A theory of generalized Bloch oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Duggen, Lars; Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Lassen, Benny;
2016-01-01
Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact cal...
Theory of the Bloch Oscillating Transistor
Hassel, J.; Seppa, H.
2004-01-01
The Bloch oscillating transistor (BOT) is a device, where single electron current through a normal tunnel junction can be used to enhance Cooper pair current in a mesoscopic Josephson junction leading to signal amplification. In this paper we develop a theory, where the BOT dynamics is described as a two-level system. The theory is used to predict current-voltage characteristics and small-signal response. Transition from stable operation into hysteretic regime is studied. By identifying the t...
Twisted index theory on good orbifolds, I: noncommutative Bloch theory
Marcolli, Matilde; Mathai, Varghese
1999-01-01
This paper, together with Part II, expands the results of math.DG/9803051. In Part I we study the twisted index theory of elliptic operators on orbifold covering spaces of compact good orbifolds, which are invariant under a projective action of the orbifold fundamental group. We apply these results to obtain qualitative results on real and complex hyperbolic spaces in 2 and 4 dimensions, related to generalizations of the Bethe-Sommerfeld conjecture and the Ten Martini Problem, on the spectrum...
Quantum Theory of Conducting Matter Newtonian Equations of Motion for a Bloch Electron
Fujita, Shigeji
2007-01-01
Quantum Theory of Conducting Matter: Newtonian Equations of Motion for a Bloch Electron targets scientists, researchers and graduate-level students focused on experimentation in the fields of physics, chemistry, electrical engineering, and material sciences. It is important that the reader have an understanding of dynamics, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, electromagnetism and solid-state physics. Many worked-out problems are included in the book to aid the reader's comprehension of the subject. The Bloch electron (wave packet) moves by following the Newtonian equation of motion. Under an applied magnetic field B the electron circulates around the field B counterclockwise or clockwise depending on the curvature of the Fermi surface. The signs of the Hall coefficient and the Seebeck coefficient are known to give the sign of the major carrier charge. For alkali metals, both are negative, indicating that the carriers are "electrons." These features arise from the Fermi surface difference...
Claude Bloch scientific works, oeuvre scientifique
Bloch, Claude; De Dominicis, Cyrano; Gillet, Vincent; Messiah, Albert
1975-01-01
Claude Bloch: Scientific Works Oeuvre Scientifique covers the collection of scientific works of Claude Bloch. The book includes topics on field theories with non-localized interaction and notes on the symmetry properties of nuclear wave functions. It also covers theory of nuclear level density; the theory of imperfect fermi gases; the structure of nuclear matter; and the canonical form of an antisymmetric tensor and its application to the theory of superconductivity.
Sandwich reactor lattices and Bloch's theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The study of the neutron flux distribution in repetitive sandwiches of reactor material leads to results analogous to the 1-dimensional form of Bloch's theorem for the electronic structure in crystals. This principle makes it possible to perform analytically accurate homogenisations of sandwich lattices The method has been extended to cover multi group diffusion and transport theory. (author)
Pogrebnyak, Victor A.; Furlani, Edward P.
2016-05-01
We study wave propagation in uniform materials with periodic boundary profiles and introduce for the first time Bloch resonances and Bloch gaps. Bloch resonances are due to transverse phase matching, i.e., the coupling of two transverse standing waves corresponding to different harmonics. These are distinct from well-known Bragg resonances that result from longitudinal phase matching. We show that Bloch gaps can be engineered over the entire first Brillouin zone up to an infinite wavelength, i.e., kx=0 , where kx is the wave number in the direction of propagation. This is in contrast to Bragg gaps that open at a fixed wavelength, twice the period of the structure. Bloch resonances and gaps can be tuned by reconfiguring the boundary profile and we derive analytical expressions that predict these phenomena when the amplitude of the profile is small. The theory is fundamental as it broadly applies to wave phenomena that span the quantum to continuum scale with applications that range from condensed matter to acoustics. We validate the theory experimentally for the electromagnetic field at GHz frequencies. We also discuss potential photonic and electronic applications of the theory such as a white-light distributed feedback laser and a two-dimensional electron gas transistor.
Pogrebnyak, Victor A; Furlani, Edward P
2016-05-20
We study wave propagation in uniform materials with periodic boundary profiles and introduce for the first time Bloch resonances and Bloch gaps. Bloch resonances are due to transverse phase matching, i.e., the coupling of two transverse standing waves corresponding to different harmonics. These are distinct from well-known Bragg resonances that result from longitudinal phase matching. We show that Bloch gaps can be engineered over the entire first Brillouin zone up to an infinite wavelength, i.e., k_{x}=0, where k_{x} is the wave number in the direction of propagation. This is in contrast to Bragg gaps that open at a fixed wavelength, twice the period of the structure. Bloch resonances and gaps can be tuned by reconfiguring the boundary profile and we derive analytical expressions that predict these phenomena when the amplitude of the profile is small. The theory is fundamental as it broadly applies to wave phenomena that span the quantum to continuum scale with applications that range from condensed matter to acoustics. We validate the theory experimentally for the electromagnetic field at GHz frequencies. We also discuss potential photonic and electronic applications of the theory such as a white-light distributed feedback laser and a two-dimensional electron gas transistor. PMID:27258880
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper describes an analytical method for the wave field induced by a moving load on a periodically supported beam. The Green's function for an Euler beam without support is evaluated by using the direct integration. Afterwards, it introduces the supports into the model established by using the superposition principle which states that the response from all the sleeper points and from the external point force add up linearly to give a total response. The periodicity of the supports is described by Bloch's theorem. The homogeneous system thus obtained represents a linear differential equation which governs rail response. It is initially solved in the homogeneous case, and it admits a no null solution if its determinant is null, this permits the establishment the dispersion equation to Bloch waves and wave bands. The Bloch waves and dispersion curves contain all the physics of the dynamic problem and the wave field induced by a dynamic load applied to the system is finally obtained by decomposition into Bloch waves, similarly to the usual decomposition into dynamic modes on a finite structure. The method is applied to obtain the field induced by a load moving at constant velocity on a thin beam supported by periodic elastic supports.
The Bloch Oscillating Transistor
Seppä, H.; Hassel, J.
2003-01-01
We introduce a new mesoscopic transistor, which consists of a superconducting island connected to superconducting and normal electrodes via two mesoscopic tunnel junctions. Furthermore, the island is being charged through a resistor. The interplay between Bloch oscillations, single-electron effects and ohmic current leads to a device having a high current gain. The operation and characteristics of the transistor are analyzed with a numerical model.
Entangled Bloch Spheres: Bloch Matrix And Two Qubit State Space
Gamel, Omar
2016-01-01
We represent a two qubit density matrix in the basis of Pauli matrix tensor products, with the coefficients constituting a Bloch matrix, analogous to the single qubit Bloch vector. We find the quantum state positivity requirements on the Bloch matrix components, leading to three important inequalities, allowing us to parameterize and visualize the two qubit state space. Applying the singular value decomposition naturally separates the degrees of freedom to local and nonlocal, and simplifies the positivity inequalities. It also allows us to geometrically represent a state as two entangled Bloch spheres with superimposed correlation axes. It is shown that unitary transformations, local or nonlocal, have simple interpretations as axis rotations or mixing of certain degrees of freedom. The nonlocal unitary invariants of the state are then derived in terms of local unitary invariants. The positive partial transpose criterion for entanglement is generalized, and interpreted as a reflection, or a change of a single ...
Differential Bloch Oscillating Transistor Pair
Sarkar, Jayanta; Puska, Antti; Hassel, Juha; Hakonen, Pertti J.
2013-01-01
We examine a Bloch Oscillating Transistor pair as a differential stage for cryogenic low-noise measurements. Using two oppositely biased, nearly symmetric Bloch Oscillating Transistors, we measured the sum and difference signals in the current gain and transconductance modes while changing the common mode signal, either voltage or current. From the common mode rejection ratio we find values $\\sim 20$ dB even under non-optimal conditions. We also characterize the noise properties and obtain ex...
Bloch state tomography using Wilson lines.
Li, Tracy; Duca, Lucia; Reitter, Martin; Grusdt, Fabian; Demler, Eugene; Endres, Manuel; Schleier-Smith, Monika; Bloch, Immanuel; Schneider, Ulrich
2016-05-27
Topology and geometry are essential to our understanding of modern physics, underlying many foundational concepts from high-energy theories, quantum information, and condensed-matter physics. In condensed-matter systems, a wide range of phenomena stem from the geometry of the band eigenstates, which is encoded in the matrix-valued Wilson line for general multiband systems. Using an ultracold gas of rubidium atoms loaded in a honeycomb optical lattice, we realize strong-force dynamics in Bloch bands that are described by Wilson lines and observe an evolution in the band populations that directly reveals the band geometry. Our technique enables a full determination of band eigenstates, Berry curvature, and topological invariants, including single- and multiband Chern and Z₂ numbers. PMID:27230376
Bloch state tomography using Wilson lines
Li, Tracy; Duca, Lucia; Reitter, Martin; Grusdt, Fabian; Demler, Eugene; Endres, Manuel; Schleier-Smith, Monika; Bloch, Immanuel; Schneider, Ulrich
2016-05-01
Topology and geometry are essential to our understanding of modern physics, underlying many foundational concepts from high-energy theories, quantum information, and condensed-matter physics. In condensed-matter systems, a wide range of phenomena stem from the geometry of the band eigenstates, which is encoded in the matrix-valued Wilson line for general multiband systems. Using an ultracold gas of rubidium atoms loaded in a honeycomb optical lattice, we realize strong-force dynamics in Bloch bands that are described by Wilson lines and observe an evolution in the band populations that directly reveals the band geometry. Our technique enables a full determination of band eigenstates, Berry curvature, and topological invariants, including single- and multiband Chern and Z2 numbers.
Wave impedance retrieving via Bloch modes analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andryieuski, Andrei; Ha, S.; Sukhorukov, A.; Malureanu, Radu; Kivshar, Y.; Lavrinenko, Andrei
-ciples violation, like antiresonance behaviour with Im(ε) <0, Im(μ) <0. We employ the Bloch mode analysis of periodic metamaterials to extract the dominating (fundamental) Bloch mode. Then it is possible to determine the Bloch and wave impedances by the surface and volume aver-aging of the electromagnetic field of...... the Bloch mode, respectively. Case studies prove that our ap-proach can determine material and wave effective parameters of lossy and lossless metamaterials. In some examples when the passivity is violated we made further analysis and showed that this is due to the failure of concept of impedance...
Modified Bloch-Redfield Master Equation for Incoherent Excitation of Multilevel Quantum Systems
Tscherbul, Timur V.; Brumer, Paul
2014-01-01
We present an efficient theoretical method for calculating the time evolution of the density matrix of a multilevel quantum system weakly interacting with incoherent light. The method combines the Bloch-Redfield theory with a partial secular approximation for one-photon coherences, resulting in a master equation that explicitly exposes the reliance on transition rates and the angles between transition dipole moments in the energy basis. The modified Bloch-Redfield master equation allows an un...
An extended q-deformed su(2) algebra and the Bloch electron problem
Fujikawa, Kazuo; KUBO, HARUNOBU
1997-01-01
It is shown that an extended q-deformed $su(2)$ algebra with an extra (``Schwinger '') term can describe Bloch electrons in a uniform magnetic field with an additional periodic potential. This is a generalization of the analysis of Bloch electrons by Wiegmann and Zabrodin. By using a representation theory of this q-deformed algebra, we obtain functional Bethe ansatz equations whose solutions should be functions of finite degree. It is also shown that the zero energy solution is expressed in t...
The Bloch Vector for N-Level Systems
Kimura, Gen
2003-01-01
We determine the set of the Bloch vectors for N-level systems, generalizing the familiar Bloch ball in 2-level systems. An origin of the structural difference from the Bloch ball in 2-level systems is clarified.
Experimental reconstruction of Wilson lines in Bloch bands
Li, Tracy; Duca, Lucia; Reitter, Martin; Grusdt, Fabian; Demler, Eugene; Endres, Manuel; Schleier-Smith, Monika; Bloch, Immanuel; Schneider, Ulrich
2015-01-01
Topology and geometry are essential to our understanding of modern physics, underlying many foundational concepts from high energy theories, quantum information, and condensed matter physics. In condensed matter systems, a wide range of phenomena stem from the geometry of the band eigenstates, which is encoded in the matrix-valued Wilson line for general multi-band systems. By realizing strong-force dynamics in Bloch bands that are described by Wilson lines, we observe an ev...
Experimental reconstruction of Wilson lines in Bloch bands
Li, Tracy; Duca, Lucia; Reitter, Martin; Grusdt, Fabian; Demler, Eugene; Endres, Manuel; Schleier-Smith, Monika; BLOCH, Immanuel; Schneider, Ulrich
2015-01-01
Topology and geometry are essential to our understanding of modern physics, underlying many foundational concepts from high energy theories, quantum information, and condensed matter physics. In condensed matter systems, a wide range of phenomena stem from the geometry of the band eigenstates, which is encoded in the matrix-valued Wilson line for general multi-band systems. By realizing strong-force dynamics in Bloch bands that are described by Wilson lines, we observe an evolution of band po...
Electric dipoles on the Bloch sphere
Vutha, Amar C
2014-01-01
The time evolution of a two-level quantum mechanical system can be geometrically described using the Bloch sphere. By mapping the Bloch sphere evolution onto the dynamics of oscillating electric dipoles, we provide a physically intuitive link between classical electromagnetism and the electric dipole transitions of atomic & molecular physics.
Electric dipoles on the Bloch sphere
Vutha, Amar C.
2015-03-01
The time evolution of a two-level quantum mechanical system can be geometrically described using the Bloch sphere. By mapping the Bloch sphere evolution onto the dynamics of oscillating electric dipoles, we provide a physically intuitive link between classical electromagnetism and the electric dipole transitions of atomic and molecular physics.
First Bloch eigenvalue in high contrast media
Briane, Marc; Vanninathan, Muthusamy
2014-01-01
This paper deals with the asymptotic behavior of the first Bloch eigenvalue in a heterogeneous medium with a high contrast ɛY-periodic conductivity. When the conductivity is bounded in L1 and the constant of the Poincaré-Wirtinger weighted by the conductivity is very small with respect to ɛ-2, the first Bloch eigenvalue converges as ɛ → 0 to a limit which preserves the second-order expansion with respect to the Bloch parameter. In dimension two the expansion of the limit can be improved until the fourth-order under the same hypotheses. On the contrary, in dimension three a fibers reinforced medium combined with a L1-unbounded conductivity leads us to a discontinuity of the limit first Bloch eigenvalue as the Bloch parameter tends to zero but remains not orthogonal to the direction of the fibers. Therefore, the high contrast conductivity of the microstructure induces an anomalous effect, since for a given low-contrast conductivity the first Bloch eigenvalue is known to be analytic with respect to the Bloch parameter around zero.
First Bloch eigenvalue in high contrast media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Briane, Marc, E-mail: mbriane@insa-rennes.fr [Institut de Recherche Mathématique de Rennes, INSA de Rennes (France); Vanninathan, Muthusamy, E-mail: vanni@math.tifrbng.res.in [TIFR-CAM, Bangalore (India)
2014-01-15
This paper deals with the asymptotic behavior of the first Bloch eigenvalue in a heterogeneous medium with a high contrast εY-periodic conductivity. When the conductivity is bounded in L{sup 1} and the constant of the Poincaré-Wirtinger weighted by the conductivity is very small with respect to ε{sup −2}, the first Bloch eigenvalue converges as ε → 0 to a limit which preserves the second-order expansion with respect to the Bloch parameter. In dimension two the expansion of the limit can be improved until the fourth-order under the same hypotheses. On the contrary, in dimension three a fibers reinforced medium combined with a L{sup 1}-unbounded conductivity leads us to a discontinuity of the limit first Bloch eigenvalue as the Bloch parameter tends to zero but remains not orthogonal to the direction of the fibers. Therefore, the high contrast conductivity of the microstructure induces an anomalous effect, since for a given low-contrast conductivity the first Bloch eigenvalue is known to be analytic with respect to the Bloch parameter around zero.
First Bloch eigenvalue in high contrast media
Briane, Marc; Vanninathan, Muthusamy
2014-01-01
16 pages International audience This paper deals with the asymptotic behavior of the first Bloch eigenvalue in a heterogeneous medium with a high contrast $\\varepsilon Y$-periodic conductivity. When the conductivity is bounded in $L^1$ and the constant of the Poincaré-Wirtinger weighted by the conductivity is very small with respect to $\\varepsilon^{-2}$, the first Bloch eigenvalue converges as $\\varepsilon\\to 0$ to a limit which preserves the second-order expansion with respect to the ...
Entanglement and the three-dimensionality of the Bloch ball
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masanes, Ll., E-mail: ll.masanes@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Müller, M. P. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 19, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Pérez-García, D. [Departamento de Analisis Matematico and IMI, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Augusiak, R. [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)
2014-12-15
We consider a very natural generalization of quantum theory by letting the dimension of the Bloch ball be not necessarily three. We analyze bipartite state spaces where each of the components has a d-dimensional Euclidean ball as state space. In addition to this, we impose two very natural assumptions: the continuity and reversibility of dynamics and the possibility of characterizing bipartite states by local measurements. We classify all these bipartite state spaces and prove that, except for the quantum two-qubit state space, none of them contains entangled states. Equivalently, in any of these non-quantum theories, interacting dynamics is impossible. This result reveals that “existence of entanglement” is the requirement with minimal logical content which singles out quantum theory from our family of theories.
Observation of Bloch oscillations in molecular rotation
Floß, Johannes; Averbukh, Ilya Sh; Bucksbaum, Philip H
2015-01-01
The periodically kicked quantum rotor is known for non-classical effects such as quantum localisation in angular momentum space or quantum resonances in rotational excitation. These phenomena have been studied in diverse systems mimicking the kicked rotor, such as cold atoms in optical lattices, or coupled photonic structures. Recently, it was predicted that several solid state quantum localisation phenomena - Anderson localisation, Bloch oscillations, and Tamm-Shockley surface states - may manifest themselves in the rotational dynamics of laser-kicked molecules. Here, we report the first observation of rotational Bloch oscillations in a gas of nitrogen molecules kicked by a periodic train of femtosecond laser pulses. A controllable detuning from the quantum resonance creates an effective accelerating potential in angular momentum space, inducing Bloch-like oscillations of the rotational excitation. These oscillations are measured via the temporal modulation of the refractive index of the gas. Our results int...
Fractional Bloch oscillations in photonic lattices
Corrielli, Giacomo; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Longhi, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto; 10.1038/ncomms2578
2013-01-01
Bloch oscillations, the oscillatory motion of a quantum particle in a periodic potential, are one of the most fascinating effects of coherent quantum transport. Originally studied in the context of electrons in crystals, Bloch oscillations manifest the wave nature of matter and are found in a wide variety of different physical systems. Here we report on the first experimental observation of fractional Bloch oscillations, using a photonic lattice as a model system of a two-particle extended Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. In our photonic simulator, the dynamics of two correlated particles hopping on a one-dimensional lattice is mapped into the motion of a single particle in a two-dimensional lattice with engineered defects and mimicked by light transport in a square waveguide lattice with a bent axis.
The Barkas-Effect Correction to Bethe-Bloch Stopping Power
Porter, L. E.
A brief history of the discovery of the Barkas-effect correction to the Bethe-Bloch stopping power formula is presented, followed by a recounting of the initial theoretical calculations prepared as a quantitative explanation. A current version of the modified Bethe-Bloch formula is described in detail. An overview of the current capability to assess the validity of several existing formalisms for calculating the Barkas-effect correction term is provided, in the course of which discussion of numerous sources of uncertainty ensues. Finally, an opinion on the significance of this departure from Bethe-Bloch theory is offered, along with a presentation of a few recent developments and of some areas for focus in future exploration in the field of the stopping power of matter for charged particles.
Fractional Bloch Oscillations in photonic lattices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Corrielli G.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available We present the photonic analogy of the Fractional Bloch Oscillations [1]: the oscillatory motion of interacting particles moving in a periodic potential, under the presence of a static force. The analogy is implemented with the propagation of classical light in a specially engineered photonic waveguides lattice, fabricated in fused silica substrate via femtosecond laser micromachining.
Extended Cesaro Operator from to Bloch Space
Mingzhu Yang
2009-01-01
Let g be a holomorphic function of the unit ball B in several complex variables, and denote by the induced extended Cesaro operator. This paper discussed the boundedness and compactness of acting from to Bloch space in the unit ball.
The Quantum Noise of Ferromagnetic π-Bloch Domain Walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter R. Crompton
2009-09-01
Full Text Available We quantify the probability per unit Euclidean-time of reversing the magnetization of a π-Bloch vector, which describes the Ferromagnetic Domain Walls of a Ferromagnetic Nanowire at finite-temperatures. Our approach, based on Langer’s Theory, treats the double sine-Gordon model that defines the π-Bloch vectors via a procedure of nonperturbative renormalization, and uses importance sampling methods to minimise the free energy of the system and identify the saddlepoint solution corresponding to the reversal probability. We identify that whilst the general solution for the free energy minima cannot be expressed in closed form, we can obtain a closed expression for the saddlepoint by maximizing the entanglement entropy of the system as a polynomial ring. We use this approach to quantify the geometric and non-geometric contributions to the entanglement entropy of the Ferromagnetic Nanowire, defined between entangled Ferromagnetic Domain Walls, and evaluate the Euclidean-time dependence of the domain wall width and angular momentum transfer at the domain walls, which has been recently proposed as a mechanism for Quantum Memory Storage.
The Bloch wave operator: generalizations and applications: Part I. The time-independent case
Killingbeck, J P
2003-01-01
This is part 1 of a two-part review on wave operator theory and methods. The basic theory of the time-independent wave operator is presented in terms of partitioned matrix theory for the benefit of general readers, with a discussion of the links between the matrix and projection operator approaches. The matrix approach is shown to lead to simple derivations of the wave operators and effective Hamiltonians of Loewdin, Bloch, Des Cloizeaux and Kato as well as to some associated variational forms. The principal approach used throughout stresses the solution of the nonlinear equation for the reduced wave operator, leading to the construction of the effective Hamiltonians of Bloch and of Des Cloizeaux. Several mathematical techniques which are useful in implementing this approach are explained, some of them being relatively little known in the area of wave operator calculations. The theoretical discussion is accompanied by several specimen numerical calculations which apply the described techniques to a selection ...
Quantum state transfer via Bloch oscillations
Tamascelli, Dario; Olivares, Stefano; Rossotti, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2016-01-01
The realization of reliable quantum channels, able to transfer a quantum state with high fidelity, is a fundamental step in the construction of scalable quantum devices. In this paper we describe a transmission scheme based on the genuinely quantum effect known as Bloch oscillations. The proposed protocol makes it possible to carry a quantum state over different distances with a minimal engineering of the transmission medium and can be implemented and verified on current quantum technology hardware. PMID:27189630
Origin of the Bloch-type polarization components at the 180° domain walls in ferroelectric PbTiO3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Determination of atomic and electronic structures of ferroelectric domain walls is crucial to understand and explore their unusual properties. Using first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory, we explored the atomic and electronic structures of 180° domain walls in PbTiO3, in order to understand the origin of Bloch-type polarization components. It is found that Bloch-type polarization components originate from the large displacements of Pb atoms and the Pb-O hybridization at the domain walls. The development of Bloch-type polarization components significantly reduce the domain wall energies and change the Peierls barriers of domain wall motion in different orientations
A Refresher of the Original Bloch's Law Paper (Bloch, July 1885).
Gorea, Andrei
2015-08-01
In 1885, Adolphe-Moïse Bloch asked the following simple question "Is there a law describing the relationship between the duration of a light and its perceived intensity?" Based on a series of experiments using a Foucault regulator and a candle, Bloch concluded that "when the lighting duration varies from 0.00173 to 0.0518 seconds (…) the [visible] light is markedly in inverse proportion to its duration"-his famous law. As this law pertains to the more general and hotly debated question of accumulation of sensory information over time, it is timely to offer the public a full translation of Bloch's original paper (from French) and to present it within the context of contemporary research. PMID:27433317
Bloch's Theorem in the Context of Quaternion Analysis
Gürlebeck, K
2012-01-01
The classical theorem of Bloch (1924) asserts that if $f$ is a holomorphic function on a region that contains the closed unit disk $|z|\\leq 1$ such that $f(0) = 0$ and $|f'(0)| = 1$, then the image domain contains discs of radius $3/2-\\sqrt{2} > 1/12$. The optimal value is known as Bloch's constant and 1/12 is not the best possible. In this paper we give a direct generalization of Bloch's theorem to the three-dimensional Euclidean space in the framework of quaternion analysis. We compute explicitly a lower bound for the Bloch constant.
The ℋ∞ synchronization of nonlinear Bloch systems via dynamic feedback control approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider an ℋ∞ synchronization problem in nonlinear Bloch systems. Based on Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality formulation, a dynamic feedback controller is designed to guarantee asymptotic stability of the master-slave synchronization. Moreover, this controller reduces the effect of an external disturbance to the ℋ∞ norm constraint. A numerical example is given to validate the proposed synchronization scheme. (general)
Bloch spaces on bounded symmetric domains in complex Banach spaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENG; Fangwen
2006-01-01
We give a definition of Bloch space on bounded symmetric domains in arbitrary complex Banach space and prove such function space is a Banach space. The properties such as boundedness, compactness and closed range of composition operators on such Bloch space are studied.
Improved Separability Criteria Based on Bloch Representation of Density Matrices.
Shen, Shu-Qian; Yu, Juan; Li, Ming; Fei, Shao-Ming
2016-01-01
The correlation matrices or tensors in the Bloch representation of density matrices are encoded with entanglement properties. In this paper, based on the Bloch representation of density matrices, we give some new separability criteria for bipartite and multipartite quantum states. Theoretical analysis and some examples show that the proposed criteria can be more efficient than the previous related criteria. PMID:27350031
Bloch-Like Oscillations in Finite Quantum Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten; Lassen, Benny;
Inspired by several attempts to generate Bloch-like oscillations in different fields of physics [1,2], we examine a multitude of oscillator systems and interactions that lead to Bloch oscillations in finite quantum structures. A general requirement is the existence of a common period in the time ...
Modified Bloch-Redfield Master Equation for Incoherent Excitation of Multilevel Quantum Systems
Tscherbul, Timur V
2014-01-01
We present an efficient theoretical method for calculating the time evolution of the density matrix of a multilevel quantum system weakly interacting with incoherent light. The method combines the Bloch-Redfield theory with a partial secular approximation for one-photon coherences, resulting in a master equation that explicitly exposes the reliance on transition rates and the angles between transition dipole moments in the energy basis. The modified Bloch-Redfield master equation allows an unambiguous distinction between the regimes of quantum coherent vs. incoherent energy transfer under incoherent light illumination. The fully incoherent regime is characterized by orthogonal transition dipole moments in the energy basis, leading to a dynamical evolution governed by a coherence-free Pauli-type master equation. The coherent regime requires non-orthogonal transition dipole moments in the energy basis, and leads to the generation of noise-induced quantum coherences and population-to-coherence couplings. As a fi...
An approximation formula for the Bloch-Siegert shift of the Rabi model
Rapedius, K
2015-01-01
So far the Bloch-Siegert shift of the Rabi model has only been calculated numerically or by means of perturbation theory valid in either the weak or strong driving regime only. Recently Yan, L\\"u, and Zheng [Phys.~Rev.~A {\\bf 91}, 053834 (2015)] showed how to reduce the problem to solving a system of three nonlinear equations. Here, we pursue an alternative approach based on a perturbation expansion extrapolation technique. We are thus able to derive an explicit analytical approximation formula for the Bloch-Siegert shift of the Rabi model which is valid for all parameter regimes from weak to strong driving. Comparison with numerically exact results reveals an excellent agreement over the entire driving-strength range.
Unit quaternions and the Bloch sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The spinor representation of spin-1/2 states can equally well be mapped to a single unit quaternion, yielding a new perspective despite the equivalent mathematics. This paper first demonstrates a useable map that allows Bloch-sphere rotations to be represented as quaternionic multiplications, simplifying the form of the dynamical equations. Left-multiplications generally correspond to non-unitary transformations, providing a simpler (essentially classical) analysis of time-reversal. But the quaternion viewpoint also reveals a surprisingly large broken symmetry, as well as a potential way to restore it, via a natural expansion of the state space that has parallels to second order fermions. This expansion to ‘second order qubits’ would imply either a larger gauge freedom or a natural space of hidden variables. (paper)
Bloch vector, disclination and exotic quantum holonomy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A topological formulation of the eigenspace anholonomy, where eigenspaces are interchanged by adiabatic cycles, is introduced. The anholonomy in two-level systems is identified with a disclination of the director (headless vector) of a Bloch vector, which characterizes eigenprojectors. The covering map structure behind the exotic quantum holonomy and the role of the homotopy classification of adiabatic cycles are elucidated. The extensions of this formulation to nonadiabatic cycles and N-level systems are outlined. - Highlights: • A topological formulation of the eigenspace anholonomy is proposed. • The covering map structure behind the anholonomy is identified. • The role of homotopy classification of adiabatic cycles is explained. • The anholonomy in two-level systems is associated with disclinations. • The present formulation offers an extension to nonadiabatic cycles
Unit quaternions and the Bloch sphere
Wharton, K. B.; Koch, D.
2015-06-01
The spinor representation of spin-1/2 states can equally well be mapped to a single unit quaternion, yielding a new perspective despite the equivalent mathematics. This paper first demonstrates a useable map that allows Bloch-sphere rotations to be represented as quaternionic multiplications, simplifying the form of the dynamical equations. Left-multiplications generally correspond to non-unitary transformations, providing a simpler (essentially classical) analysis of time-reversal. But the quaternion viewpoint also reveals a surprisingly large broken symmetry, as well as a potential way to restore it, via a natural expansion of the state space that has parallels to second order fermions. This expansion to ‘second order qubits’ would imply either a larger gauge freedom or a natural space of hidden variables.
Bloch inductance in small-capacitance Josephson junctions
Zorin, A. B.
2005-01-01
We show that the electrical impedance of a small-capacitance Josephson junction includes besides the capacitive term $-i/\\omega C_B$ also an inductive term $i\\omega L_B$. Similar to the known Bloch capacitance $C_B(q)$, the Bloch inductance $L_B(q)$ also depends periodically on the quasicharge $q$, and its maximum value achieved at $q=e (\\textrm{mod} 2e)$ always exceeds the value of the Josephson inductance of this junction $L_J(\\phi)$ at fixed $\\phi=0$. The effect of the Bloch inductance on ...
Bloch Inductance in Small-Capacitance Josephson Junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the electrical impedance of a small-capacitance Josephson junction also includes, in addition to the capacitive term -i/ωCB, an inductive term iωLB. Similar to the known Bloch capacitance CB(q), the Bloch inductance LB(q) also depends periodically on the quasicharge, q, and its maximum value achieved at q=e(mod 2e) always exceeds the value of the Josephson inductance of this junction LJ(φ) at fixed φ=0. The effect of the Bloch inductance on the dynamics of a single junction and a one-dimensional array is described
Bloch-Floquet type waves in periodic ferromagnetic layered structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danoyan Z.N.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The Bloch-Floquet type waves existence and propagation in ferromagnetic periodic layered structure are investigated. The dispersion equation obtained and investigated. It is shown that the waves spectrum contains forbidden zones.
Estimates on Bloch constants for planar harmonic mappings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The Bloch constants for quasiregular harmonic mappings and open planar harmonic mappings are considered. Better estimates are obtained. The results, presented in this paper, improve the one made by Chen et al. and Grigoryan.
Bloch-mode analysis for effective parameters restoration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lavrinenko, Andrei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Ha, Sangwoo; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.
surface or volume averaging of the electromagnetic fields of the dominating (fundamental) Bloch modes we are able to determine the Bloch and wave impedances, leading to wave and material effective parameters, respectively. The approach is demonstrated on several examples. We focus our discussion on the...... nature of microfields returned by Maxwell's solvers, showing that ignoring of difference between magnetic strength and induction lead to incorrect determination of the Poynting vector....
Intersubband gain in a Bloch oscillator and Quantum cascade laser
Willenberg, Harald; Dohler, Gottfried H.; Faist, Jerome
2002-01-01
The link between the inversion gain of quantum cascade structures and the Bloch gain in periodic superlattices is presented. The proposed theoretical model based on the density matrix formalism is able to treat the gain mechanism of the Bloch oscillator and Quantum cascade laser on the same footing by taking into account in-plane momentum relaxation. The model predicts a dispersive contribution in addition to the (usual) population-inversion-dependent intersubband gain in quantum cascade stru...
Calculation of the relativistic Bloch correction to stopping power
Ahlen, S. P.
1982-01-01
Bloch's technique of joining the nonrelativistic Bethe and Bohr stopping-power expressions by taking into account wave-packet effects for close collisions is extended to the relativistic case. It is found that Bloch's nonrelativistic correction term must be modified and that charge asymmetric terms appear. Excellent agreement is observed by comparing the results of these calculations to recent data on the stopping power of relativistic heavy ions.
Bloch oscillations of bosonic lattice polarons
Grusdt, F.; Shashi, A.; Abanin, D.; Demler, E.
2014-12-01
We consider a single-impurity atom confined to an optical lattice and immersed in a homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Interaction of the impurity with the phonon modes of the BEC leads to the formation of a stable quasiparticle, the polaron. We use a variational mean-field approach to study dispersion renormalization and derive equations describing nonequilibrium dynamics of polarons by projecting equations of motion into mean-field-type wave functions. As a concrete example, we apply our method to study dynamics of impurity atoms in response to a suddenly applied force and explore the interplay of coherent Bloch oscillations and incoherent drift. We obtain a nonlinear dependence of the drift velocity on the applied force, including a sub-Ohmic dependence for small forces for dimensionality d >1 of the BEC. For the case of heavy impurity atoms, we derive a closed analytical expression for the drift velocity. Our results show considerable differences with the commonly used phenomenological Esaki-Tsu model.
Modified-Bloch-equation description of EPR transient nutations and free induction decay in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on the experimental work by Boscaino et al on the EPR transient nutations (TNs) and free induction decay (FID) in solids, we propose the modified Bloch equations (MBEs). In addition to the Tomita expression for power-dependent parameter T2u, we give an original phenomenological expression for power-dependent parameter T2v and tuning Δ. Both analytical (in the form of a Torrey solution with these parameters) and numerical solutions of MBE are obtained for TN and for different FID regimes with very good agreement between theory and experiment. We also discuss the meaning and role of the instantaneous diffusion mechanism in the transient pulse experiments. (author)
COMPOSITION OPERATORS ON THE LITTLE BLOCH SPACE IN POLYDISCS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Zehua; Zhu Min; Shi Jihuai
2005-01-01
Let Un be the unit polydisc of Cn and φ = (φ1,…,φn) a holomorphic self map of Un. This paper shows that the composition operator Cφ induced by φ is bounded on the little Bloch space β0*(Un) if and only if φ∈β0*(Un) for every l=1,2,…,n, and also gives a sufficient and necessary condition for the composition operator Cφ to be compact on the little Bloch spaceβ0* (Un).
Geometric optics of Bloch waves in a chiral and dissipative medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a geometric optics theory for the transport of quantum particles (or classical waves) in a chiral and dissipative periodic crystal subject to slowly varying perturbations in space and time. Taking account of some properties of particles and media neglected in previous theory, we find important additional terms in the equations of motion of particles. The (energy) current density field, which traces the geometric optics rays, is not only governed by the Bloch band energy dispersion but also involves there additional fields. These are the angular momentum of the particle, the dissipation dipole density, and various geometric gauge fields in the extended phase space spanned by space time and its reciprocal, momentum, and frequency. For simplicity, the theory is presented using light propagation in photonic crystals.
Bloch-wave engineering of quantum dot-micropillars for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lermer, Matthias; Gregersen, Niels; Dunzer, Florian;
2012-01-01
We have employed Bloch-wave engineering to realize submicron diameter ultra-high quality factor GaAs/AlAs micropillars (MPs). The design features a tapered cavity in which the fundamental Bloch mode is subject to an adiabatic transition to match the Bragg mirror Bloch mode. The resulting reduced ...
Quantum Properties of Bloch Point as Nanosized Soliton in Ferromagnetics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.Yu. Barabash
2014-11-01
Full Text Available It is established that magnetic soliton – Bloch point – has quantum properties which are manifested in the effects of tunneling and above-barrier reflection in a subhelium temperature range. The conditions of the given phenomena are determined.
Tscherbul, Timur V.; Brumer, Paul
2015-03-01
We present an efficient theoretical method for calculating the time evolution of the density matrix of a multilevel quantum system weakly interacting with incoherent light. The method combines the Bloch-Redfield theory with a partial secular approximation for one-photon coherences, resulting in a master equation that explicitly exposes the reliance on transition rates and the angles between transition dipole moments in the energy basis. The partial secular Bloch-Redfield master equation allows an unambiguous distinction between the regimes of quantum coherent vs. incoherent energy transfer under incoherent light illumination. The fully incoherent regime is characterized by orthogonal transition dipole moments in the energy basis, leading to a dynamical evolution governed by a coherence-free Pauli-type master equation. The coherent regime requires non-orthogonal transition dipole moments in the energy basis and leads to the generation of noise-induced quantum coherences and population-to-coherence couplings. As a first application, we consider the dynamics of excited state coherences arising under incoherent light excitation from a single ground state and observe population-to-coherence transfer and the formation of non-equilibrium quasisteady states in the regime of small excited state splitting. Analytical expressions derived earlier for the V-type system [T. V. Tscherbul and P. Brumer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 113601 (2014)] are found to provide a nearly quantitative description of multilevel excited-state populations and coherences in both the small- and large-molecule limits.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tscherbul, Timur V., E-mail: ttscherb@chem.utoronto.ca; Brumer, Paul [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, and Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)
2015-03-14
We present an efficient theoretical method for calculating the time evolution of the density matrix of a multilevel quantum system weakly interacting with incoherent light. The method combines the Bloch-Redfield theory with a partial secular approximation for one-photon coherences, resulting in a master equation that explicitly exposes the reliance on transition rates and the angles between transition dipole moments in the energy basis. The partial secular Bloch-Redfield master equation allows an unambiguous distinction between the regimes of quantum coherent vs. incoherent energy transfer under incoherent light illumination. The fully incoherent regime is characterized by orthogonal transition dipole moments in the energy basis, leading to a dynamical evolution governed by a coherence-free Pauli-type master equation. The coherent regime requires non-orthogonal transition dipole moments in the energy basis and leads to the generation of noise-induced quantum coherences and population-to-coherence couplings. As a first application, we consider the dynamics of excited state coherences arising under incoherent light excitation from a single ground state and observe population-to-coherence transfer and the formation of non-equilibrium quasisteady states in the regime of small excited state splitting. Analytical expressions derived earlier for the V-type system [T. V. Tscherbul and P. Brumer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 113601 (2014)] are found to provide a nearly quantitative description of multilevel excited-state populations and coherences in both the small- and large-molecule limits.
``Bloch wave'' modification of stimulated Raman by stimulated Brillouin scattering
Dodd, E. S.; Vu, H. X.; DuBois, D. F.; Bezzerides, B.
2013-03-01
Using the reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) method, we study the coupling of backward stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS) and backward stimulated Brillouin scattering (BSBS) in regimes where the reflectivity involves the nonlinear behavior of particles trapped in the daughter plasma waves. The temporal envelope of a Langmuir wave (LW) obeys a Schrödinger equation where the potential is the periodic electron density fluctuation resulting from an ion-acoustic wave (IAW). The BSRS-driven LWs in this case have a Bloch wave structure and a modified dispersion due to the BSBS-driven spatially periodic IAW, which includes frequency band gaps at kLW˜kIAW/2˜k0 (kLW, kIAW, and k0 are the wave number of the LW, IAW, and incident pump electromagnetic wave, respectively). This band structure and the associated Bloch wave harmonic components are distinctly observed in RPIC calculations of the electron density fluctuation spectra and this structure may be observable in Thomson scatter. Bloch wave components grow up in the LW spectrum, and are not the result of isolated BSRS. Self-Thomson scattered light from these Bloch wave components can have forward scattering components. The distortion of the LW dispersion curve implies that the usual relationship connecting the frequency shift of the BSRS-scattered light and the density of origin of this light may become inaccurate. The modified LW frequency results in a time-dependent frequency shift that increases as the IAW grows, detunes the BSRS frequency matching condition, and reduces BSRS growth. A dependence of the BSRS reflectivity on the IAW Landau damping results because this damping determines the levels of IAWs. The time-dependent reflectivity in our simulations is characterized by bursts of sub-picosecond pulses of BSRS alternating with multi-ps pulses of BSBS, and BSRS is observed to decline precipitously as soon as SBS begins to grow from low levels. In strong BSBS regimes, the Bloch wave effects in BSRS are
Surface Bloch waves mediated heat transfer between two photonic crystals
Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Joulain, Karl; Pryamikov, Andrey
2010-01-01
submitted to Applied Physics Letters We theoretically investigate the non-radiative heat transfer between two photonic crystals separated by a small gap in non-equilibrium thermal situation. We predict that the surface Bloch states coupling supported by these media can make heat exchanges larger than those measured at the same separation distance between two massive homogeneous materials made with the elementary components of photonic crystals. These results could find broad applications i...
Dynamics of Bloch oscillating transistor near the bifurcation threshold
Sarkar, Jayanta; Puska, Antti; Hassel, Juha; Hakonen, Pertti J.
2013-01-01
The tendency to bifurcate can often be utilized to improve performance characteristics of amplifiers or even to build detectors. The Bloch oscillating transistor is such a device. Here, we show that bistable behavior can be approached by tuning the base current and that the critical value depends on the Josephson coupling energy EJ of the device. We demonstrate current-gain enhancement for the device operating near the bifurcation point at small EJ. From our results for the current gains at v...
Super Bloch Oscillation in a PT symmetric system
Turker, Z
2016-01-01
Wannier-Stark ladder in a PT symmetric system is generally complex that leads to amplified/damped Bloch oscillation. We show that a non-amplified wave packet oscillation with very large amplitude can be realized in a non-Hermitian tight binding lattice if certain conditions are satisfied. We show that pseudo PT symmetry guarantees the reality of the quasi energy spectrum in our system.
Bloch-Nordsieck cancellations beyond logarithms in heavy particle decays
Beneke, M.; Braun, Vladimir M.; Zakharov, V. I.
1994-01-01
We investigate the one-loop radiative corrections to the semileptonic decay of a charged particle at finite gauge boson mass. Extending the Bloch-Nordsieck cancellation of infrared logarithms, the subsequent non-analytic terms are also found to vanish after eliminating the pole mass in favor of a mass defined at short distances. This observation justifies the operator product expansion for inclusive decays of heavy mesons and implies that infrared effects associated with the summation of the ...
Orbital magnetism of Bloch electrons I. General formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We derive an exact formula of orbital susceptibility expressed in terms of Bloch wave functions, starting from the exact one-line formula by Fukuyama in terms of Green's functions. The obtained formula contains four contributions: (1) Landau-Peierls susceptibility, (2) interband contribution, (3) Fermi surface contribution, and (4) contribution from occupied states. Except for the Landau-Peierls susceptibility, the other three contributions involve the crystal-momentum derivatives of Bloch wave functions. Physical meaning of each term is clarified. The present formula is simplified compared with those obtained previously by Hebborn et al. Based on the formula, it is seen first of all that diamagnetism from core electrons and Van Vleck susceptibility are the only contributions in the atomic limit. The band effects are then studied in terms of linear combination of atomic orbital treating overlap integrals between atomic orbitals as a perturbation and the itinerant feature of Bloch electrons in solids are clarified systematically for the first time. (author)
Behaviour of neutrons passing through the Bloch wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In part I of the present paper the pertinent knowledge about Bloch walls is presented and developed insofar as it appears necessary for the experiments with neutrons, that is to say the direction of magnetization within the domains, the calculation of the variation of magnetization in the wall, the wall thickness, and the zigzag structure of the Bloch wall. In part II it is first clarified why the Bloch wall can be treated as a continuum problem. It shows that this is possible far away from Laue reflexes. For angles far away from Laure-reflex angles the interaction of the periodic structure of the magnetization can be described with the aid of an averaged magnetic flux density. The consequence of it is the possibility of treating the problem by means of a Schroedinger equation with continous interaction. This leads to a law of refraction. The question of the possibilities for explaining the intensity behavior is treated in part III. This part, from different aspects, describes the fact, which already was pointed out in Schaerpf, O., Vehoff, H., Schwink, Ch. 1973, that the spin of the neutrons in passing through the wall is partly taken along by the magnetization gradually rotating in the wall. (orig./WBU)
Continuity, the Bloch-Torrey equation, and Diffusion MRI
Hall, Matt G
2016-01-01
The Bloch equation describes the evolution of classical particles tagged with a magnetisation vector in a strong magnetic field and is fundamental to many NMR and MRI contrast methods. The equation can be generalised to include the effects of spin motion by including a spin flux, which typically contains a Fickian diffusive term and/or a coherent velocity term. This form is known as the Bloch-Torrey equation, and is fundamental to MR modalities which are sensitive to spin dynamics such as diffusion MRI. Such modalities have received a great deal of interest in the research literature over the last few years, resulting in a huge range of models and methods. In this work we make make use of a more general Bloch-Torrey equation with a generalised flux term. We show that many commonly employed approaches in Diffusion MRI may be viewed as different choices for the flux terms in this equation. This viewpoint, although obvious theoretically, is not usually emphasised in the diffusion MR literature and points to inte...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernhard Streck
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The essay wants to deconstruct the genre of utopias so popular in the 20th century political writings. Human history shows manifold respect to stories about non-existent worlds which mix reality and non-reality, but outside the area of Abrahamitic beliefs there was rarely hope for a future. The secular version of such eschatological teachings begins with Karl Marx in the 19th century and culminates in the prophetic as well as revolutionary writings of Ernst Bloch around the terrible wars of the 20th century. This philosopher succeeded in both parts of post-war Germany and is still venerated inside and outside the academias. Compared with the so-called dystopias of Max Weber, Aldous Huxley or George Orwell the political visions of Bloch lack any sense of reality and seem to be quite useless to the understanding of present tendencies in world politics.
Multiflavor bosonic Hubbard models in the first excited Bloch band of an optical lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose that by exciting ultracold atoms from the zeroth to the first Bloch band in an optical lattice, multiflavor bosonic Hubbard Hamiltonians can be realized in a different way. In these systems, each flavor hops in a separate direction and on-site exchange terms allow pairwise conversion between different flavors. Using band-structure calculations, we determine the parameters entering these Hamiltonians and derive the mean-field ground-state phase diagram for two effective Hamiltonians (two dimensional, two flavors, and three dimensional, three flavors). Further, we estimate the stability of atoms in the first band using second-order perturbation theory and find lifetimes that can be considerably (10-100 times) longer than the relevant time scale associated with intersite hopping dynamics, suggesting that quasiequilibrium can be achieved in these metastable states
Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations
Schubert, O; Langer, F; Urbanek, B; Lange, C; Huttner, U; Golde, D; Meier, T; Kira, M; Koch, S W; Huber, R
2016-01-01
Ultrafast charge transport in strongly biased semiconductors is at the heart of highspeed electronics, electro-optics, and fundamental solid-state physics. Intense light pulses in the terahertz (THz) spectral range have opened fascinating vistas: Since THz photon energies are far below typical electronic interband resonances, a stable electromagnetic waveform may serve as a precisely adjustable bias. Novel quantum phenomena have been anticipated for THz amplitudes reaching atomic field strengths. We exploit controlled THz waveforms with peak fields of 72 MV/cm to drive coherent interband polarization combined with dynamical Bloch oscillations in semiconducting gallium selenide. These dynamics entail the emission of phase-stable high-harmonic transients, covering the entire THz-to-visible spectral domain between 0.1 and 675 THz. Quantum interference of different ionization paths of accelerated charge carriers is controlled via the waveform of the driving field and explained by a quantum theory of inter- and in...
Zhou Zehua; Liu Yan
2006-01-01
Let be the unit polydisc of and a holomorphic self-map of . , and denote the -Bloch space, little -Bloch space, and little star -Bloch space in the unit polydisc , respectively, where . This paper gives the estimates of the essential norms of bounded composition operators induced by between ( or ) and ( or ). As their applications, some necessary and sufficient conditions for the (bounded) composition operators to be compact from ( or ) into ( or ) are obtained.
Properties of Floquet-Bloch space harmonics in 1D periodic magneto-dielectric structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Breinbjerg, O.
Recent years have witnessed a significant research interest in Floquet-Bloch analysis for determining the homogenized permittivity and permeability of metamaterials consisting of periodic structures. This work investigates fundamental properties of the Floquet-Bloch space harmonics in a 1-dimensi......-dimensional magneto-dielectric lossless structure supporting a transverse-electric-magnetic Floquet-Bloch wave; in particular, the space harmonic permittivity and permeability, as well as the space harmonic Poynting vector....
Experimental study of Bloch vector analysis in nonlinear, finite, dissipative systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have investigated and experimentally demonstrated the applicability of the Bloch vector for one-dimensional, nonlinear, finite, dissipative systems. The case studied is the second harmonic generation from metallodielectric multilayer filters. In particular, we have applied the Bloch vector analysis to Ag/Ta2O5 thin-film multilayer samples and shown the importance of the phase matching calculated through the Bloch vector. The nonlinear coefficients extracted from experimental results are consistent with previous studies. Nowadays, metal-based nanostructures play a fundamental role in nonlinear nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics. Our results clearly suggest that even in these forefront fields the Bloch vector continues to play an essential role.
Excitation of Bloch-like surface waves in quasi-crystals and aperiodic dielectric multilayers.
Koju, Vijay; Robertson, William M
2016-07-01
The existence of Bloch surface waves in periodic dielectric multilayer structures with a surface defect is well known. Not yet recognized is that quasi-crystals and aperiodic dielectric multilayers can also support Bloch-like surface waves. In this work, we numerically show the excitation of Bloch-like surface waves in Fibonacci quasi-crystals and Thue-Morse aperiodic dielectric multilayers using the prism coupling method. We report improved surface electric field intensity and penetration depth of Bloch-like surface waves in the air side in such structures compared to their periodic counterparts. PMID:27367064
Nonreciprocal Bloch Oscillations in Magneto-Optic Waveguide Arrays
Levy, Miguel
2010-01-01
We show that nonreciprocal optical Bloch-like oscillations can emerge in transversely magnetized waveguide arrays in the presence of an effective index step between the waveguides. Normal modes of the system are shown to acquire different wavenumbers in opposite propagation directions. Significant differences in phase coherence and decoherence between these normal modes are presented and discussed. Non-reciprocity is established by imposing unequal vertical refractive index gradients at the substrate/core, and core/cover interfaces in the presence of transverse magnetization.
Dynamics of Bloch oscillating transistor near bifurcation threshold
Sarkar, Jayanta; Puska, Antti; Hassel, Juha; Hakonen, Pertti J.
2013-01-01
Tendency to bifurcate can often be utilized to improve performance characteristics of amplifiers or even to build detectors. Bloch oscillating transistor is such a device. Here we show that bistable behaviour can be approached by tuning the base current and that the critical value depends on the Josephson coupling energy $E_J$ of the device. We demonstrate record-large current gains for device operation near the bifurcation point at small $E_J$. From our results for the current gains at vario...
Fast algorithm for periodic density fitting for Bloch waves
Lu, Jianfeng
2015-01-01
We propose an efficient algorithm for density fitting of Bloch waves for Hamiltonian operators with periodic potential. The algorithm is based on column selection and random Fourier projection of the orbital functions. The computational cost of the algorithm scales as $\\mathcal{O}\\bigl(N_{\\text{grid}} N^2 + N_{\\text{grid}} NK \\log (NK)\\bigr)$, where $N_{\\text{grid}}$ is number of spatial grid points, $K$ is the number of sampling $k$-points in first Brillouin zone, and $N$ is the number of bands under consideration. We validate the algorithm by numerical examples in both two and three dimensions.
Truncated-Bloch-wave solitons in optical lattices
Wang, Jiandong; Alexander, Tristram J; Kivshar, Yuri S
2009-01-01
We study self-trapped localized nonlinear states in the form of truncated Bloch waves in one-dimensional optical lattices, which appear in the gaps of the linear bandgap spectrum. We demonstrate the existence of families of such localized states which differ by the number of intensity peaks. These families do not bifurcate from the band edge, and their power curves exhibit double branches. Linear stability analysis demonstrates that in deep lattice potentials the states corresponding to the lower branches are stable, whereas those corresponding to the upper branches are unstable, independently of the number of peaks.
Traffic restrictions on Routes Bloch, Maxwell and Bohr
IT Department
2008-01-01
Excavation and pipework is being carried out in the framework of the transfer of the waste water treatment plant for the effluents from the surface treatment workshops from Building 254 to Building 676, currently under construction. This work may encroach onto Routes Bloch, Maxwell and Bohr and disrupt the flow of traffic. Users are requested to comply with the road signs that will be erected. The work is expected to last until the beginning of December 2008. Thank you for your understanding. TS/CE and TS/FM Groups Tel.7 4188 or 16 4314
A formula for the Bloch vector of some Lindblad quantum systems
Salgado, D; Sanchez-Gomez, J. L.
2003-01-01
Using the Bloch representation of an N-dimensional quantum system and immediate results from quantum stochastic calculus, we establish a closed formula for the Bloch vector, hence also for the density operator, of a quantum system following a Lindblad evolution with selfadjoint Lindblad operators.
A formula for the Bloch vector of some Lindblad quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the Bloch representation of an N-dimensional quantum system and immediate results from quantum stochastic calculus, we establish a closed formula for the Bloch vector, hence also for the density operator, of a quantum system following a Lindblad evolution with selfadjoint Lindblad operators
From Bloch to random lasing in ZnO self-assembled nanostructures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia-Fernandez, Pedro David; Cefe, López
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present measurements on UV lasing in ZnO ordered and disordered nanostructures. Bloch lasing is achieved in the ordered structures by exploiting very low group-velocity Bloch modes in ZnO photonic crystals. In the second case, random lasing is observed in ZnO photonic glasses. W...
Wiegmann, P. B.; Zabrodin, A. V.
1993-01-01
We present a new approach to the problem of Bloch electrons in magnetic field,\\\\ by making explicit a natural relation between magnetic translations and the\\\\quantum group $U_{q}(sl_2)$. The approach allows to express the spectrum and\\\\\\ the Bloch function as solutions of the Bethe-Ansatz equations typical for com\\\\pletely integrable quantum systems
Bloch space structure, the qutrit wave function and atom-field entanglement in three-level systems
Sen, Surajit; Nath, Mihir Ranjan; Dey, Tushar Kanti; Gangopadhyay, Gautam
2011-01-01
We have given a novel formulation of the exact solutions for the lambda, vee and cascade three-level systems where the Hamiltonian of each configuration is expressed in the SU(3) basis. The solutions are discussed from the perspective of the Bloch equation and the atom-field entanglement scenario. For the semiclassical systems, the Bloch space structure of each configuration is studied by solving the corresponding Bloch equation and it is shown that at resonance, the eight-dimensional Bloch s...
Bloch-Zener oscillations in a tunable optical honeycomb lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uehlinger, Thomas; Greif, Daniel; Jotzu, Gregor; Esslinger, Tilman [Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Tarruell, Leticia [Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland and LP2N, Universite Bordeaux 1, IOGS, CNRS, 351 cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)
2013-12-04
Ultracold gases in optical lattices have proved to be a flexible tool to simulate many different phenomena of solid state physics [1, 2]. Recently, optical lattices with complex geometries have been realized [3, 4, 5, 6, 7], paving the way to simulating more realistic systems. The honeycomb structure has recently become accessible in an optical lattice composed of mutually perpendicular laser beams. This lattice structure exhibits topological features in its band structure – the Dirac points. At these points, two energy bands intersect linearly and the particles behave as relativistic Dirac fermions. In optical lattices, Bloch oscillations [8] resolved both in time and in quasi-momentum space can be directly observed. We make use of such Bloch-Zener oscillations to probe the vanishing energy gap at the Dirac points as well as their position in the band structure. In small band gap regions, we observe Landau-Zener tunneling [7, 9] to the second band and the regions of maximum transfer can be identified with the position of the Dirac points.
Computation and visualization of photonic quasicrystal spectra via Blochs theorem
Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Avniel, Yehuda; Johnson, Steven G
2007-01-01
Previous methods for determining photonic quasicrystal (PQC) spectra have relied on the use of large supercells to compute the eigenfrequencies and/or local density of states (LDOS). In this manuscript, we present a method by which the energy spectrum and the eigenstates of a PQC can be obtained by solving Maxwells equations in higher dimensions for any PQC defined by the standard cut-and-project construction, to which a generalization of Blochs theorem applies. In addition, we demonstrate how one can compute band structures with defect states in the higher-dimensional superspace with no additional computational cost. As a proof of concept, these general ideas are demonstrated for the simple case of one-dimensional quasicrystals, which can also be solved by simple transfer-matrix techniques.
Engineering of slow Bloch modes for optical trapping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milord, L.; Gerelli, E.; Jamois, C.; Harouri, A.; Benyattou, T., E-mail: taha.benyattou@insa-lyon.fr [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon (INL), CNRS UMR5270, Université de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, Bât “Blaise Pascal,” 7 avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne F-69621 (France); Chevalier, C.; Viktorovitch, P.; Letartre, X. [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon (INL), CNRS UMR5270, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, Ecully F-69134 (France)
2015-03-23
In the present paper, we propose an approach based on slow Bloch mode microcavity that enables the optical trapping of small nanoparticles over a broad surface. A specific design based on a double-period photonic crystal is presented. It enables an easy coupling using a wide free-space Gaussian beam and the cavity Q factor can be tuned at will. Moreover, the microcavity mode is mainly localized within the photonic crystal holes, meaning that each hole of the microcavity behaves as efficient nanotweezers. Experimental studies have shown that 200 nm and 100 nm particles can be trapped within the microcavity, in a spatial region that corresponds to the size of one hole (200 nm wide). The experimental trap stiffness has been extracted. It shows that this approach is among the most performant ones if we take into account the size of the cavity.
Multidimensional periodic Schrödinger operator perturbation theory and applications
Veliev, Oktay
2015-01-01
The book describes the direct problems and the inverse problem of the multidimensional Schrödinger operator with a periodic potential. This concerns perturbation theory and constructive determination of the spectral invariants and finding the periodic potential from the given Bloch eigenvalues. The unique method of this book derives the asymptotic formulas for Bloch eigenvalues and Bloch functions for arbitrary dimension. Moreover, the measure of the iso-energetic surfaces in the high energy region is construct and estimated. It implies the validity of the Bethe-Sommerfeld conjecture for arbitrary dimensions and arbitrary lattices. Using the perturbation theory constructed in this book, the spectral invariants of the multidimensional operator from the given Bloch eigenvalues are determined. Some of these invariants are explicitly expressed by the Fourier coefficients of the potential. This way the possibility to determine the potential constructively by using Bloch eigenvalues as input data is given. In the ...
A Floquet-Bloch decomposition of Maxwell's equations, applied to homogenization
Sjöberg, Daniel; Engström, Christian; Kristensson, Gerhard; Wall, David J.N.; Wellander, Niklas
2003-01-01
Using Bloch waves to represent the full solution of Maxwell’s equations in periodic media, we study the limit where the material’s period becomes much smaller than the wavelength. It is seen that for steady-state ﬁelds, only a few of the Bloch waves contribute to the full solution. Effective material parameters can be explicitly represented in terms of dyadic products of the mean values of the non-vanishing Bloch waves, providing a new means of homogenization. The representa...
Richter, Marten; Renger, Thomas; Knorr, Andreas
2008-01-01
On the basis of the recent progress in the resolution of the structure of the antenna light harvesting complex II (LHC II) of the photosystem II, we propose a microscopically motivated theory to predict excitation intensity-dependent spectra. We show that optical Bloch equations provide the means to include all 2( N ) excited states of an oligomer complex of N coupled two-level systems and analyze the effects of Pauli Blocking and exciton-exciton annihilation on pump-probe spectra. We use LHC Bloch equations for 14 Coulomb coupled two-level systems, which describe the S (0) and S (1) level of every chlorophyll molecule. All parameter introduced into the Hamiltonian are based on microscopic structure and a quantum chemical model. The derived Bloch equations describe not only linear absorption but also the intensity dependence of optical spectra in a regime where the interplay of Pauli Blocking effects as well as exciton-exciton annihilation effects are important. As an example, pump-probe spectra are discussed. The observed saturation of the spectra for high intensities can be viewed as a relaxation channel blockade on short time scales due to Pauli blocking. The theoretical investigation is useful for the interpretation of the experimental data, if the experimental conditions exceed the low intensity pump limit and effects like strong Pauli Blocking and exciton-exciton annihilation need to be considered. These effects become important when multiple excitations are generated by the pump pulse in the complex. PMID:17924202
On Bloch approximation and the boundedness of integration operator on $H^\\infty$
Smith, Wayne; Stolyarov, Dmitriy M.; Volberg, Alexander
2016-01-01
We obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for the operator of integration to be bounded on $H^\\infty$ in a simply connected domain. The main ingredient of the proof is a new result on approximation of Bloch functions.
Spatiotemporal control of light by Bloch-mode dispersion in multi-core fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard; Sukhorukov, A.A.; Neshev, D.N.;
2008-01-01
We study theoretically the dispersion properties of Bloch modes and nonlinearly-induced defect states in two-dimensional waveguide arrays. We define the conditions for achieving anomalous group-velocity dispersion and discuss possibilities for generation of spatiotemporal solitons....
A dorsal fold in Gymnura micrura (Bloch and Scheneider, 1801 (Chondrichthyes: Gymnuridae
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge Luiz Silva Nunes
2009-04-01
Full Text Available This paper reports a dorsal fold which is a membranous structure located on the tail of two juvenile butterfly rays, Gymnura micrura (Bloch & Scheneider, 1801, caught through artisanal fishery in the shallow waters of Maranhão State (Brazil.Neste manuscrito registra-se uma nadadeira dorsal em dois espécimes juvenis de Gymnura micrura (Bloch and Scheneider, 1801 capturadas pela pesca artesanal em águas rasas do estado do Maranhão (Brasil.
Weighted Composition Operators from Bergman-Type Spaces into Bloch Spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Songxiao Li; Stevo Stević
2007-08-01
Let be an analytic self-map and be a fixed analytic function on the open unit disk in the complex plane $\\mathbb{C}$. The weighted composition operator is defined by $$u C_\\varphi f=u\\cdot p (f\\circ\\varphi), f\\in H(D).$$ Weighted composition operators from Bergman-type spaces into Bloch spaces and little Bloch spaces are characterized by function theoretic properties of their inducing maps.
Optimal cloning of qubits given by arbitrary axisymmetric distribution on Bloch sphere
Bartkiewicz, Karol; Miranowicz, Adam
2010-01-01
We find an optimal quantum cloning machine, which clones qubits of arbitrary symmetrical distribution around the Bloch vector with the highest fidelity. The process is referred to as phase-independent cloning in contrast to the standard phase-covariant cloning for which an input qubit state is a priori better known. We assume that the information about the input state is encoded in an arbitrary axisymmetric distribution (phase function) on the Bloch sphere of the cloned qubits. We find analyt...
Bloch Oscillations of Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensates in Optical Lattices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GU Huai-Qiang; WANG Zhi-Cheng; JIN Kang; TAN Lei
2006-01-01
@@ We study the Bloch oscillations of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in spin-dependent optical lattices. The influence of the intercomponent atom interaction on the system is discussed in detail Accelerated breakdown of the Bloch oscillations and revival phenomena are found respectively for the repulsive and attractive case. For both the cases, the system will finally be set in a quantum self-trapping state due to dynamical instability.
Effects of the projectile electronic structure on Bethe-Bloch stopping parameters for Ag
Moussa, D.; Damache, S.; Ouichaoui, S.
2010-06-01
Energy losses of protons and alpha particles in silver have been accurately measured under the same experimental conditions over the velocity range E=(0.192-2.595) MeV/amu using the transmission method. Deduced S(E) stopping powers are compared to most accurate ones from the literature, to values generated by the SRIM-2008 computer code and to ICRU-49 compilation. They were analyzed in the framework of modified Bethe-Bloch theory for extracting Ag target mean excitation and ionization potential, I, and Barkas effect parameter, b. Values of ( 466±5) eV and 1.20±0.01 for these two parameters were inferred from the proton S(E) data while the alpha particle data yielded values of (438±4) eV and 1.38±0.01, respectively. The ( I, b) stopping parameters thus exhibit opposite variations as the projectile charge increases, similarly as we have found previously for nickel [6]. This can be ascribed only to an effect of the projectile electronic structure at low velocities. The obtained results are discussed in comparison to previous ones reported in the literature.
Philippe Bloch: Reducing distance between experiments and CERN
2009-01-01
With its unique combination of several hundred staff members and thousands of users from around the world sharing offices and physics data and profiting from mutually beneficial exchanges of know-how and expertise, the PH Department is a good example of a successful worldwide collaboration, set up as it was to construct and run the Laboratory’s physics experiments. The PH Depart-ment has always played host to thousands of users that contribute to CERN experiments and work on them, and whose numbers are set to grow in the years to come. With his long-standing experience as a user and then as the head of the CERN group within the CMS collaboration, Philippe Bloch, the new PH Department Head, is in favour of closer links between the Department and the experiments. "I think that the PH management should have a direct link to the experiments, and to do so we are holding regular management team meetings comprising members of the Department’s management and the e...
Geometry of the generalized Bloch sphere for qutrit
Goyal, Sandeep K; Singh, Rajeev; Simon, Sudhavathani
2011-01-01
The geometry of the generalized Bloch sphere $\\Omega_3$, the state space of a qutrit is studied. Closed form expressions for $\\Omega_3$, its boundary $\\partial \\Omega_3$, and the set of extremals $\\Omega_3^{\\rm ext}$ are obtained by use of an elementary observation. These expressions and analytic methods are used to classify the 28 two-sections and the 56 three-sections of $\\Omega_3$ into unitary equivalence classes, completing the works of earlier authors. It is shown, in particular, that there are families of two-sections and of three-sections which are equivalent geometrically but not unitarily, a feature that does not appear to have been appreciated earlier. A family of three-sections of obese-tetrahedral shape whose symmetry corresponds to the 24-element tetrahedral point group $T_d$ is examined in detail. This symmetry is traced to the reduction of the adjoint representation of SU(3), the symmetry underlying $\\Omega_3$, into direct sum of the two-dimensional and the two (inequivalent) three-dimensional ...
Allaire, Grégoire; Briane, Marc; Vanninathan, Muthusamy
2016-01-01
in press International audience In this paper we make a comparison between the two-scale asymptotic expansion method for periodic homogenization and the so-called Bloch wave method. It is well-known that the homogenized tensor coincides with the Hessian matrix of the first Bloch eigenvalue when the Bloch parameter vanishes. In the context of the two-scale asymptotic expansion method, there is the notion of high order homogenized equation [5] where the homogenized equation can be improve...
Unified theory of effective interaction
Takayanagi, Kazuo
2016-09-01
We present a unified description of effective interaction theories in both algebraic and graphic representations. In our previous work, we have presented the Rayleigh-Schrödinger and Bloch perturbation theories in a unified fashion by introducing the main frame expansion of the effective interaction. In this work, we start also from the main frame expansion, and present various nonperturbative theories in a coherent manner, which include generalizations of the Brandow, Brillouin-Wigner, and Bloch-Horowitz theories on the formal side, and the extended Krenciglowa-Kuo and the extended Lee-Suzuki methods on the practical side. We thus establish a coherent and comprehensive description of both perturbative and nonperturbative theories on the basis of the main frame expansion.
Hidden structures in time evolution of Bloch vector under thermal Jaynes-Cummings model
Azuma, Hiroo
2012-01-01
We reveal hidden structures of time evolution of the Bloch vector, whose dynamics is governed by the thermal Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM). Putting the two-level atom into a certain pure state and the cavity field into a mixed state in thermal equilibrium at initial time, we let the whole system evolve according to the JCM Hamiltonian. During this time evolution, the Bloch vector seems to be in complete disorder and confusion. Because of the thermal photon distribution, both its norm and direction change hard at random, so that the Bloch vector shows a quasichaotic behaviour. However, if we take a different viewpoint compared with ones that we have been used to, we can find some novel structures in the Bloch vector's trajectories plotted at constant time intervals. In this paper, at first, we try to give an explanation of emergence of the quasichaotic behaviour by drawing an analogy between the dynamics of the Bloch vector and that of a compressible fluid. Next, we discuss the following two facts: (1) If we adj...
Quasiperiodicity in time evolution of the Bloch vector under the thermal Jaynes-Cummings model
Azuma, Hiroo; Ban, Masashi
2014-07-01
We study a quasiperiodic structure in the time evolution of the Bloch vector, whose dynamics is governed by the thermal Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM). Putting the two-level atom into a certain pure state and the cavity field into a mixed state in thermal equilibrium at initial time, we let the whole system evolve according to the JCM Hamiltonian. During this time evolution, motion of the Bloch vector seems to be in disorder. Because of the thermal photon distribution, both a norm and a direction of the Bloch vector change hard at random. In this paper, taking a different viewpoint compared with ones that we have been used to, we investigate quasiperiodicity of the Bloch vector’s trajectories. Introducing the concept of the quasiperiodic motion, we can explain the confused behaviour of the system as an intermediate state between periodic and chaotic motions. More specifically, we discuss the following two facts: (1) If we adjust the time interval Δt properly, figures consisting of plotted dots at the constant time interval acquire scale invariance under replacement of Δt by sΔt, where s(>1) is an arbitrary real but not transcendental number. (2) We can compute values of the time variable t, which let |Sz(t)| (the absolute value of the z-component of the Bloch vector) be very small, with the Diophantine approximation (a rational approximation of an irrational number).
Probing the intrinsic optical Bloch-mode emission from a 3D photonic crystal.
Hsieh, Mei-Li; Bur, James A; Du, Qingguo; John, Sajeev; Lin, Shawn-Yu
2016-10-14
We report experimental observation of intrinsic Bloch-mode emission from a 3D tungsten photonic crystal at low thermal excitation. After the successful removal of conventional metallic emission (normal emission), it is possible to make an accurate comparison of the Bloch-mode and the normal emission. For all biases, we found that the emission intensity of the Bloch-mode is higher than that of the normal emission. The Bloch-mode emission also exhibits a slower dependence on [Formula: see text] than that of the normal emission. The observed higher emission intensity and a different T-dependence is attributed to Bloch-mode assisted emission where emitters have been located into a medium having local density of states different than the isotropic case. Furthermore, our finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation shows the presence of localized spots at metal-air boundaries and corners, having intense electric field. The enhanced plasmonic field and local non-equilibrium could induce a strong thermally stimulated emission and may be the cause of our unusual observation. PMID:27606574
Hung, Yu-Ju; Lin, I-Sheng
2016-07-11
This paper reports a novel approach to the direct observation of Bloch surface waves, wherein a layer of fluorescent material is deposited directly on the surface of a semi-infinite periodic layered cell. A set of surface nano-gratings is used to couple pumping light to Bloch surface waves, while the sample is rotated until the pumping light meets the quasi-phase matching conditions. This study investigated the directional propagation of waves on stripe and circular one-dimensional grating structures by analyzing the dispersion relationship of the first two eigen modes. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed scheme in visualizing Bloch surface waves, which could be extended to a variety of other devices. PMID:27410869
Experimental realization of Bloch oscillations in a parity-time synthetic silicon photonic lattice
Xu, Ye-Long; Fegadolli, William S.; Gan, Lin; Lu, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Scherer, Axel; Chen, Yan-Feng
2016-01-01
As an important electron transportation phenomenon, Bloch oscillations have been extensively studied in condensed matter. Due to the similarity in wave properties between electrons and other quantum particles, Bloch oscillations have been observed in atom lattices, photonic lattices, and so on. One of the many distinct advantages for choosing these systems over the regular electronic systems is the versatility in engineering artificial potentials. Here by utilizing dissipative elements in a CMOS-compatible photonic platform to create a periodic complex potential and by exploiting the emerging concept of parity-time synthetic photonics, we experimentally realize spatial Bloch oscillations in a non-Hermitian photonic system on a chip level. Our demonstration may have significant impact in the field of quantum simulation by following the recent trend of moving complicated table-top quantum optics experiments onto the fully integrated CMOS-compatible silicon platform. PMID:27095533
Experimental realization of Bloch oscillations in a parity-time synthetic silicon photonic lattice.
Xu, Ye-Long; Fegadolli, William S; Gan, Lin; Lu, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Scherer, Axel; Chen, Yan-Feng
2016-01-01
As an important electron transportation phenomenon, Bloch oscillations have been extensively studied in condensed matter. Due to the similarity in wave properties between electrons and other quantum particles, Bloch oscillations have been observed in atom lattices, photonic lattices, and so on. One of the many distinct advantages for choosing these systems over the regular electronic systems is the versatility in engineering artificial potentials. Here by utilizing dissipative elements in a CMOS-compatible photonic platform to create a periodic complex potential and by exploiting the emerging concept of parity-time synthetic photonics, we experimentally realize spatial Bloch oscillations in a non-Hermitian photonic system on a chip level. Our demonstration may have significant impact in the field of quantum simulation by following the recent trend of moving complicated table-top quantum optics experiments onto the fully integrated CMOS-compatible silicon platform. PMID:27095533
Bloch wave deafness and modal conversion at a phononic crystal boundary
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vincent Laude
2011-12-01
Full Text Available We investigate modal conversion at the boundary between a homogeneous incident medium and a phononic crystal, with consideration of the impact of symmetry on the excitation of Bloch waves. We give a quantitative criterion for the appearance of deaf Bloch waves, which are antisymmetric with respect to a symmetry axis of the phononic crystal, in the frame of generalized Fresnel formulas for reflection and transmission at the phononic crystal boundary. This criterion is used to index Bloch waves in the complex band structure of the phononic crystal, for directions of incidence along a symmetry axis. We argue that within deaf frequency ranges transmission is multi-exponential, as it is within frequency band gaps.
Observation of Bloch oscillations in complex PT-symmetric photonic lattices
Wimmer, Martin; Christodoulides, Demetrios; Peschel, Ulf
2016-01-01
Light propagation in periodic environments is often associated with a number of interesting and potentially useful processes. If a crystalline optical potential is also linearly ramped, light can undergo periodic Bloch oscillations, a direct outcome of localized Wannier-Stark states and their equidistant eigenvalue spectrum. Even though these effects have been extensively explored in conservative settings, this is by no means the case in non-Hermitian photonic lattices encompassing both amplification and attenuation. Quite recently, Bloch oscillations have been predicted in parity-time-symmetric structures involving gain and loss in a balanced fashion. While in a complex bulk medium, one intuitively expects that light will typically follow the path of highest amplification, in a periodic system this behavior can be substantially altered by the underlying band structure. Here, we report the first experimental observation of Bloch oscillations in parity-time-symmetric mesh lattices. We show that these revivals ...
Bloch mode synthesis: Ultrafast methodology for elastic band-structure calculations
Krattiger, Dimitri; Hussein, Mahmoud I.
2014-12-01
We present a methodology for fast band-structure calculations that is generally applicable to problems of elastic wave propagation in periodic media. The methodology, called Bloch mode synthesis, represents an extension of component mode synthesis, a set of substructuring techniques originally developed for structural dynamics analysis. In Bloch mode synthesis, the unit cell is divided into interior and boundary degrees-of-freedom, which are described, respectively, by a set of normal modes and a set of constraint modes. A combination of these mode sets then forms a reduced basis for the band structure eigenvalue problem. The reduction is demonstrated on a phononic-crystal model and a locally resonant elastic-metamaterial model and is shown to accurately predict the frequencies and Bloch mode shapes with a dramatic decrease in computation time in excess of two orders of magnitude.
On averaging the Kubo-Hall conductivity of magnetic Bloch bands leading to Chern numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors re-examine the topological approach to the integer quantum Hall effect in its original form where an average of the Kubo-Hall conductivity of a magnetic Bloch band has been considered. For the precise definition of this average it is crucial to make a sharp distinction between the discrete Bloch wave numbers k1, k2 and the two continuous integration parameters α1, α2. The average over the parameter domain 0 ≤ αj 1, k2. They show how this can be transformed into a single integral over the continuous magnetic Brillouin zone 0 ≤ αj j, j = 1, 2, nj = number of unit cells in j-direction, keeping k1, k2 fixed. This average prescription for the Hall conductivity of a magnetic Bloch band is exactly the same as the one used for a many-body system in the presence of disorder
Experimental realization of Bloch oscillations in a parity-time synthetic silicon photonic lattice
Xu, Ye-Long; Fegadolli, William S.; Gan, Lin; Lu, Ming-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Scherer, Axel; Chen, Yan-Feng
2016-04-01
As an important electron transportation phenomenon, Bloch oscillations have been extensively studied in condensed matter. Due to the similarity in wave properties between electrons and other quantum particles, Bloch oscillations have been observed in atom lattices, photonic lattices, and so on. One of the many distinct advantages for choosing these systems over the regular electronic systems is the versatility in engineering artificial potentials. Here by utilizing dissipative elements in a CMOS-compatible photonic platform to create a periodic complex potential and by exploiting the emerging concept of parity-time synthetic photonics, we experimentally realize spatial Bloch oscillations in a non-Hermitian photonic system on a chip level. Our demonstration may have significant impact in the field of quantum simulation by following the recent trend of moving complicated table-top quantum optics experiments onto the fully integrated CMOS-compatible silicon platform.
Non-destructive monitoring of Bloch oscillations in an optical cavity
Keßler, H; Venkatesh, B P; Georges, Ch; Hemmerich, A
2016-01-01
Bloch oscillations are a hallmark of coherent wave dynamics in periodic potentials. They occur as the response of quantum mechanical particles in a lattice if a weak force is applied. In optical lattices with their perfect periodic structure they can be readily observed and employed as a quantum mechanical force sensor, for example, for precise measurements of the gravitational acceleration. However, the destructive character of the measurement process in previous experimental implementations poses serious limitations for the precision of such measurements. In this article we show that the use of an optical cavity operating in the regime of strong cooperative coupling allows one to directly monitor Bloch oscillations of a cloud of cold atoms in the light leaking out of the cavity. Hence, with a single atomic sample the Bloch oscillation dynamics can be mapped out, while in previous experiments, each data point required the preparation of a new atom cloud. The use of a cavity-based monitor should greatly impro...
Bloch wave deafness and modal conversion at a phononic crystal boundary
Laude, Vincent; Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Benchabane, Sarah; Declercq, Nico F.
2011-12-01
We investigate modal conversion at the boundary between a homogeneous incident medium and a phononic crystal, with consideration of the impact of symmetry on the excitation of Bloch waves. We give a quantitative criterion for the appearance of deaf Bloch waves, which are antisymmetric with respect to a symmetry axis of the phononic crystal, in the frame of generalized Fresnel formulas for reflection and transmission at the phononic crystal boundary. This criterion is used to index Bloch waves in the complex band structure of the phononic crystal, for directions of incidence along a symmetry axis. We argue that within deaf frequency ranges transmission is multi-exponential, as it is within frequency band gaps.
Bloch-like wave dynamics in disordered potentials based on supersymmetry
Yu, Sunkyu; Hong, Jiho; Park, Namkyoo
2015-01-01
Bloch's theorem for the description of waves in crystals was a major milestone, establishing the principle of bandgaps for electrical, optical, and vibrational waves. Although it was once believed that bandgaps could form only under conditions of periodicity and long-range correlations as the prerequisites for Bloch's theorem, this restriction was disproven by the groundbreaking discoveries of amorphous media and quasicrystals. While network and liquid models have been suggested for the interpretation of Bloch-like waves in disordered media, these approaches 'searching' for random networks with bandgaps have failed in the deterministic creation of bandgaps. Here, we reveal a deterministic pathway to bandgap engineering in disordered media, by applying the notion of supersymmetry to the fundamental wave equation. Inspired by the problem for isospectrality, we follow a methodology in stark contrast to previous methods: we 'transform' ordered potentials into disordered potentials while 'preserving' bandgaps. Our...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The non-Bloch LCAO wave functions for cubic crystals are discussed and applied to the calculation of the matrix elements for electron transitions in an external electric field. The sum of transitions between non-Bloch electron states is compared with the matrix element for a conventional nearly free electron transition. 26 refs., 2 tabs
Sreekumari, T.; Aravindan, C.M.
1993-01-01
Satiation amount, satiation time and handling time of Anabas testudineus (Bloch), an air breathing predatory fish was experimentally estimated using guppy (Lebistes reticulatus) as prey. Weight of the fish and satiation time influenced prey handling time. As satiation time is related to the level of hunger, level of hunger was found to influence handling time of prey.
Floquet-Bloch waves and suppression of vibrations in multi-scale fluid-solid systems
Carta, Giorgio; Movchan, Alexander B
2016-01-01
The paper presents a mathematical model for an industry inspired problem of vibration isolation applied to a cluster of elastic fluid-filled containers. We develop a systematic approach employing full fluid-solid interaction and Floquet-Bloch waves in periodic multi-scale systems. The analytical findings are accompanied by numerical simulations, including frequency response analyses and computations in the transient regime.
Quantum Maxwell-Bloch equations for spontaneous emission in optical semiconductor devices
Hess, Ortwin; Hofmann, Holger F.
1998-01-01
We present quantum Maxwell-Bloch equations (QMBE) for spatially inhomogeneous optical semiconductor devices taking into account the quantum noise effects which cause spontaneous emission and amplified spontaneous emission. Analytical expressions derived from the QMBE are presented for the spontaneous emission factor beta and the far field pattern of amplified spontaneous emission in broad area quantum well lasers.
Identification of Bloch-modes in hollow-core Photonic Crystal Fiber cladding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Couny, F.; Benabid, F.; Roberts, John; Burnett, M.T.; Maier, S.A.
2007-01-01
We report on the experimental visualization of the cladding Bloch-modes of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Both spectral and spatial field information is extracted using the approach, which is based on measurement of the near-field and Fresnel-zone that results after propagation over a short...
Decoherence of a qubit as a diffusion on the Bloch sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze qubit decoherence in the framework of geometric quantum mechanics. In this framework the qubit density operators are represented by probability distributions which are also the Kähler functions on the Bloch sphere. Interestingly, the complete positivity of the quantum evolution is recovered as ellipticity of the second order differential operator (deformed Laplacian) which governs the evolution of the probability distribution. (paper)
Thermal Two Point Function of a Heavy Muon in hot QED plasma within Bloch Nordsieck Approximation
Takashiba, K.
1995-01-01
The thermal propagator of a heavy muon propagating in a hot QED plasma is examined within the Bloch-Nordsieck approximation, which is valid in the infrared region. It is shown that the muon damping rate is finite, in contrast to the lower-order calculation with hard thermal loop resummations taken into account.
Dhar, Abhishek; Sriram Shastry, B.
2000-09-01
We present a calculation of the lowest excited states of the Heisenberg ferromagnet in 1D for any wave vector. These turn out to be string solutions of Bethe's equations with a macroscopic number of particles in them. They are identified as generalized quantum Bloch wall states, and a simple physical picture is provided for the same.
Dhar, Abhishek; Shastry, B. Sriram
2000-01-01
We present a calculation of the lowest excited states of the Heisenberg ferromagnet in 1-d for any wave vector. These turn out to be string solutions of Bethe's equations with a macroscopic number of particles in them. These are identified as generalized quantum Bloch wall states, and a simple physical picture provided for the same.
A Review of Group Systems Theory
Connors, Joanie V.; Caple, Richard B.
2005-01-01
The ability to see interpersonal and group processes beyond the individual level is an essential skill for group therapists (Crouch, Bloch & Wanlass, 1994; Dies, 1994; Fuhriman & Burlingame, 1994). In addition to interpersonal therapy models (e.g., Sullivan and Yalom), there are a number of systems theory models that offer a broad array of…
Eikonal approximation in the theory of energy loss by fast charged particles
Matveev, V. I.; Makarov, D. N.; Gusarevich, E. S.
2011-05-01
Energy losses in fast charged particles as a result of collisions with atoms are considered in the eikonal approximation. It is shown that the nonperturbative contribution to effective stopping in the range of intermediate impact parameters (comparable with the characteristic sizes of the electron shells of the target atoms) may turn out to be significant as compared to shell corrections to the Bethe-Bloch formula calculated in perturbation theory. The simplifying assumptions are formulated under which the Bethe-Bloch formula can be derived in the eikonal approximation. It is shown that the allowance for nonperturbative effects may lead to considerable (up to 50%) corrections to the Bethe-Bloch formula. The applicability range for the Bethe-Bloch formula is analyzed. It is concluded that calculation of the energy loss in the eikonal approximation (in the range of impact parameters for which the Bethe-Bloch formula is normally used) is much more advantageous than analysis based on the Bethe-Bloch formula and its modifications because not only the Bloch correction is included in the former calculations, the range of intermediate impact parameters is also taken into account nonperturbatively; in addition, direct generalization to the cases of collisions of complex projectiles and targets is possible in this case.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yu. B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth
2008-01-01
We study a parametrically driven Ginzburg-Landau equation model with nonlinear management. The system is made of laterally coupled long active waveguides placed along a circumference. Stationary solutions of three kinds are found: periodic Ising states and two types of Bloch states, staggered and...... unstaggered. The stability of these states is investigated analytically and numerically. The nonlinear dynamics of the Bloch states are described by a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with linear and nonlinear parametric driving. The switching between the staggered and unstaggered Bloch states under the...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Jing; LI Chunsheng; NING Ping
2013-01-01
Pampus cinereus (Bloch,1795) (Stromateidae),a species believed to be widely distributed throughout the Indo-Western Pacific region,was redescribed and a neotype was designated.The designation of a neotype was necessary because of ambiguous data in Bloch's original description and the loss of the original type specimen.Morphological data indicated that 10 recently-collected specimens from the coasts of southern China agreed well with Bloch's original description and figure ofP.cinereus.A neotype for this species was selected from among the 10 specimens,and a detailed description is presented in this paper.
There is no axiomatic system for the quantum theory
Nagata, Koji
2007-01-01
Recently, [arXiv:0810.3134] is accepted and published. We derive an inequality with two settings as tests for the existence of the Bloch sphere in a spin-1/2 system. The probability theory of measurement outcome within the formalism of von Neumann projective measurement violates the inequality. Namely, we have to give up the existence of the Bloch sphere. Or, we have to give up the probability theory of measurement outcome within the formalism of von Neumann projective measurement. Hence it t...
“Bloch wave” modification of stimulated Raman by stimulated Brillouin scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) method, we study the coupling of backward stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS) and backward stimulated Brillouin scattering (BSBS) in regimes where the reflectivity involves the nonlinear behavior of particles trapped in the daughter plasma waves. The temporal envelope of a Langmuir wave (LW) obeys a Schrödinger equation where the potential is the periodic electron density fluctuation resulting from an ion-acoustic wave (IAW). The BSRS-driven LWs in this case have a Bloch wave structure and a modified dispersion due to the BSBS-driven spatially periodic IAW, which includes frequency band gaps at kLW∼kIAW/2∼k0 (kLW, kIAW, and k0 are the wave number of the LW, IAW, and incident pump electromagnetic wave, respectively). This band structure and the associated Bloch wave harmonic components are distinctly observed in RPIC calculations of the electron density fluctuation spectra and this structure may be observable in Thomson scatter. Bloch wave components grow up in the LW spectrum, and are not the result of isolated BSRS. Self-Thomson scattered light from these Bloch wave components can have forward scattering components. The distortion of the LW dispersion curve implies that the usual relationship connecting the frequency shift of the BSRS-scattered light and the density of origin of this light may become inaccurate. The modified LW frequency results in a time-dependent frequency shift that increases as the IAW grows, detunes the BSRS frequency matching condition, and reduces BSRS growth. A dependence of the BSRS reflectivity on the IAW Landau damping results because this damping determines the levels of IAWs. The time-dependent reflectivity in our simulations is characterized by bursts of sub-picosecond pulses of BSRS alternating with multi-ps pulses of BSBS, and BSRS is observed to decline precipitously as soon as SBS begins to grow from low levels. In strong BSBS regimes, the Bloch wave effects in BSRS are
Serkin, Vladimir N.; Belyaeva, T. L.
2001-11-01
It is shown that optical solitons in nonlinear fibre-optic communication systems and soliton lasers can be represented as nonlinear Bloch waves in periodic structures. The Bloch theorem is proved for solitons of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation in systems with the dispersion, the nonlinearity, and the gain (absorption coefficient) periodically changing over the length. The dynamics of formation and interaction, as well as stability of the coupled states of nonlinear Bloch waves are investigated. It is shown that soliton Bloch waves exist only under certain self-matching conditions for the basic parameters of the system and reveal a structural instability with respect to the mismatch between the periods of spatial modulation of the dispersion, nonlinearity or gain.
Bloch oscillations as generators of polarons in a 1D crystal
Nazareno, H. N.; Brito, P. E. de
2016-08-01
The main purpose of this work is to characterize the kind of propagation/localization of carriers in a one-dimensional crystalline structure along the tight-binding model while the electron-phonon interaction is taken into account through a deformation potential and the system is under the action of a dc electric field. The lattice was treated in the classical formalism of harmonic vibrations. A remarkable effect is obtained due to the presence of the electric field. On one side the particle performs Bloch oscillations and at the same time it interacts with the lattice and as a result at each turning point of its trajectory phonons are generated that carry with them a fraction of the electronic wave packet, it is the polaron formation. This way the Bloch oscillations pump polarons into the system. We explain why the polaron is formed at returning points of the oscillations.
Tilted resonators in a triangular elastic lattice: chirality, Bloch waves and negative refraction
Tallarico, Domenico; Movchan, Alexander B; Colquitt, Daniel J
2016-01-01
We consider a vibrating triangular mass-truss lattice whose unit cell contains a resonator of a triangular shape. The resonators are connected to the triangular lattice by trusses. Each resonator is tilted, i.e. it is rotated with respect to the triangular lattice's unit cell through an angle $\\vartheta_0$. This geometrical parameter is responsible for the emergence of a resonant mode in the Bloch spectrum for elastic waves and strongly affects the dispersive properties of the lattice. Additionally, the tilting angle $\\vartheta_0$ triggers the opening of a band gap at a Dirac-like point. We provide a physical interpretation of these phenomena and discuss the dynamical implications on elastic Bloch waves. The dispersion properties are used to design a structured interface containing tilted resonators which exhibit negative refraction and focussing, as in a "flat elastic lens".
Measuring h /mCs and the Fine Structure Constant with Bragg Diffraction and Bloch Oscillations
Parker, Richard
2016-05-01
We have demonstrated a new scheme for atom interferometry based on large-momentum-transfer Bragg beam splitters and Bloch oscillations. In this new scheme, we have achieved a resolution of δα / α =0.25ppb in the fine structure constant measurement, which gives up to 4.4 million radians of phase difference between freely evolving matter waves. We suppress many systematic effects, e.g., Zeeman shifts and effects from Earth's gravity and vibrations, use Bloch oscillations to increase the signal and reduce the diffraction phase, simulate multi-atom Bragg diffraction to understand sub-ppb systematic effects, and implement spatial filtering to further suppress systematic effects. We present our recent progress toward a measurement of the fine structure constant, which will provide a stringent test of the standard model of particle physics.
Interplay between Point-Group Symmetries and the Choice of the Bloch Basis in Multiband Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang-Hua Wang
2013-11-01
Full Text Available We analyze the point-group symmetries of generic multiband tight-binding models with respect to the transformation properties of the effective interactions. While the vertex functions in the orbital language may transform non-trivially under point-group operations, their point-group behavior in the band language can be simplified by choosing a suitable Bloch basis. We first give two analytically accessible examples. Then, we show that, for a large class of models, a natural Bloch basis exists, in which the vertex functions in the band language transform trivially under all point-group operations. As a consequence, the point-group symmetries can be used to reduce the computational effort in perturbative many-particle approaches, such as the functional renormalization group.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent measurements of the stopping powers of polysulfone for 0.66-1.74 MeV protons and 1.04-3.20 MeV alpha particles have been analyzed in terms of the modified Bethe-Bloch theory in order to extract values of the parameters characterizing the formalism utilized. Resulting values of mean excitation energy (I) and Barkas-effect parameter (b), respectively, were 83.3 eV and 1.05 for proton data, and 81.1 eV and 1.38 for alpha particle data. The lower energy alpha particle data were included by employing a single effective charge parameter (λ) evaluated at 1.63. The composite weighted value of mean excitation energy, 82.9 eV, lies some 6% above the additivity-based estimate, whereas the corresponding value of Barkas-effect parameter, 1.22, agrees quite well with the prescribed interval of 1.4±0.1
Chaos synchronization in bi-axial magnets modeled by Bloch equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we show that the bi-axial magnetic material modelled by Bloch equation admits chaotic solutions for a certain set of numerical values assigned to the system of parameters and initial conditions. Using the unidirectional linear and nonlinear feedback schemes, we demonstrate that two such systems can be synchronized together. The chaotic synchronization is discussed in the context of complete synchronization which means that the difference of the states of two relevant systems converge to zero. (author)
Laura Ghigliotti; Julius Nielsen; Jorgen Schou Christiansen; Eva Pisano
2015-01-01
The Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) is the largest predatory fish in Arctic waters. The socio-economic significance of Greenland shark is demonstrated by its impact on the fishing cultures in Greenland, Scandinavia and Iceland for centuries. The fundamental biology and ecological role of Greenland shark, on the other hand, is virtually unknown. Although knowledge of its life history is limited, increasing evidence indicates that the Greenland shark may unde...
Norm equivalence and composition operators between Bloch/Lipschitz spaces of the ball
Stević Stevo; Clahane Dana D
2006-01-01
For , let and denote, respectively, the -Bloch and holomorphic -Lipschitz spaces of the open unit ball in . It is known that and are equal as sets when . We prove that these spaces are additionally norm-equivalent, thus extending known results for and the polydisk. As an application, we generalize work by Madigan on the disk by investigating boundedness of the composition operator from to .
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Robert F.Allen
2014-01-01
We study the bounded and the compact weighted composition operators from the Bloch space into the weighted Banach spaces of holomorphic functions on bounded homogeneous domains, with particular attention to the unit polydisk. For bounded homogeneous domains, we characterize the bounded weighted composition operators and determine the operator norm. In addition, we provide sufficient condi-tions for compactness. For the unit polydisk, we completely characterize the compact weighted composition operators, as well as provide ”computable” estimates on the operator norm.
Floquet-Bloch vs. Nicolson-Ross-Weir Extraction for Magneto-Dielectric Bragg Stacks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Niels Christian Jerichau; Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav
We extract and compare the permittivity and permeability from a dielectric and a magnetodielectric Bragg stack with the Floquet-Bloch (FB) method for the infinite stack and the Nicolson-Ross- Weir (NRW) method for the finite stack. While the extracted propagation constants are identical, the wave...... impedances are different. Moreover, the NRWmethod yields magnetic effects for the dielectric Bragg stack, while the FB method gives the expected vacuum permeability, also in the bandgab....
Grating-Coupling-Based Excitation of Bloch Surface Waves for Lab-on-Fiber Nanoprobes
Scaravilli, Michele; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Cusano, Andrea; Galdi, Vincenzo
2016-01-01
In this paper, we investigate for the first time the possibility to excite Bloch surface waves (BSWs) on the tip of single-mode optical fibers. Within this framework, we first demonstrate the possibility to exploit a grating-coupling mechanism for on-tip excitation of BSWs, and highlight the flexibility of the proposed design as well as its intrinsic robustness to unavoidable fabrication tolerances. Subsequently, with a view towards label-free chemical and biological sensing, we present an op...
Positiveness and Pauli exception principle in raw Bloch equations for quantum boxes
Bidégaray-Fesquet, Brigitte
2010-01-01
International audience The aim of this paper is to derive a raw Bloch model for the interaction of light with quantum boxes in the framework of a two-electron-species (conduction and valence) description. This requires a good understanding of the one-species case and of the treatment of level degeneracy. In contrast with some existing literature we obtain a Liouville equation which induces the positiveness and the boundedness of solutions, that are necessary for future mathematical studies...
Positiveness and Pauli exception principle in raw Bloch equations for quantum boxes
Bidégaray-Fesquet, Brigitte
2010-10-01
The aim of this paper is to derive a raw Bloch model for the interaction of light with quantum boxes in the framework of a two-electron-species (conduction and valence) description. This requires a good understanding of the one-species case and of the treatment of level degeneracy. In contrast with some existing literature, we obtain a Liouville equation which induces the positiveness and the boundedness of solutions, that are necessary for future mathematical studies involving higher order phenomena.
Positiveness and Pauli exception principle in raw Bloch equations for quantum boxes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The aim of this paper is to derive a raw Bloch model for the interaction of light with quantum boxes in the framework of a two-electron-species (conduction and valence) description. This requires a good understanding of the one-species case and of the treatment of level degeneracy. In contrast with some existing literature, we obtain a Liouville equation which induces the positiveness and the boundedness of solutions, that are necessary for future mathematical studies involving higher order phenomena.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study nonlinear wave phenomena in coupled ring resonator optical waveguides in the tight coupling regime. A discrete model for the system dynamics is put forward and its steady-state nonlinear Bloch modes are derived. The switching behaviour of the transmission system is addressed numerically and the results are explained in the light of this analytical result. We also present a numerical study on the spontaneous generation of Bragg solitons from a continuous-wave input. (paper)
Explicit Solutions of the Bethe Ansatz Equations for Bloch Electrons in a Magnetic Field
Hatsugai, Yasuhiro; Kohmoto, Mahito; Wu, Yong-Shi
1994-01-01
For Bloch electrons in a magnetic field, explicit solutions are obtained at the center of the spectrum for the Bethe ansatz equations of Wiegmann and Zabrodin. When the magnetic flux per plaquette is 1 / Q with Q an odd integer, distribution of the roots of the Bethe ansatz equation is uniform except at two points on the unit circle in the complex plane. For the semiclassical limit Q→∞, the wave function is
Muthusamy RAJASEKAR; Muthusamy THANGARAJ; Thathiredypalli R. BARATHKUMAR; Jayachandran SUBBURAJ; Kaliyan MUTHAZHAGAN
2012-01-01
Lates calcarifer (Bloch 1790) is one of the major economically important cultivable fish species in India. In this study, three populations of L. calcarifer was selected to assess the genetic diversity. Of which, two wild (Mudaslodai, Muthupettai) and one captive (Mutukadu) population. The genetic diversity of three populations of this species was studied using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Ten random primers were used for the assessment of their genetic diversity and const...
Derivation of Bloch equations from the time convolution less generalized master equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The generalized Bloch equations (GBE) describing the temporal evolution of a single two-level atom interacting with a classical external field of arbitrary intensity and with a thermodynamic bath are obtained from the time convolutionless generalized master equation or equivalently from the Tokuyama-Mori identity. These GBE are then used to calculate the absorption spectrum of a single two-level atom with frequency modulated by dichotomic noise with time-dependent transition probability. (author)
Zitterbewegung, Bloch Oscillations and Landau-Zener Tunneling in a Quantum Walk
Regensburger, Alois; Hinrichs, Benjamin; Onishchukov, Georgy; Schreiber, Andreas; Silberhorn, Christine; Peschel, Ulf
2011-01-01
We experimentally investigate a discrete time quantum walk in a system of coupled fiber loops and observe typical phenomena known from the wave propagation in periodic structures as ballistic spreading or an oscillation between two internal quantum states similar to Zitterbewegung (trembling motion). If a position-dependent phase gradient is applied we find localization and Bloch oscillations of the field for moderate as well as Landau-Zener tunneling for strong phase gradients.
Dynamic scattering of electron vortex beams – A Bloch wave analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two important applications of electron vortex beams are in electron magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD) measurements and nanoparticle manipulation. In both cases orbital angular momentum (
Representability of Bloch states on Projector-augmented-wave (PAW) basis sets
Agapito, Luis; Ferretti, Andrea; Curtarolo, Stefano; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco
2015-03-01
Design of small, yet `complete', localized basis sets is necessary for an efficient dual representation of Bloch states on both plane-wave and localized basis. Such simultaneous dual representation permits the development of faster more accurate (beyond DFT) electronic-structure methods for atomistic materials (e.g. the ACBN0 method.) by benefiting from algorithms (real and reciprocal space) and hardware acceleration (e.g. GPUs) used in the quantum-chemistry and solid-state communities. Finding a `complete' atomic-orbital basis (partial waves) is also a requirement in the generation of robust and transferable PAW pseudopotentials. We have employed the atomic-orbital basis from available PAW data sets, which extends through most of the periodic table, and tested the representability of Bloch states on such basis. Our results show that PAW data sets allow systematic and accurate representability of the PAW Bloch states, better than with traditional quantum-chemistry double-zeta- and double-zeta-polarized-quality basis sets.
Selective scattering between Floquet-Bloch and Volkov states in a topological insulator
Mahmood, Fahad; Chan, Ching-Kit; Alpichshev, Zhanybek; Gardner, Dillon; Lee, Young; Lee, Patrick A.; Gedik, Nuh
2016-04-01
The coherent optical manipulation of solids is emerging as a promising way to engineer novel quantum states of matter. The strong time-periodic potential of intense laser light can be used to generate hybrid photon-electron states. Interaction of light with Bloch states leads to Floquet-Bloch states, which are essential in realizing new photo-induced quantum phases. Similarly, dressing of free-electron states near the surface of a solid generates Volkov states, which are used to study nonlinear optics in atoms and semiconductors. The interaction of these two dynamic states with each other remains an open experimental problem. Here we use time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (Tr-ARPES) to selectively study the transition between these two states on the surface of the topological insulator Bi2Se3. We find that the coupling between the two strongly depends on the electron momentum, providing a route to enhance or inhibit it. Moreover, by controlling the light polarization we can negate Volkov states to generate pure Floquet-Bloch states. This work establishes a systematic path for the coherent manipulation of solids via light-matter interaction.
Real-time protein aggregation monitoring with a Bloch surface wave-based approach
Santi, Sara; Barakat, Elsie; Descrovi, Emiliano; Neier, Reinhard; Herzig, Hans Peter
2014-05-01
The misfolding and aggregation of amyloid proteins has been associated with incurable diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. In the specific case of Alzheimer's disease, recent studies have shown that cell toxicity is caused by soluble oligomeric forms of aggregates appearing in the early stages of aggregation, rather than by insoluble fibrils. Research on new strategies of diagnosis is imperative to detect the disease prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Here, we propose the use of an optical method for protein aggregation dynamic studies using a Bloch surface wave based approach. A one dimension photonic crystal made of a periodic stack of silicon oxide and silicon nitride layers is used to excite a Bloch surface wave, which is sensitive to variation of the refractive index of an aqueous solution. The aim is to detect the early dynamic events of protein aggregation and fibrillogenesis of the amyloid-beta peptide Aβ42, which plays a central role in the onset of the Alzheimer's disease. The detection principle relies on the refractive index changes caused by the depletion of the Aβ42 monomer concentration during oligomerization and fibrillization. We demonstrate the efficacy of the Bloch surface wave approach by monitoring in real-time the first crucial steps of Aβ42 oligomerization.
Observation of Bloch oscillations in complex PT-symmetric photonic lattices
Wimmer, Martin; Miri, Mohammed-Ali; Christodoulides, Demetrios; Peschel, Ulf
2015-12-01
Light propagation in periodic environments is often associated with a number of interesting and potentially useful processes. If a crystalline optical potential is also linearly ramped, light can undergo periodic Bloch oscillations, a direct outcome of localized Wannier-Stark states and their equidistant eigenvalue spectrum. Even though these effects have been extensively explored in conservative settings, this is by no means the case in non-Hermitian photonic lattices encompassing both amplification and attenuation. Quite recently, Bloch oscillations have been predicted in parity-time-symmetric structures involving gain and loss in a balanced fashion. While in a complex bulk medium, one intuitively expects that light will typically follow the path of highest amplification, in a periodic system this behavior can be substantially altered by the underlying band structure. Here, we report the first experimental observation of Bloch oscillations in parity-time-symmetric mesh lattices. We show that these revivals exhibit unusual properties like secondary emissions and resonant restoration of PT symmetry. In addition, we present a versatile method for reconstructing the real and imaginary components of the band structure by directly monitoring the light evolution during a cycle of these oscillations.
Role of confined Bloch waves in the near field heat transfer between two photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The near field heat transfer between two finite size one-dimensional photonic crystals separated by a small vacuum gap and maintained in nonequilibrium thermal situation is theoretically investigated. The main features of this electromagnetic transfer are discussed and compared with what is generally observed with media that support surface polaritons. It is shown that the presence of surface Bloch waves can significantly enhance heat transfers beyond the far field limit for both polarization states of electromagnetic field at subwavelength separation distances. A specific attention is addressed to the consequence of the slopes of surface Bloch waves dispersion curves on the heat transfer. In particular, it is shown that the localization of surface Bloch waves close to the light line allows to observe a transfer exaltaion at larger separation distances than the Wien wavelength. These results could open new possibilities for the development of innovative near-field technologies such as near-field thermophotovoltaic conversion, plasmon assisted nanophotolitography or near-field spectroscopy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clade, P
2005-10-15
From a measurement of the recoil velocity of an atom absorbing a photon, it is possible to deduce a determination of the ratio h/m between the Planck constant and the mass of the atoms and then to deduce a value of the fine structure constant alpha. To do this measurement, we use the technique of Bloch oscillations, which allows us to transfer a large number of recoils to atoms. A velocity sensor, based on velocity selective Raman transition, enables us to measure the momentum transferred to the atoms. A measurement with a statistical uncertainty of 4.4 10{sup -9}, in conjunction with a careful study of systematic effects (5 10{sup -9}), has led us to a determination of alpha with an uncertainty of 6.7 10{sup -9}: {alpha}{sup -1}(Rb) = 137.03599878 (91). This uncertainty is similar to the uncertainty of the best determinations of alpha based on atom interferometry. (author)
Extraction of optical Bloch modes in a photonic-crystal waveguide
Huisman, S R; Stobbe, S; Herek, J L; Lodahl, P; Vos, W L; Pinkse, P W H
2011-01-01
We perform phase-sensitive near-field scanning optical microscopy on photonic-crystal waveguides. The observed intricate field patterns are analyzed by spatial Fourier transformations, revealing several guided TE- and TM-like modes. Using the reconstruction algorithm proposed by Ha, et al. (Opt. Lett. 34 (2009)), we decompose the measured two-dimensional field pattern in a superposition of propagating Bloch modes. This opens new possibilities to study specific modes in near-field measurements. We apply the method to study the transverse behavior of a guided TE-like mode, where the mode extends deeper in the surrounding photonic crystal when the band edge is approached.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Pan, Wei; Reno, John Louis; Wendt, Joel Robert; Barton, Daniel Lee
2008-09-01
We have investigated the physics of Bloch oscillations (BO) of electrons, engineered in high mobility quantum wells patterned into lateral periodic arrays of nanostructures, i.e. two-dimensional (2D) quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs). A BO occurs when an electron moves out of the Brillouin zone (BZ) in response to a DC electric field, passing back into the BZ on the opposite side. This results in quantum oscillations of the electron--i.e., a high frequency AC current in response to a DC voltage. Thus, engineering a BO will yield continuously electrically tunable high-frequency sources (and detectors) for sensor applications, and be a physics tour-de-force. More than a decade ago, Bloch oscillation (BO) was observed in a quantum well superlattice (QWSL) in short-pulse optical experiments. However, its potential as electrically biased high frequency source and detector so far has not been realized. This is partially due to fast damping of BO in QWSLs. In this project, we have investigated the possibility of improving the stability of BO by fabricating lateral superlattices of periodic coupled nanostructures, such as metal grid, quantum (anti)dots arrays, in high quality GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As heterostructures. In these nanostructures, the lateral quantum confinement has been shown theoretically to suppress the optical-phonon scattering, believed to be the main mechanism for fast damping of BO in QWSLs. Over the last three years, we have made great progress toward demonstrating Bloch oscillations in QDSLs. In the first two years of this project, we studied the negative differential conductance and the Bloch radiation induced edge-magnetoplasmon resonance. Recently, in collaboration with Prof. Kono's group at Rice University, we investigated the time-domain THz magneto-spectroscopy measurements in QDSLs and two-dimensional electron systems. A surprising DC electrical field induced THz phase flip was observed. More measurements are planned to investigate this
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Li-Xue(陈历学); KIM Dalwoo; SONG Ying-Lin(宋瑛琳); DING Wei-Qiang(丁卫强); LI Wen-Hui(李文惠); LIU Shu-Tian(刘树田)
2004-01-01
One-dimensional photonic crystal of second-order nonlinearity is studied. Among the three waves of the parametric interaction process of down-conversion with a nondispersive medium, two gap-edge localized modes and one travelling-mode are proposed, and an exact phase matching condition is realized using the periodic condition of the Bloch phase. Numerical simulation is implemented by the slow-envelope finite difference time domain method. In the case of a pulse wave pump of amplitude half-width 5.2 × 10-13 s, an intense optical parametric pulse with half-width about 5 × 10-14 s is observed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper;
2014-01-01
In open nanophotonic structures, the natural modes are so-called quasi-normal modes satisfying an outgoing wave boundary condition. We present a new scheme based on a modal expansion technique, a scattering matrix approach and Bloch modes of periodic structures for determining these quasi......-normal modes. As opposed to spatial discretization methods like the nite-dierence time-domain method and the nite element method, the present approach satises automatically the outgoing wave boundary condition in the propagation direction which represents a signicant advantage of our new method. The scheme...
Fornasari, Lucia; Floris, Francesco; Patrini, Maddalena; Comoretto, Davide; Marabelli, Franco
2016-05-18
An all-polymer photonic structure constituted by a distributed Bragg reflector topped with an ultrathin fluorescent polymer film has been studied. A Bloch surface wave resonance has been exploited to improve pumping efficiency. A strongly polarization and angle dependent fluorescence signal is found with respect to the light pumping beam and the emitted wavelength. Matching the most favorable condition for the pump coupling and the collection geometry, the signal obtained from the structure appears to be two orders of magnitude larger than the one of the bare emitting film. PMID:27158698
Experimental reconstruction of the Berry curvature in a topological Bloch band
Weitenberg, Christof; Flaeschner, Nick; Rem, Benno; Tarnowski, Matthias; Vogel, Dominik; Luehmann, Dirk-Soeren; Sengstock, Klaus
2016-05-01
Topological properties lie at the heart of many fascinating phenomena in solid state systems such as quantum Hall systems or Chern insulators. The topology can be captured by the distribution of Berry curvature, which describes the geometry of the eigenstates across the Brillouin zone. Employing fermionic ultracold atoms in a hexagonal optical lattice, we engineer the Berry curvature of the Bloch bands using resonant driving and measure it with full momentum resolution. Our results pave the way to explore intriguing phases of matter with interactions in topological band structures.
Sturmberg, Björn C. P.; Dossou, Kokou B.; Lawrence, Felix J.; Poulton, Christopher G.; McPhedran, Ross C.; de Sterke, C. Martijn; Botten, Lindsay C.
2016-05-01
We describe EMUstack, an open-source implementation of the Scattering Matrix Method (SMM) for solving field problems in layered media. The fields inside nanostructured layers are described in terms of Bloch modes that are found using the Finite Element Method (FEM). Direct access to these modes allows the physical intuition of thin film optics to be extended to complex structures. The combination of the SMM and the FEM makes EMUstack ideally suited for studying lossy, high-index contrast structures, which challenge conventional SMMs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a photonic structure stacked sequentially by one-dimensional photonic crystals and cavities. The whole structure is composed of single-negative and double-negative materials. The optical Wannier–Stark ladder (WSL) can be obtained in a low frequency region by modulating the widths of the cavities in order. We simulate the dynamical behavior of the electromagnetic wave passing through the proposed photonic structure. Due to the dispersive characteristics of the metamaterials, a very narrow WSL can be obtained. The long-period electromagnetic Bloch oscillation is demonstrated theoretically to have a period on a microsecond time scale. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author performed the histological analysis of the oocytes of golden (Chinese) carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Its habitat was radioactive-contaminated Belarusian reservoirs within Chernobyl zone. The obtained results revealed that the oocytes underwent some degenerative alterations such as irregular nucleus shape and karyolysis. That was witnessed by examination of the fish of Perstok Lake where water was characterized by the high level of radioactive contamination. It was shown that the alterations were connected with the high level of natural habitat contamination. These alterations were also caused by the high content of radionuclides in fish tissuies and organs
Bloch-type domain walls in rhombohedral BaTiO.sub.3./sub..
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Taherinejad, M.; Vanderbilt, D.; Márton, Pavel; Stepkova, Vilgelmina; Hlinka, Jiří
2012-01-01
Roč. 86, č. 15 (2012), "155138-1"-"155138-8". ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0430; GA ČR GAP204/10/0616 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : domain walls * Bloch domain walls * rhombohedral phase * phase-field approach * first-principles approach Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2012 http://prb.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v86/i15/e155138
Explicit Solutions of the Bethe Ansatz Equations for Bloch Electrons in a Magnetic Field
Hatsugai, Yasuhiro; Kohmoto, Mahito; Wu, Yong-Shi
1994-01-01
For Bloch electrons in a magnetic field, explicit solutions are obtained at the center of the spectrum for the Bethe ansatz equations recently proposed by Wiegmann and Zabrodin. When the magnetic flux per plaquette is $1/Q$ where $Q$ is an odd integer, distribution of the roots is uniform on the unit circle in the complex plane. For the semi-classical limit, $ Q\\rightarrow\\infty$, the wavefunction obeys the power low and is given by $|\\psi(x)|^2=(2/ \\sin \\pi x)$ which is critical and unnormal...
Quantum Group, Bethe Ansatz and Bloch Electrons in a Magnetic Field
Hatsugai, Y.; Kohmoto, M.; Wu, Y.-S.
1995-01-01
The wave functions for two dimensional Bloch electrons in a uniform magnetic field at the mid-band points are studied with the help of the algebraic structure of the quantum group $U_q(sl_2)$. A linear combination of its generators gives the Hamiltonian. We obtain analytical and numerical solutions for the wave functions by solving the Bethe Ansatz equations, proposed by Wiegmann and Zabrodin on the basis of above observation. The semi-classical case with the flux per plaquette $\\phi=1/Q$ is ...
UGROŽENE VRSTE RIBA U SVIJETU: Mystus vittatus (Bloch, 1794) (Siluriformes: Bagridae)
Hossain, Yeamin
2014-01-01
Autohtona vrsta, Mystus vittatus (Bloch, 1794), pripadnik porodice Bagridae, široke je distribucije u azijskim zemljama, uključujući Bangladeš, Indiju, Pakistan, Šri Lanku, Nepal i Mianmar. Međutim, prirodne populacije ozbiljno opadaju zbog visokog ribolovnog pritiska, gubitka staništa, zagađenja, prirodnih katastrofa, sanacije močvara i prekomjernog poplavnog zamuljivanja pa se stoga nalazi se u kategoriji osjetljive vrste. U članku se predlažu mjere za očuvanje ostatka izolirane populacije ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Hui-Yuan; HU Yun-Zhi; LIU Li-Hu
2009-01-01
The diameters of the ordinary hard bubbles (OHBs) and soft bubbles in epitaxial garnet films are measured under the microscope at various temperatures. It is found that the bubble diameters of OHBs increase with temperature, and it is concluded that the equilibrium separation between two neighbouring vertical Bloch lines (VBLs) Seq is widened with increasing temperature. At the same time, the results can be understood simply as that there are more VBLs in the domain walls of the first dumbbell domains (IDs) than those in walls of OH Bs at the same temperature.
Weighted Composition Operators from α-Bloch Spaces to H∞%α-Bloch空间到H∞的加权复合算子
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
唐笑敏
2007-01-01
The article not only presents the boundedness and compactness of the weighted composition operator from α-Bloch spaces(or little α-Bloch spaces) to H∞, but also gives some estimates for the norm of the weighted composition operator.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Small-angle scattering of neutrons allows the determination of the orientation of Bloch walls in the interior of bulk single crystals. The zigzag angle psi=280 of the 900 Bloch wall and its field dependence are measured. We also observe walls or wall pieces with psi=00. With 1800 walls we measure zigzag angles of psi approximately equal to 300. (orig.)
Wieser, R
2016-10-01
The derivation of the time dependent Schrödinger equation with transversal and longitudinal relaxation, as the quantum mechanical analog of the classical Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation, has been described. Starting from the classical Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation the transition to quantum mechanics has been performed and the corresponding von-Neumann equation deduced. In a second step the time Schrödinger equation has been derived. Analytical proofs and computer simulations show the correctness and applicability of the derived Schrödinger equation. PMID:27494599
Matveev, V. I.; Makarov, D. N.
2011-09-01
A simple method including nonperturbative shell corrections has been developed for calculating energy losses on complex atoms. The energy losses of fast highly charged ions on neon, argon, krypton, and xenon atoms have been calculated and compared with experimental data. It has been shown that the inclusion of the non-perturbative shell corrections noticeably improves agreement with experimental data as compared to calculations by the Bethe-Bloch formula with the standard corrections. This undoubtedly helps to reduce the number of fitting parameters in various modifications of the Bethe-Bloch formula, which are usually determined semiempirically.
Raman fingerprints on the Bloch sphere of a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate
Schultz, Justin T; Murphree, Joseph D; Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Bigelow, Nicholas P
2016-01-01
We explore the geometric interpretation of a diabatic, two-photon Raman process as a rotation on the Bloch sphere for a pseudo-spin-1/2 system. The spin state of a spin-1/2 quantum system can be described by a point on the surface of the Bloch sphere, and its evolution during a Raman pulse is a trajectory on the sphere determined by properties of the optical beams: the pulse area, the relative intensities and phases, and the relative frequencies. We experimentally demonstrate key features of this model with a $^{87}$Rb spinor Bose-Einstein condensate, which allows us to examine spatially dependent signatures of the Raman beams. The two-photon detuning allows us to precisely control the spin density and imprinted relative phase profiles, as we show with a coreless vortex. With this comprehensive understanding and intuitive geometric interpretation, we use the Raman process to create and tailor as well as study and characterize exotic topological spin textures in spinor BECs.
Dai, Jin; Niemi, Antti J.; He, Jianfeng; Sieradzan, Adam; Ilieva, Nevena
2016-03-01
We inquire how structure emerges during the process of protein folding. For this we scrutinize collective many-atom motions during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We introduce, develop, and employ various topological techniques, in combination with analytic tools that we deduce from the concept of integrable models and structure of discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The example we consider is an α -helical subunit of the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp41. The helical structure is stable when the subunit is part of the biological oligomer. But in isolation, the helix becomes unstable, and the monomer starts deforming. We follow the process computationally. We interpret the evolving structure both in terms of a backbone based Heisenberg spin chain and in terms of a side chain based XY spin chain. We find that in both cases the formation of protein supersecondary structure is akin the formation of a topological Bloch domain wall along a spin chain. During the process we identify three individual Bloch walls and we show that each of them can be modelled with a precision of tenths to several angstroms in terms of a soliton solution to a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation.
Creating full-Bloch Bose–Einstein condensates with Raman q-plates
Schultz, Justin T.; Hansen, Azure; Murphree, Joseph D.; Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Bigelow, Nicholas P.
2016-06-01
A coherent two-photon optical Raman interaction in a pseudo-spin-1/2 Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) serves as a q-plate for atoms, converting spin to orbital angular momentum. This Raman q-plate has a singular pattern in its polarization distribution in analogy to the singular birefringent q-plates used in singular optics. The vortex winding direction and magnitude as well as the final spin state of the BEC depend on the initial spin state and the topology of the optical Raman q-plate beams. Drawing on the mathematical and geometric foundations of singular optics, we derive the equivalent Jones matrix for this Raman q-plate and use it to create and characterize atomic spin singularities in the BEC that are analogous to optical C-point singularities in polarization. By tuning the optical Raman parameters, we can generate a coreless vortex spin texture which contains every possible superposition in a two-state system. We identify this spin texture as a full-Bloch BEC since every point on the Bloch sphere is represented at some point in the cross section of the atomic cloud. This spin–orbit interaction and the spin textures it generates may allow for the observation of interesting geometric phases in matter waves and lead to schemes for topological quantum computation with spinor BECs.
Wannier-Bloch approach to localization in high harmonics generation in solids
Osika, Edyta N; Ortmann, Lisa; Suárez, Noslen; Pérez-Hernández, Jose Antonio; Szafran, Bartłomiej; Ciappina, Marcelo F; Sols, Fernando; Landsman, Alexandra S; Lewenstein, Maciej
2016-01-01
Emission of high-order harmonics from solids provides a new avenue in attosecond science. On one hand, it allows to investigate fundamental processes of the non-linear response of electrons driven by a strong laser pulse in a periodic crystal lattice. On the other hand, it opens new paths toward efficient attosecond pulse generation, novel imaging of electronic wave functions, and enhancement of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) intensity. A key feature of HHG in a solid (as compared to the well-understood phenomena of HHG in an atomic gas) is the delocalization of the process, whereby an electron ionized from one site in the periodic lattice may recombine with any other. Here, we develop an analytic model, based on the localized Wannier wave functions in the valence band and delocalized Bloch functions in the conduction band. This Wannier-Bloch approach assesses the contributions of individual lattice sites to the HHG process, and hence addresses precisely the question of localization of harmonic emission...
Classical Coupled Mode Theory of Optomechanical Crystals
Khorasani, Sina
2016-01-01
Acousto-optic interaction in optomechanical crystals allows unidirectional control of elastic waves over optical waves. However, as a result of this nonlinear interaction, infinitely many optical modes are born. This article presents an exact formulaion of coupled mode theory for interaction between elastic Bloch wave waves and photonic Bloch waves moving in a phonotonic waveguide. In general, an optical wavefront is strongly diffracted by an elastic wave in frequency and wavevector, and thus infinite modes with different frequencies and wavevectors appear. We discuss resonance and mode conversion conditions, and present a rigorous method to derive coupling rates and mode profiles. We also find a conservation law which rules over total optical power from interacting individual modes. Modifications of the theory to phonotonic cavities are also discussed. We present application examples including switch, frequency shifter, and reflector.
Bazeia, D
2004-01-01
We investigate a system described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in (4, 1) dimensions in warped spacetime involving one extra dimension. The results show that the parameter which controls the way the two scalar fields interact induces the appearence of thick brane which engenders internal structure, driving the energy density to localize inside the brane in a very specific way.
The semi classical laser theory and some applications of laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The semi classical laser theory is concerned with the interaction between light and matter in such a way that the matter is treated quantum-mechanically whereas light is treated in terms of the classical electromagnetic equations. In this work the Maxwell-Bloch equations are employed to describe the interaction between light and matter. Applications of the theory as well as different types of lasers are reviewed. (Author)
Effects of gamma radiations on certain tissues of heteropneustes fossils bloch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present investigation effect of gamma radiation on certain tissues (kidney, stomach and gills) of Heteropneustes fossilis Bloch, an Indian Cat fish, were studied. The fish were irradiated with 10 Gy of gamma radiations at the dose rate of 1.60 Gy/minute from a 60Co source. Five fish were autopsied at each post-irradiation time of 1,2,3,7,15 and 30 days. Radiation induced histopathology was observed in all the tissues studied. The radio lesions appeared on day-1 after exposure which became exaggerated on day-2 and 3. Signs of recovery were noticed on day-7 which progressed on day-15 and normal histology was observed on day-30. (author). 18 refs
Bloch oscillations of ultracold atoms and measurement of the fine structure constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
From a measurement of the recoil velocity of an atom absorbing a photon, it is possible to deduce a determination of the ratio h/m between the Planck constant and the mass of the atoms and then to deduce a value of the fine structure constant alpha. To do this measurement, we use the technique of Bloch oscillations, which allows us to transfer a large number of recoils to atoms. A velocity sensor, based on velocity selective Raman transition, enables us to measure the momentum transferred to the atoms. A measurement with a statistical uncertainty of 4.4 10-9, in conjunction with a careful study of systematic effects (5 10-9), has led us to a determination of alpha with an uncertainty of 6.7 10-9: α-1(Rb) = 137.03599878 (91). This uncertainty is similar to the uncertainty of the best determinations of alpha based on atom interferometry. (author)
Electroweak corrections and Bloch-Nordsieck violations in 2-to-2 processes at the LHC
Stirling, W. J.; Vryonidou, E.
2013-04-01
We consider the effect of next-to-leading order (NLO) electroweak corrections to Standard Model 2 → 2 processes, taking into account the potentially large double logarithms originating from both real and virtual corrections. A study of the leading Sudakov logarithms is presented and Bloch-Nordsieck (BN) violations are discussed for processes at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. In particular, we focus on the processes Z/γ+jet and also the ratio of Z to γ production. This ratio is known to be insensitive to NLO QCD corrections but this is not expected to be the case for the electroweak corrections. We also comment on the effect of electroweak corrections and the presence of BN violation for QCD processes, in particular dijet production, and also for purely electroweak processes such as W + H and W + Z associated production.
Electroweak corrections and Bloch-Nordsieck violations in 2-to-2 processes at the LHC
Stirling, W J
2013-01-01
We consider the effect of next-to-leading order (NLO) electroweak corrections to Standard Model 2-to-2 processes, taking into account the potentially large double logarithms originating from both real and virtual corrections. A study of the leading Sudakov logarithms is presented and Bloch-Nordsieck (BN) violations are discussed for processes at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. In particular, we focus on the processes Z/photon+jet and also the ratio of Z to photon production. This ratio is known to be insensitive to NLO QCD corrections but this is not expected to be the case for the electroweak corrections. We also comment on the effect of electroweak corrections and the presence of BN violation for QCD processes, in particular dijet production, and also for purely electroweak processes such as W + H and W + Z associated production.
A note on the Königs domain of compact composition operators on the Bloch space
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Jones Matthew
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Let be the unit disk in the complex plane. We define to be the little Bloch space of functions f analytic in which satisfy lim|z|→1 (1 - |z|2|f'(z| = 0. If is analytic then the composition operator Cφ : f ↦ f ∘ φ is a continuous operator that maps into itself. In this paper, we show that the compactness of Cφ , as an operator on , can be modelled geometrically by its principal eigenfunction. In particular, under certain necessary conditions, we relate the compactness of Cφ to the geometry of , where σ satisfies Schöder's functional equation σ ∘ φ = φ'(0σ. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary 30D05; 47B33 Secondary 30D45.
Measuring the fine structure constant with Bragg diffraction and Bloch oscillations
Yu, Chenghui; Estey, Brian; Parker, Richard; Dudley, Jordan; Müller, Holger
2016-05-01
We have demonstrated a new scheme for atom interferometry based on large-momentum-transfer Bragg beam splitters and Bloch oscillations. In this new scheme, we have achieved a resolution of δα / α =0.25ppb in the fine structure constant measurement, which gives up to 4.4 million radians of phase difference between freely evolving matter waves. We have suppressed many systematic effects known in most atom interferometers with Raman beam splitters such as light shift, Zeeman effect shift as well as vibration. We have also simulated multi-atom Bragg diffraction to understand sub-ppb systematic effects, and implemented spatial filtering to further suppress systematic effects. We present our recent progress toward a measurement of the fine structure constant, which will provide a stringent test of the standard model of particle physics.
Quasiclassical analysis of Bloch oscillations in non-Hermitian tight-binding lattices
Graefe, E M; Rush, A
2016-01-01
Many features of Bloch oscillations in one-dimensional quantum lattices with a static force can be described by quasiclassical considerations for example by means of the acceleration theorem, at least for Hermitian systems. Here the quasiclassical approach is extended to non-Hermitian lattices, which are of increasing interest. The analysis is based on a generalised non-Hermitian phase space dynamics developed recently. Applications to a single-band tight-binding system demonstrate that many features of the quantum dynamics can be understood from this classical description qualitatively and even quantitatively. Two non-Hermitian and $PT$-symmetric examples are studied, a Hatano-Nelson lattice with real coupling constants and a system with purely imaginary couplings, both for initially localised states in space or in momentum. It is shown that the time-evolution of the norm of the wave packet and the expectation values of position and momentum can be described in a classical picture.
Dynamics of cold bosons in optical lattices: effects of higher Bloch bands
Łącki, Mateusz; Delande, Dominique; Zakrzewski, Jakub
2013-01-01
The extended effective multiorbital Bose-Hubbard-type Hamiltonian which takes into account higher Bloch bands is discussed for boson systems in optical lattices, with emphasis on dynamical properties, in relation to current experiments. It is shown that the renormalization of Hamiltonian parameters depends on the dimension of the problem studied. Therefore, mean-field phase diagrams do not scale with the coordination number of the lattice. The effect of Hamiltonian parameters renormalization on the dynamics in reduced one-dimensional optical lattice potential is analyzed. We study both the quasi-adiabatic quench through the superfluid-Mott insulator transition and the absorption spectroscopy, that is, the energy absorption rate when the lattice depth is periodically modulated.
Bloch waves in an arbitrary two-dimensional lattice of subwavelength Dirichlet scatterers
Schnitzer, Ory
2016-01-01
We study waves governed by the planar Helmholtz equation, propagating in an infinite lattice of subwavelength Dirichlet scatterers, the periodicity being comparable to the wavelength. Applying the method of matched asymptotic expansions, the scatterers are effectively replaced by asymptotic point constraints. The resulting coarse-grained Bloch-wave dispersion problem is solved by a generalised Fourier series, whose singular asymptotics in the vicinities of scatterers yield the dispersion relation governing modes that are strongly perturbed from plane-wave solutions existing in the absence of the scatterers; there are also empty-lattice waves that are only weakly perturbed. Characterising the latter is useful in interpreting and potentially designing the dispersion diagrams of such lattices. The method presented, that simplifies and expands on Krynkin & McIver [Waves Random Complex, 19 347 2009], could be applied in the future to study more sophisticated designs entailing resonant subwavelength elements di...
A Bloch-Torrey Equation for Diffusion in a Deforming Media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DTMRI)technique enables the measurement of diffusion parameters and therefore, informs on the structure of the biological tissue. This technique is applied with success to the static organs such as brain. However, the diffusion measurement on the dynamically deformable organs such as the in-vivo heart is a complex problem that has however a great potential in the measurement of cardiac health. In order to understand the behavior of the Magnetic Resonance (MR)signal in a deforming media, the Bloch-Torrey equation that leads the MR behavior is expressed in general curvilinear coordinates. These coordinates enable to follow the heart geometry and deformations through time. The equation is finally discredited and presented in a numerical formulation using implicit methods, in order to get a stable scheme that can be applied to any smooth deformations. Diffusion process enables the link between the macroscopic behavior of molecules and the microscopic structure in which they evolve. The measurement of diffusion in biological tissues is therefore of major importance in understanding the complex underlying structure that cannot be studied directly. The Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging(DTMRI) technique enables the measurement of diffusion parameters and therefore provides information on the structure of the biological tissue. This technique has been applied with success to static organs such as the brain. However, diffusion measurement of dynamically deformable organs such as the in-vivo heart remains a complex problem, which holds great potential in determining cardiac health. In order to understand the behavior of the magnetic resonance (MR) signal in a deforming media, the Bloch-Torrey equation that defines the MR behavior is expressed in general curvilinear coordinates. These coordinates enable us to follow the heart geometry and deformations through time. The equation is finally discredited and presented in a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudiu Alexandru Baciu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In our researches we have determined the variation of certain physiological indexes, such as the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the glycaemia and the number of red blood cells under the action of Coragen insecticide on Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch. Under the action of Coragen, we have registered significant changes in the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the number of red blood cells and glycemia at the Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch items, considered as answers to the stress provoked by emissions. The highest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of the percentage, were noticed at the glycemia, which at the mark was 28 mg/dl, and in the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 42 mg/dl, representing a 50% growth and at the breathing rhythm in 24 hours, where values significantly decreased with 41.18% at the concentration of 0.07 ml/l and with 39.33% at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen. The slightest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of percentage, were noticed at the oxygen consumption, which, at the mark is of 55.302 ml oxygen/kg/hour, and for the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 34.81 ml oxygen/kg/hour, representing a decrease of 37.06% in 24 hours and the number of red blood cells, where the values have significantly decrease with 9.58%, 13.48%, respectively 18.44% for the concentrations of 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen.
A Bloch-Torrey Equation for Diffusion in a Deforming Media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rohmer, Damien; Gullberg, Grant T.
2006-12-29
Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DTMRI)technique enables the measurement of diffusion parameters and therefore,informs on the structure of the biological tissue. This technique isapplied with success to the static organs such as brain. However, thediffusion measurement on the dynamically deformable organs such as thein-vivo heart is a complex problem that has however a great potential inthe measurement of cardiac health. In order to understand the behavior ofthe Magnetic Resonance (MR)signal in a deforming media, the Bloch-Torreyequation that leads the MR behavior is expressed in general curvilinearcoordinates. These coordinates enable to follow the heart geometry anddeformations through time. The equation is finally discretized andpresented in a numerical formulation using implicit methods, in order toget a stable scheme that can be applied to any smooth deformations.Diffusion process enables the link between the macroscopic behavior ofmolecules and themicroscopic structure in which they evolve. Themeasurement of diffusion in biological tissues is therefore of majorimportance in understanding the complex underlying structure that cannotbe studied directly. The Diffusion Tensor Magnetic ResonanceImaging(DTMRI) technique enables the measurement of diffusion parametersand therefore provides information on the structure of the biologicaltissue. This technique has been applied with success to static organssuch as the brain. However, diffusion measurement of dynamicallydeformable organs such as the in-vivo heart remains a complex problem,which holds great potential in determining cardiac health. In order tounderstand the behavior of the magnetic resonance (MR) signal in adeforming media, the Bloch-Torrey equation that defines the MR behavioris expressed in general curvilinear coordinates. These coordinates enableus to follow the heart geometry and deformations through time. Theequation is finally discretized and presented in a numerical formulationusing
Infinitesimal Theory of Chow Groups via K-theory, Cyclic Homology and the Relative Chern Character
Dribus, Benjamin; Hoffman, Jerome William; Yang, Sen
2015-01-01
We examine the tangent groups at the identity, and more generally the formal completions at the identity, of the Chow groups of algebraic cycles on a nonsingular quasiprojective algebraic variety over a field of characteristic zero. We settle a question recently raised by Mark Green and Phillip Griffiths concerning the existence of Bloch-Gersten-Quillen-type resolutions of algebraic K-theory sheaves on infinitesimal thickenings of nonsingular varieties, and the relationships between these seq...
Luciano Neves dos Santos; Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez; Francisco Gerson de Araújo
2001-01-01
The diet of Cichla monoculus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) in Lajes's Reservoir, a major impoundment in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was assessed, from fishes collected in 1994,1996 and 1999/2000. Gut contents in individuals was analyzed by the index of relative importance (IRI) which deals with numerical, gravimetrical and frequency of occurrence. Cichla monoculus showed a strong piscivorous habits feeding on Cichlidae, Characidae and Pimelodidae, in decreasing order of importance, with a remar...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a generalized variable-coefficient Hirota–Maxwell–Bloch system is investigated, which can describe the propagation of optical solitons in an erbium-doped optical fiber. Higher-step generalized Darboux transformation and rogue-wave solutions are obtained. Rogue-wave interaction is analyzed as follows: (1) Variable coefficients in the system affect the shape, background and number of the wave crests and troughs of the first-step rogue waves for the modulus of the normalized slowly varying amplitude of the complex pulse envelope, modulus of the measure of the polarization of the resonant medium and extant population inversion; (2) Variable coefficients in the system affect the shape, background and number of the wave crests and troughs of the second-step rogue-wave interaction. Those phenomena can not be attained through the existing Hirota–Maxwell–Bloch system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Bing-Zhi; Cui Hu; Li Xiang-Heng; She Wei-Long
2009-01-01
We theoretically study the beam dynamical hehaviour in a modulated optical lattice with a quadratic potential in a photovoltaic photorefractive crystal. We find that two different Bloch oscillation patterns appear for the excitation of both broad and narrow light beams. One kind of optical Landau-Zener tunnelling also appears upon the Bloch oscillation and can be controlled by adjusting the parameter of the optical lattice. Unlike the case of linear potential, the energy radiation due to Landau-Zener tunnelling can be confined in modulated lattices of this kind. For high input intensity levels, the Landau-Zener tunnelling is suppressed by the photovoltaic photorefractive nonlinearity and a symmetry breaking of beam propagation from the modulational instability appears.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Prasanna Venkatesh
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper we give a new description, in terms of optomechanics, of previous work on the problem of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate interacting with the optical lattice inside a laser-pumped optical cavity and subject to a bias force, such as gravity. An atomic wave packet in a tilted lattice undergoes Bloch oscillations; in a high-finesse optical cavity the backaction of the atoms on the light leads to a time-dependent modulation of the intracavity lattice depth at the Bloch frequency which can in turn transport the atoms up or down the lattice. In the optomechanical picture, the transport dynamics can be interpreted as a manifestation of dynamical backaction-induced sideband damping/amplification of the Bloch oscillator. Depending on the sign of the pump-cavity detuning, atoms are transported either with or against the bias force accompanied by an up- or down-conversion of the frequency of the pump laser light. We also evaluate the prospects for using the optomechanical Bloch oscillator to make continuous measurements of forces by reading out the Bloch frequency. In this context, we establish the significant result that the optical spring effect is absent and the Bloch frequency is not modified by the backaction.
Hartog, den, J.M.P.
1997-01-01
The genus Amphiprion Bloch & Schneider, 1801, is represented in the Seychelles by two species, A. akallopisos Bleeker, 1853, and the endemic A. fuscocaudatus Allen, 1972. Throughout its distributional range Amphiprion akallopisos has exclusively been recorded to associate with the clownfish anemones Heteractis magnifica (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833) and Stichodactyla mertensii Brandt, 1835. During the Netherlands Indian Ocean Programme (NIOP) Seychelles Expedition 19921993 this was confirmed for the...
Savoie, Baptiste
2012-01-01
Starting with a nearest-neighbors tight-binding model, we rigorously investigate the bulk zero-field orbital susceptibility of a non-interacting Bloch electrons gas in graphene-like solids at fixed temperature and density of particles. In the zero-temperature limit and in the semiconducting situation, we derive a complete expression which holds for an arbitrary number of bands with possible degeneracies. In the particular case of a two-bands gapped model, all involved quantities are exactly written down. Besides the formula we obtain have the special feature to be suitable for numerical computations since it only involves the eigenvalues and associated eigenfunctions of the Bloch Hamiltonian, together with the derivatives (up to the second order) w.r.t. the quasi-momentum of the matrix-elements of the Bloch Hamiltonian. Finally we give a simple application for the two-bands gapped model by considering the case of a dispersion law which is linear w.r.t. the quasi-momentum in the gapless limit. Through this ins...
Shear Bloch waves and coupled phonon-polariton in periodic piezoelectric waveguides.
Piliposyan, D G; Ghazaryan, K B; Piliposian, G T
2014-02-01
Coupled electro-elastic SH waves propagating in a periodic piezoelectric finite-width waveguide are considered in the framework of the full system of Maxwell's electrodynamic equations. We investigate Bloch-Floquet waves under homogeneous or alternating boundary conditions for the elastic and electromagnetic fields along the guide walls. Zero frequency stop bands, trapped modes as well as some anomalous features due to piezoelectricity are identified. For mixed boundary conditions, by modulating the ratio of the length of the unit cell to the width of the waveguide, the minimum widths of the stop bands can be moved to the middle of the Brillouin zone. The dispersion equation has been investigated also for phonon-polariton band gaps. It is shown that for waveguides at acoustic frequencies, acousto-optic coupling gives rise to polariton behavior at wavelengths much larger than the length of the unit cell but at optical frequencies polariton resonance occurs at wavelengths comparable with the period of the waveguide. PMID:24139302
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Laura Ghigliotti
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801 is the largest predatory fish in Arctic waters. The socio-economic significance of Greenland shark is demonstrated by its impact on the fishing cultures in Greenland, Scandinavia and Iceland for centuries. The fundamental biology and ecological role of Greenland shark, on the other hand, is virtually unknown. Although knowledge of its life history is limited, increasing evidence indicates that the Greenland shark may undertake long-distance migrations and perform vertical movements from the surface to the deep sea. It is an omnivorous species feeding on carrion and a wide variety of pelagic and bottom-dwelling organisms ranging from invertebrates to mammals, and including active species such as fishes and seals. Accordingly, Greenland shark should be recognized as a top predator, with a strong potential to influence the trophic dynamics of the Arctic marine ecosystem. The sensory biology of Greenland shark is scarcely studied, and considering the importance of olfaction in chemoreception, feeding and other behavioral traits, we examined the architecture of the peripheral olfactory organ where olfactory cues are received from the environment – the olfactory rosette. The structural organization of the olfactory rosette, in terms of histological features of the sensory epithelium, number of primary lamellae and total sensory surface area, provides a first proxy of the olfactory capability of Greenland shark. Based on own results and published studies, the overall morphology of the olfactory rosette is viewed in context of the functional and trophic ecology among other elasmobranch species.
A Bloch wave analysis of optical sectioning in aberration-corrected STEM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The reduction in the focal depth of field that occurs through the use of larger apertures in aberration-corrected STEM allows three-dimensional information to be retrieved by optical depth sectioning. This paper explores depth sectioning in zone-axis crystals using Bloch wave calculations. By decomposing the calculation into the contribution from individual states and from individual partial plane waves in the convergent cone of illumination, we explain the form of the electron intensity in the crystal as a function of depth. Two separate effects are found that can cause the intensity maximum to deviate from that of the expected defocus value. Firstly it is found that the unbound, high angle excited states give rise to a behaviour similar to that of the probe focusing in the vacuum, but with a prefocusing effect due to the lensing effect of the potential of the atomic column. Superimposed upon this prefocused peak is an oscillation due to interference between the channelling 1s state and the rest of the wavefunction. This oscillation can actually prevent an intensity maximum being formed at certain depths in the crystal, and will complicate the interpretation of optical sectioning data
Grating-Coupling-Based Excitation of Bloch Surface Waves for Lab-on-Fiber Nanoprobes
Scaravilli, Michele; Cusano, Andrea; Galdi, Vincenzo
2016-01-01
In this paper, we investigate for the first time the possibility to excite Bloch surface waves (BSWs) on the tip of single-mode optical fibers. Within this framework, we first demonstrate the possibility to exploit a grating-coupling mechanism for on-tip excitation of BSWs, and highlight the flexibility of the proposed design as well as its intrinsic robustness to unavoidable fabrication tolerances. Subsequently, with a view towards label-free chemical and biological sensing, we present an optimized design to maximize the sensitivity (in terms of wavelength shift) of the arising resonances with respect to changes in the refractive properties of the surrounding environment. Numerical results indicate that the attained sensitivities are in line with those exhibited by state-of-the-art plasmonic nanoprobes, with the key advantage of exhibiting much narrower spectral resonances. This prototype study paves the way for a new class of miniaturized high-performance surface-wave fiber-optic devices for high-resolution...
Establishment of a cell line from kidney of seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch
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Phromkunthong, W.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Primary cell culture from caudal fin and kidney of seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch using tissue explant method were cultured in three different medias with various salt concentrations. Only seabass kidney (SK cells grew well in Leibovitze's-15 medium containing 8 g/l of NaCl supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum at an optimum temperature of 25 oC. Over a period of 24 months, SK cells were subcultured over than 75 passages and exhibited epithelial-like cells. The chromosome number of SK cells was 42. The cells were found to be free from bacterial, fungal and mycoplasma contamination. Seabass cells can be kept at -80 oC and/or in liquid nitrogen (-196 oC for at least 24 months with a survival rate of 83.20 and 74.50 %, respectively. Nine fish viruses were tested for their infectivity and this SK cells were susceptible to sand goby virus (SGV, chub reovirus (CRV, snake-head rhabdovirus (SHRV, red seabream iridovirus (RSIV, seabass iridovirus (SIV and grouper iridovirus-2 (GIV-2.
Application of Berry's phase to the effective mass of Bloch electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berry's phase, although well known since 1984, has received little attention among textbook authors of solid state physics. We attempt to address this lack by showing how the presence of the Berry's phase significantly changes a standard concept (effective mass) found in most solid state texts. Specifically, we show that the presence of a non-zero Berry curvature in Bloch systems makes the traditional concept of an inverse effective mass tensor M-1 problematic, since a routine application of Newton's second law leads to a circular definition. As a consequence, the related concept of cyclotron effective mass m* also requires modification. It is shown that m* is magnetic-field dependent in non-inversion symmetric systems. This has important ramifications for cyclotron resonance experiments, since such experiments yield m* and thereby purportedly give the components of M-1. This work represents a 'case study' in how Berry's phase effects can modify 'standard' solid-state topics in ways that students and instructors may find surprising.
Mass Spectrum of Fermion on Bloch Branes with New Scalar-fermion Coupling
Xie, Qun-Ying; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Du, Yun-Zhi; Zhang, Yu-Peng
2015-01-01
In order to localize a left- or right-handed fermion zero mode on a thick brane, one usually introduces the Yukawa coupling $\\eta \\bar{\\Psi} F(\\chi) \\Psi$ between a bulk fermion and the background scalar field $\\chi$. However, the Yukawa coupling will do not work if the background scalar is an even function of the extra dimension. Recently, Ref. [Phy. Rev. \\textbf{D} 89 (2014) 086001] has presented a new scalar-fermion coupling form $\\lambda \\bar \\Psi \\Gamma^M \\partial_M F(\\chi) \\gamma^5 \\Psi$ in order to deal with this problem. In this paper, we investigate the localization and mass spectrum of fermion on the Bloch brane by using the new scalar-fermion coupling with $F(\\chi)=\\chi^n$. It is found that the effective potentials have rich structure and may be volcano-like, finite square well-like, and infinite potentials, which depend on the parameter $n$. As a result, there may appear some resonant KK fermions, finite or infinite numbers of bound KK fermions.
Bloch oscillations in non-Hermitian lattices with trajectories in the complex plane
Longhi, Stefano
2015-10-01
Bloch oscillation (BO), i.e., the oscillatory motion of a quantum particle in a periodic potential, is one of the most striking effects of coherent quantum transport in matter. In the semiclassical picture, it is well known that BOs can be explained owing to the periodic band structure of the crystal and the so-called acceleration theorem: since in the momentum space the particle wave packet drifts with a constant speed without being distorted, in real space the probability distribution of the particle undergoes a periodic motion following a trajectory which exactly reproduces the shape of the lattice band. In non-Hermitian lattices with a complex (i.e., not real) energy band, extension of the semiclassical model is not intuitive. Here we show that the acceleration theorem holds for non-Hermitian lattices with a complex energy band only on average, and that the periodic wave-packet motion of the particle in real space is described by a trajectory in the complex plane, i.e., it generally corresponds to reshaping and breathing of the wave packet in addition to a transverse oscillatory motion. The concept of BOs involving complex trajectories is exemplified by considering two examples of non-Hermitian lattices with a complex band dispersion relation, including the Hatano-Nelson tight-binding Hamiltonian describing the hopping motion of a quantum particle on a linear lattice with an imaginary vector potential and a tight-binding lattice with imaginary hopping rates.
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Muthusamy RAJASEKAR
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Lates calcarifer (Bloch 1790 is one of the major economically important cultivable fish species in India. In this study, three populations of L. calcarifer was selected to assess the genetic diversity. Of which, two wild (Mudaslodai, Muthupettai and one captive (Mutukadu population. The genetic diversity of three populations of this species was studied using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. Ten random primers were used for the assessment of their genetic diversity and construction of the dendrogram. A total of 589 scorable bands were obtained, 93.12% of them were polymorphic. The Nei�s gene diversity (H of two wild populations were more (0.0504 � 0.0670 and 0.0519 � 0.0953 than the captive population (0.0489 � 0.0850. The clustering pattern obtained by UPGMA method emphasized the wild populations were clustered in one clade and captive population was deviated into another clade. This study proved that RAPD analysis has the ability to discriminate L. calcarifer populations. Further molecular studies, comprising a higher number of molecular tools are still required to precisely evaluate the genetic structure of all seabass populations along the Indian coast.
Several Growth Characteristics of an Invasive Cyprinid Fish (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782
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Sait BULUT
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Age composition, length-weight relationships, growth, and condition factors of the gibel carp (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782 were determined using specimens collected from Seyitler Reservoir between July 2005 to June 2006. A total of 149 gibel carp were observed and examined. The age composition of the samples ranged between I and VII years of age. It has been determined than 82.55% of the obtained samples are comprised of females, 16.11% is comprised of males and 1.34% is comprised of immature. The population is dominated by females able to reproduce gynogenetically. The mean fork lengths and mean weights of the population were 14.8-32.5 cm and 43.1-807.3 g respectively. The length-weight relation were calculated as W = 0.0696 L2.132, r=0.838 for females, for males W = 0.2942 L2.6417 r=0.784 and W = 0.0274 L2.9382, r=0.813 for all samples. The mean Fulton Condition Factor was calculated as 2.342 for females, 2.064 for males and 2.276 for all samples. Age-length and age-weight relations were determined according to von Bertalanffy growth equation formula. Growth parameters of the population were Lt = 48.09 [1-e-0.093(t+0.29], and Wt=2323.62 [1-e-0.093(t+0.29]2.9382. The growth performance index value (Ø´ was computed as 5.37 for all specimens.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Palanivel Bharadhirajan; Natarajan Periyasamy; Sambantham Murugan
2014-01-01
Objective: To assess the nutritions in Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) (M. maculata). Methods: Fishes (14-16 cm) were obtained from the landings at Parangipettai for the evaluation of biochemical composition. The present study deals with biochemical composition such as protein, carbohydrate, lipid, amino acids fatty acids, vitamins and minerals which were evaluated in the moonfish.Results:protein was high in the tissue (23.16%), followed by the carbohydrate (1.3%) and lipid (2.62%). Totally 20 essential and nonessential amino acids were present at the rate of 46.72% and 43.91%. In the analysis, the fatty acid profile by gas chromatography revealed the presence of higher amount of saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid 22.17%) than monounsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid 14.51%) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (alpha linolenic acid 16.07%). Vitamins were detected in M. maculata. Among them, vitamin A was found in higher levels (124.5 mg/g), whereas vitamin B6 was noticed as lower levels (0.34 mg/g). In the present study, totally 5 macro minerals and 2 trace minerals were reported. The macro mineral calcium (156.7 mg/g) was found at the highest level and other minerals such as sodium (31.98 mg/g), potassium (21.33 mg/g), copper (1.43 mg/g) and magnesium (0.341 mg/g) were also detected in the moonfish.Conclusions:The results of proximate composition in M. maculata showed that the percentage of The result showed that the moonfish M. maculata tissue is a valuable food recipe for human consumption, due to its high quality protein and well-balanced amino acids.
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Palanivel Bharadhirajan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutritions in Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 (M. maculata. Methods: Fishes (14-16 cm were obtained from the landings at Parangipettai for the evaluation of biochemical composition. The present study deals with biochemical composition such as protein, carbohydrate, lipid, amino acids fatty acids, vitamins and minerals which were evaluated in the moonfish. Results: The results of proximate composition in M. maculata showed that the percentage of protein was high in the tissue (23.16%, followed by the carbohydrate (1.3% and lipid (2.62%. Totally 20 essential and nonessential amino acids were present at the rate of 46.72% and 43.91%. In the analysis, the fatty acid profile by gas chromatography revealed the presence of higher amount of saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid 22.17% than monounsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid 14.51% and polyunsaturated fatty acid (alpha linolenic acid 16.07%. Vitamins were detected in M. maculata. Among them, vitamin A was found in higher levels (124.5 mg/g, whereas vitamin B6 was noticed as lower levels (0.34 mg/g. In the present study, totally 5 macro minerals and 2 trace minerals were reported. The macro mineral calcium (156.7 mg/g was found at the highest level and other minerals such as sodium (31.98 mg/g, potassium (21.33 mg/g, copper (1.43 mg/g and magnesium (0.341 mg/g were also detected in the moonfish. Conclusions: The result showed that the moonfish M. maculata tissue is a valuable food recipe for human consumption, due to its high quality protein and well-balanced amino acids.
Venkatesh, B Prasanna; Goldwin, J
2015-01-01
We analyze the optomechanics of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate interacting with the optical lattice inside a laser-pumped optical cavity and subject to a uniform bias force such as gravity. An atomic wave packet in a tilted lattice undergoes Bloch oscillations; in a cavity the backaction of the atoms on the light leads to a time-dependent modulation of the intracavity lattice at the Bloch frequency. When the Bloch frequency is on the order of the cavity damping rate we find transport of the atoms either up or down the lattice. The transport dynamics can be interpreted as a manifestation of dynamical backaction-induced sideband damping/amplification of the optomechanical Bloch oscillator. Depending on the sign of the pump-cavity detuning, atoms are transported either with or against the bias force accompanied by an up- or down-conversion of the frequency of the pump laser light. We also evaluate the prospects for using the optomechanical Bloch oscillator to make continuous measurements of forces by reading...
Antes, desde y para el exilio. Herencia de esta época (1935/1962 de Ernst Bloch
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Salmerón Infante, Miguel
2009-10-01
Full Text Available The first edition of Erbschaft dieser Zeit was published in Zurich in 1935, during Ernst Bloch’s five-year period of emigration from Nazi-Germany in various European capitals before his final emigration to America for ten years in 1938. In this book Bloch made a courageous stand in defence of the artistic avant-garde against the dogmatic advocates of socialist realism. His particularly adversary was Georg Lukács. But of course one of the most fascinating aspects of the book is that is also reads as a contemporary observation of the rise of the Nazis. Erbschaft is undoubtedly the major work of Weimar Germany Exile.La primera edición de Erbschaft dieser Zeit fue publicada en 1935 en Zurich, durante la emigración de Ernst Bloch de la Alemania nazi por un período de cinco años en el que residió en varias capitales europeas antes de su marcha definitiva a América en 1938, donde vivió diez años. En este libro Bloch hace una encorajinada defensa de la vanguardia artística contra los abogados del realismo socialista. Su adversario específico era Georg Lukács. Pero sin duda alguna uno de los aspectos más fascinantes de este libro es que puede leerse como una observación contemporánea de la ascensión al poder de los nazis. Erbschaft es indudablemente la obra clave del exilio de la Alemania de Weimar.
Hyperdense coding and superadditivity of classical capacities in hypersphere theories
Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano; Pitalúa-García, Damián
2015-01-01
In quantum superdense coding, two parties previously sharing entanglement can communicate a two bit message by sending a single qubit. We study this feature in the broader framework of general probabilistic theories. We consider a particular class of theories in which the local state space of the communicating parties corresponds to Euclidean hyperballs of dimension n (the case n = 3 corresponds to the Bloch ball of quantum theory). We show that a single n-ball can encode at most one bit of i...
Lawrence, Felix J; Dossou, Kokou B; McPhedran, R C; de Sterke, C Martijn
2011-01-01
We present a flexible method that can calculate Bloch modes, complex band structures, and impedances of two-dimensional photonic crystals from scattering data produced by widely available numerical tools. The method generalizes previous work which relied on specialized multipole and FEM techniques underpinning transfer matrix methods. We describe the numerical technique for mode extraction, and apply it to calculate a complex band structure and to design two photonic crystal antireflection coatings. We do this for frequencies at which other methods fail, but which nevertheless are of significant practical interest.
RELACIONES TALLA-PESO DEL BARBUL (Pimelodus clarias f.c. Bloch, 1785) EN LA CUENCA DEL RIO SINU,
Iliana Santos-Sanes,; Charles Olaya-Nieto; Fredys Segura-Guevara; Samir Brú-Cordero; Glenys Tordecilla-Petro
2006-01-01
Objetivo. Establecer las relaciones de talla y peso del barbul (Pimelodus clarias) en la cuenca del río Sinú. Materiales y Métodos. Se estimaron las relaciones talla-peso de 4324 individuos de Barbul (Pimelodus clarias f.c. Bloch, 1785) colectados entre enero 2000 y diciembre 2002. Resultados. La longitud total (LT) osciló entre 13.0-30.0 cm, promedio de 19.5 (±1.6) cm y el peso total (WT) entre 20.0 y 248.1 g, promedio de 65.8 (±23.2) g. Las relaciones lineales estimadas fueron: LT = 1.92 (�...
Bloch k-selective resonant inelastic scattering of hard X-rays from valence electrons of 3d-metals
Enkisch, Hartmut
2002-01-01
Die Form von resonant angeregen Valenz-Fluoreszenzspektren hängt sowohl vonder Energie der einfallenden Strahlung, als auch von Größe und Richtung desImpulsübertrags q ab, falls harte Röntgenstrahlen benutzt werden. DieserEffekt ist auf die elektronische Bandstruktur der Valenz- undLeitungselektronen der Probe, in Kombination mit der Energie- undImpulserhaltung des Streuprozesses zurückzuführen, woraus dieBloch-k-Impulserhaltung des resonant inelastischen Streuprozesses folgt.In dieser Arbeit...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Breinbjerg, Olav; Yaghjian, Arthur D.
For an infinite 1D periodic structure with unit cells consisting of two planar slabs of magnetodielectric materials, the electric field – as well as magnetic field, electric flux density, magnetic flux density, polarization, and magnetization – can be expressed as infinite series of Floquet......-Bloch space harmonics. We discuss how space harmonic permittivity and permeability can be expressed in seemingly different though equivalent forms, and we investigate these parameters of the zeroeth order space harmonic for a particular 1D periodic structure that is based on a previously reported 3D periodic...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With the aid of symbolic computation, the coupled Hirota-Maxwell-Bloch system is investigated with third-order dispersion and higher-order nonlinear effects, which govern the nonlinear pulse propagation in an erbium-doped optical fiber medium. In addition, the Lax pair for the system is explicitly constructed and the soliton-like solutions are derived using the Darboux transformation, which makes it possible to generate the multi-soliton solutions in a recursive manner. Through the graphical analysis of some obtained analytic one- and two-soliton-like solutions, stable propagation and collision between two solitons are discussed. Furthermore, the conservation laws for the system are presented.
Zhang, Wen-Zhuo
2012-01-01
We derive a set of optical Bloch equations (OBEs) directly from the minimal-coupling Hamiltonian density of the bound-state quantum electrodynamics (bound-state QED). Such optical Bloch equations are beyond the former widely-used ones due to that there is no electric dipole approximation (EDA) on the minimal-coupling Hamiltonian density of the bound-state QED. Then our optical Bloch equations can describe a two-level atom interacting with a monochromatic light of arbitrary wavelength, which are suitable to study the spectroscopy and the Rabi oscillations of two-level atoms in X-ray laser beams since that the wavelength of X-ray is close to an atom to make the electric dipole approximation (EDA) invalid.
Gherase, Mihai R
2012-01-01
Diffusive spin exchange is one of the most important relaxation mechanisms in the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) applications to medicine and biology. Two models based on the Bloch-McConnell (B-M) and the Bloch-Torrey (B-T) equations are commonly used for modelling the physical processes which determine the NMR lineshapes. Qualitative arguments for each of the two methods can be found in various studies in the literature. However, there is a lack of systematic quantitative investigations of the diffusive exchange spectra calculated with the two methods for the same physical system or model. In this work exact frequency-domain transverse magnetization solutions of the B-M and the B-T equations with boundary conditions for a two-compartment radial diffusive exchange model are presented. Theoretical spectra and the two corresponding metrics were computed by varying three different parameters: diffusive permeability of the separating membrane between the two compartments (P), the radius of the inner spherical c...
Web-based description of the space radiation environment using the Bethe-Bloch model
Cazzola, Emanuele; Calders, Stijn; Lapenta, Giovanni
2016-01-01
Space weather is a rapidly growing area of research not only in scientific and engineering applications but also in physics education and in the interest of the public. We focus especially on space radiation and its impact on space exploration. The topic is highly interdisciplinary, bringing together fundamental concepts of nuclear physics with aspects of radiation protection and space science. We give a new approach to presenting the topic by developing a web-based application that combines some of the fundamental concepts from these two fields into a single tool that can be used in the context of advanced secondary or undergraduate university education. We present DREADCode, an outreach or teaching tool to rapidly assess the current conditions of the radiation field in space. DREADCode uses the available data feeds from a number of ongoing space missions (ACE, GOES-13, GOES-15) to produce a first order approximation of the radiation dose an astronaut would receive during a mission of exploration in deep space (i.e. far from the Earth’s shielding magnetic field and from the radiation belts). DREADCode is based on an easy-to-use GUI interface available online from the European Space Weather Portal (www.spaceweather.eu/dreadcode). The core of the radiation transport computation to produce the radiation dose from the observed fluence of radiation observed by the spacecraft fleet considered is based on a relatively simple approximation: the Bethe-Bloch equation. DREADCode also assumes a simplified geometry and material configuration for the shields used to compute the dose. The approach is approximate and sacrifices some important physics on the altar of rapid execution time, which allows a real-time operation scenario. There is no intention here to produce an operational tool for use in space science and engineering. Rather, we present an educational tool at undergraduate level that uses modern web-based and programming methods to learn some of the most important
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Alexander V. Baryshev
2014-12-01
Full Text Available A one-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC with termination by a metal film—a plasmonic photonic-crystal slab—has been theoretically analyzed for its optical response at a variation of the dielectric permittivity of an analyte and at a condition simulating the molecular binding event. Visualization of the Bloch surface wave resonance (SWR was done with the aid of plasmon absorption in a dielectric/metal/dielectric sandwich terminating a PhC. An SWR peak in spectra of such a plasmonic photonic crystal (PPhC slab comprising a noble or base metal layer was shown to be sensitive to a negligible variation of refractive index of a medium adjoining to the slab. As a consequence, the considered PPhC-based optical sensors exhibited an enhanced sensitivity and a good robustness in comparison with the conventional surface-plasmon and Bloch surface wave sensors. The PPhC biosensors can be of practical importance because the metal layer is protected by a capping dielectric layer from contact with analytes and, consequently, from deterioration.
Padmanabha Chakrabarti; Saroj Kumar Ghosh
2015-01-01
The histological analysis, disposition and histochemical localization of tryptophan were investigated in the pancreas to compare the cellular organization and histochemical characterization in the pancreas of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822), Mystus vittatus (Bloch, 1790) and Notopterus notopterus (Pallas, 1769) having different feeding habits. Histological analysis demonstrated that the exocrine pancreatic tissues were dispersed within the hepatic parenchyma and spleen in L. rohita. Thin septa ...
Awojoyogbe, Bamidele O; Dada, Michael O; Onwu, Samuel O; Ige, Taofeeq A; Akinwande, Ninuola I
2016-04-01
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field along with radio waves and a computer to produce highly detailed "slice-by-slice" pictures of virtually all internal structures of matter. The results enable physicians to examine parts of the body in minute detail and identify diseases in ways that are not possible with other techniques. For example, MRI is one of the few imaging tools that can see through bones, making it an excellent tool for examining the brain and other soft tissues. Pulsed-field gradient experiments provide a straightforward means of obtaining information on the translational motion of nuclear spins. However, the interpretation of the data is complicated by the effects of restricting geometries as in the case of most cancerous tissues and the mathematical concept required to account for this becomes very difficult. Most diffusion magnetic resonance techniques are based on the Stejskal-Tanner formulation usually derived from the Bloch-Torrey partial differential equation by including additional terms to accommodate the diffusion effect. Despite the early success of this technique, it has been shown that it has important limitations, the most of which occurs when there is orientation heterogeneity of the fibers in the voxel of interest (VOI). Overcoming this difficulty requires the specification of diffusion coefficients as function of spatial coordinate(s) and such a phenomenon is an indication of non-uniform compartmental conditions which can be analyzed accurately by solving the time-dependent Bloch NMR flow equation analytically. In this study, a mathematical formulation of magnetic resonance flow sequence in restricted geometry is developed based on a general second order partial differential equation derived directly from the fundamental Bloch NMR flow equations. The NMR signal is obtained completely in terms of NMR experimental parameters. The process is described based on Bessel functions and properties that can make it
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Luciano Neves dos Santos
2001-07-01
Full Text Available The diet of Cichla monoculus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 in Lajes's Reservoir, a major impoundment in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was assessed, from fishes collected in 1994,1996 and 1999/2000. Gut contents in individuals was analyzed by the index of relative importance (IRI which deals with numerical, gravimetrical and frequency of occurrence. Cichla monoculus showed a strong piscivorous habits feeding on Cichlidae, Characidae and Pimelodidae, in decreasing order of importance, with a remarkable cannibalism on young-of-the-year. Others minor items in the diet were Macrobrachium sp. and Odonata. Changes in feeding composition varied with reservoir's zones and seasons, with higher diversity in Autumn and peaks of cannibalism in lower zone during Spring/Summer. Overall, only one third of fish species composition in the reservoir are predated by C. monoculus. Condition factor (k and fullness index varied closely with higher values in lower zone, and lower records in Winter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The equations of fluid mechanics, coupled with those that describe matter transportation at the molecular level must be handled effectively. Putting the fluid into equations, we model the Bloch NMR flow equations into the harmonic wave equation for the analysis of general fluid flow. We derived the solution of the modelled harmonic equation in non relativistic quantum mechanics and discuss its semi classical application to illustrate its potential wide-ranging usefulness in the search for the best possible data obtainable for general fluid flow analysis. Representing the solution of the derived harmonic wave equation by a normalized state function is quite useful in generating the properly normalized wave functions and in the efficient evaluation of expectation values of many operators that can be fundamental to the analysis of fluid flow especially at the microscopic level. (author)
Hao, Hui-Qin; Zhang, Jian-Wen
2015-05-01
In this paper, we investigate the inhomogeneous reduced Maxwell-Bloch system, which describes the propagation of the intense ultra-short optical pulses through an inhomogeneous two-level dielectric medium. Through symbolic computation, the integrability aspects including the Painlevé integrable condition, Lax pair and infinite conservation laws are derived. By virtue of the Darboux transformation method, one- and two-soliton solutions are generated on the nonvanishing background, including the bright solitons, dark solitons, periodic solutions and some two-soliton solutions. The asymptotic analysis method is performed to verify the elastic interaction between two solitons. Furthermore, by virtue of some figures, the dynamic properties of those solitons are discussed. The results may be useful in the study of the ultrashort pulses propagation in such situations as the model of the two-level dielectric media.
Ammi, H.; Zemih, R.; Mammeri, S.; Allab, M.
2005-04-01
Recent stopping power measurements in thin polymeric films have been performed for protons of 0.4-3.5 MeV energies using the indirect transmission technique [H. Ammi, S. Mammeri, M. Chekirine, B. Bouzid, M. Allab, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 198 (2002) 5]. Experimental stopping data have been analyzed with the modified Bethe-Bloch formula and the mean excitation energies I have been then extracted from the data. Resulting values for each thin film are 76 ± 1 eV in Mylar, 70.8 ± 1 eV in Makrofol, 82.2 ± 1.2 eV in LR-115 and 55.4 ± 1 eV in Polypropylene. The I-extracted values are compared to those IB calculated by using the Bragg's rule.
Sych, Denis V.; Grishanin, Boris A.; Zadkov, Victor N.
2005-06-01
Possibilities of improving characteristics of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols via variation of character set in quantum alphabets are investigated. QKD protocols with discrete alphabets letters of which form regular polyhedrons on the Bloch sphere (tetrahedron octahedron cube icosahedron and dodecahedron which have 4, 6, 8, 12, and 20 vertexes) and QKD protocol with continuous alphabet which corresponds to the limiting case of a polyhedron with infinitive number of vertexes are considered. Stability of such QKD protocols to the interceptresend and optimal eavesdropping strategies at the individual attacks is studied in detail. It is shown that in case of optimal eavesdropping strategy after safety bases reconciliation critical error rate of the QKD protocol with continuous alphabet surpasses all other protocols. Without basis reconciliation the highest critical error rate have the protocol with tetrahedron-type alphabet.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The main focus in these notes is on the relation between special values of zeta-functions of global fields and orders of cohomology groups and algebraic K-theory groups attached to rings of integers, a relation extending Dirichlet's analytic class number formula. The function field case serves as a motivation for the study of etale cohomology and its relation to Iwasawa theory. We describe the basic properties of etale cohomology groups, and study in particular Galois descent and co-descent for Galois extensions, the modifications - positive etale cohomology - needed to treat the case of the prime 2, and suitable 'globalizations'. We provide a brief introduction to Iwasawa theory, concentrating on the relation between the Main Conjecture and the orders of certain etale cohomology groups. The connection to algebraic K-groups is obtained via etale Chern characters, and we discuss the recent progress on the Quillen-Lichtenbaum Conjecture, which is implied by a conjecture of Bloch-Kato on the Galois symbols in Milnor K-theory. This also leads to a reformulation of the Lichtenbaum Conjectures in terms of motivic cohomology rather than K-theory. Finally, we describe the impact of these results on the study of the K-groups of Z and their relation to Vandiver's Conjecture. (author)
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César Roberto Goes Carqueija
1995-01-01
Full Text Available The occurence of Decapoda crustaceans in the diet of Dasyatis guttata (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 (Elasmobranchii. Dasyatididae is reported. Inferences are also made about some aspects of the predator - prey relationship in the area around the Ecological Station.
Positronium bloch function, and trapping of positronium in vacancies, in ice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Positron annihilation techniques were used to study the behaviour of positronium (Ps) in pure light and heavy ice in the temperature interval -1852 was extracted by very detailed computer analyses. A nearly-free-Ps theory, including phonon influence, could not explain the temperature dependence of /Asub(g vector)/2. The Ps trapping in vacancies could not be explained in detail in terms of several models, including the simple 'trapping model'. A main difficulty was the fact that para-Ps and ortho-Ps are trapped at roughly the same amount at a certain vacancy concentration. Our results imply a high (several ppm) vacancy concentration at the melting point in ice in agreement with other independent estimates. This fact might introduce pronounced changes in currently accepted theories of the electrical properties of ice. (author)
Stevo Stević
2008-01-01
We introduce an integral-type operator, denoted by PÃÂ†g, on the space of holomorphic functions on the unit ball BÃ¢ÂŠÂ‚Ã¢Â„Â‚n, which is an extension of the product of composition and integral operators on the unit disk. The operator norm of PÃÂ†g from the weighted Bergman space AÃŽÂ±p(B) to the Bloch-type space Ã¢Â„Â¬ÃŽÂ¼(B) or the little Bloch-type space Ã¢Â„Â¬ÃŽÂ¼,0(B) is calculated. The compactness of the operator is characterized in terms of inducing functions g and ÃÂ†. Upper and lower...
Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya
2015-08-01
Auxiliary matrix exponential method is used to derive simple and numerically efficient general expressions for the following, historically rather cumbersome, and hard to compute, theoretical methods: (1) average Hamiltonian theory following interaction representation transformations; (2) Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory of nuclear and electron relaxation; (3) gradient ascent pulse engineering version of quantum optimal control theory. In the context of spin dynamics, the auxiliary matrix exponential method is more efficient than methods based on matrix factorizations and also exhibits more favourable complexity scaling with the dimension of the Hamiltonian matrix.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auxiliary matrix exponential method is used to derive simple and numerically efficient general expressions for the following, historically rather cumbersome, and hard to compute, theoretical methods: (1) average Hamiltonian theory following interaction representation transformations; (2) Bloch-Redfield-Wangsness theory of nuclear and electron relaxation; (3) gradient ascent pulse engineering version of quantum optimal control theory. In the context of spin dynamics, the auxiliary matrix exponential method is more efficient than methods based on matrix factorizations and also exhibits more favourable complexity scaling with the dimension of the Hamiltonian matrix
Mohammed Safwan Ali Khan; Abdul Manan Mat Jais; Javeed Hussain; Faiza Siddiqua; Gopala Reddy, A.; P. Shivakumar; Madhuri, D.
2014-01-01
Channa striata (Bloch.) is a fresh water fish belonging to the family Channidae. The stripped snakehead fish possesses wide range of medicinal properties. In view of traditional use of C. striata for wound healing, the present study was undertaken to investigate the beneficial effects of orally administered freeze dried aqueous extract of Channa striata (AECS) in experimentally induced gastric ulcers in Wistar rats. Aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pyloric ligation model was used for the asse...
Vankara, Anu Prasanna; Vijayalakshmi, C.
2009-01-01
A total of 9 metazoan parasitic species were identified from Mystus vittatus (Bloch) in river Godavari during 2005–2007 including 2 monogeneans, 2 digeneans, 3 acanthocephalans and 2 copepods. Two species of monogeneans (Bifurcohaptor indicus and Thaparocleidus tengra), digeneans (Haplorchoides macrones and metacercariae of Isoparorchis hypselobagri), an acanthocephalan (Raosentis podderi) found during the present study are of common occurrence in this fish. M. vittatus constitutes a new host...
The Faraday effect revisited: General theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia Decebal; Nenciu, Gheorghe; Pedersen, Thomas Garm
2006-01-01
the Fermi energy lies in a spectral gap, we rigorously prove theWidom-Streda formula. For free electrons, the transverse conductivity can be explicitly computed and coincides with the classical result. In the general case, using magnetic perturbation theory, the conductivity tensor is expanded in......This paper is the first in a series revisiting the Faraday effect, or more generally, the theory of electronic quantum transport/optical response in bulk media in the presence of a constant magnetic field. The independent electron approximation is assumed. At zero temperature and zero frequency, if...... field Bloch functions and energies. No derivatives with respect to the quasimomentum appear and thereby all ambiguities are removed, in contrast to earlier work....
The Faraday effect revisited: General theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia Decebal; Nenciu, Gheorghe; Pedersen, Thomas Garm
This paper is the first in a series revisiting the Faraday effect, or more generally, the theory of electronic quantum transport/optical response in bulk media in the presence of a constant magnetic field. The independent electron approximation is assumed. For free electrons, the transverse...... conductivity can be explicitly computed and coincides with the classical result. In the general case, using magnetic perturbation theory, the conductivity tensor is expanded in powers of the strength of the magnetic field B. Then the linear term in B of this expansion is written down in terms of the zero...... magnetic field Green function and the zero field current operator. In the periodic case, the linear term in B of the conductivity tensor is expressed in terms of zero magnetic field Bloch functions and energies. No derivatives with respect to the quasimomentum appear and thereby all ambiguities are removed...
The Faraday effect revisited General theory
Cornean, H D; Pedersen, T G
2005-01-01
This paper is the first in a series revisiting the Faraday effect, or more generally, the theory of electronic quantum transport/optical response in bulk media in the presence of a constant magnetic field. The independent electron approximation is assumed. For free electrons, the transverse conductivity can be explicitly computed and coincides with the classical result. In the general case, using magnetic perturbation theory, the conductivity tensor is expanded in powers of the strength of the magnetic field $B$. Then the linear term in $B$ of this expansion is written down in terms of the zero magnetic field Green function and the zero field current operator. In the periodic case, the linear term in $B$ of the conductivity tensor is expressed in terms of zero magnetic field Bloch functions and energies. No derivatives with respect to the quasimomentum appear and thereby all ambiguities are removed, in contrast to earlier work.
Electromigration of substitutional impurities in metals: Theory and application in Al and Cu
van Ek, J.; Dekker, J. P.; Lodder, A.
1995-09-01
A theory describing scattering of Bloch electrons by an atom halfway along its path towards a neighboring vacancy is cast in a computationally convenient form. This allows for the computation of the electromigration wind force at the saddle-point position in an elementary diffusion step, where the cross section for Bloch electron-impurity scattering of the migrating ion is at a maximum. Results for atoms migrating into a neighboring vacancy in Al and Cu are presented The outcome is found to be consistent with experimetnal information, even though only a two-atom cluster was embedded in the host metal. it is concluded that even more realistic calculations of the electromigration wind force on substitutional impurities in metals are possible upon incorporation of the effects of local lattice deformation and charge transfer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier Barrera-Chica
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar los hábitos alimentarios de la Mayupa (Sternopygus macrurus Bloch & Schneider, 1801 en el río Sinú, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. El contenido estomacal se evaluó con el coeficiente de vacuidad, grado de llenado, grado de digestión, frecuencia de ocurrencia, frecuencia numérica, gravimetría, indice de importancia relativa (IIR y la relación longitud intestinal (LI-longitud total (LT. Resultados. Solo pocos estómagos se encontraron vacíos (CV =6.9% y el 60.0% de las presas se encontraron frescas. Se identificaron cuatro ítems alimentarios: peces, crustáceos, material vegetal y otros. Peces fue el ítem más frecuente (76.9%, abundante (48.3%, con mayor composición por peso (81.9% y con mayor importancia relativa (63.2%. Conclusiones. Los resultados obtenidos permiten inferir que la Mayupa es un pez de hábitos alimentarios carnívoros, con preferencia por los peces.
Dynamics of the time dependent Bloch NMR equations for complex rFB1(t) magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study examines the dynamical changes produced by a complex time-dependent rFB1(t) magnetic field in an initially unperturbed magnetic resonance system. The analysis uses the Green's function algorithm as a tool to solve the transverse component of the time-dependent Bloch NMR equations with complex rFB1(t) field. The time development of the system is studied in the Hersenberg picture in which the operators are subject to unitary transformation as the applied rFB1(t) field changes the state of the NMR system from its initial ground state into another coherent state. The detailed features of the rFB1(t) field essentially affect the evolution of the state during its application. The state of the system after the complete cessation of the radio-frequency field is determined exclusively by a Fourier component which is in resonance with the NMR system. The unitary operator allows us to determine all the physically relevant information about the system in terms of a NMR relaxation parameter. (author)
Walker, Christopher M.; Bankson, James A.
2015-03-01
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of hyperpolarized (HP) agents has the potential to probe in-vivo metabolism with sensitivity and specificity that was not previously possible. Biological conversion of HP agents specifically for cancer has been shown to correlate to presence of disease, stage and response to therapy. For such metabolic biomarkers derived from MRI of hyperpolarized agents to be clinically impactful, they need to be validated and well characterized. However, imaging of HP substrates is distinct from conventional MRI, due to the non-renewable nature of transient HP magnetization. Moreover, due to current practical limitations in generation and evolution of hyperpolarized agents, it is not feasible to fully experimentally characterize measurement and processing strategies. In this work we use a custom Bloch-McConnell simulator with pharmacokinetic modeling to characterize the performance of specific magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequences over a range of biological conditions. We performed numerical simulations to evaluate the effect of sequence parameters over a range of chemical conversion rates. Each simulation was analyzed repeatedly with the addition of noise in order to determine the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements. Results indicate that under both closed and perfused conditions, acquisition parameters can affect measurements in a tissue dependent manner, suggesting that great care needs to be taken when designing studies involving hyperpolarized agents. More modeling studies will be needed to determine what effect sequence parameters have on more advanced acquisitions and processing methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The motion of the charged particle in a one-dimensional periodic potential of the Kronig-Penney type is considered. The energy band structure, Bloch wave functions (BWF) in coordinate and momentum representation are investigated in detail. Two sharply distinguished groups of states, i.e. below-the-barrier and above-the-barrier, are extracted, and the role of both positively and negatively charged particles in the channeling is explained. It is shown that only with use of a dispersion equation form one can obtain the information on the symmetry properties of the BWF at the edges of energy bands. The estimate of the corresponding regions of the edge coherence in the Brillouin zone is given. In above-the-barrier case the nontrivial effect of parity interchange violation of BWF at the edges of energy bands, connected with the nullification of the reflection coefficient either from the single barrier or well is found. Oscillation behaviour of both allowed and forbidden band widths is revealed. The analytical results for different values of the parameters are illustrated by computer calculations
Delamare-Deboutteville, J; Bowater, R; Condon, K; Reynolds, A; Fisk, A; Aviles, F; Barnes, A C
2015-12-01
Since 2007, 96 wild Queensland groupers, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), have been found dead in NE Australia. In some cases, Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) was isolated. At present, a GBS isolate from a wild grouper case was employed in experimental challenge trials in hatchery-reared Queensland grouper by different routes of exposure. Injection resulted in rapid development of clinical signs including bilateral exophthalmia, hyperaemic skin or fins and abnormal swimming. Death occurred in, and GBS was re-isolated from, 98% fish injected and was detected by PCR in brain, head kidney and spleen from all fish, regardless of challenge dose. Challenge by immersion resulted in lower morbidity with a clear dose response. Whilst infection was established via oral challenge by admixture with feed, no mortality occurred. Histology showed pathology consistent with GBS infection in organs examined from all injected fish, from fish challenged with medium and high doses by immersion, and from high-dose oral challenge. These experimental challenges demonstrated that GBS isolated from wild Queensland grouper reproduced disease in experimentally challenged fish and resulted in pathology that was consistent with that seen in wild Queensland grouper infected with S. agalactiae. PMID:25117665
Guan, Yue-Yang; Tian, Bo; Zhen, Hui-Lin; Wang, Yu-Feng; Chai, Jun
2016-03-01
In this article, the generalised nonlinear Schrödinger-Maxwell-Bloch system is investigated, which describes the propagation of the optical solitons in an optical fibre doped with two-level resonant impurities like erbium with the fourth-order dispersion taken into account. Bilinear forms are derived via the Hirota method, symbolic computation, and the auxiliary function. Bright solitons can be obtained for the complex envelope of the field and the measure of the polarisation for the resonant medium, while the dark ones have been deduced for the extant population inversion. Propagation of the one and two solitons is analysed with the results that the solitons keep their shapes unchanged after the interaction, except for the phase shifts, which means that the interaction is elastic. Velocities of the solitons decrease when the effect of discreteness and higher-order dispersion increases. For the bound-state solitons, which can be formed among the solitons at the same velocity, the period decreases when the effect of discreteness and higher-order dispersion increases.
Chen, Wen-Jun; Ma, Hong; Yu, De; Zeng, Xiao-Hu
2016-08-01
A novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experimental scheme, called wideband continuous wave NMR (WB-CW-NMR), is presented in this article. This experimental scheme has promising applications in pulsed magnetic fields, and can dramatically improve the utilization of the pulsed field. The feasibility of WB-CW-NMR scheme is verified by numerically solving modified Bloch equations. In the numerical simulation, the applied magnetic field is a pulsed magnetic field up to 80 T, and the wideband continuous radio frequency (RF) excitation is a band-limited (0.68–3.40 GHz) white noise. Furthermore, the influences of some experimental parameters, such as relaxation time, applied magnetic field strength and wideband continuous RF power, on the WB-CW-NMR signal are analyzed briefly. Finally, a multi-channel system framework for transmitting and receiving ultra wideband signals is proposed, and the basic requirements of this experimental system are discussed. Meanwhile, the amplitude of the NMR signal, the level of noise and RF interference in WB-CW-NMR experiments are estimated, and a preliminary adaptive cancellation plan is given for detecting WB-CW-NMR signal from large background interference. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475067), the Innovative Research Foundation of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (2015 ZDTD017) and the Experimental Apparatus Research Project of Wuhan Pulsed High Magnetic Field Center (2015KF17)
Higher Order Radial Derivatives of Bloch Type Functions%Bloch型函数的高阶径向导数
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
卓文新
2002-01-01
讨论了复超球上全纯函数的高阶导数的增长速度,证明了f∈Bα的充分必要条件是supa∈B(1-|z|2)m+α-1|Rmf(z)|＜∞,或supa∈B∫B(1-|z|2)(m+α-1)|Rmf(z)|pJRφα(z)dv(z)＜∞,或(1-|z|2)p(m+α-1)|Rmf(z)|pdv(z)是Bergman-Carleson测度.%In this paper, higher order radial derivatives of Bloch type functions in the unit ball of Cn is discussed and it is proved that for f∈H(B), f∈Bα if and only if supα∈B(1-|z|2)m+α-1|Rmf(z)|＜∞, if and only if supa∈B∫B(1-|z|2)P(m+α-1)|Rmf(z)|PJRφα(z)dv(z)＜∞, if and only if (1-|z|2)P(m+α-1)|Rmf(z)|Pdv(z) is a Bergman-Carleson measure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bogdan Mihai Udroiu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to see how the metylthiophanate fungicide influences the energetic metabolism and the breathing rhythm at Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch L. 1758. Experimental samples were subjected to under-lethal concentrations of 3.75mg/l, 7.5mg/l, 15mg/l and 30mg/l methyl-thiophanate fungicide from 24 to 336 hours. The physiologic parameter with the highest growth rate was the oxygen consumption, which, at the concentration of 7.5mg/l grew by 40.3% in 6 hours, compared to the witness values, registering the value of 179.52 mg oxygen/l/h compared to 127.95 mg oxygen/l/h. Also, the breathing rhythm grew at the concentration of 7.5 mg/l by 24.76% in 6 hours, compared to the witness values. At the concentration of 30mg/l, both physiologic parameters decreased. So, after 6 hours, the oxygen consumption decrease up to 31.38% from the witness values, registering the value of 51.503mg oxygen/l/h compared to 164.09mg oxygen/l/h, and the breathing rhythm decreased to 84.3% compared to the witness martor.
Frazier, Michael J.; Hussein, Mahmoud I.
2016-05-01
It is common for dispersion curves of damped periodic materials to be based on real frequencies as a function of complex wavenumbers or, conversely, real wavenumbers as a function of complex frequencies. The former condition corresponds to harmonic wave motion where a driving frequency is prescribed and where attenuation due to dissipation takes place only in space alongside spatial attenuation due to Bragg scattering. The latter condition, on the other hand, relates to free wave motion admitting attenuation due to energy loss only in time while spatial attenuation due to Bragg scattering also takes place. Here, we develop an algorithm for 1D systems that provides dispersion curves for damped free wave motion based on frequencies and wavenumbers that are permitted to be simultaneously complex. This represents a generalized application of Bloch's theorem and produces a dispersion band structure that fully describes all attenuation mechanisms, in space and in time. The algorithm is applied to a viscously damped mass-in-mass metamaterial exhibiting local resonance. A frequency-dependent effective mass for this damped infinite chain is also obtained. xml:lang="fr"
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sormann, H. [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kontrym-Sznajd, G. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. Niskich Temperatur i Badan Strukturalnych; West, R.N. [Texas Univ., Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics
2001-07-01
Four theoretical approaches to calculate momentum densities of electron-positron annihilation pairs (MDAP) in crystalline solids are confronted with 3D densities reconstructed from two-dimensional angular correlation (2D-ACAR) data for copper, chromium, and yttrium. It is shown that the Bloch-modified ladder theory, in contrast to other approaches, is able to describe - at least qualitatively - the MDAP profiles for all metals investigated. (orig.)
Pulsed high harmonic generation of light due to pumped Bloch oscillations in noninteracting metals
Freericks, J K; Kemper, A F; Devereaux, T P; 10.1088/0031-8949/2012/T151/014062
2012-01-01
We derive a simple theory for high-order harmonic generation due to pumping a noninteracting metal with a large amplitude oscillating electric field. The model assumes that the radiated light field arises from the acceleration of electrons due to the time-varying current generated by the pump, and also assumes that the system has a constant density of photoexcited carriers, hence it ignores the dipole excitation between bands (which would create carriers in semiconductors). We examine the circumstances under which odd harmonic frequencies would be expected to dominate the spectrum of radiated light, and we also apply the model to real materials like ZnO, for which high-order harmonic generation has already been demonstrated in experiments.
Prendergast, David; Louie, Steven G.
2009-12-01
We present an efficient generalization of the k -space interpolation scheme for electronic structure presented by Shirley [Phys. Rev. B 54, 16464 (1996)]. The method permits the construction of a compact k -dependent Hamiltonian using a numerically optimal basis derived from a coarse-grained set of effective single-particle electronic-structure calculations (based on density-functional theory in this work). We provide some generalizations of the initial approach which reduce the number of required initial electronic-structure calculations, enabling accurate interpolation over the entire Brillouin zone based on calculations at the zone center only for large systems. We also generalize the representation of nonlocal Hamiltonians, leading to a more efficient implementation which permits the use of both norm-conserving and ultrasoft pseudopotentials in the input calculations. Numerically interpolated electronic eigenvalues with accuracy that is within 0.01 eV can be produced at very little computational cost. Furthermore, accurate eigenfunctions—expressed in the optimal basis—provide easy access to useful matrix elements for simulating spectroscopy and we provide details for computing optical transition amplitudes. The approach is also applicable to other theoretical frameworks such as the Dyson equation for quasiparticle excitations or the Bethe-Salpeter equation for optical responses.
Prendergast, David; Louie, Steven G.
2010-03-01
We present an efficient generalization of the k-space interpolation scheme for electronic structure presented by E. L. Shirley, Phys. Rev. B 54, 16464 (1996), which permits the construction of a compact k-dependent Hamiltonian using a numerically optimal basis derived from a coarse-grained set of density functional theory calculations. We provide some generalizations of the initial approach which reduce the number of required initial electronic structure calculations, enabling accurate interpolation over the entire Brillouin zone based on calculations at the zone-center only for large systems. We also generalize the representation of non-local Hamiltonians, leading to a more efficient implementation which permits the use of both norm-conserving and ultrasoft pseudopotentials in the input calculations. Numerically interpolated electronic eigenvalues with accuracy that is within 0.01 eV can be produced at very little computational cost. The approach is also applicable to other theoretical frameworks such as the Dyson equation for quasiparticle excitations or the Bethe-Salpeter equation for optical responses.
Alternative Evaluation of a ln tan Integral Arising in Quantum Field Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A certain dilogarithmic integral I7 turns up in a number of contexts including Feynman diagram calculations, volumes of tetrahedra in hyperbolic geometry, knot theory, and conjectured relations in analytic number theory. We provide an alternative explicit evaluation of a parameterized family of integrals containing this particular case. By invoking the Bloch-Wigner form of the dilogarithm function, we produce an equivalent result, giving a third evaluation of I7. We also alternatively formulate some conjectures which we pose in terms of values of the specific Clausen function Cl2.
Siegert State Approach to Quantum Defect Theory
Hategan, C; Wolter, H H
2016-01-01
The Siegert states are approached in framework of Bloch-Lane-Robson formalism for quantum collisions. The Siegert state is not described by a pole of Wigner R- matrix but rather by the equation $1- R_{nn}L_n = 0$, relating R- matrix element $R_{nn}$ to decay channel logarithmic derivative $L_n$. Extension of Siegert state equation to multichannel system results into replacement of channel R- matrix element $R_{nn}$ by its reduced counterpart ${\\cal R}_{nn}$. One proves the Siegert state is a pole, $(1 - {\\cal R}_{nn} L_{n})^{-1}$, of multichannel collision matrix. The Siegert equation $1 - {\\cal R}_{nn} L_{n} = 0$, ($n$ - Rydberg channel), implies basic results of Quantum Defect Theory as Seaton's theorem, complex quantum defect, channel resonances and threshold continuity of averaged multichannel collision matrix elements.
PT-symmetric Rabi Model: Perturbation Theory
Lee, Tony E
2015-01-01
We study a non-Hermitian version of the Rabi model, where a two-level system is periodically driven with an imaginary-valued drive strength, leading to alternating gain and loss. In the Floquet picture, the model exhibits PT symmetry, which can be broken when the drive is sufficiently strong. We derive the boundaries of the PT phase diagram for the different resonances by doing perturbation theory beyond the rotating-wave approximation. For the main resonance, we show that the non-Hermitian analog of the Bloch-Siegert shift corresponds to maximal PT-breaking. For the higher-order resonances, we capture the boundaries to lowest order. We also solve the regime of high frequency by mapping to the Wannier-Stark ladder. Our model can be experimentally realized in waveguides with spatially-modulated loss or in atoms with time-modulated spontaneous decay.
La conciencia de la libertad (La filosofía moral como filosofía de la historia en Ernst Bloch)
Gimbernat, José Antonio
1991-01-01
Not available.
A partir del concepto hegeliano de «progreso en la conciencia de la libertad », se puede hacer una lectura de la filosofía moral de Bloch como filosofía de la historia. Ello conduce a una reino reinterpretación libre y materialista de Hegel y a una recuperación de la moral en el marxismo. En diálogo con Kant se hace posible descubrir el potencial utópico del énfasis subjetivo de la moral. El objetivo del reino de la libertad marxiano es la clave de una histor...
方波电场驱动下的Rabi振荡%Rabi Oscillations Between Bloch Bands in a Square-wave Electric Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宫建平; 邵建立; 段素青; 赵宪庚
2006-01-01
We investigate double Bloch bands driven by a square-wave electric field with a tight-binding model. Using Fourier analysis, we analytically obtain resonance conditions of Rabi oscillation and Rabi frequency in the weak-coupling limit. The results are verified by numerical evolution of electrons.%研究了方波电场驱动下的双Bloch带的紧束缚模型.借助Fourier分析,得到了在弱耦合极限下Rabi振荡及Rabi频率的解析解;这些结果均由电子的数值演化所证实.
Vankara, Anu Prasanna; Vijayalakshmi, C
2009-12-01
A total of 9 metazoan parasitic species were identified from Mystus vittatus (Bloch) in river Godavari during 2005-2007 including 2 monogeneans, 2 digeneans, 3 acanthocephalans and 2 copepods. Two species of monogeneans (Bifurcohaptor indicus and Thaparocleidus tengra), digeneans (Haplorchoides macrones and metacercariae of Isoparorchis hypselobagri), an acanthocephalan (Raosentis podderi) found during the present study are of common occurrence in this fish. M. vittatus constitutes a new host record for an acanthocephalan, Raosentis thapari and 2 copepods, Argulus striatus and Lamproglena hospetensis. The occurrence of A. striatus represents unusual for M. vittatus. A new species of acanthocephala, Raosentis godavarensis sp. nov is reported, described and illustrated. PMID:23129893
Robillart, B.; Maynard, G.; Cros, B.; Boudaa, A.; Dubau, J.; Sebban, S.; Goddet, JP.
It has been recently demonstrated experimentally that seeding a high-harmonic pulse into an Optical-Field-Ionized gas can generate a coherent soft x-ray laser beam of up to 1üJ. In order to analyze the physical processes involved in the amplification of the x-ray laser pulse through the plasma amplifier a 3D numerical code named COFIXE_MB has been developed using a Maxwell-Bloch treatment. It brings detailed information about the x-ray pulse evolution, especially regarding the fast evolution of the pulse temporal profile and the spatial filtering of the wave front structure by the amplifier.
RELACIONES TALLA-PESO DEL BARBUL (Pimelodus clarias f.c. Bloch, 1785 EN LA CUENCA DEL RIO SINU,
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iliana Santos-Sanes,
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Objetivo. Establecer las relaciones de talla y peso del barbul (Pimelodus clarias en la cuenca del río Sinú. Materiales y Métodos. Se estimaron las relaciones talla-peso de 4324 individuos de Barbul (Pimelodus clarias f.c. Bloch, 1785 colectados entre enero 2000 y diciembre 2002. Resultados. La longitud total (LT osciló entre 13.0-30.0 cm, promedio de 19.5 (±1.6 cm y el peso total (WT entre 20.0 y 248.1 g, promedio de 65.8 (±23.2 g. Las relaciones lineales estimadas fueron: LT = 1.92 (�� 0.16 + 1.20 (± 0.01 LS, r = 0.96; LT = 1.21 (± 0.16 + 1.15 (± 0.01 LH; r = 0.97 y LH = 0.91 (± 0.10 + 1.02 (± 0.01 LS, r = 0.97; con diferencias significativas entre las pendientes de la relación longitud estándar (LS-longitud horquilla (LH. La relación longitud-peso fue: WT = 0.005 (± 0.09 LT 3.16 (± 0.07, n = 4324, r = 0.81, con diferencias estadísticas significativas entre los diferentes coeficientes de crecimiento y factores de condición. Se encontró correlación entre el factor de condición, los niveles del Río Sinú y la época de desove del Barbul, la cual se extiende de marzo a octubre. Conclusión. Los resultados alcanzados en este estudio sugieren que las nuevas condiciones del río no han afectado la dinámica poblacional de la especie en lo que al crecimiento en talla y peso se refiere, y que el Barbul se ha adaptado a estas nuevas condiciones.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is possible to determine the h/mRb ratio between the Planck constant and the mass of the atoms, and then to deduce a value of the fine structure constant alpha, from the accurate measurement of the recoil velocity of an atom absorbing a photon. To perform this measurement we combine the high efficiency of Bloch oscillations with the high sensitivity of a Ramsey-Borde interferometer. The Bloch oscillations technic allows us to transfer a large number of recoils to the atoms (up to 1600 recoil momenta). An interferometric Ramsey-Borde velocity sensor, based on velocity selective Raman transitions, allows us to measure the momentum transferred to the atoms. A measurement with a statistical uncertainty of 3 ppb (3*10-9), in conjunction with a careful study of systematic effects (3.4 ppb), lead us to a determination of alpha with a relative uncertainty of 4.8 ppb. The value of α-1 is 137.03599887(65). It is the best determination of alpha, independent from quantum electrodynamics
Dynamical renormalization group approach to relaxation in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The real time evolution and relaxation of expectation values of quantum fields and of quantum states are computed as initial value problems by implementing the dynamical renormalization group (DRG). Linear response is invoked to set up the renormalized initial value problem to study the dynamics of the expectation value of quantum fields. The perturbative solution of the equations of motion for the field expectation values of quantum fields as well as the evolution of quantum states features secular terms, namely terms that grow in time and invalidate the perturbative expansion for late times. The DRG provides a consistent framework to resum these secular terms and yields a uniform asymptotic expansion at long times. Several relevant cases are studied in detail, including those of threshold infrared divergences which appear in gauge theories at finite temperature and lead to anomalous relaxation. In these cases the DRG is shown to provide a resummation akin to Bloch-Nordsieck but directly in real time and that goes beyond the scope of Bloch-Nordsieck and Dyson resummations. The nature of the resummation program is discussed in several examples. The DRG provides a framework that is consistent, systematic, and easy to implement to study the non-equilibrium relaxational dynamics directly in real time that does not rely on the concept of quasiparticle widths
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pittner, Jiří
2003-01-01
Roč. 118, č. 24 (2003), s. 10876-10889. ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D23.001; GA ČR GA203/99/D009; GA AV ČR IAA4040108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : continuous transition * Brillouin-Wigner * Rayleigh-Schrödinger Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.950, year: 2003
Theory of dressed-state lasers. II. Phase diffusion and squeezing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zakrzewski, J. (Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)); Lewenstein, M. (Institute for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)); Mossberg, T.W. (Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States))
1991-12-01
We present a detailed theory of the quantum-statistical properties of dressed-state lasers, i.e., lasers that operate due to the gain on an inverted transition between dressed states of a coupled atom-field system. With the help of quantum Langevin equations, we calculate squeezing spectra of such lasers. One-photon dressed-state lasers exhibit large squeezing due to antiresonant transitions between dressed states that lead to Bloch-Siegert-type shift effects. Two-photon dressed-state lasers may also generate squeezed light.
Wu, Xiao-Yu; Tian, Bo; Zhen, Hui-Ling; Sun, Wen-Rong; Sun, Ya
2016-03-01
Under investigation in this paper is a set of the ?-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger-Maxwell-Bloch (NLS-MB) equations, which describes the optical pulse propagation in an erbium-doped fibre. Employing the Hirota method and symbolic computation, we obtain the one- two- and N-soliton solutions. We prove that the interactions between the two solitons are elastic through the asymptotic analysis on the soliton solutions. Figures are plotted to show the one soliton and the interaction between the two solitons. We find that the decrease of the frequency shift from the resonance can make the angle between the propagation directions and the amplitudes of the two MB solitons bigger, implying that the change of the amplitudes of the two MB solitons is closely related to the propagation directions of the two NLS solitons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saenphet, S.; Thaworn, W.; Saenphet, K. [Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand). Faculty of Science
2009-09-15
The acidity of mine water generally makes it toxic to most organisms. The gills, kidneys and livers of Anabas testudineus Bloch fish inhabiting the acidic water (pH 2-4) of an unused lignite mine in Li District, Lamphun Province, Thailand were examined and compared to those of farmed fish. Tissue abnormalities were found in all investigated organs. Deterioration and telangiectasia of gill filaments were found. Liver tissue revealed hemorrhages, blood congestion and necrotic cells with mononuclear cell infiltration. In addition, hypertrophy of the epithelial cells of the renal tubules with reduced lumens, aneurisms of the renal tubules, and contractions of the glomeruli in the Bowman's capsule were observed. These histopathological findings suggest the acidic water in this habitat causes severe damage to the internal organs of fish and consequently alter their physiological status. Since the water in this pond is utilized by local people, these findings highlight the need for adequate water treatment.
Zeitoun, Philippe; Oliva, Eduardo; Fajardo, Marta; Ros, David; Sebban, Stéphane; Velarde, Pedro
2011-12-01
Seeding plasma-based soft x-ray laser (SXRL) demonstrated diffraction-limited, fully coherent in space and in time beam but with energy not exceeding 1 μJ per pulse. Quasi-steady-state (QSS) plasmas demonstrated to be able to store high amount of energy and then amplify incoherent SXRL up to several mJ. Using 1D time-dependant Bloch-Maxwell model including amplification of noise, we demonstrated that femtosecond HHG cannot be efficiently amplified in QSS plasmas. However, using Chirped Pulse Amplification concept on HHG seed allows to extract most of the stored energy, reaching up to 5 mJ in fully coherent pulses that can be compressed down to 130 fs.
An effective medium theory for predicting the existence of surface states
Xiao, Meng; Fang, Anan; Chan, C T
2015-01-01
We build an effective medium theory for two-dimensional photonic crystals comprising a rectangular lattice of dielectric cylinders with the incident electric field polarized along the axis of the cylinders. In particular, we discuss the feasibility of constructing an effective medium theory for the case where the Bloch wave vector is far away from the center of Brillouin zone, where the optical response of the photonic crystal is necessarily anisotropic and hence the effective medium description becomes inevitability angle dependent. We employ the scattering theory and treat the two-dimensional system as a stack of one-dimensional arrays. We consider only the zero-order interlayer diffraction and all the higher order diffraction terms of interlayer scattering are ignored. This approximation works well when the higher order diffraction terms are all evanescent waves and the interlayer distance is far enough for them to decay out. Scattering theory enables the calculation of transmission and reflection coeffici...
O. A. Veliev
2006-01-01
In this paper we obtain asymptotic formulas of arbitrary order for the Bloch eigenvalue and the Bloch function of the periodic Schrodinger operator of arbitrary dimension, when corresponding quasimomentum lies near a diffraction hyperplane. Besides, writing the asymptotic formulas for the Bloch eigenvalue and the Bloch function, when corresponding quasimomentum lies far from the diffraction hyperplanes, obtained in my previous papers in improved and enlarged form, we obtain the complete pertu...
Dynamical renormalization group approach to relaxation in quantum field theory
Boyanovsky, D
2003-01-01
The real time evolution and relaxation of expectation values of quantum fields and of quantum states are computed as initial value problems by implementing the dynamical renormalization group (DRG).Linear response is invoked to set up the renormalized initial value problem to study the dynamics of the expectation value of quantum fields. The perturbative solution of the equations of motion for the field expectation values of quantum fields as well as the evolution of quantum states features secular terms, namely terms that grow in time and invalidate the perturbative expansion for late times. The DRG provides a consistent framework to resum these secular terms and yields a uniform asymptotic expansion at long times. Several relevant cases are studied in detail, including those of threshold infrared divergences which appear in gauge theories at finite temperature and lead to anomalous relaxation. In these cases the DRG is shown to provide a resummation akin to Bloch-Nordsieck but directly in real time and that...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wæver, Ole
2009-01-01
Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism and......-empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of...
Jara, Pascual; Torrecillas, Blas
1988-01-01
The papers in this proceedings volume are selected research papers in different areas of ring theory, including graded rings, differential operator rings, K-theory of noetherian rings, torsion theory, regular rings, cohomology of algebras, local cohomology of noncommutative rings. The book will be important for mathematicians active in research in ring theory.
Marino Beiras, Marcos
2001-01-01
We give an overview of the relations between matrix models and string theory, focusing on topological string theory and the Dijkgraaf--Vafa correspondence. We discuss applications of this correspondence and its generalizations to supersymmetric gauge theory, enumerative geometry and mirror symmetry. We also present a brief overview of matrix quantum mechanical models in superstring theory.
Golledge, Reginald G.
2001-01-01
The emergence of geographical theory was an inevitable product of the desire to systematize existing geographic knowledge and to use that systematized base to explore new areas of knowledge. Although the usefulness of theory and predictive models in geography is by now a matter of record, it was not always the case. The usefulness and need for theories was often disputed, despite the oft-repeated argument that theories of location explained the laws of spatial distributions, theories of inter...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper traces the development of the String Theory, and was presented at Professor Sir Rudolf Peierls' 80sup(th) Birthday Symposium. The String theory is discussed with respect to the interaction of strings, the inclusion of both gauge theory and gravitation, inconsistencies in the theory, and the role of space-time. The physical principles underlying string theory are also outlined. (U.K.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Su, Chuan-Qi; Gao, Yi-Tian; Yu, Xin [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Ministry-of-Education Key Lab. of Fluid Mechanics and National Lab. for Computational Fluid Dynamics; Xue, Long [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Ministry-of-Education Key Lab. of Fluid Mechanics and National Lab. for Computational Fluid Dynamics; Aviation Univ. of Air Force, Liaoning (China). Flight Training Base
2015-07-01
Under investigation in this article is a higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger-Maxwell-Bloch (HNLS-MB) system for the optical pulse propagation in an erbium-doped fiber. Lax pair, Darboux transformation (DT), and generalised DT for the HNLS-MB system are constructed. Soliton solutions and rogue wave solutions are derived based on the DT and generalised DT, respectively. Properties of the solitons and rogue waves are graphically presented. The third-order dispersion parameter, fourth-order dispersion parameter, and frequency detuning all influence the characteristic lines and velocities of the solitons. The frequency detuning also affects the amplitudes of solitons. The separating function has no effect on the properties of the first-order rogue waves, except for the locations where the first-order rogue waves appear. The third-order dispersion parameter affects the propagation directions and shapes of the rogue waves. The frequency detuning influences the rogue-wave types of the module for the measure of polarization of resonant medium and the extant population inversion. The fourth-order dispersion parameter impacts the rogue-wave interaction range and also has an effect on the rogue-wave type of the extant population inversion. The value of separating function affects the spatial-temporal separation of constituting elementary rogue waves for the second-order and third-order rogue waves. The second-order and third-order rogue waves can exhibit the triangular and pentagon patterns under different choices of separating functions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Under investigation in this article is a higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger-Maxwell-Bloch (HNLS-MB) system for the optical pulse propagation in an erbium-doped fiber. Lax pair, Darboux transformation (DT), and generalised DT for the HNLS-MB system are constructed. Soliton solutions and rogue wave solutions are derived based on the DT and generalised DT, respectively. Properties of the solitons and rogue waves are graphically presented. The third-order dispersion parameter, fourth-order dispersion parameter, and frequency detuning all influence the characteristic lines and velocities of the solitons. The frequency detuning also affects the amplitudes of solitons. The separating function has no effect on the properties of the first-order rogue waves, except for the locations where the first-order rogue waves appear. The third-order dispersion parameter affects the propagation directions and shapes of the rogue waves. The frequency detuning influences the rogue-wave types of the module for the measure of polarization of resonant medium and the extant population inversion. The fourth-order dispersion parameter impacts the rogue-wave interaction range and also has an effect on the rogue-wave type of the extant population inversion. The value of separating function affects the spatial-temporal separation of constituting elementary rogue waves for the second-order and third-order rogue waves. The second-order and third-order rogue waves can exhibit the triangular and pentagon patterns under different choices of separating functions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Latif Taşkaya
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this study, quality properties and shelf life for gibel carp (Carassius gibelio, Bloch 1782 marinades during stored at 4±1 °C in different sauces was investigated. The marinating process was carried out in 2.5% vinegar, 10% salt and water for 72h at 4±1 °C. After the marination process, fish were removed from the solutions, transferred in to glass jar contain with different sauces (Group A: sunflower oil and tomato paste, Group B: sunflower oil with garlic, red pepper, thyme, basil and mint and the control group: sun flower oil. Sensory, chemical, colour and microbiological analyses were performed during the storage. According the chemical analysis results TVB-N and TBA values of all groups were increased during the storage, but during the stored period did not exceed acceptible limit values. The highest TVB-N and TBA values were group A. (P<0,05. At the end of 135 days of storage, sensory analysis results pointed out that the marinades of group B did not exceed acceptible limit values (P<0,05. The overall microbial load of the fresh samples decreased through out the storage period (P<0,05. By sensory data, shelf life of sauced gibel carp marinades were 120 days (control, 105 days (group A and 135 days (group B.
Xie, Xi-Yang; Tian, Bo; Sun, Wen-Rong; Sun, Ya; Liu, De-Yin
2015-10-01
In this paper, we construct soliton solutions for a generalized variable-coefficient coupled Hirota-Maxwell-Bloch system, which can describe the ultrashort optical pulse propagation in a nonlinear, dispersive fiber doped with two-level resonant atoms. Under certain transformations and constraints, one- and two-soliton solutions are obtained via the Hirota method and symbolic computation, and soliton collisions are graphically presented and analyzed. One soliton is shown to maintain its amplitude and shape during the propagation. Soliton collision is elastic, while bright two-peak solitons and dark two-peak solitons are also observed. We discuss the influence of the coefficients for the group velocity, group-velocity dispersion (GVD), self-phase modulation, distribution of the dopant, and Stark shift on the soliton propagation and collision features, with those coefficients are set as some constants and functions, respectively. We find the group velocity and self-phase modulation can change the solitons' amplitudes and widths, and the solitons become curved when the GVD and distribution of the dopant are chosen as some functions. When the Stark shift is chosen as a certain constant, the two peaks of bright two-peak solitons and dark two-peak solitons are not parallel. In addition, we observe the periodic collision of the two solitons.
Ali Khan, Mohammed Safwan; Mat Jais, Abdul Manan; Hussain, Javeed; Siddiqua, Faiza; Gopala Reddy, A; Shivakumar, P; Madhuri, D
2014-01-01
Channa striata (Bloch.) is a fresh water fish belonging to the family Channidae. The stripped snakehead fish possesses wide range of medicinal properties. In view of traditional use of C. striata for wound healing, the present study was undertaken to investigate the beneficial effects of orally administered freeze dried aqueous extract of Channa striata (AECS) in experimentally induced gastric ulcers in Wistar rats. Aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pyloric ligation model was used for the assessment of antiulcer activity and Ranitidine (50 mg/kg) was employed as the standard drug. The various gastric parameters like volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidities, ulcer index, and levels of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, and lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde were determined. AECS at concentrations of 40% and 50% w/v significantly decreased the volume of gastric juice and increased the levels of catalase while considerable decrease in free and total acidities and increase in superoxide dismutase were observed with the treatment of standard drug and AECS (50% w/v). All the test doses of AECS markedly decreased ulcer index and malondialdehyde compared to the standard drug whereas AECS 30% w/v did not alter volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidities, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. From these findings, it can be concluded that AECS is devoid of acid neutralizing effects at lower doses and possesses antisecretory and antiulcer activities and this could be related to its antioxidant mechanism. PMID:24977051
Wang, Qi-Min; Gao, Yi-Tian; Su, Chuan-Qi; Zuo, Da-Wei
2015-10-01
In this paper, a higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger-Maxwell-Bloch system with quintic terms is investigated, which describes the propagation of ultrashort optical pulses, up to the attosecond duration, in an erbium-doped fiber. Multi-soliton, breather and rogue-wave solutions are derived by virtue of the Darboux transformation and the limiting procedure. Features and interaction patterns of the solitons, breathers and rogue waves are discussed. (i) The solitonic amplitudes, widths and velocities are exhibited, and solitonic amplitudes and widths are proved to have nothing to do with the higher-order terms. (ii) The higher-order terms and frequency detuning affect the growth rate of periodic modulation and skewing angle for the breathers, except for the range of the frequency of modulation. (iii) The quintic terms and frequency detuning have the effects on the temporal duration for the rogue waves. (iv) Breathers are classified into two types, according to the range of the modulation instability. (v) Interaction between the two solitons is elastic. When the two solitons interact with each other, the periodic structure occurs, which is affected by the higher-order terms and frequency detuning. (vi) Interaction between the two Akhmediev-like breathers or two Kuznetsov-Ma-like solitons shows the different patterns with different ratios of the relative modulation frequencies, while the interaction area induced by the two breathers looks like a higher-order rogue wave.
Meißner, Holger; Steinborn, E. Otto
1997-08-01
Recently, we proposed an iteration method for solving the eigenvalue problem of the time-independent Schrödinger equation [H. Meiβner and E. O. Steinborn, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 61, 777 (1997)]. This method, which is based on the generalized Bloch equation, calculates iteratively certain matrix elements of the wave operator which are the wave-function expansion coefficients (WECs). It is valid for boson as well as fermion systems. In this article we show that the WEC-iteration method, together with a renormalization technique, allows us to calculate energy eigenvalues for the ground state and excited states of the quartic, sextic, and octic anharmonic oscillator with very high accuracy. In order to overcome slow convergence in the iteration scheme we use a renormalization technique introduced by F. Vinette and J. Čížek [J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.) 32, 3392 (1991)] and show that this method is equivalent to the renormalization scheme based on the Bogoliubov transformation [N. N. Bogoliubov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. 11, 77 (1947)] which is frequently used for the treatment of anharmonic oscillators in second quantization.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Padmanabha Chakrabarti
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The histological analysis, disposition and histochemical localization of tryptophan were investigated in the pancreas to compare the cellular organization and histochemical characterization in the pancreas of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822, Mystus vittatus (Bloch, 1790 and Notopterus notopterus (Pallas, 1769 having different feeding habits. Histological analysis demonstrated that the exocrine pancreatic tissues were dispersed within the hepatic parenchyma and spleen in L. rohita. Thin septa of connective tissue separated parenchyma of liver and also the spleen from exocrine pancreatic cells. However, in M. vittatus, the discrete pancreatic tissue formed distinct oval or elongated acini interspersed with small area of islet of Langerhans and blood vessels. In N. notopterus, the rhomboidal acinar cells of discrete pancreatic tissue intercalated with comparatively clear and large islet of Langerhans. The exocrine acinar cells in all the three species were provided with prominent nuclei and densely packed zymogen granules. Histochemical localization revealed that the zymogen granules of exocrine acinar cells of all species exhibited varied intensities of tryptophan reaction, the precursor of various pancreatic enzymes which may be related to the food and feeding habits of the fishes under study.
Matveev, Oleg; Shvaika, Andrij; Devereaux, Thomas; Freericks, James
The charge-density-wave phase of the Falicov-Kimball model displays a number of anomalous behavior including the appearance of subgap density of states as the temperature increases. These subgap states should have a significant impact on transport properties, particularly the nonlinear response of the system to a large dc electric field. Using the Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh formalism, we employ nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory to exactly solve for this nonlinear response. We examine both the current and the order parameter of the conduction electrons as the ordered system is driven by a dc electric field. Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Of all supergravity theories, the maximal, i.e., N = 8 in 4-dimension or N = 1 in 11-dimension, theory should perform the unification since it owns the highest degree of symmetry. As to the N = 1 in d = 11 theory, it has been investigated how to compactify to the d = 4 theories. From the phenomenological point of view, local SUSY GUTs, i.e., N = 1 SUSY GUTs with soft breaking terms, have been studied from various angles. The structures of extended supergravity theories are less understood than those of N = 1 supergravity theories, and matter couplings in N = 2 extended supergravity theories are under investigation. The harmonic superspace was recently proposed which may be useful to investigate the quantum effects of extended supersymmetry and supergravity theories. As to the so-called Kaluza-Klein supergravity, there is another possibility. (Mori, K.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul
2015-01-01
Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul
Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This article is devoted to a nontechnical review on the present status of string theory towards an ultimate unification of all fundamental interactions including gravity. In particular, we emphasize the importance of string theory as a new theoretical framework in which the long-standing conflict between quantum theory and general relativity is resolved. (author)
Williams, Jeffrey
1994-01-01
Considers the recent flood of anthologies of literary criticism and theory as exemplifications of the confluence of pedagogical concerns, economics of publishing, and other historical factors. Looks specifically at how these anthologies present theory. Cites problems with their formatting theory and proposes alternative ways of organizing theory…
Rowen, Louis H
1991-01-01
This is an abridged edition of the author's previous two-volume work, Ring Theory, which concentrates on essential material for a general ring theory course while ommitting much of the material intended for ring theory specialists. It has been praised by reviewers:**""As a textbook for graduate students, Ring Theory joins the best....The experts will find several attractive and pleasant features in Ring Theory. The most noteworthy is the inclusion, usually in supplements and appendices, of many useful constructions which are hard to locate outside of the original sources....The audience of non
Loring, FH
2014-01-01
Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec
Quantum walks and discrete gauge theories
Arnault, Pablo; Debbasch, Fabrice
2016-05-01
A particular example is produced to prove that quantum walks can be used to simulate full-fledged discrete gauge theories. A family of two-dimensional walks is introduced and its continuous limit is shown to coincide with the dynamics of a Dirac fermion coupled to arbitrary electromagnetic fields. The electromagnetic interpretation is extended beyond the continuous limit by proving that these discrete-time quantum walks (DTQWs) exhibit an exact discrete local U(1) gauge invariance and possess a discrete gauge-invariant conserved current. A discrete gauge-invariant electromagnetic field is also constructed and that field is coupled to the conserved current by a discrete generalization of Maxwell equations. The dynamics of the DTQWs under crossed electric and magnetic fields is finally explored outside the continuous limit by numerical simulations. Bloch oscillations and the so-called E ×B drift are recovered in the weak-field limit. Localization is observed for some values of the gauge fields.
New Theory on Fully Nonlinear Adiabatic TWM in Terms of Elliptic Functions
Qian, Shunrong
2016-01-01
I'm presenting a new elegant formulation of the theory of fully nonlinear adiabatic TWM (FNA-TWM) in terms of elliptic function here. Note that the linear case of SFG and DFG in the undepleted pump approximation described by the FVH representation has been exploited several years ago. For the sake of completeness, I present the pseudo-FVH representation to describe OPA. Moreover, I'm trying to display an overview of TWM processes and show that both the linear cases, the linear adiabatic SFG(DFG) and the linear OPA, are only the special cases of my theory. Finally I also point out that the geometric image of the so-called adiabatic basis acts as the geodesic line of the generalized Bloch sphere.
Transmission Characteristics in Tubular Acoustic Metamaterials Studied with Fluid Impedance Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tubular acoustic metamaterials with negative densities composed of periodical membranes set up along pipes are studied with the fluid impedance theory. In addition to the conventional forbidden bands induced by the Bragg-scattering due to the periodic distributions of different acoustic impedances, the low-frequency forbidden band (LFB) with the low-frequency limit of zero Hertz is studied, in which the LFB is explained with acoustic impedance matching and the Bloch theory. Furthermore, the influences of the structural parameters of the tubular acoustic metamaterials on the transmission characteristics, such as the transmission coefficients, dispersion curves, widths of forbidden and pass bands, fluctuations in pass bands, etc., are evaluated, which can be used in the optimization of the acoustic insulation ability of the metamaterials. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Jones, Kyle M.; Randtke, Edward A.; Howison, Christine M.; Pagel, Mark D.
2016-03-01
We have developed a MRI method that can measure extracellular pH in tumor tissues, known as acidoCEST MRI. This method relies on the detection of Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) of iopamidol, an FDA-approved CT contrast agent that has two CEST signals. A log10 ratio of the two CEST signals is linearly correlated with pH, but independent of agent concentration, endogenous T1 relaxation time, and B1 inhomogeneity. Therefore, detecting both CEST effects of iopamidol during in vivo studies can be used to accurately measure the extracellular pH in tumor tissues. Past in vivo studies using acidoCEST MRI have suffered from respiration artifacts in orthotopic and lung tumor models that have corrupted pH measurements. In addition, the non-linear fitting method used to analyze results is unreliable as it is subject to over-fitting especially with noisy CEST spectra. To improve the technique, we have recently developed a respiration gated CEST MRI pulse sequence that has greatly reduced motion artifacts, and we have included both a prescan and post scan to remove endogenous CEST effects. In addition, we fit the results by parameterizing the contrast of the exogenous agent with respect to pH via the Bloch equations modified for chemical exchange, which is less subject to over-fitting than the non-linear method. These advances in the acidoCEST MRI technique and analysis methods have made pH measurements more reliable, especially in areas of the body subject to respiratory motion.
Many-body-QED perturbation theory: Connection to the two-electron Bethe-Salpeter equation
Lindgren, I.; Salomonson, S.; Hedendahl, D.
2005-03-01
The connection between many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) and quantum electrodynamics (QED) is reviewed for systems of two fermions in an external field. The treatment is mainly based on the recently developed covariant-evolution-operator method for QED calculations (I. Lindgren, S. Salomonson, and B. Asen. Phys. Rep. 389, 161 (2004)), which is quite similar in structure to MBPT. At the same time, this procedure is closely related to the S-matrix and Green's-function formalisms and can therefore serve as a bridge connecting various approaches. It is demonstrated that the MBPT-QED scheme, when carried to all orders, leads to a Schrodinger-like equation, equivalent to the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation. A Bloch equation in commutator form that can be used for an "extended" or quasi-degenerate model space is derived. This is a multi-state equation that has the same relation to the single-state BS equation as the standard Bloch equation has to the ordinary Schrodinger equation. It can be used to generate a perturbation expansion compatible with the BS equation even in the case of a quasi-degenerate model space.
Jaques, Thomas
2010-01-01
Generative Linguistics can and should be engaged by those with an interest in Translation Studies while developing their own positions on literary theory in general, but translation theory in particular. Generative theory provides empirical evidence for a free, creative mind that can comprehend, read, speak and translate a language. What is being proposed here contrasts radically with the dominant position of this generation's Translation Studies specialists, who freely incorporate Post-struc...
Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick
2011-01-01
Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanfilippo, Antonio P.
2005-12-27
Graph theory is a branch of discrete combinatorial mathematics that studies the properties of graphs. The theory was pioneered by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 18th century, commenced its formal development during the second half of the 19th century, and has witnessed substantial growth during the last seventy years, with applications in areas as diverse as engineering, computer science, physics, sociology, chemistry and biology. Graph theory has also had a strong impact in computational linguistics by providing the foundations for the theory of features structures that has emerged as one of the most widely used frameworks for the representation of grammar formalisms.
Hashiguchi, Koichi
2009-01-01
This book details the mathematics and continuum mechanics necessary as a foundation of elastoplasticity theory. It explains physical backgrounds with illustrations and provides descriptions of detailed derivation processes..
Cox, David A
2012-01-01
Praise for the First Edition ". . .will certainly fascinate anyone interested in abstract algebra: a remarkable book!"—Monatshefte fur Mathematik Galois theory is one of the most established topics in mathematics, with historical roots that led to the development of many central concepts in modern algebra, including groups and fields. Covering classic applications of the theory, such as solvability by radicals, geometric constructions, and finite fields, Galois Theory, Second Edition delves into novel topics like Abel’s theory of Abelian equations, casus irreducibili, and the Galo
Manning, Phillip
2011-01-01
The study of quantum theory allowed twentieth-century scientists to examine the world in a new way, one that was filled with uncertainties and probabilities. Further study also led to the development of lasers, the atomic bomb, and the computer. This exciting new book clearly explains quantum theory and its everyday uses in our world.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjørland, Birger
2009-01-01
, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
After noting some advantages of using perturbation theory some of the various types are related on a chart and described, including many-body nonlinear summations, quartic force-field fit for geometry, fourth-order correlation approximations, and a survey of some recent work. Alternative initial approximations in perturbation theory are also discussed. 25 references
Liu, Baoding
2015-01-01
When no samples are available to estimate a probability distribution, we have to invite some domain experts to evaluate the belief degree that each event will happen. Perhaps some people think that the belief degree should be modeled by subjective probability or fuzzy set theory. However, it is usually inappropriate because both of them may lead to counterintuitive results in this case. In order to rationally deal with belief degrees, uncertainty theory was founded in 2007 and subsequently studied by many researchers. Nowadays, uncertainty theory has become a branch of axiomatic mathematics for modeling belief degrees. This is an introductory textbook on uncertainty theory, uncertain programming, uncertain statistics, uncertain risk analysis, uncertain reliability analysis, uncertain set, uncertain logic, uncertain inference, uncertain process, uncertain calculus, and uncertain differential equation. This textbook also shows applications of uncertainty theory to scheduling, logistics, networks, data mining, c...
Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří
1988-01-01
Within the tradition of meetings devoted to potential theory, a conference on potential theory took place in Prague on 19-24, July 1987. The Conference was organized by the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, with the collaboration of the Institute of Mathematics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the Department of Mathematics, Czech University of Technology, the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists, the Czechoslovak Scientific and Technical Society, and supported by IMU. During the Conference, 69 scientific communications from different branches of potential theory were presented; the majority of them are in cluded in the present volume. (Papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference, its program as well as a collection of problems from potential theory will appear in a special volume of the Lecture Notes Series published by Springer-Verlag). Topics of these communications truly reflect the vast scope of contemporary potential theory. Some contributions deal...
Kleiss, Ronald H P
1999-01-01
In these lectures I will build up the concept of field theory using the language of Feynman diagrams. As a starting point, field theory in zero spacetime dimensions is used as a vehicle to develop all the necessary techniques: path integral, Feynman diagrams, Schwinger-Dyson equations, asymptotic series, effective action, renormalization etc. The theory is then extended to more dimensions, with emphasis on the combinatorial aspects of the diagrams rather than their particular mathematical structure. The concept of unitarity is used to, finally, arrive at the various Feynman rules in an actual, four-dimensional theory. The concept of gauge-invariance is developed, and the structure of a non-abelian gauge theory is discussed, again on the level of Feynman diagrams and Feynman rules.
Internally contracted multireference coupled-cluster theory in a multistate framework
Aoto, Yuri Alexandre; Köhn, Andreas
2016-02-01
The internally contracted multireference coupled cluster (icMRCC) theory is reexamined in a multistate framework. The new derivation starts from the Bloch equations employing a wave operator similar to the one originally employed by Jeziorski and Monkhorst [Phys. Rev. A 24, 1668 (1981)], but allows for a multideterminantal model-space basis. The resulting working equations are a generalization of state-universal multireference coupled-cluster (SU-MRCC) theory. In the case of truncated cluster operators, energies and wave functions depend on the choice of the model-space basis. It is shown that the state-specific solutions of the original icMRCC theory exactly diagonalize the effective Hamiltonian of the multistate theory and thus decouple the multistate equations. While this in principle means that icMRCC is a multistate theory, we find that truncated icMRCC theory still shows minor artifacts close to avoided crossings, which can be removed by considering a true multistate ansatz. The results also shed new light on the orbital variance of the original SU-MRCC theory.
Bohm, David
1951-01-01
This superb text by David Bohm, formerly Princeton University and Emeritus Professor of Theoretical Physics at Birkbeck College, University of London, provides a formulation of the quantum theory in terms of qualitative and imaginative concepts that have evolved outside and beyond classical theory. Although it presents the main ideas of quantum theory essentially in nonmathematical terms, it follows these with a broad range of specific applications that are worked out in considerable mathematical detail. Addressed primarily to advanced undergraduate students, the text begins with a study of t
Lubliner, Jacob
2008-01-01
The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and
Hočevar, Mitja
2015-01-01
This BCs thesis deals with topics from graph theory. Ramsey theory in its most basic form deals with the problem of determining the minimal positive integer, such that for any edge-coloring of the complete graph of this size with a prescribed number of colors one can find a subgraph of predefined size all of whose edges are of the same colour. These minimal sizes are called Ramsey numbers. In this BCs thesis we present basic notions of graph theory needed to understand the basic theorem of...
Andrews, George E
1994-01-01
Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl
Victor, Oluwafemi Oludu
2015-01-01
From ages to ages there had been expectation of individuals on a specific predictions and future occurrences. So also in a game, different participant that involves in those specified game have their various expectations of the results or the output of the game they are involved in. That is why we need a mathematical theory that helps in prediction of the future expectations in our day to day activities. Therefore the Martingale Theory is a very good theory that explains and dissects the expe...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report discusses concepts in nuclear theory such as: neutrino nucleosynthesis; double beta decay; neutrino oscillations; chiral symmetry breaking; T invariance; quark propagator; cold fusion; and other related topics
Hodges, Wilfrid
1993-01-01
An up-to-date and integrated introduction to model theory, designed to be used for graduate courses (for students who are familiar with first-order logic), and as a reference for more experienced logicians and mathematicians.
Nel, Louis
2016-01-01
This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A series of lectures on plasma theory with the main headings: introduction; charged particles moving in em fields; the liquid model; transport phenomena in the plasma; wave propagation in plasmas; plasma instabilities. 57 figs. (qui)
Ning, Ping; Sha, Zhongli; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Russell, Barry
2015-02-01
Because of its importance as a food source, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) (Nemipteridae) or Japanese threadfin bream is the best studied of these taxa, and numerous investigations have examined its fisheries, its biology and biochemistry. Despite such intensive work, the taxonomic status of N. japonicus has never been seriously questioned and it is regarded as a common species, widely distributed throughout the Indo-Western Pacific Ocean. In fact, Bloch's description of the type specimen of N. japonicus has ambiguous collection data and lacks a designation for the type locality, though it is probably Java. In this paper, DNA barcode results based on COI gene support the existence of two geographically separated lineages of the Japanese threadfin bream, both being an Indian Ocean and western Pacific lineage, with 2.7% sequence divergence, and the results indicate a possible existing of some cryptic species. The two lineages also possess a diagnostic difference in their belly color, with specimens in the South China Sea having a silver belly, while those from the Indian Ocean isolate specimen have a yellow coloration. Based upon new collections from the South China Sea, this species from the western Pacific is morphologically redescribed and its details of DNA barcode diversity are shown for the future investigations.
Gould, Ronald
2012-01-01
This introduction to graph theory focuses on well-established topics, covering primary techniques and including both algorithmic and theoretical problems. The algorithms are presented with a minimum of advanced data structures and programming details. This thoroughly corrected 1988 edition provides insights to computer scientists as well as advanced undergraduates and graduate students of topology, algebra, and matrix theory. Fundamental concepts and notation and elementary properties and operations are the first subjects, followed by examinations of paths and searching, trees, and networks. S
Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
A theory based on the premise that, on the microscopic scale, physical quantities have discrete, rather than a continuous range of, values. The theory was devised in the early part of the twentieth century to account for certain phenomena that could not be explained by classical physics. In 1900, the German physicist, Max Planck (1858-1947), was able precisely to describe the previously unexplaine...
Effective theories of universal theories
Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang
2016-01-01
It is well-known but sometimes overlooked that constraints on the oblique parameters (most notably S and T parameters) are generally speaking only applicable to a special class of new physics scenarios known as universal theories. In the effective field theory (EFT) framework, the oblique parameters should not be associated with Wilson coefficients in a particular operator basis, unless restrictions have been imposed on the EFT so that it describes universal theories. We work out these restrictions, and present a detailed EFT analysis of universal theories. We find that at the dimension-6 level, universal theories are completely characterized by 16 parameters. They are conveniently chosen to be: 5 oblique parameters that agree with the commonly-adopted ones, 4 anomalous triple-gauge couplings, 3 rescaling factors for the h 3, hf f , hV V vertices, 3 parameters for hV V vertices absent in the Standard Model, and 1 four-fermion coupling of order y f 2 . All these parameters are defined in an unambiguous and basis-independent way, allowing for consistent constraints on the universal theories parameter space from precision electroweak and Higgs data.
Possibility Theory versus Probability Theory in Fuzzy Measure Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parul Agarwal
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare probability theory with possibility theory, and to use this comparison in comparing probability theory with fuzzy set theory. The best way of comparing probabilistic and possibilistic conceptualizations of uncertainty is to examine the two theories from a broader perspective. Such a perspective is offered by evidence theory, within which probability theory and possibility theory are recognized as special branches. While the various characteristic of possibility theory within the broader framework of evidence theory are expounded in this paper, we need to introduce their probabilistic counterparts to facilitate our discussion.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carroll, Joseph; Clasen, Mathias; Jonsson, Emelie;
2015-01-01
Biocultural theory is an integrative research program designed to investigate the causal interactions between biological adaptations and cultural constructions. From the biocultural perspective, cultural processes are rooted in the biological necessities of the human life cycle: specifically human...... ideological beliefs, and artistic practices such as music, dance, painting, and storytelling. Establishing biocultural theory as a program that self-consciously encompasses the different particular forms of human evolutionary research could help scholars and scientists envision their own specialized areas of...... research as contributions to a coherent, collective research program. This article argues that a mature biocultural paradigm needs to be informed by at least 7 major research clusters: (a) gene-culture coevolution; (b) human life history theory; (c) evolutionary social psychology; (d) anthropological...
RBS cross-section of MeV ions channeling in crystals from quantum theory
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We present an alternative approach to describing Rutherford Backscattered (RBS) angular yield scans. The Bloch wave method to formulate the cross-section is a fundamental approach originating from Schrodinger's equation. This quantum formulation is often used when describing various aspects of electron diffraction including Backscattering, EDX and TEM but has seen little application to the very short wavelength regime of MeV ions. It offers several significant advantages. Great freedom is given to crystal properties and structure in the theory allowing a fundamental insight into the channeling phenomena and hence the crystal itself. We have calculated both planar and axial channeling scans and these maps are shown to be in good agreement to their experimental counterparts. There is excellent correlation between the theoretical and experimental results for both χmin and Ψ1/2. Further investigation is required into the area of absorption or dechanneling. This phenomenon requires different mechanisms for electron and ion scattering differ greatly
Characteristics of spectral-hole burning in Tm3+:YAG based on the perturbation theory
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In this paper, the physical mechanism of the interaction between electromagnetic wave and spectral-hole burning crystal material is investigated in detail. In the small signal regime, a perturbation theory model is used to analyze the mechanism of spectral-hole burning. By solving the Liouville equation, three-order perturbation results are obtained. From the theoretic analysis, spectral-hole burning can be interpreted as a photon echo of the zero-order diffraction echo when the first optical pulse and the second optical pulse are overlapped in time. According to the model, the spectral-hole width is dependent on the chirp rate of the reading laser. When the chirp rate is slow with respect to the spectral features of interest, the spectral hole is closely mapped into time domain. For a fast chirp rate, distortions are observed. The results follow Maxwell—Bloch model and they are also in good agreement with the experimental results
Stewart, Ian
2003-01-01
Ian Stewart's Galois Theory has been in print for 30 years. Resoundingly popular, it still serves its purpose exceedingly well. Yet mathematics education has changed considerably since 1973, when theory took precedence over examples, and the time has come to bring this presentation in line with more modern approaches.To this end, the story now begins with polynomials over the complex numbers, and the central quest is to understand when such polynomials have solutions that can be expressed by radicals. Reorganization of the material places the concrete before the abstract, thus motivating the g
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This textbook for students of physics is oriented in the selection of matter by the contents of a two-semester course about quantum theory. Thereby the foundations of quantum theory, among them the quantum-mechanical measurement process, the mathematical formalism, and Bell's inequalities, are extensively treated. Also modern concepts like feynman's path integral are regarded. This work is equally suited for a self-study, as course-accompanying lecture, and for preparations of examina. Application examples, supplementary explanations, and numerous illustration take car for a good understanding of the theoretical contents
Effective theories of universal theories
Wells, James D
2015-01-01
It is well-known but sometimes overlooked that constraints on the oblique parameters (most notably $S$ and $T$ parameters) are only applicable to a special class of new physics scenarios known as universal theories. In the effective field theory (EFT) framework, the oblique parameters should not be associated with Wilson coefficients in a particular operator basis, unless restrictions have been imposed on the EFT so that it describes universal theories. We work out these restrictions, and present a detailed EFT analysis of universal theories. We find that at the dimension-6 level, universal theories are completely characterized by 16 parameters. They are conveniently chosen to be: 5 oblique parameters that agree with the commonly-adopted ones, 4 anomalous triple-gauge couplings, 3 rescaling factors for the $h^3$, $hff$, $hVV$ vertices, 3 parameters for $hVV$ vertices absent in the Standard Model, and 1 four-fermion coupling of order $y_f^2$. All these parameters are defined in an unambiguous and basis-indepen...
Vědec a „muž činu“: Marc Bloch a jeho výjimečné postavení v kontinuitě vývoje moderního dějepisectví
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Řepa, Milan
Brno : Matice moravská, 2009 - (Hanuš, J.; Vlček, R.), s. 73-88 ISBN 978-80-86488-59-2. - (Země a kultura ve střední Evropě. 11) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80150510 Keywords : Marc Bloch * History * Historiography Subject RIV: AB - History
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This is a summary of the advances in magnetic fusion energy theory research presented at the 17th International Atomic Energy Agency Fusion Energy Conference from 19 24 October, 1998 in Yokohama, Japan. Theory and simulation results from this conference provided encouraging evidence of significant progress in understanding the physics of thermonuclear plasmas. Indeed, the grand challenge for this field is to acquire the basic understanding that can readily enable the innovations which would make fusion energy practical. In this sense, research in fusion energy is increasingly able to be categorized as fitting well the 'Pasteur's Quadrant' paradigm, where the research strongly couples basic science ('Bohr's Quadrant') to technological impact ('Edison's Quadrant'). As supported by some of the work presented at this conference, this trend will be further enhanced by advanced simulations. Eventually, realistic three-dimensional modeling capabilities, when properly combined with rapid and complete data interpretation of results from both experiments and simulations, can contribute to a greatly enhanced cycle of understanding and innovation. Plasma science theory and simulation have provided reliable foundations for this improved modeling capability, and the exciting advances in high-performance computational resources have further accelerated progress. There were 68 papers presented at this conference in the area of magnetic fusion energy theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Monthoux, Pierre Guillet de; Statler, Matt
2014-01-01
The recent Carnegie report (Colby, et al., 2011) characterizes the goal of business education as the development of practical wisdom. In this chapter, the authors reframe Scharmer’s Theory U as an attempt to develop practical wisdom by applying certain European philosophical concepts. Specifically...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Written by the author of the widely acclaimed textbook. Theoretical Atomic Physics Includes sections on quantum reflection, tunable Feshbach resonances and Efimov states. Useful for advanced students and researchers. This book presents a concise and modern coverage of scattering theory. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. The level of abstraction is kept as low as at all possible, and deeper questions related to mathematical foundations of scattering theory are passed by. The book should be understandable for anyone with a basic knowledge of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. It is intended for advanced students and researchers, and it is hoped that it will be useful for theorists and experimentalists alike.
Hall, Marshall
2011-01-01
Includes proof of van der Waerden's 1926 conjecture on permanents, Wilson's theorem on asymptotic existence, and other developments in combinatorics since 1967. Also covers coding theory and its important connection with designs, problems of enumeration, and partition. Presents fundamentals in addition to latest advances, with illustrative problems at the end of each chapter. Enlarged appendixes include a longer list of block designs.
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Smith, Shelley
This paper came about within the context of a 13-month research project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, at the Center for Public Space Research at the Royal Academy of the Arts School of Architecture in Copenhagen, Denmark. This project has been funded by RealDania. The goals of the research p...
Plummer, MD
1986-01-01
This study of matching theory deals with bipartite matching, network flows, and presents fundamental results for the non-bipartite case. It goes on to study elementary bipartite graphs and elementary graphs in general. Further discussed are 2-matchings, general matching problems as linear programs, the Edmonds Matching Algorithm (and other algorithmic approaches), f-factors and vertex packing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The text book composed of five parts, which are summary of this book, arrangement of electricity theory including electricity nad magnetism, a direct current, and alternating current. It has two dictionary electricity terms for a synonym. The last is an appendix. It is for preparing for test of officer, electricity engineer and fire fighting engineer.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马速良; 马会萌; 蒋小平; 段国栋; 李娜
2015-01-01
风电功率波动对电网造成不容忽视的影响。风电并网处加入混合储能系统可有效降低风电对电网的影响。首先， 有效地分解风电有功功率，得到混合储能系统需平抑的波动功率；然后，在电池及超级电容器荷电状态、额定功率及充放电时间的允许范围内实现超级电容器优先充放电的协调控制方式；最后，应用映射于Bloch球面的量子遗传算法，确定满足混合储能系统技术要求及工程指标的混合储能系统配置方案，使混合储能系统成本最低。算例分析证明了在监测荷电状态等约束条件下，优先超级电容器充放电控制方式的有效性及 Bloch 球面量子遗传算法配置混合储能系统方法的合理性。%It can not be ignored that active power fluctuations in wind power's influence on the grid. The hybrid energy storage system access to the place in which wind power connected to the power grid can effectively reduce the impact of the intermittency of wind power. Firstly, the fluctuating power of wind power was separated to derive the output power of the hybrid energy storage system Secondly, charging and discharging of the super-capacitor were firstly controlled in the allowable range of the power rating, the states of charge and the durations of charging or discharging of the hybrid energy storage. At last, the Bloch spherical quantum genetic algorithm was applied to decide the combination scheme of hybrid energy storage system to meet the technical requirements of hybrid energy storage system and engineering indicators and make the cost be the lowest. In the example, the validity of the control model based on priority control of super-capacitor charging and discharging and the effectiveness of configuring hybrid energy storage system capacity with the Bloch spherical quantum genetic algorithm was proved.
Relativistic theory of stopping for heavy ions
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We calculate the electronic stopping power and the corresponding straggling for ions of arbitrary charge number, penetrating matter at any relativistic energy. The stopping powers are calculated by a simple method. Its starting point is the deviation of the precise theory from first-order quantum perturbation. We show that this deviation can be expressed in terms of the transport cross section, σtr, for scattering of a free electron by the ion. In the nonrelativistic case the deviation is precisely the Bloch correction to Bethe close-quote s formula; we look into the nonrelativistic case in order to clarify both some features of our method and a seeming paradox in Rutherford scattering. The corresponding relativistic correction is obtained from σtr for scattering of a Dirac electron in the ion potential. Here, the major practical advantage of the method shows up; we need not find the scattering distribution, but merely a single quantity, σtr, determined by differences of successive phase shifts. For a point nucleus our results improve and extend those of Ahlen. Our final results, however, are based on atomic nuclei with standard radii. Thereby, the stopping is changed substantially already for moderate values of γ=(1-v2/c2)-1/2. An asymptotic saturation in stopping is obtained. Because of finite nuclear size, recoil corrections remain negligible at all energies. The average square fluctuation in energy loss is calculated as a simple fluctuation cross section for a free electron. The fluctuation in the relativistic case is generally larger than that of the perturbation formula, by a factor of ∼2 endash 3 for heavy ions. But the finite nuclear radius leads to a strong reduction at high energies and the elimination of the factor γ2 belonging to point nuclei. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
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An introduction to the unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions is given. The ingredients of gauge theories and symmetries and conservation laws lead to discussion of local gauge invariance and QED, followed by weak interactions and quantum flavor dynamics. The construction of the standard SU(2)xU(1) model precedes discussion of the unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions and weak neutral current couplings in this model. Presentation of spontaneous symmetry breaking and spontaneous breaking of a local symmetry leads to a spontaneous breaking scheme for the standard SU(2)xU(1) model. Consideration of quarks, leptons, masses and the Cabibbo angles, of the four quark and six quark models and CP violation lead finally to grand unification, followed by discussion of mixing angles in the Georgi-Glashow model, the Higgses of the SU(5) model and proton/ neutron decay in SU(5). (JIW)
Hashiguchi, Koichi
2014-01-01
This book was written to serve as the standard textbook of elastoplasticity for students, engineers and researchers in the field of applied mechanics. The present second edition is improved thoroughly from the first edition by selecting the standard theories from various formulations and models, which are required to study the essentials of elastoplasticity steadily and effectively and will remain universally in the history of elastoplasticity. It opens with an explanation of vector-tensor analysis and continuum mechanics as a foundation to study elastoplasticity theory, extending over various strain and stress tensors and their rates. Subsequently, constitutive equations of elastoplastic and viscoplastic deformations for monotonic, cyclic and non-proportional loading behavior in a general rate and their applications to metals and soils are described in detail, and constitutive equations of friction behavior between solids and its application to the prediction of stick-slip phenomena are delineated. In additi...
Helms, Lester L
2014-01-01
Potential Theory presents a clear path from calculus to classical potential theory and beyond, with the aim of moving the reader into the area of mathematical research as quickly as possible. The subject matter is developed from first principles using only calculus. Commencing with the inverse square law for gravitational and electromagnetic forces and the divergence theorem, the author develops methods for constructing solutions of Laplace's equation on a region with prescribed values on the boundary of the region. The latter half of the book addresses more advanced material aimed at those with the background of a senior undergraduate or beginning graduate course in real analysis. Starting with solutions of the Dirichlet problem subject to mixed boundary conditions on the simplest of regions, methods of morphing such solutions onto solutions of Poisson's equation on more general regions are developed using diffeomorphisms and the Perron-Wiener-Brelot method, culminating in application to Brownian motion. In ...
2015-01-01
A one-sentence definition of operator theory could be: The study of (linear) continuous operations between topological vector spaces, these being in general (but not exclusively) Fréchet, Banach, or Hilbert spaces (or their duals). Operator theory is thus a very wide field, with numerous facets, both applied and theoretical. There are deep connections with complex analysis, functional analysis, mathematical physics, and electrical engineering, to name a few. Fascinating new applications and directions regularly appear, such as operator spaces, free probability, and applications to Clifford analysis. In our choice of the sections, we tried to reflect this diversity. This is a dynamic ongoing project, and more sections are planned, to complete the picture. We hope you enjoy the reading, and profit from this endeavor.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stein, Irene F.; Stelter, Reinhard
2011-01-01
ascribe specific meanings to their experiences, their actions in life or work, and their interactions. Meaning is reshaped, adapted, and transformed in every communication encounter. Furthermore, meaning is cocreated in dialogues or in communities of practice, such as in teams at a workplace or in school......Communication theory covers a wide variety of theories related to the communication process (Littlejohn, 1999). Communication is not simply an exchange of information, in which we have a sender and a receiver. This very technical concept of communication is clearly outdated; a human being...... is not a data processing device. In this chapter, communication is understood as a process of shared meaning-making (Bruner, 1990). Human beings interpret their environment, other people, and themselves on the basis of their dynamic interaction with the surrounding world. Meaning is essential because people...
Milgrom, Mordehai
2014-01-01
A general account of MOND theory is given. I start with the basic tenets of MOND, which posit departure from standard dynamics in the limit of low acceleration -- below an acceleration constant a0 -- where dynamics become scale invariant. I list some of the salient predictions of these tenets. The special role of a0 and its significance are then discussed. In particular, I stress its coincidence with cosmologically relevant accelerations. The deep-MOND limit and the consequences of its scale ...
Petrosjan, L A
1996-01-01
Game theory is a branch of modern applied mathematics that aims to analyze various problems of conflict between parties that have opposed, similar or simply different interests.Games are grouped into several classes according to some important features. In this volume zero-sum two-person games, strategic n-person games in normal form, cooperative games, games in extensive form with complete and incomplete information, differential pursuit games and differential cooperative n-person games are considered.
Friedrich, Harald
2016-01-01
This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...
Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M
1972-01-01
Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli
Diestel, Reinhard
2012-01-01
HauptbeschreibungThis standard textbook of modern graph theory, now in its fourth edition, combinesthe authority of a classic with the engaging freshness of style that is the hallmarkof active mathematics. It covers the core material of the subject with concise yetreliably complete proofs, while offering glimpses of more advanced methodsin each field by one or two deeper results, again with proofs given in full detail.The book can be used as a reliable text for an introductory course, as a graduatetext, and for self-study. Rezension"Deep, clear, wonderful. This is a serious book about the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This book is divided into fourteen chapters, which deals with circuit theory of basis, sinusoidal alternating current on cycle and frequency, basics current circuit about R.L, C circuit and resonant circuit, current power, general linear circuit, inductive coupling circuit and vector locus on an alternating current bridge and mutual inductance and coupling coefficient, multiphase alternating current and method of symmetrical coordinates, non-sinusoidal alternating current, two terminal network, four terminal network, transient of circuits, distributed line circuit constant, frequency characteristic and a filter and Laplace transformation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Techniques used in conventional project appraisal are mathematically very simple in comparison to those used in reservoir modelling, and in the geosciences. Clearly it would be possible to value assets in mathematically more sophisticated ways if it were meaningful and worthwhile so to do. The DCf approach in common use has recognized limitations; the inability to select a meaningful discount rate being particularly significant. Financial Theory has advanced enormously over the last few years, along with computational techniques, and methods are beginning to appear which may change the way we do project evaluations in practice. The starting point for all of this was a paper by Black and Scholes, which asserts that almost all corporate liabilities can be viewed as options of varying degrees of complexity. Although the financial presentation may be unfamiliar to engineers and geoscientists, some of the concepts used will not be. This paper outlines, in plain English, the basis of option pricing theory for assessing the market value of a project. it also attempts to assess the future role of this type of approach in practical Petroleum Exploration and Engineering economics. Reference is made to relevant published Natural Resource literature
Theory of coherent phenomena and fundamentals in nuclear resonant scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the general theory of coherent phenomena in nuclear resonant interaction of γ-quanta with crystals. The coherence is realized in collective excitation of the ensemble of nuclei (nuclear exciton) with the conservation of phase memory and in the transformation of a γ-quantum into a quasi-particle of Bloch type in a crystal. The collective character of excitations causes a change in the resonant nuclear parameters and in the lifetime of the excited state. This manifests itself in a speed-up of the decay in the forward direction in a thin crystal and, on the contrary, a strong reduction of elastic scattering in a thick crystal. The reconstruction of the wavefunction of an individual γ-quantum in scattering under Laue or Bragg conditions leads to the suppression effect of inelastic incoherent channels. This effect is discussed in detail. The analysis is based on a derived general system of equations describing the resonant diffraction of γ-quanta in a crystal with an arbitrary relation between the coherent and incoherent channels. This system is used to deduce the equations describing the time-dependent nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation. We discuss the most instructive experiments with revealing coherent phenomena
Theory of x-ray absorption: a Bethe-Salpeter approach
Shirley, Eric L.
2002-03-01
First-principles calculations of x-ray absorption spectra of solids is a well-established field. The best known and most used treatments are probably those based on real-space multiple-scattering theory. Such Green's Function approaches are particular useful for incorporating electron damping effects (self-energy effects) that broaden spectral features at high electron kinetic energy. Near-edge structure can also be treated, and it can also be treated in super-cell calculations. In this talk, I will present results obtained using an alternative, reciprocal-space approach based on solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation, which is related to the Bethe-Salpeter method used to treat valence excitation signatures in optical absorption spectra. This amounts to solving the coupling equations of motion for the electron-core hole pair that is produced by x-ray absorption. Mutual localization of the electron and core hole in real space is realized by permitting the electron to exist as a wave-packet of Bloch states peaked near the core hole, governed by the excitation process and ensuing electron core-hole attraction. Because this approach permits state-of-the-art electron band structure calculations to be used to evaluate the electron wave function, this approach is particularly well suited for detailed near-edge structure. In presenting the approach and results obtained, particular attention is focused on (1) the role of the electron-hole interaction, (2) the need to deal with core-hole screening accurately, (3) the evaluation of accurate transition matrix elements between core states and Bloch states, and (4) computational-time scaling issues. This work has been done in collaboration with J.A. Soininen, J.J. Rehr, E.K. Chang, and others. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Deparment of Energy (DOE) Grant DE-FG03-97ER45623 and facilitated by the DOE Computational Materials Science Network (CMSN).
Proton stopping data from experiment and theory
Kalbitzer, S.
2005-10-01
Proton stopping cross-sections in several solid and gaseous targets have been calculated by applying the Bethe-Bloch formalism to each electron shell. In addition, binary collision kinetics for both proton and electron in motion have been taken into account. The calculations closely match experimental data on C and Si by us and on He and Ne by TRIM.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With reference to highly debated sustainable growth strategies to counter pressing interrelated global environmental and socio-economic problems, this paper reviews economic and resource development theories proposed by classical and neoclassical economists. The review evidences the growing debate among public administration decision makers regarding appropriate methods to assess the worth of natural resources and ecosystems. Proposed methods tend to be biased either towards environmental protection or economic development. Two major difficulties in the effective implementation of sustainable growth strategies are also evidenced - the management of such strategies would require appropriate revisions to national accounting systems, and the dynamic flow of energy and materials between an economic system and the environment would generate a sequence of unstable structures evolving in a chaotic and unpredictable way
St-Amant, Patrick
2010-01-01
We will see that key concepts of number theory can be defined for arbitrary operations. We give a generalized distributivity for hyperoperations (usual arithmetic operations and operations going beyond exponentiation) and a generalization of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic for hyperoperations. We also give a generalized definition of the prime numbers that are associated to an arbitrary n-ary operation and take a few steps toward the development of its modulo arithmetic by investigating a generalized form of Fermat's little theorem. Those constructions give an interesting way to interpret diophantine equations and we will see that the uniqueness of factorization under an arbitrary operation can be linked with the Riemann zeta function. This language of generalized primes and composites can be used to restate and extend certain problems such as the Goldbach conjecture.
Diestel, Reinhard
2000-01-01
This book is a concise, yet carefully written, introduction to modern graph theory, covering all its major recent developments. It can be used both as a reliable textbook for an introductory course and as a graduate text: on each topic it covers all the basic material in full detail, and adds one or two deeper results (again with detailed proofs) to illustrate the more advanced methods of that field. This second edition extends the first in two ways. It offers a thoroughly revised and updated chapter on graph minors, which now includes full new proofs of two of the central Robertson-Seymour theorems (as well as a detailed sketch of the entire proof of their celebrated Graph Minor Theorem). Second, there is now a section of hints for all the exercises, to enhance their value for both individual study and classroom use.
Chong, Chi Tat; Friedman, Sy D.
1996-01-01
In this article, intended for the Handbook of Recursion Theory, we survey recursion theory on the ordinal numbers, with sections devoted to $\\alpha$-recursion theory, $\\beta$-recursion theory and the study of the admissibility spectrum.
Polchinski, Joseph
1994-01-01
The first part is an introduction to conformal field theory and string perturbation theory. The second part deals with the search for a deeper answer to the question posed in the title. Contents: 1. Conformal Field Theory 2. String Theory 3. Vacua and Dualities 4. String Field Theory or Not String Field Theory 5. Matrix Models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This chapter presents the basic principles of cluster dynamics as a particular case of mesoscopic rate theory models developed to investigate fuel behaviour under irradiation such as in UO2. It is shown that as this method simulates the evolution of the concentration of every type of point or aggregated defect in a grain of material. It produces rich information that sheds light on the mechanisms involved in microstructure evolution and gas behaviour that are not accessible through conventional models but yet can provide for improvements in those models. Cluster dynamics parameters are mainly the energetic values governing the basic evolution mechanisms of the material (diffusion, trapping and thermal resolution). In this sense, the model has a general applicability to very different operational situations (irradiation, ion-beam implantation, annealing) provided that they rely on the same basic mechanisms, without requiring additional data fitting, as is required for more empirical conventional models. This technique, when applied to krypton implanted and annealed samples, yields a precise interpretation of the release curves and helps assess migration mechanisms and the krypton diffusion coefficient, for which data is very difficult to obtain due to the low solubility of the gas. (authors)
Lorenz-Mie theory for 2D scattering and resonance calculations
Gagnon, Denis
2015-01-01
This PhD tutorial is concerned with a description of the two-dimensional generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (2D-GLMT), a well-established numerical method used to compute the interaction of light with arrays of cylindrical scatterers. This theory is based on the method of separation of variables and the application of an addition theorem for cylindrical functions. The purpose of this tutorial is to assemble the practical tools necessary to implement the 2D-GLMT method for the computation of scattering by passive scatterers or of resonances in optically active media. The first part contains a derivation of the vector and scalar Helmholtz equations for 2D geometries, starting from Maxwell's equations. Optically active media are included in 2D-GLMT using a recent stationary formulation of the Maxwell-Bloch equations called steady-state ab initio laser theory (SALT), which introduces new classes of solutions useful for resonance computations. Following these preliminaries, a detailed description of 2D-GLMT is presente...
THEORIES OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sorin Nicolae BORLEA
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This study attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the corporate governance debate. The review of various corporate governance theories enhances the major objective of corporate governance which is maximizing the value for shareholders by ensuring good social and environment performances. The theories of corporate governance are rooted in agency theory with the theory of moral hazard’s implications, further developing within stewardship theory and stakeholder theory and evolving at resource dependence theory, transaction cost theory and political theory. Later, to these theories was added ethics theory, information asymmetry theory or the theory of efficient markets. These theories are defined based on the causes and effects of variables such as: the configuration of the board of directors, audit committee, independence of managers, the role of top management and their social relations beyond the legal regulatory framework. Effective corporate governance requires applying a combination
Theory and Vocational Education.
Swanson, Gordon I.
1988-01-01
The search for an explanation of day-to-day problems is the appropriate framework for describing theory. Theory and research have reciprocal relationships: Theory gives direction to research and research refines theory. Vocational education occurs in the context of many theoretical frames. Understanding this theory relatedness is important to…
Copter: Cosmological perturbation theory
Carlson, Jordan
2013-04-01
Copter is a software package for doing calculations in cosmological perturbation theory. Specifically, Copter includes code for computing statistical observables in the large-scale structure of matter using various forms of perturbation theory, including linear theory, standard perturbation theory, renormalized perturbation theory, and many others. Copter is written in C++ and makes use of the Boost C++ library headers.
de Boer, Jan
2002-01-01
An overview of some of the developments in string theory over the past two years is given, focusing on four topics: realistic (standard model like) models from string theory, geometric engineering and theories with fluxes, the gauge theory-gravity correspondence, and time dependent backgrounds and string theory. Plenary talk at ICHEP'02, Amsterdam, July 24-31, 2002.
K-theory and representation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This contribution includes K-theory of orders, group-rings and modules over EI categories, equivariant higher algebraic K-theory for finite, profinite and compact Lie group actions together with their relative generalisations and applications
Intuitionistic fixed point theories over set theories
Arai, Toshiyau
2013-01-01
In this paper we show that the intuitionistic fixed point theory FiX^{i}(X) over set theories T is a conservative extension of T if T can manipulate finite sequences and has the full foundation schema.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Under investigation in this article is a generalised nonlinear Schroedinger-Maxwell-Bloch system for the picosecond optical pulse propagation in an inhomogeneous erbium-doped silica optical fibre. Lax pair, conservation laws, Darboux transformation, and generalised Darboux transformation for the system are constructed; with the one- and two-soliton solutions, the first- and second-order rogue waves given. Soliton propagation is discussed. Nonlinear tunneling effect on the solitons and rogue waves are investigated. We find that (i) the detuning of the atomic transition frequency from the optical pulse frequency affects the velocity of the pulse when the detuning is small, (ii) nonlinear tunneling effect does not affect the energy redistribution of the soliton interaction, (iii) dispersion barrier/well has an effect on the soliton velocity, whereas nonlinear well/barrier does not, (iv) nonlinear well/barrier could amplify/compress the solitons or rogue waves in a smoother manner than the dispersion barrier/well, and (v) dispersion barrier could ''attract'' the nearby rogue waves, whereas the dispersion well has a repulsive effect on them.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
NING Ping; SHA Zhongli; Paul DN HEBERT; Barry RUSSELL
2015-01-01
Because of its importance as a food source,Nemipterus japonicus(Bloch, 1791) (Nemipteridae) or Japanese threadfin bream is the best studied of these taxa, and numerous investigations have examined its fisheries, its biology and biochemistry. De-spite such intensive work, the taxonomic status ofN. japonicushas never been seriously questioned and itis regarded as a common species, widely distributed throughout the Indo-Western Pacific Ocean. In fact, Bloch’s description of the type specimen ofN. ja-ponicus has ambiguous collection data and lacks a designation for the type locality, though it is probably Java. In this paper, DNA barcode results based on COI gene support the existence of two geographically separated lineages of the Japanese threadfin bream, both being an Indian Ocean and western Pacific lineage, with 2.7% sequence divergence, and the results indicate a possible existing of some cryptic species. The two lineages also possess a diagnostic difference in their belly color, with specimens in the South China Sea having a silver belly, while those from the Indian Ocean isolate specimen have a yellow coloration. Based upon new collections from the South China Sea, this species from the western Pacific is morphologically redescribed and its details of DNA barcode diver-sity are shown for the future investigations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gao, Zhe; Gao, Yi-Tian; Su, Chuan-Qi; Wang, Qi-Min; Mao, Bing-Qing [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Ministry-of-Education Key Lab. of Fluid Mechanics and National Lab. for Computational Fluid Dynamics
2016-04-01
Under investigation in this article is a generalised nonlinear Schroedinger-Maxwell-Bloch system for the picosecond optical pulse propagation in an inhomogeneous erbium-doped silica optical fibre. Lax pair, conservation laws, Darboux transformation, and generalised Darboux transformation for the system are constructed; with the one- and two-soliton solutions, the first- and second-order rogue waves given. Soliton propagation is discussed. Nonlinear tunneling effect on the solitons and rogue waves are investigated. We find that (i) the detuning of the atomic transition frequency from the optical pulse frequency affects the velocity of the pulse when the detuning is small, (ii) nonlinear tunneling effect does not affect the energy redistribution of the soliton interaction, (iii) dispersion barrier/well has an effect on the soliton velocity, whereas nonlinear well/barrier does not, (iv) nonlinear well/barrier could amplify/compress the solitons or rogue waves in a smoother manner than the dispersion barrier/well, and (v) dispersion barrier could ''attract'' the nearby rogue waves, whereas the dispersion well has a repulsive effect on them.
Gao, Zhe; Gao, Yi-Tian; Su, Chuan-Qi; Wang, Qi-Min; Mao, Bing-Qing
2016-01-01
Under investigation in this article is a generalised nonlinear Schrödinger-Maxwell-Bloch system for the picosecond optical pulse propagation in an inhomogeneous erbium-doped silica optical fibre. Lax pair, conservation laws, Darboux transformation, and generalised Darboux transformation for the system are constructed; with the one- and two-soliton solutions, the first- and second-order rogue waves given. Soliton propagation is discussed. Nonlinear tunneling effect on the solitons and rogue waves are investigated. We find that (i) the detuning of the atomic transition frequency from the optical pulse frequency affects the velocity of the pulse when the detuning is small, (ii) nonlinear tunneling effect does not affect the energy redistribution of the soliton interaction, (iii) dispersion barrier/well has an effect on the soliton velocity, whereas nonlinear well/barrier does not, (iv) nonlinear well/barrier could amplify/compress the solitons or rogue waves in a smoother manner than the dispersion barrier/well, and (v) dispersion barrier could "attract" the nearby rogue waves, whereas the dispersion well has a repulsive effect on them.
Kritsky, Delane C; Diggles, Ben K
2014-01-01
Three species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) were collected from the gills of four golden snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) (Lutjanidae) from the marine and brackish waters off Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Type-specimens of Ancyrocephalus johni Tripathi, 1959 apparently have not survived and the possibility existed that the species was based on specimens representing more than one species. Euryhaliotrema johni (Tripathi, 1959) (sensu Young, 1968) was redescribed and determined to most likely represent A. johni, originally described from the River Hooghly, Diamond Harbour, India. Two new species were described. Euryhaliotrema longibaculoides n. sp. was most similar to Euryhaliotrema longibaculum (Zhukov, 1976) Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 from Lutjanus spp. from the western Atlantic Ocean. It differed from E. longibaculum by having a male copulatory organ (MCO) with an elongate comparatively delicate shaft and a bulbous base (MCO U- or J-shaped with funnel-shaped base in E. longibaculum). Based on the comparative morphology of the haptoral sclerites, Euryhaliotrema lisae n. sp. was most similar to Euryhaliotrema cryptophallus Kritsky & Yang, 2012 from the gills of the mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) from the South China Sea. Euryhaliotrema lisae differed from E. cryptophallus by having a copulatory complex with an obvious weakly sclerotised J-shaped MCO (MCO cryptic, delicate, and with a shaft comprising about one counterclockwise ring in E. cryptophallus). PMID:24395576
Decidability of formal theories and hyperincursivity theory
Grappone, Arturo G.
2000-05-01
This paper shows the limits of the Proof Standard Theory (briefly, PST) and gives some ideas of how to build a proof anticipatory theory (briefly, PAT) that has no such limits. Also, this paper considers that Gödel's proof of the undecidability of Principia Mathematica formal theory is not valid for axiomatic theories that use a PAT to build their proofs because the (hyper)incursive functions are self-representable.
Guerra, Francesco
2005-01-01
A coincise review about Euclidean (Quantum) Field Theory is presented. It deals with the general structural properties, the connections with Quantum Field Theory, the exploitation in Constructive Quantum Field Theory, and the physical interpretation.
Decoding the architectural theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gu Mengchao
2008-01-01
Starting from the illustration of the definition and concept of the architectural theory, the author established his unique understanding about the framework of the architectural theory and the innovation of the architectural theory underlined by Chinese characteristics.
Review of Hydroelasticity Theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Xu-jun; Wu, You-sheng; Cui, Wei-cheng;
2006-01-01
Existing hydroelastic theories are reviewed. The theories are classified into different types: two-dimensional linear theory, two-dimensional nonlinear theory, three-dimensional linear theory and three-dimensional nonlinear theory. Applications to analysis of very large floating structures (VLFS)......) are reviewed and discussed in details. Special emphasis is placed on papers from China and Japan (in native languages) as these papers are not generally publicly known in the rest of the world....
THEORIES OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
Sorin Nicolae BORLEA; Monica-Violeta ACHIM
2013-01-01
This study attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the corporate governance debate. The review of various corporate governance theories enhances the major objective of corporate governance which is maximizing the value for shareholders by ensuring good social and environment performances. The theories of corporate governance are rooted in agency theory with the theory of moral hazard’s implications, further developing within stewardship theory and stakeholder theory and evolving at re...
Foundations for a theory of gravitation theories
Thorne, K. S.; Lee, D. L.; Lightman, A. P.
1972-01-01
A foundation is laid for future analyses of gravitation theories. This foundation is applicable to any theory formulated in terms of geometric objects defined on a 4-dimensional spacetime manifold. The foundation consists of (1) a glossary of fundamental concepts; (2) a theorem that delineates the overlap between Lagrangian-based theories and metric theories; (3) a conjecture (due to Schiff) that the Weak Equivalence Principle implies the Einstein Equivalence Principle; and (4) a plausibility argument supporting this conjecture for the special case of relativistic, Lagrangian-based theories.
Supersymmetric Gauge Theories from String Theory
Metzger, Steffen
2005-01-01
The subject of this thesis are various ways to construct four-dimensional quantum field theories from string theory. In a first part we study the generation of a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, coupled to an adjoint chiral superfield, from type IIB string theory on non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds, with D-branes wrapping certain subcycles. Properties of the gauge theory are then mapped to the geometric structure of the Calabi-Yau space. In particular, the low energy effective superpotential...
New Trade Theory Takes Over Monetary Theory
Gani, M.
2004-01-01
Prevailing trade theory is a neglected stepchild of economics. Micro rejects the sole reason for trade’s occurrence. It declares zero profit in equilibrium. Monetary theory and macroeconomics dismiss concerns of trade financing. They assert that money has nothing to do with traded output, but everything to do with storing value. But now a new trade theory takes over monetary theory, by reducing money into a mere tool of trade, as just a means of payment. It takes over theory of exchange, abol...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present state of the art in elementary particle theory is reviewed. Topics include quantum electrodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. 113 references
Jardine, John F
2015-01-01
This monograph on the homotopy theory of topologized diagrams of spaces and spectra gives an expert account of a subject at the foundation of motivic homotopy theory and the theory of topological modular forms in stable homotopy theory. Beginning with an introduction to the homotopy theory of simplicial sets and topos theory, the book covers core topics such as the unstable homotopy theory of simplicial presheaves and sheaves, localized theories, cocycles, descent theory, non-abelian cohomology, stacks, and local stable homotopy theory. A detailed treatment of the formalism of the subject is interwoven with explanations of the motivation, development, and nuances of ideas and results. The coherence of the abstract theory is elucidated through the use of widely applicable tools, such as Barr's theorem on Boolean localization, model structures on the category of simplicial presheaves on a site, and cocycle categories. A wealth of concrete examples convey the vitality and importance of the subject in topology, n...
Rationality, Theory Acceptance and Decision Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Nicolas Kaufmann
1998-06-01
Full Text Available Following Kuhn's main thesis according to which theory revision and acceptance is always paradigm relative, I propose to outline some possible consequences of such a view. First, asking the question in what sense Bayesian decision theory could serve as the appropriate (normative theory of rationality examined from the point of view of the epistemology of theory acceptance, I argue that Bayesianism leads to a narrow conception of theory acceptance. Second, regarding the different types of theory revision, i.e. expansion, contraction, replacement and residuals shifts, I extract from Kuhn's view a series of indications showing that theory replacement cannot be rationalized within the framework of Bayesian decision theory, not even within a more sophisticated version of that model. Third, and finally, I will point to the need for a more comprehensive model of rationality than the Bayesian expected utility maximization model, the need for a model which could better deal with the different aspects of theory replacement. I will show that Kuhn's distinction between normal and revolutionary science gives us several hints for a more adequate theory of rationality in science. I will also show that Kuhn is not in a position to fully articulate his main ideas and that he well be confronted with a serious problem concerning collective choice of a paradigm.
Self-consistent multimode lasing theory for complex or random lasing media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A semiclassical theory of single and multimode lasing is derived for open complex or random media using a self-consistent linear response formulation. Unlike standard approaches which use closed cavity solutions to describe the lasing modes, we introduce an appropriate discrete basis of functions which describe also the intensity and angular emission pattern outside the cavity. This constant flux (CF) basis is dictated by the Green function which arises when formulating the steady state Maxwell-Bloch equations as a self-consistent linear response problem. This basis is similar to the quasibound state basis which is familiar in resonator theory and it obeys biorthogonality relations with a set of dual functions. Within a single-pole approximation for the Green function the lasing modes are proportional to these CF states and their intensities and lasing frequencies are determined by a set of nonlinear equations. When a near threshold approximation is made to these equations a generalized version of the Haken-Sauermann equations for multimode lasing is obtained, appropriate for open cavities. Illustrative results from these equations are given for single and few mode lasing states, for the case of dielectric cavity lasers. The standard near threshold approximation is found to be unreliable. Applications to wave-chaotic cavities and random lasers are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A generalized theory of frequency- and time-resolved vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy of adsorbates at surfaces is presented using the density matrix formalism. Our theoretical treatment is specifically aimed at addressing issues that accompany the relatively novel SFG approach using broadband infrared pulses. The ultrashort duration of these pulses makes them ideally suited for time-resolved investigations, for which we present a complete theoretical treatment. A second key characteristic of these pulses is their large bandwidth and high intensity, which allow for highly non-linear effects, including vibrational ladder climbing of surface vibrations. We derive general expressions relating the density matrix to SFG spectra, and apply these expressions to specific experimental results by solving the coupled optical Bloch equations of the density matrix elements. Thus, we can theoretically reproduce recent experimentally demonstrated hot band SFG spectra using femtosecond broadband infrared excitation of carbon monoxide (CO) on a Ru(001) surface
de Bruin, B.P.
2005-01-01
Game theory is the mathematical study of strategy and conflict. It has wide applications in economics, political science, sociology, and, to some extent, in philosophy. Where rational choice theory or decision theory is concerned with individual agents facing games against nature, game theory deals
Moschovakis, YN
1987-01-01
Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent F.
Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....
Lassig, Michael
2011-01-01
A systematic theory is introduced that describes stochastic effects in game theory. In a biological context, such effects are relevant for the evolution of finite populations with frequency-dependent selection. They are characterized by quantum Nash equilibria, a generalization of the well-known Nash equilibrium points in classical game theory. The implications of this theory for biological systems are discussed in detail.
't Hooft, Gerardus; Witten, Edward
2005-01-01
In his later years, Einstein sought a unified theory that would extend general relativity and provide an alternative to quantum theory. There is now talk of a "theory of everything"; fifty years after his death, how close are we to such a theory? (3 pages)
Bursa, Francis; Kroyter, Michael
2010-01-01
String field theory is a candidate for a full non-perturbative definition of string theory. We aim to define string field theory on a space-time lattice to investigate its behaviour at the quantum level. Specifically, we look at string field theory in a one dimensional linear dilaton background. We report the first results of our simulations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁景宏
2010-01-01
In this essay, I wish to invite young scholars to learn, use, and contribute to accounting theory. In this invitation, I argue theory has lineage, is important and can be fun. Its lineage comes from the post-WWII scientific revolution in management education and research. Theory is important because it is the successful interaction between theory and empirical work that ultimately advances an academic discipline. Theory can be fun because when done well, learning, using and contributing to theory can be an enjoyable activity for all scholars, either as consumers or as producers of theory.
Zimmerman Jones, Andrew
2010-01-01
Making Everything Easier!. String Theory for Dummies. Learn:. The basic concepts of this controversial theory;. How string theory builds on physics concepts;. The different viewpoints in the field;. String theory's physical implications. Andrew Zimmerman Jones. Physics Guide, About.com. with Daniel Robbins, PhD in Physics. Your plain-English guide to this complex scientific theory. String theory is one of the most complicated sciences being explored today. Not to worry though! This informative guide clearly explains the basics of this hot topic, discusses the theory's hypotheses and prediction
Quantum Theory is an Information Theory
D'Ariano, Giacomo M.; Perinotti, Paolo
2016-03-01
In this paper we review the general framework of operational probabilistic theories (OPT), along with the six axioms from which quantum theory can be derived. We argue that the OPT framework along with a relaxed version of five of the axioms, define a general information theory. We close the paper with considerations about the role of the observer in an OPT, and the interpretation of the von Neumann postulate and the Schrödinger-cat paradox.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
The basic ideas of game theory were originated from the problems of maximum and minimum given by J.Yon Neumann in 1928. Later, wars accelerated the study of game theory, there are many developments that contributed to the advancement of game theory, many problems of optimum appeared in economic development process. Scientists applied mathematic methods to studying game theory to make the theory more profound and perfect. The axiomatic structure of game theory was nearly complete in 1944. The path of the development of game theory started from finite to infinite, from two players to many players, from expressing gains with quantity to showing the ending of game theory with abstract result, and from certainty problems to random problems. Thus development of game theory is closely related to the economic development. In recent years, the research on the non-differentiability of Shapley value posed by Belgian Mertens is one of the advanced studies in game theory.
Gauge theory loop operators and Liouville theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a correspondence between loop operators in a family of four dimensional N=2 gauge theories on S4 - including Wilson, 't Hooft and dyonic operators - and Liouville theory loop operators on a Riemann surface. This extends the beautiful relation between the partition function of these N=2 gauge theories and Liouville correlators found by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa. We show that the computation of these Liouville correlators with the insertion of a Liouville loop operator reproduces Pestun's formula capturing the expectation value of a Wilson loop operator in the corresponding gauge theory. We prove that our definition of Liouville loop operators is invariant under modular transformations, which given our correspondence, implies the conjectured action of S-duality on the gauge theory loop operators. Our computations in Liouville theory make an explicit prediction for the exact expectation value of 't Hooft and dyonic loop operators in these N=2 gauge theories. The Liouville loop operators are also found to admit a simple geometric interpretation within quantum Teichmueller theory as the quantum operators representing the length of geodesics. We study the algebra of Liouville loop operators and show that it gives evidence for our proposal as well as providing definite predictions for the operator product expansion of loop operators in gauge theory. (orig.)
Nonrelativistic closed string theory
Gomis, Jaume; Ooguri, Hirosi
2001-01-01
We construct a Galilean invariant nongravitational closed string theory whose excitations satisfy a nonrelativistic dispersion relation. This theory can be obtained by taking a consistent low energy limit of any of the conventional string theories, including the heterotic string. We give a finite first order worldsheet Hamiltonian for this theory and show that this string theory has a sensible perturbative expansion, interesting high energy behavior of scattering amplitudes and a Hagedorn tra...
Conlon, Joseph
2016-01-01
Is string theory a fraud or one of the great scientific advances? Why do so many physicists work on string theory if it cannot be tested? This book provides insight into why such a theory, with little direct experimental support, plays such a prominent role in theoretical physics. The book gives a modern and accurate account of string theory and science, explaining what string theory is, why it is regarded as so promising, and why it is hard to test.
Ali Rabbani Khorasghani; Mohammad Abbaszadeh
2010-01-01
AbstractAccording to social changes in global level, social scientist introduced new theories to explanation of socialphenomena. According to appearance new theories, research methods have changed. The Idea is that,Simultaneity with Appearance post positivist theories, research approaches such a grounded theory hasestablished. This method, acts in the base of qualitative methods and use systematic complex of multipleProcedures to gathering data for theory development upon induction. This meth...
Uniformly hyperbolic control theory
Kawan, Christoph
2015-01-01
This paper gives a summary of a body of work at the intersection of control theory and smooth nonlinear dynamics. The main idea is to transfer the concept of uniform hyperbolicity, central to the theory of smooth dynamical systems, to control-affine systems. Combining the strength of geometric control theory and the hyperbolic theory of dynamical systems, it is possible to deduce control-theoretic results of non-local nature that reveal remarkable analogies to the classical hyperbolic theory ...
Samanta, Palas; Bandyopadhyay, Namita; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan
2015-12-01
Present study aimed to investigate the effects of almix herbicide on histopathological and ultrastructural changes in freshwater teleostean fish, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) under field and laboratory conditions with a dose of 8 g/acre and 66.7 mg/L respectively for 30 days. In field experiment fish species were reared in special type of cage submerged in pond. Cellular alterations of the concerned organs namely gills, liver and kidney were observed through light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Gill showed hypertrophy and oedema in secondary gill epithelium, and epithelial lifting under laboratory condition but in field condition hyperplasia was prominent. SEM study revealed necrosis, hyperplasia, excessive secretion of mucus and loss of microridges; while TEM study depicted degenerative changes in mitochondria and chloride cells and severe cytoplsmic vacuolation but the changes were comparatively less under field study. In liver, damage in acinar cells of hepatopancreas, degenerative changes in zymogen granules and detachment of hepatopancreatic acinar cells under laboratory condition were the serious changes, but in field condition fatty deposition is prominent. TEM study depicted dilated, degranulated and vesiculated rough endoplasmic reticulum, dilation and swelling of mitochondria and vacuolation in hepatocytes, but under field condition dilation of mitochondria and appearance of vacuolation were well marked. Kidney showed shrinkage of glomerulus, damaged and hypertrophied proximal convoluted tubule, loss of haematopoietic tissues under light microscopy; while ultrastructural changes like degenerative changes in mitochondria, deformed nucleus, dilation, fragmentation and vesiculation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, severe vacuolation in cytoplasm and necrosis were of very serious concern under laboratory condition, but in field condition epithelial cells showed less damage. Responses depicted that symptoms of lesions were more
Field Theory for Coherent Optical Pulse Propagation
Park, Q H
1997-01-01
We introduce a new notion of "matrix potential" to nonlinear optical systems. In terms of a matrix potential $g$, we present a gauge field theoretic formulation of the Maxwell-Bloch equation that provides a semiclassical description of the propagation of optical pulses through resonant multi-level media. We show that the Bloch part of the equation can solved identically through $g$ and the remaining Maxwell equation becomes a second order differential equation with reduced set of variables due to the gauge invariance of the system. Our formulation clarifies the (nonabelian) symmetry structure of the Maxwell-Bloch equations for various multi-level media in association with symmetric spaces $G/H$. In particular, we associate nondegenerate two-level system for self-induced transparency with $G/H=SU(2)/U(1)$ and three-level $\\L $- or V-systems with $G/H = SU(3)/U(2)$. We give a detailed analysis for the two-level case in the matrix potential formalism, and address various new properties of the system including so...
Teaching Theory X and Theory Y in Organizational Communication
Noland, Carey
2014-01-01
The purpose of the activity described here is to integrate McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y into a group application: design a syllabus that embodies either Theory X or Theory Y tenets. Students should be able to differentiate between Theory X and Theory Y, create a syllabus based on Theory X or Theory Y tenets, evaluate the different syllabi…
Elements of a theory of algebraic theories
Hyland, Martin
2013-01-01
Kleisli bicategories are a natural environment in which the combinatorics involved in various notions of algebraic theory can be handled in a uniform way. The setting allows a clear account of comparisons between such notions. Algebraic theories, symmetric operads and nonsymmetric operads are treated as examples.
[Topics in field theory and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the past year, I have continued to investigate the relations between conformal field theories and lattice statistical mechanical models. I have also tried to extend some of these results to higher dimensions and to find applications in string theories and other contexts
Generalizability theory and item response theory
Glas, C.A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.
2012-01-01
Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a s
Fabris, J C
2015-01-01
General Relativity is the modern theory of gravitation. It has replaced the newtonian theory in the description of the gravitational phenomena. In spite of the remarkable success of the General Relativity Theory, the newtonian gravitational theory is still largely employed, since General Relativity, in most of the cases, just makes very small corrections to the newtonian predictions. Moreover, the newtonian theory is much simpler, technically and conceptually, when compared to the relativistic theory. In this text, we discuss the possibility of extending the traditional newtonian theory in order to incorporate typical relativistic effects, but keeping the simplicity of the newtonian framework. We denominate these extensions neo-newtonian theories. These theories are discussed mainly in the contexts of cosmology and compact astrophysical objects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Rabbani Khorasghani
2010-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractAccording to social changes in global level, social scientist introduced new theories to explanation of socialphenomena. According to appearance new theories, research methods have changed. The Idea is that,Simultaneity with Appearance post positivist theories, research approaches such a grounded theory hasestablished. This method, acts in the base of qualitative methods and use systematic complex of multipleProcedures to gathering data for theory development upon induction. This method with characteristics as ifflexibility, reflexivity, has caused many of researchers used it. In the present article, we paid to introductionof grounded theory and its critics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Regina Szylit Bousso
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The theory framework of nursing science is built in a dynamic process that arises from practice and is reproduced through research, mainly by analysis and development of concepts and theories. This study presents a theory reflection on nursing knowledge construction and points out subsidies for future studies in the area. The interrelation among theory, research, and clinical practice is required for continuous development of nursing as a profession and science. Ideally, the practice must be based on theory that is validated by research. Therefore, theory, research, and practice affect each other reciprocally and continuously.
Theory of graphene saturable absorption
Marini, A; de Abajo, F J Garcia
2016-01-01
Saturable absorption is a non-perturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon that plays a pivotal role in the generation of ultrafast light pulses. Here we show that this effect emerges in graphene at unprecedentedly low light intensities, thus opening avenues to new nonlinear physics and applications in optical technology. Specifically, we theoretically investigate saturable absorption in extended graphene by developing a non-perturbative single-particle approach, describing conduction-electron dynamics in the atomically-thin material using the two-dimensional Dirac equation for massless Dirac fermions, which is recast in the form of generalized Bloch equations. By solving the electron dynamics non-perturbatively, we account for both interband and intraband contributions to the intensity-dependent saturated conductivity and conclude that the former dominates regardless of the intrinsic doping state of the material. The results are in excellent agreement with atomistic quantum-mechanical simulations including high...
Supersymmetric gauge theories from string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis presents various ways to construct four-dimensional quantum field theories from string theory. In a first part we study the generation of a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, coupled to an adjoint chiral superfield, from type IIB string theory on non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds, with D-branes wrapping certain sub-cycles. Properties of the gauge theory are then mapped to the geometric structure of the Calabi-Yau space. Even if the Calabi-Yau geometry is too complicated to evaluate the geometric integrals explicitly, one can then always use matrix model perturbation theory to calculate the effective superpotential. The second part of this work covers the generation of four-dimensional super-symmetric gauge theories, carrying several important characteristic features of the standard model, from compactifications of eleven-dimensional supergravity on G2-manifolds. If the latter contain conical singularities, chiral fermions are present in the four-dimensional gauge theory, which potentially lead to anomalies. We show that, locally at each singularity, these anomalies are cancelled by the non-invariance of the classical action through a mechanism called 'anomaly inflow'. Unfortunately, no explicit metric of a compact G2-manifold is known. Here we construct families of metrics on compact weak G2-manifolds, which contain two conical singularities. Weak G2-manifolds have properties that are similar to the ones of proper G2-manifolds, and hence the explicit examples might be useful to better understand the generic situation. Finally, we reconsider the relation between eleven-dimensional supergravity and the E8 x E8-heterotic string. This is done by carefully studying the anomalies that appear if the supergravity theory is formulated on a ten-manifold times the interval. Again we find that the anomalies cancel locally at the boundaries of the interval through anomaly inflow, provided one suitably modifies the classical action. (author)
Introduction to percolation theory
Stauffer, Dietrich
1991-01-01
Percolation theory deals with clustering, criticallity, diffusion, fractals, phase transitions and disordered systems. This book covers the basic theory for the graduate, and also professionals dealing with it for the first time
Covariant Noncommutative Field Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The covariant approach to noncommutative field and gauge theories is revisited. In the process the formalism is applied to field theories invariant under diffeomorphisms. Local differentiable forms are defined in this context. The lagrangian and hamiltonian formalism is consistently introduced
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clemmensen, Torkil; Kaptelinin, Victor; Nardi, Bonnie
2016-01-01
This paper reports a study of the use of activity theory in human–computer interaction (HCI) research. We analyse activity theory in HCI since its first appearance about 25 years ago. Through an analysis and meta-synthesis of 109 selected HCI activity theory papers, we created a taxonomy of 5...... different ways of using activity theory: (1) analysing unique features, principles, and problematic aspects of the theory; (2) identifying domain-specific requirements for new theoretical tools; (3) developing new conceptual accounts of issues in the field of HCI; (4) guiding and supporting empirical...... analyses of HCI phenomena; and (5) providing new design illustrations, claims, and guidelines. We conclude that HCI researchers are not only users of imported theory, but also theory-makers who adapt and develop theory for different purposes....
Combinatorics and field theory
Bender, Carl M.; Brody, Dorje C.; Meister, Bernhard K.
2006-01-01
For any given sequence of integers there exists a quantum field theory whose Feynman rules produce that sequence. An example is illustrated for the Stirling numbers. The method employed here offers a new direction in combinatorics and graph theory.
Farmer, David W.
2004-01-01
Comment: 11 pages, to appear in the proceedings of the school ``Recent Perspectives in Random Matrix Theory and Number Theory'' held at the Isaac Newton Institute, April 2004. Added appendix on big-O and
Zielenkiewicz, Wojciech
2004-01-01
The purpose of this book is to give a comprehensive description of the theoretical fundamentals of calorimetry. The considerations are based on the relations deduced from the laws and general equations of heat exchange theory and steering theory.
Theories of Career Development. A Comparison of the Theories.
Osipow, Samuel H.
These seven theories of career development are examined in previous chapters: (1) Roe's personality theory, (2) Holland's career typology theory, (3) the Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrod, and Herma Theory, (4) psychoanalytic conceptions, (5) Super's developmental self-concept theory, (6) other personality theories, and (7) social systems theories.…
Quantum algorithmic information theory
Svozil, Karl
1995-01-01
The agenda of quantum algorithmic information theory, ordered `top-down,' is the quantum halting amplitude, followed by the quantum algorithmic information content, which in turn requires the theory of quantum computation. The fundamental atoms processed by quantum computation are the quantum bits which are dealt with in quantum information theory. The theory of quantum computation will be based upon a model of universal quantum computer whose elementary unit is a two-port interferometer capa...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We begin with a general discussion of topological field theories, their defining properties, and classification. The first model we consider in detail (section 3) is supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Topological sigma models, their observables, and the associated mathematics of complex geometry and intersection theory are presented in section 4. Following this, topological gauge theories are discussed in section 5, with particular emphasis on Donaldson theory. The matematics here is necessarily much more sophisticated than at any other point in this report, and to bridge this gap, a mathematical review of gauge theory and moduli spaces has been included. An analysis of the geometry underlying Donaldson theory gives a general recipe for constructing field theories associated to moduli spaces in arbitrary dimensions, and as an example, we analyze in detail the super BF theories associated with flat connections. Chern-Simons theory and related BF models are the subject of section 6. The connections with knot theory are briefly reviewed and the link with 2D conformal field theory is sketched. We also consider 3D gravity from the Chern-Simons point of view. A presentation of the metric and gauge theory approaches to topological gravity in two dimensions is given. As in all quantum field theories, the issues of renormalization needs to be addressed, and one is obliged to show that the formal topological properties of these theories survive quantization. This point is considered in section 8. We present a detailed analysis of the beta function in certain Witten type theories, and compute one-loop effects in Chern-Simons theory. (orig./HSI)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Birmingham, D. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.); Blau, M. (CNRS, 13 - Marseille (France). Centre de Physique Theorique NIKHEF-H, Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Rakowski, M.; Thompson, G. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik)
1991-12-01
We begin with a general discussion of topological field theories, their defining properties, and classification. The first model we consider in detail (section 3) is supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Topological sigma models, their observables, and the associated mathematics of complex geometry and intersection theory are presented in section 4. Following this, topological gauge theories are discussed in section 5, with particular emphasis on Donaldson theory. The matematics here is necessarily much more sophisticated than at any other point in this report, and to bridge this gap, a mathematical review of gauge theory and moduli spaces has been included. An analysis of the geometry underlying Donaldson theory gives a general recipe for constructing field theories associated to moduli spaces in arbitrary dimensions, and as an example, we analyze in detail the super BF theories associated with flat connections. Chern-Simons theory and related BF models are the subject of section 6. The connections with knot theory are briefly reviewed and the link with 2D conformal field theory is sketched. We also consider 3D gravity from the Chern-Simons point of view. A presentation of the metric and gauge theory approaches to topological gravity in two dimensions is given. As in all quantum field theories, the issues of renormalization needs to be addressed, and one is obliged to show that the formal topological properties of these theories survive quantization. This point is considered in section 8. We present a detailed analysis of the beta function in certain Witten type theories, and compute one-loop effects in Chern-Simons theory. (orig./HSI).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A survey of the present state of fission theory is attempted. The basic requirements of a theory of a physical process are outlined and against this background the state of fission theory is summarized, with special emphasis on developments in the past few years. An attempt is made to bring out the most important outstanding problems to be settled by future experiments and theory. (author)
Güth, Werner
2000-01-01
Whereas orthodox game theory relies on the unrealistic assumption of (commonly known) perfect rationality, participants in game playing experiments are at best boundedly rational. This makes it necessary to supplement orthodox game theory by a behavioral theory of game playing. We first point out that this applies also to (one person-) decision theory. After reviewing the influential experiments based on repeated games and the ultimatum game the typical reactions to the striking experimental ...
Linker, Patrick
2016-01-01
A couple of quantum gravity theories were proposed to make theoretical predictions about the behavior of gravity. The most recent approach to quantum gravity, called E-theory, is proposed mathematical, but there is not formulated much about what dynamics of gravity this theory proposes. This research paper treats the main results of the application of E-theory to General relativity involving conservation laws and scattering of particles in presence of gravity. Also the low-energy limit of thi...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Areas of emphasis include acceleration algorithms for the Monte Carlo analysis of lattice field and gauge theories, quaternionic generalizations of complex quantum mechanics and field theory, application of the renormalization group to the QCD phase transition, the quantum Hall effect, and black holes. Other work involved string theory, statistical properties of energy levels in integrable quantum systems, baryon asymmetry and the electroweak phase transition, anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, and theory of superconductors
Vygotsky theories & meaningful relationships
Robert, Michelle Suzanne
2005-01-01
This Project contains two main topics: "The Vygotsky Theories" and "Meaningful Relationships". Both were selected to be taught to teachers, principals, managing officials and supervisors in Mexico's context, all of which will be done in workshops under my supervision and care. The first theme: "The Vygotsky's Theories" explains his Theories and Notions on "Early Childhood Education", "Social Development Theory"; "Learning and Development of Preschool Children" and "The Zone of Proximal Develo...
Combustion theory and modeling
Buckmaster, J; Clavin, Paul; Liñán Martínez, Amable; Matalon, M.; Peters, N; Sivashinsky, G.; Williams, F. A.
2005-01-01
In honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the Combustion Institute, we are asked to assess accomplishments of theory in combustion over the past fifty years and prospects for the future. The title of our article is chosen to emphasize that development of theory necessarily goes hand-in-hand with specification of a model. Good conceptual models underlie successful mathematical theories. Models and theories are discussed here for deflagrations, detonations, diffusion flames, ignition, propellant ...
Thulasiraman, K
2011-01-01
This adaptation of an earlier work by the authors is a graduate text and professional reference on the fundamentals of graph theory. It covers the theory of graphs, its applications to computer networks and the theory of graph algorithms. Also includes exercises and an updated bibliography.
Comparing Measurement Theories.
Schumacker, Randall E.
In comparing measurement theories, it is evident that the awareness of the concept of measurement error during the time of Galileo has lead to the formulation of observed scores comprising a true score and error (classical theory), universe score and various random error components (generalizability theory), or individual latent ability and error…
Positioning Theory in Paradigms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FU Xiao-qiu
2015-01-01
This article discusses the importance of theory and paradigm to a researcher. It starts from introducing and analyzing the definition of the two terms, by using the theories in the field of intercultural communication as examples. To a good researcher, he needs not only clarifying the paradigm his research is positioned, but also integrating the theories in his paradigm.
Reflections on Activity Theory
Bakhurst, David
2009-01-01
It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…
Battenfeld, Ingo
2008-01-01
This thesis presents Topological Domain Theory as a powerful and flexible framework for denotational semantics. Topological Domain Theory models a wide range of type constructions and can interpret many computational features. Furthermore, it has close connections to established frameworks for denotational semantics, as well as to well-studied mathematical theories, such as topology and computable analysis.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jack
2015-01-01
Purpose To provide a small overview of genre theory and its associated concepts and to show how genre theory has had its antecedents in certain parts of the social sciences and not in the humanities. Findings The chapter argues that the explanatory force of genre theory may be explained with its ...
Constructivist Grounded Theory?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD
2012-06-01
Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.
Sobreiro, R. F.; Tomaz, A. A.; Otoya, V. J. Vasquez
2012-01-01
Pure gauge theories for de Sitter, anti de Sitter and orthogonal groups, in four-dimensional Euclidean spacetime, are studied. It is shown that, if the theory is asymptotically free and a dynamical mass is generated, then an effective geometry may be induced and a gravity theory emerges.
Renormalizable Tensor Field Theories
Geloun, Joseph Ben
2016-01-01
Extending tensor models at the field theoretical level, tensor field theories are nonlocal quantum field theories with Feynman graphs identified with simplicial complexes. They become relevant for addressing quantum topology and geometry in any dimension and therefore form an interesting class of models for studying quantum gravity. We review the class of perturbatively renormalizable tensor field theories and some of their features.
Missinne, Leo E.; Wilcox, Victoria
This paper discusses the life, theories, and therapeutic techniques of psychotherapist, Viktor E. Frankl. A brief biography of Frankl is included discussing the relationship of his early experiences as a physician to his theory of personality. Frankl's theory focusing on man's need for meaning and emphasizing the spiritual dimension in each human…
Superspace conformal field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quella, Thomas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2013-07-15
Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.
Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David
2007-01-01
One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.
Matsumoto, Kohji
2002-01-01
The book includes several survey articles on prime numbers, divisor problems, and Diophantine equations, as well as research papers on various aspects of analytic number theory such as additive problems, Diophantine approximations and the theory of zeta and L-function Audience Researchers and graduate students interested in recent development of number theory
Peim, Nick
2009-01-01
This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…
Superspace conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.
Davis, Philip W.
This volume explores objectively the essential characteristic of nine twentieth-century linguistic theories with the theoretical variant for discussion based on one closely representative of work within a given approach or usually associated with the name of the theory. First, the theory of Ferdinand de Saussure is discussed based on his book,…
La theorie autrement (Theory in Another Light).
Bertocchini, Paola; Costanzo, Edwige
1985-01-01
Outlines a technique using articles from "Le Francais dans le Monde" to teach reading comprehension and theory simultaneously to teachers of French as a second language. Describes a program in Italy using this approach. (MSE)
Prest, M
1988-01-01
In recent years the interplay between model theory and other branches of mathematics has led to many deep and intriguing results. In this, the first book on the topic, the theme is the interplay between model theory and the theory of modules. The book is intended to be a self-contained introduction to the subject and introduces the requisite model theory and module theory as it is needed. Dr Prest develops the basic ideas concerning what can be said about modules using the information which may be expressed in a first-order language. Later chapters discuss stability-theoretic aspects of module
Kilmister, Clive William
1970-01-01
Special Theory of Relativity provides a discussion of the special theory of relativity. Special relativity is not, like other scientific theories, a statement about the matter that forms the physical world, but has the form of a condition that the explicit physical theories must satisfy. It is thus a form of description, playing to some extent the role of the grammar of physics, prescribing which combinations of theoretical statements are admissible as descriptions of the physical world. Thus, to describe it, one needs also to describe those specific theories and to say how much they are limit
Barron, E N
2013-01-01
An exciting new edition of the popular introduction to game theory and its applications The thoroughly expanded Second Edition presents a unique, hands-on approach to game theory. While most books on the subject are too abstract or too basic for mathematicians, Game Theory: An Introduction, Second Edition offers a blend of theory and applications, allowing readers to use theory and software to create and analyze real-world decision-making models. With a rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of mathematics, the book focuses on results that can be used to
Bollobas, Bela
2004-01-01
The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio De Felice
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Over the past decade, f(R theories have been extensively studied as one of the simplest modifications to General Relativity. In this article we review various applications of f(R theories to cosmology and gravity – such as inflation, dark energy, local gravity constraints, cosmological perturbations, and spherically symmetric solutions in weak and strong gravitational backgrounds. We present a number of ways to distinguish those theories from General Relativity observationally and experimentally. We also discuss the extension to other modified gravity theories such as Brans–Dicke theory and Gauss–Bonnet gravity, and address models that can satisfy both cosmological and local gravity constraints.
Förste, S; Forste, Stefan; Louis, Jan
1996-01-01
In this lecture we review some of the recent developments in string theory on an introductory and qualitative level. In particular we focus on S-T-U dualities of toroidally compactified ten-dimensional string theories and outline the connection to M-theory. Dualities among string vacua with less supersymmetries in six and four space-time dimensions is discussed and the concept of F-theory is briefly presented. (Lecture given by J. Louis at the Workshop on Gauge Theories, Applied Supersymmetry and Quantum Gravity, Imperial College, London, UK, July 5--10, 1996.)
Gross, Jonathan L
2003-01-01
The Handbook of Graph Theory is the most comprehensive single-source guide to graph theory ever published. Best-selling authors Jonathan Gross and Jay Yellen assembled an outstanding team of experts to contribute overviews of more than 50 of the most significant topics in graph theory-including those related to algorithmic and optimization approaches as well as ""pure"" graph theory. They then carefully edited the compilation to produce a unified, authoritative work ideal for ready reference.Designed and edited with non-experts in mind, the Handbook of Graph Theory makes information easy to fi
Niederreiter, Harald
2015-01-01
This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas. Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc. Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...
Introduction to bifurcation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bifurcation theory is a subject with classical mathematical origins. The modern development of the subject starts with Poincare and the qualitative theory of differential equations. In recent years, the theory has undergone a tremendous development with the infusion of new ideas and methods from dynamical systems theory, singularity theory, group theory, and computer-assisted studies of dynamics. As a result, it is difficult to draw the boundaries of the theory with any confidence. In this review, the objects in question will be parameterized families of dynamical systems (vector fields or maps). In the sciences these families commonly arise when one formulates equations of motion to model a physical system. We specifically analyze how the time evolution near an equilibrium can change as parameters are varied; for simplicity we consider the case of a single parameter only
Computational invariant theory
Derksen, Harm
2015-01-01
This book is about the computational aspects of invariant theory. Of central interest is the question how the invariant ring of a given group action can be calculated. Algorithms for this purpose form the main pillars around which the book is built. There are two introductory chapters, one on Gröbner basis methods and one on the basic concepts of invariant theory, which prepare the ground for the algorithms. Then algorithms for computing invariants of finite and reductive groups are discussed. Particular emphasis lies on interrelations between structural properties of invariant rings and computational methods. Finally, the book contains a chapter on applications of invariant theory, covering fields as disparate as graph theory, coding theory, dynamical systems, and computer vision. The book is intended for postgraduate students as well as researchers in geometry, computer algebra, and, of course, invariant theory. The text is enriched with numerous explicit examples which illustrate the theory and should be ...
Johnson, C V
2006-01-01
We present a class of solvable models that resemble string theories in many respects but have a strikingly different non-perturbative sector. In particular, there are no exponentially small contributions to perturbation theory in the string coupling, which normally are associated with branes and related objects. Perturbation theory is no longer an asymptotic expansion, and so can be completely re-summed to yield all the non-perturbative physics. We examine a number of other properties of the theories, for example constructing and examining the physics of loop operators, which can be computed exactly, and gain considerable understanding of the difference between these new theories and the more familiar ones, including the possibility of how to interpolate between the two types. Interestingly, the models we exhibit contain a family of zeros of the partition function which suggest a novel phase structure. The theories are defined naturally by starting with models that yield well-understood string theories and al...
Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele
2015-12-16
In order to approximately satisfy the Bloch theorem, simulations of complex materials involving periodic systems are made n(k) times more complex by the need to sample the first Brillouin zone at n(k) points. By combining ideas from Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (DFT) and orbital-free DFT, for which no sampling is needed due to the absence of waves, subsystem DFT offers an interesting middle ground capable of sizable theoretical speedups against Kohn-Sham DFT. By splitting the supersystem into interacting subsystems, and mapping their quantum problem onto separate auxiliary Kohn-Sham systems, subsystem DFT allows an optimal topical sampling of the Brillouin zone. We elucidate this concept with two proof of principle simulations: a water bilayer on Pt[1 1 1]; and a complex system relevant to catalysis-a thiophene molecule physisorbed on a molybdenum sulfide monolayer deposited on top of an α-alumina support. For the latter system, a speedup of 300% is achieved against the subsystem DTF reference by using an optimized Brillouin zone sampling (600% against KS-DFT). PMID:26596499
A Reconciliation of Collision Theory and Transition State Theory
Yi, Y. G.
2001-01-01
A statistical-mechanical treatment of collision leads to a formal connection with transition-state theory, suggesting that collision theory and transition-state theory might be joined ultimately as a collision induced transition state theory.
Theory of superconductivity. II. Excited Cooper pairs. Why does sodium remain normal down to 0 K?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on a generalized BCS Hamiltonian in which the interaction strengths (V11, V22, V12) among and between electron (12) and hole (2) Cooper pairs are differentiated, the thermodynamic properties of a type-I superconductor below the critical temperature Tc are investigated. An expression for the ground-state energy, W - W0, relative to the unperturbed Block system is obtained. The usual BCS formulas are obtained in the limits: (all) Vjl = V0, N1(0) = N2(0). Any excitations generated through the BCS interaction Hamiltonian containing Vjl must involve Cooper pairs of antiparallel spins and nearly opposite momenta. The nonzero momentum or excited Cooper pairs below Tc are shown to have an excitation energy band minimum lower than the quasi-electrons, which were regarded as the elementary excitations in the original BCS theory. The energy gap var-epsilon g (T) defined relative to excited and zero-momentum Copper pairs (when Vjl > 0) decreases from var-epsilon g(0) to 0 as the temperature T is raised from 0 to Tc. If electrons only are available as in a monovalent metal like sodium (V12 = 0), the energy constant Δ1 is finite but the energy gap vanishes identically for all T. In agreement with the BCS theory, the present theory predicts that a pure nonmagnetic metal in any dimensions should have a Cooper-pair ground state whose energy is lower than that of the Bloch ground state. Additionally it predicts that a monovalent metal should remain normal down to 0 K, and that there should be no strictly one-dimensional superconductor
Blagojević, Milutin
2012-01-01
During the last five decades, gravity, as one of the fundamental forces of nature, has been formulated as a gauge field theory of the Weyl-Cartan-Yang-Mills type. The resulting theory, the Poincar\\'e gauge theory of gravity, encompasses Einstein's gravitational theory as well as the teleparallel theory of gravity as subcases. In general, the spacetime structure is enriched by Cartan's torsion and the new theory can accommodate fermionic matter and its spin in a perfectly natural way. The present reprint volume contains articles from the most prominent proponents of the theory and is supplemented by detailed commentaries of the editors. This guided tour starts from special relativity and leads, in its first part, to general relativity and its gauge type extensions a la Weyl and Cartan. Subsequent stopping points are the theories of Yang-Mills and Utiyama and, as a particular vantage point, the theory of Sciama and Kibble. Later, the Poincar\\'e gauge theory and its generalizations are explored and specific topi...
Supersymmetry and String Theory
Dine, Michael
2016-01-01
Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; A note on choice of metric; Text website; Part I. Effective Field Theory: The Standard Model, Supersymmetry, Unification: 1. Before the Standard Model; 2. The Standard Model; 3. Phenomenology of the Standard Model; 4. The Standard Model as an effective field theory; 5. Anomalies, instantons and the strong CP problem; 6. Grand unification; 7. Magnetic monopoles and solitons; 8. Technicolor: a first attempt to explain hierarchies; Part II. Supersymmetry: 9. Supersymmetry; 10. A first look at supersymmetry breaking; 11. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model; 12. Supersymmetric grand unification; 13. Supersymmetric dynamics; 14. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking; 15. Theories with more than four conserved supercharges; 16. More supersymmetric dynamics; 17. An introduction to general relativity; 18. Cosmology; 19. Astroparticle physics and inflation; Part III. String Theory: 20. Introduction; 21. The bosonic string; 22. The superstring; 23. The heterotic string; 24. Effective actions in ten dimensions; 25. Compactification of string theory I. Tori and orbifolds; 26. Compactification of string theory II. Calabi–Yau compactifications; 27. Dynamics of string theory at weak coupling; 28. Beyond weak coupling: non-perturbative string theory; 29. Large and warped extra dimensions; 30. The landscape: a challenge to the naturalness principle; 31. Coda: where are we headed?; Part IV. The Appendices: Appendix A. Two-component spinors; Appendix B. Goldstone's theorem and the pi mesons; Appendix C. Some practice with the path integral in field theory; Appendix D. The beta function in supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory; References; Index.
Matrix String Theory As A Generalized Quantum Theory
Minic, Djordje
1997-01-01
Matrix String Theory of Banks, Fischler, Shenker and Susskind can be understood as a generalized quantum theory (provisionally named "quansical" theory) which differs from Adler's generalized trace quantum dynamics. The effective Matrix String Theory Hamiltonian is constructed in a particular fermionic realization of Matrix String Theory treated as an example of "quansical" theory.
Class field theory from theory to practice
Gras, Georges
2003-01-01
Global class field theory is a major achievement of algebraic number theory, based on the functorial properties of the reciprocity map and the existence theorem. The author works out the consequences and the practical use of these results by giving detailed studies and illustrations of classical subjects (classes, idèles, ray class fields, symbols, reciprocity laws, Hasse's principles, the Grunwald-Wang theorem, Hilbert's towers,...). He also proves some new or less-known results (reflection theorem, structure of the abelian closure of a number field) and lays emphasis on the invariant (/cal T) p, of abelian p-ramification, which is related to important Galois cohomology properties and p-adic conjectures. This book, intermediary between the classical literature published in the sixties and the recent computational literature, gives much material in an elementary way, and is suitable for students, researchers, and all who are fascinated by this theory. In the corrected 2nd printing 2005, the author improves s...
The theories on inequality: class theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Arslan
2006-11-01
Full Text Available This stduy aims to analyse class theory and its major expansions. In addition, the problems and dilemmas of class theory are discussed. Social inequality, either socially or economically, is one of the most common features of capitalist societies. Some people or some social groups have more money, more prestige, more privilege and more influence on the decision making process. Two main strategies have been used for analysing and explaining inequalities. The first and most popular strategy is “class theory” which stresses ownership and control to explain class differentiation. It concentrates on the inequalities based mainly on the ownership or non-ownership of economic resources. Class theory was fathered by Karl Marx and especially developed by Marxist writers. Class analysts focus on identification of classes as the major social forces of society. There are two main schools of thought in class theory with their variations within each school: a Marxist Class Theory, b Weberian Class Theory If the Marxist class analysis and Weberian class analysis are examined it will be seen that, two approaches are incompatible and it is impossible to synthesise them. Nevertheless, Hindess sees Weber’s view as the correction of and supplement to Marx’s ideas rather than an alternative. When the ideas of Marx and Weber are compared, it will be clearly seen that both Marx and Weber explain classes in relation to the economy. Nevertheless, while Marx defines classes in terms of the relations of production, Weber defines them in relation to the market.
Bloch Approximation in Homogenization and Applications
Conca Rosende, Carlos; Orive, R.; Vanninathan, Muthusamy
2002-01-01
The classical problem of homogenization of elliptic operators with periodically oscillating coefficients is revisited in this paper. As is well known, the homogenization process in a classical framework is concerned with the study of asymptotic behavior of solutions $u^\\varepsilon$ of boundary value problems associated with such operators when the period $\\varepsilon>0$ of the coefficients is small. In a previous work by C. Conca and M. Vanninathan [SIAM J. Appl. Math., 57 (1997), pp. 1639--1...
Bloch oscillations of bosonic lattice polarons
Grusdt, Fabian; Shashi, A.; Abanin, Dmitry; Demler, Eugene A.
2014-01-01
We consider a single-impurity atom confined to an optical lattice and immersed in a homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Interaction of the impurity with the phonon modes of the BEC leads to the formation of a stable quasiparticle, the polaron. We use a variational mean-field approach to study dispersion renormalization and derive equations describing nonequilibrium dynamics of polarons by projecting equations of motion into mean-field-type wave functions. As a concrete example, we app...
Bloch oscillations of bosonic lattice polarons
Grusdt, Fabian; Shashi, Aditya; Abanin, Dmitry; Demler, Eugene
2014-01-01
We consider a single impurity atom confined to an optical lattice and immersed in a homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Interaction of the impurity with the phonon modes of the BEC leads to the formation of a stable quasiparticle, the polaron. We use a variational mean-field approach to study dispersion renormalization and derive equations describing non-equilibrium dynamics of polarons by projecting equations of motion into mean-field (MF) type wavefunctions. As a concrete example, w...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the last few years lattice gauge theory has become the primary tool for the study of nonperturbative phenomena in gauge theories. The lattice serves as an ultraviolet cutoff, rendering the theory well defined and amenable to numerical and analytical work. Of course, as with any cutoff, at the end of a calculation one must consider the limit of vanishing lattice spacing in order to draw conclusions on the physical continuum limit theory. The lattice has the advantage over other regulators that it is not tied to the Feynman expansion. This opens the possibility of other approximation schemes than conventional perturbation theory. Thus Wilson used a high temperature expansion to demonstrate confinement in the strong coupling limit. Monte Carlo simulations have dominated the research in lattice gauge theory for the last four years, giving first principle calculations of nonperturbative parameters characterizing the continuum limit. Some of the recent results with lattice calculations are reviewed
Petrov, Alexey A
2016-01-01
This book is a broad-based text intended to help the growing student body interested in topics such as gravitational effective theories, supersymmetric effective theories, applications of effective theory techniques to problems in condensed matter physics (superconductivity) and quantum chromodynamics (such as soft-collinear effective theory). It begins with a review of the use of symmetries to identify the relevant degrees of freedom in a problem, and then presents a variety of methods that can be used to solve physical problems. A detailed discussion of canonical examples of effective field theories with increasing complexity is then conducted. Special cases such as supersymmetry and lattice EFT are discussed, as well as recently-found applications to problems in gravitation and cosmology. An appendix includes various factoids from group theory and other topics that are used throughout the text, in an attempt to make the book self-contained.
Algebraic quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The basic assumption that the complete information relevant for a relativistic, local quantum theory is contained in the net structure of the local observables of this theory results first of all in a concise formulation of the algebraic structure of the superselection theory and an intrinsic formulation of charge composition, charge conjugation and the statistics of an algebraic quantum field theory. In a next step, the locality of massive particles together with their spectral properties are wed for the formulation of a selection criterion which opens the access to the massive, non-abelian quantum gauge theories. The role of the electric charge as a superselection rule results in the introduction of charge classes which in term lead to a set of quantum states with optimum localization properties. Finally, the asymptotic observables of quantum electrodynamics are investigated within the framework of algebraic quantum field theory. (author)
Chung, Daniel J H
2016-01-01
We reformulate gauge theories in analogy with the vierbein formalism of general relativity. More specifically, we reformulate gauge theories such that their gauge dynamical degrees of freedom are local fields that transform linearly under the dual representation of the charged matter field. These local fields, which naively have the interpretation of non-local operators similar to Wilson lines, satisfy constraint equations. A set of basis tensor fields are used to solve these constraint equations, and their field theory is constructed. A new local symmetry in terms of the basis tensor fields is used to make this field theory local and maintain a Hamiltonian that is bounded from below. The field theory of the basis tensor fields is what we call the basis tensor gauge theory.
Rotor theories by Professor Joukowsky: Momentum theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Kuik, G. A. M.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Okulov, V. L.
2015-01-01
This paper is the first of two papers on the history of rotor aerodynamics with special emphasis on the role of Joukowsky. The present one focuses on the development of the momentum theory while the second one surveys the development of vortex theory for rotors. Joukowsky has played a major role in...... Momentum still is the basis of current rotor design codes. He applied some assumptions limiting the validity to moderate and high tip speed ratios. Sorensen and van Kuik published a solution for wind turbines with very low tip speed ratios, which is now expanded to propellers as well, with one remaining...
Theory and context / Theory in context
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
2014-01-01
trans-disciplinary manner. Consideration needs to be given as well to connected scholarship focusing on imagination, innova-tion, and improvisation. Last but not least, an expanded the-ory of context cannot ignore the institutional context of doing research on creativity. Creativity scholars are facing......It is debatable whether the psychology of creativity is a field in crisis or not. There are clear signs of increased fragmenta-tion and a scarcity of integrative efforts, but is this necessari-ly bad? Do we need more comprehensive theories of creativ-ity and a return to old epistemological...
Schumacher, Benjamin; Westmoreland, Michael D.
2012-01-01
Modal quantum theory (MQT) is a "toy model" of quantum theory in which amplitudes are elements of a general field. The theory predicts, not the probabilities of a measurement result, but only whether or not a result is possible. In this paper we review MQT and extend it to include mixed states, generalized measurements and open system dynamics. Even though MQT does not have density operators, superoperators or any concept of "positivity", we can nevertheless establish a precise analogue to th...
Vinokurov, Evgeny
2007-01-01
The manuscript represents a comprehensive theory of enclaves and exclaves. The theory comprises both political and economic aspects. It is the first general book on the world’s enclaves and exclaves. Due to its comprehensive and pioneer character, it has a potential to become a book of reference for the nascent and promising research field. In its attempt to provide a fully-fledged theory of enclaves and exclaves, it covers a wide scope of regions and territories throughout the world. Basical...
Theory Modeling and Simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shlachter, Jack [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-08-23
Los Alamos has a long history in theory, modeling and simulation. We focus on multidisciplinary teams that tackle complex problems. Theory, modeling and simulation are tools to solve problems just like an NMR spectrometer, a gas chromatograph or an electron microscope. Problems should be used to define the theoretical tools needed and not the other way around. Best results occur when theory and experiments are working together in a team.
Supergravity for Effective Theories
Daniel Baumann; Daniel Green(Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, U.S.A.)
2011-01-01
Higher-derivative operators are central elements of any effective field theory. In supersymmetric theories, these operators include terms with derivatives in the K\\"ahler potential. We develop a toolkit for coupling such supersymmetric effective field theories to supergravity. We explain how to write the action for minimal supergravity coupled to chiral superfields with arbitrary numbers of derivatives and curvature couplings. We discuss two examples in detail, showing how the component actio...
stakeholder theory in perspective
Damak-Ayadi, Salma; Pesqueux, Yvon
2005-01-01
Those who use stakeholder theory as a reference are both underlining the correlation between facts and a certain conceptualisation thereof (Section 1) and trying to make the necessary shift from a “panoptic” analysis akin to a panoramic vision of texts and positions (Section 2) to an “in-depth” one geared towards an understanding of their foundations (Section 3). As a “theory of organisations”, stakeholder theory helps to nourish a relational model of organisations by revisiting questions abo...
Thorbj, rn Knudsen
2002-01-01
The present article provides a minimal description of the causal structure of economic selection theory and outlines how the internal selection dynamics of business organisations can be reconciled with selection in competitive markets. In addition to generic similarity in terms of the Darwinian principles of variation, continuity and selection, it is argued that economic selection theory should mimic the causal structure of neo-Darwinian theory. Two of the most influential explanations of eco...
Relevance Theory in Translation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shao Jun; Jiang Min
2008-01-01
In perspective of relevance theory, translation is regarded as communication. According to relevance theory, communication not only requires encoding, transfer and decoding processes, but also involves inference in addition. As communication, translation decision-making is also based on the human beings' inferential mental faculty. Concentrating on relevance theory, this paper tries to analyze and explain some translation phenomena in two English versions of Cai Gen Tan-My Crude Philosophy of Life.
Accounting and Economic Theory
Martin Shubik
2003-01-01
This paper deals with the changing relationship between economic theory and accounting practice and theory. It argues that many of the basic problems encountered in practice cannot be avoided in any attempt to construct an economic theory adequate to handle dynamics. In particular problems of timing become critical. furthermore, there are several critical problems concerning profit maximization, the nature of the rate of interest, agency problems within the firm and the payment of dividends w...
Marx Boopathi
2012-01-01
The game theory techniques are used to find the equilibrium of a market. Game theory refers to the ways in which strategic interactions among economic agents produce outcomes with respect to the preferences (or utilities) of those agents, where the outcomes in question might have been intended by none of the agents. The oligopolistic market structures are taken and how game theory applies to them is explained.
Supergravity from Gauge Theory
Berkowitz, Evan
2016-01-01
Gauge/gravity duality is the conjecture that string theories have dual descriptions as gauge theories. Weakly-coupled gravity is dual to strongly-coupled gauge theories, ideal for lattice calculations. I will show precision lattice calculations that confirm large-N continuum D0-brane quantum mechanics correctly reproduces the leading-order supergravity prediction for a black hole's internal energy---the first leading-order test of the duality---and constrains stringy corrections.
Introduction to superstring theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This is a very basic introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first lecture motivates the duality between gauge theories and gravity/string theories. The next two lectures introduce the bosonic and supersymmetric string theories. The fourth lecture is devoted to study Dp-branes and finally, in the fifth lecture I discuss the two worlds: N=4 SYM in 3+1 flat dimensions and type IIB superstrings in AdS5 x S5. (author)
Botond Koszegi
2014-01-01
This review provides a critical survey of psychology-and-economics ("behavioral-economics") research in contract theory. First, I introduce the theories of individual decision making most frequently used in behavioral contract theory, and formally illustrate some of their implications in contracting settings. Second, I provide a more comprehensive (but informal) survey of the psychology-and-economics work on classical contract-theoretic topics: moral hazard, screening, mechanism design, and i...
Ed Nosal; Peter Rupert
2002-01-01
It wasn’t A Beautiful Mind—the book or the movie—that made John Forbes Nash, Jr., famous. It was his work in game theory, a theory that models strategic interactions between people as games. Before Nash, the only games theorists could get a handle on were artificial ones with no real-world applications. Nash’s insights enabled economists to expand the use of game theory to interesting practical problems.
Ostwald, Wolfgang
1988-01-01
A brief summary of the fundamentals of the Linear theory of flotation is given. The theory by no means contradicts the previous Laminar theory or even the thermodynamics (Wark-Siedler), rather it is a refinement of the known Hardy-Langmuir-Harkin conceptions for the case when there are not two phases and phase boundaries, but rather three phases and corresponding phase boundary edges. The appearance of such three-phase boundaries (ore, water, air) is characteristic for modern flotation methods.
Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monahan, Christopher
2014-11-01
I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.
Chartrand, Gary
1984-01-01
Graph theory is used today in the physical sciences, social sciences, computer science, and other areas. Introductory Graph Theory presents a nontechnical introduction to this exciting field in a clear, lively, and informative style. Author Gary Chartrand covers the important elementary topics of graph theory and its applications. In addition, he presents a large variety of proofs designed to strengthen mathematical techniques and offers challenging opportunities to have fun with mathematics. Ten major topics - profusely illustrated - include: Mathematical Models, Elementary Concepts of Grap
Tong, David
2009-01-01
This is a one semester course on bosonic string theory aimed at beginning graduate students. The lectures assume a working knowledge of quantum field theory and general relativity. Contents: 1. The Classical String 2. The Quantum String 3. Open Strings and D-Branes 4. Introducing Conformal Field Theory 5. The Polyakov Path Integral and Ghosts 6. String Interactions 7. The Low-Energy Effective Action 8. Compactification and T-Duality
Introduction to superstring theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nunez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: carmen@iafe.uba.ar
2009-07-01
This is a very basic introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first lecture motivates the duality between gauge theories and gravity/string theories. The next two lectures introduce the bosonic and supersymmetric string theories. The fourth lecture is devoted to study Dp-branes and finally, in the fifth lecture I discuss the two worlds: N=4 SYM in 3+1 flat dimensions and type IIB superstrings in AdS{sub 5} x S5. (author)
Griselda Deelstra; Guillaume Plantin
2014-01-01
Reinsurance is an important production factor of non-life insurance. The efficiency and the capacity of the reinsurance market directly regulate those of insurance markets. The purpose of this book is to provide a concise introduction to risk theory, as well as to its main application procedures to reinsurance. The first part of the book covers risk theory. It presents the most prevalent model of ruin theory, as well as a discussion on insurance premium calculation principles and the mathemat...
Deelstra, Griselda; Plantin, Guillaume
2014-01-01
Reinsurance is an important production factor of non-life insurance. The efficiency and the capacity of the reinsurance market directly regulate those of insurance markets. The purpose of this book is to provide a concise introduction to risk theory, as well as to its main application procedures to reinsurance. The first part of the book covers risk theory. It presents the most prevalent model of ruin theory, as well as a discussion on insurance premium calculation principles and the math...
Hypergraph theory an introduction
Bretto, Alain
2013-01-01
This authored monograph presents hypergraph theory and covers both traditional elements of the theory as well as more original concepts such as entropy of hypergraph, similarities and kernels. Moreover, the author gives a detailed account to applications of the theory, including, but not limited to, applications for telecommunications and modeling of parallel data structures. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and practitioners in applied sciences but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.