Colonna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The logarithmic Bloch space Blog⁡ is the Banach space of analytic functions on the open unit disk 𝔻 whose elements f satisfy the condition ∥f∥=sup⁡z∈𝔻(1-|z|2log⁡  (2/(1-|z|2|f'(z|<∞. In this work we characterize the bounded and the compact weighted composition operators from the Hardy space Hp (with 1≤p≤∞ into the logarithmic Bloch space. We also provide boundedness and compactness criteria for the weighted composition operator mapping Hp into the little logarithmic Bloch space defined as the subspace of Blog⁡ consisting of the functions f such that lim⁡|z|→1(1-|z|2log⁡  (2/(1-|z|2|f'(z|=0.

  13. Bloch-wave engineering of quantum dot-micropillars for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lermer, Matthias; Gregersen, Niels; Dunzer, Florian;

    2012-01-01

    We have employed Bloch-wave engineering to realize submicron diameter ultra-high quality factor GaAs/AlAs micropillars (MPs). The design features a tapered cavity in which the fundamental Bloch mode is subject to an adiabatic transition to match the Bragg mirror Bloch mode. The resulting reduced ...

  14. Polarization controlled directional propagation of Bloch surface wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalevich, Tatiana; Boyer, Philippe; Suarez, Miguel; Salut, Roland; Kim, Myun-Sik; Herzig, Hans Peter; Bernal, Maria-Pilar; Grosjean, Thierry

    2017-03-06

    Bloch surface waves (BSWs) are recently developing alternative to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Due to dramatically enhanced propagation distance and strong field confinement these surface states can be successfully used in on-chip all-optical integrated devices of increased complexity. In this work we propose a highly miniaturized grating based BSW coupler which is gathering launching and directional switching functionalities in a single element. This device allows to control with polarization the propagation direction of Bloch surface waves at subwavelength scale, thus impacting a large panel of domains such as optical circuitry, function design, quantum optics, etc.

  15. Surface optical Bloch oscillations in semi-infinite waveguide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chremmos, I D; Efremidis, N K

    2012-06-01

    We predict that surface optical Bloch oscillations can exist in semi-infinite waveguide arrays with a linear index variation, if the array parameters close to the boundary are appropriately perturbed. The perturbation is such that the surface states obtain the Wannier-Stark ladder eigenvalues of the unperturbed infinite array. The number of waveguides, whose parameters need to be controlled, decreases with increasing ratio of index gradient over coupling. The configuration can find applications as a "matched" termination of waveguide arrays to eliminate the distortion of Bloch oscillations due to reflection on the boundaries.

  16. Control of interaction-induced dephasing of Bloch oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, M; Haller, E; Mark, M J; Danzl, J G; Rojas-Kopeinig, G; Nägerl, H-C

    2008-02-29

    We report on the control of interaction-induced dephasing of Bloch oscillations for an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice. We quantify the dephasing in terms of the width of the quasimomentum distribution and measure its dependence on time for different interaction strengths which we control by means of a Feshbach resonance. For minimal interaction, the dephasing time is increased from a few to more than 20 thousand Bloch oscillation periods, allowing us to realize a BEC-based atom interferometer in the noninteracting limit.

  17. Unidirectional optical Bloch oscillations in asymmetric waveguide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Levy, Miguel

    2011-11-15

    We present an analytical proof of the existence of unidirectional optical Bloch oscillations in a waveguide array system. It is shown that the presence of nonreciprocity in the system allows for a complete normal-mode dephasing in one of the propagation directions, resulting in a unidirectional breakdown in Bloch oscillations. A model system consisting of an array of transversely magnetized asymmetric Si/SiO2 waveguides with a magneto-optic cover layer is presented. Large index contrasts between film and cover are critical for practical realizations.

  18. Superfluidity versus Bloch oscillations in confined atomic gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchler, H P; Geshkenbein, V B; Blatter, G

    2001-09-01

    We study the superfluid properties of (quasi) one-dimensional bosonic atom gases/liquids in traps with finite geometries in the presence of strong quantum fluctuations. Driving the condensate with a moving defect we find the nucleation rate for phase slips using instanton techniques. While phase slips are quenched in a ring resulting in a superfluid response, they proliferate in a tube geometry where we find Bloch oscillations in the chemical potential. These Bloch oscillations describe the individual tunneling of atoms through the defect and thus are a consequence of particle quantization.

  19. COMPOSITION OPERATORS ON THE LITTLE BLOCH SPACE IN POLYDISCS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zehua; Zhu Min; Shi Jihuai

    2005-01-01

    Let Un be the unit polydisc of Cn and φ = (φ1,…,φn) a holomorphic self map of Un. This paper shows that the composition operator Cφ induced by φ is bounded on the little Bloch space β0*(Un) if and only if φ∈β0*(Un) for every l=1,2,…,n, and also gives a sufficient and necessary condition for the composition operator Cφ to be compact on the little Bloch spaceβ0* (Un).

  20. Ultra-low-loss CMOS-Compatible Waveguide Crossing Arrays Based on Multimode Bloch Waves and Imaginary Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yangyang; Zeng, Xiaoge; Popovic, Milos A

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate broadband waveguide crossing arrays showing ultra low loss down to $0.04\\,$dB/crossing ($0.9\\%$), matching theory, and crosstalk suppression over $35\\,$dB, in a CMOS-compatible geometry. The principle of operation is the tailored excitation of a low-loss spatial Bloch wave formed by matching the periodicity of the crossing array to the difference in propagation constants of the 1$^\\text{st}$- and 3$^\\text{rd}$-order TE-like modes of a multimode silicon waveguide. Radiative scattering at the crossing points acts like a periodic imaginary-permittivity perturbation that couples two supermodes, which results in imaginary (radiative) propagation-constant splitting and gives rise to a low-loss, unidirectional breathing Bloch wave. This type of crossing array provides a robust implementation of a key component enabling dense photonic integration.

  1. Semiconductor Laser Theory: The Maxwell--Bloch Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrig, Edeltraud; Hess, Ortwin

    Because of its central importance for fundamental physics as well as for technological applications, the electronic structure of layered semiconductor structures has attracted much interest over the last two decades. In theoretical studies, methods based on the envelope function approximation are predominant, the reason being that the EFA allows a comprehensive description of electron- and hole-like states. It can cope with periodic or aperiodic geometries of quantum structures, as well as perturbations such as a magnetic field, strain, or a built-in or external potential. Details of the underlying crystal potential are included in terms of bulk band structure parameters.

  2. Topological optical Bloch oscillations in a deformed slab waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2007-09-15

    Spatial Bloch oscillations of light waves of purely topological origin are theoretically shown to exist in weakly deformed slab waveguides. As the optical rays trapped in the deformed waveguide can roll freely, wave diffraction is strongly affected by the topology of the deformed surface, which can be tailored to simulate the effect of a tilted periodic refractive index.

  3. Interaction-induced decoherence of atomic BLOCH oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchleitner, Andreas; Kolovsky, Andrey R

    2003-12-19

    We show that the energy spectrum of the Bose-Hubbard model amended by a static field exhibits Wigner-Dyson level statistics. In itself a characteristic signature of quantum chaos, this induces the irreversible decay of Bloch oscillations of cold, interacting atoms loaded into an optical lattice, and provides a Hamiltonian model for interaction-induced decoherence.

  4. Compact composition operators on the Bloch space in polydiscs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Let Un be the unit polydisc of Cn and =(1,…n) a holomorphicself-map of Un. As the main result of the paper, it shows that the composition operator Cφ is compact on the Bloch space β(Un) if and only if for every ε>0, there exists a δ>0, such thatwhenever dist((z),Un)<δ.

  5. Lines crossing a tetrahedron and the Bloch group

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchinson, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We consider a simple modification of the Chow group CH^2(Spec(k),3) using only linear subvarieties in affine spaces and show that it maps surjectively to the Bloch group B(k) for any infinite field k. We also describe the kernel of this map.

  6. Partial secular Bloch-Redfield master equation for incoherent excitation of multilevel quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscherbul, Timur V; Brumer, Paul

    2015-03-14

    We present an efficient theoretical method for calculating the time evolution of the density matrix of a multilevel quantum system weakly interacting with incoherent light. The method combines the Bloch-Redfield theory with a partial secular approximation for one-photon coherences, resulting in a master equation that explicitly exposes the reliance on transition rates and the angles between transition dipole moments in the energy basis. The partial secular Bloch-Redfield master equation allows an unambiguous distinction between the regimes of quantum coherent vs. incoherent energy transfer under incoherent light illumination. The fully incoherent regime is characterized by orthogonal transition dipole moments in the energy basis, leading to a dynamical evolution governed by a coherence-free Pauli-type master equation. The coherent regime requires non-orthogonal transition dipole moments in the energy basis and leads to the generation of noise-induced quantum coherences and population-to-coherence couplings. As a first application, we consider the dynamics of excited state coherences arising under incoherent light excitation from a single ground state and observe population-to-coherence transfer and the formation of non-equilibrium quasisteady states in the regime of small excited state splitting. Analytical expressions derived earlier for the V-type system [T. V. Tscherbul and P. Brumer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 113601 (2014)] are found to provide a nearly quantitative description of multilevel excited-state populations and coherences in both the small- and large-molecule limits.

  7. The Bloch wave operator: generalizations and applications: Part I. The time-independent case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Jolicard, Georges [Observatoire de Besancon (UMR-CNRS 6091), Universite de Franche-Comte, 41 bis, Avenue de l' Observatoire, 25000 Besancon (France)

    2003-05-23

    This is part 1 of a two-part review on wave operator theory and methods. The basic theory of the time-independent wave operator is presented in terms of partitioned matrix theory for the benefit of general readers, with a discussion of the links between the matrix and projection operator approaches. The matrix approach is shown to lead to simple derivations of the wave operators and effective Hamiltonians of Loewdin, Bloch, Des Cloizeaux and Kato as well as to some associated variational forms. The principal approach used throughout stresses the solution of the nonlinear equation for the reduced wave operator, leading to the construction of the effective Hamiltonians of Bloch and of Des Cloizeaux. Several mathematical techniques which are useful in implementing this approach are explained, some of them being relatively little known in the area of wave operator calculations. The theoretical discussion is accompanied by several specimen numerical calculations which apply the described techniques to a selection of test matrices taken from the previous literature on wave operator methods. The main emphasis throughout is on the use of numerical methods which use iterative or perturbation algorithms, with simple Pade approximant methods being found sufficient to deal with most of the cases of divergence which are encountered. The use of damping factors and relaxation parameters is found to be effective in stabilizing calculations which use the energy-dependent effective Hamiltonian of Loewdin. In general the computations suggest that the numerical applications of the nonlinear equation for the reduced wave operator are best carried out with the equation split into a pair of equations in which the Bloch effective Hamiltonian appears as a separate entity. The presentation of the theoretical and computational details throughout is accompanied by references to and discussion of many works which have used wave operator methods in physics, chemistry and engineering. Some of

  8. ``Bloch wave'' modification of stimulated Raman by stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, E. S.; Vu, H. X.; DuBois, D. F.; Bezzerides, B.

    2013-03-01

    Using the reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) method, we study the coupling of backward stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS) and backward stimulated Brillouin scattering (BSBS) in regimes where the reflectivity involves the nonlinear behavior of particles trapped in the daughter plasma waves. The temporal envelope of a Langmuir wave (LW) obeys a Schrödinger equation where the potential is the periodic electron density fluctuation resulting from an ion-acoustic wave (IAW). The BSRS-driven LWs in this case have a Bloch wave structure and a modified dispersion due to the BSBS-driven spatially periodic IAW, which includes frequency band gaps at kLW˜kIAW/2˜k0 (kLW, kIAW, and k0 are the wave number of the LW, IAW, and incident pump electromagnetic wave, respectively). This band structure and the associated Bloch wave harmonic components are distinctly observed in RPIC calculations of the electron density fluctuation spectra and this structure may be observable in Thomson scatter. Bloch wave components grow up in the LW spectrum, and are not the result of isolated BSRS. Self-Thomson scattered light from these Bloch wave components can have forward scattering components. The distortion of the LW dispersion curve implies that the usual relationship connecting the frequency shift of the BSRS-scattered light and the density of origin of this light may become inaccurate. The modified LW frequency results in a time-dependent frequency shift that increases as the IAW grows, detunes the BSRS frequency matching condition, and reduces BSRS growth. A dependence of the BSRS reflectivity on the IAW Landau damping results because this damping determines the levels of IAWs. The time-dependent reflectivity in our simulations is characterized by bursts of sub-picosecond pulses of BSRS alternating with multi-ps pulses of BSBS, and BSRS is observed to decline precipitously as soon as SBS begins to grow from low levels. In strong BSBS regimes, the Bloch wave effects in BSRS are

  9. Anderson wall and Bloch oscillations in molecular rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Floß, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We describe a universal behavior of linear molecules excited by a periodic train of short laser pulses under quantum resonance conditions. In a rigid rotor the resonance causes an unlimited ballistic growth of the angular momentum. We show that the centrifugal distortion of rotating molecules eventually halts the growth, by causing Anderson localization beyond a critical value of the angular momentum -- the Anderson wall. Its position solely depends on the molecular rotational constants and lies in the range of a few tens of hbar. Below the wall, rotational excitation oscillates with the number of pulses due to a mechanism similar to Bloch oscillations in crystalline solids. We suggest optical experiments capable of observing the rotational Anderson wall and Bloch oscillations at ambient conditions with the help of existing laser technology.

  10. Anderson wall and BLOCH oscillations in molecular rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floß, Johannes; Averbukh, Ilya Sh

    2014-07-25

    We describe a universal behavior of linear molecules excited by a periodic train of short laser pulses under quantum resonance conditions. In a rigid rotor, the resonance causes an unlimited ballistic growth of the angular momentum. We show that the centrifugal distortion of rotating molecules eventually halts the growth, by causing Anderson localization beyond a critical value of the angular momentum--the Anderson wall. Its position solely depends on the molecular rotational constants and lies in the range of a few tens of ℏ. Below the wall, rotational excitation oscillates with the number of pulses due to a mechanism similar to Bloch oscillations in crystalline solids. We suggest optical experiments capable of observing the rotational Anderson wall and Bloch oscillations at near-ambient conditions with the help of existing laser technology.

  11. Bloch-Redfield equations for modeling light-harvesting complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Jeske, Jan; Plenio, Martin B; Huelga, Susana F; Cole, Jared H

    2014-01-01

    We challenge the commonly held view that Bloch-Redfield equations are a less powerful tool than phenomenological Lindblad equations for modeling exciton transport in photosynthetic complexes. This view predominantly originates from the misuse of the secular approximation. We provide a detailed description of how to model both coherent oscillations and several types of noise, giving explicit examples. All issues with non-positivity are overcome by a consistent straightforward physical noise model. Herein also lies the strength of the Bloch-Redfield approach because it facilitates the analysis of noise-effects by linking them back to physical parameters of the noise environment. This includes temporal and spatial correlations and the strength and type of interaction between the noise and the system of interest. Finally we analyze a prototypical dimer system as well as a 7-site Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex in regards to spatial correlation length of the noise, noise strength, temperature and their connecti...

  12. Bloch-mode analysis for effective parameters restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Ha, Sangwoo;

    2012-01-01

    We utilize the Bloch-mode analysis of periodic composite structures to introduce an approach for retrieving effective parameters of homogenized metamaterials. In the case of single-mode propagation we can restore a complex effective refractive index with a high accuracy. By further employing surf...... on the nature of microfields returned by Maxwell's solvers, showing that ignoring of difference between magnetic strength and induction lead to incorrect determination of the Poynting vector....

  13. Nonreciprocal Bloch oscillations in magneto-optic waveguide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Miguel; Kumar, Pradeep

    2010-09-15

    We show that nonreciprocal optical Bloch-like oscillations can emerge in transversely magnetized waveguide arrays in the presence of an effective index step between the waveguides. Normal modes of the system are shown to acquire different wavenumbers in opposite propagation directions. Significant differences in phase coherence and decoherence between these normal modes are presented and discussed. Nonreciprocity is established by imposing unequal vertical refractive index gradients at the substrate/core and core/cover interfaces in the presence of transverse magnetization.

  14. Acoustic Bloch oscillations in a two-dimensional phononic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaojian; Peng, Shasha; Cai, Feiyan; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2007-11-01

    We report the observation of acoustic Bloch oscillations at megahertz frequency in a two-dimensional phononic crystal. By creating periodically arrayed cavities with a decreasing gradient in width along one direction in the phononic crystal, acoustic Wannier-Stark ladders are created in the frequency domain. The oscillatory motion of an incident Gaussian pulse inside the sample is demonstrated by both simulation and experiment.

  15. Super Bloch Oscillation in a PT symmetric system

    CERN Document Server

    Turker, Z

    2016-01-01

    Wannier-Stark ladder in a PT symmetric system is generally complex that leads to amplified/damped Bloch oscillation. We show that a non-amplified wave packet oscillation with very large amplitude can be realized in a non-Hermitian tight binding lattice if certain conditions are satisfied. We show that pseudo PT symmetry guarantees the reality of the quasi energy spectrum in our system.

  16. Bloch oscillations of Bose-Einstein condensates: breakdown and revival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthaut, D; Werder, M; Mossmann, S; Korsch, H J

    2005-03-01

    We investigate the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in a tilted one-dimensional periodic lattice within the mean-field (Gross-Pitaevskii) description. Unlike in the linear case the Bloch oscillations decay because of nonlinear dephasing. Pronounced revival phenomena are observed. These are analyzed in detail in terms of a simple integrable model constructed by an expansion in Wannier-Stark resonance states. We also briefly discuss the pulsed output of such systems for stronger static fields.

  17. Continuity, the Bloch-Torrey equation, and Diffusion MRI

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Matt G

    2016-01-01

    The Bloch equation describes the evolution of classical particles tagged with a magnetisation vector in a strong magnetic field and is fundamental to many NMR and MRI contrast methods. The equation can be generalised to include the effects of spin motion by including a spin flux, which typically contains a Fickian diffusive term and/or a coherent velocity term. This form is known as the Bloch-Torrey equation, and is fundamental to MR modalities which are sensitive to spin dynamics such as diffusion MRI. Such modalities have received a great deal of interest in the research literature over the last few years, resulting in a huge range of models and methods. In this work we make make use of a more general Bloch-Torrey equation with a generalised flux term. We show that many commonly employed approaches in Diffusion MRI may be viewed as different choices for the flux terms in this equation. This viewpoint, although obvious theoretically, is not usually emphasised in the diffusion MR literature and points to inte...

  18. Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, O; Langer, F; Urbanek, B; Lange, C; Huttner, U; Golde, D; Meier, T; Kira, M; Koch, S W; Huber, R

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast charge transport in strongly biased semiconductors is at the heart of highspeed electronics, electro-optics, and fundamental solid-state physics. Intense light pulses in the terahertz (THz) spectral range have opened fascinating vistas: Since THz photon energies are far below typical electronic interband resonances, a stable electromagnetic waveform may serve as a precisely adjustable bias. Novel quantum phenomena have been anticipated for THz amplitudes reaching atomic field strengths. We exploit controlled THz waveforms with peak fields of 72 MV/cm to drive coherent interband polarization combined with dynamical Bloch oscillations in semiconducting gallium selenide. These dynamics entail the emission of phase-stable high-harmonic transients, covering the entire THz-to-visible spectral domain between 0.1 and 675 THz. Quantum interference of different ionization paths of accelerated charge carriers is controlled via the waveform of the driving field and explained by a quantum theory of inter- and in...

  19. Modified-Bloch-equation description of EPR transient nutations and free induction decay in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadullina, N.Ya.; Asadullin, Ya.Ya. [Kazan State Technical University, Department of General Physics, Kazan (Russian Federation); Asadullin, T.Ya. [Kazan State Technical University, Department of General Physics, Kazan (Russian Federation). E-mail: atimur@physics.ktsu-kai.ru

    2001-04-09

    Based on the experimental work by Boscaino et al on the EPR transient nutations (TNs) and free induction decay (FID) in solids, we propose the modified Bloch equations (MBEs). In addition to the Tomita expression for power-dependent parameter T{sub 2u}, we give an original phenomenological expression for power-dependent parameter T{sub 2v} and tuning {delta}. Both analytical (in the form of a Torrey solution with these parameters) and numerical solutions of MBE are obtained for TN and for different FID regimes with very good agreement between theory and experiment. We also discuss the meaning and role of the instantaneous diffusion mechanism in the transient pulse experiments. (author)

  20. Sub-nanometer linewidth perfect absorption in visible band induced by Bloch surface wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jiawei; Liu, Wenxing; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Ren, Naifei; Ding, Guilin; Chen, Mingyang; Yao, Hongbing

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate the unity absorption of visible light with an ultra-narrow 0.1 nm linewidth. It arises from the Bloch surface wave resonance in alternating TiO2/SiO2 multilayers. The total absorption and narrow linewidth are explained from the radiative and absorptive damping, which are quantitatively determined by the temporal coupled mode theory. When a silver film with proper thickness is added to the absorber, the perfect absorption is achieved with only 3 structural bilayers, in contrast with 8 bilayers required without Ag. Furthermore, significant field enhancement and an ultrahigh 2600/RIU sensing figure-of-merit are simultaneously obtained at resonance, which might facilitate applications in nonlinear optical devices and high resolution refractive index sensing.

  1. Utopie am Abgrund. Anmerkungen zum Aufstieg Ernst Blochs - Utopia in the abyss. Remarks on the rise of Ernst Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Streck

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The essay wants to deconstruct the genre of utopias so popular in the 20th century political writings. Human history shows manifold respect to stories about non-existent worlds which mix reality and non-reality, but outside the area of Abrahamitic beliefs there was rarely hope for a future. The secular version of such eschatological teachings begins with Karl Marx in the 19th century and culminates in the prophetic as well as revolutionary writings of Ernst Bloch around the terrible wars of the 20th century. This philosopher succeeded in both parts of post-war Germany and is still venerated inside and outside the academias. Compared with the so-called dystopias of Max Weber, Aldous Huxley or George Orwell the political visions of Bloch lack any sense of reality and seem to be quite useless to the understanding of present tendencies in world politics.

  2. A refined Bloch group and the third homology of SL_2 of a field

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchinson, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a variation of the Bloch group of a field F, which we call the refined Bloch group of F, and which bears essentially the same relationship to the third integral homology of SL_2 of the field as the classical Bloch group has to the indecomposable K_3 of the field. We use the properties of the refined Bloch group to prove that H_3 of SL_2 of a global field is never finitely generated, and to calculate - up to some 2- and 3-torsion - H_3 of SL_2 of local fields with finite residue field of odd characteristic.

  3. Long-lived BLOCH oscillations with bosonic sr atoms and application to gravity measurement at the micrometer scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, G; Poli, N; Sorrentino, F; Tino, G M

    2006-08-11

    We report on the observation of Bloch oscillations on the unprecedented time scale of several seconds. The experiment is carried out with ultracold bosonic 88Sr atoms loaded into a vertical optical standing wave. The negligible atom-atom elastic cross section and zero angular momentum in the ground state makes 88Sr an almost ideal Bose gas, insensitive to typical mechanisms of decoherence due to thermalization and external stray fields. The small size of the system enables precision measurements of forces at micrometer scale. This is a challenge in physics for studies of surfaces, Casimir effects, and searches for deviations from Newtonian gravity predicted by theories beyond the standard model.

  4. Ultra-low-loss CMOS-Compatible Waveguide Crossing Arrays Based on Multimode Bloch Waves and Imaginary Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yangyang; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Zeng, Xiaoge; Popovic, Milos A.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate broadband waveguide crossing arrays showing ultra low loss down to $0.04\\,$dB/crossing ($0.9\\%$), matching theory, and crosstalk suppression over $35\\,$dB, in a CMOS-compatible geometry. The principle of operation is the tailored excitation of a low-loss spatial Bloch wave formed by matching the periodicity of the crossing array to the difference in propagation constants of the 1$^\\text{st}$- and 3$^\\text{rd}$-order TE-like modes of a multimode silicon waveguide....

  5. Traffic restrictions on Routes Bloch, Maxwell and Bohr

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    Excavation and pipework is being carried out in the framework of the transfer of the waste water treatment plant for the effluents from the surface treatment workshops from Building 254 to Building 676, currently under construction. This work may encroach onto Routes Bloch, Maxwell and Bohr and disrupt the flow of traffic. Users are requested to comply with the road signs that will be erected. The work is expected to last until the beginning of December 2008. Thank you for your understanding. TS/CE and TS/FM Groups Tel.7 4188 or 16 4314

  6. Tunable photonic Bloch oscillations in electrically modulated photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Huang, Ji Ping; Yu, Kin Wah

    2008-10-01

    We exploit theoretically the occurrence and tunability of photonic Bloch oscillations (PBOs) in one-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) containing nonlinear composites. Because of the enhanced third-order nonlinearity (Kerr-type nonlinearity) of composites, photons undergo oscillations inside tilted photonic bands, which are achieved by the application of graded external-pump electric fields on such PCs, varying along the direction perpendicular to the surface of layers. The tunability of PBOs (including amplitude and period) is readily achieved by changing the field gradient. With an appropriate graded pump ac or dc electric field, terahertz PBOs can appear and cover a terahertz band in an electromagnetic spectrum.

  7. Localization without recurrence and pseudo-Bloch oscillations in optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2015-10-15

    Dynamical localization, i.e., the absence of secular spreading of a quantum or classical wave packet, is usually associated with Hamiltonians by the pure point spectrum, i.e., with a normalizable and complete set of eigenstates. Such systems always show quasi-periodic dynamics (recurrence). Here, we show, rather counter-intuitively, that dynamical localization can be observed in Hamiltonians with an absolutely continuous spectrum, where recurrence effects are forbidden. An optical realization of such a Hamiltonian is proposed based on beam propagation in a self-imaging optical resonator with a phase grating. Localization without recurrence in this system is explained in terms of pseudo-Bloch optical oscillations.

  8. Plasmonic Bloch oscillations in cylindrical metal-dielectric waveguide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Ruei-Cheng; Lan, Yung-Chiang; Chen, Chin-Min

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates plasmonic Bloch oscillations (PBOs) in cylindrical metal-dielectric waveguide arrays (MDWAs) by performing numerical simulations and theoretical analyses. Optical conformal mapping is used to transform cylindrical MDWAs into equivalent chirped structures with permittivity and permeability gradients across the waveguide arrays, which is caused by the curvature of the cylindrical waveguide. The PBOs are attributed to the transformed structure. The period of oscillation increases with the wavelength of the incident Gaussian beam. However, the amplitude of oscillation is almost independent of wavelength.

  9. Localization without recurrence and pseudo-Bloch oscillations in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical localization, i.e. the absence of secular spreading of a quantum or classical wave packet, is usually associated to Hamiltonians with purely point spectrum, i.e. with a normalizable and complete set of eigenstates, which show quasi-periodic dynamics (recurrence). Here we show rather counter-intuitively that dynamical localization can be observed in Hamiltonians with absolutely continuous spectrum, where recurrence effects are forbidden. An optical realization of such an Hamiltonian is proposed based on beam propagation in a self-imaging optical resonator with a phase grating. Localization without recurrence in this system is explained in terms of pseudo-Bloch optical oscillations.

  10. Quasi-BLOCH oscillations in curved coupled optical waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joushaghani, Arash; Iyer, Rajiv; Poon, Joyce K S; Aitchison, J Stewart; de Sterke, C Martijn; Wan, Jun; Dignam, Marc M

    2009-10-01

    We report the observation of quasi-Bloch oscillations, a recently proposed, new type of dynamic localization in the spatial evolution of light in a curved coupled optical waveguide array. By spatially resolving the optical intensity at various propagation distances, we show the delocalization and final relocalization of the beam in the waveguide array. Through comparisons with other structures, we show that this dynamic localization is robust beyond the nearest-neighbor tight-binding approximation and exhibits a wavelength dependence different from conventional dynamic localization.

  11. Photon BLOCH oscillations in porous silicon optical superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, V; del Río, J A; Malpuech, G; Zamfirescu, M; Kavokin, A; Coquillat, D; Scalbert, D; Vladimirova, M; Gil, B

    2004-03-01

    We report the first observation of oscillations of the electromagnetic field in an optical superlattice based on porous silicon. These oscillations are an optical equivalent of well-known electronic Bloch oscillations in crystals. Elementary cells of our structure are composed by microcavities whose coupling gives rise to the extended collective modes forming optical minigaps and minibands. By varying thicknesses of the cavities along the structure axis, we have created an effective electric field for photons. A very high quality factor of the confined optical state of the Wannier-Stark ladder may allow lasing in porous silicon-based superlattices.

  12. Tunable photonic Bloch oscillations in electrically modulated photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gang; Yu, Kin Wah

    2008-01-01

    We exploit theoretically the occurrence and tunability of photonic Bloch oscillations (PBOs) in one-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) containing nonlinear composites. Because of the enhanced third-order nonlinearity (Kerr type nonlinearity) of composites, photons undergo oscillations inside tilted photonic bands, which are achieved by the application of graded external pump electric fields on such PCs, varying along the direction perpendicular to the surface of layers. The tunability of PBOs (including amplitude and period) is readily achieved by changing the field gradient. With an appropriate graded pump AC or DC electric field, terahertz PBOs can appear and cover a terahertz band in electromagnetic spectrum.

  13. From Bloch to random lasing in ZnO self-assembled nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Fernandez, Pedro David; Cefe, López

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present measurements on UV lasing in ZnO ordered and disordered nanostructures. Bloch lasing is achieved in the ordered structures by exploiting very low group-velocity Bloch modes in ZnO photonic crystals. In the second case, random lasing is observed in ZnO photonic glasses. W...

  14. Local gravity measurement with the combination of atom interferometry and Bloch oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Charrière, Renée; Zahzam, Nassim; Bidel, Yannick; Bresson, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    We present a local measurement of gravity combining Bloch oscillations and atom interferometry. With a falling distance of 0.8 mm, we achieve a sensitivity of 2x10-7 g with an integration time of 300 s. No bias associated with the Bloch oscillations has been measured. A contrast decay with Bloch oscillations has been observed and attributed to the spatial quality of the laser beams. A simple experimental configuration has been adopted where a single retro-reflected laser beam is performing atoms launch, stimulated Raman transitions and Bloch oscillations. The combination of Bloch oscillations and atom interferometry can thus be realized with an apparatus no more complex than a standard atomic gravimeter.

  15. Bloch constant of holomorphic mappings on the unit polydisk of C~n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we give a definition of Bloch mappings defined in the unit polydisk Dn, which generalizes the concept of Bloch functions defined in the unit disk D.It is known that Bloch theorem fails unless we have some restrictive assumption on holomorphic mappings in several complex variables.We shall establish the corresponding distortion theorems for subfamiliesβ(K)andβloc(K) of Bloch mappings defined in the polydisk Dn,which extend the distortion theorems of Liu and Minda to higher dimensions.As an application,we obtain lower and upper bounds of Bloch constants for various subfamilies of Bloeh mappings defined in Dn.In particular,our results reduce to the classical results of Ahlfors and Landau when n=1.

  16. Differential geometric invariants for time-reversal symmetric Bloch-bundles: The "Real" case

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nittis, Giuseppe; Gomi, Kiyonori

    2016-05-01

    Topological quantum systems subjected to an even (resp. odd) time-reversal symmetry can be classified by looking at the related "Real" (resp. "Quaternionic") Bloch-bundles. If from one side the topological classification of these time-reversal vector bundle theories has been completely described in De Nittis and Gomi [J. Geom. Phys. 86, 303-338 (2014)] for the "Real" case and in De Nittis and Gomi [Commun. Math. Phys. 339, 1-55 (2015)] for the "Quaternionic" case, from the other side it seems that a classification in terms of differential geometric invariants is still missing in the literature. With this article and its companion [G. De Nittis and K. Gomi (unpublished)] we want to cover this gap. More precisely, we extend in an equivariant way the theory of connections on principal bundles and vector bundles endowed with a time-reversal symmetry. In the "Real" case we generalize the Chern-Weil theory and we show that the assignment of a "Real" connection, along with the related differential Chern class and its holonomy, suffices for the classification of "Real" vector bundles in low dimensions.

  17. Bloch-Zener oscillations in a tunable optical honeycomb lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehlinger, Thomas; Greif, Daniel; Jotzu, Gregor; Esslinger, Tilman [Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Tarruell, Leticia [Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland and LP2N, Universite Bordeaux 1, IOGS, CNRS, 351 cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)

    2013-12-04

    Ultracold gases in optical lattices have proved to be a flexible tool to simulate many different phenomena of solid state physics [1, 2]. Recently, optical lattices with complex geometries have been realized [3, 4, 5, 6, 7], paving the way to simulating more realistic systems. The honeycomb structure has recently become accessible in an optical lattice composed of mutually perpendicular laser beams. This lattice structure exhibits topological features in its band structure – the Dirac points. At these points, two energy bands intersect linearly and the particles behave as relativistic Dirac fermions. In optical lattices, Bloch oscillations [8] resolved both in time and in quasi-momentum space can be directly observed. We make use of such Bloch-Zener oscillations to probe the vanishing energy gap at the Dirac points as well as their position in the band structure. In small band gap regions, we observe Landau-Zener tunneling [7, 9] to the second band and the regions of maximum transfer can be identified with the position of the Dirac points.

  18. Bloch-Redfield equations for modeling light-harvesting complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeske, Jan; Ing, David J; Plenio, Martin B; Huelga, Susana F; Cole, Jared H

    2015-02-14

    We challenge the misconception that Bloch-Redfield equations are a less powerful tool than phenomenological Lindblad equations for modeling exciton transport in photosynthetic complexes. This view predominantly originates from an indiscriminate use of the secular approximation. We provide a detailed description of how to model both coherent oscillations and several types of noise, giving explicit examples. All issues with non-positivity are overcome by a consistent straightforward physical noise model. Herein also lies the strength of the Bloch-Redfield approach because it facilitates the analysis of noise-effects by linking them back to physical parameters of the noise environment. This includes temporal and spatial correlations and the strength and type of interaction between the noise and the system of interest. Finally, we analyze a prototypical dimer system as well as a 7-site Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex in regards to spatial correlation length of the noise, noise strength, temperature, and their connection to the transfer time and transfer probability.

  19. Bloch-wave engineering of quantum dot-micropillars for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Lermer, Matthias; Dunzer, Florian; Reitzenstein, Stephan; Höfling, Sven; Mørk, Jesper; Worschech, Lukas; Kamp, Martin; Forchel, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    We have employed Bloch-wave engineering to realize submicron diameter ultra-high quality factor GaAs/AlAs micropillars (MPs). The design features a tapered cavity in which the fundamental Bloch mode is subject to an adiabatic transition to match the Bragg mirror Bloch mode. The resulting reduced scattering loss leads to record-high visibility of the strong coupling in MPs with modest oscillator strength quantum dots. A quality factor of 13,600 and a Rabi splitting of 85 \\mueV with an estimated visibility v of 0.38 are observed for a small mode volume MP with a diameter dc of 850 nm.

  20. Acoustic analogue of electronic BLOCH oscillations and resonant Zener tunneling in ultrasonic superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Alepuz, Helios; Kosevich, Yuriy A; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2007-03-30

    We demonstrate the existence of Bloch oscillations of acoustic fields in sound propagation through a superlattice of water cavities and layers of methyl methacrylate. To obtain the acoustic equivalent of a Wannier-Stark ladder, we employ a set of cavities with different thicknesses. Bloch oscillations are observed as time-resolved oscillations of transmission in a direct analogy to electronic Bloch oscillations in biased semiconductor superlattices. Moreover, for a particular gradient of cavity thicknesses, an overlap of two acoustic minibands occurs, which results in resonant Zener-like transmission enhancement.

  1. Inducing transport in a dissipation-free lattice with super Bloch oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Elmar; Hart, Russell; Mark, Manfred J; Danzl, Johann G; Reichsöllner, Lukas; Nägerl, Hanns-Christoph

    2010-05-21

    Particles in a perfect lattice potential perform Bloch oscillations when subject to a constant force, leading to localization and preventing conductivity. For a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate of Cs atoms, we observe giant center-of-mass oscillations in position space with a displacement across hundreds of lattice sites when we add a periodic modulation to the force near the Bloch frequency. We study the dependence of these "super" Bloch oscillations on lattice depth, modulation amplitude, and modulation frequency and show that they provide a means to induce linear transport in a dissipation-free lattice.

  2. The Bloch wave operator: generalizations and applications: II. The time-dependent case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolicard, Georges [Observatoire de Besancon (UMR-CNRS 6091), Universite de Franche-Comte, 41 bis, Avenue de l' Observatoire, 25000 Besancon (France); Killingbeck, John P [Observatoire de Besancon (UMR-CNRS 6091), Universite de Franche-Comte, 41 bis, Avenue de l' Observatoire, 25000 Besancon (France); Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-10

    Part II of the review shows how the stationary Bloch wave operator of part I can be suitably modified to give a time-dependent wave operator. This operator makes it possible to use a relatively small active space in order to describe the dynamical processes which occur in quantum mechanical systems which have a time-dependent Hamiltonian. A close study is made of the links between the time-dependent and time-independent wave operators at the adiabatic limit; the analysis clarifies the way in which the wave operator formalism allows the time evolution of a system or a wave packet to be described in terms of a fast evolution inside the active space together with weak transitions out of this space which can be treated by perturbation methods. Two alternative wave operator equations of motion are derived and analysed. The first one is a non-linear differential equation in the usual Hilbert space; the second one is a differential equation in an extended Hilbert space with an extra time variable added and becomes equivalent to the usual Bloch equation when the Floquet Hamiltonian is taken in place of the ordinary Hamiltonian. A study is made of the close relationships between the time-dependent wave operator formalism, the Floquet theory and the (t, t') theory. Some original methods of solution of the two forms of wave operator equation are proposed and lead to new techniques of integration for the time-dependent Schroedinger equation (e.g., the generalized Green equation procedure). Mixed procedures involving both the time-independent and time-dependent wave operators are shown to be applicable to the internal eigenstate problem for large complex matrices. A detailed account is given of the description of inelastic and photoreactive processes by means of the time-dependent wave operator formalism, with particular attention to laser-molecule interactions. The emphasis is on projection operator techniques, with special attention being given to the method of selection

  3. Coulomb blockade and BLOCH oscillations in superconducting Ti nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, J S; Zakharov, K; Arutyunov, K Yu

    2012-11-01

    Quantum fluctuations in quasi-one-dimensional superconducting channels leading to spontaneous changes of the phase of the order parameter by 2π, alternatively called quantum phase slips (QPS), manifest themselves as the finite resistance well below the critical temperature of thin superconducting nanowires and the suppression of persistent currents in tiny superconducting nanorings. Here we report the experimental evidence that in a current-biased superconducting nanowire the same QPS process is responsible for the insulating state--the Coulomb blockade. When exposed to rf radiation, the internal Bloch oscillations can be synchronized with the external rf drive leading to formation of quantized current steps on the I-V characteristic. The effects originate from the fundamental quantum duality of a Josephson junction and a superconducting nanowire governed by QPS--the QPS junction.

  4. Landau-Lifhsitz-Bloch equation for exchange coupled grains

    CERN Document Server

    Vogler, Christoph; Bruckner, Florian; Suess, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Heat assisted recording is a promising technique to further increase the storage density in hard disks. Multilayer recording grains with graded Curie temperature is discussed to further assist the write process. Describing the correct magnetization dynamics of these grains, from room temperature to far above the Curie point, during a write process is required for the calculation of bit error rates. We present a coarse grained approach based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch (LLB) equation to model exchange coupled grains with low computational effort. The required temperature dependent material properties such as the zero-field equilibrium magnetization as well as the parallel and normal susceptibilities are obtained by atomistic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLB) simulations. Each grain is described with one magnetization vector. In order to mimic the atomistic exchange interaction between the grains a special treatment of the exchange field in the coarse grained approach is presented.

  5. Bloch-Nordsieck Estimates of High-Temperature QED

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, H M; Sheu, Y -M

    2008-01-01

    In anticipation of a subsequent application to QCD, we consider the case of QED at high temperature. We introduce a Fradkin representation into the exact, Schwingerian, functional expression of a fermion propagator, as well as a new and relevant version of the Bloch-Nordsieck (BN) model, which extracts the soft contributions of every perturbative graph, in contradistinction to the assumed separation of energy scales of previous semi-perturbative treatments. Our results are applicable to the absorption of a fast particle which enters a heat bath, as well as to the propagation of a symmetric pulse within the thermal medium due to the appearance of an instantaneous, shock-wave-like source acting in the medium. An exponentially-decreasing time dependence of the incident particle's initial momentum combines with a stronger decrease in the particle's energy, estimated by a sum over all Matsubara frequencies, to model an initial "fireball", which subsequently decays in a Gaussian fashion. When extended to QCD, quali...

  6. A Bloch equation approach to intensity dependent optical spectra of light harvesting complex II: excitation dependence of light harvesting complex II pump-probe spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Marten; Renger, Thomas; Knorr, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of the recent progress in the resolution of the structure of the antenna light harvesting complex II (LHC II) of the photosystem II, we propose a microscopically motivated theory to predict excitation intensity-dependent spectra. We show that optical Bloch equations provide the means to include all 2( N ) excited states of an oligomer complex of N coupled two-level systems and analyze the effects of Pauli Blocking and exciton-exciton annihilation on pump-probe spectra. We use LHC Bloch equations for 14 Coulomb coupled two-level systems, which describe the S (0) and S (1) level of every chlorophyll molecule. All parameter introduced into the Hamiltonian are based on microscopic structure and a quantum chemical model. The derived Bloch equations describe not only linear absorption but also the intensity dependence of optical spectra in a regime where the interplay of Pauli Blocking effects as well as exciton-exciton annihilation effects are important. As an example, pump-probe spectra are discussed. The observed saturation of the spectra for high intensities can be viewed as a relaxation channel blockade on short time scales due to Pauli blocking. The theoretical investigation is useful for the interpretation of the experimental data, if the experimental conditions exceed the low intensity pump limit and effects like strong Pauli Blocking and exciton-exciton annihilation need to be considered. These effects become important when multiple excitations are generated by the pump pulse in the complex.

  7. Bloch Oscillations of Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates in Optical Lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Huai-Qiang; WANG Zhi-Cheng; JIN Kang; TAN Lei

    2006-01-01

    @@ We study the Bloch oscillations of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in spin-dependent optical lattices. The influence of the intercomponent atom interaction on the system is discussed in detail Accelerated breakdown of the Bloch oscillations and revival phenomena are found respectively for the repulsive and attractive case. For both the cases, the system will finally be set in a quantum self-trapping state due to dynamical instability.

  8. Imaging of Bloch oscillations in erbium-doped curved waveguide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, N; Della Valle, G; Osellame, R; Longhi, S; Cerullo, G; Ramponi, R; Laporta, P; Morgner, U

    2006-06-01

    We report a direct observation of Bloch-like dynamics of light in curved waveguide arrays manufactured in Er:Yb-doped phosphate glass by femtosecond laser writing. The green upconversion fluorescence emitted by excited erbium ions is exploited to image the flow of the guided pump light at approximately 980 nm along the array. Direct and clear evidence of periodic light breathing for single-waveguide excitation, closely related to Bloch oscillations, is reported.

  9. Photonic Bloch oscillations and Wannier-Stark ladders in exponentially chirped Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, P B

    2002-05-01

    The formation of photonic Bloch oscillations and Wannier-Stark ladders is demonstrated in an exponentially chirped one-dimensional Bragg grating. The photonic Bloch oscillations are investigated using Hamiltonian optics, and direct analogies are made with electron dynamics in periodic potentials. The results of transfer matrix calculations are presented, which show the existence of a photonic Wannier-Stark ladder that should be detectable in experiments.

  10. Band structure and Bloch states in birefringent 1D magnetophotonic crystals: An analytical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lévy, M; Levy, Miguel; Jalali, Amir A

    2007-01-01

    An analytical formulation for the band structure and Bloch modes in elliptically birefringent magnetophotonic crystals is presented. The model incorporates both the effects of gyrotropy and linear birefringence generally present in magneto-optic thin film devices. Full analytical expressions are obtained for the dispersion relation and Bloch modes in a layered stack photonic crystal and their properties are analyzed. It is shown that other models recently discussed in the literature are contained as special limiting cases of the formulation presented herein.

  11. Weighted Composition Operators from Bergman-Type Spaces into Bloch Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Songxiao Li; Stevo Stević

    2007-08-01

    Let be an analytic self-map and be a fixed analytic function on the open unit disk in the complex plane $\\mathbb{C}$. The weighted composition operator is defined by $$u C_\\varphi f=u\\cdot p (f\\circ\\varphi), f\\in H(D).$$ Weighted composition operators from Bergman-type spaces into Bloch spaces and little Bloch spaces are characterized by function theoretic properties of their inducing maps.

  12. A dorsal fold in Gymnura micrura (Bloch and Scheneider, 1801 (Chondrichthyes: Gymnuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Silva Nunes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a dorsal fold which is a membranous structure located on the tail of two juvenile butterfly rays, Gymnura micrura (Bloch & Scheneider, 1801, caught through artisanal fishery in the shallow waters of Maranhão State (Brazil.Neste manuscrito registra-se uma nadadeira dorsal em dois espécimes juvenis de Gymnura micrura (Bloch and Scheneider, 1801 capturadas pela pesca artesanal em águas rasas do estado do Maranhão (Brasil.

  13. Theoretical dialogues between Paulo Freire and Ernst Bloch: dialogues about the Principle and Pedagogy of Hope

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this article we propose to discuss the concept of hope and daydream from the writings of Ernst Bloch and Paulo Freire. Based on the production of Ernst Bloch explored the philosophy of hope, as an expression of affection expectant positive, from the imperative to understand how the act related to a political commitment by the constitution from seeking concrete utopias. The problematization of the term from Paulo Freire, in turn, enters the discussion about the importance of Pedagogy of Hop...

  14. Photonic lattices in organic microcavities: Bloch states and control of lasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischok, Andreas; Brückner, Robert; Fröb, Hartmut; Lyssenko, Vadim G.; Leo, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Organic microcavities comprising the host:guest emitter system Alq3:DCM offer an interesting playground to experimentally study the dispersion characteristics of laterally patterned microlasers due to the broad emission spectrum and large oscillator strength of the organic dye. By structuring of metallic or dielectric sublayers directly on top of the bottom mirror, we precisely manipulate the mode structure and influence the coherent emission properties of the device. Embedding silver layers into a microcavity leads to an interaction of the optical cavity-state in the organic layer and the neighboring metal which red-shifts the cavity resonance, creating a Tamm-plasmon-polariton state. A patterning of the metal can in turn be exploited to fabricate deep photonic wells of micron-size, efficiently confining light in lateral direction. In periodic arrays of silver wires, we create a Kronig-Penney-like optical potential in the cavity and in turn observe optical Bloch states spanning over several photonic wires. We modify the Kronig-Penney theory to analytically describe the full far-field emission dispersion of our cavities and show the emergence of either zero- , π-, or 2π- phase-locking in the system. By investigating periodic SiO2 patterns, we experimentally observe stimulated emission from the ground and different excited discrete states at room temperature and are able to directly control the laser emission from both extended and confined modes of the photonic wires at room-temperature.

  15. Effects of the projectile electronic structure on Bethe-Bloch stopping parameters for Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, D., E-mail: djamelmoussa@gmail.co [USTHB, Faculte de Physique, B.P. 32, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Damache, S. [Division de Physique, CRNA, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 399 Alger-gare, Algiers (Algeria); Ouichaoui, S., E-mail: souichaoui@gmail.co [USTHB, Faculte de Physique, B.P. 32, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria)

    2010-06-15

    Energy losses of protons and alpha particles in silver have been accurately measured under the same experimental conditions over the velocity range E{sub lab}=(0.192-2.595) MeV/amu using the transmission method. Deduced S(E) stopping powers are compared to most accurate ones from the literature, to values generated by the SRIM-2008 computer code and to ICRU-49 compilation. They were analyzed in the framework of modified Bethe-Bloch theory for extracting Ag target mean excitation and ionization potential, I, and Barkas effect parameter, b. Values of (466{+-}5) eV and 1.20{+-}0.01 for these two parameters were inferred from the proton S(E) data while the alpha particle data yielded values of (438{+-}4) eV and 1.38{+-}0.01, respectively. The (I, b) stopping parameters thus exhibit opposite variations as the projectile charge increases, similarly as we have found previously for nickel . This can be ascribed only to an effect of the projectile electronic structure at low velocities. The obtained results are discussed in comparison to previous ones reported in the literature.

  16. Resonant absorption in semiconductor nanowires and nanowire arrays: Relating leaky waveguide modes to Bloch photonic crystal modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountaine, Katherine T., E-mail: kfountai@caltech.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Whitney, William S. [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Atwater, Harry A. [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2014-10-21

    We present a unified framework for resonant absorption in periodic arrays of high index semiconductor nanowires that combines a leaky waveguide theory perspective and that of photonic crystals supporting Bloch modes, as array density transitions from sparse to dense. Full dispersion relations are calculated for each mode at varying illumination angles using the eigenvalue equation for leaky waveguide modes of an infinite dielectric cylinder. The dispersion relations along with symmetry arguments explain the selectivity of mode excitation and spectral red-shifting of absorption for illumination parallel to the nanowire axis in comparison to perpendicular illumination. Analysis of photonic crystal band dispersion for varying array density illustrates that the modes responsible for resonant nanowire absorption emerge from the leaky waveguide modes.

  17. Philippe Bloch: Reducing distance between experiments and CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    With its unique combination of several hundred staff members and thousands of users from around the world sharing offices and physics data and profiting from mutually beneficial exchanges of know-how and expertise, the PH Department is a good example of a successful worldwide collaboration, set up as it was to construct and run the Laboratory’s physics experiments. The PH Depart-ment has always played host to thousands of users that contribute to CERN experiments and work on them, and whose numbers are set to grow in the years to come. With his long-standing experience as a user and then as the head of the CERN group within the CMS collaboration, Philippe Bloch, the new PH Department Head, is in favour of closer links between the Department and the experiments. "I think that the PH management should have a direct link to the experiments, and to do so we are holding regular management team meetings comprising members of the Department’s management and the e...

  18. Geometry of the generalized Bloch sphere for qutrit

    CERN Document Server

    Goyal, Sandeep K; Singh, Rajeev; Simon, Sudhavathani

    2011-01-01

    The geometry of the generalized Bloch sphere $\\Omega_3$, the state space of a qutrit is studied. Closed form expressions for $\\Omega_3$, its boundary $\\partial \\Omega_3$, and the set of extremals $\\Omega_3^{\\rm ext}$ are obtained by use of an elementary observation. These expressions and analytic methods are used to classify the 28 two-sections and the 56 three-sections of $\\Omega_3$ into unitary equivalence classes, completing the works of earlier authors. It is shown, in particular, that there are families of two-sections and of three-sections which are equivalent geometrically but not unitarily, a feature that does not appear to have been appreciated earlier. A family of three-sections of obese-tetrahedral shape whose symmetry corresponds to the 24-element tetrahedral point group $T_d$ is examined in detail. This symmetry is traced to the reduction of the adjoint representation of SU(3), the symmetry underlying $\\Omega_3$, into direct sum of the two-dimensional and the two (inequivalent) three-dimensional ...

  19. Bloch wave approach to the optics of crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, S; Oldano, C; Becchi, M

    2001-08-01

    The Bloch wave method is used to find the effective permittivity tensor epsilon of periodic liquid crystals and artificial structures whose period p is short with respect to the light wavelength lambda and whose optical properties are defined by a permittivity field epsilon(r). The main role of the multiple scattering within the periodic medium is evidenced, and very general expressions of epsilon, based on expansions in ascending powers of the ratio p/lambda and of the light wave vector k, are found. Such expansions allow to discuss the general properties of epsilon, to clarify the role of the spatial dispersions, i.e., to separate the part of epsilon explicitly depending on k from its k-independent part, and to find some interesting properties of crystals that are (i) periodic in only one direction, or (ii) locally isotropic. Finally, the limits of validity of the macroscopic model are discussed. Within these limits only a few terms of the power expansions are required, and their expressions are explicitly given. The obtained results are also useful to better understand the macroscopic optical properties of solid crystals.

  20. Geometry of the generalized Bloch sphere for qutrits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sandeep K.; Neethi Simon, B.; Singh, Rajeev; Simon, Sudhavathani

    2016-04-01

    The geometry of the generalized Bloch sphere Ω3, the state space of a qutrit, is studied. Closed form expressions for Ω3, its boundary ∂Ω3, and the set of extremals {{{Ω }}}3{{ext}} are obtained by use of an elementary observation. These expressions and analytic methods are used to classify the 28 two-sections and the 56 three-sections of Ω3 into unitary equivalence classes, completing the works of earlier authors. It is shown, in particular, that there are families of two-sections and of three-sections which are equivalent geometrically but not unitarily, a feature that does not appear to have been appreciated earlier. A family of three-sections of obese-tetrahedral shape whose symmetry corresponds to the 24-element tetrahedral point group T d is examined in detail. This symmetry is traced to the natural reduction of the adjoint representation of SU(3), the symmetry underlying Ω3, into direct sum of the two-dimensional and the two (inequivalent) three-dimensional irreducible representations of T d .

  1. Experimental and theoretical demonstration of acoustic Bloch oscillations in porous silicon structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazcano, Z.; Arriaga, J., E-mail: arriaga@ifuap.buap.mx [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110-A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Aliev, G. N. [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-21

    We report the theoretical calculations and the experimental demonstration of acoustic Bloch oscillations and Wannier-Stark ladders in linear tilted multilayer structures based on porous silicon. The considered structures consist of layers with constant porosity alternated by layers with a linear gradient in the parameter η=1/v{sub L}{sup 2} along the growth direction in order to tilt the acoustic band gap. The purpose of this gradient is to mimic the tilted electronic miniband structure of a superlattice semiconductor under an external electric field. In this way, acoustic Wannier-Stark ladders of equidistant modes are formed and they were experimentally confirmed in the transmission spectrum around 1.2 GHz. Their frequency separation defines the period of the acoustic Bloch oscillations. We fabricated three different structures with the same thicknesses but different values in the η parameter to observe the effect on the period of the Bloch oscillations. We measured the acoustic transmission spectra in the frequency domain, and by using the Fourier transform, we obtained the transmission in the time domain. The transmission spectra of the fabricated samples show acoustic Bloch oscillations with periods of 27, 24, and 19 ns. The experimental results are in good agreement with the transfer matrix calculations. The observed phenomenon is the acoustic counterpart of the well known electronic Bloch oscillations.

  2. Bloch Oscillation in a One-Dimensional Array of Small Josephson Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroshi; Katori, Shunsuke; Gandrothula, Srinivas; Deguchi, Tomoaki; Mizugaki, Yoshinao

    2016-07-01

    A distinct Bloch nose was demonstrated in the current-voltage characteristics of a one-dimensional array of 20 small Josephson junctions. Arrays of direct-current superconducting quantum interference device (dc-SQUID) structures were used as leads to the array of junctions, and the environmental impedance was tuned with a magnetic field. The observed Bloch nose had a negative differential resistance of its magnitude of as large as 14.3 MΩ, a blockade voltage of 0.36 mV, and a decrease in voltage of 0.21 mV due to the Bloch oscillation, all of which are larger than those obtained in a single junction by more than one order. The observed Bloch oscillation was quantitatively described on the basis of the Bloch oscillation of each single junction in combination with the charge soliton model in a long array. Unexpected constant-current spikes, whose origin lay in the dc-SQUID in the leads, were also observed to be superposed on the current-voltage characteristics when the Coulomb blockade appeared.

  3. Non-destructive monitoring of Bloch oscillations in an optical cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Keßler, H; Venkatesh, B P; Georges, Ch; Hemmerich, A

    2016-01-01

    Bloch oscillations are a hallmark of coherent wave dynamics in periodic potentials. They occur as the response of quantum mechanical particles in a lattice if a weak force is applied. In optical lattices with their perfect periodic structure they can be readily observed and employed as a quantum mechanical force sensor, for example, for precise measurements of the gravitational acceleration. However, the destructive character of the measurement process in previous experimental implementations poses serious limitations for the precision of such measurements. In this article we show that the use of an optical cavity operating in the regime of strong cooperative coupling allows one to directly monitor Bloch oscillations of a cloud of cold atoms in the light leaking out of the cavity. Hence, with a single atomic sample the Bloch oscillation dynamics can be mapped out, while in previous experiments, each data point required the preparation of a new atom cloud. The use of a cavity-based monitor should greatly impro...

  4. Observation of Bloch oscillations in complex PT-symmetric photonic lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Wimmer, Martin; Christodoulides, Demetrios; Peschel, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Light propagation in periodic environments is often associated with a number of interesting and potentially useful processes. If a crystalline optical potential is also linearly ramped, light can undergo periodic Bloch oscillations, a direct outcome of localized Wannier-Stark states and their equidistant eigenvalue spectrum. Even though these effects have been extensively explored in conservative settings, this is by no means the case in non-Hermitian photonic lattices encompassing both amplification and attenuation. Quite recently, Bloch oscillations have been predicted in parity-time-symmetric structures involving gain and loss in a balanced fashion. While in a complex bulk medium, one intuitively expects that light will typically follow the path of highest amplification, in a periodic system this behavior can be substantially altered by the underlying band structure. Here, we report the first experimental observation of Bloch oscillations in parity-time-symmetric mesh lattices. We show that these revivals ...

  5. Bloch bound states in the radiation continuum in a periodic array of dielectric rods

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgakov, Evgeny N

    2014-01-01

    We consider an infinite periodic array of dielectric rods in vacuum with the aim to demonstrate three types of a Bloch bound states in the continuum (BSC), symmetry protected with a zero Bloch vector, embedded into one diffraction channel with nonzero Bloch vector, and embedded into two and three diffraction channels. The first and second types of the BSC exist in a wide range of material parameters of the rods, while the third occurs only at a specific value of the radius of the rods. We show that the second type supports the power flux along the array. In order to find BSC we put forward an approach based on the expansion over the Hankel functions. We show how the BSC reveals itself in the scattering function when the singular BSC point is approached along a specific path in the parametric space.

  6. Bloch wave deafness and modal conversion at a phononic crystal boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Laude

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate modal conversion at the boundary between a homogeneous incident medium and a phononic crystal, with consideration of the impact of symmetry on the excitation of Bloch waves. We give a quantitative criterion for the appearance of deaf Bloch waves, which are antisymmetric with respect to a symmetry axis of the phononic crystal, in the frame of generalized Fresnel formulas for reflection and transmission at the phononic crystal boundary. This criterion is used to index Bloch waves in the complex band structure of the phononic crystal, for directions of incidence along a symmetry axis. We argue that within deaf frequency ranges transmission is multi-exponential, as it is within frequency band gaps.

  7. Bloch-wave engineering of quantum dot micropillars for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lermer, M; Gregersen, N; Dunzer, F; Reitzenstein, S; Höfling, S; Mørk, J; Worschech, L; Kamp, M; Forchel, A

    2012-02-01

    We have employed Bloch-wave engineering to realize submicron diameter high quality factor GaAs/AlAs micropillars (MPs). The design features a tapered cavity in which the fundamental Bloch mode is subject to an adiabatic transition to match the Bragg mirror Bloch mode. The resulting reduced scattering loss leads to record-high vacuum Rabi splitting of the strong coupling in MPs with modest oscillator strength quantum dots. A quality factor of 13, 600 and a splitting of 85  μeV with an estimated visibility v of 0.41 are observed for a small mode volume MP with a diameter d{c} of 850 nm.

  8. Experimental realization of Bloch oscillations in a parity-time synthetic silicon photonic lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ye-Long; Fegadolli, William S; Gan, Lin; Lu, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Scherer, Axel; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2016-04-20

    As an important electron transportation phenomenon, Bloch oscillations have been extensively studied in condensed matter. Due to the similarity in wave properties between electrons and other quantum particles, Bloch oscillations have been observed in atom lattices, photonic lattices, and so on. One of the many distinct advantages for choosing these systems over the regular electronic systems is the versatility in engineering artificial potentials. Here by utilizing dissipative elements in a CMOS-compatible photonic platform to create a periodic complex potential and by exploiting the emerging concept of parity-time synthetic photonics, we experimentally realize spatial Bloch oscillations in a non-Hermitian photonic system on a chip level. Our demonstration may have significant impact in the field of quantum simulation by following the recent trend of moving complicated table-top quantum optics experiments onto the fully integrated CMOS-compatible silicon platform.

  9. Bloch wave deafness and modal conversion at a phononic crystal boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laude, Vincent; Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Benchabane, Sarah; Declercq, Nico F.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate modal conversion at the boundary between a homogeneous incident medium and a phononic crystal, with consideration of the impact of symmetry on the excitation of Bloch waves. We give a quantitative criterion for the appearance of deaf Bloch waves, which are antisymmetric with respect to a symmetry axis of the phononic crystal, in the frame of generalized Fresnel formulas for reflection and transmission at the phononic crystal boundary. This criterion is used to index Bloch waves in the complex band structure of the phononic crystal, for directions of incidence along a symmetry axis. We argue that within deaf frequency ranges transmission is multi-exponential, as it is within frequency band gaps.

  10. Observation of fractional Bloch band quantum Hall states in graphene/h-BN superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Yuanda; Wen, Bo; Hone, James; Dean, Cory

    The Hofstadter energy spectrum provides a uniquely tunable system to study emergent topological order in the regime of strong interactions. Previous experiments, however, have been limited to low Bloch band fillings where only the Landau level index plays a role. Here we report measurements of high mobility graphene superlattices where the complete unit cell of the Hofstadter spectrum is accessible. We observe coexistence of conventional fractional quantum Hall effect (QHE) states together with the integer QHE states associated with the fractal Hofstadter spectrum. At large magnetic field, we observe signatures of another series of states, which appears at fractional Bloch filling index. These fractional Bloch band QHE states are not anticipated by existing theoretical pictures and point towards a distinct type of many-body state.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Laminate Materials: From Surface Waves to Bloch Oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Z.; Willatzen, Morten; Christensen, Johan

    2015-01-01

    for designing Bloch oscillations in classical plate structures and show how mechanical Bloch oscillations can be generated in arrays of solid plates when the modal wavelength is gradually reduced. The design recipe describes how Bloch oscillations in classical structures of arbitrary dimensions can be generated......We propose hitherto unexplored and fully analytical insights into laminate elastic materials in a true condensed-matter-physics spirit. Pure mechanical surface waves that decay as evanescent waves from the interface are discussed, and we demonstrate how these designer Scholte waves are controlled......, and we demonstrate this numerically for structures with millimeter and centimeter dimensions in the kilohertz to megahertz range. Analytical predictions agree entirely with full wave simulations showing how elastodynamics can mimic quantum-mechanical condensed-matter phenomena....

  12. Experimental realization of Bloch oscillations in a parity-time synthetic silicon photonic lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ye-Long; Fegadolli, William S.; Gan, Lin; Lu, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Scherer, Axel; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2016-04-01

    As an important electron transportation phenomenon, Bloch oscillations have been extensively studied in condensed matter. Due to the similarity in wave properties between electrons and other quantum particles, Bloch oscillations have been observed in atom lattices, photonic lattices, and so on. One of the many distinct advantages for choosing these systems over the regular electronic systems is the versatility in engineering artificial potentials. Here by utilizing dissipative elements in a CMOS-compatible photonic platform to create a periodic complex potential and by exploiting the emerging concept of parity-time synthetic photonics, we experimentally realize spatial Bloch oscillations in a non-Hermitian photonic system on a chip level. Our demonstration may have significant impact in the field of quantum simulation by following the recent trend of moving complicated table-top quantum optics experiments onto the fully integrated CMOS-compatible silicon platform.

  13. Quantum distance and the Euler number index of the Bloch band in a one-dimensional spin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Quan

    2014-10-01

    We study the Riemannian metric and the Euler characteristic number of the Bloch band in a one-dimensional spin model with multisite spins exchange interactions. The Euler number of the Bloch band originates from the Gauss-Bonnet theorem on the topological characterization of the closed Bloch states manifold in the first Brillouin zone. We study this approach analytically in a transverse field XY spin chain with three-site spin coupled interactions. We define a class of cyclic quantum distance on the Bloch band and on the ground state, respectively, as a local characterization for quantum phase transitions. Specifically, we give a general formula for the Euler number by means of the Berry curvature in the case of two-band models, which reveals its essential relation to the first Chern number of the band insulators. Finally, we show that the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition in zero temperature can be distinguished by the Euler number of the Bloch band.

  14. The Bloch-vector space for N-level systems -- the spherical-coordinate point of view --

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, G

    2003-01-01

    The Bloch-vector spaces for $N$-level systems are investigated from the spherical-coordinate point of view. We find that the maximum radius in each direction, which is due to the construction of the Bloch-vector space, is determined by the minimum eigenvalue of the corresponding observable (generator of SU(N)). As one of the applications of this, we reveal the dual properties of the structure of the Bloch-vector space; if one of the direction of the Bloch vector reaches the large ball (pure state), the opposite direction can only reach the small ball, and vice versa. This also leads us to the new representation of quantum states which generalize the Bloch vector.

  15. Atomic Bloch-Zener oscillations and Stückelberg interferometry in optical lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Sebastian; Salger, Tobias; Grossert, Christopher; Weitz, Martin

    2010-11-19

    We report on experiments investigating quantum transport and band interferometry of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice with a two-band miniband structure, realized with a Fourier-synthesized optical lattice potential. Bloch-Zener oscillations, the coherent superposition of Bloch oscillations and Landau-Zener tunneling between the two bands, are observed. When the relative phase between paths in different bands is varied, an interference signal is observed, demonstrating the coherence of the dynamics in the miniband system. Measured fringe patterns of this Stückelberg interferometer allow us to interferometrically map out the band structure of the optical lattice over the full Brillouin zone.

  16. The intensive terahertz electroluminescence induced by Bloch oscillations in SiC natural superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankin, Vladimir; Andrianov, Alexandr; Petrov, Alexey; Zakhar'in, Alexey; Lepneva, Ala; Shkrebiy, Pavel

    2012-10-09

    : We report on efficient terahertz (THz) emission from high-electric-field-biased SiC structures with a natural superlattice at liquid helium temperatures. The emission spectrum demonstrates a single line, the maximum of which shifts linearly with increases in bias field. We attribute this emission to steady-state Bloch oscillations of electrons in the SiC natural superlattice. The properties of the THz emission agree fairly with the parameters of the Bloch oscillator regime, which have been proven by high-field electron transport studies of SiC structures with natural superlattices.

  17. Bloch-Zener oscillations across a merging transition of Dirac points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lih-King; Fuchs, Jean-Noël; Montambaux, Gilles

    2012-04-27

    Bloch oscillations are a powerful tool to investigate spectra with Dirac points. By varying band parameters, Dirac points can be manipulated and merged at a topological transition toward a gapped phase. Under a constant force, a Fermi sea initially in the lower band performs Bloch oscillations and may Zener tunnel to the upper band mostly at the location of the Dirac points. The tunneling probability is computed from the low-energy universal Hamiltonian describing the vicinity of the merging. The agreement with a recent experiment on cold atoms in an optical lattice is very good.

  18. Schrodinger cat states prepared by Bloch oscillation in a spin-dependent optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, B J

    2011-01-01

    We propose to use Bloch oscillation of ultra-cold atoms in a spin-dependent optical lattice to prepare schrodinger cat states. Depending on its internal state, an atom feels different periodic potentials and thus has different energy band structures for its center-of-mass motion. Consequently, under the same gravity force, the wave packets associated with different internal states perform Bloch oscillation of different amplitudes in space and in particular they can be macroscopically displaced with respect to each other. In this way, a cat state can be prepared.

  19. Nearly three orders of magnitude enhancement of Goos-Hanchen shift by exciting Bloch surface wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuhang; Zheng, Zheng; Kong, Weijing; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Ya; Bian, Yusheng; Liu, Jiansheng

    2012-04-09

    Goos-Hanchen effect is experimentally studied when the Bloch surface wave is excited in the forbidden band of a one-dimensional photonic band-gap structure. By tuning the refractive index of the cladding covering the truncated photonic crystal structure, either a guided or a surface mode can be excited. In the latter case, strong enhancement of the Goos-Hanchen shift induced by the Bloch-surface-wave results in sub-millimeter shifts of the reflected beam position. Such giant Goos-Hanchen shift, ~750 times of the wavelength, could enable many intriguing applications that had been less than feasible to implement before.

  20. Generation of Entangled Bloch States for Two Atomic Samples Trapped in Separated Cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2007-01-01

    A scheme is presented for the generation of entangled states for two atomic ensembles trapped in two distant cavities.In the scheme,each atomic sample is initially in a Bloch state and the cavity mode is initially in a coherent state with a small amplitude.The dispersive atom-cavity interaction leads to a photon-number dependent phase shift on the atomic system.The detection of a photon leaking from the cavities makes the two atomic samples collapse to an entangled Bloch state.

  1. Reflectors and resonators for high-k bulk Bloch plasmonic waves in multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We propose proof-of-concept designs of Bragg reflectors and Fabry-Pe´rot resonators for large wave vector waves (Bloch bulk plasmon polaritons) in multilayer metal-dielectric hyperbolic metamaterials. The designs are based on hybrid multilayers having both subwavelength and wavelength...

  2. Floquet-Bloch waves and suppression of vibrations in multi-scale fluid-solid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carta, Giorgio; Movchan, Alexander B

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model for an industry inspired problem of vibration isolation applied to a cluster of elastic fluid-filled containers. We develop a systematic approach employing full fluid-solid interaction and Floquet-Bloch waves in periodic multi-scale systems. The analytical findings are accompanied by numerical simulations, including frequency response analyses and computations in the transient regime.

  3. Dynamic localization and Bloch oscillations in the spectrum of a frequency mode-locked laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2005-04-01

    It is shown that a frequency mode-locked laser with a sinusoidal sweep of modulation frequency around a mode-locking condition represents an ideal optical system for observing in the spectral domain the phenomena of dynamic localization and Bloch oscillations of electrons in an ideal solid placed in an external ac electric field.

  4. Dynamic Behavior and Quasi-energy Spectrum of Multiband Superlattice Bloch Electrons in Quantum Kicked Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG BiYao; ZHAO XianGeng; CHEN ShiGang; LIU Jie

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamic behavior and quasi-energy spectrum of multiband superlattice Bloch electrons in quantum kicked potential. We show analytically and numerically the avoided crossing and band suppression about the quasi-energy spectrum, the dynamic nonlocalization, and the electron oscillation behavior between two bands.

  5. Beam splitter and combiner based on Bloch oscillations in spatially modulated waveguide arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiqi; Zhong, Weiping; Wen, Feng; Guo, Yang; Guo, Yao; Lu, Keqing; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2014-01-01

    We numerically investigate the light beam propagation in periodic waveguide arrays which are elaborately modulated with certain structures. We find that the light beam may split, coalesce, deflect, and be localized during propagation in these spatially modulated waveguide arrays. All the phenomena originate from Bloch oscillations, and supply possible method for fabricating on-chip beam splitters and beam combiners.

  6. Populating the Large-Wavevector Realm: Bloch Volume Plasmon Polaritons in Hyperbolic and Extremely Anisotropic Metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Babicheva, Viktoriia; Orlov, A. A.;

    2014-01-01

    Optics of hyperbolic metamaterials is revisited in terms of large-wavevector waves, evanescent in isotropic media but propagating in presence of extreme anisotropy. Identifying the physical nature of these waves as Bloch volume plasmon polaritons, we derive their existence conditions and outline ...

  7. Proof of an entropy conjecture for Bloch coherent spin states and its generalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    H. Lieb, Elliott; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2014-01-01

    in 1978 who also extended the conjecture to Bloch SU(2) spin-coherent states for every angular momentum $J$. This conjecture is proved here. We also recall our 1991 extension of the Wehrl map to a quantum channel from $J$ to $K=J+1/2, J+1, ...$, with $K=\\infty$ corresponding to the Wehrl map to classical...

  8. Floquet-Bloch vs. Nicolson-Ross-Weir Extraction for Magneto-Dielectric Bragg Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels Christian Jerichau; Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2014-01-01

    We extract and compare the permittivity and permeability from a dielectric and a magnetodielectric Bragg stack with the Floquet-Bloch (FB) method for the infinite stack and the Nicolson-Ross- Weir (NRW) method for the finite stack. While the extracted propagation constants are identical, the wave...

  9. Generation of Superpositions of Two Bloch States in an Ion Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2003-01-01

    We propose a scheme for the generation of superpositions of two Bloch states for a collection of ions. Inthe scheme the ions are trapped in a linear potential and interact with laser beams. Our scheme does not put anyrequirement on the Lamb-Dicke parameters.

  10. Near-field imaging of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides: Explicit role of Bloch harmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Volkov, V.S.; Søndergaard, Thomas;

    2002-01-01

    the interference between a quasihomogeneous background field and Bloch harmonics of the PCW mode, we account for spatial frequency spectra of the intensity variations and determine the propagation constant of the PCW mode at 1520 nm. The possibilities and limitations of SNOM imaging for the characterization...

  11. Coupled wave versus modal theory in uniform dielectric gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. St. J.

    1983-11-01

    The philosophical bases of coupled wave and modal theories are explored and compared. For the particular case of the diffraction of light by thick, uniform dielectric gratings, they are investigated in detail. It is shown that Moharam and Gaylord's recent accurate method for solving the coupled wave equations (JOSA 71 (1981) 811) is exactly equivalent to the modal (or Floquet-Bloch) approach, and hence that their results can be interpreted in an alternative manner using the many valuable intuitional insights offered by Floquet-Bloch theory.

  12. Ising and Bloch domain walls in a two-dimensional parametrically driven Ginzburg-Landau equation model with nonlinearity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yu. B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2008-01-01

    We study a parametrically driven Ginzburg-Landau equation model with nonlinear management. The system is made of laterally coupled long active waveguides placed along a circumference. Stationary solutions of three kinds are found: periodic Ising states and two types of Bloch states, staggered...... and unstaggered. The stability of these states is investigated analytically and numerically. The nonlinear dynamics of the Bloch states are described by a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with linear and nonlinear parametric driving. The switching between the staggered and unstaggered Bloch states under...

  13. A redescription of grey pomfret Pampus cinereus (Bloch,1795) with the designation of a neotype (Teleostei:Stromateidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing; LI Chunsheng; NING Ping

    2013-01-01

    Pampus cinereus (Bloch,1795) (Stromateidae),a species believed to be widely distributed throughout the Indo-Western Pacific region,was redescribed and a neotype was designated.The designation of a neotype was necessary because of ambiguous data in Bloch's original description and the loss of the original type specimen.Morphological data indicated that 10 recently-collected specimens from the coasts of southern China agreed well with Bloch's original description and figure ofP.cinereus.A neotype for this species was selected from among the 10 specimens,and a detailed description is presented in this paper.

  14. Magnetic susceptibility of Dirac fermions, Bi-Sb alloys, interacting Bloch fermions, dilute nonmagnetic alloys, and Kondo alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buot, Felix A.; Otadoy, Roland E. S.; Rivero, Karla B.

    2017-03-01

    Wide ranging interest in Dirac Hamiltonian is due to the emergence of novel materials, namely, graphene, topological insulators and superconductors, the newly-discovered Weyl semimetals, and still actively-sought after Majorana fermions in real materials. We give a brief review of the relativistic Dirac quantum mechanics and its impact in the developments of modern physics. The quantum band dynamics of Dirac Hamiltonian is crucial in resolving the giant diamagnetism of bismuth and Bi-Sb alloys. Quantitative agreement of the theory with the experiments on Bi-Sb alloys has been achieved, and physically meaningful contributions to the diamagnetism has been identified. We also treat relativistic Dirac fermion as an interband dynamics in uniform magnetic fields. For the interacting Bloch electrons, the role of translation symmetry for calculating the magnetic susceptibility avoids any approximation to second order in the field. The expressions for magnetic susceptibility of dilute nonmagnetic alloys give a firm theoretical foundation of the empirical formulas used in fitting experimental results. The unified treatment of all the above calculations is based on the lattice Weyl-Wigner formulation of discrete phase-space quantum mechanics. For completeness, the magnetic susceptibility of Kondo alloys is also given since Dirac fermions in conduction band and magnetic impurities exhibit Kondo effect.

  15. Tilted resonators in a triangular elastic lattice: chirality, Bloch waves and negative refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Tallarico, Domenico; Movchan, Alexander B; Colquitt, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    We consider a vibrating triangular mass-truss lattice whose unit cell contains a resonator of a triangular shape. The resonators are connected to the triangular lattice by trusses. Each resonator is tilted, i.e. it is rotated with respect to the triangular lattice's unit cell through an angle $\\vartheta_0$. This geometrical parameter is responsible for the emergence of a resonant mode in the Bloch spectrum for elastic waves and strongly affects the dispersive properties of the lattice. Additionally, the tilting angle $\\vartheta_0$ triggers the opening of a band gap at a Dirac-like point. We provide a physical interpretation of these phenomena and discuss the dynamical implications on elastic Bloch waves. The dispersion properties are used to design a structured interface containing tilted resonators which exhibit negative refraction and focussing, as in a "flat elastic lens".

  16. Suppression of space broadening of exciton polariton beams by Bloch oscillation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Xudong; Zhang, Yongyou

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically study the transport of exciton polaritons under different applied photon potentials. The relation between the photon potentials and the thickness of the cavity layer is calculated by the finite element simulation. The theoretical analysis and numerical calculation indicate that the cavity photon potential is proportional to the thickness of the cavity layer with the coefficient being about $1.8$ meV/nm. Further, the periodic and linear photon potentials are considered to control the transport of the exciton polaritons in weak- and strong-field pump situations. In both situations the periodic potential cannot by itself effectively suppress the scatterings of the disorder potentials of the cavity photons and excitons and the nonlinear exciton-exciton interaction. When the linear potential is added to the cavity photons, the polariton transport exhibits the Bloch oscillation behavior. Importantly, the polariton Bloch oscillation can strongly suppress the space broadening due to the disorder pote...

  17. Circularly polarized few-cycle optical rogue waves: rotating reduced Maxwell-Bloch equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuwei; Porsezian, K; He, Jingsong; Cheng, Yi

    2013-12-01

    The rotating reduced Maxwell-Bloch (RMB) equations, which describe the propagation of few-cycle optical pulses in a transparent media with two isotropic polarized electronic field components, are derived from a system of complete Maxwell-Bloch equations without using the slowly varying envelope approximations. Two hierarchies of the obtained rational solutions, including rogue waves, which are also called few-cycle optical rogue waves, of the rotating RMB equations are constructed explicitly through degenerate Darboux transformation. In addition to the above, the dynamical evolution of the first-, second-, and third-order few-cycle optical rogue waves are constructed with different patterns. For an electric field E in the three lower-order rogue waves, we find that rogue waves correspond to localized large amplitude oscillations of the polarized electric fields. Further a complementary relationship of two electric field components of rogue waves is discussed in terms of analytical formulas as well as numerical figures.

  18. Exciting Molecules Close to the Rotational Quantum Resonance: Anderson Wall and Rotational Bloch Oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floß, Johannes; Averbukh, Ilya Sh

    2016-05-19

    We describe a universal behavior of linear molecules excited by a periodic train of short laser pulses under conditions close to the quantum resonance. The quantum resonance effect causes an unlimited ballistic growth of the angular momentum. We show that a disturbance of the quantum resonance, either by the centrifugal distortion of the rotating molecules or a controlled detuning of the pulse train period from the so-called rotational revival time, eventually halts the growth by causing Anderson localization beyond a critical value of the angular momentum, the Anderson wall. Below the wall, the rotational excitation oscillates with the number of pulses due to a mechanism similar to Bloch oscillations in crystalline solids. We suggest optical experiments capable of observing the rotational Anderson wall and Bloch oscillations at near-ambient conditions with the help of existing laser technology.

  19. Phase transition to spatial Bloch-like oscillation in squeezed photonic lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Nezhad, M Khazaei; Golshani, M; Mahdavi, S M; Langari, A

    2013-01-01

    We propose an exactly solvable waveguide lattice incorporating inhomogeneous coupling coefficient. This structure provides a classical analogue to the squeezed number and squeezed coherent intensity distribution in quantum optics where the propagation length plays the role of squeezed amplitude. The intensity pattern is obtained in a closed form for an arbitrary distribution of the initial beam profile. We have also investigated the phase transition to the spatial Bloch-like oscillations by adding a linear gradient to the propagation constant of each waveguides ($ \\alpha $). Our analytical results show that the Bloch-like oscillations appear above a critical value for the linear gradient of propagation constant ($ \\alpha > \\alpha_{c} $). The phase transition (in the propagation properties of the waveguide) is a result of competition between discrete and Bragg diffraction. Moreover, the light intensity decay algebraically along each waveguide at the critical point while it falls off exponentially below the cri...

  20. Delocalization-enhanced Bloch oscillations and driven resonant tunneling in optical lattices for precision force measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Tarallo, M G; Poli, N; Chiofalo, M L; Wang, F -Y; Tino, G M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe and compare different methods used for accurate determination of forces acting on matter-wave packets in optical lattices. The quantum interference nature responsible for the production of both Bloch oscillations and coherent delocalization is investigated in detail. We study conditions for optimal detection of Bloch oscillation for a thermal ensemble of cold atoms with a large velocity spread. We report on the experimental observation of resonant tunneling in an amplitude-modulated (AM) optical lattice up to the sixth harmonic with Fourier-limited linewidth. We then explore the fundamental and technical phenomena which limit both the sensitivity and the final accuracy of the atomic force sensor at 10^{-7} precision level [1], with an analysis of the coherence time of the system and addressing few simple setup changes to go beyond the current accuracy.

  1. Magneto-optical switching of Bloch surface waves in magnetophotonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romodina, M. N.; Soboleva, I. V.; Fedyanin, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    Bloch-surface-wave (BSW) excitation controlled by Faraday rotation in one-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals is presented. Dispersion curves of the Bloch surface wave and waveguide modes of magnetophotonic crystals consisting of silicon dioxide and bismuth-substituted yttrium-iron-garnet (Bi:YIG) quarter-wavelength-thick layers are calculated using Berreman's 4×4 transfer matrix method. Enhanced Faraday rotation observed in the magnetophotonic crystals in the spectral vicinity of the BSW resonance enables the magneto-optical switching of BSWs. The excitation of the BSWs at the magnetophotonic crystal surface for p-polarized incident light is induced by magneto-optical activity in the Bi:YIG layers.

  2. A Refresher of the Original Bloch’s Law Paper (Bloch, July 1885)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In 1885, Adolphe-Moïse Bloch asked the following simple question “Is there a law describing the relationship between the duration of a light and its perceived intensity?” Based on a series of experiments using a Foucault regulator and a candle, Bloch concluded that “when the lighting duration varies from 0.00173 to 0.0518 seconds (…) the [visible] light is markedly in inverse proportion to its duration”—his famous law. As this law pertains to the more general and hotly debated question of accumulation of sensory information over time, it is timely to offer the public a full translation of Bloch’s original paper (from French) and to present it within the context of contemporary research. PMID:27433317

  3. A Refresher of the Original Bloch’s Law Paper (Bloch, July 1885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Gorea

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1885, Adolphe-Moïse Bloch asked the following simple question “Is there a law describing the relationship between the duration of a light and its perceived intensity?” Based on a series of experiments using a Foucault regulator and a candle, Bloch concluded that “when the lighting duration varies from 0.00173 to 0.0518 seconds (… the [visible] light is markedly in inverse proportion to its duration”—his famous law. As this law pertains to the more general and hotly debated question of accumulation of sensory information over time, it is timely to offer the public a full translation of Bloch’s original paper (from French and to present it within the context of contemporary research.

  4. Nanoscale switch for vortex polarization mediated by Bloch core formation in magnetic hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlhüter, Phillip; Bryan, Matthew Thomas; Warnicke, Peter; Gliga, Sebastian; Stevenson, Stephanie Elizabeth; Heldt, Georg; Saharan, Lalita; Suszka, Anna Kinga; Moutafis, Christoforos; Chopdekar, Rajesh Vilas; Raabe, Jörg; Thomson, Thomas; Hrkac, Gino; Heyderman, Laura Jane

    2015-08-01

    Vortices are fundamental magnetic topological structures characterized by a curling magnetization around a highly stable nanometric core. The control of the polarization of this core and its gyration is key to the utilization of vortices in technological applications. So far polarization control has been achieved in single-material structures using magnetic fields, spin-polarized currents or spin waves. Here we demonstrate local control of the vortex core orientation in hybrid structures where the vortex in an in-plane Permalloy film coexists with out-of-plane maze domains in a Co/Pd multilayer. The vortex core reverses its polarization on crossing a maze domain boundary. This reversal is mediated by a pair of magnetic singularities, known as Bloch points, and leads to the transient formation of a three-dimensional magnetization structure: a Bloch core. The interaction between vortex and domain wall thus acts as a nanoscale switch for the vortex core polarization.

  5. Bloch oscillations as generators of polarons in a 1D crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazareno, H.N. [International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Universidade de Brasília, P.O. Box 04513, 70910-900 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Brito, P.E. de, E-mail: pedebrito@unb.br [Universidade de Brasília, PPG-CIMA, Campus Planaltina, 73345-010 Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    The main purpose of this work is to characterize the kind of propagation/localization of carriers in a one-dimensional crystalline structure along the tight-binding model while the electron–phonon interaction is taken into account through a deformation potential and the system is under the action of a dc electric field. The lattice was treated in the classical formalism of harmonic vibrations. A remarkable effect is obtained due to the presence of the electric field. On one side the particle performs Bloch oscillations and at the same time it interacts with the lattice and as a result at each turning point of its trajectory phonons are generated that carry with them a fraction of the electronic wave packet, it is the polaron formation. This way the Bloch oscillations pump polarons into the system. We explain why the polaron is formed at returning points of the oscillations.

  6. Comment on "On the analytical solution of the optical Bloch equations"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Jhe, Wonho

    2012-02-01

    In a recent paper [P.J. Colmenares and J.L. Paz, Opt. Commun. 284 (2011) 5171], analytical solutions of the optical Bloch equations are presented. This paper follows the same procedures as presented in the paper by the authors [H.R. Noh and W. Jhe, Opt. Commun. 283 (2010) 2353] but concludes that their results are substantially different from the results of the authors. We find that the discrepancy results from the wrong initial conditions employed by those authors for one of the Bloch vector components ( w), whose initial value must be 1 not 0. We also find that if proper initial conditions are used, there are no discrepancies between the two results.

  7. Raman fingerprints on the Bloch sphere of a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Justin T.; Hansen, Azure; Murphree, Joseph D.; Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Bigelow, Nicholas P.

    2016-10-01

    We explore the geometric interpretation of a diabatic, two-photon Raman process as a rotation on the Bloch sphere for a pseudo-spin-? system. The spin state of a spin-? quantum system can be described by a point on the surface of the Bloch sphere, and its evolution during a Raman pulse is a trajectory on the sphere determined by properties of the optical beams: the pulse area, the relative intensities and phases and the relative frequencies. We experimentally demonstrate key features of this model with a ?Rb spinor Bose-Einstein condensate, which allows us to examine spatially dependent signatures of the Raman beams. The two-photon detuning allows us to precisely control the spin density and imprinted relative phase profiles, as we show with a coreless vortex. With this comprehensive understanding and intuitive geometric interpretation, we use the Raman process to create and tailor as well as study and characterize exotic topological spin textures in spinor BECs.

  8. EXTENDED CES(A)RO OPERATORS ON THE BLOCH SPACE IN THE UNIT BALL OF Cn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡璋剑

    2003-01-01

    The paper defines an extended Cesàro operator Tg with holomorphic symbolg in the unit ball B of Cn asWhere g(z)= ∑j=1∑n zj g/ zj is the radial derivative of g. In this paper, the author characterizes g for which Tg is bounded (or compact) on the Bloch spaceB and the little Blochspace B0.

  9. The generalized Hodge and Bloch conjectures are equivalent for general complete intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Voisin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Let $X$ be a smooth complex projective variety with trivial Chow groups. (By trivial, we mean that the cycle class is injective.) We show (assuming the Lefschetz standard conjecture) that if the vanishing cohomology of a general complete intersection $Y$ of ample hypersurfaces in $X$ has geometric coniveau $\\geq c$, then the Chow groups of cycles of dimension $\\leq c-1$ of $Y$ are trivial. The generalized Bloch conjecture for $Y$ is this statement with "geometric coniveau" replaced by "Hodge coniveau".

  10. Anti-Newtonian dynamics and self-induced Bloch oscillations of correlated particles

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We predict that two correlated particles hopping on a one-dimensional Hubbard lattice can show transient self-acceleration and self-induced Bloch oscillations as a result of anti-Newtonian dynamics. Self-propulsion occurs for two particles with opposite effective mass on the lattice and requires long-range particle interaction. A photonic simulator of the two-particle Hubbard model with controllable long-range interaction, where self-propulsion can be observed, is discussed.

  11. Sensitive measurement of forces at the micron scale using Bloch oscillations of ultracold atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carusotto, I; Pitaevskii, L; Stringari, S; Modugno, G; Inguscio, M

    2005-08-26

    We show that Bloch oscillations of ultracold fermionic atoms in the periodic potential of an optical lattice can be used for a sensitive measurement of forces at the micrometer length scale, e.g., in the vicinity of a dielectric surface. In particular, the proposed approach allows us to perform a local and direct measurement of the Casimir-Polder force which is, for realistic experimental parameters, as large as 10(-4) gravity.

  12. Freezing of nonlinear Bloch oscillations in the generalized discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, F J

    2004-09-01

    The dynamics in a nonlinear Schrödinger chain in a homogeneous electric field is studied. We show that discrete translational invariant integrability-breaking terms can freeze the Bloch nonlinear oscillations and introduce new faster frequencies in their dynamics. These phenomena are studied by direct numerical integration and through an adiabatic approximation. The adiabatic approximation allows a description in terms of an effective potential that greatly clarifies the phenomena.

  13. Bloch oscillations and Zener tunneling in two-dimensional photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompeter, Henrike; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Neshev, Dragomir N; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Sukhorukov, Andrey A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Pertsch, Thomas; Peschel, Ulf; Lederer, Falk

    2006-02-10

    We report on the first experimental observation of photonic Bloch oscillations and Zener tunneling in two-dimensional periodic systems. We study the propagation of an optical beam in a square lattice superimposed on a refractive index ramp. We observe oscillations of the beam inside the first Brilloin zone and tunneling of light from the first to the higher-order bands of the lattice band gap spectrum.

  14. San agustín y la utopía según ernst bloch

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Nuestro propósito en este breve trabajo es presentar la lectura que Emst Bloch hace del pensamiento de San Agustín sobre la utopía de la Ciudad de Dios en su libro Principio Esperanza y hacer un análisis esquemático de dicha lectura con algunos comentarios críticos a varías de sus afirmaciones.

  15. Maxwell-Bloch Equations Modeling of Ultrashort Optical Pulse Propagation in Semiconductor Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Agrawal, Govind, P.

    1997-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed that solves the semiconductor Maxwell-Bloch equations, without making the standard slowly-varying envelope (SVEA) and rotating-wave (RWA) approximations. It is applied to study the propagation of ultrashort pulses in semiconductor materials. The results include many-body effects due to the Coulomb interaction among the charge carriers as well as the nonlinear effects resulting from spectral hole-burning.

  16. Dynamic scattering of electron vortex beams – A Bloch wave analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, B.G., E-mail: b.g.mendis@durham.ac.uk

    2015-02-15

    Two important applications of electron vortex beams are in electron magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD) measurements and nanoparticle manipulation. In both cases orbital angular momentum () transfer between the vortex beam and the specimen due to dynamic scattering is critical. In general the pendellösung consists of short and long wavelength oscillations. The former is due to interference between the tightly bound 1s and more dispersive non-1s Bloch states, while the latter is due to interference between the non-1s states. For EMCD experiments with ±ħ angular momentum beams, momentum transfer can be minimised by selecting the appropriate aperture size, so that the probe wavefunction approximately matches that of the 2p-type Bloch states. For manipulating nanoparticles with large angular momentum beams small apertures are required to excite the 1s state and thereby enhance the short wavelength oscillations in . This enables efficient momentum transfer to the specimen, provided the nanoparticle dimension corresponds to a minimum in the pendellösung. - Highlights: • Dynamic scattering of vortex beams is analysed using Bloch waves. • Fundamental origins of pendellösung oscillations are identified. • Effect on magnetic dichroism measurements and nanoparticle manipulation is discussed.

  17. Observation of Bloch oscillations in complex PT-symmetric photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Martin; Miri, Mohammed-Ali; Christodoulides, Demetrios; Peschel, Ulf

    2015-12-07

    Light propagation in periodic environments is often associated with a number of interesting and potentially useful processes. If a crystalline optical potential is also linearly ramped, light can undergo periodic Bloch oscillations, a direct outcome of localized Wannier-Stark states and their equidistant eigenvalue spectrum. Even though these effects have been extensively explored in conservative settings, this is by no means the case in non-Hermitian photonic lattices encompassing both amplification and attenuation. Quite recently, Bloch oscillations have been predicted in parity-time-symmetric structures involving gain and loss in a balanced fashion. While in a complex bulk medium, one intuitively expects that light will typically follow the path of highest amplification, in a periodic system this behavior can be substantially altered by the underlying band structure. Here, we report the first experimental observation of Bloch oscillations in parity-time-symmetric mesh lattices. We show that these revivals exhibit unusual properties like secondary emissions and resonant restoration of PT symmetry. In addition, we present a versatile method for reconstructing the real and imaginary components of the band structure by directly monitoring the light evolution during a cycle of these oscillations.

  18. Adele Bloch-Bauer (1881-1925): Possible diagnoses for Gustav Klimt's Lady in Gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Mota, Licia Maria H; Neubarth, Fernando; de Carvalho, Jozélio F; Diniz, Leonardo R; Aires, Rodrigo B; Dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo L

    2016-08-01

    One of the most famous works by the Austrian symbolist painter Gustav Klimt and one of the most widely reproduced works of art worldwide, Adele Bloch-Bauer I which portrays the beautiful wife of Austrian magnate Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer. Adele was the only woman painted by Klimt on more than one occasion. Apart from the beauty and value of the painting, the daring sea of gold that surrounds Adele and the gentle intimacy with which her fragile figure is portrayed have shrouded the history of this painting in mystery. Beyond speculation as to a special bond between artist and model, observation of the painting with a keener, clinical gaze yields evidence of potential illness in the model: facial erythema which, if not produced artificially by makeup, could represent a malar rash; pallor or cyanosis of the hands; and her draped fingers, which seemingly attempt to hide a deformity. This paper seeks to provide a biographical review both of the painter, Gustav Klimt, and of the subject, Adele Bloch-Bauer; to analyse Klimt's two portrayals of her in a search for evidence of a potential intimate relationship between artist and muse and, finally, to compile clinical evidence of possible diagnoses for the Lady in Gold.

  19. Geometric function theory in one and higher dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Ian

    2003-01-01

    This reference details valuable results that lead to improvements in existence theorems for the Loewner differential equation in higher dimensions, discusses the compactness of the analog of the Caratheodory class in several variables, and studies various classes of univalent mappings according to their geometrical definitions. It introduces the infinite-dimensional theory and provides numerous exercises in each chapter for further study. The authors present such topics as linear invariance in the unit disc, Bloch functions and the Bloch constant, and growth, covering and distortion results for starlike and convex mappings in Cn and complex Banach spaces.

  20. Orbital Magnetism of Bloch Electrons: III. Application to Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Masao

    2016-10-01

    The orbital susceptibility for graphene is calculated exactly up to the first order with respect to the overlap integrals between neighboring atomic orbitals. The general and rigorous theory of orbital susceptibility developed in the preceding paper is applied to a model for graphene as a typical two-band model. It is found that there are contributions from interband, Fermi surface, and occupied states in addition to the Landau-Peierls orbital susceptibility. The relative phase between the atomic orbitals on the two sublattices related to the chirality of Dirac cones plays an important role. It is shown that there are some additional contributions to the orbital susceptibility that are not included in the previous calculations using the Peierls phase in the tight-binding model for graphene. The physical origin of this difference is clarified in terms of the corrections to the Peierls phase.

  1. A supercell, Bloch wave method for calculating low-energy electron reflectivity with applications to free-standing graphene and molybdenum disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, John

    This dissertation reports on a novel theoretical and computational framework for calculating low-energy electron reflectivities from crystalline surfaces and its application to two layered systems of two-dimensional materials, graphene and molybdenum disulfide. The framework provides a simple and efficient approach through the matching of a small set of Fourier components of Bloch wave solutions to the Schrodinger Equation in a slab-in-supercell geometry to incoming and outgoing plane waves on both sides of the supercell. The implementation of this method is described in detail for the calculation of reflectivities in the lowest energy range, for which only specular reflection is allowed. This implementation includes the calculation of reflectivities from beams with normal or off-normal incidence. Two different algorithms are described in the case of off-normal incidence which differ in their dependence on the existence of a symmetry with a mirror plane parallel to the crystal surface. Applications to model potentials in one, two, and three dimensions display consistent results when using different supercell sizes and convergent results with the density of Fourier grids. The design of the Bloch wave matching also allows for the accurate modeling of crystalline slabs through the use of realistic potentials determined via density functional theory. The application of the method to low-energy electron scattering from free-standing systems of a few layers of graphene, including the use of these realistic potentials, demonstrates this ability of the method to accurately model real systems. It reproduces the layer-dependent oscillations found in experimental, normal incidence reflectivity curves for a few layers of graphene grown on silicon carbide. The normal incidence reflectivity curves calculated for slabs consisting of few-layer graphene on 10 layers of nickel show some qualitative agreement with experiment. General incidence reflectivity spectra for free

  2. Bloch oscillations of ultracold atoms and measurement of the fine structure constant; Oscillations de Bloch d'atomes ultrafroids et mesure de la constante de structure fine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clade, P

    2005-10-15

    From a measurement of the recoil velocity of an atom absorbing a photon, it is possible to deduce a determination of the ratio h/m between the Planck constant and the mass of the atoms and then to deduce a value of the fine structure constant alpha. To do this measurement, we use the technique of Bloch oscillations, which allows us to transfer a large number of recoils to atoms. A velocity sensor, based on velocity selective Raman transition, enables us to measure the momentum transferred to the atoms. A measurement with a statistical uncertainty of 4.4 10{sup -9}, in conjunction with a careful study of systematic effects (5 10{sup -9}), has led us to a determination of alpha with an uncertainty of 6.7 10{sup -9}: {alpha}{sup -1}(Rb) = 137.03599878 (91). This uncertainty is similar to the uncertainty of the best determinations of alpha based on atom interferometry. (author)

  3. Magnon localization and Bloch oscillations in finite Heisenberg spin chains in an inhomogeneous magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosevich, Yuriy A; Gann, Vladimir V

    2013-06-19

    We study the localization of magnon states in finite defect-free Heisenberg spin-1/2 ferromagnetic chains placed in an inhomogeneous magnetic field with a constant spatial gradient. Continuous transformation from the extended magnon states to the localized Wannier-Zeeman states in a finite spin chain placed in an inhomogeneous field is described both analytically and numerically. We describe for the first time the non-monotonic dependence of the energy levels of magnons, both long and short wavelength, on the magnetic field gradient, which is a consequence of magnon localization in a finite spin chain. We show that, in contrast to the destruction of the magnon band and the establishment of the Wannier-Stark ladder in a vanishingly small field gradient in an infinite chain, the localization of magnon states at the chain ends preserves the memory of the magnon band. Essentially, the localization at the lower- or higher-field chain end resembles the localization of the positive- or negative-effective-mass band quasiparticles. We also show how the beat dynamics of coherent superposition of extended spin waves in a finite chain in a homogeneous or weakly inhomogeneous field transforms into magnon Bloch oscillations of the superposition of localized Wannier-Zeeman states in a strongly inhomogeneous field. We provide a semiclassical description of the magnon Bloch oscillations and show that the correspondence between the quantum and semiclassical descriptions is most accurate for Bloch oscillations of the magnon coherent states, which are built from a coherent superposition of a large number of the nearest-neighbour Wannier-Zeeman states.

  4. DERIVATIVES OF HARMONIC MIXED NORM AND BLOCH-TYPE SPACES IN THE UNIT BALL OF Rn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Xiaomin; Hu Zhangjian; Lu Xiaofen

    2011-01-01

    Let H(B) be the set of all harmonic functions f on the unit ball B of Rn.For 0 < p,q ≤ ∞ and a normal weight φ, the mixed norm space Hp,q,φ(B) consists of all functions f in H(B) for which the mixed norm ||·||p,q,φ < ∞. In this article, we obtain some characterizations in terms of radial, tangential, and partial derivative norms in Hp,q,φ(B).The parallel results for the Bloch-type space are also obtained. As an application, the analogous problems for polyharmonic functions are discussed.

  5. Nontrivial Bloch oscillations in waveguide arrays with second-order coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Huang, Ji Ping; Yu, Kin Wah

    2010-06-01

    Under the influence of the next-nearest-neighbor interaction, we theoretically investigate the occurrence of Bloch oscillations in zigzag waveguide arrays. Because of the special topological configuration of the lattice itself, the second-order coupling (SOC) can be enhanced significantly and leads to the band alteration beyond the nearest-neighbor model, i.e., the offset of minimum value from the band edge. Contrary to the behavior in the vanishing SOC, the oscillation patterns exhibit new features, namely, a double turning-back occurs when the beam approaches the band edge. Our results can be applied to some ordered-lattice systems.

  6. On-chip optical isolation via unidirectional Bloch oscillations in a waveguide array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Levy, Miguel

    2012-09-15

    We propose to use the unidirectionality of the optical Bloch oscillation phenomenon achievable in a magneto-optic asymmetric waveguide array to achieve optical isolation. At the 1.55 μm telecommunication wavelength, our isolator design exhibits an isolation ratio of 36 dB between forward- and backward-propagating waves. The proposed design consists of a waveguide array made in a silicon-on-insulator substrate with a magnetic garnet cover layer. A key role is played by the transverse-magnetic mode nonreciprocal phase shift effect.

  7. Bloch oscillations of quasispin polaritons in a magneto-optically controlled atomic ensemble

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Chang; Zhou, Lan

    2012-01-01

    We consider the propagation of a quantized polarized light in a magneto-optically manipulated atomic ensemble with a tripod configuration. Polariton formalism is applied when the medium is subjected to a washboard magnetic field under electromagnetically induced transparency. The dark-state polariton with multiple components is achieved. We analyze quantum dynamics of the dark-state polariton by some experiment data from rubidium D1-line. It is found that one component propagates freely, however the wavepacket trajectory of the other component performs Bloch oscillations.

  8. Stopping and time reversal of light in dynamic photonic structures via Bloch oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2007-02-01

    It is theoretically shown that storage and time reversal of light pulses can be achieved in a coupled-resonator optical waveguide by dynamic tuning of the cavity resonances without maintaining the translational invariance of the system. The control exploits the Bloch oscillation motion of a light pulse in the presence of a refractive index ramp, and it is therefore rather different from the mechanism of adiabatic band compression and reversal proposed by Yanik and Fan in recent works [Phys. Rev. Lett., 92, 083901 (2004); 93, 173903 (2004)].

  9. Long-living BLOCH oscillations of matter waves in periodic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, M; Konotop, V V; Bludov, Yu V

    2008-07-18

    The dynamics of matter waves in linear and nonlinear optical lattices subject to a spatially uniform linear force is studied both analytically and numerically. It is shown that by properly designing the spatial dependence of the scattering length it is possible to induce long-living Bloch oscillations of gap-soliton matter waves in optical lattices. This occurs when the effective nonlinearity and the effective mass of the soliton have opposite signs for all values of the crystal momentum in the Brillouin zone. The results apply to all systems modeled by the periodic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, including propagation of light in photonic and photorefractive crystals with tilted band structures.

  10. Micromagnetic structure of the domain wall with Bloch lines in an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borich, M. A.; Tankeev, A. P.; Smagin, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    The micromagnetic structure of the domain wall (DW) with periodically distributed horizontal Bloch lines in a ferromagnetic film in an external electric field has been studied. The effect of the electric field on the internal DW micromagnetic structure is caused by inhomogeneous magnetoelectric coupling. Possible scenarios of the DW internal structure transformations implemented with varying the electric fields strength have been analyzed in detail. For each scenario, static characteristics of the system, such as the energy, DW profile, DW effective thickness, and electric polarization have been calculated.

  11. Bloch oscillating transistor as the readout element for hot electron bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Juha; Seppä, Heikki; Lindell, Rene; Hakonen, Pertti

    2004-10-01

    In this paper we analyse the properties of the Bloch oscillating transistor as a preamplifier in cryogenic devices. We consider here especially the readout of hot electron bolometers (HEBs) based on Normal-Superconductor-Insulator tunnel junctions, but the results also apply more generally. We show that one can get an equivalent noise voltage below 1 nV/√Hz with a single BOT. By using N BOTs in a parallel array configuration, a further reduction by factor √N may be achieved.

  12. Identification of Bloch-modes in hollow-core Photonic Crystal Fiber cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couny, F.; Benabid, F.; Roberts, John;

    2007-01-01

    length of fiber. A detailed study of the modes near the edges of the band gap shows that it is formed by the influence of three types of resonator: the glass interstitial apex, the silica strut which joins the neighboring apexes, and the air hole. The cladding electromagnetic field which survives......We report on the experimental visualization of the cladding Bloch-modes of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Both spectral and spatial field information is extracted using the approach, which is based on measurement of the near-field and Fresnel-zone that results after propagation over a short...

  13. LDRD final report on Bloch Oscillations in two-dimensional nanostructure arrays for high frequency applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Pan, Wei; Reno, John Louis; Wendt, Joel Robert; Barton, Daniel Lee

    2008-09-01

    We have investigated the physics of Bloch oscillations (BO) of electrons, engineered in high mobility quantum wells patterned into lateral periodic arrays of nanostructures, i.e. two-dimensional (2D) quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs). A BO occurs when an electron moves out of the Brillouin zone (BZ) in response to a DC electric field, passing back into the BZ on the opposite side. This results in quantum oscillations of the electron--i.e., a high frequency AC current in response to a DC voltage. Thus, engineering a BO will yield continuously electrically tunable high-frequency sources (and detectors) for sensor applications, and be a physics tour-de-force. More than a decade ago, Bloch oscillation (BO) was observed in a quantum well superlattice (QWSL) in short-pulse optical experiments. However, its potential as electrically biased high frequency source and detector so far has not been realized. This is partially due to fast damping of BO in QWSLs. In this project, we have investigated the possibility of improving the stability of BO by fabricating lateral superlattices of periodic coupled nanostructures, such as metal grid, quantum (anti)dots arrays, in high quality GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As heterostructures. In these nanostructures, the lateral quantum confinement has been shown theoretically to suppress the optical-phonon scattering, believed to be the main mechanism for fast damping of BO in QWSLs. Over the last three years, we have made great progress toward demonstrating Bloch oscillations in QDSLs. In the first two years of this project, we studied the negative differential conductance and the Bloch radiation induced edge-magnetoplasmon resonance. Recently, in collaboration with Prof. Kono's group at Rice University, we investigated the time-domain THz magneto-spectroscopy measurements in QDSLs and two-dimensional electron systems. A surprising DC electrical field induced THz phase flip was observed. More measurements are planned to investigate this

  14. Toxicity studies of butachlor to the freshwater fish Channa punctata (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, K S; Veeraiah, K; Bhaskara Thathaji, P; Butchiram, M S

    2007-04-01

    The toxicity studies were conducted on the fish Channa punctata (Bloch) by employing static and continuous flow through systems, for the toxicant butachlor (technical grade+) and its commercial formulation+ (machete 50% EC). The LC50 values are 297.89 ppb and 247.46 ppb for 24 hr and 48 hr in static for technical and 636.45 and 546.09 for machete. In continuous flow through the values are 270.05, 233.52 to the technical and 567.85 and 481.49 respectively for machete. The tissues show qualitative accumulation and were quantitatively analysed by gas liquid chromatography (GLC).

  15. EMUstack: An open source route to insightful electromagnetic computation via the Bloch mode scattering matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmberg, Björn C. P.; Dossou, Kokou B.; Lawrence, Felix J.; Poulton, Christopher G.; McPhedran, Ross C.; Martijn de Sterke, C.; Botten, Lindsay C.

    2016-05-01

    We describe EMUstack, an open-source implementation of the Scattering Matrix Method (SMM) for solving field problems in layered media. The fields inside nanostructured layers are described in terms of Bloch modes that are found using the Finite Element Method (FEM). Direct access to these modes allows the physical intuition of thin film optics to be extended to complex structures. The combination of the SMM and the FEM makes EMUstack ideally suited for studying lossy, high-index contrast structures, which challenge conventional SMMs.

  16. Derivation of the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation from continuum thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Alessia; Giorgi, Claudio

    2016-11-01

    Within the continuum thermodynamic framework, we derive the evolution equation for the magnetization vector in a ferromagnetic body. This procedure leads to an evolution equation that generalizes the well-known Landau-Lifshitz model for magnetically saturated bodies and looks very similar to the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation which was obtained by Garanin in 1997 from statistical mechanics. As a byproduct, we also obtain a generalization of the Gilbert equation when the magnetic field is far from saturation. By virtue of a suitable choice of the Gibbs free energy, this phenomenological model is able to describe the phase transition occurring from the paramagnetic to the ferromagnetic regime in anisotropic ferromagnets.

  17. Experimental reconstruction of the Berry curvature in a topological Bloch band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitenberg, Christof; Flaeschner, Nick; Rem, Benno; Tarnowski, Matthias; Vogel, Dominik; Luehmann, Dirk-Soeren; Sengstock, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    Topological properties lie at the heart of many fascinating phenomena in solid state systems such as quantum Hall systems or Chern insulators. The topology can be captured by the distribution of Berry curvature, which describes the geometry of the eigenstates across the Brillouin zone. Employing fermionic ultracold atoms in a hexagonal optical lattice, we engineer the Berry curvature of the Bloch bands using resonant driving and measure it with full momentum resolution. Our results pave the way to explore intriguing phases of matter with interactions in topological band structures.

  18. Experimental reconstruction of the Berry curvature in a Floquet Bloch band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fläschner, N.; Rem, B. S.; Tarnowski, M.; Vogel, D.; Lühmann, D.-S.; Sengstock, K.; Weitenberg, C.

    2016-05-01

    Topological properties lie at the heart of many fascinating phenomena in solid-state systems such as quantum Hall systems or Chern insulators. The topology of the bands can be captured by the distribution of Berry curvature, which describes the geometry of the eigenstates across the Brillouin zone. Using fermionic ultracold atoms in a hexagonal optical lattice, we engineered the Berry curvature of the Bloch bands using resonant driving and show a full momentum-resolved measurement of the ensuing Berry curvature. Our results pave the way to explore intriguing phases of matter with interactions in topological band structures.

  19. Nonlinear waves of the Hirota and the Maxwell-Bloch equations in nonlinear optics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chuan-Zhong; He Jing-Song; K.Porseizan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,considering the Hirota and the Maxwell-Bloch (H-MB) equations which are governed by femtosecond pulse propagation through a two-level doped fiber system,we construct the Darboux transformation of this system through a linear eigenvalue problem.Using this Daurboux transformation,we generate multi-soliton,positon,and breather solutions (both bright and dark breathers) of the H-MB equations.Finally,we also construct the rogue wave solutions of the above system.

  20. Classical Coupled Mode Theory of Optomechanical Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Khorasani, Sina

    2016-01-01

    Acousto-optic interaction in optomechanical crystals allows unidirectional control of elastic waves over optical waves. However, as a result of this nonlinear interaction, infinitely many optical modes are born. This article presents an exact formulaion of coupled mode theory for interaction between elastic Bloch wave waves and photonic Bloch waves moving in a phonotonic waveguide. In general, an optical wavefront is strongly diffracted by an elastic wave in frequency and wavevector, and thus infinite modes with different frequencies and wavevectors appear. We discuss resonance and mode conversion conditions, and present a rigorous method to derive coupling rates and mode profiles. We also find a conservation law which rules over total optical power from interacting individual modes. Modifications of the theory to phonotonic cavities are also discussed. We present application examples including switch, frequency shifter, and reflector.

  1. Derivation of a time dependent Schrödinger equation as the quantum mechanical Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, R.

    2016-10-01

    The derivation of the time dependent Schrödinger equation with transversal and longitudinal relaxation, as the quantum mechanical analog of the classical Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation, has been described. Starting from the classical Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation the transition to quantum mechanics has been performed and the corresponding von-Neumann equation deduced. In a second step the time Schrödinger equation has been derived. Analytical proofs and computer simulations show the correctness and applicability of the derived Schrödinger equation.

  2. Bloch-like surface waves in Fibonacci quasi-crystals and Thue-Morse aperiodic dielectric multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koju, Vijay; Robertson, William M.

    2016-09-01

    Bloch surface waves (BSWs) in periodic dielectric multilayer structures with surface defect have been extensively studied. However, it has recently been recognized that quasi-crystals and aperiodic dielectric multilayers also support Bloch-like surface waves (BLSWs). In this work, we numerically show the existence of BLSWs in Fibonacci quasi-crystals and Thue-Morse aperiodic dielectric multilayers using the prism coupling technique. We compare the surface field enhancement and penetration depth of BLSWs in these structures with that of BSWs in their periodic counterparts.

  3. Derivation of a time dependent Schrödinger equation as the quantum mechanical Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, R

    2016-10-05

    The derivation of the time dependent Schrödinger equation with transversal and longitudinal relaxation, as the quantum mechanical analog of the classical Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation, has been described. Starting from the classical Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation the transition to quantum mechanics has been performed and the corresponding von-Neumann equation deduced. In a second step the time Schrödinger equation has been derived. Analytical proofs and computer simulations show the correctness and applicability of the derived Schrödinger equation.

  4. Surface acoustic BLOCH oscillations, the Wannier-Stark ladder, and Landau-Zener tunneling in a solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, M M; Kosevich, Yu A; Santos, P V; Cantarero, A

    2010-04-23

    We present the experimental observation of Bloch oscillations, the Wannier-Stark ladder, and Landau-Zener tunneling of surface acoustic waves in perturbed grating structures on a solid substrate. A model providing a quantitative description of our experimental observations, including multiple Landau-Zener transitions of the anticrossed surface acoustic Wannier-Stark states, is developed. The use of a planar geometry for the realization of the Bloch oscillations and Landau-Zener tunneling allows a direct access to the elastic field distribution. The vertical surface displacement has been measured by interferometry.

  5. Demonstration of photon Bloch oscillations and Wannier-Stark ladders in dual-periodical multilayer structures based on porous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, J Octavio; Arriaga, Jesús; Mendez-Blas, Antonio; Reyes-Ayona, Edgar; Escorcia, José; Agarwal, Vivechana

    2012-07-23

    : Theoretical demonstration and experimental evidence of photon Bloch oscillations and Wannier-Stark ladders (WSLs) in dual-periodical (DP) multilayers, based on porous silicon, are presented. An introduction of the linear gradient in refractive indices in DP structure, which is composed by stacking two different periodic substructures N times, resulted in the appearance of WSLs. Theoretical time-resolved reflection spectrum shows the photon Bloch oscillations with a period of 130 fs. Depending on the values of the structural parameters, one can observe the WSLs in the near infrared or visible region which may allow the generation of terahertz radiation with a potential applications in several fields like imaging.

  6. Combination of BLOCH oscillations with a Ramsey-Bordé interferometer: new determination of the fine structure constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoret, Malo; de Mirandes, Estefania; Cladé, Pierre; Guellati-Khélifa, Saïda; Schwob, Catherine; Nez, François; Julien, Lucile; Biraben, François

    2008-12-01

    We report a new experimental scheme which combines atom interferometry with Bloch oscillations to provide a new measurement of the ratio h/mRb. By using Bloch oscillations, we impart to the atoms up to 1600 recoil momenta and thus we improve the accuracy on the recoil velocity measurement. The deduced value of h/mRb leads to a new determination of the fine structure constant alpha(-1) =137.03599945 (62) with a relative uncertainty of 4.6 x 10(-9). The comparison of this result with the value deduced from the measurement of the electron anomaly provides the most stringent test of QED.

  7. Reconciling the eigenmode analysis with the Maxwell-Bloch equations approach to superradiance in the linear regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedberg, Richard [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Manassah, Jamal T. [HMS Consultants, Inc., PO Box 592, New York, NY 10028 (United States)], E-mail: jmanassah@gmail.com

    2008-07-28

    The superradiance from a slab of inverted two-level atoms is theoretically analyzed in the linear regime from both the perspective of the expansion in eigenfunctions of the integral equation with the Lienard-Wiechert potential as kernel, and that of linearizing the Maxwell-Bloch equations. We show the equivalence of both approaches. We show that the so-called Reduced Maxwell-Bloch equations do not yield even approximately the correct solution when applied in the obvious way, but that they can be made to give the correct solution by adding a fictitious input field.

  8. Creating full-Bloch Bose-Einstein condensates with Raman q-plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Justin T.; Hansen, Azure; Murphree, Joseph D.; Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Bigelow, Nicholas P.

    2016-06-01

    A coherent two-photon optical Raman interaction in a pseudo-spin-1/2 Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) serves as a q-plate for atoms, converting spin to orbital angular momentum. This Raman q-plate has a singular pattern in its polarization distribution in analogy to the singular birefringent q-plates used in singular optics. The vortex winding direction and magnitude as well as the final spin state of the BEC depend on the initial spin state and the topology of the optical Raman q-plate beams. Drawing on the mathematical and geometric foundations of singular optics, we derive the equivalent Jones matrix for this Raman q-plate and use it to create and characterize atomic spin singularities in the BEC that are analogous to optical C-point singularities in polarization. By tuning the optical Raman parameters, we can generate a coreless vortex spin texture which contains every possible superposition in a two-state system. We identify this spin texture as a full-Bloch BEC since every point on the Bloch sphere is represented at some point in the cross section of the atomic cloud. This spin-orbit interaction and the spin textures it generates may allow for the observation of interesting geometric phases in matter waves and lead to schemes for topological quantum computation with spinor BECs.

  9. Raman fingerprints on the Bloch sphere of a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, Justin T; Murphree, Joseph D; Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Bigelow, Nicholas P

    2016-01-01

    We explore the geometric interpretation of a diabatic, two-photon Raman process as a rotation on the Bloch sphere for a pseudo-spin-1/2 system. The spin state of a spin-1/2 quantum system can be described by a point on the surface of the Bloch sphere, and its evolution during a Raman pulse is a trajectory on the sphere determined by properties of the optical beams: the pulse area, the relative intensities and phases, and the relative frequencies. We experimentally demonstrate key features of this model with a $^{87}$Rb spinor Bose-Einstein condensate, which allows us to examine spatially dependent signatures of the Raman beams. The two-photon detuning allows us to precisely control the spin density and imprinted relative phase profiles, as we show with a coreless vortex. With this comprehensive understanding and intuitive geometric interpretation, we use the Raman process to create and tailor as well as study and characterize exotic topological spin textures in spinor BECs.

  10. Wannier-Bloch approach to localization in high harmonics generation in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Osika, Edyta N; Ortmann, Lisa; Suárez, Noslen; Pérez-Hernández, Jose Antonio; Szafran, Bartłomiej; Ciappina, Marcelo F; Sols, Fernando; Landsman, Alexandra S; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Emission of high-order harmonics from solids provides a new avenue in attosecond science. On one hand, it allows to investigate fundamental processes of the non-linear response of electrons driven by a strong laser pulse in a periodic crystal lattice. On the other hand, it opens new paths toward efficient attosecond pulse generation, novel imaging of electronic wave functions, and enhancement of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) intensity. A key feature of HHG in a solid (as compared to the well-understood phenomena of HHG in an atomic gas) is the delocalization of the process, whereby an electron ionized from one site in the periodic lattice may recombine with any other. Here, we develop an analytic model, based on the localized Wannier wave functions in the valence band and delocalized Bloch functions in the conduction band. This Wannier-Bloch approach assesses the contributions of individual lattice sites to the HHG process, and hence addresses precisely the question of localization of harmonic emission...

  11. Dynamic scattering of electron vortex beams--a Bloch wave analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, B G

    2015-02-01

    Two important applications of electron vortex beams are in electron magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD) measurements and nanoparticle manipulation. In both cases orbital angular momentum (〈Lz〉) transfer between the vortex beam and the specimen due to dynamic scattering is critical. In general the 〈Lz〉 pendellösung consists of short and long wavelength oscillations. The former is due to interference between the tightly bound 1s and more dispersive non-1s Bloch states, while the latter is due to interference between the non-1s states. For EMCD experiments with ±ħ angular momentum beams, momentum transfer can be minimised by selecting the appropriate aperture size, so that the probe wavefunction approximately matches that of the 2p-type Bloch states. For manipulating nanoparticles with large angular momentum beams small apertures are required to excite the 1s state and thereby enhance the short wavelength oscillations in 〈Lz〉. This enables efficient momentum transfer to the specimen, provided the nanoparticle dimension corresponds to a minimum in the 〈Lz〉 pendellösung.

  12. Bloch spin waves and emergent structure in protein folding with HIV envelope glycoprotein as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jin; Niemi, Antti J.; He, Jianfeng; Sieradzan, Adam; Ilieva, Nevena

    2016-03-01

    We inquire how structure emerges during the process of protein folding. For this we scrutinize collective many-atom motions during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We introduce, develop, and employ various topological techniques, in combination with analytic tools that we deduce from the concept of integrable models and structure of discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The example we consider is an α -helical subunit of the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp41. The helical structure is stable when the subunit is part of the biological oligomer. But in isolation, the helix becomes unstable, and the monomer starts deforming. We follow the process computationally. We interpret the evolving structure both in terms of a backbone based Heisenberg spin chain and in terms of a side chain based XY spin chain. We find that in both cases the formation of protein supersecondary structure is akin the formation of a topological Bloch domain wall along a spin chain. During the process we identify three individual Bloch walls and we show that each of them can be modelled with a precision of tenths to several angstroms in terms of a soliton solution to a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  13. Dynamics of Bloch State Positronium Emission from MOF Targets Studied via Rydberg TOF Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro Escalera, Alina; Jones, Adric; Mills, Allen

    2016-05-01

    Recent advances in the efficient production and detection of Rydberg positronium (Ps) have made it possible to perform energy- and angle- resolved time-of-flight (TOF) spectroscopy with Ps. We report here TOF measurements of Ps emission from the metal-oxide framework (MOF) targets, MOF-5 and ZIF-8. MOFs are a recently synthesized class of chemical structures, characterized by high long-range order and large surface area to volume ratios (i.e., they are highly porous and uniform, crystalline materials). Ps is found to be emitted predominantly in a series of monoenergetic peaks, providing clear evidence of Ps Bloch states. Measuring the relative populations of the monoenergetic peaks, as a function of implantation energy and target temperature, provides insight into the target-dependent dynamics of Bloch state Ps. Work supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation Grants No. PHY 1206100 and No. PHY 1040590 and the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Progam (NSF-GRFP). DOE BES DE-FG02-13ER46972 (MOF-5 synthesis and characterization).

  14. Lindblad theory of dynamical decoherence of quantum-dot excitons

    OpenAIRE

    Eastham, P. R.; Spracklen, A O; Keeling, Jonathan Mark James

    2013-01-01

    We use the Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory to calculate the effects of acoustic phonons in coherent control experiments where quantum-dot excitons are driven by shaped laser pulses. This theory yields a generalized Lindblad equation for the density operator of the dot, with time-dependent damping and decoherence due to phonon transitions between the instantaneous dressed states. It captures similar physics to the form recently applied to Rabi oscillation experiments [Ramsay et al., Phys. Rev....

  15. Magnetic Bloch oscillations in the near-Ising antiferromagnet CoCl2#center dot#2D2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N.B.; Lefmann, K.; Johannsen, I.;

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the possible occurrence of magnetic Bloch oscillations in CoCl2 . 2D(2)O. We were unable to observe these oscillations at 20.0 K, just above T-N. In an attempt to explain this result, we studied spin waves in the a*-c* plane in order to estimate the effect of the interchain...

  16. Design of Slow and Fast Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides for Single-photon Emission Using a Bloch Mode Expansion Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Rigal, B.; Kapon, E.;

    We design slow and fast light photonic crystal waveguides for single-photon emission using a Bloch mode expansion and scattering matrix technique. We propose slow light designs that increase the group index-waveguide mode volume ratio for larger Purcell enhancement, and address efficient slow...

  17. Bloch wave symmetries in electron diffraction: applications to Friedels law, Gjonnes-Moodie lines and refraction at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valset, K; Tafto, J

    2011-06-01

    We classify the point symmetries at the different points in the Brillouin zone for the 17 two-dimensional space groups and the symmetries of the Bloch waves for the 10 two-dimensional crystallographic point groups. Simple examples involving breakdown of Friedels law, Gjonnes-Moodie lines, and reflection and refraction at interfaces are presented.

  18. Interaction-induced quantum phase revivals and evidence for the transition to the quantum chaotic regime in 1D atomic Bloch oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinert, F; Mark, M J; Kirilov, E; Lauber, K; Weinmann, P; Gröbner, M; Nägerl, H-C

    2014-05-16

    We study atomic Bloch oscillations in an ensemble of one-dimensional tilted superfluids in the Bose-Hubbard regime. For large values of the tilt, we observe interaction-induced coherent decay and matter-wave quantum phase revivals of the Bloch oscillating ensemble. We analyze the revival period dependence on interactions by means of a Feshbach resonance. When reducing the value of the tilt, we observe the disappearance of the quasiperiodic phase revival signature towards an irreversible decay of Bloch oscillations, indicating the transition from regular to quantum chaotic dynamics.

  19. On the relationship between Bloch modes and phase-related refractive index of photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guilin; Kirk, Andrew G

    2007-10-01

    It has previously been shown that the phase-related refractive index is positive in photonic crystals that display negative refraction at higher bands. We hypothesize that the phase velocity is governed by a wave that can be related to the dominant Bloch mode. This dominant wave can be identified from an approximate solution of Maxwell Equations using a homogeneously averaged dielectric constant and the dominant wavevector is related to the fundamental wavevector and the reciprocal lattice vectors. We validate this hypothesis by numerical Fourier decomposition of the field in the entire simulation domain. It confirms that for negative refraction at higher bands, the phase-related refractive index is indeed positive and differs significantly from the negative value of effective refractive index calculated from the band structure.

  20. Chirped dual periodic structures for photonic Bloch oscillations and Zener tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, J O; Arriaga, J; Reyes-Ayona, E; Agarwal, V

    2015-06-29

    Experimental evidence of photon Wannier-stark ladders (WSLs) and Zener tunneling (ZT) in one dimensional dual-periodical (DP) optical superlattices based on Porous Silicon (PSi), is presented. An introduction of linear gradient in physical thickness of the layers, composed of five stacks of two different periodic substructures, resulted in the appearance of four WSLs resonances and resonant Zener tunneling of nearest resonances of two consecutive WSLs. Theoretical analysis of time-resolved reflection spectra as a function of gradient reveals the presence of photonic Bloch oscillations (BOs) and an eventual tunneling at a specific value of linear gradient (20%), has been demonstrated through scattering maps. Measured reflection from different DP photonic structures confirm the presence of minibands, WSLs and ZT in the near infrared region.

  1. Bloch oscillations of ultracold atoms: a tool for a metrological determination of h/m Rb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battesti, Rémy; Cladé, Pierre; Guellati-Khélifa, Saïda; Schwob, Catherine; Grémaud, Benoît; Nez, François; Julien, Lucile; Biraben, François

    2004-06-25

    We use Bloch oscillations in a horizontal moving standing wave to transfer a large number of photon recoils to atoms with a high efficiency (99.5% per cycle). By measuring the photon recoil of 87Rb, using velocity-selective Raman transitions to select a subrecoil velocity class and to measure the final accelerated velocity class, we have determined h/m(Rb) with a relative precision of 0.4 ppm. To exploit the high momentum transfer efficiency of our method, we are developing a vertical standing wave setup. This will allow us to measure h/m(Rb) better than 10(-8) and hence the fine structure constant alpha with an uncertainty close to the most accurate value coming from the (g-2) determination.

  2. Backaction-driven transport of Bloch oscillating atoms in ring cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwin, J; Venkatesh, B Prasanna; O'Dell, D H J

    2014-08-15

    We predict that an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate strongly coupled to an intracavity optical lattice can undergo resonant tunneling and directed transport when a constant and uniform bias force is applied. The bias force induces Bloch oscillations, causing amplitude and phase modulation of the lattice which resonantly modifies the site-to-site tunneling. For the right choice of parameters a net atomic current is generated. The transport velocity can be oriented oppositely to the bias force, with its amplitude and direction controlled by the detuning between the pump laser and the cavity. The transport can also be enhanced through imbalanced pumping of the two counterpropagating running wave cavity modes. Our results add to the cold atoms quantum simulation toolbox, with implications for quantum sensing and metrology.

  3. Tunable hybridization at midzone and anomalous Bloch-Zener oscillations in optical waveguide ladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming Jie; Wang, Gang; Yu, Kin Wah

    2010-12-01

    We have studied the optical oscillation and tunneling of light waves in optical waveguide ladders (OWLs) formed by two coupled planar optical waveguide arrays. For the band structure, a midzone gap is formed owing to band hybridization, and its wavenumber position can be tuned throughout the whole Brillouin zone, which is different from the Bragg gap. By imposing a gradient in the propagation constant in each array, Bloch-Zener oscillation (BZO) is realized with Zener tunneling between the bands occurring at the midzone, which is contrary to the common BZO with tunneling at the center or edge of the Brillouin zone. The occurrence of BZO is demonstrated by using the field-evolution analysis. The tunable hybridization at the midzone enhances the tunability of BZO in the OWLs. This Letter may offer new insights into the coherent phenomena in optical lattices.

  4. Optical Bloch oscillations and Zener tunneling of Airy beams in ionic-type photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fajun; Zhu, Weiren; Shang, Wuyun; Wang, Meirong; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Sheng; Premaratne, Malin; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-08-01

    We report on the existence of optical Bloch oscillations (OBOs) and Zener tunneling (ZT) of Airy beams in ionic-type photonic lattices with a refractive index ramp. Different from their counterparts in uniform lattices, Airy beams undergoing OBOs show an alternatively switched concave and convex trajectory as well as a periodical revival of input beam profiles. Moreover, the ionic-type photonic lattice established in photorefractive crystal exhibits a reconfigurable lattice structure, which provides a flexible way to tune the amplitude and period of the OBOs. Remarkably, it is demonstrated that the band gap of the lattice can be readily controlled by rotating the lattice inducing beam, which forces the ZT rate to follow two significant different decay curves amidst decreasing index gradient. Our results open up new possibilities for all-optical switching, routing and manipulation of Airy beams.

  5. Quasiclassical analysis of Bloch oscillations in non-Hermitian tight-binding lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Graefe, E M; Rush, A

    2016-01-01

    Many features of Bloch oscillations in one-dimensional quantum lattices with a static force can be described by quasiclassical considerations for example by means of the acceleration theorem, at least for Hermitian systems. Here the quasiclassical approach is extended to non-Hermitian lattices, which are of increasing interest. The analysis is based on a generalised non-Hermitian phase space dynamics developed recently. Applications to a single-band tight-binding system demonstrate that many features of the quantum dynamics can be understood from this classical description qualitatively and even quantitatively. Two non-Hermitian and $PT$-symmetric examples are studied, a Hatano-Nelson lattice with real coupling constants and a system with purely imaginary couplings, both for initially localised states in space or in momentum. It is shown that the time-evolution of the norm of the wave packet and the expectation values of position and momentum can be described in a classical picture.

  6. High tip angle approximation based on a modified Bloch-Riccati equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulant, Nicolas; Hoult, David I

    2012-02-01

    When designing a radio-frequency pulse to produce a desired dependence of magnetization on frequency or position, the small flip angle approximation is often used as a first step, and a Fourier relation between pulse and transverse magnetization is then invoked. However, common intuition often leads to linear scaling of the resulting pulse so as to produce a larger flip angle than the approximation warrants--with surprisingly good results. Starting from a modified version of the Bloch-Riccati equation, a differential equation in the flip angle itself, rather than in magnetization, is derived. As this equation has a substantial linear component that is an instance of Fourier's equation, the intuitive approach is seen to be justified. Examples of the accuracy of this higher tip angle approximation are given for both constant- and variable-phase pulses.

  7. Electroweak corrections and Bloch-Nordsieck violations in 2-to-2 processes at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Stirling, W J

    2013-01-01

    We consider the effect of next-to-leading order (NLO) electroweak corrections to Standard Model 2-to-2 processes, taking into account the potentially large double logarithms originating from both real and virtual corrections. A study of the leading Sudakov logarithms is presented and Bloch-Nordsieck (BN) violations are discussed for processes at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. In particular, we focus on the processes Z/photon+jet and also the ratio of Z to photon production. This ratio is known to be insensitive to NLO QCD corrections but this is not expected to be the case for the electroweak corrections. We also comment on the effect of electroweak corrections and the presence of BN violation for QCD processes, in particular dijet production, and also for purely electroweak processes such as W + H and W + Z associated production.

  8. Design of guided Bloch surface wave resonance bio-sensors with high sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiu-Bao; Wen, Li-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Guo

    2017-01-01

    The sensing performance of bio-sensors based on guided Bloch surface wave (BSW) resonance (GBR) is studied. GBR is realized by coupling the propagating electromagnetic wave with BSW on one side of a one-dimensional photonic crystal slab via the grating on the other side. The sensitivity of the designed bio-sensors is proportional to the grating constant when the wavelength spectrum is analyzed, and inversely proportional to the normal wave vector of the incident electromagnetic wave when the angular spectrum is resolved. For a GBR bio-sensor designed to operate near 70° angle of incidence from air, the angular sensitivity is very high, reaching 128 deg RIU-1. The sensitivity can be substantially increased by designing bio-sensors for operating at larger angles of incidence.

  9. Bloch waves in an arbitrary two-dimensional lattice of subwavelength Dirichlet scatterers

    CERN Document Server

    Schnitzer, Ory

    2016-01-01

    We study waves governed by the planar Helmholtz equation, propagating in an infinite lattice of subwavelength Dirichlet scatterers, the periodicity being comparable to the wavelength. Applying the method of matched asymptotic expansions, the scatterers are effectively replaced by asymptotic point constraints. The resulting coarse-grained Bloch-wave dispersion problem is solved by a generalised Fourier series, whose singular asymptotics in the vicinities of scatterers yield the dispersion relation governing modes that are strongly perturbed from plane-wave solutions existing in the absence of the scatterers; there are also empty-lattice waves that are only weakly perturbed. Characterising the latter is useful in interpreting and potentially designing the dispersion diagrams of such lattices. The method presented, that simplifies and expands on Krynkin & McIver [Waves Random Complex, 19 347 2009], could be applied in the future to study more sophisticated designs entailing resonant subwavelength elements di...

  10. Coexisting localized and extended optical Bloch states in a periodic deep wire array microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löchner, Franz J. F.; Mischok, Andreas; Brückner, Robert; Lyssenko, Vadim G.; Zakhidov, Alexander A.; Fröb, Hartmut; Leo, K.

    2015-09-01

    We embed periodic SiO2 wires in an organic microcavity, producing a rectangular potential by the different optical thicknesses of the active layer due to the additional SiO2 layer. By μ -photoluminescence spectroscopy, we observe the energy dispersion of the photons and obtain discrete localized below and extended Bloch states above the potential barrier, respectively, showing that electro-magnetic waves can behave like massive particles, such as electrons, in crystal lattices. We investigate the dependencies on wire width and period and use the Kronig-Penney model to describe the photon energy dispersion, including an "effective mass" of a photon propagating through a microcavity implying polarization splitting. We obtain excellent agreement between experiment, simulation and analytical calculation.

  11. A Bloch decomposition based split-step pseudo spectral method for quantum dynamics with periodic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zhongyi; Markowich, Peter; Sparber, Christof

    2012-01-01

    We present a new numerical method for accurate computations of solutions to (linear) one dimensional Schr\\"odinger equations with periodic potentials. This is a prominent model in solid state physics where we also allow for perturbations by non-periodic potentials describing external electric fields. Our approach is based on the classical Bloch decomposition method which allows to diagonalize the periodic part of the Hamiltonian operator. Hence, the dominant effects from dispersion and periodic lattice potential are computed together, while the non-periodic potential acts only as a perturbation. Because the split-step communicator error between the periodic and non-periodic parts is relatively small, the step size can be chosen substantially larger than for the traditional splitting of the dispersion and potential operators. Indeed it is shown by the given examples, that our method is unconditionally stable and more efficient than the traditional split-step pseudo spectral schemes. To this end a particular fo...

  12. Identification of Bloch-modes in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couny, F; Benabid, F; Roberts, P J; Burnett, M T; Maier, S A

    2007-01-22

    We report on the experimental visualization of the cladding Bloch-modes of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Both spectral and spatial field nformation is extracted using the approach, which is based on measurement of the near-field and Fresnel-zone that results after propagation over a short length of fiber. A detailed study of the modes near the edges of the band gap shows that it is formed by the influence of three types of resonator: the glass interstitial apex, the silica strut which joins the neighboring apexes, and the air hole. The cladding electromagnetic field which survives the propagation is found to be spatially coherent and to contain contributions from just a few types of cladding mode.

  13. Near-field imaging of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides: Explicit role of Bloch harmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Volkov, V.S.; Søndergaard, Thomas;

    2002-01-01

    We employ a collection scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) to image the propagation of light at telecommunication wavelengths along straight and bent regions of silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) formed by removing a single row of holes in the triangular 410-nm......-period lattice along the GammaM direction of the irreducible Brillouin zone. We obtain high quality SNOM images of PCWs excited in the wavelength range of 1520-1570 nm, which indicate good PCW mode confinement and low propagation loss. Using averaged cross sections of the intensity distributions before and after...... the interference between a quasihomogeneous background field and Bloch harmonics of the PCW mode, we account for spatial frequency spectra of the intensity variations and determine the propagation constant of the PCW mode at 1520 nm. The possibilities and limitations of SNOM imaging for the characterization...

  14. A Bloch decomposition-based stochastic Galerkin method for quantum dynamics with a random external potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhizhang; Huang, Zhongyi

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we consider the numerical solution of the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation with a periodic lattice potential and a random external potential. This is an important model in solid state physics where the randomness results from complicated phenomena that are not exactly known. Here we generalize the Bloch decomposition-based time-splitting pseudospectral method to the stochastic setting using the generalized polynomial chaos with a Galerkin procedure so that the main effects of dispersion and periodic potential are still computed together. We prove that our method is unconditionally stable and numerical examples show that it has other nice properties and is more efficient than the traditional method. Finally, we give some numerical evidence for the well-known phenomenon of Anderson localization.

  15. A Bloch-Torrey Equation for Diffusion in a Deforming Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohmer, Damien; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2006-12-29

    Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DTMRI)technique enables the measurement of diffusion parameters and therefore,informs on the structure of the biological tissue. This technique isapplied with success to the static organs such as brain. However, thediffusion measurement on the dynamically deformable organs such as thein-vivo heart is a complex problem that has however a great potential inthe measurement of cardiac health. In order to understand the behavior ofthe Magnetic Resonance (MR)signal in a deforming media, the Bloch-Torreyequation that leads the MR behavior is expressed in general curvilinearcoordinates. These coordinates enable to follow the heart geometry anddeformations through time. The equation is finally discretized andpresented in a numerical formulation using implicit methods, in order toget a stable scheme that can be applied to any smooth deformations.Diffusion process enables the link between the macroscopic behavior ofmolecules and themicroscopic structure in which they evolve. Themeasurement of diffusion in biological tissues is therefore of majorimportance in understanding the complex underlying structure that cannotbe studied directly. The Diffusion Tensor Magnetic ResonanceImaging(DTMRI) technique enables the measurement of diffusion parametersand therefore provides information on the structure of the biologicaltissue. This technique has been applied with success to static organssuch as the brain. However, diffusion measurement of dynamicallydeformable organs such as the in-vivo heart remains a complex problem,which holds great potential in determining cardiac health. In order tounderstand the behavior of the magnetic resonance (MR) signal in adeforming media, the Bloch-Torrey equation that defines the MR behavioris expressed in general curvilinear coordinates. These coordinates enableus to follow the heart geometry and deformations through time. Theequation is finally discretized and presented in a numerical formulationusing

  16. THE ACTION OF CORAGEN INSECTICIDE ON CERTAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS ON CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO BLOCH L. 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Alexandru Baciu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In our researches we have determined the variation of certain physiological indexes, such as the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the glycaemia and the number of red blood cells under the action of Coragen insecticide on Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch. Under the action of Coragen, we have registered significant changes in the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the number of red blood cells and glycemia at the Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch items, considered as answers to the stress provoked by emissions. The highest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of the percentage, were noticed at the glycemia, which at the mark was 28 mg/dl, and in the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 42 mg/dl, representing a 50% growth and at the breathing rhythm in 24 hours, where values significantly decreased with 41.18% at the concentration of 0.07 ml/l and with 39.33% at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen. The slightest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of percentage, were noticed at the oxygen consumption, which, at the mark is of 55.302 ml oxygen/kg/hour, and for the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 34.81 ml oxygen/kg/hour, representing a decrease of 37.06% in 24 hours and the number of red blood cells, where the values have significantly decrease with 9.58%, 13.48%, respectively 18.44% for the concentrations of 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen.

  17. Auxiliary matrix formalism for interaction representation transformations, optimal control and spin relaxation theories

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, David; Kuprov, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Auxiliary matrix exponential method is used to derive simple and numerically efficient general expressions for the following, historically rather cumbersome, and hard to compute, theoretical methods: (1) average Hamiltonian theory following interaction representation transformations; (2) Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory of nuclear and electron relaxation; (3) gradient ascent pulse engineering version of quantum optimal control theory. In the context of spin dynamics, the auxiliary matrix expon...

  18. An Optomechanical Elevator: Transport of a Bloch Oscillating Bose–Einstein Condensate up and down an Optical Lattice by Cavity Sideband Amplification and Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Prasanna Venkatesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give a new description, in terms of optomechanics, of previous work on the problem of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate interacting with the optical lattice inside a laser-pumped optical cavity and subject to a bias force, such as gravity. An atomic wave packet in a tilted lattice undergoes Bloch oscillations; in a high-finesse optical cavity the backaction of the atoms on the light leads to a time-dependent modulation of the intracavity lattice depth at the Bloch frequency which can in turn transport the atoms up or down the lattice. In the optomechanical picture, the transport dynamics can be interpreted as a manifestation of dynamical backaction-induced sideband damping/amplification of the Bloch oscillator. Depending on the sign of the pump-cavity detuning, atoms are transported either with or against the bias force accompanied by an up- or down-conversion of the frequency of the pump laser light. We also evaluate the prospects for using the optomechanical Bloch oscillator to make continuous measurements of forces by reading out the Bloch frequency. In this context, we establish the significant result that the optical spring effect is absent and the Bloch frequency is not modified by the backaction.

  19. Bloch oscillation and Landau-Zener tunnelling in a modulated optical lattice in a photovoltaic photorefractive crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Bing-Zhi; Cui Hu; Li Xiang-Heng; She Wei-Long

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically study the beam dynamical hehaviour in a modulated optical lattice with a quadratic potential in a photovoltaic photorefractive crystal. We find that two different Bloch oscillation patterns appear for the excitation of both broad and narrow light beams. One kind of optical Landau-Zener tunnelling also appears upon the Bloch oscillation and can be controlled by adjusting the parameter of the optical lattice. Unlike the case of linear potential, the energy radiation due to Landau-Zener tunnelling can be confined in modulated lattices of this kind. For high input intensity levels, the Landau-Zener tunnelling is suppressed by the photovoltaic photorefractive nonlinearity and a symmetry breaking of beam propagation from the modulational instability appears.

  20. Simulação de sinais de RMN através das equações de Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Bueno Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to present a simple and fast way of simulating Nuclear Magnetic Resonance signals using the Bloch equations. These phenomenological equations describe the classical behavior of macroscopic magnetization and are easily simulated using rotation matrices. Many NMR pulse sequences can be simulated with this formalism, allowing a quantitative description of the influence of many experimental parameters. Finally, the paper presents simulations of conventional sequences such as Single Pulse, Inversion Recovery, Spin Echo and CPMG.

  1. On the zero-field orbital magnetic susceptibility of Bloch electrons in graphene-like solids: Some rigorous results

    CERN Document Server

    Savoie, Baptiste

    2012-01-01

    Starting with a nearest-neighbors tight-binding model, we rigorously investigate the bulk zero-field orbital susceptibility of a non-interacting Bloch electrons gas in graphene-like solids at fixed temperature and density of particles. In the zero-temperature limit and in the semiconducting situation, we derive a complete expression which holds for an arbitrary number of bands with possible degeneracies. In the particular case of a two-bands gapped model, all involved quantities are exactly written down. Besides the formula we obtain have the special feature to be suitable for numerical computations since it only involves the eigenvalues and associated eigenfunctions of the Bloch Hamiltonian, together with the derivatives (up to the second order) w.r.t. the quasi-momentum of the matrix-elements of the Bloch Hamiltonian. Finally we give a simple application for the two-bands gapped model by considering the case of a dispersion law which is linear w.r.t. the quasi-momentum in the gapless limit. Through this ins...

  2. Cadmium induced histopathology in the olfactory epithelium of a snakehead fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debraj Roy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Histopathology on the olfactory organ of a snakehead fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1793 were assessed after exposing the fish to 2.5 mg/L and 5mg/L of CdCl2 for 15 days, 30 days and 45 days. Cellular organization of the epithelium was affected severely with degeneration of sensory and supporting cells and hyperplasia of basal cells and mucous cells. Mucous cell proliferation indicates the upregulation of mucous secretion to protect the epithelium from toxic effect of cadmium. The olfactory epithelium was endowed with the multipotent basal cells which differentiate into sensory cells, supporting cells and other cell types of the epithelium during normal cells turn over and in the event of cell death.  However, due to cadmium exposure proliferating basal cells failed to differentiate into normal cells and the undifferentiated proliferated cell formed lump and intraepithelial lesion altering the composition of the entire epithelium. Present study indicates that in prolonged exposure to cadmium chloride olfactory functions of the fish might be impaired due to loss of all sensory cells.

  3. Grating-Coupling-Based Excitation of Bloch Surface Waves for Lab-on-Fiber Nanoprobes

    CERN Document Server

    Scaravilli, Michele; Cusano, Andrea; Galdi, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate for the first time the possibility to excite Bloch surface waves (BSWs) on the tip of single-mode optical fibers. Within this framework, we first demonstrate the possibility to exploit a grating-coupling mechanism for on-tip excitation of BSWs, and highlight the flexibility of the proposed design as well as its intrinsic robustness to unavoidable fabrication tolerances. Subsequently, with a view towards label-free chemical and biological sensing, we present an optimized design to maximize the sensitivity (in terms of wavelength shift) of the arising resonances with respect to changes in the refractive properties of the surrounding environment. Numerical results indicate that the attained sensitivities are in line with those exhibited by state-of-the-art plasmonic nanoprobes, with the key advantage of exhibiting much narrower spectral resonances. This prototype study paves the way for a new class of miniaturized high-performance surface-wave fiber-optic devices for high-resolution...

  4. Acute toxicity bioassay of dimethoate on freshwater airbreathing catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rakesh K; Singh, Ram N; Singh, Sarika; Singh, Narendra N; Das, Vijai K

    2009-05-01

    Pesticides are chemicals used for pest control in the agricultural fields. They finally reach the surrounding water bodies through surface runoff affecting the aquatic fauna. Dimethoate is frequently used organophosphate pesticide due to its high effectiveness and rapid breakdown into environmentally safe products. A 96 hr static acute toxicity test was carried out to determine the LC50 value of dimethoate, on the freshwater airbreathing catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). The fish were exposed to 7 different concentrations of dimethoate (2.50, 2.75, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, 3.75 and 4.00 mg l(-1)) for toxicity bioassay. Control (0.00 mg l(-1)) was also carried out. The data were subjected to Finney's Probit analysis and processed with Trimmed Spearman-Karber statistical software. The LC50 values for dimethoate for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr were 3.38, 3.23, 3.08 and 2.98 mg l(-1), respectively. At higher concentration of dimethoate (3.25 mg l(-1) and above) the fish showed uncoordinated behaviour such as erratic and jerky swimming, attempt to jump out of water, frequent surfacing and gulping of air, decrease in opercular movement and copious secretion of mucus all over the body.

  5. Abner Doubleday, Marc Bloch, and the cultural significance of baseball in rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, David

    2011-01-01

    In 1907 baseball's promoters decreed that Civil War hero Abner Doubleday created the game in the village of Cooperstown, New York, in 1839. Baseball thus acquired a distinctly rural American origin and a romantic pastoral appeal. Skeptics have since presented irrefutable evidence that America's pastime was neither born in the United States nor was a product of rural life. But in their zeal to debunk the myth of baseball's rural beginnings, historians have fallen prey to what Annales School founder Marc Bloch famously called the "idol of origins," and all but neglected the very real phenomenon of rural baseball itself. The claim that baseball has always been "a city game for city men" does not stand up to empirical scrutiny anymore than the Doubleday myth itself, as this address demonstrates with three case studies -- Cooperstown in the 1830s, Davisville, California, in the 1880s, and Milroy, Minnesota, in the 1950s. Baseball may have been a source of rural nostalgia for city people, but it was the sport of choice for farmers and a powerful cultural agent.

  6. The analysis of cytochrome b nucleotidic sequence for Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian D. Gorgan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of a larger scale study for some genes` (Cytb, ND4L and D-loop nucleotidic structure identification by sequencing, to distinguish the structural differences and their exact length inase pairs. Research was carried out on individuals of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 (Actinopterygii,Cypriniformes from two different populations, Iezăreni and Movileni (Iaşi, from which dorsal musculartissue was sampled. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA isolation and purification was carried out automaticallyusing Promega’s Maxwell 16 (SEV module. Cytochrome b (cytb was multiplied by a two stage>polymerase chain reaction (PCR, using two sets of complementary primers (1 set for each fragment.Direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that the cytochrome b has one sequence of 1140bp. Theobtained sequences were subsequently compared with sequences of the same gene from otherindividuals within this species, towards identifying possible differences in the nucleotidic structure.Key Words: Carassius, cytocrhome b, mtDNA.

  7. Establishment of a cell line from kidney of seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phromkunthong, W.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cell culture from caudal fin and kidney of seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch using tissue explant method were cultured in three different medias with various salt concentrations. Only seabass kidney (SK cells grew well in Leibovitze's-15 medium containing 8 g/l of NaCl supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum at an optimum temperature of 25 oC. Over a period of 24 months, SK cells were subcultured over than 75 passages and exhibited epithelial-like cells. The chromosome number of SK cells was 42. The cells were found to be free from bacterial, fungal and mycoplasma contamination. Seabass cells can be kept at -80 oC and/or in liquid nitrogen (-196 oC for at least 24 months with a survival rate of 83.20 and 74.50 %, respectively. Nine fish viruses were tested for their infectivity and this SK cells were susceptible to sand goby virus (SGV, chub reovirus (CRV, snake-head rhabdovirus (SHRV, red seabream iridovirus (RSIV, seabass iridovirus (SIV and grouper iridovirus-2 (GIV-2.

  8. Mass Spectrum of Fermion on Bloch Branes with New Scalar-fermion Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Qun-Ying; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Du, Yun-Zhi; Zhang, Yu-Peng

    2015-01-01

    In order to localize a left- or right-handed fermion zero mode on a thick brane, one usually introduces the Yukawa coupling $\\eta \\bar{\\Psi} F(\\chi) \\Psi$ between a bulk fermion and the background scalar field $\\chi$. However, the Yukawa coupling will do not work if the background scalar is an even function of the extra dimension. Recently, Ref. [Phy. Rev. \\textbf{D} 89 (2014) 086001] has presented a new scalar-fermion coupling form $\\lambda \\bar \\Psi \\Gamma^M \\partial_M F(\\chi) \\gamma^5 \\Psi$ in order to deal with this problem. In this paper, we investigate the localization and mass spectrum of fermion on the Bloch brane by using the new scalar-fermion coupling with $F(\\chi)=\\chi^n$. It is found that the effective potentials have rich structure and may be volcano-like, finite square well-like, and infinite potentials, which depend on the parameter $n$. As a result, there may appear some resonant KK fermions, finite or infinite numbers of bound KK fermions.

  9. An optomechanical elevator: Transport of a Bloch oscillating Bose-Einstein condensate up and down an optical lattice by cavity sideband amplification and cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Venkatesh, B Prasanna; Goldwin, J

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the optomechanics of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate interacting with the optical lattice inside a laser-pumped optical cavity and subject to a uniform bias force such as gravity. An atomic wave packet in a tilted lattice undergoes Bloch oscillations; in a cavity the backaction of the atoms on the light leads to a time-dependent modulation of the intracavity lattice at the Bloch frequency. When the Bloch frequency is on the order of the cavity damping rate we find transport of the atoms either up or down the lattice. The transport dynamics can be interpreted as a manifestation of dynamical backaction-induced sideband damping/amplification of the optomechanical Bloch oscillator. Depending on the sign of the pump-cavity detuning, atoms are transported either with or against the bias force accompanied by an up- or down-conversion of the frequency of the pump laser light. We also evaluate the prospects for using the optomechanical Bloch oscillator to make continuous measurements of forces by reading...

  10. Nutritional evaluation of the moonfish Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) from Parangipettai, southeast coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Palanivel Bharadhirajan; Natarajan Periyasamy; Sambantham Murugan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the nutritions in Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) (M. maculata). Methods: Fishes (14-16 cm) were obtained from the landings at Parangipettai for the evaluation of biochemical composition. The present study deals with biochemical composition such as protein, carbohydrate, lipid, amino acids fatty acids, vitamins and minerals which were evaluated in the moonfish.Results:protein was high in the tissue (23.16%), followed by the carbohydrate (1.3%) and lipid (2.62%). Totally 20 essential and nonessential amino acids were present at the rate of 46.72% and 43.91%. In the analysis, the fatty acid profile by gas chromatography revealed the presence of higher amount of saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid 22.17%) than monounsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid 14.51%) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (alpha linolenic acid 16.07%). Vitamins were detected in M. maculata. Among them, vitamin A was found in higher levels (124.5 mg/g), whereas vitamin B6 was noticed as lower levels (0.34 mg/g). In the present study, totally 5 macro minerals and 2 trace minerals were reported. The macro mineral calcium (156.7 mg/g) was found at the highest level and other minerals such as sodium (31.98 mg/g), potassium (21.33 mg/g), copper (1.43 mg/g) and magnesium (0.341 mg/g) were also detected in the moonfish.Conclusions:The results of proximate composition in M. maculata showed that the percentage of The result showed that the moonfish M. maculata tissue is a valuable food recipe for human consumption, due to its high quality protein and well-balanced amino acids.

  11. Antes, desde y para el exilio. Herencia de esta época (1935/1962 de Ernst Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmerón Infante, Miguel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The first edition of Erbschaft dieser Zeit was published in Zurich in 1935, during Ernst Bloch’s five-year period of emigration from Nazi-Germany in various European capitals before his final emigration to America for ten years in 1938. In this book Bloch made a courageous stand in defence of the artistic avant-garde against the dogmatic advocates of socialist realism. His particularly adversary was Georg Lukács. But of course one of the most fascinating aspects of the book is that is also reads as a contemporary observation of the rise of the Nazis. Erbschaft is undoubtedly the major work of Weimar Germany Exile.La primera edición de Erbschaft dieser Zeit fue publicada en 1935 en Zurich, durante la emigración de Ernst Bloch de la Alemania nazi por un período de cinco años en el que residió en varias capitales europeas antes de su marcha definitiva a América en 1938, donde vivió diez años. En este libro Bloch hace una encorajinada defensa de la vanguardia artística contra los abogados del realismo socialista. Su adversario específico era Georg Lukács. Pero sin duda alguna uno de los aspectos más fascinantes de este libro es que puede leerse como una observación contemporánea de la ascensión al poder de los nazis. Erbschaft es indudablemente la obra clave del exilio de la Alemania de Weimar.

  12. QED-based Optical Bloch Equations without electric dipole approximation: A model for a two-level atom interacting with a monochromatic X-ray laser beam

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wen-Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    We derive a set of optical Bloch equations (OBEs) directly from the minimal-coupling Hamiltonian density of the bound-state quantum electrodynamics (bound-state QED). Such optical Bloch equations are beyond the former widely-used ones due to that there is no electric dipole approximation (EDA) on the minimal-coupling Hamiltonian density of the bound-state QED. Then our optical Bloch equations can describe a two-level atom interacting with a monochromatic light of arbitrary wavelength, which are suitable to study the spectroscopy and the Rabi oscillations of two-level atoms in X-ray laser beams since that the wavelength of X-ray is close to an atom to make the electric dipole approximation (EDA) invalid.

  13. Accumulation of some heavy metals in Raphidascaris acus (Bloch, 1779) and its host (Esox lucius L., 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin-Ozan, Selda; Kir, Ismail

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of some heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Cr) in liver of pike (Esox lucius L., 1758) and its endoparasite [Raphidascaris acus (Bloch, 1779)] inhabiting Işikli Lake (Turkey) were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Only Fe and Zn were detected in R. acus and liver of fish, while levels of Cu, Mn and Cr were below detection limit (acus were 68.4 and 86.9 times higher than in the liver. Nematodes could provide reliable information about the heavy metal pollution of the lakes.

  14. Bloch oscillations and mean-field effects of Bose-Einstein condensates in 1D optical lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsch, O; Müller, J H; Cristiani, M; Ciampini, D; Arimondo, E

    2001-10-01

    We have loaded Bose-Einstein condensates into one-dimensional, off-resonant optical lattices and accelerated them by chirping the frequency difference between the two lattice beams. For small values of the lattice well depth, Bloch oscillations were observed. Reducing the potential depth further, Landau-Zener tunneling out of the lowest lattice band, leading to a breakdown of the oscillations, was also studied and used as a probe for the effective potential resulting from mean-field interactions as predicted by Choi and Niu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2022 (1999)]. The effective potential was measured for various condensate densities and trap geometries, yielding good qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations.

  15. Determination of the fine structure constant based on BLOCH oscillations of ultracold atoms in a vertical optical lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladé, Pierre; de Mirandes, Estefania; Cadoret, Malo; Guellati-Khélifa, Saïda; Schwob, Catherine; Nez, François; Julien, Lucile; Biraben, François

    2006-01-27

    We report an accurate measurement of the recoil velocity of 87Rb atoms based on Bloch oscillations in a vertical accelerated optical lattice. We transfer about 900 recoil momenta with an efficiency of 99.97% per recoil. A set of 72 measurements of the recoil velocity, each one with a relative uncertainty of about 33 ppb in 20 min integration time, leads to a determination of the fine structure constant with a statistical relative uncertainty of 4.4 ppb. The detailed analysis of the different systematic errors yields to a relative uncertainty of 6.7 ppb. The deduced value of alpha-1 is 137.035 998 78(91).

  16. Light-Matter Interaction and Lasing in Semiconductor Nanowires: A combined FDTD and Semiconductor Bloch Equation Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Buschlinger, Robert; Peschel, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    We present a time-domain model for the simulation of light-matter interaction in semiconductors in arbitrary geometries and across a wide range of excitation conditions. The electromagnetic field is treated classically using the finite-difference time-domain method. The polarization and occupation numbers of the semiconductor material are described using the semiconductor Bloch equations including many-body effects in the screened Hartree-Fock approximation. Spontaneous emission noise is introduced using stochastic driving terms. As an application of the model, we present simulations of the dynamics of a nanowire laser including optical pumping, seeding by spontaneous emission and the selection of lasing modes.

  17. Spatial differentiation of Bloch surface wave beams using an on-chip phase-shifted Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskolovich, L. L.; Bezus, E. A.; Bykov, D. A.; Soifer, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    Bloch surface waves (BSWs) supported by the interfaces between a photonic crystal and a homogeneous medium are considered as a prospective information carrier in integrated photonic circuits. In the present work, we study the application of on-chip phase-shifted Bragg gratings for spatial differentiation of BSW beams. The presented simulation results demonstrate a high accuracy of the performed differentiation. It is shown that upon differentiation of a Gaussian BSW beam, a two-dimensional analogue of the Hermite-Gaussian mode is generated in reflection. The obtained results may find application in the design of new planar devices for analog optical information processing.

  18. Defect Modes in Multiple-Constituent One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals Examined by an Analytic Bloch-Mode Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG Hong-Yi; LI Zhi-Yuan; GU Ben-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    @@ Defect modes in one-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) can be readily detected from the solution of the transmission spectra via the standard transfer-matrix method. We adopt an analytic Bloch-mode approach to examine this problem in terms of eigenmode solutions and investigate the dispersion behaviour of localized defect modes supported by a defect layer sandwiched within two symmetric semi-infinite PCs that are made from multiple constituents. The results show that the number of defect modes grows when the dielectric constant and width of the defect layer increase.

  19. FORTRAN source listing for simulating three-dimensional convergent beam patterns with absorption by the Bloch wave method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, J M; Gjonnes, K; Spence, J C

    1989-05-01

    The FORTRAN source code is given for a computer program that calculates the two-dimensional intensity distribution in convergent-beam transmission electron microdiffraction (CBED) patterns from perfect crystals. The program uses the eigenvalue or Bloch-wave method. It allows three-dimensional dynamical diffraction, and so includes all higher-order Laue zone effects without approximation. No symmetry reduction is included. The program accepts noncentrosymmetric or centrosymmetric crystal structures and allows absorption corrections to be included. It uses the "EISPACK" subroutines for the diagonalisation of a general complex matrix. Up to 100 CBED disks may be included. The code is also available via "Bitnet."

  20. Numerical investigation of the flat band Bloch modes in a 2D photonic crystal with Dirac cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Fietz, Chris; Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M

    2015-04-20

    A numerical method combining complex-k band calculations and absorbing boundary conditions for Bloch waves is presented. We use this method to study photonic crystals with Dirac cones. We demonstrate that the photonic crystal behaves as a zero-index medium when excited at normal incidence, but that the zero-index behavior is lost at oblique incidence due to excitation of modes on the flat band. We also investigate the formation of monomodal and multimodal cavity resonances inside the photonic crystals, and the physical origins of their different line-shape features.

  1. Quantum Analysis of a Microcavity-Tuned Bloch Oscillator for Tunable Spontaneous Emission and Absorption of Terahertz Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    probabilities for SE at fundamental Bloch frequency into the waveguide TE10 mode with and without the scattering taking into account analyzing the ratio P rse ...the limit of τ → ∞, with N finite, the expected result P rse → 1. Also, for this limit, the integral (27) becomes a linear function of N , IN(τνB...is shown in Fig. 5 for several values of the parameter τνB. In Fig. 6, we show the dependence of the relative SE probability P rse [Eq.(42

  2. Web-based description of the space radiation environment using the Bethe-Bloch model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, Emanuele; Calders, Stijn; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Space weather is a rapidly growing area of research not only in scientific and engineering applications but also in physics education and in the interest of the public. We focus especially on space radiation and its impact on space exploration. The topic is highly interdisciplinary, bringing together fundamental concepts of nuclear physics with aspects of radiation protection and space science. We give a new approach to presenting the topic by developing a web-based application that combines some of the fundamental concepts from these two fields into a single tool that can be used in the context of advanced secondary or undergraduate university education. We present DREADCode, an outreach or teaching tool to rapidly assess the current conditions of the radiation field in space. DREADCode uses the available data feeds from a number of ongoing space missions (ACE, GOES-13, GOES-15) to produce a first order approximation of the radiation dose an astronaut would receive during a mission of exploration in deep space (i.e. far from the Earth’s shielding magnetic field and from the radiation belts). DREADCode is based on an easy-to-use GUI interface available online from the European Space Weather Portal (www.spaceweather.eu/dreadcode). The core of the radiation transport computation to produce the radiation dose from the observed fluence of radiation observed by the spacecraft fleet considered is based on a relatively simple approximation: the Bethe-Bloch equation. DREADCode also assumes a simplified geometry and material configuration for the shields used to compute the dose. The approach is approximate and sacrifices some important physics on the altar of rapid execution time, which allows a real-time operation scenario. There is no intention here to produce an operational tool for use in space science and engineering. Rather, we present an educational tool at undergraduate level that uses modern web-based and programming methods to learn some of the most important

  3. Influence of rotating in-plane field on vertical Bloch lines in the walls of second kind of dumbbell domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H.Y. E-mail: hysun@165e.com; Hu, H.N.; Sun, Y.P.; Nie, X.F

    2004-08-01

    Influence of rotating in-plane field on vertical Bloch lines in the walls of second kind of dumbbell domains (IIDs) was investigated, and a critical in-plane field range [H{sub ip}{sup 1},H{sub ip}{sup 2}] of which vertical-Bloch lines (VBLs) annihilated in IIDs is found under rotating in-plane field (H{sub ip}{sup 1} is the maximal critical in-plane-field of which hard domains remain stable, H{sub ip}{sup 2} is the minimal critical in-plane-field of which all of the hard domains convert to soft bubbles (SBs, without VBLs)). It shows that the in-plane field range [H{sub ip}{sup 1}, H{sub ip}{sup 2}] changes with the change of the rotating angle {delta}{phi} H{sub ip}{sup 1} maintains stable, while H{sub ip}{sup 2} decreases with the decreasing of rotating angle {delta}{phi}. Comparing it with the spontaneous shrinking experiment of IIDs under both bias field and in-plane field, we presume that under the application of in-plane field there exists a direction along which the VBLs in the domain walls annihilate most easily, and it is in the direction that domain walls are perpendicular to the in-plane field.

  4. Porous silicon Bloch surface and sub-surface wave structure for simultaneous detection of small and large molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gilberto A.; Lonai, John D.; Mernaugh, Raymond L.; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2014-08-01

    A porous silicon (PSi) Bloch surface wave (BSW) and Bloch sub-surface wave (BSSW) composite biosensor is designed and used for the size-selective detection of both small and large molecules. The BSW/BSSW structure consists of a periodic stack of high and low refractive index PSi layers and a reduced optical thickness surface layer that gives rise to a BSW with an evanescent tail that extends above the surface to enable the detection of large surface-bound molecules. Small molecules were detected in the sensor by the BSSW, which is a large electric field intensity spatially localized to a desired region of the Bragg mirror and is generated by the implementation of a step or gradient refractive index profile within the Bragg mirror. The step and gradient BSW/BSSW sensors are designed to maximize both resonance reflectance intensity and sensitivity to large molecules. Size-selective detection of large molecules including latex nanospheres and the M13KO7 bacteriophage as well as small chemical linker molecules is reported.

  5. Plasmonic Photonic-Crystal Slabs: Visualization of the Bloch Surface Wave Resonance for an Ultrasensitive, Robust and Reusable Optical Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Baryshev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC with termination by a metal film—a plasmonic photonic-crystal slab—has been theoretically analyzed for its optical response at a variation of the dielectric permittivity of an analyte and at a condition simulating the molecular binding event. Visualization of the Bloch surface wave resonance (SWR was done with the aid of plasmon absorption in a dielectric/metal/dielectric sandwich terminating a PhC. An SWR peak in spectra of such a plasmonic photonic crystal (PPhC slab comprising a noble or base metal layer was shown to be sensitive to a negligible variation of refractive index of a medium adjoining to the slab. As a consequence, the considered PPhC-based optical sensors exhibited an enhanced sensitivity and a good robustness in comparison with the conventional surface-plasmon and Bloch surface wave sensors. The PPhC biosensors can be of practical importance because the metal layer is protected by a capping dielectric layer from contact with analytes and, consequently, from deterioration.

  6. Computationally Efficient Steady-State Solution of the Bloch Equations for Rapid Sinusoidal Scans Based on Fourier Expansion in Harmonics of the Scan Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseitlin, Mark; Eaton, Gareth R; Eaton, Sandra S

    2013-12-01

    Rapid-scan EPR has been shown to improve the signal-to-noise ratio relative to conventional continuous wave spectroscopy. Equations are derived for the steady-state solution to the Bloch equations as a Fourier expansion in the harmonics of the scan frequency. This simulation method is about two orders of magnitude faster than time-domain numerical integration.

  7. Theory of Dipole Induced Electromagnetic Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Puthumpally-Joseph, Raiju; Sukharev, Maxim; Charron, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A detailed theory describing linear optics of vapors comprised of interacting multi-level quantum emitters is proposed. It is shown both by direct integration of Maxwell-Bloch equations and using a simple analytical model that at large densities narrow transparency windows appear in otherwise completely opaque spectra. The existence of such windows is attributed to overlapping resonances. This effect, first introduced for three-level systems in [R. Puthumpally-Joseph, M. Sukharev, O. Atabek and E. Charron, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 163603 (2014)], is due to strongly enhanced dipole-dipole interactions at high emitters' densities. The presented theory extends this effect to the case of multilevel systems. The theory is applied to the D1 transitions of interacting Rb-85 atoms. It is shown that at high atomic densities, Rb-85 atoms can behave as three-level emitters exhibiting all the properties of dipole induced electromagnetic transparency. Applications including slow light and laser pulse shaping are also propose...

  8. Wave operator theory of quantum dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Philippe; Paidarová, Ivana

    1998-09-01

    An energy-dependent wave operator theory of quantum dynamics is derived for time-independent and time-dependent Hamiltonians. Relationships between Green's functions, wave operators, and effective Hamiltonians are investigated. Analytical properties of these quantities are especially relevant for studying resonances. A derivation of the relationship between the Green's functions and the (t,t') method of Peskin and Moiseyev [J. Chem. Phys. 99, 4590 (1993)] is presented. The observable quantities can be derived from the wave operators determined with the use of efficient iterative procedures. As in the theory of Bloch operators for bound states, the theory is based on a partition of the full Hilbert space into three subspaces: the model space, an intermediate space, and the outer space. On the basis of this partition an alternative definition of active spaces currently considered in large scale calculations is suggested. A numerical illustration is presented for several model systems and for the Stark effect in the hydrogen atom.

  9. Exact symmetries of electron Bloch states and optical selection rules in [001] GaAs/AlAs quantum wells and superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronc, P.; Kitaev, Yu. E.

    2001-05-01

    We determined the exact symmetries of conduction and valence Bloch states in type-I and type-II [001] (GaAs)m(AlAs)n superlattices at the Γ point and at some other symmetry points of the Brillouin zone of the superlattices and derived optical selection rules. Contrary to a result widely accepted in the envelope-function approximation (EFA), pz atomic orbitals cannot mix with px and py orbitals to build Bloch states. The phonon-assisted transitions involving the Γ point as an initial or final state are allowed both without and with taking into account the spin-orbit interaction whatever are the symmetries of the initial and final states. The electron band structure of the superlattices is discussed. Within the domain of validity of EFA (i.e., for not too small values of m and n), a detailed analysis of the Bloch-state symmetry and selection rules is provided on imposing invariance of the superlattice structure under the change of z to -z (the σz symmetry operation). It is shown that optical transitions between the conduction states arising from the Γ states of GaAs on one hand and the conduction states arising from the X states of AlAs on the other hand can be allowed from spin-orbit coupling only. The correspondence is provided between the symmetry of a Bloch state and the parity with respect to σz of its associated envelope function. The effect of an electric field parallel to the growth axis is discussed. Quantum wells do not differ from superlattices with regard to Bloch-state and envelope-function symmetries or optical selection rules. All the above results are still valid for any pseudomorphic superlattice or quantum well made of two binary compounds with zinc-blend structure and identical cations or anions, such as, for example, in the GaN/AlN system.

  10. Reducing disorder-induced losses for slow light photonic crystal waveguides through Bloch mode engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Nishan; Combrié, Sylvian; Colman, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We present theory and measurements ofdisorder-induced losses for low loss 1.5 mmlong slow light photonic crystal waveguides. A recent class of dispersion engineered waveguides increases the bandwidth of slow light and shows lower propagation losses for the same group index. Our theory and experim...

  11. Mastrogregori, Massimo. El manuscrito interrumpido de Marc Bloch. Apología para la historia o el oficio de historiador : México, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1998, 140 páginas

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Antonio Sorgentini

    1999-01-01

    Apología para la historia o el oficio de historiador de Marc Bloch es hoy una obra ineludible para quienes se inician en el estudio de la historia. Una nueva historia que reconoce haber experimentado un amplio proceso de renovación en el siglo XX, en el que "los Annales" fundados por Marc Bloch y Lucien Febvre han cumplido un papel central. El manuscrito interrumpido de Marc Bloch de Massimo Mastrogregori [director de la Revista di Storia della Storiografia Moderna] forma parte de las renovad...

  12. Optical Bloch oscillations of an Airy beam in a photonic lattice with a linear transverse index gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fajun; Li, Baoran; Wang, Meirong; Zhu, Weiren; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Sheng; Premaratne, Malin; Zhao, Jianlin

    2014-09-22

    We theoretically report the existence of optical Bloch oscillations (BO) of an Airy beam in a one-dimensional optically induced photonic lattice with a linear transverse index gradient. The Airy beam experiencing optical BO shows a more robust non-diffracting feature than its counterparts in free space or in a uniform photonic lattice. Interestingly, a periodical recurrence of Airy shape accompanied with constant alternation of its acceleration direction is also found during the BO. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the period and amplitude of BO of an Airy beam can be readily controlled over a wide range by varying the index gradient and/or the lattice period. Exploiting these features, we propose a scheme to rout an Airy beam to a predefined output channel without losing its characteristics by longitudinally modulating the transverse index gradient.

  13. High-sensitivity label-free optical fiber optrodes based on the excitation of Bloch surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaravilli, M.; Castaldi, G.; Cusano, A.; Galdi, V.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the possibility to excite Bloch surface waves (BSWs) on the tip of a single-mode optical fiber is explored for the first time. In particular, we first show the possibility to achieve an on-tip excitation of BSWs, with optimized characteristic of the arising resonances, via an "all-fiber" grating-coupled configuration. Furthermore, envisioning novel high-performance fiber tip nanoprobes for label-free biosensing, we introduce an ad hoc design aimed at maximizing the refractive-index sensitivity. Numerical results indicate that the estimated sensitivities are comparable with those exhibited by current plasmonic lab-on-tip bio-probes, but are accompanied by a higher spectral selectivity. Therefore, this preliminary work paves the way to the development of new classes of miniaturized surface-wave optical fiber devices for low-detection-limit label-free chemical and biological sensing.

  14. A Fluorescent One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal for Label-Free Biosensing Based on Bloch Surface Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alvaro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC based on a planar stack of dielectric layers is used as an optical transducer for biosensing, upon the coupling of TE-polarized Bloch Surface Waves (BSW. The structure is tailored with a polymeric layer providing a chemical functionality facilitating the covalent binding of orienting proteins needed for a subsequent grafting of antibodies in an immunoassay detection scheme. The polymeric layer is impregnated with Cy3 dye, in such a way that the photonic structure can exhibit an emissive behavior. The BSW-coupled fluorescence shift is used as a means for detecting refractive index variations occurring at the 1DPC surface, according to a label-free concept. The proposed working principle is successfully demonstrated in real-time tracking of protein G covalent binding on the 1DPC surface within a fluidic cell.

  15. Short-period intrinsic Stark GaN /AlGaN superlattice as a Bloch oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinov, V. I.; Manasson, A.; Pavlidis, D.

    2004-07-01

    We discuss the properties of AlGaN /GaN superlattice (SL) related to the feasibility of a terahertz-range oscillator. The distortion of the conduction-band profile by the polarization fields has been taken into account. We have calculated the conduction-band offset between the pseudomorphic AlGaN barrier and the GaN quantum well, the first miniband width and energy dispersion, as functions of Al content in the barrier. As the short-period SL miniband energy dispersion contains contributions from next to nearest neighbors, it causes anharmonic electron oscillations at the multiples of the fundamental Bloch frequency. The Al content and SL period that favor high-frequency oscillations have been determined.

  16. Auxiliary matrix formalism for interaction representation transformations, optimal control, and spin relaxation theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya

    2015-08-01

    Auxiliary matrix exponential method is used to derive simple and numerically efficient general expressions for the following, historically rather cumbersome, and hard to compute, theoretical methods: (1) average Hamiltonian theory following interaction representation transformations; (2) Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory of nuclear and electron relaxation; (3) gradient ascent pulse engineering version of quantum optimal control theory. In the context of spin dynamics, the auxiliary matrix exponential method is more efficient than methods based on matrix factorizations and also exhibits more favourable complexity scaling with the dimension of the Hamiltonian matrix.

  17. Auxiliary matrix formalism for interaction representation transformations, optimal control, and spin relaxation theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya, E-mail: i.kuprov@soton.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-28

    Auxiliary matrix exponential method is used to derive simple and numerically efficient general expressions for the following, historically rather cumbersome, and hard to compute, theoretical methods: (1) average Hamiltonian theory following interaction representation transformations; (2) Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory of nuclear and electron relaxation; (3) gradient ascent pulse engineering version of quantum optimal control theory. In the context of spin dynamics, the auxiliary matrix exponential method is more efficient than methods based on matrix factorizations and also exhibits more favourable complexity scaling with the dimension of the Hamiltonian matrix.

  18. Lamproglena hepseti n. sp. (Copepoda: Lernaeidae), a gill parasite of the African pike Hepsetus odoe (Bloch) from the Okavango River and Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van As, Liesl L; van As, Jo G

    2007-05-01

    During surveys of the biodiversity of fish parasites in the Okavango River and Delta, Botswana, specimens of Lamproglena von Nordmann, 1832 were found associated with the African pike Hepsetus odoe (Bloch). This Lamproglena species distinctly differs from all known species based on morphological features, in particular the cephalothorax and the maxilliped; it is described as L. hepseti n. sp. and is specific to its host, the African pike.

  19. Real-space finite-difference calculation method of generalized Bloch wave functions and complex band structures with reduced computational cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Shigeru; Hirose, Kikuji; Blügel, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    Generalized Bloch wave functions of bulk structures, which are composed of not only propagating waves but also decaying and growing evanescent waves, are known to be essential for defining the open boundary conditions in the calculations of the electronic surface states and scattering wave functions of surface and junction structures. Electronic complex band structures being derived from the generalized Bloch wave functions are also essential for studying bound states of the surface and junction structures, which do not appear in conventional band structures. We present a novel calculation method to obtain the generalized Bloch wave functions of periodic bulk structures by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem, whose dimension is drastically reduced in comparison with the conventional generalized eigenvalue problem derived by Fujimoto and Hirose [Phys. Rev. B 67, 195315 (2003)]. The generalized eigenvalue problem derived in this work is even mathematically equivalent to the conventional one, and, thus, we reduce computational cost for solving the eigenvalue problem considerably without any approximation and losing the strictness of the formulations. To exhibit the performance of the present method, we demonstrate practical calculations of electronic complex band structures and electron transport properties of Al and Cu nanoscale systems. Moreover, employing atom-structured electrodes and jellium-approximated ones for both of the Al and Si monatomic chains, we investigate how much the electron transport properties are unphysically affected by the jellium parts.

  20. HÁBITOS ALIMENTARIOS DE LA MAYUPA (Sternopygus macrurus Bloch & Schneider, 1801 EN EL RÍO SINÚ, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Barrera-Chica

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar los hábitos alimentarios de la Mayupa (Sternopygus macrurus Bloch & Schneider, 1801 en el río Sinú, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. El contenido estomacal se evaluó con el coeficiente de vacuidad, grado de llenado, grado de digestión, frecuencia de ocurrencia, frecuencia numérica, gravimetría, indice de importancia relativa (IIR y la relación longitud intestinal (LI-longitud total (LT. Resultados. Solo pocos estómagos se encontraron vacíos (CV =6.9% y el 60.0% de las presas se encontraron frescas. Se identificaron cuatro ítems alimentarios: peces, crustáceos, material vegetal y otros. Peces fue el ítem más frecuente (76.9%, abundante (48.3%, con mayor composición por peso (81.9% y con mayor importancia relativa (63.2%. Conclusiones. Los resultados obtenidos permiten inferir que la Mayupa es un pez de hábitos alimentarios carnívoros, con preferencia por los peces.

  1. Higher Order Radial Derivatives of Bloch Type Functions%Bloch型函数的高阶径向导数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓文新

    2002-01-01

    讨论了复超球上全纯函数的高阶导数的增长速度,证明了f∈Bα的充分必要条件是supa∈B(1-|z|2)m+α-1|Rmf(z)|<∞,或supa∈B∫B(1-|z|2)(m+α-1)|Rmf(z)|pJRφα(z)dv(z)<∞,或(1-|z|2)p(m+α-1)|Rmf(z)|pdv(z)是Bergman-Carleson测度.%In this paper, higher order radial derivatives of Bloch type functions in the unit ball of Cn is discussed and it is proved that for f∈H(B), f∈Bα if and only if supα∈B(1-|z|2)m+α-1|Rmf(z)|<∞, if and only if supa∈B∫B(1-|z|2)P(m+α-1)|Rmf(z)|PJRφα(z)dv(z)<∞, if and only if (1-|z|2)P(m+α-1)|Rmf(z)|Pdv(z) is a Bergman-Carleson measure.

  2. A Bloch-McConnell simulator with pharmacokinetic modeling to explore accuracy and reproducibility in the measurement of hyperpolarized pyruvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher M.; Bankson, James A.

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of hyperpolarized (HP) agents has the potential to probe in-vivo metabolism with sensitivity and specificity that was not previously possible. Biological conversion of HP agents specifically for cancer has been shown to correlate to presence of disease, stage and response to therapy. For such metabolic biomarkers derived from MRI of hyperpolarized agents to be clinically impactful, they need to be validated and well characterized. However, imaging of HP substrates is distinct from conventional MRI, due to the non-renewable nature of transient HP magnetization. Moreover, due to current practical limitations in generation and evolution of hyperpolarized agents, it is not feasible to fully experimentally characterize measurement and processing strategies. In this work we use a custom Bloch-McConnell simulator with pharmacokinetic modeling to characterize the performance of specific magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequences over a range of biological conditions. We performed numerical simulations to evaluate the effect of sequence parameters over a range of chemical conversion rates. Each simulation was analyzed repeatedly with the addition of noise in order to determine the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements. Results indicate that under both closed and perfused conditions, acquisition parameters can affect measurements in a tissue dependent manner, suggesting that great care needs to be taken when designing studies involving hyperpolarized agents. More modeling studies will be needed to determine what effect sequence parameters have on more advanced acquisitions and processing methods.

  3. Stoibocephalum n. gen. (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) from the sharkray, Rhina ancylostoma Bloch & Schneider (Elasmobranchii: Rhinopristiformes), from northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cielocha, Joanna J; Jensen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of lecanicephalidean cestode, Stoibocephalum arafurense n. gen., n. sp., is described from the sharkray, Rhina ancylostoma Bloch & Schneider, off northern Australia. Stoibocephalum arafurense n. gen., n. sp. is apolytic, and possesses a large, muscular, retractable apical organ, 3 pairs of excretory vessels, and testes in several columns and layers. The presence of 3 pairs of excretory vessels distinguishes this new genus from all other valid lecanicephalidean genera, except Hexacanalis Perrenoud, 1931, from which it can be distinguished based on ovary shape and egg morphology. Stoibocephalum n. gen. most closely resembles Tylocephalum Linton, 1890 but differs from that genus in its ability to completely retract its apical organ into the scolex proper. Scolex microthrix pattern and histological sections of scoleces attached in situ suggest S. arafurense n. gen., n. sp. to attach to the host's intestinal mucosa with apical organ and scolex proper surfaces, rather than just the apical organ surface. This is the third lecanicephalidean species described from the sharkray.

  4. Life strategies of Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) in the Tagus estuary: Comparison among different morphotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Tadeu José; Silva, Gilda; Costa, Maria José; Costa, José Lino

    2011-07-01

    The Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801), is a subtropical sound-producing marine teleost that inhabits estuaries and other brackish water ecosystems in its northern distribution area. The relative isolation of populations within estuaries may cause important modifications in the bio-ecology of this species. The males of this species present two morphotypes which are more accurately distinguishable during the reproductive season. In the Tagus estuary population, the two types of reproductive males were present: type I, the "characteristic" morphotype, and type II, the alternative morphotype. The opportunistic males had more developed testis while type I males had more developed accessory glands. Type I males presented more developed swimbladders and larger body size and live longer than type II males. On the contrary, type II males grew faster and matured earlier. The feeding habits of the two male morphotypes were similar during the reproductive season but differences were found between reproductive specimens and non-reproductive specimens. The diet of reproductive specimens was mainly composed of benthic prey in contrast to predominance of nectobenthic prey in the diet of non-reproductive specimens. The females of H. didactylus generally had an intermediate pattern between the two male morphotypes. The percentage of type II males tended to be higher in denser areas of the estuary. In comparison with populations from different size ecosystems, smaller ecosystems revealed important modifications on the bio-ecology of the species due to the increased competition for nesting sites and mating partners, favouring alternative male tactics.

  5. Time dependent Bloch mode transmittance in self-assembled random photonic crystal for photonic time delay switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingi, Jayachandra; Nair, Radhika V.; Vijayan, C.

    2017-02-01

    Light propagation and localization in a random structure with a periodic background is an upcoming paradigm for novel photonic applications. This paper demonstrates the phenomenon of time dependent transmittance of evanescent Bloch modes (EBM) in ZnS random photonic crystal (RPC) which forms the basis for photonic delay switching. The RPC is fabricated by colloidal self-assembly with ZnS nanospheres of size 215 nm. An anomalous reciprocity and time dependent transmission at EBM (mid band gap wavelength) are observed in coherent back scattering and transmission studies respectively. These are explained on the basis of restricted propagation of EBMs through random channels in the periodic background and enhanced field storage inside RPC. The channelized propagation of EBMs is evident from decreasing time delay of transmittance at reduced thicknesses. The proportionality between transmission time delay and incident power confirms photon (field) storage within the RPC. The results indicate that structures with systematically engineered EBM channels can work as wavelength selective delay switch and further provide a short time photon storage system under non-absorbing conditions.

  6. Infection and pathology in Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), caused by exposure to Streptococcus agalactiae via different routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamare-Deboutteville, J; Bowater, R; Condon, K; Reynolds, A; Fisk, A; Aviles, F; Barnes, A C

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, 96 wild Queensland groupers, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), have been found dead in NE Australia. In some cases, Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) was isolated. At present, a GBS isolate from a wild grouper case was employed in experimental challenge trials in hatchery-reared Queensland grouper by different routes of exposure. Injection resulted in rapid development of clinical signs including bilateral exophthalmia, hyperaemic skin or fins and abnormal swimming. Death occurred in, and GBS was re-isolated from, 98% fish injected and was detected by PCR in brain, head kidney and spleen from all fish, regardless of challenge dose. Challenge by immersion resulted in lower morbidity with a clear dose response. Whilst infection was established via oral challenge by admixture with feed, no mortality occurred. Histology showed pathology consistent with GBS infection in organs examined from all injected fish, from fish challenged with medium and high doses by immersion, and from high-dose oral challenge. These experimental challenges demonstrated that GBS isolated from wild Queensland grouper reproduced disease in experimentally challenged fish and resulted in pathology that was consistent with that seen in wild Queensland grouper infected with S. agalactiae.

  7. Adaptation of the theory of superconductivity to the behavior of oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teller, E.

    1989-07-01

    An adaptation of the conventional theory to high-temperature superconductors is proposed. Excitation of electrons from below the Fermi surface to above the Fermi surface (according to Bardeen, Copper and Schrieffer) is replaced by excitation from a filled energy band into an empty one. The energy bands are constructed from two-dimensional Bloch functions in neighboring layers of the oxide lattices. Strong coupling with lattice displacements is due to the removal of the topmost electrons from the O/sup 2/minus// ions in the perovskite planes. The main methods of the BCS theory are retained. The formation and observability of a super-lattice is discussed.

  8. Pulsed high harmonic generation of light due to pumped Bloch oscillations in noninteracting metals

    CERN Document Server

    Freericks, J K; Kemper, A F; Devereaux, T P; 10.1088/0031-8949/2012/T151/014062

    2012-01-01

    We derive a simple theory for high-order harmonic generation due to pumping a noninteracting metal with a large amplitude oscillating electric field. The model assumes that the radiated light field arises from the acceleration of electrons due to the time-varying current generated by the pump, and also assumes that the system has a constant density of photoexcited carriers, hence it ignores the dipole excitation between bands (which would create carriers in semiconductors). We examine the circumstances under which odd harmonic frequencies would be expected to dominate the spectrum of radiated light, and we also apply the model to real materials like ZnO, for which high-order harmonic generation has already been demonstrated in experiments.

  9. Theory of electron spin echoes in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Asadullina, N Y; Asadullin, Y Y

    2002-01-01

    We propose modified Bloch equations (MBEs) with specific power-dependent relaxation and dispersion parameters characteristic for two-pulse excitation and when the magnetic dipole-dipole interactions in the electron spin system control the dephasing. We discriminate between the 'active' (excited by both pulses) and 'passive' (excited by the second pulse only) spins: it is shown that the 'active' spins participate in a new effect, an active spin frequency modulation effect giving rise to the power-dependent dispersion and multiple electron spin echoes (ESEs); the 'passive' spins contribute to the power-dependent relaxation. The MBEs are solved and a general expression for the two-pulse ESEs is obtained. Detailed numerical analysis of this expression gives results in good quantitative agreement with the recent experiments on the two-pulse ESEs at conventional low applied fields. The developed theory is applied also to high field ESEs, which are promising for future investigations. On the basis of published resul...

  10. Wavepacket Self-imaging and Giant Recombinations via Stable Bloch-Zener Oscillations in Photonic Lattices with Local ${\\cal PT}$-Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, N; Ellis, F M; Kottos, T

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of {\\it local} $\\cal{PT}$-symmetric photonic lattices with transverse index gradient $\\omega$, where the emergence of {\\it stable} Bloch-Zener oscillations are controlled by the degree of non-Hermiticity $\\gamma$ of the lattice. In the exact $\\cal{PT}$-symmetric phase we identify a condition between $\\omega$ and $\\gamma$ for which a wavepacket self -imaging together with a cascade of splittings and giant recombinations occurs at various propagation distances. The giant wavepacket recombination is further enhanced by introducing local impurities.

  11. 方波电场驱动下的Rabi振荡%Rabi Oscillations Between Bloch Bands in a Square-wave Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫建平; 邵建立; 段素青; 赵宪庚

    2006-01-01

    We investigate double Bloch bands driven by a square-wave electric field with a tight-binding model. Using Fourier analysis, we analytically obtain resonance conditions of Rabi oscillation and Rabi frequency in the weak-coupling limit. The results are verified by numerical evolution of electrons.%研究了方波电场驱动下的双Bloch带的紧束缚模型.借助Fourier分析,得到了在弱耦合极限下Rabi振荡及Rabi频率的解析解;这些结果均由电子的数值演化所证实.

  12. BIOLOGIA REPRODUTIVA DO PEIXE MUÇUM, Synbranchus marmoratus BLOCH, 1975 NO AÇUDE MARECHAL DUTRA, RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRASIL.

    OpenAIRE

    Nirlei Hirachy Costa Barros; Wallace Silva Nascimento; Andréa Soares Araújo; Arrilton Araujo Souza; Sathyabama Chellappa

    2013-01-01

    A biologia reprodutiva do peixe hermafrodita mussum, Synbranchus marmoratus (Bloch, 1795) (Osteichthyes: Synbranchidae) foi investigada no açude Marechal Dutra, Acari, Rio Grande do Norte, utilizando os exemplares capturados mensalmente no período de julho de 2010 á janeiro de 2011. Os peixes capturados foram numerados, pesados, medidos, dissecados as e gônadas foram retiradas, pesadas e identificadas quanto ao sexo. A relação peso-comprimento foi determinada para sexos agrupados. O índice go...

  13. La conciencia de la libertad (La filosofía moral como filosofía de la historia en Ernst Bloch)

    OpenAIRE

    Gimbernat, José Antonio

    1991-01-01

    Not available.

    A partir del concepto hegeliano de «progreso en la conciencia de la libertad », se puede hacer una lectura de la filosofía moral de Bloch como filosofía de la historia. Ello conduce a una reino reinterpretación libre y materialista de Hegel y a una recuperación de la moral en el marxismo. En diálogo con Kant se hace posible descubrir el potencial utópico del énfasis subjetivo de la moral. El objetivo del reino de la libertad marxiano es la clave de una histor...

  14. Influence of in-plane field on vertical Bloch line in the walls of the second kind of dumbbell domains at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.P. [College of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Liu, S.P. [College of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Guo, G.X. [College of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Zhen, C.M. [College of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Tang, G.D. [College of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Sun, H.Y. [College of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Nie, X.F. [College of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China)]. E-mail: niexf@mail.hebtu.edu.cn

    2004-12-01

    The stability of vertical Bloch lines (VBLs) in the second kind of dumbbell domain (IIDs) walls in liquid phase epitaxy garnet bubble films subjected to an in-plane field at various temperatures is studied experimentally. It is found that there exists a critical in-plane field range depending on temperature, in which vertical Bloch lines (VBLs) in the second kind of IIDs walls are unstable, i.e., [Hip(1)(T),Hip(2)(T)]. Here, Hip(1)(T) is the initial critical in-plane field at which VBLs in the walls of IIDs annihilate; while Hip(2)(T) is the lowest in-plane field at which all VBLs in the walls of IIDs have annihilated completely. Also, the critical in-plane field range [Hip(1)(T),Hip(2)(T)],Hip(1)(T) and Hip(2)(T) all decrease with the temperature increasing. Hip(1)(T) and Hip(2)(T) reach zero at T0' and T0, respectively.

  15. Quantitative test of general theories of the intrinsic laser linewidth

    CERN Document Server

    Cerjan, Alexander; Chong, Yidong; Johnson, Steven G; Stone, A Douglas

    2015-01-01

    We perform a first-principles calculation of the quantum-limited laser linewidth, testing the predictions of recently developed theories of the laser linewidth based on fluctuations about the known steady-state laser solutions against traditional forms of the Schawlow-Townes linewidth. The numerical study is based on finite-difference time-domain simulations of the semiclassical Maxwell-Bloch lasing equations, augmented with Langevin force terms, and thus includes the effects of dispersion, losses due to the open boundary of the laser cavity, and non-linear coupling between the amplitude and phase fluctuations ($\\alpha$ factor). We find quantitative agreement between the numerical results and the predictions of the noisy steady-state ab initio laser theory (N-SALT), both in the variation of the linewidth with output power, as well as the emergence of side-peaks due to relaxation oscillations.

  16. Hybrid Bloch Brane

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Losano, L

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios.

  17. Waltz's Theory of Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism and refle......Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism...... and reflectivism. Yet, ironically, there has been little attention to Waltz's very explicit and original arguments about the nature of theory. This article explores and explicates Waltz's theory of theory. Central attention is paid to his definition of theory as ‘a picture, mentally formed' and to the radical anti......-empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of theory...

  18. Simulation of high energy photoelectron diffraction using many-beam dynamical Kikuchi-band theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Aimo; Schröter, Bernd; Richter, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    We use the many-beam dynamical theory of electron diffraction for the calculation of x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) patterns of the substrate emission. The reciprocity principle is used to apply a Bloch wave model for the diffraction of an incoming plane wave by a three-dimensional crystal. In this way, many-beam dynamical simulations of XPD in the context of Kikuchi-band theory can be carried out. This extends the results of the two-beam theory used so far and leads to quantitative descriptions of XPD patterns in the picture of photoelectrons reflected by lattice planes. The effects of forward scattering directions, substrate polarity, circular structures due to onedimensional diffraction, and emitter specific extinction of Kikuchi lines can be reproduced by Kikuchi-band theory. The results are compared with single scattering cluster calculations. In this way, the equivalence of the cluster approach and the Kikuchi-band picture can be demonstrated completely in both directions

  19. An effective medium theory for predicting the existence of surface states

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Meng; Fang, Anan; Chan, C T

    2015-01-01

    We build an effective medium theory for two-dimensional photonic crystals comprising a rectangular lattice of dielectric cylinders with the incident electric field polarized along the axis of the cylinders. In particular, we discuss the feasibility of constructing an effective medium theory for the case where the Bloch wave vector is far away from the center of Brillouin zone, where the optical response of the photonic crystal is necessarily anisotropic and hence the effective medium description becomes inevitability angle dependent. We employ the scattering theory and treat the two-dimensional system as a stack of one-dimensional arrays. We consider only the zero-order interlayer diffraction and all the higher order diffraction terms of interlayer scattering are ignored. This approximation works well when the higher order diffraction terms are all evanescent waves and the interlayer distance is far enough for them to decay out. Scattering theory enables the calculation of transmission and reflection coeffici...

  20. Approach to visualization of and optical sensing by Bloch surface waves in noble or base metal-based plasmonic photonic crystal slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshev, A V; Merzlikin, A M

    2014-05-10

    The Bloch surface wave resonance (SWR) was visualized with the aid of plasmon absorption in a dielectric/metal/dielectric sandwich terminating a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC). An SWR peak in calculated spectra of such a plasmonic photonic crystal (PPhC) slab comprising a noble or base metal layer was demonstrated to be sensitive to a negligible variation of refractive index of a medium adjoining to the slab. The considered structure of PPhC slabs can be of practical importance because the metal layer is protected by a capping dielectric layer from contact with analytes and, consequently, from deterioration. We found that, in case of PPhC slabs, gold (the key element of the surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors) can be replaced by other metals. The PPhC-based sensors can be low-cost, reusable, and robust sensors having a sensitivity surpassing that of the known optical sensors.

  1. Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M.; Hughes, S.; Schulz, S.; Beggs, D. M.; White, T. P.; O'Faolain, L.; Krauss, T. F.

    2009-11-01

    Through a combined theoretical and experimental study of disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in slow-light photonic crystal slab waveguides, we show the importance of Bloch mode reshaping and multiple scattering. We describe a convenient and fully three-dimensional theoretical treatment of disorder-induced extrinsic scattering, including the calculation of backscatter and out-of-plane losses per unit cell, and the extrapolation of the unit-cell loss to the loss for an entire disordered waveguide. The theoretical predictions, which are also compared with recent measurements on dispersion engineered silicon waveguides, demonstrate the failure of the Beer-Lambert law due to multiple scattering. We also explain why the previously assumed group velocity scalings of disorder-induced loss break down in general.

  2. La conciencia de la libertad (La filosofía moral como filosofía de la historia en Ernst Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimbernat, José Antonio

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    A partir del concepto hegeliano de «progreso en la conciencia de la libertad », se puede hacer una lectura de la filosofía moral de Bloch como filosofía de la historia. Ello conduce a una reino reinterpretación libre y materialista de Hegel y a una recuperación de la moral en el marxismo. En diálogo con Kant se hace posible descubrir el potencial utópico del énfasis subjetivo de la moral. El objetivo del reino de la libertad marxiano es la clave de una historización política de la libertad, heredada en parte de la tradición liberal, lo que exige a su vez una nueva definición del concepto de progreso.

  3. Non-Bloch nature of alloy states in a conventional semiconductor alloy - GaxIn1-xP as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Zhang, Yong; Mascarenhas, Angelo; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2008-07-11

    Contrary to the conventional wisdom, electronic states in a 'well behaved' semiconductor alloy such as Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}P may drastically deviate from a Bloch state, which can be true even for band edge states if they are derived from degenerate critical points. For Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}P in the entire composition range, k-space spectral analyses are performed for the important critical points, revealing the significance of the (near) resonant inter-and intra-valley scatterings of the fluctuation potential in the alloy. The non-trivial implications of such scatterings on the transport and strain effect are discussed.

  4. Anachronism in the writing of History: ¿Error or Possibility? Some reflections about the concept of time in Carlo Ginzburg, Marc Bloch and Georges Didi-Huberman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Chaves Maldonado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In his unfinished and posthumously published book Apologie pour l’histoire, Marc Bloch bestowed on future historians a seminal legacy of critical reflections on the concept of time as the object of historical analysis. During the last decades, the concept of time in History has experienced a renewed interest by professional historians, in particular in reference to the category of anachronism. The Italian historian Carlo Ginzburg and the French art historian Georges Didi-Huberman are among those engaged in this debate. This article offers a reading of two works by these historians with the purpose of underlying the fundamental influence that Marc Bloch’s ideas on time had in Ginzburg and Didi-Hubermans’ critical interventions.

  5. Architecture and Bloch-Maxwell modelling of multi-mJ 100 fs fully-coherent soft X-ray laser based on X-ray CPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitoun, Ph.; Oliva, E.; Fajardo, M.; Cheriaux, G.; Le, T. T. T.; Li, L.; Pitman, M.; Ros, D.; Sebban, S.; Velarde, P. [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee, ENSTA-PariesTech, CNRS, Ecole Poluytehcnique-PariesTech, chemin d ela huniere, Palaiseau (France); Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee, ENSTA-PariesTech, CNRS, Ecole Poluytehcnique-PariesTech, chemin d ela huniere, Palaiseau (France); GoLP, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee, ENSTA-PariesTech, CNRS, Ecole Poluytehcnique-PariesTech, chemin d ela huniere, Palaiseau (France); CLUPS, EA4127, Bat 106, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee, ENSTA-PariesTech, CNRS, Ecole Poluytehcnique-PariesTech, chemin d ela huniere, Palaiseau (France); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-07-09

    By seeding amplifying plasmas pumped with the so-called Transient collisionnal excitation scheme, the amplified pulse seems to be limited to an energy of several 10's of {mu}J. Aiming to attain several mJ, we study the seeding of plasma pumped by long laser pulse. Thanks to our time-dependent Maxwell-Bloch code, we demonstrate that direct seeding with femtosecond pulse is inefficient. We also study the amplification of pulse train with the drawback of re-synchronizing the pulses. We proposed and studied the amplification of high harmonic seed stretched by a grating pair, amplified finally compressed. We consider off-axis diffraction on the gratings for maximizing their efficiency. Considering the phase deformation induced by the amplification and the spectral narrowing the final pulse is 230 fs in duration and 5 mJ.

  6. Rapid regulatory effect of tri-iodothyronine (T3) on antioxidant enzyme activities in a fish Anabas testudineus (Bloch): short-term in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, P; Oommen, O V

    2006-04-01

    The short-term action of thyroid hormone tri-iodothyronine (T3) was studied in vivo and in vitro on antioxidant enzyme activities in a teleost Anabas testudineus (Bloch). T3 injection in vivo (200 ng) in normal fish decreased the lipid peroxidation products and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities after 30 min. T3 in vitro (10(-6) M) increased the antioxidant activities of catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), GPx and glutathione level after 15/30 min, except SOD, substantiating in vivo effects in normal fish. The results suggest a rapid regulatory effect of thyroid hormone in vivo and in vitro, in the removal of reactive oxygen species in A testudineus.

  7. A new species of Henneguya, a gill parasite of a freshwater fish Anabas testudineus (Bloch) affected with ulcerative disease syndrome from Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanand, Th; Meitei, N Mohilal; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Mitra, Amlan K

    2008-01-01

    A new species of Henneguya parasitizing tissues affected by the ulcerative disease syndrome of a freshwater fish Anabas testudineus (Bloch) from Khiodum and Pumlen lakes of Manipur state is described. Of the fishes examined 75% were found to be infested with this myxozoan parasite. Mature spores of the new species are elongated, biconvex, and oval with bluntly rounded anterior end and gradually tapering posterior end with a caudal prolongation, measuring 12.6-15.4 (14.0+/- 1.1) microm in length. Length of the caudal prolongation is 11.2-12.6 (11.7+/- 0.6) microm. The width of the spores is 5.6-7.0 (6.3+/- 0.5) microm. The length of the polar capsules is 5.6-6.3 (5.5+/- 0.3) microm.

  8. Histopathological alterations of the gills, liver and kidneys in Anabas Testudineus (Bloch) fish living in an unused lignite mine, Li District, Lamphun Povince, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenphet, S.; Thaworn, W.; Saenphet, K. [Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand). Faculty of Science

    2009-09-15

    The acidity of mine water generally makes it toxic to most organisms. The gills, kidneys and livers of Anabas testudineus Bloch fish inhabiting the acidic water (pH 2-4) of an unused lignite mine in Li District, Lamphun Province, Thailand were examined and compared to those of farmed fish. Tissue abnormalities were found in all investigated organs. Deterioration and telangiectasia of gill filaments were found. Liver tissue revealed hemorrhages, blood congestion and necrotic cells with mononuclear cell infiltration. In addition, hypertrophy of the epithelial cells of the renal tubules with reduced lumens, aneurisms of the renal tubules, and contractions of the glomeruli in the Bowman's capsule were observed. These histopathological findings suggest the acidic water in this habitat causes severe damage to the internal organs of fish and consequently alter their physiological status. Since the water in this pond is utilized by local people, these findings highlight the need for adequate water treatment.

  9. Z Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nekrasov, Nikita

    2004-01-01

    We present the evidence for the existence of the topological string analogue of M-theory, which we call Z-theory. The corners of Z-theory moduli space correspond to the Donaldson-Thomas theory, Kodaira-Spencer theory, Gromov-Witten theory, and Donaldson-Witten theory. We discuss the relations of Z-theory with Hitchin's gravities in six and seven dimensions, and make our own proposal, involving spinor generalization of Chern-Simons theory of three-forms. Based on the talk at Strings'04 in Paris.

  10. Gastroprotective Effect of Freeze Dried Stripped Snakehead Fish (Channa striata Bloch.) Aqueous Extract against Aspirin Induced Ulcerogenesis in Pylorus Ligated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Khan, Mohammed Safwan; Mat Jais, Abdul Manan; Hussain, Javeed; Siddiqua, Faiza; Gopala Reddy, A; Shivakumar, P; Madhuri, D

    2014-01-01

    Channa striata (Bloch.) is a fresh water fish belonging to the family Channidae. The stripped snakehead fish possesses wide range of medicinal properties. In view of traditional use of C. striata for wound healing, the present study was undertaken to investigate the beneficial effects of orally administered freeze dried aqueous extract of Channa striata (AECS) in experimentally induced gastric ulcers in Wistar rats. Aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pyloric ligation model was used for the assessment of antiulcer activity and Ranitidine (50 mg/kg) was employed as the standard drug. The various gastric parameters like volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidities, ulcer index, and levels of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, and lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde were determined. AECS at concentrations of 40% and 50% w/v significantly decreased the volume of gastric juice and increased the levels of catalase while considerable decrease in free and total acidities and increase in superoxide dismutase were observed with the treatment of standard drug and AECS (50% w/v). All the test doses of AECS markedly decreased ulcer index and malondialdehyde compared to the standard drug whereas AECS 30% w/v did not alter volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidities, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. From these findings, it can be concluded that AECS is devoid of acid neutralizing effects at lower doses and possesses antisecretory and antiulcer activities and this could be related to its antioxidant mechanism.

  11. Cloning, expression of Vibrio alginolyticus outer membrane protein-OmpU gene and its potential application as vaccine in crimson snapper, Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, S H; Lu, Y S; Wu, Z H; Jian, J C

    2013-08-01

    The outer membrane proteins of the marine aquatic animal pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus, play an important role in the virulence of the bacterium and are potential candidates for vaccine development. In this study, the gene encoding an outer membrane protein-OmpU was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the purified recombinant OmpU, and the reaction of the antibody was confirmed by Western blotting using the isolated OmpU and the recombinant OmpU of V. alginolyticus. To analyze the immunogenicity of the recombinant OmpU, crimson snapper, Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch, were immunized by intraperitoneal injection, and antibody response was assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results demonstrated that the recombinant OmpU produced an observable antibody response in all sera of the vaccinated fish. The vaccinated fish were challenged by virulent V. alginolyticus and observed to have high resistance to infection. These results indicate that the recombinant OmpU is an effective vaccine candidate against V. alginolyticus in L. erythropterus.

  12. Detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in peripheral blood cells of silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), suggests its potential in viral diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Xu, Lj; Lu, Lq

    2016-02-01

    Epidemics caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in domestic cyprinid species have been reported in both European and Asian countries. Although the mechanisms remain unknown, acute CyHV-2 infections generally result in high mortality, and the surviving carps become chronic carriers displaying no external clinical signs. In this study, in situ hybridization analysis showed that CyHV-2 tended to infect peripheral blood cells during either acute or chronic infections in silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Laboratory challenge experiments coupled with real-time PCR quantification assays further indicated that steady-state levels of the viral genomic copy number in fish serum exhibited a typical 'one-step' growth curve post-viral challenge. Transcriptional expression of open reading frames (ORF) 121, which was selected due to its highest transcriptional levels in almost all tested tissues, was monitored to represent the replication kinetics of CyHV-2 in peripheral blood cells. Similar kinetic curve of active viral gene transcription in blood cells was obtained as that of serum viral load, indicating that CyHV-2 replicated in peripheral blood cells as well as in other well-characterized tissues. This study should pave the way for designing non-invasive and cost-effective serum diagnostic methods for quick detection of CyHV-2 infection.

  13. Determination of shelf life of Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio, Bloch 1782 marinades in different sauces stored at 4 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Taşkaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, quality properties and shelf life for gibel carp (Carassius gibelio, Bloch 1782 marinades during stored at 4±1 °C in different sauces was investigated.  The marinating process was carried out in 2.5% vinegar, 10% salt and water for 72h at 4±1 °C. After the marination process, fish were removed from the solutions, transferred in to glass jar contain with different sauces (Group A: sunflower oil and tomato paste, Group B: sunflower oil with garlic, red pepper, thyme, basil and mint and the control group: sun flower oil.  Sensory, chemical, colour and microbiological analyses were performed during the storage. According the chemical analysis results TVB-N and TBA values of all groups were increased during the storage, but during the stored period did not exceed acceptible limit values. The highest TVB-N and TBA values were group A. (P<0,05. At the end of 135 days of storage,  sensory analysis results pointed out that the marinades of group B did not exceed  acceptible limit values (P<0,05. The overall microbial load of the fresh samples decreased through out the storage period (P<0,05. By sensory data, shelf life of sauced gibel carp marinades were 120 days (control, 105 days (group A and 135 days (group B.

  14. Solitons and rogue waves for a higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger-Maxwell-Bloch system in an erbium-doped fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chuan-Qi; Gao, Yi-Tian; Yu, Xin [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Ministry-of-Education Key Lab. of Fluid Mechanics and National Lab. for Computational Fluid Dynamics; Xue, Long [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Ministry-of-Education Key Lab. of Fluid Mechanics and National Lab. for Computational Fluid Dynamics; Aviation Univ. of Air Force, Liaoning (China). Flight Training Base

    2015-07-01

    Under investigation in this article is a higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger-Maxwell-Bloch (HNLS-MB) system for the optical pulse propagation in an erbium-doped fiber. Lax pair, Darboux transformation (DT), and generalised DT for the HNLS-MB system are constructed. Soliton solutions and rogue wave solutions are derived based on the DT and generalised DT, respectively. Properties of the solitons and rogue waves are graphically presented. The third-order dispersion parameter, fourth-order dispersion parameter, and frequency detuning all influence the characteristic lines and velocities of the solitons. The frequency detuning also affects the amplitudes of solitons. The separating function has no effect on the properties of the first-order rogue waves, except for the locations where the first-order rogue waves appear. The third-order dispersion parameter affects the propagation directions and shapes of the rogue waves. The frequency detuning influences the rogue-wave types of the module for the measure of polarization of resonant medium and the extant population inversion. The fourth-order dispersion parameter impacts the rogue-wave interaction range and also has an effect on the rogue-wave type of the extant population inversion. The value of separating function affects the spatial-temporal separation of constituting elementary rogue waves for the second-order and third-order rogue waves. The second-order and third-order rogue waves can exhibit the triangular and pentagon patterns under different choices of separating functions.

  15. Dynamics of Bloch oscillating transistor near bifurcation threshold and its applicability for common mode rejection capability of a differential pair BOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Jayanta; Puska, Antti; Hassel, Juha; Hakonen, Pertti

    2014-03-01

    Bloch oscillating transistor (BOT) is mesoscopic current amplier based on a combination of a Josephson junction or a squid connected with a large resistor and a NIS junction. We have studied the dynamics of BOT near the bifurcation threshold. This is an important feature for an amplifier as this can be utilized to improve its performance characteristics. We have measured the I - V characteristics of the BOT with different base currents (IB) over a wide range of Josephson coupling energies (EJ) . The current gain (β) is found to be increasing with increasing IB and eventually diverging. We have found a record large β = 50 in our experiment. In order to determine the common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of a differential pair BOT we have used two BOTs fabricated on the same chip. The common mode port is connected to the bases of the two BOTs and fed with varying voltages; simultaneously emitter currents of the two BOTs are recorded. In our experiment we found a 20dB of CMRR.

  16. Detection of soluble ERBB2 in breast cancer cell lysates using a combined label-free/fluorescence platform based on Bloch surface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinibaldi, Alberto; Sampaoli, Camilla; Danz, Norbert; Munzert, Peter; Sibilio, Leonardo; Sonntag, Frank; Occhicone, Agostino; Falvo, Elisabetta; Tremante, Elisa; Giacomini, Patrizio; Michelotti, Francesco

    2017-06-15

    We report on the use of one-dimensional photonic crystals to detect clinically relevant concentrations of ERBB2/neu/Her2 in cell lysates. ERBB2 is a pivotal breast cancer biomarker and targetable oncogenic driver associated with aggressive breast cancer subtypes. To quantitate soluble ERBB2, we developed an optical platform that combines label-free and fluorescence detection modes. Such platform makes use of a sandwich assay in which the one-dimensional photonic crystals sustaining Bloch surface waves are tailored with a monoclonal antibody for highly specific biological recognition (BSW biochip). In a second step, a second antibody to ERBB2 quantitatively detects the bound analyte. The strategy of the present approach takes advantage of the combination of label-free and fluorescence techniques, making bio-recognition more robust and sensitive. In the fluorescence operation mode, the platform can attain the limit of detection 0.3ng/mL (1.5pM) for ERBB2 in cell lysates. Such resolution meets the international guidelines and recommendations (15ng/mL) for diagnostic ERBB2 assays that in the future may help to more precisely assign therapies counteracting cancer cell proliferation and metastatic spread.

  17. Regularized estimation of magnitude and phase of multi-coil b1 field via Bloch-Siegert B1 mapping and coil combination optimizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Fessler, Jeffrey A; Wright, Steven M; Noll, Douglas C

    2014-10-01

    Parallel excitation requires fast and accurate B1 map estimation. Bloch-Siegert (BS) B1 mapping is very fast and accurate over a large dynamic range. When applied to multi-coil systems, however, this phase-based method may produce low signal-to-noise ratio estimates in low magnitude regions due to localized excitation patterns of parallel excitation systems. Also, the imaging time increases with the number of coils. In this work, we first propose to modify the standard BS B1 mapping sequence so that it avoids the scans required by previous B1 phase estimation methods. A regularized method is then proposed to jointly estimate the magnitude and phase of multi-coil B1 maps from BS B1 mapping data, improving estimation quality by using the prior knowledge of the smoothness of B1 magnitude and phase. Lastly, we use Cramer-Rao lower bound analysis to optimize the coil combinations, to improve the quality of the raw data for B1 estimation. The proposed methods are demonstrated by simulations and phantom experiments.

  18. Theory of electron spin echoes in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadullina, N.Ya.; Asadullin, T.Ya.; Asadullin, Ya.Ya. [Kazan State Technical University, Department of General Physics, Karl Marx Street 10, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2002-11-04

    We propose modified Bloch equations (MBEs) with specific power-dependent relaxation and dispersion parameters characteristic for two-pulse excitation and when the magnetic dipole-dipole interactions in the electron spin system control the dephasing. We discriminate between the 'active' (excited by both pulses) and 'passive' (excited by the second pulse only) spins: it is shown that the 'active' spins participate in a new effect, an active spin frequency modulation effect giving rise to the power-dependent dispersion and multiple electron spin echoes (ESEs); the 'passive' spins contribute to the power-dependent relaxation. The MBEs are solved and a general expression for the two-pulse ESEs is obtained. Detailed numerical analysis of this expression gives results in good quantitative agreement with the recent experiments on the two-pulse ESEs at conventional low applied fields. The developed theory is applied also to high field ESEs, which are promising for future investigations. On the basis of published results it is deduced that the instantaneous diffusion mechanism is ineffective.

  19. Packaging Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Considers the recent flood of anthologies of literary criticism and theory as exemplifications of the confluence of pedagogical concerns, economics of publishing, and other historical factors. Looks specifically at how these anthologies present theory. Cites problems with their formatting theory and proposes alternative ways of organizing theory…

  20. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  1. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  2. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH

    2014-01-01

    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  3. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  4. Ring theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rowen, Louis H

    1991-01-01

    This is an abridged edition of the author's previous two-volume work, Ring Theory, which concentrates on essential material for a general ring theory course while ommitting much of the material intended for ring theory specialists. It has been praised by reviewers:**""As a textbook for graduate students, Ring Theory joins the best....The experts will find several attractive and pleasant features in Ring Theory. The most noteworthy is the inclusion, usually in supplements and appendices, of many useful constructions which are hard to locate outside of the original sources....The audience of non

  5. Respiration gating and Bloch fitting improve pH measurements with acidoCEST MRI in an ovarian orthotopic tumor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kyle M.; Randtke, Edward A.; Howison, Christine M.; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a MRI method that can measure extracellular pH in tumor tissues, known as acidoCEST MRI. This method relies on the detection of Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) of iopamidol, an FDA-approved CT contrast agent that has two CEST signals. A log10 ratio of the two CEST signals is linearly correlated with pH, but independent of agent concentration, endogenous T1 relaxation time, and B1 inhomogeneity. Therefore, detecting both CEST effects of iopamidol during in vivo studies can be used to accurately measure the extracellular pH in tumor tissues. Past in vivo studies using acidoCEST MRI have suffered from respiration artifacts in orthotopic and lung tumor models that have corrupted pH measurements. In addition, the non-linear fitting method used to analyze results is unreliable as it is subject to over-fitting especially with noisy CEST spectra. To improve the technique, we have recently developed a respiration gated CEST MRI pulse sequence that has greatly reduced motion artifacts, and we have included both a prescan and post scan to remove endogenous CEST effects. In addition, we fit the results by parameterizing the contrast of the exogenous agent with respect to pH via the Bloch equations modified for chemical exchange, which is less subject to over-fitting than the non-linear method. These advances in the acidoCEST MRI technique and analysis methods have made pH measurements more reliable, especially in areas of the body subject to respiratory motion.

  6. Bloch-Siemens syndrome:a case report and literature review%色素失禁症一例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦; 王丽华; 曲燕; 孟现广; 杨秀莉

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a two-month old girl. She had rashes and blisters on trunk and limbs at birth. Dermatological examination revealed reticulate pigmented spots scattered on trunk and extremities. Some dark red papules and blisters in different size were located on both interfemus and wrists. The bilsters had thick walls and the Nikolsky's sign was negative. Most of the lesions were distributed in a splash manner. His-topathologically, the hyperkeratesis, acanthosis and epidermal vesicles filled with eosinophils were found in epidermis, and a small number of lymphocytes and eosinophils infiltration in the superficial dermis capillary were reported. Based on the clinical and histological findings, the final diagnosis was neonatal Bloch-Sie-mens syndrome.%患儿,女,2个月。因躯干及四肢皮疹2个月就诊。皮肤科检查:躯干及四肢皮肤弥漫分布网状色素沉着斑。双股内侧、手腕部见暗红色大小不一丘疹、水疱,水疱壁厚,尼氏征阴性,部分水疱结痂。皮疹呈泼溅状分布。组织病理示:表皮角化过度,棘层增厚,表皮内见多房性水疱,疱液中可见大量嗜酸性粒细胞。真皮浅层毛细血管周围可见少量淋巴细胞及嗜酸性粒细胞浸润。诊断:新生儿色素失禁症。

  7. Composition proceeded by differential operator from Bloch space to weighted-type space%空间到加权型空间的复合微分前置算子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余建; 伍鹏程

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,the boundedness and compactness of the composite differential prior operator were studied,which was used to support the mapping,from Bloch space to the weighted space. And we obtained the necessary and sufficient conditions for the boundedness and compactness of this opera-tor.%从算子的性质出发,研究Bloch空间到加权型空间的复合微分前置算子的有界性和紧性,得到了算子有界性和紧性的充分必要条件。

  8. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, CC

    2012-01-01

    Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko

  9. Viability Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

  10. Field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Intended for graduate courses or for independent study, this book presents the basic theory of fields. The first part begins with a discussion of polynomials over a ring, the division algorithm, irreducibility, field extensions, and embeddings. The second part is devoted to Galois theory. The third part of the book treats the theory of binomials. The book concludes with a chapter on families of binomials - the Kummer theory. This new edition has been completely rewritten in order to improve the pedagogy and to make the text more accessible to graduate students.  The exercises have also been im

  11. Galois Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, David A

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ". . .will certainly fascinate anyone interested in abstract algebra: a remarkable book!"—Monatshefte fur Mathematik Galois theory is one of the most established topics in mathematics, with historical roots that led to the development of many central concepts in modern algebra, including groups and fields. Covering classic applications of the theory, such as solvability by radicals, geometric constructions, and finite fields, Galois Theory, Second Edition delves into novel topics like Abel’s theory of Abelian equations, casus irreducibili, and the Galo

  12. Game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  13. Elastoplasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hashiguchi, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    This book details the mathematics and continuum mechanics necessary as a foundation of elastoplasticity theory. It explains physical backgrounds with illustrations and provides descriptions of detailed derivation processes..

  14. Potential Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří

    1988-01-01

    Within the tradition of meetings devoted to potential theory, a conference on potential theory took place in Prague on 19-24, July 1987. The Conference was organized by the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, with the collaboration of the Institute of Mathematics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the Department of Mathematics, Czech University of Technology, the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists, the Czechoslovak Scientific and Technical Society, and supported by IMU. During the Conference, 69 scientific communications from different branches of potential theory were presented; the majority of them are in­ cluded in the present volume. (Papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference, its program as well as a collection of problems from potential theory will appear in a special volume of the Lecture Notes Series published by Springer-Verlag). Topics of these communications truly reflect the vast scope of contemporary potential theory. Some contributions deal...

  15. Uncertainty theory

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Baoding

    2015-01-01

    When no samples are available to estimate a probability distribution, we have to invite some domain experts to evaluate the belief degree that each event will happen. Perhaps some people think that the belief degree should be modeled by subjective probability or fuzzy set theory. However, it is usually inappropriate because both of them may lead to counterintuitive results in this case. In order to rationally deal with belief degrees, uncertainty theory was founded in 2007 and subsequently studied by many researchers. Nowadays, uncertainty theory has become a branch of axiomatic mathematics for modeling belief degrees. This is an introductory textbook on uncertainty theory, uncertain programming, uncertain statistics, uncertain risk analysis, uncertain reliability analysis, uncertain set, uncertain logic, uncertain inference, uncertain process, uncertain calculus, and uncertain differential equation. This textbook also shows applications of uncertainty theory to scheduling, logistics, networks, data mining, c...

  16. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...

  17. Conspiracy Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Ole; Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The paper is a contribution to current debates about conspiracy theories within philosophy and cultural studies. Wittgenstein’s understanding of language is invoked to analyse the epistemological effects of designating particular questions and explanations as a ‘conspiracy theory......’. It is demonstrated how such a designation relegates these questions and explanations beyond the realm of meaningful discourse. In addition, Agamben’s concept of sovereignty is applied to explore the political effects of using the concept of conspiracy theory. The exceptional epistemological status assigned...... to alleged conspiracy theories within our prevalent paradigms of knowledge and truth is compared to the exceptional legal status assigned to individuals accused of terrorism under the War on Terror. The paper concludes by discussing the relation between conspiracy theory and ‘the paranoid style...

  18. Challenging lanthanide relaxation theory: erbium and thulium complexes that show NMR relaxation rates faster than dysprosium and terbium analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Alexander M; Harvey, Peter; Finney, Katie-Louise N A; Fox, Mark A; Kenwright, Alan M; Rogers, Nicola J; Senanayake, P Kanthi; Parker, David

    2015-07-07

    Measurements of the proton NMR paramagnetic relaxation rates for several series of isostructural lanthanide(III) complexes have been performed in aqueous solution over the field range 1.0 to 16.5 Tesla. The field dependence has been modeled using Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory, allowing values for the electronic relaxation time, Tle and the magnetic susceptibility, μeff, to be estimated. Anomalous relaxation rate profiles were obtained, notably for erbium and thulium complexes of low symmetry 8-coordinate aza-phosphinate complexes. Such behaviour challenges accepted theory and can be interpreted in terms of changes in Tle values that are a function of the transient ligand field induced by solvent collision and vary considerably between Ln(3+) ions, along with magnetic susceptibilities that deviate significantly from free-ion values.

  19. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  20. Psychodynamic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Holtz Deal

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychodynamic theory, a theory of personality originated by Sigmund Freud, has a long and complex history within social work and continues to be utilized by social workers. This article traces the theory’s development and explains key concepts with an emphasis on its current relational focus within object relations theory and self-psychology. Empirical support for theoretical concepts and the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapies is reviewed and critiqued. Future directions are discussed, including addressing cultural considerations, increasing research, and emphasizing a relational paradigm

  1. Bayesian Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardo, Jose M

    2000-01-01

    This highly acclaimed text, now available in paperback, provides a thorough account of key concepts and theoretical results, with particular emphasis on viewing statistical inference as a special case of decision theory. Information-theoretic concepts play a central role in the development of the theory, which provides, in particular, a detailed discussion of the problem of specification of so-called prior ignorance . The work is written from the authors s committed Bayesian perspective, but an overview of non-Bayesian theories is also provided, and each chapter contains a wide-ranging critica

  2. Mapping Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley

    This paper came about within the context of a 13-month research project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, at the Center for Public Space Research at the Royal Academy of the Arts School of Architecture in Copenhagen, Denmark. This project has been funded by RealDania. The goals of the research...... project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, which forms the framework for this working paper, are: * To provide a basis from which to discuss the concept of public space in a contemporary architectural and urban context - specifically relating to theory and method * To broaden the discussion of the concept...

  3. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  4. Theory of interaction-induced renormalization of Drude weight and plasmon frequency in chiral multilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Tse, Wang-Kong

    2017-02-01

    We develop a theory for the optical conductivity of doped ABC-stacked multilayer graphene including the effects of electron-electron interactions. Applying the quantum kinetic formalism, we formulate a set of pseudospin Bloch equations that govern the dynamics of the nonequilibrium density matrix driven by an external ac electric field under the influence of Coulomb interactions. These equations reveal a dynamical mechanism that couples the Drude and interband responses arising from the chirality of pseudospin textures in multilayer graphene systems. We demonstrate that this results in an interaction-induced enhancement of the Drude weight and plasmon frequency strongly dependent on the pseudospin winding number. Using bilayer graphene as an example, we also study the influence of higher-energy bands and find that they contribute considerable renormalization effects not captured by a low-energy two-band description. We argue that this enhancement of Drude weight and plasmon frequency occurs generally in materials characterized by electronic chirality.

  5. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges, Wilfrid

    1993-01-01

    An up-to-date and integrated introduction to model theory, designed to be used for graduate courses (for students who are familiar with first-order logic), and as a reference for more experienced logicians and mathematicians.

  6. Continuity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...

  7. Activity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschmann, Timothy; Roschelle, Jeremy; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1998-01-01

    Includes three articles that discuss activity theory, based on "Context and Consciousness." Topics include human-computer interaction; computer interfaces; hierarchical structuring; mediation; contradictions and development; failure analysis; and designing educational technology. (LRW)

  8. New Non-Trivial Vacuum Structures in Supersymmetric Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dienes, Keith R

    2009-01-01

    In this talk, we present three examples of new non-trivial vacuum structures that can occur in supersymmetric field theories, along with explicit models in which they arise. The first vacuum structure is one in which supersymmetry is broken at tree-level in a perturbative theory that also contains a supersymmetry-preserving ground state. Models realizing this structure are uniquely characterized by the fact that no flat directions appear in the classical potential, all vacua appear at finite distances in field space, and no non-perturbative physics is required for vacuum stability. The second non-trivial vacuum structure we discuss consists of large (and even infinite) towers of metastable vacua, and we show that models which give rise to such vacuum towers exhibit a rich set of instanton-induced vacuum tunneling dynamics. Finally, our third new non-trivial vacuum structure consists of an infinite number of degenerate vacua; this leads to a Bloch-wave ground state and a vacuum "band" structure. Models with su...

  9. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to graph theory focuses on well-established topics, covering primary techniques and including both algorithmic and theoretical problems. The algorithms are presented with a minimum of advanced data structures and programming details. This thoroughly corrected 1988 edition provides insights to computer scientists as well as advanced undergraduates and graduate students of topology, algebra, and matrix theory. Fundamental concepts and notation and elementary properties and operations are the first subjects, followed by examinations of paths and searching, trees, and networks. S

  10. Matrix Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-30

    MATRICES . The monograph Nonnegative Matrices [6] is an advanced book on all aspect of the theory of nonnegative matrices and...and on inverse eigenvalue problems for nonnegative matrices . The work explores some of the most recent developments in the theory of nonnegative...k -1, t0 . Define the associated polynomial of type <z>: t t-t 2 t-t 3 t-tk_ 1,X - x - x . . .X- where t = tk . The

  11. Theory of Multiwave Mixing within the Superconducting Kinetic-Inductance Traveling-Wave Amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    We present a theory of parametric mixing within the coplanar waveguide (CPW) of a superconducting nonlinear kinetic-inductance traveling-wave (KIT) amplifier engineered with periodic dispersion loadings. This is done by first developing a metamaterial band theory of the dispersion-engineered KIT using a Floquet-Bloch construction and then applying it to the description of mixing of the nonlinear RF traveling waves. Our theory allows us to calculate signal gain vs. signal frequency in the presence of a frequency stop gap, based solely on loading design. We present results for both three-wave mixing (3WM), with applied DC bias, and four-wave mixing (4WM), without DC. Our theory predicts an intrinsic and deterministic origin to undulations of 4WM signal gain with signal frequency, apart from extrinsic sources, such as impedance mismatch, and shows that such undulations are absent from 3WM signal gain achievable with DC. Our theory is extensible to amplifiers based on Josephson junctions in a lumped LC transmissi...

  12. Possibility Theory versus Probability Theory in Fuzzy Measure Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Agarwal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare probability theory with possibility theory, and to use this comparison in comparing probability theory with fuzzy set theory. The best way of comparing probabilistic and possibilistic conceptualizations of uncertainty is to examine the two theories from a broader perspective. Such a perspective is offered by evidence theory, within which probability theory and possibility theory are recognized as special branches. While the various characteristic of possibility theory within the broader framework of evidence theory are expounded in this paper, we need to introduce their probabilistic counterparts to facilitate our discussion.

  13. Biocultural Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Joseph; Clasen, Mathias; Jonsson, Emelie

    2017-01-01

    Biocultural theory is an integrative research program designed to investigate the causal interactions between biological adaptations and cultural constructions. From the biocultural perspective, cultural processes are rooted in the biological necessities of the human life cycle: specifically human...... and ideological beliefs, and artistic practices such as music, dance, painting, and storytelling. Establishing biocultural theory as a program that self-consciously encompasses the different particular forms of human evolutionary research could help scholars and scientists envision their own specialized areas...... of research as contributions to a coherent, collective research program. This article argues that a mature biocultural paradigm needs to be informed by at least 7 major research clusters: (a) gene-culture coevolution; (b) human life history theory; (c) evolutionary social psychology; (d) anthropological...

  14. Capacity Configuration of the Hybrid Energy Storage System Based on Bloch Spherical Quantum Genetic Algorithm%基于Bloch球面的量子遗传算法的混合储能系统容量配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马速良; 马会萌; 蒋小平; 段国栋; 李娜

    2015-01-01

    风电功率波动对电网造成不容忽视的影响。风电并网处加入混合储能系统可有效降低风电对电网的影响。首先,  有效地分解风电有功功率,得到混合储能系统需平抑的波动功率;然后,在电池及超级电容器荷电状态、额定功率及充放电时间的允许范围内实现超级电容器优先充放电的协调控制方式;最后,应用映射于Bloch球面的量子遗传算法,确定满足混合储能系统技术要求及工程指标的混合储能系统配置方案,使混合储能系统成本最低。算例分析证明了在监测荷电状态等约束条件下,优先超级电容器充放电控制方式的有效性及 Bloch 球面量子遗传算法配置混合储能系统方法的合理性。%It can not be ignored that active power fluctuations in wind power's influence on the grid. The hybrid energy storage system access to the place in which wind power connected to the power grid can effectively reduce the impact of the intermittency of wind power. Firstly, the fluctuating power of wind power was separated to derive the output power of the hybrid energy storage system Secondly, charging and discharging of the super-capacitor were firstly controlled in the allowable range of the power rating, the states of charge and the durations of charging or discharging of the hybrid energy storage. At last, the Bloch spherical quantum genetic algorithm was applied to decide the combination scheme of hybrid energy storage system to meet the technical requirements of hybrid energy storage system and engineering indicators and make the cost be the lowest. In the example, the validity of the control model based on priority control of super-capacitor charging and discharging and the effectiveness of configuring hybrid energy storage system capacity with the Bloch spherical quantum genetic algorithm was proved.

  15. Galois theory

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian

    2003-01-01

    Ian Stewart's Galois Theory has been in print for 30 years. Resoundingly popular, it still serves its purpose exceedingly well. Yet mathematics education has changed considerably since 1973, when theory took precedence over examples, and the time has come to bring this presentation in line with more modern approaches.To this end, the story now begins with polynomials over the complex numbers, and the central quest is to understand when such polynomials have solutions that can be expressed by radicals. Reorganization of the material places the concrete before the abstract, thus motivating the g

  16. Effective theories of universal theories

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, James D

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known but sometimes overlooked that constraints on the oblique parameters (most notably $S$ and $T$ parameters) are only applicable to a special class of new physics scenarios known as universal theories. In the effective field theory (EFT) framework, the oblique parameters should not be associated with Wilson coefficients in a particular operator basis, unless restrictions have been imposed on the EFT so that it describes universal theories. We work out these restrictions, and present a detailed EFT analysis of universal theories. We find that at the dimension-6 level, universal theories are completely characterized by 16 parameters. They are conveniently chosen to be: 5 oblique parameters that agree with the commonly-adopted ones, 4 anomalous triple-gauge couplings, 3 rescaling factors for the $h^3$, $hff$, $hVV$ vertices, 3 parameters for $hVV$ vertices absent in the Standard Model, and 1 four-fermion coupling of order $y_f^2$. All these parameters are defined in an unambiguous and basis-indepen...

  17. Livability theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Assumptions Livability theory involves the following six key assumptions: 1. Like all animals, humans have innate needs, such as for food, safety, and companionship. 2. Gratification of needs manifests in hedonic experience. 3. Hedonic experience determines how much we

  18. Framing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Lecheler, S.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2016-01-01

    Political issues can be viewed from different perspectives and they can be defined differently in the news media by emphasizing some aspects and leaving others aside. This is at the core of news framing theory. Framing originates within sociology and psychology and has become one of the most used th

  19. Scattering theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Harald [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department

    2013-08-01

    Written by the author of the widely acclaimed textbook. Theoretical Atomic Physics Includes sections on quantum reflection, tunable Feshbach resonances and Efimov states. Useful for advanced students and researchers. This book presents a concise and modern coverage of scattering theory. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. The level of abstraction is kept as low as at all possible, and deeper questions related to mathematical foundations of scattering theory are passed by. The book should be understandable for anyone with a basic knowledge of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. It is intended for advanced students and researchers, and it is hoped that it will be useful for theorists and experimentalists alike.

  20. Theory Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We set the scene for theoretical issues in charm physics that were discussed at CHARM 2016 in Bologna. In particular we emphasize the importance of improving our understanding of standard model contributions to numerous charm observables and we discuss also possible tests of our theory tools, like the Heavy Quark Expansion via the lifetime ratios of $D$-mesons

  1. Combinatorial Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Marshall

    2011-01-01

    Includes proof of van der Waerden's 1926 conjecture on permanents, Wilson's theorem on asymptotic existence, and other developments in combinatorics since 1967. Also covers coding theory and its important connection with designs, problems of enumeration, and partition. Presents fundamentals in addition to latest advances, with illustrative problems at the end of each chapter. Enlarged appendixes include a longer list of block designs.

  2. Activity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Bødker, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    the young HCI research tradition. But HCI was already facing problems: lack of consideration for other aspects of human behavior, for interaction with other people, for culture. Cognitive science-based theories lacked means to address several issues that came out of the empirical projects....

  3. Theory U

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monthoux, Pierre Guillet de; Statler, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The recent Carnegie report (Colby, et al., 2011) characterizes the goal of business education as the development of practical wisdom. In this chapter, the authors reframe Scharmer’s Theory U as an attempt to develop practical wisdom by applying certain European philosophical concepts. Specifically...

  4. Matching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Plummer, MD

    1986-01-01

    This study of matching theory deals with bipartite matching, network flows, and presents fundamental results for the non-bipartite case. It goes on to study elementary bipartite graphs and elementary graphs in general. Further discussed are 2-matchings, general matching problems as linear programs, the Edmonds Matching Algorithm (and other algorithmic approaches), f-factors and vertex packing.

  5. Theory of Auger-electron and appearance-potential spectroscopy for interacting valence-band electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, W.; Geipel, G.; Ertl, K.

    1991-12-01

    A theory of Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and appearance-potential spectroscopy (APS) is presented for interacting electrons in a nondegenerate energy band, described within the framework of the Hubbard model. Both types of spectroscopy are based on the same two-particle spectral density. A diagrammatic vertex-correction method (Matsubara formalism) is used to express this function in terms of the one-particle spectral density. The latter is approximately determined for arbitrary temperature T, arbitrary coupling strength U/W (U, the intra-atomic Coulomb matrix element; W, the width of the ``free'' Bloch band), and arbitrary band occupations n (0QDOS) in relation to the Bloch density of states (BDOS), where, however, spontaneous magnetic order is excluded, irrespective of the band filling n. The AE (AP) spectra consist of only one structure a few eV wide (``bandlike'') which is strongly n dependent, but only slightly T dependent, being rather well approximated by a simple self-convolution of the occupied (unoccupied) QDOS. For strongly correlated electrons the Bloch band splits into two quasiparticle subbands. This leads for n1. For sufficiently strong correlations U/W additional satellites appear that refer to situations where the two excited quasiparticles (quasiholes) propagate as tightly bound pairs through the lattice without being scattered by other charge carriers. As soon as the satellite splits off from the bandlike part of the spectrum, it takes almost the full spectral weight, conveying the impression of an ``atomiclike'' AE (AP) line shape. The satellite has almost exactly the structure of the free BDOS. If the particle density n as well as the hole density 2-n exceed certain critical values determined by U/W and the BDOS ρ0(E), spontaneous ferromagnetism becomes possible in the strongly correlated electron band. The magnetic phase transition gives rise to a distinctive T dependence for the QDOS and hence also for the AE and AP line shapes

  6. Validity of a blue stripe snapper, Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828) and a related species, L. bengalensis (Bloch 1790) with a new species (Pisces; Lutjanidae) from the Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, Yukio; Al-Mamry, Juma M; Heemstra, Phillip C

    2016-04-07

    Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828), previously considered a junior synonym of Lutjanus bengalensis (Bloch 1790), is shown to be a valid species and lectotypes are designated. Both species are redescribed. The two species have overlapping distributions in the Indian Ocean, but are clearly separable by different dorsal-fin spine counts, blue-striped pattern on the body and the presence or absence of a subocular extension of cheek scales. Lutjanus octovittata (Valenciennes 1830), formerly assigned to synonymy of L. bengalensis, is considered a junior synonym of L. octolineatus based on examination of the holotype. Lutjanus sapphirolineatus n. sp., a species formerly misidentified as L. bengalensis, is described based on 10 specimens from Oman and Somalia. The new species differs from the three species above by a combination of different characters. Analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1, 603 bp) genetic marker, also strongly supports the validity of each species of the blue-striped snapper complex as distinct.

  7. Broadband near-field enhancement in the macro-periodic and micro-random structure with a hybridized excitation of propagating Bloch-plasmonic and localized surface-plasmonic modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haifei; Ren, Xingang; Sha, Wei E I; Ho, Ho-Pui; Choy, Wallace C H

    2015-10-28

    We demonstrate that the silver nanoplate-based macroscopically periodic (macro-periodic) and microscopically random (micro-random) structure has a broadband near-field enhancement as compared to conventional silver gratings. The specific field enhancement in a wide spectral range (from UV to near-infrared) originates from the abundance of localized surface-plasmonic (LSP) modes in the microscopically random distributed silver nanoplates and propagating Bloch-plasmonic (PBP) modes from the macroscopically periodic pattern. The characterization of polarization dependent spectral absorption, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), as well as theoretical simulation was conducted to comprehensively understand the features of the broadband spectrum and highly concentrated near-field. The reported macro-periodic and micro-random structure may offer a new route for the design of plasmonic systems for photonic and optoelectronic applications.

  8. Coherent cross-polarization theory for a spin-12 coupled to a general object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magusin; Veeman

    2000-04-01

    Zero-order average-Hamiltonian theory is used to extend the product-operator description of coherent spin-spin cross-polarization to the case of a spin-12 coupled to a general object, like a molecular rotor or a quantum oscillator. The object, which is not necessarily in a Boltzmann equilibrium state, is assumed to have no interaction with the lattice and no internal relaxation capacity. The Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield (BWR) theory for incoherent processes like spin-lattice relaxation does not apply for such an isolated spin-object pair. Nevertheless spectral density at the Larmor frequency, of key importance in BWR theory, also plays a central role in object-induced spin polarization. Spectral density in our theory is represented by quantum operators J(-) and J(+). If J(-) and J(+) do not commute, the spin-object coupling may cause spin polarization in an initially saturated spin system. This represents a coherent mechanism for spin cooling, which in specific cases may lead to enhanced spin polarization above the thermal equilibrium value. A master equation is derived for general spin-object cross-polarization, and applied to the case of a spin pair inside a uniaxial rotor, and a spin coupled to a microelectronic LC circuit. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Potential theory

    CERN Document Server

    Helms, Lester L

    2014-01-01

    Potential Theory presents a clear path from calculus to classical potential theory and beyond, with the aim of moving the reader into the area of mathematical research as quickly as possible. The subject matter is developed from first principles using only calculus. Commencing with the inverse square law for gravitational and electromagnetic forces and the divergence theorem, the author develops methods for constructing solutions of Laplace's equation on a region with prescribed values on the boundary of the region. The latter half of the book addresses more advanced material aimed at those with the background of a senior undergraduate or beginning graduate course in real analysis. Starting with solutions of the Dirichlet problem subject to mixed boundary conditions on the simplest of regions, methods of morphing such solutions onto solutions of Poisson's equation on more general regions are developed using diffeomorphisms and the Perron-Wiener-Brelot method, culminating in application to Brownian motion. In ...

  10. Elastoplasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hashiguchi, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    This book was written to serve as the standard textbook of elastoplasticity for students, engineers and researchers in the field of applied mechanics. The present second edition is improved thoroughly from the first edition by selecting the standard theories from various formulations and models, which are required to study the essentials of elastoplasticity steadily and effectively and will remain universally in the history of elastoplasticity. It opens with an explanation of vector-tensor analysis and continuum mechanics as a foundation to study elastoplasticity theory, extending over various strain and stress tensors and their rates. Subsequently, constitutive equations of elastoplastic and viscoplastic deformations for monotonic, cyclic and non-proportional loading behavior in a general rate and their applications to metals and soils are described in detail, and constitutive equations of friction behavior between solids and its application to the prediction of stick-slip phenomena are delineated. In additi...

  11. Operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    A one-sentence definition of operator theory could be: The study of (linear) continuous operations between topological vector spaces, these being in general (but not exclusively) Fréchet, Banach, or Hilbert spaces (or their duals). Operator theory is thus a very wide field, with numerous facets, both applied and theoretical. There are deep connections with complex analysis, functional analysis, mathematical physics, and electrical engineering, to name a few. Fascinating new applications and directions regularly appear, such as operator spaces, free probability, and applications to Clifford analysis. In our choice of the sections, we tried to reflect this diversity. This is a dynamic ongoing project, and more sections are planned, to complete the picture. We hope you enjoy the reading, and profit from this endeavor.

  12. Communication theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Irene F.; Stelter, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Communication theory covers a wide variety of theories related to the communication process (Littlejohn, 1999). Communication is not simply an exchange of information, in which we have a sender and a receiver. This very technical concept of communication is clearly outdated; a human being...... is not a data processing device. In this chapter, communication is understood as a process of shared meaning-making (Bruner, 1990). Human beings interpret their environment, other people, and themselves on the basis of their dynamic interaction with the surrounding world. Meaning is essential because people...... ascribe specific meanings to their experiences, their actions in life or work, and their interactions. Meaning is reshaped, adapted, and transformed in every communication encounter. Furthermore, meaning is cocreated in dialogues or in communities of practice, such as in teams at a workplace or in school...

  13. Scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...

  14. A neutron diffraction study from 6 to 293 K and a macroscopic-scale quantum theory of the hydrogen bonded dimers in the crystal of benzoic acid

    CERN Document Server

    Fillaux, François

    2011-01-01

    The crystal of benzoic acid is comprised of tautomeric centrosymmetric dimers linked through bistable hydrogen bonds. Statistical disorder of the bonding protons is excluded by neutron diffraction from 6 K to 293 K. In addition to diffraction data, vibrational spectra and relaxation rates measured with solid-state-NMR and quasi-elastic neutron scattering are consistent with wave-like, rather than particle-like protons. We present a macroscopic-scale quantum theory for the bonding protons represented by a periodic lattice of fermions. The adiabatic separation, the exclusion principle, and the antisymmetry postulate yield a static lattice-state immune to decoherence. According to the theory of quantum measurements, vibrational spectroscopy and relaxometry involve realizations of decoherence-free Bloch states for nonlocal symmetry species that did not exist before the measurement. The eigen states are fully determined by three temperature-independent parameters which are effectively measured: the energy differen...

  15. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Merris, Russell

    2001-01-01

    A lively invitation to the flavor, elegance, and power of graph theoryThis mathematically rigorous introduction is tempered and enlivened by numerous illustrations, revealing examples, seductive applications, and historical references. An award-winning teacher, Russ Merris has crafted a book designed to attract and engage through its spirited exposition, a rich assortment of well-chosen exercises, and a selection of topics that emphasizes the kinds of things that can be manipulated, counted, and pictured. Intended neither to be a comprehensive overview nor an encyclopedic reference, th

  16. Design theory

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with the basic subjects of design theory. It begins with balanced incomplete block designs, various constructions of which are described in ample detail. In particular, finite projective and affine planes, difference sets and Hadamard matrices, as tools to construct balanced incomplete block designs, are included. Orthogonal latin squares are also treated in detail. Zhu's simpler proof of the falsity of Euler's conjecture is included. The construction of some classes of balanced incomplete block designs, such as Steiner triple systems and Kirkman triple systems, are also given.

  17. Communication theory

    CERN Document Server

    Goldie, Charles M

    1991-01-01

    This book is an introduction, for mathematics students, to the theories of information and codes. They are usually treated separately but, as both address the problem of communication through noisy channels (albeit from different directions), the authors have been able to exploit the connection to give a reasonably self-contained treatment, relating the probabilistic and algebraic viewpoints. The style is discursive and, as befits the subject, plenty of examples and exercises are provided. Some examples and exercises are provided. Some examples of computer codes are given to provide concrete illustrations of abstract ideas.

  18. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  19. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Diestel, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    HauptbeschreibungThis standard textbook of modern graph theory, now in its fourth edition, combinesthe authority of a classic with the engaging freshness of style that is the hallmarkof active mathematics. It covers the core material of the subject with concise yetreliably complete proofs, while offering glimpses of more advanced methodsin each field by one or two deeper results, again with proofs given in full detail.The book can be used as a reliable text for an introductory course, as a graduatetext, and for self-study. Rezension"Deep, clear, wonderful. This is a serious book about the

  20. Transmission Characteristics in Tubular Acoustic Metamaterials Studied with Fluid Impedance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Li; ZHANG Shu-Yi; ZHANG Hui

    2011-01-01

    Tubular acoustic metamaterials with negative densities composed of periodical membranes set up along pipes are studied with the fluid impedance theory. In addition to the conventional forbidden bands induced by the Bragg-scattering due to the periodic distributions of different acoustic impedances, the low-frequency forbidden band (LFB) with the low-frequency limit of zero Hertz is studied, in which the LFB is explained with acoustic impedance matching and the Bloch theory. Furthermore, the influences of the structural parameters of the tubular acoustic metamaterials on the transmission characteristics, such as the transmission coefficients, dispersion curves, widths of forbidden and pass bands, fluctuations in pass bands, etc., are evaluated, which can be used in the optimization of the acoustic insulation ability of the metamaterials.%Tubular acoustic metamaterials with negative densities composed of periodical membranes set up along pipes are studied with the fluid impedance theory.In addition to the conventional forbidden bands induced by the Bragg-scattering due to the periodic distributions of different acoustic impedances,the low-frequency forbidden band (LFB) with the low-frequency limit of zero Hertz is studied,in which the LFB is explained with acoustic impedance matching and the Bloch theory.Furthermore,the influences of the structural parameters of the tubular acoustic metamaterials on the transmission characteristics,such as the transmission coefficients,dispersion curves,widths of forbidden and pass bands,fluctuations in pass bands,etc.,are evaluated,which can be used in the optimization of the acoustic insulation ability of the metamaterials.Like electromagnetic metamaterials,acoustic metamaterials have been presented with different structures,which have negative constitutive parameters of acoustic propagation and can realize unique acoustic characteristics and applications.[1-5] Recently,acoustic metamaterials were introduced into acoustic resonance

  1. General Theories of Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, J.A. den

    1999-01-01

    This chapter makes a distinction between three types of theories of regulation: public interest theories, the Chicago theory of regulation and the public choice theories. The Chicago theory is mainly directed at the explanation of economic regulation; public interest theories and public choice theor

  2. 评涂尔干的社会学理论和方法对马克·布洛赫的影响%A Critical Review of the Influence of Durkheim's Theory and Methods in Sociology on Marc Bloch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章衍

    2009-01-01

    马克·布洛赫在其历史研究中运用了很多涂尔干社会学的理论方法和范畴,是其方法论的典范.涂尔干的方法是有实证主义倾向的,但布洛赫保持了作为历史学家的独立性和灵活性,只是用涂尔干的方法作为分析历史问题的一种视角.

  3. THEORIES OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Nicolae BORLEA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the corporate governance debate. The review of various corporate governance theories enhances the major objective of corporate governance which is maximizing the value for shareholders by ensuring good social and environment performances. The theories of corporate governance are rooted in agency theory with the theory of moral hazard’s implications, further developing within stewardship theory and stakeholder theory and evolving at resource dependence theory, transaction cost theory and political theory. Later, to these theories was added ethics theory, information asymmetry theory or the theory of efficient markets. These theories are defined based on the causes and effects of variables such as: the configuration of the board of directors, audit committee, independence of managers, the role of top management and their social relations beyond the legal regulatory framework. Effective corporate governance requires applying a combination

  4. Gauge theory and little gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Koizumi, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    The gauge theory is the most important type of the field theory, in which the interactions of the elementary particles are described by the exchange of the gauge bosons.In this article, the gauge theory is reexamined as geometry of the vector space, and a new concept of "little gauge theory" is introduced. A key peculiarity of the little gauge theory is that the theory is able to give a restriction for form of the connection field. Based on the little gauge theory, Cartan geometry, a charged boson and the Dirac fermion field theory are investigated. In particular, the Dirac fermion field theory leads to an extension of Sogami's covariant derivative. And it is interpreted that Higgs bosons are included in new fields introduced in this article.

  5. Magnetron theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyopoulos, Spilios

    1996-03-01

    A guiding center fluid theory is applied to model steady-state, single mode, high-power magnetron operation. A hub of uniform, prescribed density, feeds the current spokes. The spoke charge follows from the continuity equation and the incompressibility of the guiding center flow. Included are the spoke self-fields (DC and AC), obtained by an expansion around the unperturbed (zero-spoke charge) flow in powers of ν/V1, ν, and V1 being the effective charge density and AC amplitude. The spoke current is obtained as a nonlinear function of the detuning from the synchronous (Buneman-Hartree, BH) voltage Vs; the spoke charge is included in the self-consistent definition of Vs. It is shown that there is a DC voltage region of width ‖V-Vs‖˜V1, where the spoke width is constant and the spoke current is simply proportional to the AC voltage. The magnetron characteristic curves are ``flat'' in that range, and are approximated by a linear expansion around Vs. The derived formulas differ from earlier results [J. F. Hull, in Cross Field Microwave Devices, edited by E. Okress (Academic, New York, 1961), pp. 496-527] in (a) there is no current cutoff at synchronism; the tube operates well below as well above the BH voltage; (b) the characteristics are single valued within the synchronous voltage range; (c) the hub top is not treated as virtual cathode; and (d) the hub density is not equal to the Brillouin density; comparisons with tube measurements show the best agreement for hub density near half the Brillouin density. It is also shown that at low space charge and low power the gain curve is symmetric relative to the voltage (frequency) detuning. While symmetry is broken at high-power/high space charge magnetron operation, the BH voltage remains between the current cutoff voltages.

  6. Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea: Polyonchoinea) parasitising the gills of snappers (Perciformes: Lutjanidae): species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 from the golden snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) off northern Australia, with a redescription of Euryhaliotrema johni (Tripathi, 1959) and descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Diggles, Ben K

    2014-01-01

    Three species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) were collected from the gills of four golden snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) (Lutjanidae) from the marine and brackish waters off Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Type-specimens of Ancyrocephalus johni Tripathi, 1959 apparently have not survived and the possibility existed that the species was based on specimens representing more than one species. Euryhaliotrema johni (Tripathi, 1959) (sensu Young, 1968) was redescribed and determined to most likely represent A. johni, originally described from the River Hooghly, Diamond Harbour, India. Two new species were described. Euryhaliotrema longibaculoides n. sp. was most similar to Euryhaliotrema longibaculum (Zhukov, 1976) Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 from Lutjanus spp. from the western Atlantic Ocean. It differed from E. longibaculum by having a male copulatory organ (MCO) with an elongate comparatively delicate shaft and a bulbous base (MCO U- or J-shaped with funnel-shaped base in E. longibaculum). Based on the comparative morphology of the haptoral sclerites, Euryhaliotrema lisae n. sp. was most similar to Euryhaliotrema cryptophallus Kritsky & Yang, 2012 from the gills of the mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) from the South China Sea. Euryhaliotrema lisae differed from E. cryptophallus by having a copulatory complex with an obvious weakly sclerotised J-shaped MCO (MCO cryptic, delicate, and with a shaft comprising about one counterclockwise ring in E. cryptophallus).

  7. Morphological and molecular analyses of a new species of Saccocoelioides Szidat, 1954 (Haploporidae Nicoll, 1914) in the fat sleeper Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) (Perciformes: Eleotridae) from the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Gómez, L; Pinacho-Pinacho, C D; Hernández-Orts, J S; Sereno-Uribe, A L; García-Varela, M

    2016-07-26

    Saccocoelioides olmecae n. sp. is described from specimens recovered from the intestine of the fat sleeper Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) (Perciformes: Eleotridae) collected in six localities along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished from the other three described species of Saccocoelioides Szidat, 1954 from North and Middle America (i.e. S. sogandaresi Lumsden, 1963, S. chauhani Lamothe-Argumedo, 1974 and S. lamothei Aguirre-Macedo & Violante-González, 2008) by having an elongated body, a sac-like caecum, a uterus that extends to the first third of body and by having vitelline follicles longitudinally elongated reaching the posterior end of the body. Sequences of the large subunit (LSU) of the ribosomal DNA, including the domain D1-D3, and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) were used independently and concatenated to corroborate the morphological distinction among S. olmecae n. sp., S. chauhani and S. lamothei from freshwater and brackish-water fish from Middle America. The genetic divergence estimated among the three species of Saccocoelioides was very low: 1% for LSU and from 1 to 4% for ITS2. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses for each dataset and both datasets combined revealed that S. olmecae n. sp. represents an independent clade with moderate bootstrap support and posterior probabilities. This is the third species of Saccocoelioides described in Mexico, and the 17th species from the Americas.

  8. The Taxonomic Status of Japanese Threadfin BreamNemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) (Perciformes:Nemipteridae) with a Redescription of this Species from the South China Sea Based on Morphology and DNA Barcodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Ping; SHA Zhongli; Paul DN HEBERT; Barry RUSSELL

    2015-01-01

    Because of its importance as a food source,Nemipterus japonicus(Bloch, 1791) (Nemipteridae) or Japanese threadfin bream is the best studied of these taxa, and numerous investigations have examined its fisheries, its biology and biochemistry. De-spite such intensive work, the taxonomic status ofN. japonicushas never been seriously questioned and itis regarded as a common species, widely distributed throughout the Indo-Western Pacific Ocean. In fact, Bloch’s description of the type specimen ofN. ja-ponicus has ambiguous collection data and lacks a designation for the type locality, though it is probably Java. In this paper, DNA barcode results based on COI gene support the existence of two geographically separated lineages of the Japanese threadfin bream, both being an Indian Ocean and western Pacific lineage, with 2.7% sequence divergence, and the results indicate a possible existing of some cryptic species. The two lineages also possess a diagnostic difference in their belly color, with specimens in the South China Sea having a silver belly, while those from the Indian Ocean isolate specimen have a yellow coloration. Based upon new collections from the South China Sea, this species from the western Pacific is morphologically redescribed and its details of DNA barcode diver-sity are shown for the future investigations.

  9. Lax pair, conservation laws, solitons, and rogue waves for a generalised nonlinear Schroedinger-Maxwell-Bloch system under the nonlinear tunneling effect for an inhomogeneous erbium-doped silica fibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhe; Gao, Yi-Tian; Su, Chuan-Qi; Wang, Qi-Min; Mao, Bing-Qing [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Ministry-of-Education Key Lab. of Fluid Mechanics and National Lab. for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    2016-04-01

    Under investigation in this article is a generalised nonlinear Schroedinger-Maxwell-Bloch system for the picosecond optical pulse propagation in an inhomogeneous erbium-doped silica optical fibre. Lax pair, conservation laws, Darboux transformation, and generalised Darboux transformation for the system are constructed; with the one- and two-soliton solutions, the first- and second-order rogue waves given. Soliton propagation is discussed. Nonlinear tunneling effect on the solitons and rogue waves are investigated. We find that (i) the detuning of the atomic transition frequency from the optical pulse frequency affects the velocity of the pulse when the detuning is small, (ii) nonlinear tunneling effect does not affect the energy redistribution of the soliton interaction, (iii) dispersion barrier/well has an effect on the soliton velocity, whereas nonlinear well/barrier does not, (iv) nonlinear well/barrier could amplify/compress the solitons or rogue waves in a smoother manner than the dispersion barrier/well, and (v) dispersion barrier could ''attract'' the nearby rogue waves, whereas the dispersion well has a repulsive effect on them.

  10. Ecologie des poissons capitaines: Polydactylus quadrifilis (Cuvier, 1829, Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch, 1795 et Pentanemus quinquarius (Linné, 1758 de la pêcherie artisanale maritime de Grand-Lahou (Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan Kouassi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ecology of Polynemids: Poydactylus quadrifilis (Cuvier, 1829, Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch, 1795 and Pentanemus quinquarius (Linné, 1758 of the Artisanal Marine Fisheries of Grand Lahou (Ivory Coast. The ecology of Polynemids (Poydactylus quadrifilis, Galeoides decadactylus and Pentanemus quinquarius has been studied starting from the unloads of the artisanal marine fisheries of Grand Lahou (Ivory Coast. The temperature of the littoral is high during June and May with an average of 27,55±0,8 °C such as between November and December (29,30±0,1 °C. It is low between July and September (24,5±1,5 °C. On the other hand, salinity has its higher average values (35±0,8 g/l during the cold periods (July at September and lowest during the hot period, from October to January (33,9±0,3 g/l. The physiological needs of Polynemids cause seasonal migrations of the juveniles and adults. Hence the crossing of the estuary of the lagoon during the cold period, from June to August by the juveniles of Polydactylus quadrifilis and Galeoides decadactylus. For Polydactylus quadrifilis the annual recruitment of young specimens is identical to that of the adults, which is contrary to that of Galeoides decadactylus and Pentanemus quinquarius.

  11. Adaptive Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    of collections of associations, Need theory consists of interrelated concepts, social learning theory consists of rule application in the social...Ryan’s Learning Subdivisions Hierarchically Arranged -27- Landy: ONR Annual Report Expectancy Theory Effectance Theory Social Learning Theory Self-Esteem

  12. Recursion Theory Week

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Gert; Sacks, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    These proceedings contain research and survey papers from many subfields of recursion theory, with emphasis on degree theory, in particular the development of frameworks for current techniques in this field. Other topics covered include computational complexity theory, generalized recursion theory, proof theoretic questions in recursion theory, and recursive mathematics.

  13. Composite Photon Theory Versus Elementary Photon Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Perkins, Walton A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that the composite photon theory measures up well against the Standard Model's elementary photon theory. This is done by comparing the two theories area by area. Although the predictions of quantum electrodynamics are in excellent agreement with experiment (as in the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron), there are some problems, such as the difficulty in describing the electromagnetic field with the four-component vector potential because the photon has only two polarization states. In most areas the two theories give similar results, so it is impossible to rule out the composite photon theory. Pryce's arguments in 1938 against a composite photon theory are shown to be invalid or irrelevant. Recently, it has been realized that in the composite theory the antiphoton does not interact with matter because it is formed of a neutrino and an antineutrino with the wrong helicity. This leads to experimental tests that can determine which theory is correct.

  14. Another challenge to paramagnetic relaxation theory: a study of paramagnetic proton NMR relaxation in closely related series of pyridine-derivatised dysprosium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Nicola J; Finney, Katie-Louise N A; Senanayake, P Kanthi; Parker, David

    2016-02-14

    Measurements of the relaxation rate behaviour of two series of dysprosium complexes have been performed in solution, over the field range 1.0 to 16.5 Tesla. The field dependence has been modelled using Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory, allowing estimates of the electronic relaxation time, T1e, and the size of the magnetic susceptibility, μeff, to be made. Changes in relaxation rate of the order of 50% at higher fields were measured, following variation of the para-substituent in the single pyridine donor. The magnetic susceptibilities deviated unexpectedly from the free-ion values for certain derivatives in each series examined, in a manner that was independent of the electron-releasing/withdrawing ability of the pyridine substituent, suggesting that the polarisability of just one pyridine donor in octadenate ligands can play a significant role in defining the magnetic susceptibility anisotropy.

  15. Self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory of the vortex lattice state in a two-dimensional strongly type-II superconductor at high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, Vladimir; Duan, Wenye; Maniv, Tsofar

    2017-01-01

    A self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory of the vortex lattice state in a 2D strong type-II superconductor at high magnetic fields reveals a novel quantum mixed state around the semiclassical Hc 2, characterized by a well-defined Landau-Bloch band structure in the quasiparticle spectrum and suppressed order-parameter amplitude, which sharply crossover into the well-known semiclassical (Helfand-Werthamer) results upon decreasing magnetic field. Application to the 2D superconducting state observed recently on the surface of the topological insulator Sb2Te3 accounts well for the experimental data, revealing a strong type-II superconductor, with unusually low carrier density and very small cyclotron mass, which can be realized only in the strong coupling superconductor limit.

  16. Decidability of formal theories and hyperincursivity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grappone, Arturo G.

    2000-05-01

    This paper shows the limits of the Proof Standard Theory (briefly, PST) and gives some ideas of how to build a proof anticipatory theory (briefly, PAT) that has no such limits. Also, this paper considers that Gödel's proof of the undecidability of Principia Mathematica formal theory is not valid for axiomatic theories that use a PAT to build their proofs because the (hyper)incursive functions are self-representable.

  17. Model Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mangani, P

    2011-01-01

    This title includes: Lectures - G.E. Sacks - Model theory and applications, and H.J. Keisler - Constructions in model theory; and, Seminars - M. Servi - SH formulas and generalized exponential, and J.A. Makowski - Topological model theory.

  18. Decoding the architectural theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Mengchao

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the illustration of the definition and concept of the architectural theory, the author established his unique understanding about the framework of the architectural theory and the innovation of the architectural theory underlined by Chinese characteristics.

  19. What is Literary Theory?

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Paul R.; Paul R., Murray

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with two difficult questions: (1) What is literary theory? and (2) What does literary theory do? Literary theory is contrasted to literary criticism, and theory is found to be a more all-embracing, inclusive field than criticism, which is tied more closely to literature itself. Literary theory is shown to be a multitude of differing ways of looking at literature, with each theory yielding differing results.

  20. Review of Hydroelasticity Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xu-jun; Wu, You-sheng; Cui, Wei-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Existing hydroelastic theories are reviewed. The theories are classified into different types: two-dimensional linear theory, two-dimensional nonlinear theory, three-dimensional linear theory and three-dimensional nonlinear theory. Applications to analysis of very large floating structures (VLFS)......) are reviewed and discussed in details. Special emphasis is placed on papers from China and Japan (in native languages) as these papers are not generally publicly known in the rest of the world....

  1. Grounded theory, feminist theory, critical theory: toward theoretical triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick; Morrow, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Nursing and social science scholars have examined the compatibility between feminist and grounded theory traditions in scientific knowledge generation, concluding that they are complementary, yet not without certain tensions. This line of inquiry is extended to propose a critical feminist grounded theory methodology. The construction of symbolic interactionist, feminist, and critical feminist variants of grounded theory methodology is examined in terms of the presuppositions of each tradition and their interplay as a process of theoretical triangulation.

  2. Foundations of Galois theory

    CERN Document Server

    Postnikov, MM; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1962-01-01

    Foundations of Galois Theory is an introduction to group theory, field theory, and the basic concepts of abstract algebra. The text is divided into two parts. Part I presents the elements of Galois Theory, in which chapters are devoted to the presentation of the elements of field theory, facts from the theory of groups, and the applications of Galois Theory. Part II focuses on the development of general Galois Theory and its use in the solution of equations by radicals. Equations that are solvable by radicals; the construction of equations solvable by radicals; and the unsolvability by radica

  3. Local homotopy theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jardine, John F

    2015-01-01

    This monograph on the homotopy theory of topologized diagrams of spaces and spectra gives an expert account of a subject at the foundation of motivic homotopy theory and the theory of topological modular forms in stable homotopy theory. Beginning with an introduction to the homotopy theory of simplicial sets and topos theory, the book covers core topics such as the unstable homotopy theory of simplicial presheaves and sheaves, localized theories, cocycles, descent theory, non-abelian cohomology, stacks, and local stable homotopy theory. A detailed treatment of the formalism of the subject is interwoven with explanations of the motivation, development, and nuances of ideas and results. The coherence of the abstract theory is elucidated through the use of widely applicable tools, such as Barr's theorem on Boolean localization, model structures on the category of simplicial presheaves on a site, and cocycle categories. A wealth of concrete examples convey the vitality and importance of the subject in topology, n...

  4. Field Theory for Coherent Optical Pulse Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Q H

    1997-01-01

    We introduce a new notion of "matrix potential" to nonlinear optical systems. In terms of a matrix potential $g$, we present a gauge field theoretic formulation of the Maxwell-Bloch equation that provides a semiclassical description of the propagation of optical pulses through resonant multi-level media. We show that the Bloch part of the equation can solved identically through $g$ and the remaining Maxwell equation becomes a second order differential equation with reduced set of variables due to the gauge invariance of the system. Our formulation clarifies the (nonabelian) symmetry structure of the Maxwell-Bloch equations for various multi-level media in association with symmetric spaces $G/H$. In particular, we associate nondegenerate two-level system for self-induced transparency with $G/H=SU(2)/U(1)$ and three-level $\\L $- or V-systems with $G/H = SU(3)/U(2)$. We give a detailed analysis for the two-level case in the matrix potential formalism, and address various new properties of the system including so...

  5. Using R-matrix Theory to Analyze Resonant Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, G.M. [Theoretical Division Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: We begin with a summary of R-matrix theory, formulated in terms of Green's functions that include the Bloch operator to apply the boundary conditions. This is a general approach, not restricted to any particular reaction mechanism, that nevertheless is particularly well-suited to describing resonant reactions. We then give a brief description of the capabilities of the general Los Alamos R-matrix code, EDA. This code can fit the data for any type of measurement for a reaction involving any types of two-body channels (including charged particles and photons), using an automated chi-square minimization algorithm that has quadratic convergence and yields the covariance matrix of the fitting parameters at a local chi-square minimum. This allows covariance information to be produced for the calculated (cross-section) data. As time allows, several examples will be given for light systems, including reactions initiated by n+p ({sup 2}H), n+{sup 6}Li ({sup 7}Li), n+{sup 10}B ({sup 11}B), and n+{sup 16}O ({sup 17}O). These systems have varying numbers of visible resonances, ranging from none in the {sup 2}H system up to many in the {sup 17}O system. However, the same R-matrix approach gives a good description of the data in all cases, several of which were used in the recent IAEA standards evaluation, and in Endf/B7 general-purpose files. Some aspects of the output covariances that result from such R-matrix analyses will be discussed. (authors)

  6. A theory of everything?

    CERN Multimedia

    't Hooft, Gerardus; Witten, Edward

    2005-01-01

    In his later years, Einstein sought a unified theory that would extend general relativity and provide an alternative to quantum theory. There is now talk of a "theory of everything"; fifty years after his death, how close are we to such a theory? (3 pages)

  7. Game Theory: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....

  8. Descriptive set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakis, YN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.

  9. Game theory in philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Game theory is the mathematical study of strategy and conflict. It has wide applications in economics, political science, sociology, and, to some extent, in philosophy. Where rational choice theory or decision theory is concerned with individual agents facing games against nature, game theory deals

  10. Modern Quantum Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tom

    2008-09-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Quantum theory of free scalar fields; 3. Interacting field theory; 4. Particles of spin one, and gauge invariance; 5. Spin 1/2 particles and Fermi statistics; 6. Massive quantum electrodynamics; 7. Symmetries, Ward identities and Nambu Goldstone bosons; 8. Non-abelian gauge theory; 9. Renormalization and effective field theory; 10. Instantons and solitons; 11. Concluding remarks; Appendices; References; Index.

  11. 基于量子行为进化算法的聚焦爬虫搜索策略%Search strategy of focused crawler based on Bloch quantum evolutionary algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽杰; 李盼池; 张强

    2012-01-01

    According to the single value evaluation focused crawler search strategy has the topic drift problem, and make full use of the intelligence of the Bloch quantum evolutionary algorithm ( BQEA ) , this paper proposed a new algorithm of focused crawler. The algorithm integrated Web distribution on the Internet fully, used the advantages of two types of evaluation criteria of the immediate value and the future value adjusted to the proportion of two standards online in the integrated value, according to focused crawler search on the actual process. The experimental result by simulation show that, compared with the search strategy of a single value, the BQEA obtains a higher recall rate, and precision rate and can solve the existing problems with certain self-adaptive.%针对单一价值评价的聚焦爬虫搜索策略存在主题漂移等问题进行了研究,充分利用量子进化算法所具有的智能性,提出一种新的聚焦爬虫爬行算法.该算法充分结合网页在互联网上的分布特点,利用立即价值和未来价值两类评价标准的优势,根据聚焦爬虫实际运行过程中的搜索情况,在线调整这两种标准在综合价值中的比重.实验仿真结果表明,相对于单一价值的搜索策略,量子进化算法获得较高的页面查全率和信息查准率,能较好地解决现存问题,具有一定的自适应性.

  12. Balanced Topological Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, R.; Moore, G.

    We describe a class of topological field theories called ``balanced topological field theories''. These theories are associated to moduli problems with vanishing virtual dimension and calculate the Euler character of various moduli spaces. We show that these theories are closely related to the geometry and equivariant cohomology of ``iterated superspaces'' that carry two differentials. We find the most general action for these theories, which turns out to define Morse theory on field space. We illustrate the constructions with numerous examples. Finally, we relate these theories to topological sigma-models twisted using an isometry of the target space.

  13. Balanced Topological Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R

    1997-01-01

    We describe a class of topological field theories called ``balanced topological field theories.'' These theories are associated to moduli problems with vanishing virtual dimension and calculate the Euler character of various moduli spaces. We show that these theories are closely related to the geometry and equivariant cohomology of ``iterated superspaces'' that carry two differentials. We find the most general action for these theories, which turns out to define Morse theory on field space. We illustrate the constructions with numerous examples. Finally, we relate these theories to topological sigma-models twisted using an isometry of the target space.

  14. String theory for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmerman Jones, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Making Everything Easier!. String Theory for Dummies. Learn:. The basic concepts of this controversial theory;. How string theory builds on physics concepts;. The different viewpoints in the field;. String theory's physical implications. Andrew Zimmerman Jones. Physics Guide, About.com. with Daniel Robbins, PhD in Physics. Your plain-English guide to this complex scientific theory. String theory is one of the most complicated sciences being explored today. Not to worry though! This informative guide clearly explains the basics of this hot topic, discusses the theory's hypotheses and prediction

  15. An Invitation to Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁景宏

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, I wish to invite young scholars to learn, use, and contribute to accounting theory. In this invitation, I argue theory has lineage, is important and can be fun. Its lineage comes from the post-WWII scientific revolution in management education and research. Theory is important because it is the successful interaction between theory and empirical work that ultimately advances an academic discipline. Theory can be fun because when done well, learning, using and contributing to theory can be an enjoyable activity for all scholars, either as consumers or as producers of theory.

  16. Introduction to game theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The basic ideas of game theory were originated from the problems of maximum and minimum given by J.Yon Neumann in 1928. Later, wars accelerated the study of game theory, there are many developments that contributed to the advancement of game theory, many problems of optimum appeared in economic development process. Scientists applied mathematic methods to studying game theory to make the theory more profound and perfect. The axiomatic structure of game theory was nearly complete in 1944. The path of the development of game theory started from finite to infinite, from two players to many players, from expressing gains with quantity to showing the ending of game theory with abstract result, and from certainty problems to random problems. Thus development of game theory is closely related to the economic development. In recent years, the research on the non-differentiability of Shapley value posed by Belgian Mertens is one of the advanced studies in game theory.

  17. Quantum Theory is an Information Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo M.; Perinotti, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we review the general framework of operational probabilistic theories (OPT), along with the six axioms from which quantum theory can be derived. We argue that the OPT framework along with a relaxed version of five of the axioms, define a general information theory. We close the paper with considerations about the role of the observer in an OPT, and the interpretation of the von Neumann postulate and the Schrödinger-cat paradox.

  18. What genre theory does

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To provide a small overview of genre theory and its associated concepts and to show how genre theory has had its antecedents in certain parts of the social sciences and not in the humanities. Findings The chapter argues that the explanatory force of genre theory may be explained with its...... emphasis on everyday genres, de facto genres. Originality/value By providing an overview of genre theory, the chapter demonstrates the wealth and richness of forms of explanations in genre theory....

  19. Why string theory?

    CERN Document Server

    Conlon, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Is string theory a fraud or one of the great scientific advances? Why do so many physicists work on string theory if it cannot be tested? This book provides insight into why such a theory, with little direct experimental support, plays such a prominent role in theoretical physics. The book gives a modern and accurate account of string theory and science, explaining what string theory is, why it is regarded as so promising, and why it is hard to test.

  20. Teaching Theory X and Theory Y in Organizational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Carey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the activity described here is to integrate McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y into a group application: design a syllabus that embodies either Theory X or Theory Y tenets. Students should be able to differentiate between Theory X and Theory Y, create a syllabus based on Theory X or Theory Y tenets, evaluate the different syllabi…

  1. Gauge theory loop operators and Liouville theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Nadav [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Gomis, Jaume; Okuda, Takuda [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Teschner, Joerg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    We propose a correspondence between loop operators in a family of four dimensional N=2 gauge theories on S{sup 4} - including Wilson, 't Hooft and dyonic operators - and Liouville theory loop operators on a Riemann surface. This extends the beautiful relation between the partition function of these N=2 gauge theories and Liouville correlators found by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa. We show that the computation of these Liouville correlators with the insertion of a Liouville loop operator reproduces Pestun's formula capturing the expectation value of a Wilson loop operator in the corresponding gauge theory. We prove that our definition of Liouville loop operators is invariant under modular transformations, which given our correspondence, implies the conjectured action of S-duality on the gauge theory loop operators. Our computations in Liouville theory make an explicit prediction for the exact expectation value of 't Hooft and dyonic loop operators in these N=2 gauge theories. The Liouville loop operators are also found to admit a simple geometric interpretation within quantum Teichmueller theory as the quantum operators representing the length of geodesics. We study the algebra of Liouville loop operators and show that it gives evidence for our proposal as well as providing definite predictions for the operator product expansion of loop operators in gauge theory. (orig.)

  2. Computability theory an introduction to recursion theory

    CERN Document Server

    Enderton, Herbert B

    2010-01-01

    Computability Theory:  An Introduction to Recursion Theory,  provides a concise, comprehensive, and authoritative introduction to contemporary computability theory, techniques, and results. The basic concepts and techniques of computability theory are placed in their historical, philosophical and logical context. This presentation is characterized by an unusual breadth of coverage and the inclusion of advanced topics not to be found elsewhere in the literature at this level.  The text includes both the standard material for a first course in computability and more advanced looks at degree str

  3. Towards a theory of spacetime theories

    CERN Document Server

    Schiemann, Gregor; Scholz, Erhard

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume is the result of a July 2010 workshop at the University of Wuppertal Interdisciplinary Centre for Science and Technology Studies which brought together world-wide experts from physics, philosophy and history, in order to address a set of questions first posed in the 1950s: How do we compare spacetime theories? How do we judge, objectively, which is the “best” theory? Is there even a unique answer to this question? The goal of the workshop, and of this book, is to contribute to the development of a meta-theory of spacetime theories. Such a meta-theory would reveal insights about specific spacetime theories by distilling their essential similarities and differences, deliver a framework for a class of theories that could be helpful as a blueprint to build other meta-theories, and provide a higher level viewpoint for judging which theory most accurately describes nature. But rather than drawing a map in broad strokes, the focus is on particularly rich regions in the “space of spaceti...

  4. Theory of graphene saturable absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Marini, A; de Abajo, F J Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Saturable absorption is a non-perturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon that plays a pivotal role in the generation of ultrafast light pulses. Here we show that this effect emerges in graphene at unprecedentedly low light intensities, thus opening avenues to new nonlinear physics and applications in optical technology. Specifically, we theoretically investigate saturable absorption in extended graphene by developing a non-perturbative single-particle approach, describing conduction-electron dynamics in the atomically-thin material using the two-dimensional Dirac equation for massless Dirac fermions, which is recast in the form of generalized Bloch equations. By solving the electron dynamics non-perturbatively, we account for both interband and intraband contributions to the intensity-dependent saturated conductivity and conclude that the former dominates regardless of the intrinsic doping state of the material. The results are in excellent agreement with atomistic quantum-mechanical simulations including high...

  5. Advanced classical field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Giachetta, Giovanni; Sardanashvily, Gennadi

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary quantum field theory is mainly developed as quantization of classical fields. Therefore, classical field theory and its BRST extension is the necessary step towards quantum field theory. This book aims to provide a complete mathematical foundation of Lagrangian classical field theory and its BRST extension for the purpose of quantization. Based on the standard geometric formulation of theory of nonlinear differential operators, Lagrangian field theory is treated in a very general setting. Reducible degenerate Lagrangian theories of even and odd fields on an arbitrary smooth manifold are considered. The second Noether theorems generalized to these theories and formulated in the homology terms provide the strict mathematical formulation of BRST extended classical field theory

  6. Neo-newtonian theories

    CERN Document Server

    Fabris, J C

    2015-01-01

    General Relativity is the modern theory of gravitation. It has replaced the newtonian theory in the description of the gravitational phenomena. In spite of the remarkable success of the General Relativity Theory, the newtonian gravitational theory is still largely employed, since General Relativity, in most of the cases, just makes very small corrections to the newtonian predictions. Moreover, the newtonian theory is much simpler, technically and conceptually, when compared to the relativistic theory. In this text, we discuss the possibility of extending the traditional newtonian theory in order to incorporate typical relativistic effects, but keeping the simplicity of the newtonian framework. We denominate these extensions neo-newtonian theories. These theories are discussed mainly in the contexts of cosmology and compact astrophysical objects.

  7. Separation-individuation theory and attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Harold P

    2004-01-01

    Separation-individuation and attachment theories are compared and assessed in the context of psychoanalytic developmental theory and their application to clinical work. As introduced by Margaret Mahler and John Bowlby, respectively, both theories were initially regarded as diverging from traditional views. Separation-individuation theory, though it has had to be corrected in important respects, and attachment theory, despite certain limitations, have nonetheless enriched psychoanalytic thought. Without attachment an infant would die, and with severely insecure attachment is at greater risk for serious disorders. Development depends on continued attachment to a responsive and responsible caregiver. Continued attachment to the primary object was regarded by Mahler as as intrinsic to the process of separation-individuation. Attachment theory does not account for the essential development of separateness, and separation-individuation is important for the promotion of autonomy, independence, and identity. Salient historical and theoretical issues are addressed, including the renewed interest in attachment theory and the related decline of interest in separation-individuation theory.

  8. Generalizability theory and item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, C.A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a s

  9. Rotor theories by Professor Joukowsky: Momentum theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kuik, G. A. M.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Okulov, V. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the first of two papers on the history of rotor aerodynamics with special emphasis on the role of Joukowsky. The present one focuses on the development of the momentum theory while the second one surveys the development of vortex theory for rotors. Joukowsky has played a major role ...

  10. Generalizability Theory and Classical Test Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Broadly conceived, reliability involves quantifying the consistencies and inconsistencies in observed scores. Generalizability theory, or G theory, is particularly well suited to addressing such matters in that it enables an investigator to quantify and distinguish the sources of inconsistencies in observed scores that arise, or could arise, over…

  11. Historicizing affordance theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie; Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how mutually enriching points from both affordance theory and cultural-historical activity theory can promote theoretical ideas which may prove useful as analytical tools for the study of human life and human development. There are two issues that need...... to be overcome in order to explore the potentials of James Gibson’s affordance theory: it does not sufficiently theorize (a) development and (b) society. We claim that Gibson’s affordance theory still needs to be brought beyond “the axiom of immediacy.” Ambivalences in Gibson’s affordance theory...... societal character of affordance theory....

  12. Higher Topos Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lurie, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Higher category theory is generally regarded as technical and forbidding, but part of it is considerably more tractable: the theory of infinity-categories, higher categories in which all higher morphisms are assumed to be invertible. In Higher Topos Theory, Jacob Lurie presents the foundations of this theory, using the language of weak Kan complexes introduced by Boardman and Vogt, and shows how existing theorems in algebraic topology can be reformulated and generalized in the theory's new language. The result is a powerful theory with applications in many areas of mathematics. The book's firs

  13. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  14. Exploiting the locality of periodic subsystem density-functional theory: efficient sampling of the Brillouin zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele

    2015-12-01

    In order to approximately satisfy the Bloch theorem, simulations of complex materials involving periodic systems are made {{n}\\text{k}} times more complex by the need to sample the first Brillouin zone at {{n}\\text{k}} points. By combining ideas from Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (DFT) and orbital-free DFT, for which no sampling is needed due to the absence of waves, subsystem DFT offers an interesting middle ground capable of sizable theoretical speedups against Kohn-Sham DFT. By splitting the supersystem into interacting subsystems, and mapping their quantum problem onto separate auxiliary Kohn-Sham systems, subsystem DFT allows an optimal topical sampling of the Brillouin zone. We elucidate this concept with two proof of principle simulations: a water bilayer on Pt[1 1 1]; and a complex system relevant to catalysis—a thiophene molecule physisorbed on a molybdenum sulfide monolayer deposited on top of an α-alumina support. For the latter system, a speedup of 300% is achieved against the subsystem DTF reference by using an optimized Brillouin zone sampling (600% against KS-DFT).

  15. Theory of single photon on demand from a single molecule source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Barkai, Eli

    2006-11-21

    We consider the theory of single photon on demand from a two level atom or molecule source. Using optical Bloch equations and the generating function formalism we investigate three approaches to single photon control: (i) the square laser pulse; (ii) the square modulation of absorption frequency; and (iii) the rapid adiabatic following approach investigated in the experiments of Brunel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 1999, 83, 2722. We discuss the conditions for obtaining the maximum of the probability of emission of a single photon and a pair of photons, under the constrains of finite field strength and finite interaction time with excitation field. We obtain analytical expression for the probability of emitting zero, one, and two photons for the square pulse, and discuss semi-classical and strongly quantum limiting cases. Numerical results obtained from the generating function formalism are compared with experimental results showing that the two level system approach is suitable for the description of cryogenic temperature single molecules, and that experiments were conducted very close to the optimal conditions.

  16. Uncertainty theory. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Baoding [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Uncertainty Theory Lab.

    2007-07-01

    Uncertainty theory is a branch of mathematics based on normality, monotonicity, self-duality, and countable subadditivity axioms. The goal of uncertainty theory is to study the behavior of uncertain phenomena such as fuzziness and randomness. The main topics include probability theory, credibility theory, and chance theory. For this new edition the entire text has been totally rewritten. More importantly, the chapters on chance theory and uncertainty theory are completely new. This book provides a self-contained, comprehensive and up-to-date presentation of uncertainty theory. The purpose is to equip the readers with an axiomatic approach to deal with uncertainty. Mathematicians, researchers, engineers, designers, and students in the field of mathematics, information science, operations research, industrial engineering, computer science, artificial intelligence, and management science will find this work a stimulating and useful reference. (orig.)

  17. [Mathematics and string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, A.; Yau, Shing-Tung.

    1993-01-01

    Work on this grant was centered on connections between non- commutative geometry and physics. Topics covered included: cyclic cohomology, non-commutative manifolds, index theory, reflection positivity, space quantization, quantum groups, number theory, etc.

  18. Economic theories of dictatorship

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in economic theories of dictatorships and their lessons for the political stability and economic performance of dictatorships. It reflects on the general usefulness of economic theories of dictatorship, with an application to foreign relations.

  19. Elementary particle theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1984-12-01

    The present state of the art in elementary particle theory is reviewed. Topics include quantum electrodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. 113 references. (WHK)

  20. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  1. Information theory and Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Kafri, Oded

    2006-01-01

    A communication theory for a transmitter broadcasting to many receivers is presented. In this case energetic considerations cannot be neglected as in Shannon theory. It is shown that, when energy is assigned to the information bit, information theory complies with classical thermodynamic and is part of it. To provide a thermodynamic theory of communication it is necessary to define equilibrium for informatics systems that are not in thermal equilibrium and to calculate temperature, heat, and ...

  2. Quantum algorithmic information theory

    OpenAIRE

    Svozil, Karl

    1995-01-01

    The agenda of quantum algorithmic information theory, ordered `top-down,' is the quantum halting amplitude, followed by the quantum algorithmic information content, which in turn requires the theory of quantum computation. The fundamental atoms processed by quantum computation are the quantum bits which are dealt with in quantum information theory. The theory of quantum computation will be based upon a model of universal quantum computer whose elementary unit is a two-port interferometer capa...

  3. Algorithmic information theory

    OpenAIRE

    Grünwald, P.D.; Vitányi, P.M.B.; Adriaans, P.; van Benthem, J.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce algorithmic information theory, also known as the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. We explain the main concepts of this quantitative approach to defining 'information'. We discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov's and Shannon's information theory have a common purpose, and where they are fundamentally different. We indicate how recent developments within the theory allow one to formally distinguish between 'structural' (meaningful) and 'random' information as measured by the Kolmo...

  4. Algorithmic information theory

    OpenAIRE

    Grünwald, P.D.; Vitányi, P.M.B.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce algorithmic information theory, also known as the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. We explain the main concepts of this quantitative approach to defining `information'. We discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov's and Shannon's information theory have a common purpose, and where they are fundamentally different. We indicate how recent developments within the theory allow one to formally distinguish between `structural' (meaningful) and `random' information as measured by the Kolmo...

  5. Building theory through design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with a fundamental matter of concern in research through design: how can design work lead to the building of new theory? Controversy exists about the balance between theory and design work in research through design. While some researchers see theory production as the scientific...

  6. Making HCI Theory Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Kaptelinin, Victor; Nardi, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the use of activity theory in human–computer interaction (HCI) research. We analyse activity theory in HCI since its first appearance about 25 years ago. Through an analysis and meta-synthesis of 109 selected HCI activity theory papers, we created a taxonomy of 5...

  7. Reflections on Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  8. Frankl's Theory and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missinne, Leo E.; Wilcox, Victoria

    This paper discusses the life, theories, and therapeutic techniques of psychotherapist, Viktor E. Frankl. A brief biography of Frankl is included discussing the relationship of his early experiences as a physician to his theory of personality. Frankl's theory focusing on man's need for meaning and emphasizing the spiritual dimension in each human…

  9. Renormalizable Tensor Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Geloun, Joseph Ben

    2016-01-01

    Extending tensor models at the field theoretical level, tensor field theories are nonlocal quantum field theories with Feynman graphs identified with simplicial complexes. They become relevant for addressing quantum topology and geometry in any dimension and therefore form an interesting class of models for studying quantum gravity. We review the class of perturbatively renormalizable tensor field theories and some of their features.

  10. Positioning Theory in Paradigms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiao-qiu

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of theory and paradigm to a researcher. It starts from introducing and analyzing the definition of the two terms, by using the theories in the field of intercultural communication as examples. To a good researcher, he needs not only clarifying the paradigm his research is positioned, but also integrating the theories in his paradigm.

  11. Modern Theories of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip W.

    This volume explores objectively the essential characteristic of nine twentieth-century linguistic theories with the theoretical variant for discussion based on one closely representative of work within a given approach or usually associated with the name of the theory. First, the theory of Ferdinand de Saussure is discussed based on his book,…

  12. Whither Social Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    What is the place of social theory in mathematics education research, and what is it for? This special issue of "Educational Studies in Mathematics" offers insights on what could be the role of some sociological theories in a field that has historically privileged learning theories coming from psychology and mathematics as the main…

  13. Introduction to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David

    2007-01-01

    One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.

  14. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Kohji

    2002-01-01

    The book includes several survey articles on prime numbers, divisor problems, and Diophantine equations, as well as research papers on various aspects of analytic number theory such as additive problems, Diophantine approximations and the theory of zeta and L-function Audience Researchers and graduate students interested in recent development of number theory

  15. Superspace conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quella, Thomas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

  16. Activity Theory and Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peim, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…

  17. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald;

    2016-01-01

    This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning with co...

  18. Algorithmic information theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.D. Grünwald; P.M.B. Vitányi

    2008-01-01

    We introduce algorithmic information theory, also known as the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. We explain the main concepts of this quantitative approach to defining `information'. We discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov's and Shannon's information theory have a common purpose, and where they are

  19. Algorithmic information theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.D. Grünwald; P.M.B. Vitányi

    2008-01-01

    We introduce algorithmic information theory, also known as the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. We explain the main concepts of this quantitative approach to defining 'information'. We discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov's and Shannon's information theory have a common purpose, and where they are

  20. Essays in auction theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maasland, E.

    2012-01-01

    Auction theory is a branch of game theory that considers human behavior in auction markets and the ensuing market outcomes. It is also successfully used as a tool to design real-life auctions. This thesis contains five essays addressing a variety of topics within the realm of auction theory. The fir