WorldWideScience

Sample records for bloat

  1. Bloat in sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, H W; Backus, R C

    1988-01-01

    1. Most of the field studies on bloat are conducted with cattle and most of the laboratory experiments seeking to explain the various parameters associated with bloat are done with sheep. 2. Based on grazing behaviour, it would be expected that sheep might bloat more severely than cattle because they selectively choose to eat leaves over stems and chew what they ingest more frequently than cattle. Furthermore, sheep appear to select legumes over grasses because the legumes can be eaten more rapidly. However, because they are selective, sheep eat more slowly than cattle. Despite a higher bloat expectation, bloating in sheep is reported to be less of a problem than in cattle. 3. Although frothing of rumen ingesta was described earlier in cattle as the cause of acute legume bloat, experiments with frothy bloat in sheep preceded those in cattle. 4. Anti-frothing agents were used in sheep before cattle to treat acute legume bloat. 5. Experiments devoted to the study of eructation in ruminants were carried out on sheep, then cattle. 6. Convincing evidence that rumen motility does not cease during acute legume bloat was gathered using sheep. 7. Although the transected tracheal technique for the determination of the volume of eructated gas was developed with cattle, the pathway of eructated gas was confirmed with sheep. 8. All the current evidence accumulated from experiments with sheep supports the hypothesis that death due to legume bloat is caused by acute neural, respiratory, and cardiovascular insult resulting from the effect of the distended rumen on thoracic viscera, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and the abdominal vena cava. 9. Experiments with sheep and cattle being fed scabrous and nonscabrous diets similar in chemical composition show that sheep are more resistant than cattle to the increase in intrarumen pressure, decline in rumen contraction amplitude, and decrease in rumen contraction frequency caused by nonscabrous diets. 10. The sequence of events in the

  2. Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Treatment of Bloating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Scott L.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is commonly reported by men and women of all ages. Bloating occurs in nearly all patients with irritable bowel syndrome, and it also occurs in patients with other functional and organic disorders. Bloating is frequently disturbing to patients and frustrating to clinicians, as effective treatments are limited and are not universally successful. Although the terms bloating and abdominal distention are often used interchangeably, these symptoms likely involve different pathophysiologic processes, both of which are still not completely understood. The goal of this paper is to review the pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of bloating and abdominal distention. PMID:22298969

  3. A review of bloat in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K J; McAllister, T A; Popp, J D; Hristov, A N; Mir, Z; Shin, H T

    1998-01-01

    Improvements in feedlot management practices and the use of various feed additives have reduced, but not eliminated, the occurrence of bloat in feedlot cattle. Feedlot bloat reduces the profitability of production by compromising animal performance and more directly by causing fatalities. In feedlots, bloat is associated with the ingestion of large amounts of rapidly fermented cereal grain and destabilization of the microbial populations of the rumen. An abundance of rapidly fermented carbohydrate allows acid-tolerant bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus bovis and Lactobacillus spp.) to proliferate and produce excessive quantities of fermentation acids. As a result, ruminal pH becomes exceedingly low, and this impairs rumen motility. Further, the excessive production of mucopolysaccharide or "slime" increases the viscosity of ruminal fluid and stabilizes the foam implicated in frothy feedlot bloat. Although protocols have been developed to treat feedlot bloat, the most profitable approach is to use management strategies to reduce its likelihood. Amount of roughage, grain processing techniques, selection of cereal grain (e.g., corn, barley, and wheat), dietary adaptation periods, and various additives (e.g., ionophores) can influence the occurrence of bloat in feedlot cattle. Successful management of these factors depends on a thorough understanding of the behavioral, dietary, and microbial events that precipitate bloat in feedlot cattle.

  4. In vitro digestion of bloat-safe and bloat-causing legumes by rumen microorganisms: gas and foam production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, J P; Cheng, K J; Hanna, M R; Howarth, R E; Costerton, J W

    1980-08-01

    Leaves of three bloat-safe legumes -- birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop.), and cicer milkvetch (Astralagus cicer L.) -- and of three bloat-causing legumes -- alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) -- were incubated with strained rumen fluid or with mixed rumen fluid and solids. Gas released was measured during the early period (0 to 22 h) of this in vitro digestion. Gas volume was greater with a 1:1 (wt/vol) mixture of solid and fluid rumen contents than with rumen fluid alone. It was greater with whole and chewed leaves from the bloat-causing legumes than with whole leaves from the bloat-safe legumes. However, when leaves were homogenized, volumes of gas from bloat-causing and bloat-safe legumes were similar. More gas was released from homogenized leaves than from the same weight of whole leaves. The amount of foam produced on chewed herbage and homogenized leaves of bloat-causing legumes was greater than on those of bloat-safe legumes. These results are consistent with the rate of disintegration and digestion of legumes by rumen bacteria being an important determinant in pasture bloat. Measurement of gas produced early in in vitro digestion may provide a useful bioassay for evaluating the bloat-causing potential of legumes in breeding selections if variability of the method can be reduced.

  5. Rumen conditions that predispose cattle to pasture bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majak, W; Howarth, R E; Cheng, K J; Hall, J W

    1983-08-01

    Rumen contents from the dorsal sac were examined before alfalfa ingestion to determine factors that predispose cattle to pasture bloat. Chlorophyll concentration, buoyancy of particulate matter, and rates of gas production were significantly higher in cattle that subsequently bloated than in those that did not. Higher chlorophyll in bloat cases indicated accumulation of suspended chloroplast particles in the dorsal sac, perhaps due to increased buoyancy of the particulate matter. The higher fermentation rates (in the presence of glucose) suggested that the latent capacity for gas production was due to microbial colonization of suspended feed particles. Chlorophyll 4 h after feeding was also higher in bloated as compared to unbloated animals. In short, the microbial colonization and retention of particulate matter provided active inocula for promoting rapid legume digestion. Consequently, gas production was enhanced when feeding commenced, but the fermentation gases were trapped by the buoyant, frothy ingesta, resulting in the condition of pasture bloat.

  6. Evaluation of two supplements for the prevention of alfalfa bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J W; Walker, I; Majak, W

    1994-11-01

    Poloxalene and a mineral mixture feed supplement patented for the treatment of emphysema, polyarthritis, and other pectin related diseases were tested in two trials for their ability to prevent bloat in cattle fed fresh alfalfa. Each trial had a crossover design using three Jersey steers with rumen fistulas per group. Each trial period continued until the total number of cases of bloat reached > or = 24. Treatments were given at 0800 each day. The mineral mixture was given at 100 g/d and 190 mg/kg body weight per day in the first and second trials, respectively. Poloxalene, which was tested only in the second trial, was given at 23 mg/kg body weight per day. Each group of steers was then fed 200 kg of freshly harvested alfalfa in the vegetative to early bloom stages of growth at 0830. In the first trial, only 69% as many cases of bloat occurred on the mineral mixture as on the control treatment, but no significant difference was detected in the second trial. The potency of the alfalfa may have been higher in the second trial, when forage dry matter was lower, magnesium and soluble nitrogen were higher, and bloat occasionally occurred twice a day. Bloat did not occur when the steers were treated with poloxalene. In these trials, poloxalene was completely effective in preventing bloat, but the mineral mixture was only partially so.

  7. Evaluation of two supplements for the prevention of alfalfa bloat.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, J W; Walker, I; Majak, W

    1994-01-01

    Poloxalene and a mineral mixture feed supplement patented for the treatment of emphysema, polyarthritis, and other pectin related diseases were tested in two trials for their ability to prevent bloat in cattle fed fresh alfalfa. Each trial had a crossover design using three Jersey steers with rumen fistulas per group. Each trial period continued until the total number of cases of bloat reached > or = 24. Treatments were given at 0800 each day. The mineral mixture was given at 100 g/d and 190 ...

  8. Condensed tannins in some forage legumes: their role in the prevention of ruminant pasture bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, G L

    1992-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the focus in our laboratory has been on finding the causes of ruminant pasture bloat and eventually breeding a bloat-safe alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); i.e., with bloat potential reduced to the economic threshold. In the mid-seventies, the mechanisms of bloat were explored and found to be more physical than chemical. Characteristic of all bloating legumes after ingestion was a very rapid initial rate of ingestion by rumen microbes. Through the study of bloating and non-bloating legumes, factors were elucidated in the plant that would slow this process. One of these factors was the presence of condensed tannins in the herbage. Some of the non-bloating legumes contained these secondary metabolites, but no condensed tannins were found in any of the bloating legumes. Therefore, species containing an appreciable amount of condensed tannins in their leaves and stems are considered to be non-bloating. Conventional breeding methods have not been successful in producing an alfalfa with condensed tannins in its herbage. New approaches using tissue culture techniques are being attempted, but genetic engineering has the greatest potential for success.

  9. Diagnosis and Management of Rumen Acidosis and Bloat in Feedlots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nathan F; Bryant, Tony C

    2017-11-01

    Ruminal acidosis and ruminal bloat represent the most common digestive disorders in feedlot cattle. Ruminants are uniquely adapted to digest and metabolize a large range of feedstuffs. Although cattle have the ability to handle various feedstuffs, disorders associated with altered ruminal fermentation can occur. Proper ruminal microorganism adaptation and a consistent substrate (ration) help prevent digestive disorders. Feed bunk management, sufficient ration fiber, consistent feed milling, and appropriate response to abnormal weather are additional factors important in prevention of digestive disorders. When digestive disorders are suspected, timely diagnosis is imperative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Metagenomic Analysis of the Rumen Microbiome of Steers with Wheat-Induced Frothy Bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitta, D W; Pinchak, W E; Indugu, N; Vecchiarelli, B; Sinha, R; Fulford, J D

    2016-01-01

    Frothy bloat is a serious metabolic disorder that affects stocker cattle grazing hard red winter wheat forage in the Southern Great Plains causing reduced performance, morbidity, and mortality. We hypothesize that a microbial dysbiosis develops in the rumen microbiome of stocker cattle when grazing on high quality winter wheat pasture that predisposes them to frothy bloat risk. In this study, rumen contents were harvested from six cannulated steers grazing hard red winter wheat (three with bloat score "2" and three with bloat score "0"), extracted for genomic DNA and subjected to 16S rDNA and shotgun sequencing on 454/Roche platform. Approximately 1.5 million reads were sequenced, assembled and assigned for phylogenetic and functional annotations. Bacteria predominated up to 84% of the sequences while archaea contributed to nearly 5% of the sequences. The abundance of archaea was higher in bloated animals (P bloated samples. Co-occurrence analysis revealed syntrophic associations between bacteria and archaea in non-bloated samples, however; such interactions faded in bloated samples. Functional annotations of assembled reads to Subsystems database revealed the abundance of several metabolic pathways, with carbohydrate and protein metabolism well represented. Assignment of contigs to CaZy database revealed a greater diversity of Glycosyl Hydrolases dominated by oligosaccharide breaking enzymes (>70%) in non-bloated samples. However, the abundance and diversity of CaZymes were greatly reduced in bloated samples indicating the disruption of carbohydrate metabolism. We conclude that mild to moderate frothy bloat results from tradeoffs both within and between microbial domains due to greater competition for substrates that are of limited availability as a result of biofilm formation.

  11. Monensin controlled-release intraruminal capsule for control of bloat in pastured dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, L B; Ball, G J; Carruthers, V R; Dobos, R C; Lynch, G A; Moate, P J; Poole, P R; Valentine, S C

    1991-01-01

    Monensin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic, is potentially an important agent for bloat relief in dairy cows grazing temperate legume-based pasture. A series of studies was undertaken to determine the effect of monensin, when delivered continuously in the rumen of lactating dairy cows by means of controlled-release capsules (monensin CRC). Such devices release approximately 300 mg/head/day for 100 d. A short-term pilot study made at Ruakura, New Zealand, tested monensin CRC in cows selected for high susceptibility to bloat and grazing lucerne (Medicago sativa) or red clover (Trifolium pratense). Treatment significantly reduced the incidence of bloat, while milk yield and protein yield were increased. There was no effect on fat yield. Following the pilot study, 6 large-scale field experiments involving a total of 368 lactating dairy cows, were made in Australia and New Zealand to confirm the effectiveness of monensin CRC for bloat control and to measure the effect of such treatment on milk production and composition. A severe bloat problem occurred in 2 experiments, mild bloat occurred in 2 others, while no visual signs of bloat were observed in the remaining 2 experiments. Bloat was significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced by monensin CRC treatment when data was pooled over the 4 experiments in which bloat occurred. Daily milk yield was increased in all experiments from a mean of 17.7 in untreated groups to 18.8 kg/head/day (P less than 0.05) in monensin CRC-treated cows. Protein percentage was not affected by treatment, while there was a decrease from 4.29 to 4.10% fat, although total fat yield was not affected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Frothy bloat and serous fat atrophy associated with insufficient fibre intake in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Colville, K; Bouts, T; Hartley, A; Clauss, Marcus; Routh, A

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Frothy bloat, a nutrition-related disease of domestic ruminants, has not previously been reported in Giraffidae. A 10-year-old female reticulated giraffe (G. c. reticulata) had a chronic cough and died in February 2007 following a two-month period of weight loss. Multiple nutrition-related abnormalities were identified post mortem: frothy bloat appeared to have been the immediate cause of de...

  13. Metagenomic Analysis of the Rumen Microbiome of Steers with Wheat-Induced Frothy Bloat

    OpenAIRE

    Pitta, D. W.; Pinchak, W. E.; Indugu, N.; Vecchiarelli, B.; Sinha, R.; Fulford, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Frothy bloat is a serious metabolic disorder that affects stocker cattle grazing hard red winter wheat forage in the Southern Great Plains causing reduced performance, morbidity, and mortality. We hypothesize that a microbial dysbiosis develops in the rumen microbiome of stocker cattle when grazing on high quality winter wheat pasture that predisposes them to frothy bloat risk. In this study, rumen contents were harvested from six cannulated steers grazing hard red winter wheat (three with bl...

  14. Ruminal changes in monensin- and lasalocid-fed cattle grazing bloat-provocative alfalfa pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M P; Nagaraja, T G; Fina, L R

    1986-10-01

    Microbial and fermentation changes in the rumen in monensin- and lasalocid-fed cattle grazing bloat-provocative alfalfa pasture were studied using genetically bloat-susceptible, ruminally-cannulated adult cattle. Monensin at .66 and .99 mg/kg body weight daily reduced the severity of legume bloat by 41 and 73%, respectively. The same doses of lasalocid reduced bloat by 25 and 12%. Comparison of ruminal contents from animals before treatment with ruminal contents from antibiotic-treated animals showed no differences in pH, ammonia, soluble N, soluble carbohydrate, ethanol-precipitable slime and anaerobic bacterial counts. Monensin treatment decreased protozoal numbers and microbial activity, as evidenced by lower gas production from in vitro fermentation of ground alfalfa hay when compared to pretreatment. Lasalocid had no effect on protozoal counts and in vitro gas production. Addition of monensin or lasalocid (12 micrograms/ml) to in vitro fermentation of chopped, fresh alfalfa reduced microbial activity as evidenced by higher soluble N, lower ammonia concentration and decreased gas production. Monensin reduced the amount of ethanol-precipitable slime and protozoal numbers. Reduction in the severity of bloat when monensin was fed appears to be due to decreased protozoal numbers, which resulted in decreased gas production. Lasalocid did not reduce legume bloat because of its minimal effect on the ruminal protozoa.

  15. Linaclotide in Chronic Idiopathic Constipation Patients with Moderate to Severe Abdominal Bloating: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Lacy

    Full Text Available Abdominal bloating is a common and bothersome symptom of chronic idiopathic constipation. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of linaclotide in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation and concomitant moderate-to-severe abdominal bloating.This Phase 3b, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial randomized patients to oral linaclotide (145 or 290 μg or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. Eligible patients met Rome II criteria for chronic constipation upon entry with an average abdominal bloating score ≥5 (self-assessment: 0 10-point numerical rating scale during the 14-day baseline period. Patients reported abdominal symptoms (including bloating and bowel symptoms daily; adverse events were monitored. The primary responder endpoint required patients to have ≥3 complete spontaneous bowel movements/week with an increase of ≥1 from baseline, for ≥9 of 12 weeks. The primary endpoint compared linaclotide 145 μg vs. placebo.The intent-to-treat population included 483 patients (mean age=47.3 years, female=91.5%, white=67.7%. The primary endpoint was met by 15.7% of linaclotide 145 μg patients vs. 7.6% of placebo patients (P<0.05. Both linaclotide doses significantly improved abdominal bloating vs. placebo (P<0.05 for all secondary endpoints, controlling for multiplicity. Approximately one-third of linaclotide patients (each group had ≥50% mean decrease from baseline in abdominal bloating vs. 18% of placebo patients (P<0.01. Diarrhea was reported in 6% and 17% of linaclotide 145 and 290 μg patients, respectively, and 2% of placebo patients. AEs resulted in premature discontinuation of 5% and 9% of linaclotide 145 μg and 290 μg patients, respectively, and 6% of placebo patients.Once-daily linaclotide (145 and 290 μg significantly improved bowel and abdominal symptoms in chronic idiopathic constipation patients with moderate-to-severe baseline abdominal bloating; in particular

  16. Effect of Daikenchuto (TJ-100) on abdominal bloating in hepatectomized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Ichikawa, Kengo; Munekage, Masaya; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Dabanaka, Ken; Namikawa, Tsutomu

    2013-04-27

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of Daikenchuto (DKT) in hepatecomized patients. Twenty patients were enrolled with informed consent. Two patients were excluded because of cancelled operations. The remaining 18 patients were randomly chosen for treatment with DKT alone or combination therapy of DKT and lactulose (n = 9, each group). Data were prospectively collected. Primary end points were Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for abdominal bloating, total Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale (GSRS) score for abdominal symptoms, and GSRS score for abdominal bloating. The VAS score for abdominal bloating and total GSRS score for abdominal symptoms recovered to levels that were not significantly different to preoperative levels by 10 d postoperation. Combination therapy of DKT and lactulose was associated with a significantly poorer outcome in terms of VAS and GSRS scores for abdominal bloating, total GSRS score, and total daily calorie intake, when compared with DKT alone therapy. DKT is a potentially effective drug for postoperative management of hepatectomized patients, not only to ameliorate abdominal bloating, but also to promote nutritional support by increasing postoperative dietary intake.

  17. A scanning electron microscopy study of the invasion of leaflets of a bloat-safe and a bloat-causing legume by rumen microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, J P; Cheng, K J; Hanna, M R; Howarth, R E; Costerton, J W

    1981-04-01

    A newly developed technique using ruthenium red to detect foci of bacterial digestion in mounts of whole leaflets that had been incubated with rumen bacteria was used to compare the digestion of alfalfa, a bloat-causing legume, and sainfoin, a bloat-safe legume. When whole leaflets were suspended in an artificial rumen medium and inoculated with rumen bacteria, massive bacterial adhesion and proliferation were noted at the stomata of alfalfa leaflets after 6 h of incubation, whereas only a few isolated bacteria adhered near the stomata of sainfoin leaflets After 22 h of incubation, the epidermal layers of alfalfa leaflets had peeled away in many areas, revealing an extensive bacterial invasion of the underlying mesophyll tissue in which large bacterial microcolonies had formed in intercellular spaces, and in intracellular spaces in several areas where plant cell walls had broken down. After 22 h of incubation, the surface of sainfoin leaflets resembled that of alfalfa leaflets at 6 h, with bacterial microcolonies adhering to the area surrounding the stomata, but without sloughing of the epidermis. Uninoculated control leaflets of both species showed no surface alteration but part of their normal bacterial flora had proliferated to form microcolonies on the surface after 22 h incubation. Dry matter loss due to leaching or bacterial digestion when whole leaflets of legumes were suspended in an artificial rumen medium, alone or with rumen bacteria, was significantly higher in the bloat-causing group. Values of leaching and of bacterial digestion were positively correlated. We conclude that reported differences in plant anatomy, and in cell wall chemistry, produce distinct rates or organic nutrient release from legume leaflets, and that these same differences produce an equally distinct susceptibility of leaflets to bacterial invasion, plant cell rupture, and the consequent release of intracellular plant components. The rate of release of organic nutrients from legume

  18. Effect of forage supplements on the incidence of bloat in dairy cows grazing high clover pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C J; James, N L; Murray-Evans, J P

    1996-08-17

    The effect of offering forage supplements of different compositions was examined in two experiments with cows grazing high clover swards. In the first experiment strawmix supplements of high or low energy content (11 and 9 MJ metabolisable energy/kg dry matter [DM]) and high or low crude protein content (17 and 4 g/kg DM) were offered for periods of three weeks. The energy and protein contents were varied by the content of molasses and soyabean meal, respectively. The high energy, high protein supplement increased the incidence of bloat, and the low energy, high protein supplement reduced it, compared with grazing alone. Bloat was most evident in the first two weeks of each feeding period, suggesting that the cows partially adapted to the diets within three weeks. In the second experiment silage supplements reduced the incidence of bloat among cows grazing both tall and short swards. The most suitable forages to feed when there is a risk of bloat are those that are slowly fermented in the rumen but are eaten in sufficient quantity to reduce periods of rapid herbage intake.

  19. [A balloon probe for the treatment of recurrent bloat in calves and young cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, K

    1989-01-01

    For the treatment of recurrent bloat a soft-rubber balloon tube which is inserted through the nose into the rumen and can stay there for several days was developed. The inflated balloon ensures a floating of the tip of the tube in the dorsal gas cap above the rumen contents. The tube can also be used as a prophylactic measure to avoid excessive ruminal gas accumulation in recumbent patients during surgery. This report describes the experiences with this balloon tube gathered in 23 clinical patients.

  20. Comparative review of foam formation in biogas plants and ruminant bloat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Lucie; Goersch, Kati; Zehnsdorf, Andreas; Mueller, Roland Arno [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Environmental and Biotechnology Centre; Neuhaus, Juergen [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Bacteriology and Mycology

    2012-12-15

    This review gives an overview of the current knowledge concerning the problem of foam formation in the process of anaerobic digestion in biogas plants that utilize renewable resources or biogenic waste material for biogas production. Process upsets in biogas production induced by foam formation can have a negative impact on the efficiency of biogas plants. The foam can block gas pipes and cause severe damage to the bioreactor equipment, ranging from a failure of the feeders to a damage of the roof of the biogas plant. The most common foam removal methods - stirring in the foam, adding anti-foaming agents, diminishing substrate feeding, and altering the biogas reactor management - are not always successful. However, the reasons for the excessive foam formation during the biogas production process have not yet been elucidated in detail. In contrast, foam building in the rumen of ruminants as a cause for bloat has been studied thoroughly. In general, the interaction between proteins, polysaccharides (mucilage), and small plant particles is assumed to be the crucial factor. As the fermentation process in the rumen has many similarities with the biogas production process, the current research results on bloat in ruminants are summarized and compared with the process of foaming in biogas plants. (orig.)

  1. Infection with Photobacterium damselae subspecies damselae and Vibrio harveyi in snapper, Pagrus auratus with bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, F J; Raidal, S R; Buller, N; Jones, B

    2006-05-01

    To diagnose the cause of chronic, low mortality associated with bloat in tanks of snapper at an aquaculture facility. A clinical, pathological and microbiological investigation into the cause of a low number of ongoing mortalities associated with bloat in snapper at an aquaculture facility is outlined. Necropsy, histology, microbiology and a comparison of haematology and water analysis from affected and unaffected fish and holding tanks, respectively were conducted. Affected moribund fish were found in lateral or dorsal recumbency floating on the water surface within 24 hours of death. Photobacterium damselae subspecies damselae was isolated from intestinal contents and Vibrio harveyi from the blood of affected fish and both were isolated from culture water. Both V harveyi and P damselae subspecies damselae isolates were sensitive to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and sulphamethoxazole plus trimethoprim. Environmental parameters such as pH and dissolved oxygen were similar in tanks of affected and unaffected fish. Affected fish had gas distended swimbladders, anaemia, and the intestines were diffusely distended with a clear, pale yellowish fluid. Livers were mottled tan and green in a zonal pattern. Histologically the intestines of fish from tanks suffering mortality had a moderate granulocytic enteritis with oedema and infiltrations with eosinophilic granule cells that were also present as an infiltrate in the gills. There were elevated numbers of melanomacrophage centres and haemosiderin deposits in the spleen, kidney and liver of affected fish. Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae subspecies damselae infection should be recognised as potential pathogens of snapper held in water of less than optimal quality.

  2. Severe hypoplasia of the omasal laminae in a Japanese Black steer with chronic bloat--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Mukai, Shuhei; Fushimi, Yasuo; Matsushita, Kouhei; Miyoshi, Nobuaki; Yasuda, Nobuhiro; Kitajima, Hideo; Takamure, Senro; Matsushita, Toshihiko; Kitamura, Nobuo; Deguchi, Eisaburo

    2007-12-01

    An 11-month-old Japanese Black steer with chronic bloat underwent clinical and histological analyses. During the observation period, it showed normal appetite and fecal volume but persistent chronic bloat symptoms. Compared to controls, the steer's feces contained undigested large straws. Necropsy revealed normal rumen, reticulum, and abomasum but a small omasum. The rumen, reticulum, and abomasum mucosa was normal, with well-developed ruminal papillae. However, severe hypoplasia of the omasal laminae was observed along with hypoplasia reticular groove and ruminoreticular fold. The contents of the reticulum, omasum, and abomasums comprised undigested large sized hay particles. The omasum papillae showed no pathological abnormalities. This is a rare case of a steer with chronic bloat probably caused by severe hypoplasia of the omasal laminae.

  3. In vitro bacterial growth and in vivo ruminal microbiota populations associated with bloat in steers grazing wheat forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, B R; Pinchak, W E; Anderson, R C; Hume, M E

    2006-10-01

    The role of ruminal bacteria in the frothy bloat complex common to cattle grazing winter wheat has not been previously determined. Two experiments, one in vitro and another in vivo, were designed to elucidate the effects of fresh wheat forage on bacterial growth, biofilm complexes, rumen fermentation end products, rumen bacterial diversity, and bloat potential. In Exp. 1, 6 strains of ruminal bacteria (Streptococcus bovis strain 26, Prevotella ruminicola strain 23, Eubacterium ruminantium B1C23, Ruminococcus albus SY3, Fibrobacter succinogenes ssp. S85, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens C94) were used in vitro to determine the effect of soluble plant protein from winter wheat forage on specific bacterial growth rate, biofilm complexes, VFA, and ruminal H2 and CH4 in mono or coculture with Methanobrevibacter smithii. The specific growth rate in plant protein medium containing soluble plant protein (3.27% nitrogen) was measured during a 24-h incubation at 39 degrees C in Hungate tubes under a CO2 gas phase. A monoculture of M. smithii was grown similarly, except under H2:CO2 (1:1), in a basal methanogen growth medium supplemented likewise with soluble plant protein. In Exp. 2, 6 ruminally cannulated steers grazing wheat forage were used to evaluate the influence of bloat on the production of biofilm complexes, ruminal microbial biodiversity patterns, and ruminal fluid protein fractions. In Exp. 1, cultures of R. albus (P bloated than for nonbloated steers when grazing wheat forage. The molecular analysis of the 16S rDNA showed that 2 different ruminal microbiota populations developed between bloated and nonbloated animals grazing wheat forage. Bloat in cattle grazing wheat pastures may be caused by increased production of biofilm, resulting from a diet-influenced switch in the rumen bacterial population.

  4. Survey of chemical compounds tested in vitro against rumen protozoa for possible control of bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, F L; Kodras, R

    1967-09-01

    Over 170 chemical agents were screened for antiprotozoal action in bovine ruminal fluid. Compounds were tested at 0.1 and 0.05% concentrations. Tested compounds included inorganic compounds, antibiotics, biocides, neuromuscular agents, arsenicals, plant and animal hormones, antimalarials, surface-active agents, anthelmintics, and many others. The most active compounds were cupric sulfate, nickel sulfate, nitrofurazone, hydrogen peroxide, dodecyl sodium sulfate, pelargonic acid, iodoacetic acid, 1-diethylaminoethylamino-4-methylthiaxanthrone, sodium arsanilate, sodium arsenate, bismuth glycolyl arsanilate, 1-beta-hydroxyethyl-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, and p-nitroaniline. Copper ion was not particularly effective against entodinia; nickel ion had no effect on holotrichs. Hydrogen peroxide and iodoacetic acid were effective at a concentration of 0.005%. Anionic surface-active agents were very effective, especially long-chain sulfates and phosphates. These antiprotozoal agents warrant further in vivo studies for possible use in treating or curing bloat in ruminants.

  5. KOI 1224: A FOURTH BLOATED HOT WHITE DWARF COMPANION FOUND WITH KEPLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, R. P.; Van Kerkwijk, M. H.; Rappaport, S. A.; Carter, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis and interpretation of the Kepler binary system KOI 1224. This is the fourth binary found with Kepler that consists of a thermally bloated, hot white dwarf in a close orbit with a more or less normal star of spectral class A or F. As we show, KOI 1224 contains a white dwarf with T eff = 14, 700 ± 1000 K, mass = 0.22 ± 0.02 M ☉ , and radius = 0.103 ± 0.002 R ☉ , and an F-star companion of mass 1.59 ± 0.06 M ☉ that is somewhat beyond its terminal-age main sequence. The orbital period is quite short at 2.69802 days. The ingredients that are used in the analysis are the Kepler binary light curve, including the detection of the Doppler boosting effect; the NUV and FUV fluxes from the GALEX images of this object; an estimate of the spectral type of the F-star companion; and evolutionary models of the companion designed to match its effective temperature and mean density. The light curve is modeled with a new code named Icarus which we describe in detail. Its features include the full treatment of orbital phase-resolved spectroscopy, Doppler boosting, irradiation effects, and transits/eclipses, which are particularly suited to irradiated eclipsing binaries. We interpret the KOI 1224 system in terms of its likely evolutionary history. We infer that this type of system, containing a bloated hot white dwarf, is the direct descendant of an Algol-type binary. In spite of this basic understanding of the origin of KOI 1224, we discuss a number of problems associated with producing a system with an orbital period this short.

  6. Rumen clearance rates in relation to the occurrence of alfalfa bloat in cattle. 1. Passage of water-soluble markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majak, W; Hall, J W; Rode, L M; Kalnin, C M

    1986-06-01

    Ruminal chlorophyll and rates of passage of two water-soluble markers were simultaneously determined in cattle with different susceptibilities to alfalfa bloat. The markers showed a slower rate of passage from the rumens of more susceptible cattle where the average half-lives for cobalt-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and chromium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were 12 to 17 h. Average half-life of the markers was 8 h in the rumens of the less susceptible animals. In agreement, chloroplast particles in the liquid phase of rumen contents showed greater accumulation in animals susceptible to bloat, but many more observations were required to detect differences in chlorophyll among animals. This was partly due to the unhomogeneous dispersion of chloroplast fragments in the reticulorumen compared with the uniform distribution of the inert markers. Differences in rumen volumes (estimated from the quantity of marker administered and its initial concentration) were detected among animals, but these did not show a relationship to bloat susceptibility. In vitro studies indicated that alfalfa chloroplast particles were not readily degraded by rumen microorganisms. Our results support earlier conclusions on slower rates of salivation for cattle that bloat compared with those that do not.

  7. The Living Dead: Bacterial Community Structure of a Cadaver at the Onset and End of the Bloat Stage of Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, Embriette R.; Haarmann, Daniel P.; Lynne, Aaron M.; Bucheli, Sibyl R.; Petrosino, Joseph F.

    2013-01-01

    Human decomposition is a mosaic system with an intimate association between biotic and abiotic factors. Despite the integral role of bacteria in the decomposition process, few studies have catalogued bacterial biodiversity for terrestrial scenarios. To explore the microbiome of decomposition, two cadavers were placed at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. The bloat stage of decomposition, a stage easily identified in taphono...

  8. Effects of Daikenchuto on Abdominal Bloating Accompanied by Chronic Constipation: A Prospective, Single-Center Randomized Open Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Mika; Komazawa, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Yoshiya; Kusunoki, Maho; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Sayaka; Uno, Goichi; Ikuma, Isao; Shizuku, Toshihiro; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2015-12-01

    Daikenchuto (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is widely used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of DKT for abdominal bloating in patients with chronic constipation. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of DKT for the treatment of abdominal bloating. After discontinuing as-needed use of laxatives, 10 patients received oral DKT for 14 days (15 g/d). To evaluate small intestinal bacteria overgrowth (SIBO), a glucose breath test was performed before and after treatment with DKT. Before beginning the treatment, 4 patients (40%) had a diagnosis of SIBO based on a positive glucose breath test result. In both the SIBO and non-SIBO groups, bowel movement frequency and stool form remained unchanged after DKT treatment. For all patients, median total Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale score and the median Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale indigestion and constipation subscales were significantly decreased, whereas the median visual analog score for decreased abdominal bloating was significantly increased. Improvements of those symptoms were the same in both the SIBO and non-SIBO groups, indicating that DKT does not have effects on small intestine bacteria. No serious side effects were reported. DKT treatment improved quality of life for patients with chronic constipation regardless of the presence of SIBO and showed no effects on small intestine bacteria. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry identifier: UMIN000008070.

  9. The Living Dead: Bacterial Community Structure of a Cadaver at the Onset and End of the Bloat Stage of Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Embriette R.; Haarmann, Daniel P.; Lynne, Aaron M.; Bucheli, Sibyl R.; Petrosino, Joseph F.

    2013-01-01

    Human decomposition is a mosaic system with an intimate association between biotic and abiotic factors. Despite the integral role of bacteria in the decomposition process, few studies have catalogued bacterial biodiversity for terrestrial scenarios. To explore the microbiome of decomposition, two cadavers were placed at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. The bloat stage of decomposition, a stage easily identified in taphonomy and readily attributed to microbial physiology, was targeted. Each cadaver was sampled at two time points, at the onset and end of the bloat stage, from various body sites including internal locations. Bacterial samples were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our data show a shift from aerobic bacteria to anaerobic bacteria in all body sites sampled and demonstrate variation in community structure between bodies, between sample sites within a body, and between initial and end points of the bloat stage within a sample site. These data are best not viewed as points of comparison but rather additive data sets. While some species recovered are the same as those observed in culture-based studies, many are novel. Our results are preliminary and add to a larger emerging data set; a more comprehensive study is needed to further dissect the role of bacteria in human decomposition. PMID:24204941

  10. The living dead: bacterial community structure of a cadaver at the onset and end of the bloat stage of decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Embriette R; Haarmann, Daniel P; Lynne, Aaron M; Bucheli, Sibyl R; Petrosino, Joseph F

    2013-01-01

    Human decomposition is a mosaic system with an intimate association between biotic and abiotic factors. Despite the integral role of bacteria in the decomposition process, few studies have catalogued bacterial biodiversity for terrestrial scenarios. To explore the microbiome of decomposition, two cadavers were placed at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. The bloat stage of decomposition, a stage easily identified in taphonomy and readily attributed to microbial physiology, was targeted. Each cadaver was sampled at two time points, at the onset and end of the bloat stage, from various body sites including internal locations. Bacterial samples were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our data show a shift from aerobic bacteria to anaerobic bacteria in all body sites sampled and demonstrate variation in community structure between bodies, between sample sites within a body, and between initial and end points of the bloat stage within a sample site. These data are best not viewed as points of comparison but rather additive data sets. While some species recovered are the same as those observed in culture-based studies, many are novel. Our results are preliminary and add to a larger emerging data set; a more comprehensive study is needed to further dissect the role of bacteria in human decomposition.

  11. The living dead: bacterial community structure of a cadaver at the onset and end of the bloat stage of decomposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Embriette R Hyde

    Full Text Available Human decomposition is a mosaic system with an intimate association between biotic and abiotic factors. Despite the integral role of bacteria in the decomposition process, few studies have catalogued bacterial biodiversity for terrestrial scenarios. To explore the microbiome of decomposition, two cadavers were placed at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. The bloat stage of decomposition, a stage easily identified in taphonomy and readily attributed to microbial physiology, was targeted. Each cadaver was sampled at two time points, at the onset and end of the bloat stage, from various body sites including internal locations. Bacterial samples were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our data show a shift from aerobic bacteria to anaerobic bacteria in all body sites sampled and demonstrate variation in community structure between bodies, between sample sites within a body, and between initial and end points of the bloat stage within a sample site. These data are best not viewed as points of comparison but rather additive data sets. While some species recovered are the same as those observed in culture-based studies, many are novel. Our results are preliminary and add to a larger emerging data set; a more comprehensive study is needed to further dissect the role of bacteria in human decomposition.

  12. Comparison of bloat potential between a variety of soft-red versus a variety of hard-red winter wheat forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, M S; Kegley, E B; Coffey, K P; Caldwell, J D; Lusby, K S; Moore, J C; Coblentz, W K

    2009-10-01

    Some aspects of wheat pasture bloat have been researched extensively, but few studies have evaluated the effect of wheat type or variety on bloat. Eight Gelbvieh x Angus ruminally cannulated heifers (515 +/- 49 kg of BW) and 48 Angus heifers (238 +/- 12 kg of BW) grazed 1-ha pastures of hard-red or soft-red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to evaluate the effect of wheat variety on bloat potential. In Exp. 1, cattle grazed from November 11 to 22 and from November 26 to December 7, 2006, in a crossover design. In Exp. 2, cattle were shrunk for 20 h and then grazed from December 19 to 20, 2006, and from January 19 to 20, 2007. In both experiments, bloat was scored at 1000 and 1600 h daily. Rumen samples were collected at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h during each of the last 2 d of each period in Exp. 1 and during both days of each period of Exp. 2. Rumen samples were evaluated for pH, foam production and strength, and viscosity. In Exp. 1, cannulated heifers grazing soft-red had a greater (P bloat (21.9 vs. 5.6%) than those grazing hard-red winter wheat, but bloat incidence was low (2.1%) for the stocker cattle, with no difference between hard-red and soft-red winter wheat (P = 0.52). Viscosity of the rumen fluid was affected (P = 0.03) by the wheat variety x time interaction, with soft-red at 1200 and 1800 h being more viscous than soft-red at 0600 h and hard-red at all times. Foam strength, as determined by bubbling CO(2) gas through rumen fluid, had a wheat variety x time interaction (P = 0.02) with both wheat varieties similar at 0600 h but soft-red having greater foam strength at 1200 and 1800 h. In Exp. 2, no bloat was observed, and no differences between wheat varieties were observed for any of the rumen foam measures. Therefore, for these 2 varieties, the soft-red winter wheat had a greater bloat potential than the hard-red winter wheat based on results from the cannulated heifers, but no differences were observed in the frequency of bloat in stocker cattle. In

  13. The mitochondrial and plastid genomes of Volvox carteri: bloated molecules rich in repetitive DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Robert W

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The magnitude of noncoding DNA in organelle genomes can vary significantly; it is argued that much of this variation is attributable to the dissemination of selfish DNA. The results of a previous study indicate that the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA of the green alga Volvox carteri abounds with palindromic repeats, which appear to be selfish elements. We became interested in the evolution and distribution of these repeats when, during a cursory exploration of the V. carteri nuclear DNA (nucDNA and plastid DNA (ptDNA sequences, we found palindromic repeats with similar structural features to those of the mtDNA. Upon this discovery, we decided to investigate the diversity and evolutionary implications of these palindromic elements by sequencing and characterizing large portions of mtDNA and ptDNA and then comparing these data to the V. carteri draft nuclear genome sequence. Results We sequenced 30 and 420 kilobases (kb of the mitochondrial and plastid genomes of V. carteri, respectively – resulting in partial assemblies of these genomes. The mitochondrial genome is the most bloated green-algal mtDNA observed to date: ~61% of the sequence is noncoding, most of which is comprised of short palindromic repeats spread throughout the intergenic and intronic regions. The plastid genome is the largest (>420 kb and most expanded (>80% noncoding ptDNA sequence yet discovered, with a myriad of palindromic repeats in the noncoding regions, which have a similar size and secondary structure to those of the mtDNA. We found that 15 kb (~0.01% of the nuclear genome are homologous to the palindromic elements of the mtDNA, and 50 kb (~0.05% are homologous to those of the ptDNA. Conclusion Selfish elements in the form of short palindromic repeats have propagated in the V. carteri mtDNA and ptDNA, resulting in the distension of these genomes. Copies of these same repeats are also found in a small fraction of the nucDNA, but appear to be inert in this

  14. Effects of condensed tannins supplementation level on weight gain and in vitro and in vivo bloat precursors in steers grazing winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, B R; Pinchak, W E; Anderson, R C; Fulford, J D; Puchala, R

    2006-09-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of level of supplementation with quebracho condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro ruminal fluid gas production, in vivo ruminal fluid protein fractions, bloat dynamics, and ADG of steers grazing winter wheat. Two experiments were conducted to 1) enumerate the effect of ruminal fluid from steers fed quebracho CT (0, 1, and 2% CT/kg of DMI) on in vitro gas and methane production from minced fresh wheat forage; and 2) quantify the influence of CT supplementation on ruminal protein characteristics, biofilm complexes, bloat potential, and ADG of steers grazing wheat pasture. Eighteen ruminally cannulated steers (386 +/- 36 kg of BW) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments that included a control (water infusion) and 2 CT treatment levels (1 or 2% CT/kg of DMI). Treatments were administered daily (63 d) through the rumen cannula as pre-mixes with warm water (approximately 30 degrees C). Rumen contents were collected 2 h postinfusion (at 1030 to 1130) on d 0, 20, 40, 50, and 60. Bloat was visually scored daily for 5 d each wk. In Exp. 1, supplementation of CT decreased the rate of in vitro gas production in a dose-dependent response. In Exp. 2, ADG increased (P bloat score across stage of growth and replicates decreased linearly with increasing CT supplementation; bloat scores were greater (P rumen fluid protein fractions varied among CT treatments and stage of growth. Addition of CT reduced the severity of bloat, principally through reducing microbial activities, biofilm production, and ruminal gas production. Quebracho CT is potentially a value-added supplement that can decrease the impacts of frothy bloat and increase BW gains in stocker cattle-wheat systems.

  15. Bloating in (Pb0.95Sn0.05Te)0.92(PbS)0.08-0.055%PbI2 Thermoelectric Specimens as a Result of Processing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jennifer E.; Case, Eldon D.; Stewart, Ryan; Wu, Chun-I.; Hogan, Timothy P.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2012-06-01

    Lead chalcogenides such as (Pb0.95Sn0.05Te)0.92(PbS)0.08-0.055%PbI2 have received attention due to their encouraging thermoelectric properties. For the hot pressing (HP) and pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) techniques used in this study, decomposition reactions can generate porosity (bloating). Porosity in turn can degrade electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. In this study, microstructural observations (scanning electron microscopy) and room-temperature elasticity measurements (resonant ultrasound spectroscopy) were used to characterize bloating generated during post-densification anneals. Although every HP specimen bloated during post-densification annealing, no bloating was observed for the PECS specimens processed from dry milled only powders. The lack of bloating for the annealed PECS specimens may be related to the electrical discharge intrinsic in the PECS process, which reportedly cleans the powder particle surfaces during densification.

  16. Low Dose Mesalazine Plus Bismuth Regimen and Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Patients with Bloating: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavinejad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of mesalazine plus bismuth on patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and chief complaint of bloating. Methods The current quasi-experimental study, included patients with IBS and chief complaint of bloating and incomplete defecation. They were treated with masalazine and bismuth subcitrate and followed regularly based on monthly visits. The rate of symptoms relief, patients' satisfaction and any side effects were recorded during the surveillance. Results Overall, 42 patients (33 females and 9 males were included. The mean age of the patients was 35.9 years (ranged 22 - 67 years; 32%, 44% and 24% had high, medium and low socioeconomic levels, respectively; 96% of the patients were nonsmokers and just two patients had a history of alcohol consumption. Two patients had glucose intolerance, four had hypothyroidism and four had past history of valvular heart disease. In 20% of the patients, the family history for intestinal bowl disease (IBD was positive. Ten patients had a history of bloody diarrhea and no one had a history of any significant liver diseases. The most common symptoms of patients included incomplete defecation and tenesmus (41 patients, 97.6%, bloating (39 patients, 92.8%, abdominal fullness (35 patients, 83.3% and mucus discharge (30 patients, 71.4%. After an average six months of treatment (3 - 11 months, 69.1% of patients reported improvement of symptoms more than 50% (38.1%, ranged 75% - 100%, and 31% (ranged 50% - 75% indicated overall symptoms relief. The most significant improvement was reported for bloating (85%. There were no major side effects except minor degrees of diarrhea among 26% of the subjects. Conclusions The results of the study were indicative of improvement and symptom relief in the majority of patients and it seems that treatment prolongation up to six months could be a key factor to achieve better clinical responses. It is recommended that further

  17. Probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 versus placebo for the symptoms of bloating in patients with functional bowel disorders: a double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel-Kulka, Tamar; Palsson, Olafur S; Maier, Danielle; Carroll, Ian; Galanko, Joseph A; Leyer, Gregory; Ringel, Yehuda

    2011-07-01

    Recent data suggest a role for the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of functional bowel disorders (FBDs). Probiotic studies in FBDs generated inconsistent results suggesting a strain-specific and product-specific effect. To investigate the clinical efficacy of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (L-NCFM) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 (B-LBi07) in nonconstipation FBDs. A double-blind, placebo-control clinical trial of the probiotic bacterias L-NCFM and B-LBi07 twice a day (2×10(11) CFU/d) versus placebo over 8 weeks. Primary endpoints were global relief of gastrointestinal symptoms and satisfaction with treatment. Secondary endpoints were change in symptoms severity, well-being, and quality of life. Microbiological effect was assessed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction on fecal samples. Sixty patients (probiotic, n=31; placebo, n=29), 72% females, 84% whites, mean age 37 years. Abdominal bloating improved in the probiotics compared with the placebo group at 4 weeks (4.10 vs 6.17, P=0.009; change in bloating severity P=0.02) and 8 weeks (4.26 vs 5.84, P=0.06; change in bloating severity Pbacteria in the pathophysiology of FBD and the role for probiotic bacteria in the management of these disorders.

  18. Belching, Bloating and Flatulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to digest milk sugars (lactose). This condition, called lactose intolerance, is less common in people of northern European ... is an indication of weak abdominal muscles. If lactose intolerance is suspected, milk can be withdrawn from the ...

  19. A note on the flora and fauna in the rumen of steers fed a feedlot bloat-provoking ration and the effect of penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRYANT, M P; ROBINSON, I M; LINDAHL, I L

    1961-11-01

    A study was made of the predominant culturable bacteria and ciliate protozoa present in the rumen of two steers that were regularly bloating on a pelleted ratio containing 22% alfalfa meal, 16% soybean oil meal, 61% barley, and 1% common salt. The ruminal microorganisms in the two animals differed as indicated by a high total culture count of bacteria, an almost complete absence of ciliate protozoa, a low pH, and a difference in the proportions of presumptively identified predominant bacterial groups in one animal (steer 26) as compared with the other (steer 32). The first exposure of the animals to procaine penicillin (75 or 150 mg per day on 2 successive days) resulted in an abnormal ruminal flora 31 hr after the first treatment as indicated by drastic drops in total and cellulolytic bacterial counts and a change in the proportions of predominant bacterial groups. The animals refused feed for 32 to 48 hr after the first treatment. After feed consumption resumed, further treatment with 75 mg penicillin on 4 successive days did not appear to greatly alter the flora and did not result in feed refusal in animal 32. In animal 26, amounts of penicillin progressing from 50 to 200 mg per day did not result in feed refusals and observations on rumen ingesta samples during this period indicated a decrease in total bacterial count, a great increase in numbers of ciliate protozoa, a higher pH, and a change in the proportions of predominant bacterial groups so that the ruminal picture was much more similar to that of animal 32 than to its own during the pre-penicillin period. Bloat was not relieved except during the period of feed refusal. The results indicate that the ruminal flora rapidly adapts to penicillin and that bloat of the feedlot type can occur in animals with widely differing numbers and kinds of bacteria and protozoa. Feedlot bloat does not appear to be correlated with the occurrence or numbers of any of the individual predominant groups of bacteria cultured.

  20. Randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-3856 in irritable bowel syndrome: improvement in abdominal pain and bloating in those with predominant constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Robin; Pélerin, Fanny; Cayzeele Decherf, Amélie; Maudet, Corinne; Housez, Béatrice; Cazaubiel, Murielle; Jüsten, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain and/or discomfort. Probiotics have been reported to benefit IBS symptoms but the level of benefit remains quite unclear. This study was designed to assess the benefit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae I-3856 on IBS symptoms. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial has been performed in 379 subjects with diagnosed IBS. Subjects were randomly supplemented with the probiotics (1000 mg) or placebo for 12 weeks. Questionnaires (gastrointestinal symptoms, stools, wellbeing, and quality of life) were completed. Primary endpoint was percentage of responders defined as having a 50% decrease in the weekly average "intestinal pain/discomfort score" for at least 4 out of the last 8 weeks of the study. There was no overall benefit of S. cerevisiae I-3856 on IBS symptoms and wellbeing in the study population. Moreover, S. cerevisiae I-3856 was not statistically significant predictor of the responder status of the subjects (p > 0.05). Planned subgroup analyses showed significant effect in the IBS-C subjects: improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms was significantly higher in active group, compared to placebo, on abdominal pain/discomfort and bloating throughout the study and at the end of the supplementation. In this study, S. cerevisiae I-3856 at the dose of 1000 mg per day does not improve intestinal pain and discomfort in general IBS patients. However, it seems to have an effect in the subgroup with constipation which needs further studies to confirm (NCT01613456 in ClinicalTrials.gov registry).

  1. Timpanismo espumoso em bovinos leiteiros em pastagens de Trifolium spp. (Leg.Caesalpinoideae Leguminous bloat in dairy cattle on Trifolium spp. pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Gustavo Cabrera Dalto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O pastejo de plantas leguminosas que provocam fermentação excessiva pode causar surtos de timpanismo e mortes em ruminantes. Em uma propriedade no município de São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, oito bovinos de um total de 66 morreram subitamente, ao haverem sido transferidos de um potreiro de campo nativo, para outro cuja pastagem era composta por Trifolium repens e Trifolium pratense. Os animais foram encontrados mortos no amanhecer do dia seguinte à transferência, não foram observados sinais clínicos prévios. Os principais achados macroscópicos incluíram aumento de volume abdominal, protrusão de vagina e língua, distensão ruminal, fígado de coloração pálida e aumento do baço. Na histologia, havia congestão e edema pulmonares e hiperplasia linfóide difusa e acentuada no baço. A evidência de ingestão das leguminosas associada aos achados patológicos e à ausência de microrganismos no exame bacteriológico confirmaram o diagnóstico de timpanismo.Leguminous bloat may occur in cattle which graze pastures consisting of lush forages. In a dairy farm located on the municipality of São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, eight out of 66 cows died suddenly after being transferred to a paddock whose pastures were composed of Trifolium repens and Trifolium pratense. Animals were found dead in the morning of the next day after being transferred; no clinical signs were noticed. Main gross findings included enhanced abdominal volume, protrusion and congestion of the tongue and vagina, ruminal distension, pale liver, and enhanced spleen. Histologically, there were lung congestion and edema, and splenic lymphoid hyperplasia. The evidence of leguminous forages consumption associated with the pathological findings and the absence of growth on bacteriology confirmed the diagnosis.

  2. Epidemiology of Functional abdominal bloating and its impact on health related quality of life: male-female stratified propensity score analysis in a population based survey in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meijing; Zhao, Yanfang; Wang, Rui; Zheng, Wenxin; Guo, Xiaojing; Wu, Shunquan; Ma, Xiuqiang; He, Jia

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of Functional abdominal bloating (FAB) and its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese people remains unclear. Randomised, stratified, multi-stage sampling methodology was used to select a representative sample of the general population from five cities in China (n = 16,078). All respondents completed the modified Rome II questionnaire; 20% were asked to complete the 36-item Short Form (SF-36). The associated factors of FAB were analyzed. The effects of FAB on HRQoL were estimated with gender stratification using propensity score techniques in 20% subsample. Overall, 643 individuals (4.00%) had FAB and it was more prevalent in males than in females (4.87% vs. 3.04%, Pproblems (P = 0.030) and bodily pain (PChina was lower than previous reports. Males who had ever been diagnosed with dyspepsia and females who were in a poor self-reported health status were correlated with a higher prevalence of FAB. FAB affected only physical health in females, but impaired both physical and mental health in males.

  3. Epidemiology of Functional abdominal bloating and its impact on health related quality of life: male-female stratified propensity score analysis in a population based survey in mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijing Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of Functional abdominal bloating (FAB and its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL in Chinese people remains unclear. METHODS: Randomised, stratified, multi-stage sampling methodology was used to select a representative sample of the general population from five cities in China (n = 16,078. All respondents completed the modified Rome II questionnaire; 20% were asked to complete the 36-item Short Form (SF-36. The associated factors of FAB were analyzed. The effects of FAB on HRQoL were estimated with gender stratification using propensity score techniques in 20% subsample. RESULTS: Overall, 643 individuals (4.00% had FAB and it was more prevalent in males than in females (4.87% vs. 3.04%, P<0.001. For males, self-reported history of dyspepsia was most strongly associated with FAB (OR = 2.78; 95% CI: 1.59, 4.72. However, the most strongly associated factor was self-reported health status for females (moderate health vs. good health: OR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.96. P = 0.030; poor health vs. good health: OR = 5.71, 95% CI: 2.06, 15.09. Concerning HRQoL, FAB was found to be related to two domains: role limitation due to physical problems (P = 0.030 and bodily pain (P<0.001 in females. While, in males, there were significant differences in multiple domains between those with and without FAB. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of FAB in China was lower than previous reports. Males who had ever been diagnosed with dyspepsia and females who were in a poor self-reported health status were correlated with a higher prevalence of FAB. FAB affected only physical health in females, but impaired both physical and mental health in males.

  4. The Fed's bloated balance sheet: how we got here and why it's familiar

    OpenAIRE

    Ricketts, Lowell R.; Waller, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative easing has led to the largest expansion of the Fed’s balance sheet since WW II. While this, naturally, leads to concern about inflation, the Fed has the tools to unwind the balance sheet once the economy builds steam.

  5. Effects of Daikenchuto on Abdominal Bloating Accompanied by Chronic Constipation: A Prospective, Single-Center Randomized Open Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Yuki

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: DKT treatment improved quality of life for patients with chronic constipation regardless of the presence of SIBO and showed no effects on small intestine bacteria. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry identifier: UMIN000008070.

  6. Frothy feedlot bloat in cattle: production of extracellular polysaccharides and development of viscosity in cultures of Streptococcus bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K J; Hironaka, R; Jones, G A; Nicas, T; Costerton, J W

    1976-04-01

    Streptococcus bovis was cultured in a synthetic medium with three concentrations of sucrose. Initial viscosity of the media was 1.5 centipoise (cp). After incubation for 8 h, the viscosity of the medium with 0.5% sucrose was unchanged, that with 3% sucrose had increased to 8 cp, and that with 6% sucrose to 112 cp. Similar results were found with a rumen fluid medium. A slimy material, responsible for increased viscosity of these cultures, was digested by dextranase. The material appeared as a complex system of intercellular fibers when viewed under the electron microscope after freeze-etching. With proteins and other polymers released from lysed bacteria, this slimy material may contribute directly to increased viscosity and foam formation. In addition to these intercellular fibers, each cell was surrounded by a fibrous capsule that was not digested by dextranase. This capsule stained with lead citrate and uranyl acetate, but not with ruthenium red. The amount of capsular material produced was similar whether the media contained 0.5, 3.0, or 6% sucrose.

  7. Release of bacterial alkaline phosphatase in the rumen of cattle fed a feedlot bloat-provoking diet or a hay diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K J; Hironaka, R; Costerton, J W

    1976-05-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (APase) was present in the bovine rumen in both cell-free and cell-associated states and levels of the enzyme varied with dietary regime. Reaction product deposition showed that the enzyme was associated with the mixed bacterial population. No enzyme was observed to be associated with protozoa. Trace activity of APase was also detected in the saliva. The presence of large amounts of APase in cell-free rumen fluid of cattle fed fine concentrate feed is believed to be due, in part, to the breakage of bacterial cells that occurs in the rumen.

  8. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... IBS Pain in IBS IBS with Constipation Constipated Diarrhea IBS with Diarrhea Nausea and IBS Bloating in IBS Sleep and ... IBS Pain in IBS IBS with Constipation Constipated Diarrhea IBS with Diarrhea Nausea and IBS Bloating in ...

  9. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Diarrhea Nausea and IBS Bloating in IBS Sleep and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Gynecological Aspects of Irritable ... with Diarrhea Nausea and IBS Bloating in IBS Sleep and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Gynecological Aspects of Irritable ...

  10. A simple technique for measurement of pressure in the tympanitic rumen of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, C B; Whyte, T D

    1978-05-13

    The construction and method of use of a simple device for the non-invasive measurement of intra-rumenal pressure is outlined. Results obtained from calves suffering from increased intra-rumenal pressure (bloat) are shown. The method is capable of quantifying pressures involved in bloat and could be used to augment the visual assessment of bloat scoring.

  11. Bowel injury following gynecological laparoscopic surgery.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nique did not reduce bowel injuries.6 Majority of gyne- .... showed (A-B) distended small bowel loops (yellow arrows) and an incarcerated bowel loop in one of the ... intolerance of oral intake, bloating, nausea, fever or diar- ..... Strategies in.

  12. Renal cell carcinoma as a cause of iron deficiency anemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amar A. Dowd

    derived from the various parts of the nephron (epithelium or renal tubules) and possessing ... [3] is hematuria, flank pain, and an abdominal mass, similar to bloat- ... mass in the right kidney implicating its anterior aspect, measuring 62 × 48 mm.

  13. Hypnosis for IBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in overall well-being, quality of life, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, and bloating have been noted. Contrary to many portrayals in fiction, a clinical hypnotherapist has no power over the hypnotized person. The person is typically ...

  14. Correlation of bowel symptoms with colonic transit, length, and faecal load in functional faecal retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahave, Dennis; Christensen, Elsebeth; Loud, Franck B.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Abdominal pain, bloating, and defecation disturbances are common complaints in gastrointestinal functional disorders. This study explores whether bowel symptoms are correlated to colon transit time (CTT), faecal loading (coprostasis), and colon length; and whether prokinetic interve...

  15. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stools Bloated feeling after meals Burning, aching, or hunger discomfort in the upper abdomen or lower chest ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  16. Diarrheal Diseases - Acute and Chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include abdominal cramps fever, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and urgency. Chronic diarrhea can be accompanied by weight loss, ... bloating, abdominal pain relieved with defecation and a sense of incomplete evacuation. Risk Factors Exposure to infectious ...

  17. Clinical response in Mexican patients with irritable bowel syndrome treated with a low diet low in fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pérez y López

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: In this first study on a Mexican population with IBS, there was significant improvement of the main symptoms, including pain, bloating, and flatulence after treatment with a low FODMAP diet.

  18. Gastroparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hours the contractile responses while the subject is fasting and eating are observed and recorded. The manometry ... Hepatitis C Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome Obesity Digestive Health Topics Abdominal Pain Syndrome Belching, Bloating, ...

  19. Weight gain - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes Hormone changes or medical problems can also cause unintentional weight gain. This may be due to: Cushing syndrome Underactive thyroid, or low thyroid (hypothyroidism) Polycystic ovary syndrome Menopause Pregnancy Bloating, or swelling ...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the large intestine, causing cramps, bloating, loss of appetite, vomiting, and sometimes fever. A sharp object that ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce ...

  1. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Know Changing Doctors IBS Symptom Treatments IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet What to Do and What to Avoid Foods That Cause Cramping and Diarrhea Foods that Cause Gas and Bloating Dietary Fiber 12 Week Elimination Diet ...

  2. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MA. Last modified on February 23, 2015 at 12:18:55 PM Treatment Understanding and Managing Pain ... Foods that Cause Gas and Bloating Dietary Fiber 12 Week Elimination Diet for IBS Rice-Based Foods ...

  3. Lower GI Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... picture created by using radiation and recorded on film or on a computer. To make the large ... cramps and bloating that may occur for a short time after the procedure • to resume most normal ...

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-09-13

    Sep 13, 2014 ... from the National Artificial Insemination Center (NAIC) to inseminate Horro cows that were ... crop and vegetable cultivation. Men family members ... skin diseases, internal and external parasites, bloating and calf pneumonia ...

  5. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of activity can leave food in the stomach, making you feel full, bloated, crampy, and sick. Everyone ... Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for educational purposes ...

  6. Bugs on the brain; brain in the gut--seeking explanations for common gastrointestinal symptoms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2013-03-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion (or dyspepsia), bloating, distension, constipation, abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort and diarrhoea are extremely common worldwide. For some, such symptoms can prove to be chronic and disabling.

  7. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can boost your performance even more by paying attention to the food you eat on game day. ... leave food in the stomach, making you feel full, bloated, crampy, and sick. Everyone is different, so ...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1846 - Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... free-choice to beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cattle only. Initially, provide one block per five head of cattle. Start treatment 10 to 14 days before exposure to bloat-producing pastures. Do not allow...

  9. Oats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Joint and tendon disorders. Kidney conditions. Nerve disorders. Opium and nicotine withdrawal. Preventing gallstones. Skin diseases. Stress. ... cause intestinal gas and bloating. To minimize side effects, start with a low dose and increase slowly ...

  10. Side Effects: Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatment can cause constipation. Symptoms include hard stools, stomach cramps, bloating, and nausea. Causes also include pain medicine, diet changes, dehydration, and being less active. Prevention and treatment of constipation is explained.

  11. Inclusion of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage in dairy cow rations affects nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, energy balance, and methane emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huyen, N.T.; Desrues, O; Alferink, S.J.J

    2016-01-01

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a tanniniferous legume forage that has potential nutritional and health benefits preventing bloating, reducing nematode larval establishment, improving N utilization, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of sainfoin as a fodder crop in dairy...

  12. Temperature Impact on the Forage Quality of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Capacity to Accumulate Sugars

    OpenAIRE

    Máximo Lorenzo; Silvia G. Assuero; Jorge A. Tognetti

    2015-01-01

    Wheat is increasingly used as a dual-purpose crop (for forage and grain production) worldwide. Plants encounter low temperatures in winter, which commonly results in sugar accumulation. High sugar levels might have a positive impact on forage digestibility, but may also lead to an increased risk of bloat. We hypothesized that cultivars with a lower capacity to accumulate sugars when grown under cold conditions may have a lower bloat risk than higher sugar-accumulating genotypes, without showi...

  13. Fracture mode, microstructure and temperature-dependent elastic moduli for thermoelectric composites of PbTe-PbS with SiC nanoparticle additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jennifer E.; Case, Eldon D.; Schmidt, Robert D.; Wu, Chun-I.; Hogan, Timothy P.; Trejo, Rosa M.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-six (Pb0.95Sn0.05Te)0.92(PbS)0.08-0.055% PbI2-SiC nanoparticle (SiCnp) composite thermoelectric specimens were either hot pressed or pulsed electric current sintered (PECS). Bloating (a thermally induced increase in porosity, P, for as-densified specimens) was observed during annealing at temperatures >603 K for hot-pressed specimens and PECS-processed specimens from wet milled powders, but in contrast seven out of seven specimens densified by PECS from dry milled powders showed no observable bloating following annealing at temperatures up to 936 K. In this study, bloating in the specimens was accessed via thermal annealing induced changes in (i) porosity measured by scanning electron microscopy on fractured specimen surfaces, (ii) specimen volume and (iii) elastic moduli. The moduli were measured by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. SiCnp additions (1-3.5 vol.%) changed the fracture mode from intergranular to transgranular, inhibited grain growth, and limited bloating in the wet milled PECS specimens. Inhibition of bloating likely occurs due to cleaning of contamination from powder particle surfaces via PECS processing which has been reported previously in the literature.

  14. Putrefactive rigor: apparent rigor mortis due to gas distension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, James R; Landi, Kristen

    2011-09-01

    Artifacts due to decomposition may cause confusion for the initial death investigator, leading to an incorrect suspicion of foul play. Putrefaction is a microorganism-driven process that results in foul odor, skin discoloration, purge, and bloating. Various decompositional gases including methane, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen will cause the body to bloat. We describe 3 instances of putrefactive gas distension (bloating) that produced the appearance of inappropriate rigor, so-called putrefactive rigor. These gases may distend the body to an extent that the extremities extend and lose contact with their underlying support surface. The medicolegal investigator must recognize that this is not true rigor mortis and the body was not necessarily moved after death for this gravity-defying position to occur.

  15. A NEW MUTATION OPERATOR IN GENETIC PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Purohit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new type of mutation operator, FEDS (Fitness, Elitism, Depth, and Size mutation in genetic programming. The concept behind the new mutation operator is inspired from already introduced FEDS crossover operator to handle the problem of code bloating. FEDS mutation operates by using local elitism replacement in combination with depth limit and size of the trees to reduce bloat with a subsequent improvement in the performance of trees (program structures. We have designed a multiclass classifier for some benchmark datasets to test the performance of proposed mutation. The results show that when the initial run uses FEDS crossover and the concluding run uses FEDS mutation, then not only is the final result significantly improved but there is reduction in bloat also.

  16. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... too soon before any kind of activity can leave food in the stomach, making you feel full, bloated, crampy, and sick. Everyone is different, so get to know what works best for you. You may want to experiment ...

  17. Net Survey: "Top Ten Mistakes" in Academic Web Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, Paula

    2000-01-01

    Highlights the top ten mistakes in academic Web design: (1) bloated graphics; (2) scaling images; (3) dense text; (4) lack of contrast; (5) font size; (6) looping animations; (7) courseware authoring software; (8) scrolling/long pages; (9) excessive download; and (10) the nothing site. Includes resources. (CMK)

  18. Kronisk obstipation og betydning af livsstilsfaktorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Mette; Qvist, Niels; Raahave, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    First-line treatment of constipation includes dietary fibre, fluid and exercise. The evidence for these recommendations is, however, scarce. Increased intake of fibre will reduce colonic transit time and improve the frequency and consistency of stools in 50% of patients. Bloating and flatulence...

  19. Annual Progress Report Fiscal Year 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-30

    techniques. (1) Study will provide knowledge for surgical techniques that will minimize morbidity (pain, muscular dysfunction, nerve damage) in swine for...that will minimize morbidity (pain, muscular dysfunction, nerve damage) in swine for future studies. (2) Phase I study will be performed on one (1...vomiting, early satiety, bloating/ distension in patients with gastroparesis and/or gastrointestinal motor dysfunction. Technical ARnroach: The

  20. Diabetes and Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some in the family will have celiac disease. • Symptoms of celiac disease vary widely, but are often absent in persons ... Abnormal labs XX Diabetes and Celiac Disease | continued CELIAC DISEASE Classic symptoms... Gas, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, weight loss, anemia. ...

  1. What Is Celiac Disease? How Do I Live with It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaska, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Celiac disease, also known as celiac sprue, is a hereditary, autoimmune disease that causes a sensitivity to gluten, which is a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. The key symptoms of celiac disease are diarrhea, constipation, gas, bloating, backaches, stomachaches, nausea, anemia, fatigue, osteoporosis, stunted growth in children, and weight…

  2. Over the Counter Laxatives for Constipation: Use with Caution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use with caution Laxatives can help relieve and prevent constipation. But not all laxatives are safe for long- ... of intestinal muscles Bloating, gas, cramping or increased constipation if not taken with enough water Oral stool softeners (Colace, Surfak) Add moisture to ...

  3. Current Economic Issues in Employee Benefits. Background Paper No. 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Stephen A.

    A multitude of public policy issues currently surround the tax treatment of employee benefits, particularly since the tax-favored status of employer contributions to pensions and health insurance has been blamed for a shrinking tax base that has exacerbated the federal budget deficit, an inefficient and bloated health-care sector, overinsurance by…

  4. A Wealth of Data, and Nobody in Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernsey, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Colleges capture a slew of highly sensitive information on everyone on campus. While chief privacy officer has become a recognized title in the corporate world, higher education seems slow to pick up on the trend--a reluctance that could represent either head-in-the-sand thinking or fiscally prudent avoidance of bureaucratic bloat. This article…

  5. The Allocation of Lottery Revenue to Education in Florida, California, Michigan, and Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Pamela J.

    1991-01-01

    Explores the public's misconception about lotteries' intended purpose and actual use. To avoid attacks on its legitimacy (and bloated bureaucratic structure), government is relying on lotteries as policy tools. Generating public funds through lotteries appears to meet education's needs while masking the relative drop in tax-based public finance.…

  6. Health and performance of calves with forestomach-bypass fed milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, D M; Cason, J L; Albert, T F; Sass, B

    1976-02-01

    Ten male Holstein calves were placed in groups of two calves each on similarity of age. On calf in each group was subjected to forestomach-bypass surgery at about 1 mo of age. Fortified commercial milk replacer with added minerals and vitamins was fed as the sole diet. The calves were housed indoors on slatted platforms. Weight gain was determined biweekly. Feed intake was determined daily. Necropsies were performed upon termination of the study. Recurrent ruminal bloat, fever, and anorexia of varying degrees and combinations occurred in four of the calves with forestomach bypass. Two of these calves showed slow weight gain. One of the four calves died following acute bloat while the other three calves were sacrificed following repeated episodes of bloat. The time of termination varied between 3 and 10 mo. One calf with forestomach bypass and all control calves appeared healthy throughout the experiment. Necropsies indicated that the ruminal bloat, seen in most of the forestomach-bypass calves, could be attributed to the back-flow of ingesta via the omasal-abomasal orifice. This ingesta appeared to produce gas which became trapped in the bypassed rumen.

  7. Rumen distension and contraction influence feed preference by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, J J; Provenza, F D; Stott, R

    2009-01-01

    Distension of the rumen limits feed intake by livestock. Ruminal dysfunctions due to bloat, which causes distension by accumulation of excessive gas within the rumen, also reduce feeding. We hypothesized that excessive levels of rumen distension cause feed aversions and that preference increases for feeds eaten in association with recovery from bloat. To test these hypotheses, we determined whether 12 commercial crossbred lambs (average initial BW of 43 +/- 2 kg) could associate ingestion of specific feeds with the consequences of increased intraruminal pressure and its subsidence. Six of the lambs were fitted with rumen cannulas and offered ground alfalfa for 30 min after a rubber balloon was inserted into the rumen of each animal and distended with air to volumes of 1.8, 2.5, or 4.5 L. Subsequently, balloons were deflated and alfalfa was offered again for a second period of 30 min. Feed intake was not affected when the balloon was not distended (P = 0.45 to 0.93), but distension reduced feed intake (P rumen distension (P = 0.17 to P = 0.87). Thus, rumen distension and recovery from distension induced feed aversions and preferences, respectively, which may be critical in learning avoidance of bloat-inducing plants and preferences for plants and supplements that relieve the incidence of bloat.

  8. East Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-22

    administrative system of government, by its very nature, leads to an endless bloating of administrative staff. And once created, the bureaucratic...Docent Ivan Stefanov, Engineer Zhelyazko Vlaykov, Petko Petkov and Instructor Engineer Rumen Nedkov, 68 JPRS-EER-86-107 22 July 1986 and Student

  9. Diversity of condensed tannin structures affects rumen in vitro methane production in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) accessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Hayot Carbonero, C.; Stringano, E.; Sales, L. F.; Smith, L. M J; Mueller-Harvey, I.; Hendriks, W. H.; Pellikaan, W. F.

    2015-01-01

    Sainfoin is a non-bloating temperate forage legume with a moderate-to-high condensed tannin (CT) content. This study investigated whether the diversity of sainfoin accessions in terms of CT structures and contents could be related to rumen in vitro gas and methane (CH4) production and fermentation

  10. Dysphagia after Nissen fundoplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breumelhof, R.; Fellinger, H. W.; Vlasblom, V.; Jansen, A.; Smout, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    Nissen fundoplication is a commonly used antireflux operation. After this operation symptoms such as dysphagia, inability to belch and vomit, and gas bloating are frequently reported in the literature. In 32 patients who underwent Nissen fundoplication 3.5-18 years ago, postprocedure dysphagia was

  11. Poverty, Job Quality and Labor Market Dynamics in the Middle East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The problem is compounded by youthful populations, low quality education, bloated public sectors and low productivity levels in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). This project will ... Morocco conforms to Egypt to a significant degree. Jordan offers an ... Impact of labor market reforms on informality in Egypt. Documents.

  12. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the hour before you compete or have practice because digestion requires energy — energy that you want to use to win. Also, eating too soon before any kind of activity can leave food in the stomach, making you feel full, bloated, ...

  13. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... digestion, so it's a good idea to avoid eating these foods for a few hours before and after exercising. ... that you want to use to win. Also, eating too soon before any kind of activity can leave food in the stomach, making you feel full, bloated, ...

  14. Aqueous Root Extract in Loperamide- Induced Constipated Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    central nervous system (CNS) depressant action of the plant has ... administration was done using metal oropharyngeal ... weight of constipated rats before treatment. .... constipation, abdominal bloating and refractory ... found in the plasma membrane and endoplasmic .... induced production of prostaglandins in rat isolated.

  15. Altered Brain Microstructure Assessed by Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus and Gastrointestinal Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Andersen, Lars Wiuff; Brock, Christina

    2012-01-01

    = 0.002) insula. No difference was found in corpus callosum (P > 0.05). The microstructural changes in some areas correlated with clinical parameters such as bloating (anterior insula), mental well-being (anterior insula, prefrontal cortex, and mid-cingulated and corona radiata), autonomic function...

  16. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Treatments IBS Diet What to Do and What to Avoid Foods That Cause Cramping and Diarrhea Foods that Cause Gas and Bloating Dietary Fiber 12 Week Elimination Diet for IBS Rice-Based Foods Low-FODMAP Diet What Are FODMAPs? Effects of FODMAPs on the Gut ...

  17. Fibre intake and faeces quality in leaf-eating primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Joeke

    2006-01-01

    A high incidence of gastrointestinal disorders as diarrhea, phytobezoars, bloated conditions and weight loss have been observed in captive langurs. This thesis focuses on the effect of the food intake in captive langurs in relation to the quality of faeces and its implications for langurs kept in

  18. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... digestion requires energy — energy that you want to use to win. Also, eating too soon before any kind of activity can leave food in the stomach, making you feel full, bloated, crampy, and sick. Everyone is different, so get to know what works best for you. You may want to experiment ...

  19. Use of labelled water in studies on the nutrition and physiology of grazing ruminants in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of isotopic water in animal production studies on grazing ruminants in New Zealand are described. These include the seasonal and nutritional effects on water metabolism of dairy cattle and meat breeds of sheep, milk intakes of calves and lambs, and individual intakes of dietary supplements to control diseases such as hypomagnesaemia, bloat and facial eczema. (author)

  20. High forage quality helps maintain resilience to gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condensed tannins (CT) in browse and forage plants can have positive or negative effects on livestock health and performance, depending on the type and concentration of CT present in the diet. Historically, bloating in ruminants was reduced or eliminated when grazing legumes that contained CT. Con...

  1. The Cost of Chaos in the Curriculum. Perspectives on Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi Phillips, Elizabeth D.; Poliakoff, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    ACTA's report "The Cost of Chaos in the Curriculum" reveals that the vast array of course choices given to college students is a cause of exploding costs and poor academic outcomes. And a bloated undergraduate curriculum is particularly detrimental to the success of students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. The report documents how…

  2. A Randomised Controlled Trial on hypnotherapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: design and methodological challenges (the IMAGINE study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flik, Carla E.; van Rood, Yanda R.; Laan, Wijnand; Smout, André J. P. M.; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Whorwell, Peter J.; de Wit, Niek J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common gastro-intestinal disorder in primary and secondary care, characterised by abdominal pain, discomfort, altered bowel habits and/or symptoms of bloating and distension. In general the efficacy of drug therapies is poor. Hypnotherapy as well as

  3. Terrestrial laser scanning and a degenerated cylinder model to determine gross morphological change of cadavers under conditions of natural decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Glennie, Craig L; Bucheli, Sibyl R; Lindgren, Natalie K; Lynne, Aaron M

    2014-08-01

    Decomposition can be a highly variable process with stages that are difficult to quantify. Using high accuracy terrestrial laser scanning a repeated three-dimensional (3D) documentation of volumetric changes of a human body during early decomposition is recorded. To determine temporal volumetric variations as well as 3D distribution of the changed locations in the body over time, this paper introduces the use of multiple degenerated cylinder models to provide a reasonable approximation of body parts against which 3D change can be measured and visualized. An iterative closest point algorithm is used for 3D registration, and a method for determining volumetric change is presented. Comparison of the laser scanning estimates of volumetric change shows good agreement with repeated in-situ measurements of abdomen and limb circumference that were taken diurnally. The 3D visualizations of volumetric changes demonstrate that bloat is a process with a beginning, middle, and end rather than a state of presence or absence. Additionally, the 3D visualizations show conclusively that cadaver bloat is not isolated to the abdominal cavity, but also occurs in the limbs. Detailed quantification of the bloat stage of decay has the potential to alter how the beginning and end of bloat are determined by researchers and can provide further insight into the effects of the ecosystem on decomposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physical signs and symptoms Joint or muscle pain Headache Fatigue Weight gain related to fluid retention Abdominal bloating Breast tenderness Acne flare-ups Constipation or diarrhea Alcohol intolerance For some, the physical pain and emotional stress are severe enough to affect their daily lives. ...

  5. Vaginal Bleeding In 6 Years Old Young Female: Diagnostic Challenge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 6 year old young girl was referred to Mendefera (Zoba Debub Referral) Hospital with vaginal bleeding of 4 days duration. She had a history of swimming in a river prior to the incident. An aquatic leech bloated with blood detached from the vagina after 100 milliliters of normal saline flushing into the vagina. The patient was ...

  6. Waist-High and Knee-Deep: Humane Learning beyond Polemics and Precincts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, Chris Higgins sets out to disentangle the tradition of humane learning from contemporary distinctions and debates. The first section demonstrates how a bloated and incoherent "humanism" now functions primarily as a talisman or a target, that is, as a prompt to choose sides. It closes with the image of Doris Salcedo's…

  7. Food Allergies and Australian Combat Ration Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    intestine, but passes into the colon where fermentation of the remaining lactose occurs. The symptoms that result include flatulence, bloating, diarrhoea...without dairy products, available calcium would be even more limited. Soy derivatives are commonly used in food processing as thickeners, protein

  8. Malignt peritonealt mesoteliom er en sjælden sygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anja; Pedersen, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is characterized by diffuse symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain, weight loss, anorexia, fever, diarrhoea, vomiting and ascites. The findings by radiographic imaging are unspecific and the diagnosis is therefore often first achieved by biopsy from the affected...

  9. Staphylococcal milk poisoning in calves | Ngatia | Kenya Veterinarian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty out of 89 dairy calves fed on unsold raw milk returned from the fresh milk market, became sick within one hour after consuming the milk. The main clinical signs observed were sudden collapse, bloating, tetany, and diarrhea, seven of the sick calves died and two were submitted for necropsy. Postmortem findings ...

  10. Inclusion of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage in dairy cow rations affects nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, energy balance, and methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, N.T.; Desrues, O.; Alferink, S.J.J.; Zandstra, T.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a tanniniferous legume forage that has potential nutritional and health benefits preventing bloating, reducing nematode larval establishment, improving N utilization, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of sainfoin as a fodder crop in dairy

  11. Inclusion of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage in dairy cow rations affects nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, energy balance, and methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, N. T.; Desrues, O.; Alferink, S. J. J.; Zandstra, T.; Verstegen, M. W. A.; Hendriks, W. H.; Pellikaan, W. F.

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a tanniniferous legume forage that has potential nutritional and health benefits preventing bloating, reducing nematode larval establishment, improving N utilization, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of sainfoin as a fodder crop in dairy cow

  12. The role of fermentable carbohydrates and beverages in the symptomatology of functional gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moding, Magnus; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2017-11-01

    The pathophysiology behind functional gastrointestinal disease (FGID) has not been defined, but an intestinal accumulation of fermentable short-chain carbohydrates (FODMAPs) is thought to be involved. A restricted coffee intake is recommended. The aim was to investigate if symptoms of FGID were associated with intake of certain foods (including FODMAPs), as well as beverages (including coffee and tea). Data were used from participants, age range 45-75 years, who had answered the EpiHealth questionnaire about their background factors, health status and intake of food and beverages. After exclusion of organic bowel diseases, 16,840 participants remained. The impact of food and beverages on functional abdominal pain, functional bloating, functional constipation and functional diarrhea were examined by adjusted binary logistic regression. Wholemeal bread (Swedish cracker) (OR: 1.361; 95% CI: 1.001-1.851) and white bread (low fiber content) (OR: 1.527; 95% CI: 1.075-2.169) were associated with constipation, whereas soft wholemeal bread (high fiber content) was associated with diarrhea (OR: 1.601; 95% CI: 1.040-2.463). Cheese was associated with bloating (OR: 1.460; 95% CI: 1.004-2.123). A high tea intake was associated with abdominal pain (p for trend =.003), bloating (p for trend = .039) and diarrhea (p for trend <.001), whereas coffee intake was associated with a decreased risk of abdominal pain (p for trend = .002) and bloating (p for trend = .007). High soda intake associated with abdominal pain and bloating and juice with diarrhea. There are weak associations between intake of grain and dairy products and FGID symptoms. Tea is associated with increased risks, whereas coffee is associated with lower risks, of FGID symptoms.

  13. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial on efficacy and safety of association of simethicone and Bacillus coagulans (Colinox®) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgesi, R; Casale, C; Pistelli, R; Rapaccini, G L; de Vitis, I

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disorder that affects 15-20% of the Western population. There are currently few therapeutic options available for the treatment of IBS. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of a medical device containing a combination of Simethicone and Bacillus coagulans in the treatment of IBS. This is a monocentric double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group clinical trial. Adult subjects suffering from IBS as defined by Rome III criteria were enrolled. Bloating, discomfort, abdominal pain were assessed as primary end point. Subjects received the active treatment or placebo 3 time a day after each meal for 4 weeks of study period. Subjects were submitted to visit at Day 0 (T1), at Days 14 (T2) and 29 (T3). Fifty-two patients were included into the study. Intragroup analysis showed a significant reduction of the bloating, discomfort and pain in Colinox® group (CG) compared to placebo group (PG). Between group analysis confirmed, at T1-T3, significant differences between CG and PG in bloating and discomfort. Simethicone is an inert antifoaming able to reduce bloating, abdominal discomfort. Literature offers increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS and it is well known that probiotics are important to restore the native gut microbiota. The Colinox medical device is specifically targeted against most intrusive symptom of IBS (bloating) and it is also able to counteract the most accredited ethiopathogenetic factor in IBS (alterations of intestinal microbiota). This is the first randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial demonstrating the efficacy and safety of a combination of simethicone and Bacillus coagulans in treatment of IBS.

  14. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients.

  15. Acute oral administration of lauric acid reduces energy intake in healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feltrin, K. L.; Brennan, I.M.; Rades, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    12 would result in a dose-related suppression of appetite and subsequent energy intake at breakfast and lunch. Methods 14 healthy men were studied on four separate occasions in double-blind, randomised fashion. Following ingestion of C12 (2 g (77 kJ), 4 g (153 kJ), or 6 g (230 kJ)) or control, energy...... intake at breakfast (30 min after C12 ingestion), perceptions of appetite, nausea and bloating (for 180 min following breakfast), and energy intake at lunch (180 min after breakfast), were measured. Results C12 ingestion did not induce nausea or bloating. While there was no effect of C12 on energy intake...... at breakfast, energy intake at lunch was reduced significantly after ingestion of both C12(2 g) (by 13.7%, P

  16. Lactose Intolerance and the Irritable Colon

    OpenAIRE

    McSherry, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Symptoms of lactase deficiency include nausea, abdominal pain, distension, bloating and diarrhea after ingesting foods which contain lactose. Lactose intolerance and bowel motility disorders have similar symptoms, and people with irritable bowel syndrome and unexplained abdominal pain may have lactose intolerance. A definite diagnosis can be made by detecting hydrogen in the breath after a lactose load, by lactase assay from a small bowel biopsy specimen or by lactose intolerance testing. Lac...

  17. The Impact of Globalization on African Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    structuralist viewpoint whilst those from the advanced world would normally expound the liberalist theory . In order to present an unbiased thesis, both...rather than for efficient administration . They thus tended to be exceptionally bloated with excess personnel, causing persistent 8 and debilitating...phenomenon or occurrence in the international stage are theories that help explain it. There are two views on the concept of international political economy

  18. Utilisation of different types of coal fly ash in the production of ceramic tiles

    OpenAIRE

    KocKal, N. U.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of varying proportions of different types of fly ash (used in place of feldspar) and different sintering temperatures on the sintered properties of ceramic tile bodies was evaluated. The results indicated that sintering ceramic tiles with a high fly ash content at a high temperature caused a decrease in the properties because of bloating. The ceramic samples containing a higher amount of fly ash that were sintered at low temperature exhibited lower water absorption, larger shrin...

  19. Targeted therapies for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Olden, Kevin W

    2012-01-01

    Kevin W OldenDepartment of Medicine, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients' daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was t...

  20. Convergence of neuro-endocrine-immune pathways in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Maria M; O’Mahony, Siobhain M; O’Malley, Dervla

    2014-01-01

    Disordered signalling between the brain and the gut are generally accepted to underlie the functional bowel disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, partly due to the lack of disease-defining biomarkers, understanding the aetiology of this complex and multifactorial disease remains elusive. This common gastrointestinal disorder is characterised by alterations in bowel habit such as diarrhoea and/or constipation, bloating and abdominal pain, and symptom exacerbation has been linked w...

  1. Immunomodulation of enteric neural function in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    O’Malley, Dervla

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder which is characterised by symptoms such as bloating, altered bowel habit and visceral pain. It’s generally accepted that miscommunication between the brain and gut underlies the changes in motility, absorpto-secretory function and pain sensitivity associated with IBS. However, partly due to the lack of disease-defining biomarkers, understanding the aetiology of this complex and multifactorial disease remains elusi...

  2. Departmental of Clinical Investigation: Annual Research Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1992. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    effect of cisapride on the symptoms of unexplained upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, early satiety, bloating/ distension in patients with...for 30 minutes following eccentric exercise will less the 3 indices of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS): perceived muscular soreness, reduced...post-exercise and the Talag Pain Rating Scale will be used to assess muscular soreness. Progress: No progress report was furnished by the principal

  3. The Use of Gene Modification and Advanced Molecular Structure Analyses towards Improving Alfalfa Forage

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Yaogeng; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Alfalfa is one of the most important legume forage crops in the world. In spite of its agronomic and nutritive advantages, alfalfa has some limitations in the usage of pasture forage and hay supplement. High rapid degradation of protein in alfalfa poses a risk of rumen bloat to ruminants which could cause huge economic losses for farmers. Coupled with the relatively high lignin content, which impedes the degradation of carbohydrate in rumen, alfalfa has unbalanced and asynchronous d...

  4. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of prote...

  5. Annual Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1978 (U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    rumen . In early studies, we noted frequent belching of CO 2 during ventilatory measurements. By withholding grain and hay for 12 hours prior to...gastrointestinal tract. A potential difficulty with this is that the goat might have to breathe against a closed glottis in order to emply the rumen ...of excess gas; tracheostomy might, therefore, lead to bloating . When the above problems are solved, we intend to continue working on phase 2 of the

  6. Pathophysiology and Toxicokinetic Studies of Blue-Green Algae Intoxication in the Swine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-21

    given one hour apart in order to avoid excessive distension of the rumen . The dry weight dosage selected was similar to that which was experimentally...dehydrated. Ruminal atony and mild bloat developed. The three cows that first vent down had low pretreatment blood calcium concentrations of 6.4, 7.5 and...responsive, and weak. The rumen contraction rate slowed from one contraction per minute (predosing) to one contraction every three minutes. The

  7. Environmental Impact Research Program: White Clover (Trifolium repens). Section 7.3.5, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    types where they are common (Kohn and Mooty 1971). Rumen analyses of white-tailed deer in Montana showed that forbs comprised 80% of summer samples...frequency of occurrence in deer rumens collected from January through March in the Northern Black Hills. Bluegrass- white clover meadows are also...CAUTIONS AND LIMITATIONS White clover, like most legumes, occasionally causes bloat in animals, particularly cattle and sheep that have overfilled

  8. Surgery of the Forestomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, Joseph W; Niehaus, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    Indications for rumen surgery include rumen tympany (bloat), toxic plant ingestion, to provide enteral nutrition, to perform elective cannula placement, and to access other forestomach compartments (reticulum/omasum). The rumen is a highly contaminated viscus and special care should be taken to avoid peritoneal contamination from rumen contents. Diseases causing forestomach dysfunction and surgical procedures on the forestomach compartments are discussed here. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Obstruction of the nasal passage caused by a balloon catheter in a calf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkenhuizen, A B

    1993-01-01

    Decompression of the rumen as a supporting symptomatic therapy of recurrent bloat in calves and juvenile cattle is used regularly. The gas should be released for several days. This is facilitated by the use of a balloon stomach tube, which can be left in situ for up to five days. However, the use of this tube is not always without risks, which will be discussed on base of a patient.

  10. DETOMIDINE AND BUTORPHANOL FOR STANDING SEDATION IN A RANGE OF ZOO-KEPT UNGULATE SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bouts, Tim; Dodds, Joanne; Berry, Karla; Arif, Abdi; Taylor, Polly; Routh, Andrew; Gasthuys, Frank

    2017-01-01

    General anesthesia poses risks for larger zoo species, like cardiorespiratory depression, myopathy, and hyperthermia. In ruminants, ruminal bloat and regurgitation of rumen contents with potential aspiration pneumonia are added risks. Thus, the use of sedation to perform minor procedures is justified in zoo animals. A combination of detomidine and butorphanol has been routinely used in domestic animals. This drug combination, administered by remote intramuscular injection, can also be applied...

  11. Dermatomyositis with Calcinosis Cutis Universalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S L Wadhwa

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available An eleven year old child with dermatomyositis and calcinosis cutis universalis is presented. She showed heliotrope bloating of eyelids, Gottrons sign, proximal muscle wasting with contractures and extensive areas of calcification over the shoulder, pelvic girdles and proximal extremities. The dignosis was confirmed by biochemical and histopatholo "cal studies as 91 well as electromyography. High doses of steroids and supportive measures made the patient ambulatory.

  12. Glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissow, Hannelouise

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chemotherapy often causes adverse effects, including pain, bloating, diarrhea, and inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract, which are collectively referred to as mucositis. Unfortunately, no remedy has been found yet to manage these side...... for therapeutic use. In type 2 diabetic and obese patients, GLP secretion is impaired. Elucidating the role of these endogenous hormones could lead to the identification of mucositis risk factors and an alternative preventive therapy for these patients....

  13. The Expanding Universe: Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Don; Nord, Brian

    2014-01-01

    As is true of a far more famous story, it all began a long time ago, in a galaxy far, far away. It even involved a binary star system. A small star, called a white dwarf, had become a burned out husk of its former self and it turned to gorging on hydrogen and helium from its bloated red giant neighbor. The transferred gas reignited the fires of…

  14. Fibre intake and faeces quality in leaf-eating primates

    OpenAIRE

    Nijboer, Joeke

    2006-01-01

    A high incidence of gastrointestinal disorders as diarrhea, phytobezoars, bloated conditions and weight loss have been observed in captive langurs. This thesis focuses on the effect of the food intake in captive langurs in relation to the quality of faeces and its implications for langurs kept in captivity. According to the literature colobines have a compartmentalized stomach in which food is fermented. The structure and size of the hindgut suggests that fermentation also can take place ther...

  15. Functional disorders of the stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, K. L.; Stern, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Gastroenterologists frequently encounter patients who report vague epigastric discomforts or sensations of fullness, bloating, and distention in the upper abdomen. The discomfort is neither burning in character nor severe in intensity; there is no nocturnal pain. The epigastric location of discomfort and lack of radiation may help to exclude biliary tract and pancreatic diseases. Nausea may be present, but there is little or no vomiting. After these patients ingest liquids or solid foods, the symptoms of easy filling or early satiety and increasing discomfort and nausea are almost always present. The patient may only report "indigestion," but a specific chief complaint, such as pain, discomfort, nausea, or bloating may be elicited with further inquiries. Solid foods usually provoke more symptoms than do liquids. Symptoms of early satiety, nausea, bloating, and abdominal discomfort may culminate in the vomiting of undigested food. These vague upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms have been termed "dyspepsia." When peptic diseases of the stomach are excluded, the symptom complex has been called "nonulcer" dyspepsia, a vague syndrome with symptoms attributed to stomach dysfunction. Nonulcer dyspepsia has been reviewed recently. Such symptoms, commonly attributed to a "functional" disorder, are very common in clinical practice, with an incidence of 30% of patients. In this review, we will discuss an approach to the evaluation and treatment of patients with symptoms of nausea, early satiety, bloating, and vague epigastric discomfort--dyspeptic symptoms associated with functional stomach disorders. We will review the anatomy and motility of the stomach and suggest potential neuromuscular malfunctions of the stomach that may result in epigastric symptoms. The potential role of stress and other brain-gut interactions, which may underlie these symptoms, will also be reviewed.

  16. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris Irene

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain/discomfort, altered bowel habits and abdominal bloating/distension. This review aimed at presenting the recent developments concerning the role of diet in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, and there is no evidence that gluten causes the debated new diagnosis of non-coel...

  17. The impact of laxative use upon symptoms in patients with proven slow transit constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinning Phil G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constipation severity is often defined by symptoms including feelings of complete evacuation, straining, stool frequency and consistency. These descriptors are mostly obtained in the absence of laxative use. For many constipated patients laxative usage is ubiquitous and long standing. Our aim was to determine the impact of laxative use upon the stereotypic constipation descriptors. Methods Patients with confirmed slow transit constipation completed 3-week stool diaries, detailing stool frequency and form, straining, laxative use and pain and bloating scores. Each diary day was classified as being under laxative affect (laxative affected days or not (laxative unaffected days. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the affects of laxatives on constipation symptoms. Results Ninety four patients with scintigraphically confirmed slow transit constipation were enrolled in the study. These patients reported a stool frequency of 5.6 ± 4.3 bowel motions/week, only 21 patients reported P P Conclusions The reporting of frequent and loose stools with abdominal pain and/or bloating is common in patients with slow transit constipation. While laxative use is a significant contributor to altering stool frequency and form, laxatives have no apparent affect on pain or bloating or upon a patients feeling of complete evacuation. These factors need to be taken into account when using constipation symptoms to define this population.

  18. Development of porous ceramsite from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Wu, Jian-Zhi; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2013-01-01

    The disposal of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has become a serious problem in China due to the rapid increase of Chinese construction industry in recent years. In the present study, typical C&D waste was employed for ceramsite fabrication so as to find a new way for its effective recycling. A novel process was developed for manufacturing high-quality porous ceramsite according to the special chemical composition and properties of C&D waste. Most importantly, a unique bloating agent was developed for the porous structure formation since it was difficult to obtain a suitable porous structure using traditional bloating agents. The effects of processing parameters such as sintering temperature, heating rate and soaking time were investigated, and the bloating mechanism for ceramsite was discussed. The C&D waste ceramsite (CDWC), with high-intensity, low density and homogeneous mechanical properties, was much more suitable for application in the construction field. This study provides a practical process for efficient recycling of the rapidly increasing quantities of C&D waste.

  19. Epidemiology of uninvestigated gastrointestinal symptoms in adolescents: a population-based study applying the Rome II questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Sahand; Nouraie, Mehdi; Khademi, Hooman; Baghizadeh, Somayyeh; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2010-07-01

    : Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in early life contribute to a lower quality of life and more persistent GI symptoms during the rest of life. Epidemiologic data on adolescence GI disorders are scarce. We aimed to perform a population-based study to assess the prevalence of GI symptoms in adolescents and their relation to sex, age, and socioeconomic status. : A multistage random sample of Tehran middle and high school students (ages 14-19 years) was selected. A validated Persian version of the Rome II questionnaire was used to measure the frequency of different GI disorders as well as demographic socioeconomic variables. : A total of 1436 participants were enrolled in the study, 736 (51.3%) of whom were men. Mean (SD) age was 16.9 (1.8) years. The frequency of at least 1 GI symptom was 32.4%. The 4 most prevalent GI symptoms were bloating (16.9%), heartburn (4.9%), incontinence (4.3%), and irritable bowel syndrome (4.1%). Bloating, irritable bowel syndrome, and proctalgia fugax were significantly more common in girls (P < 0.05). Incontinence was significantly more prevalent in lower socioeconomic status levels (P = 0.01). In logistic regression, age was a risk factor for abdominal bloating and dysphagea and a protective factor for incontinence. : Our study indicates that GI symptoms are common among adolescents. Girls are more prone to these disorders. Special psychological and medical interventions are necessary for high-risk groups.

  20. Evaluating symptom outcomes in gastroparesis clinical trials: validity and responsiveness of the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary (GCSI-DD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revicki, D A; Camilleri, M; Kuo, B; Szarka, L A; McCormack, J; Parkman, H P

    2012-05-01

    Patient-reported symptom scales are needed to evaluate treatments for gastroparesis. The Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary (GCSI-DD) was developed to assess daily symptoms of gastroparesis. This study evaluated the validity and responsiveness of the GCSI-DD in patients with gastroparesis. Symptomatic patients were started with a new treatment for gastroparesis. Patients completed the GCSI-DD each evening during a baseline week and for 8 weeks of treatment. Responders were defined based on patient and clinician global rating of change. Minimal important differences (MID) were estimated based on baseline to 4 week changes in symptoms scores for small improvements. Of 69 patients participating, 46 had idiopathic, 19 diabetic, and four postfundoplication gastroparesis. Excellent test-retest reliability was seen for GCSI-DD scores, and there were significant correlations between GCSI-DD scores and clinician ratings of symptom severity. Responders to treatment reported improvements in nausea [effect size (ES) = 0.42, P < 0.001], postprandial fullness, ES = 0.83, P < 0.001), bloating (ES = 0.34, P < 0.001), early satiety (ES = 0.53, P < 0.001), but lower responses for upper abdominal pain (ES = 0.29), and vomiting (ES = 0.22; P = 0.119). MIDs were 0.55 for nausea, 0.97 for excessive fullness, 0.63 for bloating, 0.77 for postprandial fullness, and 0.30 for abdominal pain. A composite score of four symptoms (Composite-1; nausea, bloating, excessive fullness, postprandial fullness) had ES of 0.61 and MID of 0.73. Composite-2 score (nausea, early satiety, bloating, abdominal pain) had a lower ES of 0.47. Symptoms of early satiety, nausea, postprandial fullness, and bloating were responsive to treatment for gastroparesis. A composite of these symptoms also demonstrates validity and responsiveness to treatment for gastroparesis, and may represent an acceptable endpoint for evaluating the effectiveness of medical treatments in clinical trials for gastroparesis.

  1. Use of rifaxamin in patients of irritable bowel syndrome with pre dominant diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathor, R.; Butt, N.F.; Iqbal, A.; Alam, I.

    2013-01-01

    To find out the effect of Rifixamin in patients of irritable bowel syndrome with predominant diarrhea. Material and methods.: This study was carried out from January 2012 to September 2012 on patients presenting to medical OPD of Mayo Hospital, Lahore. Study design: It is descriptive type of study. Result: Out of 30 patients presenting to medical OPD with diagnosis of diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome 18 (60%) were females and 12 (40 %) were males. The age of the patients were between 13-38 years. All the patients were prescribed Tab. Rifaximin 550 mg three times a day for 14 days and were assessed for their complaints like diarrhea its frequency and consistency using 5 point scale for stool consistency, abdominal pain and abdominal bloating using Li Kert scoring. The patients were assessed for their complaints on day 15 and again after 2 months. It was found out that out of 30 patients 18 (60%), patients showed improvement in their global symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome at 15 day of follow up, but at 2 months of follow up out of 18 (60%) patients who responded to Rifaximin treatment at 15 day only 12 (40%) patients reported to have consistent improvement in symptoms while 6 (20%) patients again developed, diarrhea abdominal pain and bloating 2 (6%) patients left the study at 3rd day of treatment due to increase in frequency of diarrhea. It was observed that drug was more effective in females and older individuals. Out of 18 patients who responded 11 (61%)were females and the patients were of relatively of older age. Conclusion: It was found out that treatment with Rifaximin provided significant relief of IBS symptoms, bloating abdominal pain and diarrhea. (author)

  2. A randomised clinical trial (RCT) of a symbiotic mixture in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): effects on symptoms, colonic transit and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Carmelina; Tremolaterra, Fabrizio; Pascariello, Annalisa; Ciacci, Carolina; Iovino, Paola

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is to test in a double-blinded, randomised placebo-controlled study the effects of a commercially available multi-strain symbiotic mixture on symptoms, colonic transit and quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients who meet Rome III criteria. There is only one other double-blinded RCT on a single-strain symbiotic mixture in IBS. This is a double-blinded, randomised placebo-controlled study of a symbiotic mixture (Probinul, 5 g bid) over 4 weeks after 2 weeks of run-in. The primary endpoints were global satisfactory relief of abdominal flatulence and bloating. Responders were patients who reported at least 50 % of the weeks of treatment with global satisfactory relief. The secondary endpoints were change in abdominal bloating, flatulence, pain and urgency by a 100-mm visual analog scale, stool frequency and bowel functions on validated adjectival scales (Bristol Scale and sense of incomplete evacuation). Pre- and post-treatment colonic transit time (Metcalf) and quality of life (SF-36) were assessed. Sixty-four IBS patients (symbiotic n = 32, 64 % females, mean age 38.7 ± 12.6 years) were studied. This symbiotic mixture reduced flatulence over a 4-week period of treatment (repeated-measures analysis of covariance, p symbiotic group. This symbiotic mixture has shown a beneficial effect in decreasing the severity of flatulence in IBS patients, a lack of adverse events and a good side-effect profile; however, it failed to achieve an improvement in global satisfactory relief of abdominal flatulence and bloating. Further studies are warranted.

  3. [The diet low in fermentable carbohydrates short chain and polyols improves symptoms in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamán, José Wálter; Felip, Ana; Guedea, Elena; Jansana, Marta; Videla, Sebastián; Saperas, Esteban

    2015-03-01

    Successful treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often remains elusive. Recent studies in Australia, the United Kingdom and New Zealand have suggested the efficacy of a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in the management of these patients. The aims of this study were to determine whether a diet low in FODMAPs improves symptoms in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) in Spain and to analyze the predictors of a good response. A prospective study was carried out in consecutive patients with FGID type IBS and functioanl abdominal bloating. At inclusion all patients underwent an assessment through a baseline demographic questionnaire of symptoms of anxiety and depression and quality of life. A hydrogen breath test with lactose and fructose was performed and a low FODMAPs diet was indicated for 2 months by expert dietitians. These tests were taken as a reference. A positive response was defined as an improvement of at least 5 points out of a possible 10 in the symptom questionnaire. We included 30 patients (24 women, 39 [12] years). The response to the low FODMAPs diet was positive in controlling overall symptoms and specific symptoms such as functioanl abdominal bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, flatulence, nausea and fatigue in more than 70% of patients (P.05). Adherence to the diet was good in 87% of patients and was a predictor of positive response in the univariate analysis. A diet low in FODMAPs is associated with symptom improvement in patients with IBS and functioanl abdominal bloating. Adherence to the diet was a determining factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  4. Extended Cognition: Feedback Loops and Coupled Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Markic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores two waves of active externalism. I first introduce the distinction between passive and active externalism and analyse a proposal of active externalism based on the principle of parity proposed by Clark and Chalmers. There are two main obstacles, causal-constitution fallacy and cognitive bloat, that threaten the extended cognition hypothesis. The second wave of discussions based on the complementarity principle deals with cognitive systems with feedback loops between internal and external elements and is a more radical departure from functionalism and traditional thinking about cognition. I conclude with some remarks on potential ethical considerations of extended cognition.

  5. Feeding, evaluating, and controlling rumen function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Ian J; Golder, Helen M; Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Achieving optimal rumen function requires an understanding of feeds and systems of nutritional evaluation. Key influences on optimal function include achieving good dry matter intake. The function of feeds in the rumen depends on other factors including chemical composition, rate of passage, degradation rate of the feed, availability of other substrates and cofactors, and individual animal variation. This article discusses carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism in the rumen, and provides practical means of evaluation of rations in the field. Conditions under which rumen function is suboptimal (ie, acidosis and bloat) are discussed, and methods for control examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Mesenteric cyst in the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño, Lima, Peru: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucho, Janetliz; Ormeño, Alexis; Valdivieso Falcon, Lidia; Pereyra, Sonia; Ramos Rodríguez, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal tumors. About 60% of these cysts occurs before 5 years of age and can be located anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract, but are most often found in the small bowel mesentery. The clinical presentation depends on the location and size of the cyst and many cases are asymptomatic and are diagnosed incidentally. The most common symptoms are abdominal pain, bloating, abdominal mass, nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, weight loss, fever and peritonitis. Complications include torsion, infarction, volvulus formation, perforation, infection, anemia, intracystic hemorrhage, intestinal obstruction and obstructive uropathy. They are typically treated by simple excision, marsupialization or segmental bowel resection and have excellent long-term prognosis.

  7. Toxicosis in dairy cattle exposed to poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) in hay: isolation of Conium alkaloids in plants, hay, and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galey, F D; Holstege, D M; Fisher, E G

    1992-01-01

    Cattle in two herds developed signs of bloating, increased salivation and lacrimation, depression, respiratory distress, ataxia, and death after ingestion of hay that contained large amounts of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum). Twenty of 30 Angus cows and calves were affected in the first herd (2 died). In the second herd, 5 of 30 Holstein heifers were affected (1 died). The Conium alkaloids, coniine and gamma-coniceine, were quantified in the hay, the plants from the responsible hayfield, and the urine of affected animals.

  8. Creating Flash advertising from concept to tracking-microsites, video ads and more

    CERN Document Server

    Fincanon, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Create awe-inspiring, mind-blowing Flash ads and microsites that engage consumers and demonstrate their worth to clients. The Hands-On Guide to Creating Flash Advertising delivers the nuts and bolts of the development process from initial design conception to ad completion. You'll learn the best practices for:* Mastering the myriad of ad specs, deadlines, quality and version control issues* Creating ads that balance campaign goals with design constraints* Preparing and building ads with team and QC standards* Using forms and data in ads without file bloat* File optimization techniques for swf

  9. Kronisk obstipation og betydning af livsstilsfaktorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Mette; Qvist, Niels; Raahave, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    First-line treatment of constipation includes dietary fibre, fluid and exercise. The evidence for these recommendations is, however, scarce. Increased intake of fibre will reduce colonic transit time and improve the frequency and consistency of stools in 50% of patients. Bloating and flatulence...... are common side effects to highly fermentable fibres. Daily intake of 2 l of water enhances the positive effects of fibre and 30 min. exercise per day also alleviates symptoms. Conservative treatment is usually insufficient and should be supplemented with laxatives or motility enhancing drugs....

  10. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: do we need to treat it? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsóri, Gábor; Illés, Dóra; Terzin, Viktória; Ivány, Emese; Czakó, László

    2018-05-17

    The exocrine and endocrine pancreata are very closely linked both anatomically and physiologically. Abdominal symptoms such as nausea, bloating, diarrhea, steatorrhea, and weight loss can often occur in diabetic patients. Impairments of the exocrine pancreatic function seem to be a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus; however, they are largely overlooked. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the current concepts of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (PEI) in diabetes mellitus. The prevalence and symptoms of PEI in diabetes mellitus, the pathomechanism, and difficulties of diagnosis and therapy of PEI are summarized in this systematic review. Copyright © 2018 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Endometrial and cervical metastases leading to the diagnosis of a primary breast cancer: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Chupryna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer can metastasize to a vast array of organs, but in rare cases cancer can form secondary lesions in the uterus and cervix. In our case report we have a 56 years old female with gynaecologic bleeding, bloating, and difficulty in breathing, fatigue, weakness and polyuria. After performing of dilatation and curettage the result was endometrial and cervical metastases which show histopathological and immunohistochemical results suggesting invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast that leads to primary breast cancer. The treatment was estimated on the basis of her status.

  12. Diverticular disease: A therapeutic overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursi, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Formation of colonic diverticula, via herniation of the colonic wall, is responsible for the development of diverticulosis. When diverticulosis becomes symptomatic, it becomes diverticular disease. Diverticular disease is common in Western and industrialized countries, and it is associated with numerous abdominal symptoms (including pain, bloating, nausea, diarrhea, and constipation). Standard medical therapies with antibiotics are currently recommended for patients affected by diverticular disease. However, changing concepts on the pathophysiology of the disease suggest that diverticular disease may share many of the hallmarks of inflammatory bowel diseases. On this basis, the addition of therapies using mesalazine and probiotics may enhance treatment efficacy by shortening the course of the disease and preventing recurrences. PMID:21577292

  13. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Blastocystis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadime Eroğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blastocystis pathogenicity and classification was newly illuminated with molecular genetic studies and recently the parasite was found in the focus of many researchers. Several molecular methods such as; polymerase chain reaction (PCR, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, real-time polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing analyses can be used in genotyping of Blastocystis. Blastocystis parasites may cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, irritability, anorexia, cramps, vomiting, dehydration, insomnia, nausea, loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue symptoms and also could be asymptomatic cases. In this review, it was aimed to summarize the associations between Blastocystis subtypes and pathogenicity.

  15. Primary Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma of the Uterus Manifesting as a Leiomyoma: A Unique Presentation with Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Dewar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of uterine corpus in a 70-years old woman who presented with symptoms of increased urinary frequency and sense of bloating. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI findings were suggestive of a degenerating intramural fibroid. Histological examination of tissue samples obtained during hysteroscopy showed diffuse infiltration of fibrous stroma by atypical enlarged mononuclear cells. Immunohistochemical studies were consistent with the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.Further imaging studies showed no evidence of lymphoma outside the uterus. To our knowledge,this represents the first welldocumented case of primary uterine lymphoma presenting as a leiomyoma on imaging studies.

  16. Clinical response in Mexican patients with irritable bowel syndrome treated with a low diet low in fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez y López, N; Torres-López, E; Zamarripa-Dorsey, F

    2015-01-01

    The low FODMAP diet eliminates carbohydrates and fermentable alcohols because they are not absorbed by the intestine, but are fermented by the microbiota, causing bloating and flatulence. To evaluate the clinical response to the low FODMAP diet in patients with the different clinical subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients attended to at the Gastroenterology Department in 2014 that were diagnosed with IBS based on the Rome III criteria were included in the study. They were managed with a low FODMAP diet for 21 days and their response to the symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, and stool form pre and post-diet were evaluated through the visual analogue scale, Bristol scale, and patient overall satisfaction. The results were analyzed by means, 95% CI, and the Student's t test. Of the 31 patients included in the study, 87% were women and the mean age was 46.48 years. Distribution was: IBS-C 64.5%, IBS-D 22.6%, and IBS-M 12.9%. The score for pain was 6.0 (95% CI 5.04-6.96) and the post-diet score was 2.77 (95% CI 1.60-3.95) (P<.001). The score for bloating was 7.10 (95% CI 6.13-8.06) and the post-diet score was 4.19 (95% CI 2.95-5.44) (P<.001). The score for flatulence was 5.94 (95% CI 4.79-7.08) and the post-diet score was 3.06 (IC95% 1.99-4.14) (P<.001). The pre-diet Bristol Scale result was 3.68 (95% CI 3.14-4.22) and the post-diet result was 4.10 (95% CI 3.66-4.54) (P=.1). The satisfaction percentage was 70.9%. In this first study on a Mexican population with IBS, there was significant improvement of the main symptoms, including pain, bloating, and flatulence after treatment with a low FODMAP diet. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Extending our knowledge of fermentable, short-chain carbohydrates for managing gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jacqueline S

    2013-06-01

    The Monash University low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet is now accepted as an effective strategy for managing symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Australia, with interest expanding across the world. These poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates have been shown to induce IBS symptoms of diarrhea, bloating, abdominal pain, and flatus due to their poor absorption, osmotic activity, and rapid fermentation. Four clinical trials have been published to date, all with significant symptomatic response to the low FODMAP diet. Up to 86% of patients with IBS have achieved relief of overall gastrointestinal symptoms and, more specifically, bloating, flatus, abdominal pain, and altered bowel habit from the approach. This review provides an overview of the low FODMAP diet and summarizes the research to date, emerging concepts, and limitations. FODMAPs are known to be beneficial to bowel health; the importance of this and how this should be considered in the clinical management of IBS is also discussed. A clinical management flowchart is provided to assist nutrition professionals in the use of this approach.

  18. The association between adult-type hypolactasia and symptoms of functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Castagna Wortmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional dyspepsia and lactose intolerance (adult-type hypolactasia, ATH are common conditions that may coexist or even be confounded. Their clinical presentation can be similar, however, lactose intolerance does not form part of the diagnostic investigation of functional dyspepsia. Studies on the association between functional dyspepsia and ATH are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate whether ATH is associated with symptoms of functional dyspepsia. Patients fulfilling the Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional dyspepsia underwent genetic testing for ATH. Dyspeptic symptoms were evaluated and scored according to a validated questionnaire. The diagnostic criteria for ATH was a CC genotype for the -13910C/T polymorphism, located upstream of the lactase gene. The mean scores for dyspeptic symptoms were compared between patients with ATH and those with lactase persistence. A total of 197 functional dyspeptic patients were included in the study. Mean age was 47.7 years and 82.7% patients were women. Eighty-eight patients (44.7% had a diagnosis of ATH. Abdominal bloating scores were higher in ATH patients compared to the lactase persistent patients (P=0.014. The remaining dyspeptic symptom scores were not significantly different between the two groups. The study results demonstrate an association between ATH and bloating in patients with functional dyspepsia.

  19. Recycling of air pollution control residues from municipal solid waste incineration into lightweight aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quina, Margarida J; Bordado, João M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2014-02-01

    This work focuses on the assessment of technological properties and on the leaching behavior of lightweight aggregates (LWA) produced by incorporating different quantities of air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration. Currently this hazardous waste has been mostly landfilled after stabilization/solidification. The LWA were produced by pelletizing natural clay, APC residues as-received from incineration plant, or after a washing treatment, a small amount of oil and water. The pellets were fired in a laboratory chamber furnace over calcium carbonate. The main technological properties of the LWA were evaluated, mainly concerning morphology, bulk and particle densities, compressive strength, bloating index, water adsorption and porosity. Given that APC residues do not own expansive (bloating) properties, the incorporation into LWA is only possible in moderate quantities, such as 3% as received or 5% after pre-washing treatment. The leaching behavior of heavy metals from sintered LWA using water or acid solutions was investigated, and despite the low acid neutralization capacity of the synthetic aggregates, the released quantities were low over a wide pH range. In conclusion, after a washing pre-treatment and if the percentage of incorporation is low, these residues may be incorporated into LWA. However, the recycling of APC residues from MSW incineration into LWA does not revealed any technical advantage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Symptoms of Functional Intestinal Disorders Are Common in Patients with Celiac Disease Following Transition to a Gluten-Free Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, Jocelyn A; Graff, Lesley A; Rigaux, Lisa; Bernstein, Charles N; Leffler, Daniel A; Kelly, Ciarán P; Walker, John R; Duerksen, Donald R

    2017-09-01

    Celiac disease and functional intestinal disorders may overlap, yet the natural history of functional symptoms in patients with celiac disease is unknown. To investigate the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia (FD), and functional bloating (FB) symptoms among patients with celiac disease at diagnosis and during the first year of a gluten-free diet. Adults with a new diagnosis of celiac disease were surveyed at baseline, 6 months and 1 year using standardized measures for intestinal symptoms [Rome III diagnostic questionnaire and celiac symptom index (CSI)] and gluten-free diet adherence [gluten-free eating assessment tool (GF-EAT) and celiac diet adherence test]. At diagnosis, two-thirds fulfilled Rome III diagnostic questionnaire symptom criteria for IBS (52%), functional dyspepsia (27%), and/or functional bloating (9%). One year post-diagnosis, there was high adherence to a gluten-free diet as 93% reported gluten exposure less than once per month on the GF-EAT and only 8% had ongoing celiac disease symptoms (CSI score >45). The rates of those meeting IBS (22%) and functional dyspepsia (8%) symptom criteria both decreased significantly on a gluten-free diet. The prevalence of functional symptoms (any of IBS, FD or FB) at 1 year was 47%. Long-term follow-up of patients with celiac disease is necessary because many patients with celiac disease who are adherent to a gluten-free diet have persistent gastrointestinal symptoms.

  1. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Jonker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems.

  2. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-05-23

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems.

  3. Clinical diseases of the rumen: a physiologist's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, B F

    1983-07-02

    An interpretation of many of the classical signs of ruminal dysfunction is possible by extrapolation from the results of research in rumen physiology. Correlation of motility and ruminal fluid characteristics will often provide a means of establishing the degree, the duration and the differential diagnosis of the dysfunction detected. In the case of disorders of ruminal motility, general anaesthesia and diseases at any sites which produce pain or fever can inhibit the hindbrain reflex centres responsible for evoking primary and secondary cycle contractions of the reticulorumen. Simple indigestion/rumen impaction, vagus indigestion and hypocalcaemic milk fever cause ruminal stasis, probably because they relax the reticuloruminal smooth muscle and hence decrease the reflexly excitable sensory inputs from tension receptors. Grain engorgement/ruminal acidosis and extreme bloat are likely to excite other sensory receptors (epithelial receptors), which reflexly inhibit cyclical motility. Bloat occurs when eructation is inadequate either because the oesophagus is obstructed or because cardiac opening is reflexly inhibited by the presence of ruminal fluid rather than gas at the cardia in conditions of subnormal motility or of leguminous frothing.

  4. Ecology and pathogenicity of gastrointestinal Streptococcus bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Paul; Kwon, Young Min; Ricke, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis is an indigenous resident in the gastrointestinal tracts of both humans and animals. S. bovis is one of the major causes of bacterial endocarditis and has been implicated in the incidence of human colon cancer, possibly due to chronic inflammatory response at the site of intestinal colonization. Certain feeding regimens in ruminants can lead to overgrowth of S. bovis in the rumen, resulting in the over-production of lactate and capsular polysaccharide causing acute ruminal acidosis and bloat, respectively. There are multiple strategies in controlling acute lactic acidosis and bloat. The incidence of the two diseases may be controlled by strict dietary management. Gradual introduction of grain-based diets and the feeding of coarsely chopped roughage decrease the incidence of the two disease entities. Ionophores, which have been used to enhance feed conversion and growth rate in cattle, have been shown to inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria in the rumen. Other methods of controlling lactic acid bacteria in the ruminal environment (dietary supplementation of long-chain fatty acids, induction of passive and active immune responses to the bacteria, and the use of lytic bacteriophages) have also been investigated. It is anticipated that through continued in-depth ecological analysis of S. bovis the characteristics responsible for human and animal pathogenesis would be sufficiently identified to a point where more effective control strategies for the control of this bacteria can be developed.

  5. Painful or Mild-Pain Constipation? A Clinically Useful Alternative to Classification as Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation Versus Functional Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, Michel; Devroede, Ghislain; Mary, Florence; Bon, Cyriaque; Bejou, Bakhtiar; Benamouzig, Robert

    2018-02-28

    Abdominal pain is not used to characterize constipated patients. This study aimed to compare clinical, psychological, and physiological features in patients with IBS-constipation (IBS-C) with those in patients with functional constipation (FC) according to the intensity of abdominal pain. All patients filled a standard Rome III questionnaire. In addition, they indicated the intensity of constipation, diarrhea, bloating, and abdominal pain on a 10-point Likert scale, and their stool form with the Bristol Stool Form Scale. Anxiety and depression were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Physiological evaluation included anorectal manometry and total and segmental colonic transit time. A total of 546 consecutive patients, 245 with IBS-C and 301 with FC, were included. Painful constipation (PFC) was found by cluster analysis and subsequently defined as having a value over four on the Likert scale for abdominal pain. PFC was found in 67% of IBS-C patients and in 22% of FC patients. PFC patients have digestive disorders with greater frequency and report higher levels of constipation and bloating, despite similar stool form. They have higher scores of depression, state and trait anxiety, and shorter terminal transit time than mild-pain constipated patients. Compared to IBS-C patients, PFC patients report higher levels of abdominal pain (P Painful constipation and mild-pain constipation could be an alternative way to identify constipated patients than using the diagnosis of IBS-C and FC for clinical evaluation and drug studies.

  6. Symptom Profiles in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome or Functional Abdominal Pain Compared With Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, James W; Shulman, Robert J; Self, Mariella M; Nurko, Samuel; Saps, Miguel; Saeed, Shehzad A; Bendo, Cristiane B; Patel, Ashish S; Dark, Chelsea Vaughan; Zacur, George M; Pohl, John F

    2015-09-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures of gastrointestinal symptoms are recommended to determine treatment effects for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain (FAP). Study objectives were to compare the symptom profiles of pediatric patients with IBS or FAP with healthy controls and with each other using the PedsQL Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Gastrointestinal Worry Scales, and to establish clinical interpretability of PRO scale scores through identification of minimal important difference (MID) scores. Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Worry Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 154 pediatric patients and 161 parents (162 families; IBS n = 46, FAP n = 119). Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales measuring stomach pain, stomach discomfort when eating, food and drink limits, trouble swallowing, heartburn and reflux, nausea and vomiting, gas and bloating, constipation, blood in poop, and diarrhea were administered along with Gastrointestinal Worry Scales. A matched sample of 447 families with healthy children completed the scales. Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Worry Scales distinguished between patients with IBS or FAP compared with healthy controls (P 1.50) for symptoms indicative of IBS or FAP, demonstrating a broad multidimensional gastrointestinal symptom profile and clinical interpretability with MID scores for individual PRO scales. Patients with IBS manifested more symptoms of constipation, gas and bloating, and diarrhea than patients with FAP. Patients with IBS or FAP manifested a broad gastrointestinal symptom profile compared with healthy controls with large differences, indicating the critical need for more effective interventions to bring patient functioning within the range of healthy functioning.

  7. Frequency of functional bowel disorders among healthy volunteers in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmulson, Max; Ortíz, Orianna; Santiago-Lomeli, Mariana; Gutiérrez-Reyes, Gabriela; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Morgan, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    The frequency of functional bowel disorders (FBD) in Mexico using the Rome II criteria is unknown. The Rome II Modular Questionnaire (RII-MQ) was translated into Spanish in coordination with the Rome Committee and their Latin American program. Volunteers were recruited by advertisement in Mexico City, and administered the RII-MQ. The study population consisted of 324 healthy volunteers, with a mean age of 35.7; 66% were female. The most prevalent disorders were heartburn 35%, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) 35%, functional bloating 21%, proctalgia fugax 21%, and functional constipation 19%. Based on gender, IBS-C was 4 times more frequent in females than males (19 vs. 4.6%) and functional bloating 3 times more frequent (10 vs. 3.7%). Differences according to occupation included a higher prevalence of ulcer-like dyspepsia (p = 0.04), IBS-C (p = 0.018) and proctalgia fugax (p = 0.034) among students. This is the first study to use RII-MQ to determine the prevalence of FBD in urban Mexico. The prevalence of IBS was significant and is related to a number of factors, including the stress of living in an overpopulated city. Selection bias is likely operative. A community-based study is warranted. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Preliminary study of insects associated to indoor body decay in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yardany Ramos-Pastrana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary study of insects associated to indoor body decay in Colombia. This is the first report studying insects associated to indoor body decay process of a white pig (Sus scrofa (Artiodactyla, Suidae in a controlled indoor environment in an urban area of Florencia city, Amazonia Piedmont, Colombia. For a period of 54 days, 9,220 individuals (immature and adults, distributed in 3 orders, 5 families, 10 genera, and 10 species were collected using entomological nets and tweezers. Five decaying stages are described (fresh, bloated, active decay, advanced decay and remains. During the fresh stage we recorded Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819, Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830, Oxysarcodexia sp., Lepidodexia sp. and Lasiophanes sp.; during the bloating stage C. macellaria, C. albiceps, Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819, Hemilucillia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850, Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758, O. aenescens, Oxysarcodexia sp., Lepidodexia sp., Dermestes maculatus De Geer, 1774 and Lasiphanes sp.; during the active decay C. macellaria, C. albiceps, L. eximia, M. domestica, O. aenescens, Lepidodexia sp. D. maculatus and Lasiophanes sp.; during the advanced decay C. macellaria, C. albiceps, M. domestica, Lepidodexia sp. and Lasiophanes sp.; and during the remains stage C. albiceps, D. maculatus and Lasiophanes sp. The insects were sorted out in 3 ecological categories; necrophagous, predators and parasites and sarco-saprophagous. According to Chao and Jack estimators, total richness was observed on day 20, with 100% of the expected species.

  9. Anismus: a marker of multi-site functional disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, Michel; Devroede, Ghislain; Arsac, Michel

    2004-07-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the clinical significance of anismus in patients who complain of constipation. Thirty control subjects and 93 consecutive patients complaining of functional constipation took part in the study. Colonic transit time study and anorectal manometry were performed. Questions about depression and urinary and sexual diseases were added to a questionnaire based on the Rome II criteria, and visual analog scales about four items (constipation, diarrhoea, abdominal bloating and abdominal pain). Constipated patients have lower threshold sensation volume, lower constant sensation volume, and lower maximum tolerable volume than controls. Thirty-seven patients (40%) were found to have anismus, based on anorectal manometry. No significant difference was found between constipated patients with anismus and constipated patients without anismus, using anorectal manometry. Constipated patients had longer colorectal transit time than controls, but neither total nor segmental colonic transit time was correlated with the presence or absence of anismus. In patients with anismus, a higher frequency of oesophageal symptoms, dysmotility-like dyspepsia, aerophagia, functional bowel disorders, functional abdominal pain, soiling, and dyschezia was found. In addition, a higher frequency of urinary complaints, sexual complaints, and depression was found. Anismus was associated with increased awareness of constipation, abdominal bloating, and abdominal pain, but not with diarrhoea.

  10. COLONOSCOPY: RANDOMIZED COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INSUFFLATION WITH CARBON DIOXIDE VERSUS AIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE-QUADROS, Luiz Gustavo; KAISER-JÚNIOR, Roberto Luiz; FELIX, Valter Nilton; VILLAR, Lucio; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins; NOGUEIRA, Vinicius Quintiliano Moutinho; TEIXEIRA, André; ZOTARELLI-FILHO, Idiberto José

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In Brazil, an increasing number of people are submitted to colonoscopy, either for screening or for therapeutic purposes. Aim: To evaluate whether there are advantages of using carbon dioxide (CO2) over air for insufflation. Methods: Two hundred and ten of 219 patients were considered eligible for this study and were randomized into two groups according to the gas insufflation used: Air Group (n=104) and CO2 Group (n=97). The study employed a double-blind design. Results: The Air and CO2 Groups were similar in respect to bowel preparation evaluated using the Boston scale, age, gender, previous surgery, maneuvers necessary for the advancement of the device, and presence of polyps, tumors or signs of diverticulitis. However, “waking up with pain” and “pain at discharge” were more prevalent in the Air Group, albeit not statistically significant, with post-exam bloating seen only in the Air Group. The responses to a questionnaire, applied to analyze the late post-exam period, showed more comfort with the use of CO2. Conclusions: The use of CO2 is better than air as it avoids post-examination bloating, thereby providing greater comfort to patients. PMID:29019557

  11. Quality of life and antireflux medication use following laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomston, M; Zervos, E; Gonzalez, R; Albrink, M; Rosemurgy, A

    1998-06-01

    With the advent of minimally invasive techniques, the surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease has received renewed interest. The efficacy of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in eliminating reflux has been documented. This study was undertaken to determine changes in quality of life and cost of antireflux medications after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. One hundred patients undergoing laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication between 1992 and 1997 completed questionnaires assessing changes in pre- and postoperative cost and number of antireflux medications, reflux symptoms, and quality of life. The average number of antireflux medications was significantly reduced (1.8 versus 0.3, P < 0.0001) as was the average monthly cost ($170 versus $30, P < 0.0001). Patients reported significant (P < 0.05) symptomatic improvement in postprandial heartburn, nocturnal heartburn, postprandial nausea, postprandial vomiting, dysphagia, and gas/bloating. Patients in this series noted fewer symptoms and used fewer antireflux medications at less cost after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Symptoms commonly thought of as complications of fundoplication (vomiting, dysphagia, gas/bloating) were less common after fundoplication. This report documents the efficacy of laparoscopic fundoplication in improving quality of life and reducing use and cost of antireflux medications.

  12. Valorisation of different types of boron-containing wastes for the production of lightweight aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavas, T.; Christogerou, A.; Pontikes, Y.; Angelopoulos, G.N.

    2011-01-01

    Four boron-containing wastes (BW), named as Sieve (SBW), Dewatering (DBW), Thickener (TBW) and Mixture (MBW) waste, from Kirka Boron plant in west Turkey were investigated for the formation of artificial lightweight aggregates (LWA). The characterisation involved chemical, mineralogical and thermal analyses as well as testing of their bloating behaviour by means of heating microscopy. It was found that SBW and DBW present bloating behaviour whereas TBW and MBW do not. Following the above results two mixtures M1 and M2 were prepared with (in wt.%): 20 clay mixture, 40 SBW, 40 DBW and 20 clay mixture, 35 SBW, 35 DBW, 10 quartz sand, respectively. Two different firing modes were applied: (a) from room temperature till 760 deg. C and (b) abrupt heating at 760 deg. C. The obtained bulk density for M1 and M2 pellets is 1.2 g/cm 3 and 0.9 g/cm 3 , respectively. The analysis of microstructure with electron microscopy revealed a glassy phase matrix and an extended formation of both interconnected and isolated, closed pores. The results indicate that SBW and DBW boron-containing wastes combined with a clay mixture and quartz sand can be valorised for the manufacturing of lightweight aggregates.

  13. Probing the low-stellar-mass domain with Kepler and APOGEE observations of eclipsing binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Andrej; Hambleton, Kelly

    2018-01-01

    Observations of low-mass stars (M models, where observed radii can be inflated by as much as 5-15% as compared to model predictions. One of the proposed explanations for this discrepancy that is gaining traction are stellar magnetic fields impeding the onset of convection and the subsequent bloating of the star. Here we present modeling analysis results of two benchmark eclipsing binaries, KIC 3003991 and KIC 2445134, with low mass companions (M ~ 0.2 MSun and M ~ 0.5 MSun, respectively). The models are based on Kepler photometry and APOGEE spectroscopy. APOGEE is a part of the Sloan spectroscopic survey that observes in the near-infrared, providing greater sensitivity towards fainter, red companions. We combine the binary modeling software PHOEBE with emcee, an affine invariant Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler; celerite, a Gaussian process library; and our own codes to create a modeling suite capable of modeling correlated noise, shot noise, nuisance astrophysical signals (such as spots) and the full set of eclipsing binary parameters. The results are obtained within a probabilistic framework, with robust mass and radius uncertainties ~1-4%. We overplot the derived masses, radii and temperatures over evolutionary models and note stellar size bloating w.r.t. model predictions for both systems. This work has been funded by the NSF grant #1517460.

  14. Efficacy and tolerability of tegaserod in constipation dominant irritable bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.H.A.; Jafri, S.W.; Gul, M.; Butt, J.A.; Naqvi, A.; Rasheed, I.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy and tolerability of tegaserod in the treatment of symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) IBS-C patients. Patients and Methods: Tegaserod was administered in a dose of 6 mg (twice-a-day) orally for a period of 6 weeks. Symptoms were assessed before and during treatment using a questionnaire. Results: The mean age of patients was 37.5 years and 81 (69.2%) were males. The study enrolled 117 patients and 101 patients completed the study. Number of bowel movements, symptoms of straining at defecation, stool consistency, bloating, urgency and abdominal pain improved significantly following treatment (p<0.05). Analysis of data in both genders separately showed statistically significant improvement in symptoms of urgency, straining at defecation, abdominal pain and number of bowel movements following treatment. Side effects of diarrhea and vertigo (6 and 1 patients respectively) necessitating discontinuation of treatment were infrequent. Conclusion: Tegaserod given in a dose of 6 mg b.d. is effective and well tolerated in IBS-C patients. It is equally effective in males and females in relieving the symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, straining at defecation as well as increased in the mean number of bowel movements per week. (author)

  15. Development of lightweight aggregates from stone cutting sludge, plastic wastes and sepiolite rejections for agricultural and environmental purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Maroto, José Manuel; González-Corrochano, Beatriz; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; Rodríguez, Luis; Acosta, Anselmo

    2017-09-15

    Three different wastes have been assessed for lightweight aggregate (LWA) manufacturing: granite and marble sludge (COR), sepiolite rejections (SEP) and polyethylene-hexene thermoplastics (P). A preliminary study of the physical and chemical properties of the raw materials was carried out to design proper batches. It was mixed 10% SEP with 90% COR to confer plasticity, and in turn, 0, 2.5, 5 and 10% (w/w) of P was added to check its suitability as a bloating agent. The mixtures were milled, kneaded with water, extruded, shaped into pellets, oven-dried and finally fired at 1100, 1125 and 1150 °C for 4, 8 and 16 min. The main technological properties of the aggregates related to bloating, density, porosity, loss on ignition, water absorption and compressive strength were measured. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to study the microstructure of some LWAs. 23 out of 29 types of aggregate were lightweight, although neither bloating effect was observed, nor the typical cellular structure comprised of shell and core with relatively large pores was obtained, but a structure consisting of micropores and microchannels. The increase of temperature and time of firing involved a greater sintering, which in turn was translated into higher shrinkage, density and compressive strength values, but less porosity and water absorption. The addition of P did not involve any improvement, indeed it caused a significant decrease in compressive strength. The LWA sintered without P at the minimum time (4 min) and temperature of firing (1100 °C) was selected to assess its water suction capability. The results pointed out that this LWA could be suitable in hydroponics and/or water filtration systems, even better than the commercial LWA Arlita G3. A new and most environment-friendly perspective in LWA industry arises from here, promoting LWA production at relative low temperatures (prior to significant sintering occurs) and using non-plastic silty wastes instead of clays as major

  16. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  17. Existing and emerging therapies for managing constipation and diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E; Wouters, Mira M; Tack, Jan

    2017-12-01

    Functional bowel disorders (i.e., constipation and diarrhea) are characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, distention, and/or bowel habit abnormalities in the absence of obvious anatomic or physiologic abnormalities on routine diagnostic tests. These symptoms are attributable to gastrointestinal sensorimotor dysfunctions resulting from peripheral and/or central mechanisms. Available drugs target the underlying bowel disturbance (i.e., constipation, diarrhea, or both), supplemented when necessary by management of pain. Osmotic and stimulant laxatives, secretagogues, and serotonin 5-HT 4 receptor agonists are approved for treating constipation. Loperamide, anticholinergic agents, rifaximin, bile-acid binding agents, eluxadoline, and clonidine are used to treat diarrhea. Several exciting new compounds, some of which have been evaluated in humans, are currently under development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of the evaluation of gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa and bulimia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, J.M.; Humphries, L.; Shih, W.J.; Donohoe, K.J.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are common eating disorders that are frequently associated with symptoms of bloating, belching, nausea, and vomiting. The authors currently studying this population with Tc-99m TETA to determine the gastric emptying time (ET) and response to metoclopramide. The authors' findings to date show that the majority (80%) of anorexics have a normal ET; the remainder are delayed. The bulimics demonstrate a normal ET in 34%, delayed in 45%, and rapid in 21%. The response to metoclopramide was good in the delayed anorexic patients and in 71% of bulimic patients treated. The extent of rapidity or delay in ET is being compared with the clinical data including age, weight/height, length and degree of disorder, diet, degree of symptoms, and response to drug and diet therapy. This correlation will help determine the incidence and severity of ET abnormality, the relation of disease and symptom severity to ET, and the effect of different treatments based on the ET

  19. [Importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Peña, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2014-05-01

    About two-thirds of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients associate their symptoms with certain foods. We reviewed food-related factors putatively associated with manifestations of IBS. Soluble fiber may improve constipation but frequently increases bloating and abdominal pain. Carbohydrate malabsorption seems to be more frequent in IBS. A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) diet significantly reduces IBS symptoms and has been suggested as a therapeutic option. Serological screening for celiac disease should be done in patients without constipation. Moreover, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity, defined as gluten intolerance once celiac disease and wheat allergy have been ruled out, should be considered in these patients. There is no specific diet for IBS patients but small and frequent meals, avoiding greasy foods, dairy products, many carbohydrates, caffeine and alcohol, is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  20. Lactose intolerance: from diagnosis to correct management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rienzo, T; D'Angelo, G; D'Aversa, F; Campanale, M C; Cesario, V; Montalto, M; Gasbarrini, A; Ojetti, V

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses one of the most relevant problems in gastrointestinal clinical practice: lactose intolerance. The role of lactase-persistence alleles the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption the development of lactose intolerance symptoms and its management. Most people are born with the ability to digest lactose, the major carbohydrate in milk and the main source of nutrition until weaning. Approximately, 75% of the world's population loses this ability at some point, while others can digest lactose into adulthood. Symptoms of lactose intolerance include abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and diarrhea with a considerable intraindividual and interindividual variability in the severity. Diagnosis is most commonly performed by the non invasive lactose hydrogen breath test. Management of lactose intolerance consists of two possible clinical choice not mutually exclusive: alimentary restriction and drug therapy.

  1. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

  2. Succession pattern of carrion-feeding insects in Paramo, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Efrain; Duque, Patricia; Wolff, Marta

    2007-03-02

    The minimum postmortem interval can be estimated based on knowledge of the pattern of insect succession on a corpse. To use this approach requires that we take into account the rates of insect development associated with particular climatological conditions of the region. This study is the first to look at insect succession on decomposing carcasses in the high altitude plains (Paramo) in Colombia, at 3035 m above sea level. Five stages of decomposition were designated with indicator species identified for each stage: Callíphora nigribasis at the fresh stage; Compsomyiops verena at the bloated stage; Compsomyiops boliviana during active decay; Stearibia nigriceps and Hydrotaea sp. during advanced decay and Leptocera sp. for dry remains. A succession table is presented for carrion-associated species of the region, which can be used for estimating time since death in similar areas. Compsomyiops boliviana is reported for the first time in Colombia.

  3. Carum copticum L.: A Herbal Medicine with Various Pharmacological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carum copticum L. commonly known as “Ajwain” is cultivated in many regions of the world including Iran and India, states of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Traditionally, C. copticum has been used in the past for various therapeutic effects including bloating, fatigue, diarrhea, abdominal tumors, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, and loss of appetite. It has other health benefits such as antifungal, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiparasitic, and hypolipidemic effects. This plant contains different important components such as carbohydrates, glucosides, saponins and phenolic compounds (carvacrol, volatile oils (thymol, terpiene, paracymene and beta-pinene, protein, fat, fiber, and minerals including calcium, phosphorus, iron, and nicotinic acid (niacin. In the previous studies, several pharmacological effects were shown for C. copticum. Therefore, in this paper, the pharmacological effects of the plant were reviewed.

  4. Could kinesiology taping help mitigate pain, breathlessness and abdominal-related symptoms in cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Gourav; Rose, Alison; Briggs, Michelle; Johnson, Mark I

    2017-02-24

    We present the case of a woman who was an amateur athlete diagnosed with primary breast cancer, and 10 years later with terminal metastatic cancer. This case report was prepared posthumously in co-operation with her next of kin (husband). The patient first presented to a sports physiotherapist (AR) for her pain-management and to help maintain physical fitness so that she could continue with sports and an active lifestyle. The patient continued with physiotherapy for several months to enable her to be active. However, when her health deteriorated significantly due to advancing cancer, the treatment was modified and aimed at improving the patient's general well-being. The physiotherapist applied kinesiology tape over the patient's lower rib cage, diaphragm and abdomen in an attempt to manage pain, breathlessness and abdominal bloating. The patient reported alleviation of pain, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort and nausea, accompanied by improvements in eating, drinking, energy levels and physical function. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Rumen bacteria: interaction with particulate dietary components and response to dietary variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K J; Akin, D E; Costerton, J W

    1977-02-01

    The bovine rumen resembles many other ecosystems in that its component bacterial cells are universally surrounded and protected by extracellular structures. The most common form of these structures is a fibrous carbohydrate slime that extends away from the cell and may mediate the attachment of the bacterium to a surface. This attachment is relatively specific and it may occur at the surface of the rumen epithelium or on the cell walls of a specific tissue within the plant-derived food of the animal. The production of the extracellular slime is under nutritional control and slime may be overproduced when soluble carbohydrates are available in high concentration. This overproduction results in cell-cell adhesion among the rumen bacteria with the eventual formation of slime-enclosed microcolonies and, in extreme cases, the generation of sufficient viscosity to cause feedlot bloat.

  6. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Kavuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha’s Adhi (originated from mind and Vyadhi (ailment/disease concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS.

  7. The maternal-effect, selfish genetic element Medea is associated with a composite Tc1 transposon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Marcé D; Gnirke, Andreas; Margolis, Jonathan; Garnes, Jeffrey; Campbell, Margie; Stuart, Jeffrey J; Aggarwal, Rajat; Richards, Stephen; Park, Yoonseong; Beeman, Richard W

    2008-07-22

    Maternal-Effect Dominant Embryonic Arrest ("Medea") factors are selfish nuclear elements that combine maternal-lethal and zygotic-rescue activities to gain a postzygotic survival advantage. We show that Medea(1) activity in Tribolium castaneum is associated with a composite Tc1 transposon inserted just downstream of the neurotransmitter reuptake symporter bloated tubules (blot), whose Drosophila ortholog has both maternal and zygotic functions. The 21.5-kb insertion contains defective copies of elongation initiation factor-3, ATP synthase subunit C, and an RNaseD-related gene, as well as a potentially intact copy of a prokaryotic DUF1703 gene. Sequence comparisons suggest that the current distribution of Medea(1) reflects global emanation after a single transpositional event in recent evolutionary time. The Medea system in Tribolium represents an unusual type of intragenomic conflict and could provide a useful vehicle for driving desirable genes into populations.

  8. Application of the Taguchi Method for Optimizing the Process Parameters of Producing Lightweight Aggregates by Incorporating Tile Grinding Sludge with Reservoir Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, How-Ji; Chang, Sheng-Nan; Tang, Chao-Wei

    2017-11-10

    This study aimed to apply the Taguchi optimization technique to determine the process conditions for producing synthetic lightweight aggregate (LWA) by incorporating tile grinding sludge powder with reservoir sediments. An orthogonal array L 16 (4⁵) was adopted, which consisted of five controllable four-level factors (i.e., sludge content, preheat temperature, preheat time, sintering temperature, and sintering time). Moreover, the analysis of variance method was used to explore the effects of the experimental factors on the particle density, water absorption, bloating ratio, and loss on ignition of the produced LWA. Overall, the produced aggregates had particle densities ranging from 0.43 to 2.1 g/cm³ and water absorption ranging from 0.6% to 13.4%. These values are comparable to the requirements for ordinary and high-performance LWAs. The results indicated that it is considerably feasible to produce high-performance LWA by incorporating tile grinding sludge with reservoir sediments.

  9. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuri, Vijaya; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Malamud, Ariel; Selvan, Senthamil R.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence) concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha's Adhi (originated from mind) and Vyadhi (ailment/disease) concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS. PMID:26064164

  10. Itopride and pantoprazole outcomes in diabetic gastroparesis trial (IPOD trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Veena; Kulkarni, K P

    2008-12-01

    The most common cause of gastroparesis is diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to asses the combination of itopride and pantoprazole in the treatment of diabetic gastroparesis. The study was an open label, multicentre, conducted in 743 patients with diabetic gastroparesis for a period of 3 weeks. The efficacy parameters included nausea, vomiting, early satiety, bloating, postprandial fullness, epigastric pain and regurgitation. The patients were evaluated based on the frequency and severity of symptoms and compared with the baseline scores. There were significant improvement in severity as well as the frequency of all the symptom parameters of the disease (p<0.001). The physicians' evaluation to the therapy was rated either excellent or good.

  11. Evaluation of new gastro-intestinal prokinetic (ENGIP-II) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwaikar, Pradeep P; Kulkarni, Sujay S; Bargaje, Rahul S

    2005-12-01

    Non-ulcer dyspepsia is a common clinical disorder characterised by reduced gastric motility. Safety concerns have restricted use of currently available prokinetic drugs. Itopride is a new safer prokinetic drug with dopamine D2 antagonism and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory actions. The ENGIP-II study was conducted to investigate the efficacy, and safety of itopride in patients of non-ulcer dyspepsia. There were significant reductions in upper abdominal pain, heartburn frequency, gastro-oesophageal regurgitation, nausea, bloating, early satiety after meals at day 3 only; whereas significant improvements were noted in belching, anorexia at day 6 and in vomiting at day 9. Thus, ENGIP-II study shows that itopride was well tolerated patients and appears to be the drug of choice in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia.

  12. Nutcracker syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this case study is to highlight the symptoms of the Nutcracker Syndrome (NCS), the methods of clinical investigations and the importance of differential diagnosis. Introduction: The NCS refers to left renal vein entrapment caused by abnormal branching patterns of the superior mesenteric artery from the aorta. 1,2 Clinical case presentation: A 27 years old female presented to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal discomfort, bloating, loose bowel motions and irregular micro-haematuria. The radiologist's report indicated the findings from computed tomography examination to be consistent with anterior NCS. Discussion: In most of the NCS cases the clinical symptoms are non-specific. 3 The syndrome is caused by a vascular disorder, but its clinical manifestation can relate to a wide range of abdominal, urological, endovascular or gynaecological pathologies. 4 Conclusion: Nutcracker Syndrome is a relatively rare disease and underdiagnosed may lead to left renal vein thrombosis

  13. The Role of Phlebotomy (Fasd) and Wet Cupping (Hijamat) to Manage Dizziness and Vertigo From the Viewpoint of Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Esfahani, Mohammad Mehdi; Nazem, Esmaeil; Moghimi, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman; Kenari, Hoorieh Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Dizziness and vertigo are the most common complaints of patients that has a high economic burden on the health system. In modern medicine, treatment for dizziness and vertigo consists of chemical pharmacological therapy. Although these drugs are useful in controlling the disease, their side effects and inefficiency in full control of the disease require the use of complementary medicine in this field. Persian medicine consists of valuable experiences of Persian medicine scholars based on the theory of humors and temperaments. In Persian medicine, 2 types of disease are presented: dizziness (sadar) and vertigo (dovar). Persian medicine physicians expressed a different mechanism of action than modern medicine for these diseases. They believed that accumulation of abnormal humors, reeh (normal bloating) or causative pathologic substances, is the basic cause of sadar and dovar and that the most important treatment is cleansing the body, particularly the head from accumulated substances by bloodletting methods.

  14. Isolated hepatic actinomycosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehab Thomas M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Actinomyces are slow growing, non-spore forming, gram-positive, branching bacilli that thrive in anaerobic and microareophilic conditions. Actinomyces are more commonly associated with oral and cervicofacial infections. Hepatic involvement in infections of the abdomen (known as isolated hepatic actinomycosis is rare, accounting for only 5% of all cases of actinomycosis. Case presentation We present the case of a 75-year-old Caucasian woman with a 3-month history of night sweats, fever, chills, abdominal bloating, anorexia, weight-loss, and early satiety. The patient was found to have isolated hepatic actinomycosis infection after undergoing a laparotomy with a biopsy of the liver. The patient has now recovered. Conclusion Isolated hepatic actinomycosis is a rare and often overlooked etiology for a liver mass. Given its subacute presentation and nondescript symptomatology, physicians should be aware of this differential and the potential pitfalls in diagnosis and management.

  15. Treatment of chronic portal-systemic encephalopathy with lactose in lactase-deficient patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, M; Márquez, M A; García-Ramos, G; Escobedo, V; Murillo, H; Guevara, L; Lisker, R

    1980-12-01

    A controlled cross-over clinical comparison of lactose (50 g twice a day) versus neomycin (3 g/day) plus milk of magnesia, was carried out in ten cirrhotic patients with chronic portal-systemic encephalopathy and documented lactase deficiency. Serial semiquantitative assessments were done including: mental state, asterixis, number connection test, electroencephalogram, and blood ammonia levels. No patient developed deep coma while ingesting either lactose or neomycin plus milk of magnesia. However, a significant improvement of mental state, asterixis, number connection tests, and electroencephalograms was evident during lactose therapy. apart from mild diarrhea and bloating, no severe side effects were noticeable during lactose treatment. Based on these results, we propose lactose as a valuable alternate treatment of portal-systemic encephalopathy in lactase-deficient populations.

  16. Applying natural evolution for solving computational problems - Lecture 1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Darwin’s natural evolution theory has inspired computer scientists for solving computational problems. In a similar way to how humans and animals have evolved along millions of years, computational problems can be solved by evolving a population of solutions through generations until a good solution is found. In the first lecture, the fundaments of evolutionary computing (EC) will be described, covering the different phases that the evolutionary process implies. ECJ, a framework for researching in such field, will be also explained. In the second lecture, genetic programming (GP) will be covered. GP is a sub-field of EC where solutions are actual computational programs represented by trees. Bloat control and distributed evaluation will be introduced.

  17. Applying natural evolution for solving computational problems - Lecture 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Darwin’s natural evolution theory has inspired computer scientists for solving computational problems. In a similar way to how humans and animals have evolved along millions of years, computational problems can be solved by evolving a population of solutions through generations until a good solution is found. In the first lecture, the fundaments of evolutionary computing (EC) will be described, covering the different phases that the evolutionary process implies. ECJ, a framework for researching in such field, will be also explained. In the second lecture, genetic programming (GP) will be covered. GP is a sub-field of EC where solutions are actual computational programs represented by trees. Bloat control and distributed evaluation will be introduced.

  18. Primary Cardiac Burkitt Lymphoma Presenting with Abdominal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Tzachanis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 44-year-old woman with primary Burkitt lymphoma of the heart who presented with abdominal bloating and epigastric discomfort secondary to tamponade physiology caused by a large pericardial effusion. The pericardial fluid contained a large number of highly atypical lymphocytes with moderate basophilic cytoplasm, rare punched-out vacuoles, a vesicular nuclear chromatin, large nucleolus, and marginated chromatin that by FISH were positive for the 8;14 translocation. She had no other sites of disease. She was treated with four alternating cycles of modified CODOX-M and IVAC in combination with rituximab and remains in remission more than 5 years since diagnosis.

  19. Rational Use of Antibiotics in the Treatment of Functional Bowel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fasulo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional gastrointestinal symptoms such us bloating, fullness, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation due to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS were recently attributed to small bowel bacterial overgrowth, a condition depending on the presence of an increased number of bacteria in the small bowel. However, the methodology used to describe this association may be harshly criticized, since it has already been shown to be quite inaccurate. As a result an inappropriate use of antibiotics was consequently generated. In fact, antibiotics could be effective in the treatment of functional complaints, but only in a limited subgroup of patients, characterized by an increase of fermentation at colonic level. In this review, we have examined the papers suggesting a pathophysiological link between IBS and small bowel bacterial overgrowth, underlining its inappropriateness, and put forth our personal view on the rationale for antibiotic use in IBS.

  20. Effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 on the health-related quality of life and symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome in adults in primary care: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyonnet, D; Chassany, O; Ducrotte, P; Picard, C; Mouret, M; Mercier, C-H; Matuchansky, C

    2007-08-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been rarely evaluated as a primary endpoint in the assessment of the effect of probiotics on the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To study the effects of fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 and yoghurt strains on the IBS in a multicentre, double-blind, controlled trial. A total of 274 primary care adults with constipation-predominant IBS (Rome II) were randomized to consume for 6 weeks either the test fermented milk or a heat-treated yoghurt (control). HRQoL and digestive symptoms were assessed after 3 and 6 weeks on an intention-to-treat population of 267 subjects. The HRQoL discomfort score, the primary endpoint, improved (P food on discomfort HRQoL score and bloating in constipation-predominant IBS, and on stool frequency in subjects with <3 stools/week.

  1. Longitudinal shifts in bacterial diversity and fermentation pattern in the rumen of steers grazing wheat pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitta, D W; Pinchak, W E; Dowd, S; Dorton, K; Yoon, I; Min, B R; Fulford, J D; Wickersham, T A; Malinowski, D P

    2014-12-01

    Grazing steers on winter wheat forage is routinely practiced in the Southern Great Plains of the US. Here, we investigated the dynamics in bacterial populations of both solid and liquid ruminal fractions of steers grazing on maturing wheat forage of changing nutritive quality. The relationship between bacterial diversity and fermentation parameters in the liquid fraction was also investigated. During the first 28 days, the wheat was in a vegetative phase with a relatively high crude protein content (CP; 21%), which led to the incidence of mild cases of frothy bloat among steers. Rumen samples were collected on days 14, 28, 56 and 76, separated into solid and liquid fractions and analyzed for bacterial diversity using 16S pyrotag technology. The predominant phyla identified were Bacteroidetes (59-77%) and Firmicutes (20-33%) across both ruminal fractions. Very few differences were observed in the rumen bacterial communities within solid and liquid fractions on day 14. However, by day 28, the relatively high CP content complemented a distinct bacterial and chemical composition of the rumen fluid that was characterized by a higher ratio (4:1) of Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes and a corresponding lower acetate:propionate (3:1) ratio. Further, a greater accumulation of biofilm (mucopolysaccharide complex) on day 28 was strongly associated with the abundance of Firmicutes lineages such as Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Oscillospira and Moryella (Prumen microbiome and their association with fermentation activity in the rumen of steers during the vegetative (bloat-prone) and reproductive stages of wheat forage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lactose intolerance in Indonesian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegar, Badriul; Widodo, Ariani

    2015-01-01

    "Lactose intolerance (LI)" is considered a common problem in Asians, and in many parts of the world. Its prevalence and age of manifestation varies between by Asian country, for possible genetic or cultural reasons. Studies in Indonesian children 3-15 years old (y) are available within the past two decades, using a pure lactose tolerance test. The prevalences of lactose malabsorption (LM) in pre-elementary (3-5 y), elementary (6-11 y), and junior high (12-14 y) school-children were 21.3%, 57.8%, and 73%, respectively. An increasing trend for LM prevalence was seen within the pre-elementary group, from 9.1% at 3 y to 28.6% at 5 y. The most frequent symptoms of LI in junior high school (JHS) group were abdominal pain (64.1%), abdominal distention (22.6%), nausea (15.1%), flatulence (5.7%), and diarrhea (1.9%), mostly within one hour of lactose ingestion. In children with regular and irregular milk drinking, LM occurred in 81.2% and 69.6%; LI was found in 56.2% and 52.1%, respectively. Most JHS children with dairy-associated recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) symptoms proved to be malabsorbers. Dairy products most related to RAP were milk and yogurt. LI was found in 81% of RAP children with abdominal pain most frequently, followed by nausea, bloating, diarrhea, borborygmi, and flatulence. Symp-tom onset occurred 30 minutes after lactose ingestion, especially nausea, bloating, and abdominal pain. In RAP children LI symptoms mostly found in breath hydrogen concentration>20 ppm. More LI symptoms were found in lactose malabsorbers, but symptoms were mild and generally disappeared in 7 hours, and in most by 15 hours.

  3. A pilot trial on subjects with lactose and/or oligosaccharides intolerance treated with a fixed mixture of pure and enteric-coated α- and ß-galactosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Alexander Bertuccioli,2 Eleonora Marini,3 Leandro Ivaldi4 1Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 2Italian Association Fitness and Medicine, Fano, PU, Italy; 3Pharmextracta, Pontenure, Piacenza, Italy; 4Digestive Endoscopic Department, Ceva Hospital, Ceva, Cuneo, Italy Aim: Lactose and complex carbohydrates maldigestion, common food intolerances due to low gut content of α- and ß-galactosidase, lead to abdominal symptoms including pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Commonly, intolerant patients are advised by physicians to avoid the offending foods (dairy foods, cereals, beans, etc. This food-limiting option, however, has possible nutritional risks. We have therefore evaluated the impact of using pure, enteric-coated α- plus ß-galactosidase on gut symptoms in intolerant subjects instead of avoidance of the offending foods. Methods: Sixteen subjects intolerant to lactose and/or complex carbohydrates were enrolled and evaluated in terms of gut symptoms with 1 uncontrolled diet, 2 diet devoid of offending foods, and 3 uncontrolled diet along with pure, enteric-coated α- and ß-galactosidase (DDM Galactosidase®. Results: Even with the uncontrolled diet, intolerant subjects treated with DDM Galactosidase® exhibited reduced gut symptoms (bloating, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation significantly better than the control treatment as well as having a diet devoid of offending foods. Conclusion: DDM Galactosidase® is a valid and safe optional treatment to counteract lactose and complex carbohydrate intolerance in subjects who prefer not to avoid, at least partially, offending foods. Keywords: lactase, lactose intolerance, complex carbohydrate intolerance

  4. Bio-susceptibility of materials and thermal insulation systems used for historical buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterflinger, Katja; Ettenauer, Joerg; Pinar, Guadalupe

    2013-04-01

    In historical buildings of Northern countries high levels of energy are necessary to reach comfortable temperatures especially during the cold season. For this reason historical buildings are now also included in country specific regulations and ordinances to enhance the "energy - efficiency". Since an exterior insulation - as it is commonly used for modern architecture - is incompatible with monument protection, several indoor insulation systems based on historical and ecological materials, are on the market that should improve the thermic performance of a historical building. However, using organic materials as cellulose, loam, weed or wood, bears the risk of fungal growth and thus may lead to health problems in indoor environments. For this reason 5 different ecological indoor insulations systems were tested for their bio-susceptibility against various fungi both under natural conditions - after 2 years of installation in an historical building - and under laboratory conditions with high levels of relative humidity. Fungal growth was evaluated by classical isolation and cultivation as well as by molecular methods. The materials turned out to have a quite different susceptibility towards fungal contamination. Whereas insulations made of bloated Perlite (plaster and board) did not show any fungal growth after 2 years of exposition, the historical insulation made of loam and weed had high cell counts of various fungi. In laboratory experiments wooden softboard represented the best environment for fungal growth. As a result from this study, plaster and board made of bloated Perlite are presented as being the most appropriate materials for thermal insulation at least from the microbiological and hygienic point of view. For future investigations and for the monitoring of fungi in insulation and other building materials we suggest a molecular biology approach with a common protocol for quantitative DNA-extraction and amplification.

  5. Understanding polycystic ovary syndrome from the patient perspective: a concept elicitation patient interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mona L; Halling, Katarina; Eek, Daniel; Krohe, Meaghan; Paty, Jean

    2017-08-18

    The aim of this study was to explore the need for a new disease-specific patient reported outcome (PRO) measure for use in clinical trials of drugs designed to target the underlying causes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and in the process contribute to our understanding of the symptoms and impacts that define the patient experience with PCOS. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 20 women diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria who had not menstruated in the previous month. The relative importance of PCOS symptoms and impact concepts to patients was determined by analyzing the frequency of their expression in the interview transcripts. These insights were compared to clinicians' perceptions of PCOS. Pain- and discomfort-related symptoms accounted for the highest proportion (27.6%) of the 735 patient expressions, although clinicians did not consider pain to be important to patients with PCOS. The most frequently expressed individual symptoms were cramping (70% of patients; 14.7% of concepts), irregular menstruation (95% of patients; 12.2% of concepts), facial hair growth (75% of patients; 10.6% of concepts), heavy bleeding (70% of patients; 8.8% of concepts), infertility (70% of patients; 5.4% of concepts), and bloating (60% of patients; 5.2% of concepts). Cramping, heavy bleeding, and bloating were not identified by clinicians as being important to patients with PCOS. The impacts most frequently reported by patients with PCOS related to emotional well-being (e.g. anxiety/stress) and coping behaviors (e.g. acne medication, hair removal). The only validated PCOS-specific PRO, the PCOSQ, does not capture some key PCOS symptoms and impacts expressed by patients with PCOS, most notably those related to pain and discomfort, bleeding intensity and coping behaviours. Furthermore, some key PCOS symptoms may be under-recognized in the clinic.

  6. Targeted therapies for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olden KW

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Kevin W OldenDepartment of Medicine, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients' daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was to capture clinical trial reports of agents receiving the highest recommendation (Grade 1 for treatment of IBS from the 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force, with an emphasis on diarrhea-predominant IBS. Literature searches in PubMed captured articles detailing randomized placebo-controlled trials in IBS/diarrhea-predominant IBS for agents receiving Grade I (strong 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force recommendations: tricyclic antidepressants, nonabsorbable antibiotics, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron. Studies specific for constipation-predominant IBS were excluded. Tricyclic antidepressants appear to improve global IBS symptoms but have variable effects on abdominal pain and uncertain tolerability; effects on stool consistency, frequency, and urgency were not adequately assessed. Nonabsorbable antibiotics show positive effects on global symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, and stool consistency but may be most efficacious in patients with altered intestinal microbiota. Alosetron improves global symptoms and abdominal pain and normalizes bowel irregularities, including stool frequency, consistency, and fecal urgency. Both the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron improve quality of life. Targeted therapies provide more complete relief of IBS symptoms than conventional agents. Familiarization with the quantity and quality of evidence of effectiveness can facilitate more individualized

  7. Targeted therapies for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kevin W

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients’ daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was to capture clinical trial reports of agents receiving the highest recommendation (Grade 1) for treatment of IBS from the 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force, with an emphasis on diarrhea-predominant IBS. Literature searches in PubMed captured articles detailing randomized placebo-controlled trials in IBS/diarrhea-predominant IBS for agents receiving Grade I (strong) 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force recommendations: tricyclic antidepressants, nonabsorbable antibiotics, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron. Studies specific for constipation-predominant IBS were excluded. Tricyclic antidepressants appear to improve global IBS symptoms but have variable effects on abdominal pain and uncertain tolerability; effects on stool consistency, frequency, and urgency were not adequately assessed. Nonabsorbable antibiotics show positive effects on global symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, and stool consistency but may be most efficacious in patients with altered intestinal microbiota. Alosetron improves global symptoms and abdominal pain and normalizes bowel irregularities, including stool frequency, consistency, and fecal urgency. Both the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron improve quality of life. Targeted therapies provide more complete relief of IBS symptoms than conventional agents. Familiarization with the quantity and quality of evidence of effectiveness can facilitate more individualized treatment plans for patients with this heterogeneous disorder. PMID:22754282

  8. Computed tomography assessment of intestinal gas volumes in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Williams, Sebastian R; Mc Laughlin, Patrick D; O'Connor, Owen J; Desmond, Alan N; Ní Laoíre, Aine; Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn Mm; Maher, Michael M

    2012-10-01

    Many patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) rank sensations of bloating and distension among their most debilitating symptoms. Previous studies that have examined intestinal gas volume (IGV) in patients with FGIDs have employed a variety of invasive and imaging techniques. These studies are limited by small numbers and have shown conflicting results. The aim of our study was to estimate, using CT of the abdomen and pelvis (CTAP), IGV in patients attending FGID clinic and to compare IGV in patients with and without FGID. All CTAP (n = 312) performed on patients (n = 207) attending a specialized FGID clinic over 10-year period were included in this study. Patients were classified into one of 3 groups according to the established clinical grading system, as organic gastrointestinal disorder (OGID, ie, patients with an organic non-functional disorder, n = 84), FGID (n = 36) or organic and functional gastrointestinal disorder (OFGID, ie, patients with an organic and a functional disorder, n = 87). Two independent readers blinded to the diagnostic group calculated IGV using threshold based 3D region growing with OsiriX. Median IGVs for the FGID, OGID, and OFGID groups were 197.6, 220.6 and 155.0 mL, respectively. Stepwise linear regression revealed age at study, gender, and calculated body mass index to predict the log IGV with an r(2) of 0.116, and P IGV in OGID (Spearman's = 0.253, P = 0.02) but this correlation was non-significant in the other groups. Although bloating is a classic symptom in FGID patients, IGV may not be increased compared with OGID and OFGID patients.

  9. [An analysis of clinical features of celiac disease patients in different ethnic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, W; Qiao, X B; Ji, K Y; Wang, H F; Yang, A M

    2016-08-01

    To summarize the clinical features of different racial patients with celiac disease (CD) and analyze the disease prevalence, diagnosis and treatment in Chinese population. All the patients were diagnosed as CD and enrolled in Beijing United Family Hospital between January 2005 and July 2015.Clinical data including nationality, age, symptoms, endoscopic and pathological findings, outcome were collected and compared in patients from different countries. A total of 87 patients were enrolled including 63 Caucasians, 18 Asian patients and 6 Middle East patients.The peak age of disease onset was 40-60 years old.Patients with typical symptoms such as chronic diarrhea and weight loss only accounted for 20.7%(18/87) and 9.2%(8/87) respectively.Some patients presented with nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal pain and bloating [32.2%(28/87)], even constipation [5.7%(5/87)].13.8%(12/87) patients were previously diagnosed as irritable bowel syndrome.The incidence of abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea and constipation between Asians and Caucasians had no statistical significance (P>0.05); but the proportions of weight loss, growth retardation, iron deficiency anemia and dermatitis herpetiformis in Asian group were significantly higher than that in Caucasian group (Pceliac disease antibodies in 47 patients turned negative from 6-9 months after GFD treatment, while 34 patients turned negative from 12-18 months after GFD.All patients reported disease remission to some extent.After 1 year GFD treatment, the pathology of endoscopic intestinal biopsy in 8 patients showed significant improvement of villous atrophy and lymphocyte infiltration. CD patients with typical clinical manifestations are not the majority.Serological celiac disease antibodies (AGA, EMA and tTGA) have a high diagnostic value.GFD treatment is effective on majority of celiac patients.Clinical manifestations, endoscopy, intestinal pathology, and response to GFD in Chinese patients are not the same as Caucasians

  10. Quality of life comparing dor and toupet after heller myotomy for achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasko, Jonathan M; Augustin, Toms; Tran, Tung T; Haluck, Randy S; Rogers, Ann M; Lyn-Sue, Jerome R

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic Heller cardiomyotomy (LHC) is standard therapy for achalasia. Traditionally, an antireflux procedure has accompanied the myotomy. This study was undertaken to compare quality-of-life outcomes between patients undergoing myotomy with Toupet versus Dor fundoplication. In addition, we investigated overall patient satisfaction after LHC in the treatment of achalasia. One hundred thirty-five patients who underwent LHC over a 13-year period were identified for inclusion. Symptoms queried included dysphagia, heartburn, and bloating using the Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease-Health-Related Quality of Life Scale and a second published scale for the assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease and dysphagia symptoms. The patients' overall satisfaction after surgery was also rated. Data were compared on the basis of type of fundoplication. Symptom scores were analyzed using chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests. Sixty-three patients completed the survey (47%). There were no perioperative deaths or reoperations. The mean length of stay was 2.8 days. The mean operative time for LHC with Toupet fundoplication was 137.3±30.91 minutes and for LHC with Dor fundoplication was 111.5±32.44 minutes (P=.006). There was no difference with respect to the incidence or severity of postoperative heartburn, dysphagia, or bloating. Overall satisfaction with Toupet fundoplication was 87.5% and with Dor fundoplication was 93.8% (P>.999). LHC with either Toupet or Dor fundoplication gave excellent patient satisfaction. Postoperative symptoms of heartburn and dysphagia were equivalent when comparing LHC with either antireflux procedure. Dor and Toupet fundoplication were found to have equivalent outcomes in the short term. We prefer Dor to Toupet fundoplication because of its decreased need for extensive dissection and better mucosal protection.

  11. Postprandial Gastrointestinal Function Differs after Acute Administration of Sourdough Compared with Brewer's Yeast Bakery Products in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Barbara; Nicolai, Emanuele; Genovese, Daniela; Verlezza, Viviana; La Sala, Carmine N; Aiello, Marco; Inglese, Marianna; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Sarnelli, Giovanni; De Rosa, Tiziana; Schiatti, Alfio; Mondelli, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo; Cuomo, Rosario

    2018-02-01

    Europeans consume large quantities of bakery products, although these are known as one of the food categories that potentially leads to postprandial symptoms (such as fullness and bloating). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sourdough baked goods on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal fermentation and symptoms in healthy people. In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, 2 sourdough croissants (SCs) or 2 brewer's yeast croissants (BCs) were served as single meals to 17 healthy adults [9 women; age range: 18-40 y; body mass index range (in kg/m2): 18-24]. Gastric volume (GV) was evaluated by magnetic resonance to calculate gastric-emptying rate in the 3-h interval after croissant ingestion. A hydrogen breath test was performed to measure hydrogen production after SC and BC ingestion. Palatability and postprandial gastrointestinal symptoms (discomfort, nausea, fullness, and bloating) over a 4-h period after the meal were evaluated. The area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the overall effects on all variables tested. The total GV AUC was reduced by 11% during the 3 h after the consumption of SCs compared with BCs (P = 0.02). Hydrogen production during the 4-h interval after ingestion of SCs was 30% lower than after BCs (P = 0.03). SCs were rated as being >2 times as palatable as BCs (P bakery products could promote better postprandial gastrointestinal function in healthy adults and be more acceptable than those prepared with brewer's yeast. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03207516.

  12. Indications for and factors relating to outcome after rumenotomy or rumenostomy in cattle: 95 cases (1999-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnack, Amanda K; Niehaus, Andrew J; Rousseau, Marjolaine; Pentecost, Rebecca L; Miesner, Matt D; Anderson, David E

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate indications for and factors relating to outcome after rumenotomy or rumenostomy in cattle. Retrospective case series. 95 cattle that underwent rumenotomy or rumenostomy. Medical records for 95 cattle that underwent either rumenostomy or rumenotomy at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals in 1999 through 2011 were analyzed. Reasons for the procedures were noted. Long-term outcome was determined during telephone interviews with owners. 42 (44%) bovids underwent rumenostomy and 53 (56%) bovids underwent rumenotomy. Among the 42 animals undergoing rumenostomy, 18 (43%) had rumen cannulas placed during elective procedures. Other indications for rumenostomy included ruminal tympany (bloat [n = 20]), esophageal obstruction (choke [1]), grain overload (1), and provision of access for administration of enteral nutrition (2). Indications for rumenotomy included traumatic reticuloperitonitis (n = 31), bloat (9), foreign body (6), choke (5), and other (2). Long-term follow-up data were available for 31 of 42 (74%) bovids that underwent rumenostomy. Of those 31 animals, 17 (55%) were still in the herd, 4 (13%) had been culled, and 10 (32%) had died or were euthanized. Long-term follow-up data were available for 38 of 53 (72%) bovids that underwent rumenotomy. Of those 38 animals, 13 (34%) were still in the herd, 14 (37%) had been culled, and 11 (29%) had died or been euthanized. Results indicated that rumenotomy and rumenostomy can be effective in treating or relieving complications secondary to forestomach disorders in cattle. Bovids undergoing rumen surgery had a favorable prognosis for survival and a fair prognosis for potential return to production.

  13. Relations between passage rates of rumen fluid and particulate matter and foam production in rumen contents of cattle fed on different diets ad lib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okine, E K; Mathison, G W; Hardin, R T

    1989-03-01

    1. A group of six cattle, three of which had a non-bloating history (group A) and had been ruminally cannulated for the previous 2 years, and three with a history of being bloat-prone (group B) and which had been ruminally cannulated only 3 months before the study, were fed ad lib. on chopped lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay, lucerne pellets, or a 100 g chopped hay and 900 g rolled barley grain/kg diet over three periods of 30 d each. Flow of rumen digesta, by reference to CoEDTA and chromium-mordanted fibres, and foam production from samples of rumen contents were measured. 2. Samples of rumen contents (50 ml) from group A produced foam heights of 150 and 60 mm, 2 and 4 h after feeding respectively, compared with 240 and 150 mm for group B (P less than 0.05). 3. The fractional passage rate of the 1-2 mm particles mordanted with Cr did not differ (P greater than 0.05) between groups. 4. The fractional outflow rates (FOR) for CoEDTA 0-2 h and 2-7 h after feed was offered were 0.205 and 0.160/h for group A and 0.093 and 0.086/h for group B respectively (P less than 0.05). 5. Rumen-fluid FOR 0-2 h and 2-7 h after provision of feed were significantly (P less than 0.05) inversely correlated (r -0.74 and -0.85 respectively) with the amount of foam produced from rumen contents at these times.

  14. Temperature Impact on the Forage Quality of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Capacity to Accumulate Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is increasingly used as a dual-purpose crop (for forage and grain production worldwide. Plants encounter low temperatures in winter, which commonly results in sugar accumulation. High sugar levels might have a positive impact on forage digestibility, but may also lead to an increased risk of bloat. We hypothesized that cultivars with a lower capacity to accumulate sugars when grown under cold conditions may have a lower bloat risk than higher sugar-accumulating genotypes, without showing significantly lower forage digestibility. This possibility was studied using two wheat cultivars with contrasting sugar accumulation at low temperature. A series of experiments with contrasting temperatures were performed in controlled-temperature field enclosures (three experiments and growth chambers (two experiments. Plants were grown at either cool (8.1 °C–9.3 °C or warm (15.7 °C–16.5 °C conditions in field enclosures, and at either 5 °C or 25 °C in growth chambers. An additional treatment consisted of transferring plants from cool to warm conditions in the field enclosures and from 5 °C to 25 °C in the growth chambers. The plants in the field enclosure experiments were exposed to higher irradiances (i.e., 30%–100% than those in the growth chambers. Our results show that (i low temperatures led to an increased hemicellulose content, in parallel with sugar accumulation; (ii low temperatures produced negligible changes in in vitro dry matter digestibility while leading to a higher in vitro rumen gas production, especially in the higher sugar-accumulating cultivar; (iii transferring plants from cool to warm conditions led to a sharp decrease in in vitro rumen gas production in both cultivars; and (iv light intensity (in contrast to temperature appeared to have a lower impact on forage quality.

  15. Efficacy and tolerability of linaclotide in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in a real‑world setting - results from a German noninterventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Viola; Miehlke, Stephan; Beck, Elmar; Wiseman, Gwen; Layer, Peter

    2018-05-09

     Linaclotide is a minimally absorbed peptide guanylate cyclase-C agonist approved for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of linaclotide in IBS-C in routine clinical practice in Germany.  This was a 52-week, noninterventional study of linaclotide in patients aged ≥ 18 years with moderate to severe IBS-C. Severity of abdominal pain and bloating and frequency of bowel movements were assessed over 5 study visits. Treatment-related adverse events were recorded.  The study enrolled 375 patients; the mean observation duration was 4.4 months. Linaclotide marketing was halted during the study period for economic reasons, accounting for low patient numbers and short observation duration. Linaclotide significantly reduced mean (standard deviation [SD]) scores between treatment start (visit 1) and study end (visit 5) for abdominal pain intensity (visit 1: 4.87 [2.63] vs. visit 5: 2.40 [2.20], p < 0.0001), mean [SD] bloating intensity (visit 1: 5.30 [2.70] vs. visit 5: 2.86 [2.34], p < 0.0001), and increased mean [SD] bowel movement frequency (visit 1: 2.71 [1.80] vs. 4.38 [1.86], p < 0.0001). Diarrhea, occurring in 5.1 % of patients, was the most common adverse event.  Linaclotide is effective in improving the major symptoms of IBS-C and demonstrates a favorable safety profile in the real-world environment of routine clinical practice. DRKS (www.drks.de/): DRKS00005088. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Are oral protein supplements helpful in the management of malnutrition in dialysis patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T K Jeloka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized study was planned to compare the effects of whey and egg albumin protein supplements in dialysis patients. Fifty adult patients were randomized to receive either whey protein or egg albumin as per their deficit calculated from K/DOQI recommendations. Actual intake was calculated from three-day dietary diary. Assessment of nutritional status was done by serum albumin and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA. Repeat evaluation was done after 6 months. The mean initial intake of protein in whey and egg albumin group was 0.74 ± 0.3 vs. 0.69 ± 0.2 g/kg/day, ( P = 0.5 and calorie intake was 20 ± 5.6 vs. 20.5 ± 5.1 kcal/kg/day, ( P = 0.8, respectively. Out of 50 patients, two died within 2 months and were excluded from the study and 14 (28% dropped out within one month because of side effects. The most common side effect in drop-outs was nausea and vomiting (43%. Out of remaining 34 patients who completed the study, 80% could not consume >50% of the recommended supplement because of side effects. The protein and calorie intake remained similar at baseline and 6 months in both the groups. The main side effects in whey group were bloating and nausea with vomiting, and in egg protein group were nausea with vomiting, bloating and anorexia. Oral protein supplements were not tolerated in dialysis patients and side effects resulted in high degree of non-compliance.

  17. Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. Results: The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Conclusions: Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies. PMID:26734483

  18. Postprandial symptoms in dysmotility-like functional dyspepsia are not related to disturbances of gastric myoelectrical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Oba-Kuniyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric dysrhythmias, such as tachy- or bradygastria, have been reported in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD, but their role in symptom production is uncertain. It is also not known whether gastric dysrhythmias in these patients can be elicited by physiological gastric distension with a meal. We investigated the relationships between symptoms after ingestion of different volumes of water following a test meal and gastric dysrhythmias in FD patients. Fourteen patients with dysmotility-like FD and 13 healthy volunteers underwent paired electrogastrography (EGG studies. Fasted subjects ingested 150 ml of yoghurt with either 150 ml (low volume or 300 ml (high volume water in random order. Fasting and fed EGGs with monitoring of symptoms were performed in both studies. Ten FD patients (71.4% reported upper abdominal discomfort and bloating after the low volume meal, but only one (7.1% presented an abnormal EGG (dominant frequency in the 2-4-cpm range: 58%. Following the high volume meal, 7 patients (50% had symptoms, but none had EGG abnormalities. No significant differences were found between FD patients and controls for any of the EGG variables, in any test. In FD patients with postprandial symptoms, the percentage of the EGG dominant frequency in the normal range (median, 84.6%; range, 76.0-100.0% was similar (P > 0.20 to that in those without symptoms (88.5%; 75.0-100.0%. We conclude that disturbances of gastric myoelectrical activity are unlikely to play a role in the origin of postprandial upper abdominal discomfort and bloating in dysmotility-like FD.

  19. Short-term outcomes using magnetic sphincter augmentation versus Nissen fundoplication for medically resistant gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Brian E; Farivar, Alexander S; Shultz, Dale; Brennan, Christina; Vallières, Eric; Aye, Ralph W

    2014-08-01

    In 2012 the United States Food and Drug Administration approved implantation of a magnetic sphincter to augment the native reflux barrier based on single-series data. We sought to compare our initial experience with magnetic sphincter augmentation (MSA) with laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF). A retrospective case-control study was performed of consecutive patients undergoing either procedure who had chronic gastrointestinal esophageal disease (GERD) and a hiatal hernia of less than 3 cm. Sixty-six patients underwent operations (34 MSA and 32 LNF). The groups were similar in reflux characteristics and hernia size. Operative time was longer for LNF (118 vs 73 min) and resulted in 1 return to the operating room and 1 readmission. Preoperative symptoms were abolished in both groups. At 6 months or longer postoperatively, scores on the Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Health Related Quality of Life scale improved from 20.6 to 5.0 for MSA vs 22.8 to 5.1 for LNF. Postoperative DeMeester scores (14.2 vs 5.1, p=0.0001) and the percentage of time pH was less than 4 (4.6 vs 1.1; p=0.0001) were normalized in both groups but statistically different. MSA resulted in improved gassy and bloated feelings (1.32 vs 2.36; p=0.59) and enabled belching in 67% compared with none of the LNFs. MSA results in similar objective control of GERD, symptom resolution, and improved quality of life compared with LNF. MSA seems to restore a more physiologic sphincter that allows physiologic reflux, facilitates belching, and creates less bloating and flatulence. This device has the potential to allow individualized treatment of patients with GERD and increase the surgical treatment of GERD. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with calcular cholecystitis: a hospital based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Haider, I.Z.; Ahmad, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori, a gram negative bacillus has been recognised as a public health problem and approximately half of the world population has H. pylori infection causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies. Objective of this study was to determine the frequency of H. pylori infection in patients of chronic calcular cholecystitis. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakistan from April 2010 to September 2010. All patients with history of gallstone presented with acute abdominal pain, dyspepsia, bloating and epigastric discomfort and diagnosed as calcular cholecystitis were further evaluated for the detection of H. pylori by serology and histopathology. Frequency and percentage of H. pylori infection in patients with calcular cholecystitis was calculated. Result: Total 100 patients of cholelithiasis underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy were recruited. The pain in upper right part of the abdomen was observed in all 100 patients, fever in 75%, nausea and vomiting in 68%, loss of appetite in 45%, feeling of tiredness or weakness in 22%, headache in 38%, chills in 52%, backache in 58%, pain under the right shoulder in 45%, heartburn in 67%, belching in 54%, indigestion in 80%, dyspepsia in 90%, bloating in 88%, and epigastric discomfort in 85% patients. Eighty-two percent patients had family history of gallstones. The mean age of overall study population was 48.72 +- 8.78 years and mean age of H. pylori infected calcular cholecystitis patients was 47.98 +- 5.43 years in male and 48.76 +- 6.68 years in females. The H. pylori infection was identified in 55% patients with calcular cholecystitis, of which 32.7% were males and 67.3% were females (p=0.03, statistically significant). Majority of females (60%) had =40 U/ml antibody titre (p=0.917, non-significant). Conclusion: A possible relationship was identified between Helicobacter pylori and calcular

  1. A preliminary study on the decomposition and dipteran associated with exposed carcasses in an oil palm plantation in Bandar Baharu, Kedah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Abu Hassan, A

    2009-04-01

    This study was carried out in an oil palm plantation in Bandar Baharu, Kedah using monkey carcasses and focuses in documenting the decomposition and dipteran colonization sequences in 50 days. This is the first study of Diptera associated with the exploitation of carcasses conducted in the north of peninsular Malaysia during the dry and wet seasons thereat. During the process of decomposition in both seasons, five phases of decay were recognized namely fresh, bloated, active decay, advance decay and dry remain. In this decomposition study, biomass loss of carcass occurred rapidly during the fresh to active decay stage due to the colonization and feeding activity of the Diptera larvae. The duration of the fresh and bloated stages of decay were the same in wet and dry seasons but later stages of decay were markedly shorter during the wet season. Twenty one species of adult Diptera were identified colonizing carcasses in the study period. Among the flies from the family Calliphoridae, Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius and Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin were recognized as the earliest arrivals on the first day of exposure. Adult Ch. nigripes was abundant for approximately two weeks after placement of the carcasses. By comparing the percentages of adults collected during the study period, the calliphorids abundance in percentages in wet season was 50.83%, but in dry season, the abundance was only about 35.2%. In contrast, the percentage of Sphaeroceridae in wet season was only 3.33%, but in the dry season, the abundance was 20.8%. Dipteran in family Phoridae, Piophilidae, Sepsidae, Drosophilidae and Dolichopodidae colonized the carcasses for a long period of time and were categorized as long term colonizers.

  2. A Pilot Randomized Cross-Over Trial to Examine the Effect of Kiwifruit on Satiety and Measures of Gastric Comfort in Healthy Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alison; Eady, Sarah; Drummond, Lynley; Hedderley, Duncan; Ansell, Juliet; Gearry, Richard

    2017-06-22

    'Hayward' kiwifruit anecdotally are associated with improved gastrointestinal comfort following the consumption of high protein meals, possibly because of the presence of a protease enzyme, actinidin. The study aimed to use SmartPill™ technology to investigate the acute effect of kiwifruit with actinidin ( Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa 'Hayward') and kiwifruit without actinidin ( A. chinensis var. chinensis 'Hort16A') on digestion of a large protein meal. Ten healthy male subjects were recruited. The participants attended the clinic three times, having fasted overnight. They consumed a test meal consisting of 400 g lean steak and two 'Hort16A' or two 'Hayward kiwifruit'. Subjects completed visual analogue scales (VAS) by rating feelings of hunger, satisfaction, fullness, and comfort and swallowed a SmartPill™ before completing further VAS scales. After 5 h, participants consumed an ad libitum lunch to assess satiety. SmartPill™ transponders were worn for five days. There were no significant differences in gastric emptying time, small bowel, or colonic transit time between the two kiwifruit arms of the study measured by SmartPill™. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in VAS satiety measures or energy consumption at the ad libitum meal. However, the measurement of overall gastric comfort tended to be lower, and bloating was significantly reduced following the consumption of the steak meal with 'Hayward' kiwifruit ( p small pilot study suggests that it is less likely to measure gastric emptying effectively following a high protein meal, as it may be delayed because of the meal's physical consistency. However, green kiwifruit, containing actinidin, may reduce bloating and other measures of gastric discomfort in healthy males. Possible future studies could use repeated measures with more readily digested protein and larger numbers of participants.

  3. The effect of inactivated Lactobacillus LB fermented culture medium on symptom severity: observational investigation in 297 patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrerias, A L; Costil, V; Vicari, F; Létard, J C; Adenis-Lamarre, P; Aisène, A; Batistelli, D; Bonnaud, G; Carpentier, S; Dalbiès, P; Ecuer, S; Etienne, J; Fantoli, M; Grunberg, B; Lannoy, P; Lapuelle, J; Margulies, A; Neumeier, M; Rouillon, J M; Schmets, L; Pingannaud, M P; Coulom, P; Kholer, F; Canard, J M

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the intensity of symptoms of diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) or the consequences of the disease on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This observational investigation assessed the symptoms (abdominal pain, bloating, number of stools per day, and stool consistency), impact on HRQOL, and consequence on anal continence in 297 patients with IBS-D before and after 1 month of probiotic treatment with Lacteol (inactivated Lactobacillus LB plus fermented culture medium). Functional assessment using a standardized visual analogue scale in order to quantify abdominal pain, bloating, and quality of life before and after 1 month of treatment with 2 capsules/day of Lacteol. The number of symptomatic days per week, number of stools, consistency of stools, secondary fecal incontinence rate, and potential trigger effect of food were quantified. A χ2 test was used to compare qualitative data and the variance of quantitative criteria was analyzed. The pain score decreased from 4.46±0.15 on a scale of 0-10 before treatment to 2.8±0.14 after treatment (pspices, and 4% to sugar. This observational investigation shed new light on patients with IBS-D, the HRQOL of which is altered by a fecal incontinence rate twice as high as that of the general population. Correlation with diet is confirmed by 1 out of 2 patients reporting poor tolerance of fiber and dairy products. Nutritional management should thus be part of these patients' treatment. Inactivated Lactobacillus LB plus fermented culture medium is a probiotic drug that has been used by physicians for a long time to treat patients with diarrhea. Strongly concentrated, it has no side effects and seems to help these patients. Due to a strong placebo effect in patients with this pathology, however, a controlled study is necessary to confirm this result. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Pros and Cons While Looking Through an Asian Window on the Rome IV Criteria for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Pros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Uday C

    2017-07-30

    A decade after Rome III, in 2016, Rome IV criteria were published. There are major differences between Rome IV and the earlier iteration, some of which are in line with Asian viewpoints. The clinical applicability of the Rome IV criteria of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Asian perspective is reviewed here. Instead of considering functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) to be largely psychogenic, Rome IV suggested the importance of the gut over brain ("disorders of gut-brain interaction" not "brain-gut interaction"). The word "functional" is underplayed. Multi-dimensional clinical profile attempts to recognize micro-organic nature, like slow colon transit and fecal evacuation disorders in constipation and dietary intolerance including that of lactose and fructose, bile acid malabsorption, non-celiac wheat sensitivity, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and gastrointestinal infection in diarrhea. Overlap between different FGIDs has been recognized as Rome IV suggests these to be a spectrum rather than discrete disorders. Bloating, common in Asia, received attention, though less. Sub-typing of IBS may be more clinician-friendly now as the patient-reported stool form may be used than a diary. However, a few issues, peculiar to Asia, need consideration; Rome IV, like Rome III, suggests that Bristol type I-II stool to denote constipation though Asian experts include type III as well. Work-up for physiological factors should be given greater importance. Language issue is important. Bloating, common in IBS, should be listed in the criteria. Threshold values for symptoms in Rome IV criteria are based on Western data. Post-infectious malabsorption (tropical sprue) should be excluded to diagnose post-infectious IBS, particularly in Asia.

  5. EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE PROTOSTARS VIA DISK ACCRETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yorke, Harold W.

    2010-01-01

    Mass accretion onto (proto-)stars at high accretion rates M-dot * > 10 -4 M sun yr -1 is expected in massive star formation. We study the evolution of massive protostars at such high rates by numerically solving the stellar structure equations. In this paper, we examine the evolution via disk accretion. We consider a limiting case of 'cold' disk accretion, whereby most of the stellar photosphere can radiate freely with negligible backwarming from the accretion flow, and the accreting material settles onto the star with the same specific entropy as the photosphere. We compare our results to the calculated evolution via spherically symmetric accretion, the opposite limit, whereby the material accreting onto the star contains the entropy produced in the accretion shock front. We examine how different accretion geometries affect the evolution of massive protostars. For cold disk accretion at 10 -3 M sun yr -1 , the radius of a protostar is initially small, R * ≅ a few R sun . After several solar masses have accreted, the protostar begins to bloat up and for M * ≅ 10 M sun the stellar radius attains its maximum of 30-400 R sun . The large radius ∼100 R sun is also a feature of spherically symmetric accretion at the same accreted mass and accretion rate. Hence, expansion to a large radius is a robust feature of accreting massive protostars. At later times, the protostar eventually begins to contract and reaches the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) for M * ≅ 30 M sun , independent of the accretion geometry. For accretion rates exceeding several 10 -3 M sun yr -1 , the protostar never contracts to the ZAMS. The very large radius of several hundreds R sun results in the low effective temperature and low UV luminosity of the protostar. Such bloated protostars could well explain the existence of bright high-mass protostellar objects, which lack detectable H II regions.

  6. Initial study of arthropods succession and pig carrion decomposition in two freshwater ecosystems in the Colombian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Maria; Wolff, Marta

    2011-10-10

    Entomological succession and trophic roles of arthropods associated with different stages of carcass decomposition were studied to estimate the post-mortem submersion interval in two freshwater ecosystems in the Colombian Andes, at an altitude of 2614 m. Pig carcasses were employed as models placed 68 m apart, one in a stream (lotic) and another in an artificial lake (lentic). Decomposition time to skeletal remains was 74 days in the lake and 80 days in the stream. Six phases of decomposition were established: submerged fresh, early floating, floating decay, bloated deterioration, floating remains and sunken remains. A total of 18,832 organisms associated with the carcasses were collected: 11,487 in the lake (four orders, 19 families and 33 species) and 7345 in the stream (eight orders, 15 families and 25 species). Organisms were classified in the following ecological categories: shredders, collectors, predators, necrophagous, sarcosaprophagous and opportunists. Physical and chemical properties of the habitats, such as water temperature, CO(2) and conductivity, varied according to rainfall. In the lake, shredders (Coleoptera: Tropisternus sp. and Berosus sp.) and collectors (Diptera: Chironomus sp.) were found to be associated with submerged phases. Predators (Odonata) were only present during the first phases. Coleoptera (Dytiscidae) were found during floating decay and bloated deterioration stages. In the stream, shredders (Hyalella sp.) and collectors (Simulium sp.) were found during all stages, whereas the predator Oxelytrum discicolle was found exclusively during the floating stages, during which body temperature increased in a fashion similar to active decay in terrestrial environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparative study of the decomposition of pig carcasses in a methyl methacrylate box and open air conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangliang; Wang, Jiangfeng; Wang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of the process of decomposition is essential in establishing the postmortem interval. However, despite the fact that insects are important players in body decomposition, their exact function within the decay process is still unclear. There is also limited knowledge as to how the decomposition process occurs in the absence of insects. In the present study, we compared the decomposition of a pig carcass in open air with that of one placed in a methyl methacrylate box to prevent insect contact. The pig carcass in the methyl methacrylate box was in the fresh stage for 1 day, the bloated stage from 2 d to 11 d, and underwent deflated decay from 12 d. In contrast, the pig carcass in open air went through the fresh, bloated, active decay and post-decay stages; and 22.3 h (0.93 d), 62.47 h (2.60 d), 123.63 h (5.15 d) and 246.5 h (10.27 d) following the start of the experiment respectively, prior to entering the skeletonization stage. A large amount of soft tissue were remained on the pig carcass in the methyl methacrylate box on 26 d, while only scattered bones remained on the pig carcass in open air. The results indicate that insects greatly accelerate the decomposition process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Formation of primordial supermassive stars by rapid mass accretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki [Department of Physics and Research Center for the Early Universe, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yorke, Harold W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Inayoshi, Kohei; Omukai, Kazuyuki, E-mail: takashi.hosokawa@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: hosokwtk@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-12-01

    Supermassive stars (SMSs) forming via very rapid mass accretion ( M-dot {sub ∗}≳0.1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) could be precursors of supermassive black holes observed beyond a redshift of about six. Extending our previous work, here we study the evolution of primordial stars growing under such rapid mass accretion until the stellar mass reaches 10{sup 4–5} M {sub ☉}. Our stellar evolution calculations show that a star becomes supermassive while passing through the 'supergiant protostar' stage, whereby the star has a very bloated envelope and a contracting inner core. The stellar radius increases monotonically with the stellar mass until ≅ 100 AU for M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, after which the star begins to slowly contract. Because of the large radius, the effective temperature is always less than 10{sup 4} K during rapid accretion. The accreting material is thus almost completely transparent to the stellar radiation. Only for M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} can stellar UV feedback operate and disturb the mass accretion flow. We also examine the pulsation stability of accreting SMSs, showing that the pulsation-driven mass loss does not prevent stellar mass growth. Observational signatures of bloated SMSs should be detectable with future observational facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. Our results predict that an inner core of the accreting SMS should suffer from the general relativistic instability soon after the stellar mass exceeds 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. An extremely massive black hole should form after the collapse of the inner core.

  9. Four years Follow-up of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, F; Dumitraşcu, D L

    2015-01-01

    There is little data on the long term evolution of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and of associated conditions. We therefore studied the evolution of IBS patients in a single tertiary center during a long interval of time. We carried out a retrospective study based on the survey of patients records. We analyzed the records of symptoms, therapy, associated diseases, as consigned at follow-up visits for an interval of 4 years in average (2008-2011). A cohort of 114 patients with IBS diagnosed based on Rome III criteria were included (29 men and 85 women), age 19-85 years (mean age: 43.45 years). Urban patients were predominant. The main three symptoms were: abdominal pain, bowel disorders (constipation, diarrhea) and bloating. IBS--constipation (IBS--C) is associated with a favorable course of symptoms (increasing the number of stools, decrease intensity of abdominal pain and bloating) after treatment and IBS--diarrhea (IBS--D) is associated with variable symptoms after treatment (p = 0.031). Using trimebutin or mebeverin in association with other drugs for one month correlates with a favorable evolution of symptoms after treatment and monotherapy is associated with fluctuating symptoms ( pNSAI) or spasmolytics. The most common associated diseases observed in patients with IBS were: depression (27.19%), dyslipidemia (25.43%), hemorrhoidal disease (22.80%) and fibromyalgia (21%). The highest response rate was obtained with trimebutin or mebeverin + anxiolitics + probiotics. The most frequent disease associated with IBS was depression. Other diseases with a high incidence: dyslipidemia, hemorrhoidal disease and fibromyalgia. Further studies are needed to analyze the link between IBS and some associated diseases.

  10. Patient-reported prevalence and symptomatic burden of uterine fibroids among women in the United States: findings from a cross-sectional survey analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuldeore MJ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mahesh J Fuldeore, Ahmed M Soliman Health Economics and Outcomes Research, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, US Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of women diagnosed with uterine fibroids and the associated symptom burden in the US.Patients and methods: Responses of women aged 18–54 years, who completed an online survey, were analyzed. Data were weighted based on age, education, race, geographic region, income, and propensity score to derive national estimates of the prevalence of women diagnosed with uterine fibroids and associated symptom burden. Weighted means and percentages were reported. Prevalence across age and ethnic groups was examined. Symptom burden among women with and without uterine fibroids was compared using weighted logistic regressions.Results: Of 59,411 respondents who met study inclusion criteria, 7.7% reported receiving a diagnosis of uterine fibroids. Of these, 5,670 women (1,402 in the uterine fibroid group and 4,268 in the control group were excluded from analysis because they had a hysterectomy. Among the non-hysterectomized study participants, 3,031 self-reported a diagnosis of uterine fibroids (prevalence: 5.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.5%–6.1%; prevalence increased as women aged and was greatest in the 50–54 age group (11.4%; 95% CI: 10.4%–12.4%. In addition, prevalence was greater in black vs white women (9.8%; 95% CI: 8.7%–11.0% vs 5.4%; 95% CI: 5.1%–5.7%. A greater percentage of women with uterine fibroids (vs those without experienced severe heavy menstrual bleeding (16.7% vs 7.7%, severe constipation/bloating/diarrhea (7.7% vs 4.7%, severe passage of clots (6.7% vs 2.4%, severe spotting/bleeding between periods (1.7% vs 1.0%, and severe pelvic pressure (1.6% vs 0.6%. Among uterine fibroid patients with these typical uterine fibroid-related symptoms, 56.4%, 32.3%, 26.4%, 25.8%, and 20.4% reported heavy menstrual bleeding, passage of clots, spotting/bleeding between periods, constipation/bloating

  11. Fructan, Rather Than Gluten, Induces Symptoms in Patients With Self-Reported Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodje, Gry I; Sarna, Vikas K; Minelle, Ingunn H; Rolfsen, Kjersti L; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R; Veierød, Marit B; Henriksen, Christine; Lundin, Knut E A

    2018-02-01

    Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is characterized by symptom improvement after gluten withdrawal in absence of celiac disease. The mechanisms of non-celiac gluten sensitivity are unclear, and there are no biomarkers for this disorder. Foods with gluten often contain fructans, a type of fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols. We aimed to investigate the effect of gluten and fructans separately in individuals with self-reported gluten sensitivity. We performed a double-blind crossover challenge of 59 individuals on a self-instituted gluten-free diet, for whom celiac disease had been excluded. The study was performed at Oslo University Hospital in Norway from October 2014 through May 2016. Participants were randomly assigned to groups placed on diets containing gluten (5.7 g), fructans (2.1 g), or placebo, concealed in muesli bars, for 7 days. Following a minimum 7-day washout period (until the symptoms induced by the previous challenge were resolved), participants crossed over into a different group, until they completed all 3 challenges (gluten, fructan, and placebo). Symptoms were measured by Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale Irritable Bowel Syndrome (GSRS-IBS) version. A linear mixed model for analysis was used. Overall GSRS-IBS scores differed significantly during gluten, fructan, and placebo challenges; mean values were 33.1 ± 13.3, 38.6 ± 12.3, and 34.3 ± 13.9, respectively (P = .04). Mean scores for GSRS-IBS bloating were 9.3 ± 3.5, 11.6 ± 3.5, and 10.1 ± 3.7, respectively, during the gluten, fructan, and placebo challenges (P = .004). The overall GSRS-IBS score for participants consuming fructans was significantly higher than for participants consuming gluten (P = .049), as was the GSRS bloating score (P = .003). Thirteen participants had the highest overall GSRS-IBS score after consuming gluten, 24 had the highest score after consuming fructan, and 22 had the highest score after consuming placebo. There was no difference in GSRS

  12. Increased blood pH but not performance with sodium bicarbonate supplementation in elite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sonya L; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Brown, Rachel C; Gray, Andrew R; Fairbairn, Kirsty A

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of ingesting 0.3 g/kg body weight (BW) of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on physiological responses, gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability, and sprint performance in elite rugby union players. Twenty-five male rugby players, age 21.6 (2.6) yr, participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Sixty-five minutes after consuming 0.3 g/kg BW of either NaHCO₃ or placebo, participants completed a 25-min warm-up followed by 9 min of high-intensity rugby-specific training followed by a rugby-specific repeated-sprint test (RSRST). Whole-blood samples were collected to determine lactate and bicarbonate concentrations and pH at baseline, after supplement ingestion, and immediately after the RSRST. Acute GI discomfort was assessed by questionnaire throughout the trials, and chronic GI discomfort was assessed during the 24 hr postingestion. After supplement ingestion and immediately after the RSRST, blood HCO₃⁻ concentration and pH were higher for the NaHCO₃ condition than for the placebo condition (p < .001). After the RSRST, blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher for the NaHCO₃ than for the placebo condition (p < .001). There was no difference in performance on the RSRST between the 2 conditions. The incidence of belching, stomachache, diarrhea, stomach bloating, and nausea was higher after ingestion of NaHCO₃ than with placebo (all p < .050). The severity of stomach cramps, belching, stomachache, bowel urgency, diarrhea, vomiting, stomach bloating, and flatulence was rated worse after ingestion of NaHCO₃ than with placebo (p < .050). NaHCO₃ supplementation increased blood HCO₃⁻ concentration and attenuated the decline in blood pH compared with placebo during high-intensity exercise in well-trained rugby players but did not significantly improve exercise performance. The higher incidence and greater severity of GI symptoms after ingestion of NaHCO₃ may negatively affect

  13. In vitro batch fecal fermentation comparison of gas and short-chain fatty acid production using "slowly fermentable" dietary fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Rose, Devin J; Rumpagaporn, Pinthip; Patterson, John A; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2011-01-01

    Sustained colonic fermentation supplies beneficial fermentative by-products to the distal colon, which is particularly prone to intestinal ailments. Blunted/delayed initial fermentation may also lead to less bloating. Previously, we reported that starch-entrapped alginate-based microspheres act as a slowly fermenting dietary fiber. This material was used in the present study to provide a benchmark to compare to other "slowly fermentable" fibers. Dietary fibers with previous reports of slow fermentation, namely, long-chain inulin, psyllium, alkali-soluble corn bran arabinoxylan, and long-chain β-glucan, as well as starch-entrapped microspheres were subjected to in vitro upper gastrointestinal digestion and human fecal fermentation and measured over 48 h for pH, gas, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The resistant fraction of cooked and cooled potato starch was used as another form of fermentable starch and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) served as a fast fermenting control. Corn bran arabinoxylan and long-chain β-glucan initially appeared slower fermenting with comparatively low gas and SCFA production, but later fermented rapidly with little remaining in the final half of the fermentation period. Long-chain inulin and psyllium had slow and moderate, but incomplete, fermentation. The resistant fraction of cooked and cooled potato starch fermented rapidly and appeared similar to FOS. In conclusion, compared to the benchmark slowly fermentable starch-entrapped microspheres, a number of the purported slowly fermentable fibers fermented fairly rapidly overall and, of this group, only the starch-entrapped microspheres appreciably fermented in the second half of the fermentation period. Consumption of dietary fibers, particularly commercial prebiotics, leads to uncomfortable feelings of bloating and flatulence due to their rapid degradation in our large intestine. This article employs claimed potential slowly fermenting fibers and compares their fermentation rates

  14. Effects of dietary changes and yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on rumen microbial fermentation of Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, D; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Blanch, M; Fandiño, J I; Castillejos, L; Yoon, I

    2009-09-01

    The effects of a dietary challenge to induce digestive upsets and supplementation with yeast culture on rumen microbial fermentation were studied using 12 Holstein heifers (277 +/- 28 kg of BW) fitted with a ruminal cannula, in a crossover design with 2 periods of 5 wk. In each period, after 3 wk of adaptation to a 100% forage diet, the dietary challenge consisted of increasing the amount of grain at a rate of 2.5 kg/d (as-fed basis) over a period of 4 d, until a 10:90 forage:concentrate diet was reached, and then it was maintained for 10 d. Between periods, animals were fed again the 100% forage diet without any treatment for 1 wk as a wash-out period. Treatments started the first day of each period, and they were a control diet (CL) or the same diet with addition of yeast culture (YC, Diamond V XPCLS). Digestive upsets were determined by visual observation of bloat or by a reduction in feed intake (as-fed basis) of 50% or more compared with intake on the previous day. Feed intake was determined daily at 24-h intervals during the adaptation period and daily at 2, 6, and 12 h postfeeding during the dietary challenge. Ruminal liquid samples were collected daily during the dietary challenge to determine ruminal pH at 0, 3, 6, and 12 h postfeeding, and total and individual VFA, lactic acid, ammonia-N, and rumen fluid viscosity at 0 and 6 h postfeeding. The 16s rRNA gene copies of Streptococcus bovis and Megasphaera elsdenii were determined by quantitative PCR. Foam height and strength of the rumen fluid were also determined the day after the digestive upset to evaluate potential foam production. A total of 20 cases (83.3%) of digestive upsets were recorded in both periods during the dietary challenge, all diagnosed due to a reduction in feed intake. Rumen fermentation profile at 0 h on the digestive upset day was characterized by low ruminal pH, which remained under 6.0 for 18 h, accompanied by elevated total VFA concentration and, in some cases, by elevated lactate

  15. The prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder in an army unit and its relationship with functional gastrointestinal disorders

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    Qian WANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine the prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in the army officers and soldiers (AOSs, and identify its relationship with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs. Methods PTSD and FGIDs were diagnosed based on the PTSD checklist-civilian (PCL-C and Rome Ⅲ Modular Questionnaire respectively, the overlaps of PTSD and FGIDs and their correlation were diagnosed. The correlation of PTSD with traumatic and stressful events was investigated using Trauma History and Stressful Event Screening Questionnaire. The coexistence and relationship of PTSD and FGIDs were analyzed. Results Of 927 AOSs, 33 were diagnosed with PTSD. The prevalence of PTSD was 3.56%. FGIDs were identified in 435 subjects and the incidence of FGIDs was 46.93%. Among 33 AOSs with PTSD, 28 were diagnosed as having FGIDs and the prevalence of FGIDs was 84.85%, which was significantly higher than that of non-PTSD group (45.53%, P<0.05. Moreover, the FGIDs group had a higher prevalence of PTSD, compared with the non-FGID group (6.43% vs. 1.02%, P<0.05. Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS, 33.33%, unspecified functional bowel disorder (24.24%, functional bloating (18.18% and functional anorectal pain (18.18% were the four most frequent FGIDs in PTSD AOSs. Multiple regression analysis showed PTSD was the risk factor for CVS (OR=9.118, functional anorectal pain (OR=3.373, functional bloating (OR=4.772, irritable bowel syndrome (OR=3.438, rumination syndrome (OR=16.033, functional vomiting (OR=10.329, functional dysphagia (OR=9.891(P<0.05. CVS (OR=4.063, the number of traumatic (OR=1.159 and stress events (OR=1.401 were the risk factors for PTSD in AOSs (P<0.05. Conclusions PTSD and FGID interact as risk factor each other. The prevalence of PTSD differs significantly in different FGIDs. CVS is the most frequent FGID in PTSD AOSs and risk factor for PTSD, which deserves more concerns. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2018.02.14

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Low FODMAP Diet vs. Modified NICE Guidelines in US Adults with IBS-D.

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    Eswaran, Shanti L; Chey, William D; Han-Markey, Theresa; Ball, Sarah; Jackson, Kenya

    2016-12-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the role of fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We report results from the first randomized controlled trial of the low FODMAP diet in US adults with IBS and diarrhea (IBS-D). The objectives were to compare the efficacy of the low FODMAP diet vs. a diet based upon modified National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (mNICE) on overall and individual symptoms in IBS-D patients. This was a single-center, randomized-controlled trial of adult patients with IBS-D (Rome III) which compared 2 diet interventions. After a 2-week screening period, eligible patients were randomized to a low FODMAP or mNICE diet for 4 weeks. The primary end point was the proportion of patients reporting adequate relief of IBS-D symptoms ≥50% of intervention weeks 3-4. Secondary outcomes included a composite end point which required response in both abdominal pain (≥30% reduction in mean daily pain score compared with baseline) and stool consistency (decrease in mean daily Bristol Stool Form of ≥1 compared with baseline), abdominal pain and stool consistency responders, and other key individual IBS symptoms assessed using daily questionnaires. After screening, 92 subjects (65 women, median age 42.6 years) were randomized. Eighty-four patients completed the study (45 low FODMAP, 39 mNICE). Baseline demographics, symptom severity, and nutrient intake were similar between groups. Fifty-two percent of the low FODMAP vs. 41% of the mNICE group reported adequate relief of their IBS-D symptoms (P=0.31). Though there was no significant difference in the proportion of composite end point responders (P=0.13), the low FODMAP diet resulted in a higher proportion of abdominal pain responders compared with the mNICE group (51% vs. 23%, P=0.008). Compared with baseline scores, the low FODMAP diet led to greater reductions in average daily scores of abdominal pain, bloating

  17. [Using a multicomponent functional food in IBS patients with constipation a comparative controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, V I; Teplyuk, D A; Shakhovskaya, A K; Isakov, V A; Vorobyova, V M; Vorobyova, I S; Sarkisyan, V A; Kochetkova, A A; Mikheeva, G A; Yudina, A V

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is highly prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder associated with decrease in quality of life and a high social cost. Diet is one of several therapeutic options in IBS treatment; therefore the development and clinical evaluation of innovative functional food for IBS patients are actual. Instant drink containing 4 g inulin, 4 mg menthol and 2 mg of pyridoxine (in daily dose) has been evaluated. 49 patients 18-68 (41.5±16.5) years old fulfilling the Rome III criteria for IBS-C were randomly assigned into two groups: one received standard diet plus two drinks per day for 2 weeks and control group received standard diet. Response to therapy was recorded daily using Likert scale of abdominal pain, bloating and feeling of incomplete bowel emptying, frequency of bowel movement, Bristol stool scale, and quality of life was assessed by IBSQoL questionnaire before and after the treatment. The consumption of the drink with inulin and menthol contributed to a significant positive effect on the stool parameters (from 0.91±0.73 to 1.12±0.45 bowel movements per day in stool frequency, p=0.05, from 2.68±1.63 to 3.43±1.27 index Bristol scale, p=0.05), reduced the severity of abdominal pain (from 1.78±0.58 to 1.47?0.61 Likert scale points, p=0.05), bloating (from 2.22±0.83 to 1.53±0.71 points ofLikertscale,p= 0.01) and a sense of incomplete bowelemptying (from 2.22 ± 0.88 to 1.61± 0.81 points of Likert scale, p=0.001), as well as increased the quality of life (from 75.3± 12.0 to 83.3±6.7%, p=0.05), but a significant part of patients (10 of 25) complained the appearance of heartburn after the start of the treatment. In conclusion, the consumption of the functional drink containing inulin, menthol and pyridoxine is associated with improve in stool parameters, abdominal pain, Bristol scale index and increase in quality of life in patients with IBS-C, but produce noticeable heartburn. Changes in functional drink composition are needed to

  18. Perceptions of flatulence from bean consumption among adults in 3 feeding studies

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    Winham Donna M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many consumers avoid eating beans because they believe legume consumption will cause excessive intestinal gas or flatulence. An increasing body of research and the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans supports the benefits of a plant-based diet, and legumes specifically, in the reduction of chronic disease risks. The purpose of the current research was to investigate the perception of increased flatulence and gastrointestinal discomfort among participants who consumed a ½ cup of beans daily for 8 or 12 weeks. Methods Participants in three studies to test the effects of beans on heart disease biomarkers completed the same weekly questionnaire to assess gastrointestinal discomfort issues such as increased flatulence, stool changes, and bloating. Studies 1 and 2 were randomized crossover trials. Participants consumed ½ cup of pinto beans, black-eyed peas, and canned carrots as control (n = 17 in Study 1 for three randomized 8-week phases. For Study 2, participants ate ½ cup baked beans or canned carrots as control (n = 29 for two randomized 8-week phases. Study 3 was a parallel arm trial with 40 subjects receiving ½ cup pinto beans and 40 consuming a control soup for 12 weeks. Changes in the frequency of perceived flatulence, stool characteristics, and bloating were the primary outcome measures. Chi-square distributions were examined for the presence or absence of symptoms and demographic characteristics to determine differences by gender, age, body mass index (BMI, and bean type. Results Less than 50% reported increased flatulence from eating pinto or baked beans during the first week of each trial, but only 19% had a flatulence increase with black-eyed peas. A small percentage (3-11% reported increased flatulence across the three studies even on control diets without flatulence-producing components. Conclusions People's concerns about excessive flatulence from eating beans may be exaggerated. Public health nutritionists

  19. Does a diet low in FODMAPs reduce symptoms associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders? A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Abigail; Eslick, Enid M; Eslick, Guy D

    2016-04-01

    Functional gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, distension, constipation, diarrhea and flatulence have been noted in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The diversity of symptoms has meant that finding an effective treatment has been challenging with most treatments alleviating only the primary symptom. A novel treatment option for IBS and IBD currently generating much excitement is the low fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyol (FODMAP) diet. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the evidence of the efficacy of such a diet in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal symptoms. Electronic databases were searched through to March 2015 to identify relevant studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated for the effect of a low FODMAP diet on the reduction in IBS [Symptoms Severity Score (SSS)] score and increase in IBS quality of life (QOL) score for both randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and non-randomized interventions using a random-effects model. Six RCTs and 16 non-randomized interventions were included in the analysis. There was a significant decrease in IBS SSS scores for those individuals on a low FODMAP diet in both the RCTs (OR 0.44, 95 % CI 0.25-0.76; I (2) = 35.52, p = 0.00) and non-randomized interventions (OR 0.03, 95 % CI 0.01-0.2; I (2) = 69.1, p = 0.02). In addition, there was a significant improvement in the IBS-QOL score for RCTs (OR 1.84, 95 % CI 1.12-3.03; I (2) = 0.00, p = 0.39) and for non-randomized interventions (OR 3.18, 95 % CI 1.60-6.31; I (2) = 0.00, p = 0.89). Further, following a low FODMAP diet was found to significantly reduce symptom severity for abdominal pain (OR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.13-2.88; I (2) = 0.00, p = 0.56), bloating (OR 1.75, 95 % CI 1.07-2.87; I (2) = 0.00, p = 0.45) and overall symptoms (OR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.11-2.95; I (2) = 0.00, p = 0.4) in the RCTs. In the non-randomized interventions similar

  20. A Pilot Randomized Cross-Over Trial to Examine the Effect of Kiwifruit on Satiety and Measures of Gastric Comfort in Healthy Adult Males

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    Alison Wallace

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit anecdotally are associated with improved gastrointestinal comfort following the consumption of high protein meals, possibly because of the presence of a protease enzyme, actinidin. The study aimed to use SmartPill™ technology to investigate the acute effect of kiwifruit with actinidin (Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa ‘Hayward’ and kiwifruit without actinidin (A. chinensis var. chinensis ‘Hort16A’ on digestion of a large protein meal. Ten healthy male subjects were recruited. The participants attended the clinic three times, having fasted overnight. They consumed a test meal consisting of 400 g lean steak and two ‘Hort16A’ or two ‘Hayward kiwifruit’. Subjects completed visual analogue scales (VAS by rating feelings of hunger, satisfaction, fullness, and comfort and swallowed a SmartPill™ before completing further VAS scales. After 5 h, participants consumed an ad libitum lunch to assess satiety. SmartPill™ transponders were worn for five days. There were no significant differences in gastric emptying time, small bowel, or colonic transit time between the two kiwifruit arms of the study measured by SmartPill™. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in VAS satiety measures or energy consumption at the ad libitum meal. However, the measurement of overall gastric comfort tended to be lower, and bloating was significantly reduced following the consumption of the steak meal with ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit (p < 0.028. Conclusions: The SmartPill™ is marketed as a diagnostic tool for patients presenting with gastrointestinal disorders and is usually used with a standard ‘SmartBar’. This small pilot study suggests that it is less likely to measure gastric emptying effectively following a high protein meal, as it may be delayed because of the meal’s physical consistency. However, green kiwifruit, containing actinidin, may reduce bloating and other measures of gastric discomfort in healthy

  1. Effects of two natural medicine formulations on irritable bowel syndrome symptoms: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrelak, Jason A; Myers, Stephen P

    2010-10-01

    The study objective was to assess the effects and tolerability of two novel natural medicine formulations in improving bowel habit and abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The DA-IBS formula was designed to treat diarrhea-predominant and alternating bowel habit IBS, and the C-IBS formula was designed to treat constipation-predominant IBS. This was a two arm, open-label, uncontrolled pilot study. Subjects were recruited from the greater Lismore area (NSW, Australia) in 2001. The study included 31 patients who fulfilled the Rome II criteria for IBS. Twenty-one (21) patients were classified as suffering from diarrhea-predominant or alternating bowel habit IBS and 10 patients were classified with constipation-predominant IBS. The DA-IBS formula consisted of a mixture of dried, powdered bilberry fruit, slippery elm bark, agrimony aerial parts, and cinnamon quills. The C-IBS formula consisted of a mixture of dried powdered slippery elm bark, lactulose, oat bran, and licorice root. The aim of each formula was to normalize stool frequency and stool consistency. Ingestion of the DA-IBS formula was associated with a small, but significant increase in bowel movement frequency (p = 0.027). Subjects in the DA-IBS group also experienced reductions in straining (p = 0.004), abdominal pain (p = 0.006), bloating (p < 0.0001), flatulence (p = 0.0001), and global IBS symptoms (p = 0.002) during the treatment phase of the trial. Subjects in the C-IBS group experienced a 20% increase in bowel movement frequency (p = 0.016) and significant reductions in straining (p < 0.0001), abdominal pain (p = 0.032), bloating (p = 0.034), and global IBS symptom severity (p = 0.0005), as well as improvements in stool consistency (p < 0.0001). Both formulas were well-tolerated. The DA-IBS formula was not effective in improving bowel habit in individuals with diarrhea-predominant or alternating bowel habit IBS, although it did significantly improve a number of IBS

  2. Nucleotide supplementation: a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of IntestAidIB in people with Irritable Bowel Syndrome [ISRCTN67764449

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    Attree EA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary nucleotide supplementation has been shown to have important effects on the growth and development of cells which have a rapid turnover such as those in the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract. Work with infants has shown that the incidence and duration of diarrhoea is lower when nucleotide supplementation is given, and animal work shows that villi height and crypt depth in the intestine is increased as a result of dietary nucleotides. Dietary nucleotides may be semi-essential under conditions of ill-health, poor diet or stress. Since people with Irritable Bowel Syndrome tend to fulfil these conditions, we tested the hypothesis that symptoms would be improved with dietary nucleotide supplementation. Methods Thirty-seven people with a diagnosis of Irritable Bowel gave daily symptom severity ratings for abdominal pain, diarrhoea, urgency to have a bowel movement, incomplete feeling of evacuation after a bowel movement, bloating, flatulence and constipation for 28 days (baseline. They were then assigned to either placebo (56 days followed by experimental (56 days or the reverse. There was a four week washout period before crossover. During the placebo and experimental conditions participants took one 500 mg capsule three times a day; in the experimental condition the capsule contained the nutroceutical substances. Symptom severity ratings and psychological measures (anxiety, depression, illness intrusiveness and general health were obtained and analysed by repeated measures ANOVAs. Results Symptom severity for all symptoms (except constipation were in the expected direction of baseline>placebo>experimental condition. Symptom improvement was in the range 4 – 6%. A feeling of incomplete evacuation and abdominal pain showed the most improvement. The differences between conditions for diarrhoea, bloating and flatulence were not significant at the p Conclusion Dietary nucleotide supplementation improves some of the

  3. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome: are there any predictors?

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    McCallum Richard W

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is a condition in which excessive levels of bacteria, mainly the colonic-type species are present in the small intestine. Recent data suggest that SIBO may contribute to the pathophysiology of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The purpose of this study was to identify potential predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS. Methods Adults with IBS based on Rome II criteria who had predominance of bloating and flatulence underwent a glucose breath test (GBT to determine the presence of SIBO. Breath samples were obtained at baseline and at 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 50 g of glucose dissolved in 150 mL of water. Results of the glucose breath test, which measures hydrogen and methane levels in the breath, were considered positive for SIBO if 1 the hydrogen or methane peak was >20 ppm when the baseline was Results Ninety-eight patients were identified who underwent a GBT (mean age, 49 y; 78% female. Thirty-five patients (36% had a positive GBT result suggestive of SIBO. A positive GBT result was more likely in patients >55 years of age (odds ratio [OR], 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-9.0 and in females (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.1-14.5. Hydrogen was detected more frequently in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (OR, 8; 95% CI, 1.4-45, and methane was the main gas detected in patients with constipation-predominant IBS (OR, 8; 95% CI, 1.3-44. There was no significant correlation between the presence of SIBO and the predominant bowel pattern or concurrent use of tegaserod, proton pump inhibitors, or opiate analgesics. Conclusions Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was present in a sizeable percentage of patients with IBS with predominance of bloating and flatulence. Older age and female sex were predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS. Identification of possible predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS could aid in the development of successful treatment plans.

  4. Partial versus complete fundoplication for the correction of pediatric GERD: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Peter Glen

    Full Text Available There is no consensus as to what extent of "wrap" is required in a fundoplication for correction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD.To evaluate if a complete (360 degree or partial fundoplication gives better control of GERD.A systematic search of MEDLINE and Scopus identified interventional and observational studies of fundoplication in children. Screening identified those comparing techniques. The primary outcome was recurrence of GERD following surgery. Dysphagia and complications were secondary outcomes of interest. Meta-analysis was performed when appropriate. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.2289 abstracts were screened, yielding 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs and 12 retrospective cohort studies. The RCTs were pooled. There was no difference in surgical success between partial and complete fundoplication, OR 1.33 [0.67,2.66]. In the 12 cohort studies, 3 (25% used an objective assessment of the surgery, one of which showed improved outcomes with complete fundoplication. Twenty-five different complications were reported; common were dysphagia and gas-bloat syndrome. Overall study quality was poor.The comparison of partial fundoplication with complete fundoplication warrants further study. The evidence does not demonstrate superiority of one technique. The lack of high quality RCTs and the methodological heterogeneity of observational studies limits a powerful meta-analysis.

  5. Tolerability, safety, and efficacy of PEG 3350 as a 1-day bowel preparation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Ritu; Steffen, Rita; Feinberg, Lisa; Worley, Sarah; Mahajan, Lori

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the tolerability, safety, and efficacy of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 without electrolytes as a 1-day bowel preparation for colonoscopy in children. A prospective study of 45 children undergoing colonoscopy prescribed PEG 3350 without electrolytes mixed with a commercial electrolyte beverage was performed. Patients PEG 3350 without electrolytes mixed in 32 ounces of Gatorade. Patients ≥ 45 kg were given 255 g of PEG 3350 without electrolytes in 64 ounces of Gatorade A basic metabolic panel was performed at the time of the clinic visit and just before colonoscopy. Patients completed a survey related to bowel preparation. Endoscopists graded bowel preparation and noted the proximal extent of the examination. A total of 44 patients (14 ± 3 years) completed the study. One patient was excluded due to protocol breach. All subjects reported the preparation was easy (61%) or tolerable (39%). Adverse events included nausea (34%), abdominal pain (23%), vomiting (16%), abdominal distension (20%), bloating (23%), and dizziness (7%). Although significant changes in serum glucose and CO2 were noted, no therapeutic interventions were indicated. Significant changes in sodium, potassium chloride, blood urea nitrogen, or creatinine did not occur. Colonic preparation was rated as excellent in 23%, good in 52%, fair in 23%, and poor in 2% of patients. Intubation of the ileum was successful in 100%. One-day bowel preparation with high dose PEG 3350 mixed with commercial electrolyte solution is tolerable, safe, and effective in children before colonoscopy.

  6. Effect of Apium graveolens and Trachyspermum copticom on clinical symptoms of patients with functional dyspepsia

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    Maryam Azimi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study aimed at investigating the effect of Iranian traditional remedy prepared from Apium graveolens and Trachyspermum copticom (AT on the severity and frequency of symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD. Material and Methods:In total, 150 FD patients were included in this randomized double-blind trial, based on the ROME III diagnostic criteria, and they were divided into three intervention groups namely, AT, Placebo and omeprazole. Then, severity and frequency of symptoms during this eight-week trial were measured. Obtained information was analyzed using Chi-square test and repeated measures test. Result:In general, the severity and frequency of symptoms after the 4th week significantly decreased in the AT group as compared to the omeprazole and placebo groups, and continued to reduce by the end of the eighth week. General reduction of symptom severity and frequency in the omeprazole group was significantly different from the placebo group by the end of the 4th and 8th weeks. With respect to each individual symptom, AT markedly improved symptoms, such as burning, pain, early satiation, fullness, bloating, belching and nausea, as compared to placebo-treated group. Moreover, AT significantly improved symptoms, like vomiting, and nausea, except for pain, as compared to omeprazole-treated subjects. Conclusion:According to the results, AT, as Iranian traditional remedy, was more effective than omeprazole and placebo in reducing the symptoms in FD patients.

  7. Clinical evaluation, biochemistry and genetic polymorphism analysis for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in a population from northeastern Brazil

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    Paulo Roberto Lins Ponte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to evaluate and correlate symptoms, biochemical blood test results and single nucleotide polymorphisms for lactose intolerance diagnosis. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, with a total of 119 patients, 54 of whom were lactose intolerant. Clinical evaluation and biochemical blood tests were conducted after lactose ingestion and blood samples were collected for genotyping evaluation. In particular, the single nucleotide polymorphisms C>T-13910 and G>A-22018 were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism/polymerase chain reaction and validated by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Lactose-intolerant patients presented with more symptoms of flatulence (81.4%, bloating (68.5%, borborygmus (59.3% and diarrhea (46.3% compared with non-lactose-intolerant patients (pT-13910 and G>A-22018 with lactose tolerance in this population and suggest clinical management for patients with lactose intolerance that considers single nucleotide polymorphism detection and a change in the biochemical blood test cutoff from <25 mg/dL to <15 mg/dL.

  8. Clinical evaluation, biochemistry and genetic polymorphism analysis for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in a population from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Paulo Roberto Lins; de Medeiros, Pedro Henrique Quintela Soares; Havt, Alexandre; Caetano, Joselany Afio; Cid, David A C; Prata, Mara de Moura Gondim; Soares, Alberto Melo; Guerrant, Richard L; Mychaleckyj, Josyf; Lima, Aldo Ângelo Moreira

    2016-02-01

    This work aimed to evaluate and correlate symptoms, biochemical blood test results and single nucleotide polymorphisms for lactose intolerance diagnosis. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, with a total of 119 patients, 54 of whom were lactose intolerant. Clinical evaluation and biochemical blood tests were conducted after lactose ingestion and blood samples were collected for genotyping evaluation. In particular, the single nucleotide polymorphisms C>T-13910 and G>A-22018 were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism/polymerase chain reaction and validated by DNA sequencing. Lactose-intolerant patients presented with more symptoms of flatulence (81.4%), bloating (68.5%), borborygmus (59.3%) and diarrhea (46.3%) compared with non-lactose-intolerant patients (plactose-tolerant phenotype (plactose, we found that the most effective cutoff for glucose levels obtained for lactose malabsorbers was T-13910 and G>A-22018) with lactose tolerance in this population and suggest clinical management for patients with lactose intolerance that considers single nucleotide polymorphism detection and a change in the biochemical blood test cutoff from <25 mg/dL to <15 mg/dL.

  9. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselwitz, Benjamin; Pohl, Daniel; Frühauf, Heiko; Fried, Michael; Vavricka, Stephan R; Fox, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Lactose malabsorption is a common condition caused by reduced expression or activity of lactase in the small intestine. In such patients, lactose intolerance is characterized by abdominal symptoms (e.g. nausea, bloating, and pain) after ingestion of dairy products. The genetic basis of lactose malabsorption is established and several tests for this condition are available, including genetic, endoscopic, and H2-breath tests. In contrast, lactose intolerance is less well understood. Recent studies show that the risk of symptoms after lactose ingestion depends on the dose of lactose, lactase expression, intestinal flora, and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract. Lactose intolerance has recently been defined as symptoms developing after ingestion of lactose which do not develop after placebo challenge in a person with lactose maldigestion. Such blinded testing might be especially important in those with functional gastrointestinal diseases in whom self-reported lactose intolerance is common. However, placebo-controlled testing is not part of current clinical practice. Updated protocols and high-quality outcome studies are needed. Treatment options of lactose intolerance include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. Documenting the response to multiple doses can guide rational dietary management; however, the clinical utility of this strategy has not been tested. This review summarizes the genetic basis, diagnosis, and treatment of lactose malabsorption and intolerance.

  10. The therapeutic potential of truffle fungi: a patent survey

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    Małgorzata Gajos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to research and retrieve patent information regarding the therapeutic use of truffles. Truffles have a unique value as a foodstuff and impact positively on human health and well-being. They are applied in such industries as the pharmaceutical industry and the cosmetic industry. Patent documentation available in the Espacenet network and the Patentscope service were analyzed by key word and patent specifications were examined to describe state of the art and to identify scientific research trends in therapeutic applications of truffles. Medicinal properties of truffles such as the anticancer or cardiovascular effect, a reduction in blood lipids, immunological resistance and increased energy were identified. Other therapeutic benefits include sedative action, prevention of hormonal imbalances in women, pre-menopause symptom relief, senile urethritis and prostate disorders, sleep disorders and increased absorption of calcium from milk. Truffles can also be used to alleviate symptoms of milk intolerance such as diarrhoea or bloating, to ease rheumatic pains and to treat and prevent further development or recurrence of senile cataract.

  11. Buffer management in wireless full-duplex systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouacida, Nader

    2015-10-19

    Wireless full-duplex radios can simultaneously transmit and receive using the same frequency. In theory, this can double the throughput. In fact, there is only little work addressing aspects other than throughput gains in full-duplex systems. Over-buffering in today\\'s networks or the so-called “bufferbloat” phenomenon creates excessive end-to-end delays resulting in network performance degradation. Our analysis shows that full-duplex systems may suffer from high latency caused by bloated buffers. In this paper, we address the problem of buffer management in full-duplex networks by using Wireless Queue Management (WQM), which is an active queue management technique for wireless networks. Our solution is based on Relay Full-Duplex MAC (RFD-MAC), an asynchronous media access control protocol designed for relay full-duplexing. We compare the performance of WQM in full-duplex environment to Drop Tail mechanism over various scenarios. Our solution reduces the end-to-end delay by two orders of magnitude while achieving similar throughput in most of the cases.

  12. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, E F; Stănescu, Ligia; Simionescu, Cristiana; Georgescu, Iuliana; Ionescu, Reanina; Florescu, G

    2008-01-01

    Periorificial lentiginosis, also knew as Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS), is an autosomally dominant inherited condition determined by a mutation localized at 19p13.3 responsible for mucocutaneous pigmentation and gastrointestinal polyps. Skin- and mucosal pigmentation may be present at birth but usually occur in early childhood, and occasionally may develop later. Round, oval or irregular patches of brown or almost black pigmentation 1 to 5 mm diameter, irregularly distributed over the oral mucosa, gums, hard palate and lips (especially the lower) are observed. The pigmented maculae on the face, encountered especially around the nose and mouth are smaller. Polyps may appear in the stomach, small bowel or colon, with hamartomatous aspects on histology. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic fecal blood loss may appear during the course of disease. There is a higher risk of intestinal and extraintestinal cancers in those patients. We present the case of an 18-year-old young girl accusing since the age of 3 slight intermittent episodes of bloating and abdominal pain without a particular localization, as well as mild iron-deficiency anemia. Physical examination revealed pigmented lesions suggesting PSJ on the palatine and jugal mucosa while endoscopy found a lot of polyps in stomach and a few, isolated in the colon, all having the same hamartomatous pattern. The presence in early infancy of small, well-demarcated and dark-brown to blue-black lentigines on the lips, buccal mucosa and perioral skin, should alert the clinician to PJS.

  13. Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements of gastrointestinal type associated with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level: an unusual case and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Mariana; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Marques, Rita Canas; Félix, Ana

    2014-11-01

    Here we describe the case of a 19-year-old woman with a poorly differentiated ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and an elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level. The patient presented with diffuse abdominal pain and bloating. Physical examination, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right ovarian tumor that was histopathologically diagnosed as a poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements. Her alpha-fetoprotein serum level was undetectable after tumor resection. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that account for 0.5% of all ovarian neoplasms. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors tend to be unilateral and occur in women under 30 years of age. Although they are the most common virilizing tumor of the ovary, about 60% are endocrine-inactive tumors. Elevated serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein are rarely associated with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, with only approximately 30 such cases previously reported in the literature. The differential diagnosis should include common alpha-fetoprotein-producing ovarian entities such as germ cell tumors, as well as other non-germ cell tumors that have been rarely reported to produce this tumor marker.

  14. Identification of symptom clusters in cancer patients at palliative care clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Senel Özalp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cancer patients often experience a large number of symptoms together. The aim of this study is to determine the symptom clusters in cancer patients at palliative care clinic. Methods: Hundred and seventy consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale was used for symptom assessment of the patients. Results: The most experienced symptoms by the patients during the past week before hospitalization in palliative care clinic were lack of energy (95.4%, weight loss (91.2%, lack of appetite (89.4%, pain (88.2%, dry mouth (87.6%, feeling sad (87.6%, feeling nervous (82.9%, worrying (81.2%, and feeling irritable (80.6%. Five symptom clusters were defined. First cluster: pain, feeling nervous, dry mouth, worrying, feeling irritable, weight loss; second cluster: feeling drowsy, numbness/tingling in hands/feet, difficulty in sleeping, dizziness, constipation, I do not look like myself; third cluster: nausea, vomiting; fourth cluster: shortness of breath, difficulty in swallowing, cough, change in the way food tastes; and fifth cluster: feeling bloated, problems with urination, diarrhea, itching, mouth sores, hair loss, swelling of arm or legs, change in the skin. Conclusions: We encountered various symptom clusters in advanced cancer patients. Identification of symptom clusters and knowledge of cluster composition in oncological population may particularly contribute individualization of the treatment.

  15. Utilisation of different types of coal fly ash in the production of ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kockal, N. U.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of varying proportions of different types of fly ash (used in place of feldspar and different sintering temperatures on the sintered properties of ceramic tile bodies was evaluated. The results indicated that sintering ceramic tiles with a high fly ash content at a high temperature caused a decrease in the properties because of bloating. The ceramic samples containing a higher amount of fly ash that were sintered at low temperature exhibited lower water absorption, larger shrinkage and strength because of the densification observed also in microstructural investigation.

    Se ha evaluado la influencia de la proporción de diferentes tipos de cenizas volantes (en lugar de feldespato y diferentes temperaturas de sinterización en las propiedades de soportes cerámicos. Los resultados indicaron que las composiciones con un alto contenido de cenizas volantes provocaron una disminución en las propiedades de las piczas cocidas a alta temperatura como consecuencia del hinchamiento. Las composiciones con una mayor cantidad de cenizas sinterizadas a baja temperatura mostraron una menor absorción de agua, mayor contracción y resistencia mecánica debido a la densificación como también se observó en la investigación microestructural.

  16. Elosulfase alfa enzyme replacement therapy attenuates disease progression in a non-ambulatory Japanese patient with Morquio A syndrome (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Hiramatsu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT with elosulfase alfa is the only approved therapy in Japan for patients with Morquio A syndrome, a lysosomal storage disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. The experience with ERT in severely affected, non-ambulatory patients has not been reported in previous studies. This case report describes clinical evidence for the 1-year efficacy and safety of ERT with elosulfase alfa in a severely affected, non-ambulatory, 47-year-old patient with Morquio A syndrome who needs intensive respiratory management. ERT with elosulfase alfa was well tolerated in this patient. Because of the possibility of potential hypersensitivity adverse events, special attention is needed when using ERT in patients with respiratory disorders. However, under the appropriate management of specialists, the patient in this case report showed significant respiratory improvement after starting ERT, and abdominal bloating was improved by gas evacuation. In addition, the patient was able to lift up her arms, reach behind her back, and move her legs slightly, and she recovered her grip strength. Her hearing loss improved and she could hear without a hearing aid. This report shows that ERT with elosulfase alfa can be used with appropriate respiratory care in patients with severe respiratory dysfunction.

  17. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Daniel; Frühauf, Heiko; Fried, Michael; Vavricka, Stephan R; Fox, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Lactose malabsorption is a common condition caused by reduced expression or activity of lactase in the small intestine. In such patients, lactose intolerance is characterized by abdominal symptoms (e.g. nausea, bloating, and pain) after ingestion of dairy products. The genetic basis of lactose malabsorption is established and several tests for this condition are available, including genetic, endoscopic, and H2-breath tests. In contrast, lactose intolerance is less well understood. Recent studies show that the risk of symptoms after lactose ingestion depends on the dose of lactose, lactase expression, intestinal flora, and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract. Lactose intolerance has recently been defined as symptoms developing after ingestion of lactose which do not develop after placebo challenge in a person with lactose maldigestion. Such blinded testing might be especially important in those with functional gastrointestinal diseases in whom self-reported lactose intolerance is common. However, placebo-controlled testing is not part of current clinical practice. Updated protocols and high-quality outcome studies are needed. Treatment options of lactose intolerance include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. Documenting the response to multiple doses can guide rational dietary management; however, the clinical utility of this strategy has not been tested. This review summarizes the genetic basis, diagnosis, and treatment of lactose malabsorption and intolerance. PMID:24917953

  18. Tolerability of the combination of ginger (Zingiber officinalis), gentian (Gentiana lutea) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in patients with cancer-associated anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanatani, Michael; Younus, Jawaid; Stitt, Larry; Malik, Nazish

    2015-03-01

    Anorexia is a common symptom for patients with advanced cancer. Gentian, ginger, and turmeric have traditionally been used to stimulate appetite. We tested these agents in combination, in a pilot study to assess tolerability in patients indicating 4/10 or worse anorexia on the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, and who were not currently on chemotherapy. We collected exploratory data on the patient's appetite using a visual analogue scale. Between 2009 and 2012, 17 patients were enrolled in arm 1 (turmeric 1 g and ginger 1 g orally twice daily, and gentiana lutea tincture 1 mL three times a day, for 14 days). The three patients enrolled in arm 2 received the same doses of ginger and turmeric but no gentian. All patients completed a daily appetite diary and a weekly symptom assessment. In arm 1, seven patients (41%) completed treatment. Seven patients (41%) stopped early because of unacceptable toxicity or patient-initiated discontinuation, and 3 stopped because of other reasons. All patients in arm 2 stopped taking the study medication within few days of starting the treatment, leading the study committee to recommend stopping the trial. The most common adverse effects attributed to study drugs were nausea (6 patients), vomiting (3), fatigue (3), diarrhea (2) and bloating (2). There was no statistically significant effect seen on appetite. At the doses used in this study, the combination of ginger, turmeric, and gentian is not tolerated well in cancer patients. Future studies should use fewer agents or lower doses.

  19. Immunomodulation of enteric neural function in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Dervla

    2015-06-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder which is characterised by symptoms such as bloating, altered bowel habit and visceral pain. It's generally accepted that miscommunication between the brain and gut underlies the changes in motility, absorpto-secretory function and pain sensitivity associated with IBS. However, partly due to the lack of disease-defining biomarkers, understanding the aetiology of this complex and multifactorial disease remains elusive. Anecdotally, IBS patients have noted that periods of stress can result in symptom flares and many patients exhibit co-morbid stress-related mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, in addition to psychosocial stressors, infection-related stress has also been linked with the initiation, persistence and severity of symptom flares. Indeed, prior gastrointestinal infection is one of the strongest predictors of developing IBS. Despite a lack of overt morphological inflammation, the importance of immune factors in the pathophysiology of IBS is gaining acceptance. Subtle changes in the numbers of mucosal immune cell infiltrates and elevated levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reproducibly demonstrated in IBS populations. Moreover, these immune mediators directly affect neural signalling. An exciting new area of research is the role of luminal microbiota in the modulation of neuro-immune signalling, resulting in local changes in gastrointestinal function and alterations in central neural functioning. Progress in this area has begun to unravel some of the complexities of neuroimmune and neuroendocrine interactions and how these molecular exchanges contribute to GI dysfunction.

  20. Atypical antipsychotics as a possible treatment option for irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, Chi-Un; Lee, Soo-Jung; Han, Changsu; Patkar, Ashwin A; Masand, Prakash S

    2013-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) that is characterised by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and alteration of bowel habits. Although the pathophysiology of IBS is not fully understood, it is believed that psychiatric comorbidities are highly common in such patients. A variety of psychotropic medications are widely used in the treatment of IBS, particularly older antidepressants such as tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). With the advent of newer antidepressant classes with better safety and tolerability compared with TCAs, such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), clinicians now have more advanced treatment options for treating IBS. Additionally, some atypical antipsychotics (AAs) have recently received approval for treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Some AAs may have potentials based on their pharmacodynamic profile and proven benefit for mood symptoms, pain, anxiety and sleep disturbances. This article describes the potential rationale, clinical data and practical aspects involved in the use of AAs for patients with IBS. Atypical antipsychotics (AAs) may have a role in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) based on the currently available findings, although there is no clear evidence, and a number of clinical issues to be addressed in the use of AAs for the treatment of IBS.

  1. Convergence of neuro-endocrine-immune pathways in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Maria M; O'Mahony, Siobhain M; O'Malley, Dervla

    2014-07-21

    Disordered signalling between the brain and the gut are generally accepted to underlie the functional bowel disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, partly due to the lack of disease-defining biomarkers, understanding the aetiology of this complex and multifactorial disease remains elusive. This common gastrointestinal disorder is characterised by alterations in bowel habit such as diarrhoea and/or constipation, bloating and abdominal pain, and symptom exacerbation has been linked with periods of stress, both psychosocial and infection-related. Indeed, a high level of comorbidity exists between IBS and stress-related mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. Moreover, studies have observed alterations in autonomic output and neuro-endocrine signalling in IBS patients. Accumulating evidence indicates that a maladaptive stress response, probably mediated by the stress hormone, corticotropin-releasing factor contributes to the initiation, persistence and severity of symptom flares. Other risk factors for developing IBS include a positive family history, childhood trauma, dietary factors and prior gastrointestinal infection. An emerging role has been attributed to the importance of immune factors in the pathophysiology of IBS with evidence of altered cytokine profiles and increased levels of mucosal immune cells. These factors have also been shown to have direct effects on neural signalling. This review discusses how pathological changes in neural, immune and endocrine pathways, and communication between these systems, contribute to symptom flares in IBS.

  2. Effects of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide application during defeathering on the microbiological quality of broiler carcasses prior to evisceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, J A; Whittemore, A D

    1997-04-01

    The microbiological quality and skin appearance of New York dressed broiler carcasses were determined in two separate experiments after a water control, acetic acid, or H2O2 spray during defeathering. Broilers were picked up from a local processor and transported in coops to the pilot facility. In both experiments, commercial processing parameters were followed up to the defeathering step. After feather removal, the vents of all carcasses were blocked with a cotton plug to prevent contamination of the whole carcass rinse diluent with fecal material from the lower gut. The neck and feet were removed, and the carcasses were placed in individual plastic bags in preparation for a whole carcass rinse. Results showed a statistically significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the log10 total aerobic plate counts for carcasses treated with 1% acetic acid in comparison to the water control (log10 cfu counts = 3.93 and 4.53, respectively). No differences were observed in skin appearance due to the 1% acid treatment. The addition of 0.5, 1, or 1.5% H2O2 to spray waters had no effect on microbiological quality of the carcasses when compared to the water control (4.92, 5.01, 4.91, and 4.99 log10 counts, respectively). The skin of carcasses treated with hydrogen peroxide, regardless of the concentration was bleached and bloated.

  3. THE NASA-UC ETA-EARTH PROGRAM. II. A PLANET ORBITING HD 156668 WITH A MINIMUM MASS OF FOUR EARTH MASSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Johnson, John Asher; Fischer, Debra A.; Wright, Jason T.; Henry, Gregory W.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Anderson, Jay; Piskunov, Nikolai E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of HD 156668 b, an extrasolar planet with a minimum mass of M P sin i = 4.15 M + . This planet was discovered through Keplerian modeling of precise radial velocities from Keck-HIRES and is the second super-Earth to emerge from the NASA-UC Eta-Earth Survey. The best-fit orbit is consistent with circular and has a period of P = 4.6455 days. The Doppler semi-amplitude of this planet, K = 1.89 m s -1 , is among the lowest ever detected, on par with the detection of GJ 581 e using HARPS. A longer period (P ∼ 2.3 years), low-amplitude signal of unknown origin was also detected in the radial velocities and was filtered out of the data while fitting the short-period planet. Additional data are required to determine if the long-period signal is due to a second planet, stellar activity, or another source. Photometric observations using the Automated Photometric Telescopes at Fairborn Observatory show that HD 156668 (an old, quiet K3 dwarf) is photometrically constant over the radial velocity period to 0.1 mmag, supporting the existence of the planet. No transits were detected down to a photometric limit of ∼3 mmag, ruling out transiting planets dominated by extremely bloated atmospheres, but not precluding a transiting solid/liquid planet with a modest atmosphere.

  4. Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in perimenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo-Ho; Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Lee, Arum; Jeon, Dong-Su; Park, Junsik; Kim, Yesol

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) of perimenopausal women at a university hospital along with their menstrual characters. A questionnaire survey regarding premenstrual symptoms was carried out in 100 perimenopausal women (43 to 53, years). The pattern of menstruation and, the intensity of dysmenorrhea were assessed; and further, the symptoms were classified according to their number, intensity, and persistence. The PMS criteria of American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) and PMDD criteria by American Psychiatric Association (APA) were evaluated. The approximate prevalence of PMS criteria was 95% and that of PMDD criteria was 23%. The most dominant symptoms were 'breast tenderness', 'abdominal bloating', 'and headache'. PMDD was significantly associated with the severity of dysmenorrhea (P = 0.020). There was no significant relation with age, height, weight, body mass index and the cycle of menstruation. Most women experience PMS and PMDD, which and have a significant impact on the activity of perimenopause women. However in most women that do not know well about PMS and PMDD. We should educate and inform women of PMS and PMDD, thus helping them increase their quality of life.

  5. Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a population-based sample in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mingqi; Zhang, Huiyun; Liu, Huimin; Luo, Songping; Wang, Tianfang; Zhang, Junlong; Ji, Lijin

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), and the frequency and severity of the symptoms in a population-based sample of Chinese women of reproductive age. Women aged 18-45 years were screened for suspected PMS and PMDD based on the ACOG recommendations for a diagnosis of PMS and diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). For those who were consistent with PMS diagnostic criteria, the daily record of severity of problems (DRSP) questionnaire was used to assess the symptoms prospectively over 2 months. Participants were then categorized as having no perceived symptoms, mild PMS, moderate PMS, and PMDD, based on a validated algorithm. Among the study group, the incidence of PMDD was 2.1% and PMS was 21.1%. The most common symptoms were irritability (91.21%), breast tenderness (77.62%), depression (68.31%), abdominal bloating (63.70%) and angry outbursts (59.62%). The prevalence of PMS/PMDD and the frequency and severity of the symptoms have their own characteristics in Chinese women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ON THE SIMULTANEOUS EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE PROTOSTARS AND THEIR HOST CORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuiper, R.; Yorke, H. W.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the evolution of massive protostars and the evolution of their host molecular cloud cores are commonly treated as separate problems. However, interdependencies between the two can be significant. Here, we study the simultaneous evolution of massive protostars and their host molecular cores using a multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code that incorporates the effects of the thermal pressure and radiative acceleration feedback of the centrally forming protostar. The evolution of the massive protostar is computed simultaneously using the stellar evolution code STELLAR, modified to include the effects of variable accretion. The interdependencies are studied in three different collapse scenarios. For comparison, stellar evolutionary tracks at constant accretion rates and the evolution of the host cores using pre-computed stellar evolutionary tracks are computed. The resulting interdependencies of the protostellar evolution and the evolution of the environment are extremely diverse and depend on the order of events, in particular the time of circumstellar accretion disk formation with respect to the onset of the bloating phase of the star. Feedback mechanisms affect the instantaneous accretion rate and the protostar's radius, temperature, and luminosity on timescales t ≤ 5 kyr, corresponding to the accretion timescale and Kelvin-Helmholtz contraction timescale, respectively. Nevertheless, it is possible to approximate the overall protostellar evolution in many cases by pre-computed stellar evolutionary tracks assuming appropriate constant average accretion rates

  7. TWO NEW TIDALLY DISTORTED WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Brown, Warren R., E-mail: jjhermes@astro.as.utexas.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    We identify two new tidally distorted white dwarfs (WDs), SDSS J174140.49+652638.7 and J211921.96-001825.8 (hereafter J1741 and J2119). Both stars are extremely low mass (ELM, {<=} 0.2 M{sub Sun }) WDs in short-period, detached binary systems. High-speed photometric observations obtained at the McDonald Observatory reveal ellipsoidal variations and Doppler beaming in both systems; J1741, with a minimum companion mass of 1.1 M{sub Sun }, has one of the strongest Doppler beaming signals ever observed in a binary system (0.59% {+-} 0.06% amplitude). We use the observed ellipsoidal variations to constrain the radius of each WD. For J1741, the star's radius must exceed 0.074 R{sub Sun }. For J2119, the radius exceeds 0.10 R{sub Sun }. These indirect radius measurements are comparable to the radius measurements for the bloated WD companions to A-stars found by the Kepler spacecraft, and they constitute some of the largest radii inferred for any WD. Surprisingly, J1741 also appears to show a 0.23% {+-} 0.06% reflection effect, and we discuss possible sources for this excess heating. Both J1741 and J2119 are strong gravitational wave sources, and the time-of-minimum of the ellipsoidal variations can be used to detect the orbital period decay. This may be possible on a timescale of a decade or less.

  8. A comparison of carcass decomposition and associated insect succession onto burnt and unburnt pig carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Craig S; Dadour, Ian R; Voss, Sasha C

    2017-05-01

    The rate of decomposition and insect succession onto decomposing pig carcasses were investigated following burning of carcasses. Ten pig carcasses (40-45 kg) were exposed to insect activity during autumn (March-April) in Western Australia. Five replicates were burnt to a degree described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) level #2, while five carcasses were left unburnt as controls. Burning carcasses greatly accelerated decomposition in contrast to unburnt carcasses. Physical modifications following burning such as skin discolouration, splitting of abdominal tissue and leathery consolidation of skin eliminated evidence of bloat and altered microambient temperatures associated with carcasses throughout decomposition. Insect species identified on carcasses were consistent between treatment groups; however, a statistically significant difference in insect succession onto remains was evident between treatments (PERMANOVA F (1, 224)  = 14.23, p < 0.01) during an 8-day period that corresponds with the wet stage of decomposition. Differences were noted in the arrival time of late colonisers (Coleoptera) and the development of colonising insects between treatment groups. Differences in the duration of decomposition stages and insect assemblages indicate that burning has an effect on both rate of decomposition and insect succession. The findings presented here provide baseline data for entomological casework involving burnt remains criminal investigations.

  9. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Khodarahm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case–control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations.

  10. Aversive viscerally referred states and thirst accompanying the sating of hunger motivation by rapid digestion of glucosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, David A; O'Leary, Gemma; Li, Lixiang; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-03-01

    Associative conditioning of satiety indicates that concentrated maltodextrin (cMD) may induce a mildly aversive visceral signal within 20 min of its ingestion, as well as satiating normally. Individuals' awareness of this adverse state was tested on ratings of statistically distinct descriptions of factors liable to suppress hunger, whether distressing or comfortably satisfying. Wanted amount of a food and the pleasantness of eating it correlated highly for each of five foods, once again refuting the widespread presumption that "pleasant" refers to sensory pleasure; hence, as in previous reports, suppression of hunger was measured as a reduction of the averaged pleasantness of functionally related foods. At 20 min after the start of ingestion of a small meal on a near-empty stomach, cMD reliably reduced hunger. The greatest influence on hunger, besides normal sating, was thirst, but there were also tendencies to nausea and bloat, although all less than after a full sized meal. Visceral processes shortly after a meal can create dissociable conscious states, only one of which is satiety for food. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mineralogy and microstructure of sintered lignite coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina Ilic; Christopher Cheeseman; Christopher Sollars; Jonathan Knight [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2003-02-01

    Lignite coal fly ash from the 'Nikola Tesla' power plant in Yugoslavia has been characterised, milled, compacted and sintered to form monolithic ceramic materials. The effect of firing at temperatures between 1130 and 1190{sup o}C on the density, water accessible porosity, mineralogy and microstructure of sintered samples is reported. This class C fly ash has an initial average particle size of 82 {mu}m and contains siliceous glass together with the crystalline phases quartz, anorthite, gehlenite, hematite and mullite. Milling the ash to an average particle size of 5.6 m, compacting and firing at 1170{sup o}C for 1 h produces materials with densities similar to clay-based ceramics that exhibit low water absorption. Sintering reduces the amount of glass, quartz, gehlenite and anhydrite, but increases formation of anorthite, mullite, hematite and cristobalite. SEM confirms the formation of a dense ceramic at 1170{sup o}C and indicates that pyroplastic effects cause pore formation and bloating at 1190{sup o}C. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Premenstrual Symptoms in Dysmenorrheic College Students: Prevalence and Relation to Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayan A. Obeidat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms (PMS due to primary dysmenorrhea among a sample of university female students, and to explore possible association with vitamin D and parathyroid (PTH levels, as well as frequency of consumption of dairy products. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: One Jordanian university. Subjects: A total of 177 female students aged between 18 and 24 years who experienced primary dysmenorrhea participated in the study and completed a self administered questionnaire to collect information concerning demographics, menstruation- related information, associated specified premenstrual symptoms, and consumption of dairy products. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin vitamin D level and intact parathyroid hormone level were measured. Results: Of the 177 participants 91.5% had two or more symptoms among which fatigue, mood swings, anxiety, abdominal bloating, and depression were the most prevalent symptoms. There was no evident association between presence of symptoms and vitamin D status, PTH level or dairy products consumption. Headaches and social withdrawal were significantly lower in those women who consumed high amounts of dairy products. Conclusion: Premenstrual symptoms are very common in young women with primary dysmenorrhea. PMS has no relation to levels of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone or dairy products consumption. Headache and social withdrawal may be affected by dairy product consumption.

  13. Results of a Qualitative Study to Develop a Patient Reported Outcome Measure for Patients with 4 Subtypes of Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Skalicky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this research was to develop a disease-specific symptom inventory for soft tissue sarcoma. Methods. Literature review and clinical expert and patient interviews were conducted to determine disease-specific symptoms important to patients with one of the four STS subtypes. Clinical experts identified the most relevant STS symptom items from the item pool developed from literature review. Concept elicitation interviews were conducted with patients to elicit their STS symptom experiences followed by a completion of the draft symptom list via web survey. A cognitive interview was conducted on the comprehension and importance of the symptom items. Results. Eighty-three symptom items were compiled and discussed with three clinical experts who identified 26 symptoms specific to the four STS subtypes. A total sample of 27 STS participants with self-reported leiomyosarcoma (74%, undifferentiated sarcoma (15%, synovial sarcoma (7%, or liposarcoma (4% diagnosis completed the web survey and 10 were interviewed. The draft 12-item STS-specific symptom inventory includes abdominal pain, pressure in abdomen, early satiety, bloating, gastrointestinal pain, muscle pain, bone pain, heavy menstrual flow, shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, and painful menstruation. Conclusion. A number of symptoms are common across STS subtypes and may form a single STS symptom inventory.

  14. Celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtmeier Wolfgang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy, associated with maldigestion and malabsorption of most nutrients and vitamins. In predisposed individuals, the ingestion of gluten-containing food such as wheat and rye induces a flat jejunal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes. The main symptoms are: stomach pain, gas, and bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, edema, bone or joint pain. Prevalence for clinically overt celiac disease varies from 1:270 in Finland to 1:5000 in North America. Since celiac disease can be asymptomatic, most subjects are not diagnosed or they can present with atypical symptoms. Furthermore, severe inflammation of the small bowel can be present without any gastrointestinal symptoms. The diagnosis should be made early since celiac disease causes growth retardation in untreated children and atypical symptoms like infertility or neurological symptoms. Diagnosis requires endoscopy with jejunal biopsy. In addition, tissue-transglutaminase antibodies are important to confirm the diagnosis since there are other diseases which can mimic celiac disease. The exact cause of celiac disease is unknown but is thought to be primarily immune mediated (tissue-transglutaminase autoantigen; often the disease is inherited. Management consists in life long withdrawal of dietary gluten, which leads to significant clinical and histological improvement. However, complete normalization of histology can take years.

  15. Gluten sensitivity and neurological manifestations

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    Agostino Berio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report on six cases of gluten-sensitivity, also defined non-celiac gluten sensitivity, characterized by abdominal features (diarrhea, bloating, pain, genetic positivity for predisposition to celiac disease (DQB1* 02 in all cases; DQA1*05 in three; DQA1*02 in two, DQB1*03 in two, negative anti-t-Transglutaminase antibodies, normal mucosa on biopsy in four cases, type 1 of Marsh in one case. The subjects presented frequent central nervous system (CNS symptoms: headache in three patients, somnolence in one, electroencephalogram aspecific alterations in three (in two of them with previous seizures, leptomeningeal cyst in one, intracranial calcification in one, cerebral gliosis in two. After a gluten-free diet, all intestinal and clinical CNS features remitted, but re-appeared after gluten reintroduction. On the basis of the neurological signs, the authors stress the relevance of immune innate system in the pathogenesis of these cases with possible subsequent evolution on immune adaptive system involvement.

  16. Prevalence and Characterization of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity in The Netherlands

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    Tom van Gils

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing number of individuals reports symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food in the absence of celiac disease. Yet the actual prevalence is not well established. Methods: Between April 2015 and March 2016, unselected adults visiting marketplaces, dental practices and a university in The Netherlands were asked to complete a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported gluten sensitivity (srGS. Results: Among the 785 adults enquired, two had celiac disease. Forty-nine (6.2% reported symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food. These individuals were younger, predominantly female and lived more frequently in urban regions compared with the other respondents. Symptoms reported included bloating (74%, abdominal discomfort (49% and flatulence (47%. A total of 23 (47% srGS individuals reported having had tried a gluten-free or gluten-restricted diet. Abdominal discomfort related to fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP-containing food was more often reported in srGS individuals compared with the other respondents (73.5% vs. 21.7%, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Self-reported GS is common in The Netherlands, especially in younger individuals, females and urban regions, although the prevalence was lower than in a comparable recent UK study. It cannot be excluded that FODMAPs are in part responsible for these symptoms.

  17. Prevalence of Celiac Disease and Helicobacter Pylori in Patients Referred to Endoscopy Section of Taleghani Hospital

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    P Mohammadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to previous studies celiac disease(CD is frequently associated with chronic gastritis. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of CD and Helicobacter pylori in patients with dyspepsia. Methods: 325 patients were studied from April 2008 to April 2009 who underwent endoscopic procedures for dyspepsia. Gastric antrum, duodenal biopsies, serology with tissue Transglutaminase Antibodies(tTGA and total IgA were performed for detection of H. pylori and CD. Results: Out of 325 patients 312(96% had a positive H. pylori. Heart burn and bloating were the most prevalent symptoms in this study. Twenty one of 25 patients with positive histology for CD who had gastric biopsies were positive for H. pylori(84%. Duodenal biopsy specimens results have shown normal histology in 213(65.5%, hyperplastic polyps in 1(0.4%, duodenitis in 79(24.3% and abnormality in small bowel (Marsh I-IIIc in 25(10%. In term of the serological analysis, 9 of 26 tTGA positive patients had abnormal histology (Marsh I-IIIc(2.7%. Conclusion: Similar to previous reports, we found a high prevalence of H. pylori infection and celiac disease in dyspeptic patients. Therefore, further studies for screening occult CD in dyspeptic patients is seems necessary.

  18. Co-occurrence of carbohydrate malabsorption and primary epiploic appendagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Kalmar, Peter; Mangge, Harald; Krause, Robert; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J

    2015-01-01

    Unspecific abdominal complaints including bloating and irregular bowel movements may be caused by carbohydrate malabsorption syndromes, e.g., lactose and fructose malabsorption. These symptoms were investigated with hydrogen (H2) breath tests and correlated to carbohydrate malabsorption. During performing these H2-breath tests the patient presented with an acute, localized, non-migratory pain in the left lower abdominal quadrant. Primary epiploic appendagitis is a rare cause of abdominal acute or subacute complaints and diagnosis of primary epiploic appendagitis (PEA) is made when computed tomography reveals a characteristic lesion. We report on a patient with co-occurrence of lactose and fructose malabsorption, which was treated successfully with a diet free of culprit carbohydrates, with PEA recovering without medication or surgical treatment within few days. Since the abdominal unspecific symptoms had been present for months, they appeared not to be correlated to the acute localized abdominal pain, therefore we speculate on a random co-occurrence of combined carbohydrate malabsorption and PEA. PMID:26401090

  19. Systematic review: the perceptions, diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome in primary care--a Rome Foundation working team report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungin, A P S; Molloy-Bland, M; Claes, R; Heidelbaugh, J; Cayley, W E; Muris, J; Seifert, B; Rubin, G; de Wit, N

    2014-11-01

    To review studies on the perceptions, diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in primary care. Systematic searches of PubMed and Embase. Of 746 initial search hits, 29 studies were included. Relatively few primary care physicians were aware of (2-36%; nine studies) or used (0-21%; six studies) formal diagnostic criteria for IBS. Nevertheless, most could recognise the key IBS symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating and disturbed defaecation. A minority of primary care physicians [7-32%; one study (six European countries)] preferred to refer patients to a specialist before making an IBS diagnosis, and few patients [4-23%; three studies (two European, one US)] were referred to a gastroenterologist by their primary care physician. Most PCPs were unsure about IBS causes and treatment effectiveness, leading to varied therapeutic approaches and broad but frequent use of diagnostic tests. Diagnostic tests, including colon investigations, were more common in older patients (>45 years) than in younger patients [<45 years; five studies (four European, one US)]. There has been much emphasis about the desirability of an initial positive diagnosis of IBS. While it appears most primary care physicians do make a tentative IBS diagnosis from the start, they still tend to use additional testing to confirm it. Although an early, positive diagnosis has advantages in avoiding unnecessary investigations and costs, until formal diagnostic criteria are conclusively shown to sufficiently exclude organic disease, bowel investigations, such as colonoscopy, will continue to be important to primary care physicians. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Place of Stress and Emotions in the Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellissier, S; Bonaz, B

    2017-01-01

    Our emotional state can have many consequences on our somatic health and well-being. Negative emotions such as anxiety play a major role in gut functioning due to the bidirectional communications between gut and brain, namely, the brain-gut axis. The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), characterized by an unusual visceral hypersensitivity, is the most common disorder encountered by gastroenterologists. Among the main symptoms, the presence of current or recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with bloating and altered bowel habits characterizes this syndrome that could strongly alter the quality of life. This chapter will present the physiopathology of IBS and explain how stress influences gastrointestinal functions (permeability, motility, microbiota, sensitivity, secretion) and how it could be predominantly involved in IBS. This chapter will also describe the role of the autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis through vagal tone and cortisol homeostasis. An analysis is made about how emotions and feelings are involved in the disruption of homeostasis, and we will see to what extent the balance between vagal tone and cortisol may reflect dysfunctions of the brain-gut homeostasis. Finally, the interest of therapeutic treatments focused on stress reduction and vagal tone enforcement is discussed. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Frequency of Celiac Disease in Patients with Increased Intestinal Gas (Flatulence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, Mohsen; Mokhtare, Marjan; Agah, Shahram; Sina, Mohammad; Soltani-Kermanshahi, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Excessive flatulence which impairs social performance in patients is one of the common reasons for referrals to gastroenterology clinics. Celiac Disease is a rare but important cause of increased intestinal gas (bloating) and if not diagnosed, patients face complications such as malabsorption, anemia, osteoporosis and even intestinal lymphoma. This study aimed to determine the frequency of Celiac Disease in patients with excessive flatulence. One hundred and fifty patients with a chief complaint of experiencing flatulence more than 15 times a day and lasting for three months were referred to the gastroenterology clinic of Rasoul-e-Akram Teaching Hospital. Serological tests for Celiac Disease, Anti TTG Ab (IgA-IgG) were requested and the patients with positive tests underwent upper GI endoscopy. Biopsies of the second part of the duodenum were then sent to the laboratory. From one hundred and thirty patients who completed the study, 92 (70.7%) were female. Mean age of the patients was 32 ± 13 years. Anti TTG Ab was found in 5 patients (3.85%). Only 2 patients (1.5%) had a documented positive pathology for Celiac Disease. According to the results of this study and other studies, we conclude that Celiac Disease is an uncommon etiology for excessive flatulence but it is of importance to investigate it in excessive flatulence patients. PMID:26755470

  2. A preliminary study on insects associated with pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses in Phitsanulok, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichat, Vitta; Wilawan, Pumidonming; Udomsak, Tangchaisuriya; Chanasorn, Poodendean; Saengchai, Nateeworanart

    2007-12-01

    preliminary study on insects associated with pig carcasses was conducted in Phitsanulok, northern Thailand. Five decomposition stages of pig carcasses were categorized: fresh (0-1 day after death), bloated (2 days after death), active (3 days after death), advanced (4- 6 days after death) and dry (7-30 days after death). The arthropod species collected from the corpses in the field sites were mainly classified belonging to two orders and nine families, namely order Diptera (family Calliphoridae: Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya megacephala, family Muscidae: Musca domestica, family Faniidae: Fannia canicularis, family Sarcophagidae: Parasarcophaga ruficornis and family Piophilidae: Piophila casei,) and order Coleoptera (family Dermestidae: Dermestes maculatus, family Histeridae: Hister sp., family Cleridae: Necrobia rufipes and family Trogidae: Trox sp). The forensically dominant fly was C. rufifacies, while the beetle was D. maculatus. The beetles associated with pig carcasses found in this study are first reported in Phitsanulok, Thailand. In addition, ants, bees, spiders and millipedes were also associated with the carcasses. These findings may provide data for further use in legal investigations in Thailand.

  3. The implications of condensed tannins on the nutritive value of temperate forages fed to ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, T N; McNabb, W C

    1999-04-01

    New methodology for measuring forage condensed tannin (CT) content is described and the effects of CT upon forage feeding and nutritive value for ruminant animals are reviewed. CT react with forage proteins in a pH-reversible manner, with reactivity determined by the concentration, structure and molecular mass of the CT. Increasing concentrations of CT in Lotus corniculatus and Lotus pedunculatus reduce the rates of solubilization and degradation of fraction 1 leaf protein in the rumen and increase duodenal non-NH3 N flow. Action of medium concentrations of total CT in Lotus corniculatus (30-40 g/kg DM) increased the absorption of essential amino acids from the small intestine and increased wool growth, milk secretion and reproductive rate in grazing sheep without affecting voluntary feed intake, thus improving the efficiency of food conversion. High concentrations of CT in Lotus pedunculatus (75-100 g/kg DM) depressed voluntary feed intake and rumen carbohydrate digestion and depressed rates of body and wool growth in grazing sheep. The minimum concentration of CT to prevent rumen frothy bloat in cattle is defined as 5 g/kg DM and sheep grazing CT-containing legumes were shown to better tolerate internal parasite infections than sheep grazing non CT-containing forages. It was concluded that defined concentrations of forage CT can be used to increase the efficiencies of protein digestion and animal productivity in forage-fed ruminants and to develop more ecologically sustainable systems of controlling some diseases under grazing.

  4. [Experiences with the use of xylazine for sacral epidural anesthesia in cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehage, J; Kehler, W; Scholz, H

    1994-01-01

    The effect of epidural administered xylazine was investigated in 10 mature Holstein cows (mean age: 5.4 +/- 1.2 years, mean BW: 572 +/- 23 kg): 5 cows were treated with xylazine in a low dose of 0.05 mg/kg body weight, 3 cows in a medium dose (0.07 mg/kg BW) and 2 cows in a high dose (0.1 mg/kg BW). Xylazine dosages were diluted in sterile saline to a final volume of 5 ml. As a control, lidocaine (5 ml of a 2% solution) was given to 5 cows epidurally. Duration of regional anaesthesia after low dose of xylazine (0.05 mg/kg BW) was significant longer (mean: 2.2 hours) compared to lidocaine treated cows (mean: 1.1 hour). Regional extension of anaesthesia was comparable after dosing with xylazine and lidocaine (tail, after, vulva and perineum). All cows remained standing, but in xylazine treated cows systemic effects, e.g. mild sedation, decreased heart- and respiratory rates, decreased rumen motility and mild bloat were observed. With increased dosages of xylazine a prolongation of epidural anaesthesia up to 3 hours was achieved, but regional extension of this effect remained nearly unchanged. With increased xylazine dosages, cows showed marked sedation and ataxia and sternal recumbency were induced.

  5. Fiber sources for complete calf starter rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, F R; Wallenius, R W

    1980-11-01

    Complete calf starter rations containing either 1) alfalfa hay, 2) cottonseed hulls, or 3) alfalfa-beet pulp as sources of fiber were fed to Holstein heifer calves at two locations on a limited milk program from 3 days to 12 wk of age. Rations were isonitrogenous and similar in content of crude fiber and acid detergent fiber. Although growth and development were normal on all rations, calves fed the cottonseed hull ration consumed more starter and gained more body weight than calves fed the other sources of fiber. The similarity of feed efficiencies, rumen pH, and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids between rations indicated no appreciable differences in rumen development or function. The growth response of calves fed the cottonseed hull ration appeared to be a result of better ration acceptability for which no reason was evident. Calves raised at Puyallup gained more body weight than calves at Pullman, and these gains were made more efficiently. These location effects may be related to seasonal differences and greater demands for production of body heat. Although the incidence of scours was less for calves fed alfalfa hay starter, the incidence and severity of bloat were higher for that ration.

  6. Intoxication of goats by Plumbago scandens in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, R M; Barbosa, R C; Lima, E F; Simões, S V; Riet-Correa, F

    2001-06-01

    In the State of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil, goat mortality occurred with the ingestion of Plumbago scandens. The fresh plant was then given experimentally to 4 goats at 5, 10, 17.5 or 25 g/kg bw. Depression, anorexia, salivation with foamy saliva, bellowing, bruxism, humpbacked posture, bloat, ruminal atony, continuous lateral head movements, tachycardia, dyspnea and dark brown to black urine were observed in the goats given 17.5 or 25 g/kg bw. The goats receiving 5 or 10 g/kg bw had less severe signs. The goat dosed with 25 g/kg bw died after 18-20 h. All others recovered in 3-9 d. At necropsy of the high dose goat, the main lesions were dark violet to black discoloration of the mucosa of the tongue, esophagus, reticulum and ventral sac of the rumen, and gelatinous edema in the visceral ruminal peritoneum. Histologically the reticulum and ventral rumen sac had diffuse epithelial necrosis and severe edema and neutrophilic infiltration of the submucosa. Separation of the ruminal epithelium from the submucosa was observed. Epithelial degeneration and necrosis was also seen in the omasum, esophagus and tongue. Reproduction of the disease with clinical signs similar to those observed by the farmer in the spontaneously affected goats suggests that the clinical mortality was caused by ingestion of Plumbago scandens.

  7. A field study of culling and mortality in beef cows from western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl L; Kennedy, Richard I; Rosengren, Leigh; Clark, Edward G

    2009-05-01

    The objectives were to describe the pattern of losses through culling, sales of breeding stock, mortality, and disappearance, and to characterize the causes of mortality of cows and replacement heifers of breeding age from Western Canadian beef herds. Cows and replacement heifers from 203 herds were observed for a 1-year period starting June 1, 2001. Veterinarians examined dead animals on-farm using a standard postmortem protocol. The incidence of culling in cows and replacements heifers was 14.3 per 100 cow-years at risk, and the frequencies of sales for breeding stock, mortality, and cows reported missing per cow-years at risk were 4.0, 1.1, and 0.4, respectively. During the study, 355 animals died or were euthanized, 209 were examined postmortem, and the requested tissues were submitted for histopathologic examination from 184. A cause of death was determined for 70% (128/184) of the cows with complete gross postmortem and histopathologic examinations. Hardware disease (traumatic reticuloperitonitis), malignant neoplasia (cancer), calving-associated injury, rumen tympany (bloat), myopathy, and pneumonia accounted for 56% (72/128) of the animals where a cause of death was determined. Twenty-three other causes of death accounted for the remaining 44% (56/128). Factors relating to cow nutrition accounted for 25% of the deaths, emphasizing the importance of feeding management as a determinant of cow health in western Canada.

  8. Exploitation of dietary tannins to improve rumen metabolism and ruminant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan K; Saxena, Jyotisna

    2011-01-15

    Tannins (hydrolysable and condensed tannin) are polyphenolic polymers of relatively high molecular weight with the capacity to form complexes mainly with proteins due to the presence of a large number of phenolic hydroxyl groups. They are widely distributed in nutritionally important forage trees, shrubs and legumes, cereals and grains, which are considered as anti-nutritional compounds due to their adverse effects on intake and animal performance. However, tannins have been recognised to modulate rumen fermentation favourably such as reducing protein degradation in the rumen, prevention of bloat, inhibition of methanogenesis and increasing conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in ruminant-derived foods. The inclusion of tannins in diets has been shown to improve body weight and wool growth, milk yields and reproductive performance. However, the beneficial effects on rumen modulation and animal performance have not been consistently observed. This review discusses the effects of tannins on nitrogen metabolism in the rumen and intestine, and microbial populations (bacteria, protozoa, fungi and archaea), metabolism of tannins, microbial tolerance mechanisms to tannins, inhibition of methanogenesis, ruminal biohydrogenation processes and performance of animals. The discrepancies of responses of tannins among different studies are attributed to the different chemical structures (degree of polymerisation, procyanidins to propdelphinidins, stereochemistry and C-C bonding) and concentrations of tannins, and type of diets. An establishment of structure-activity relationship would be required to explain differences among studies and obtain consistent beneficial tannin effects. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. The Use of Gene Modification and Advanced Molecular Structure Analyses towards Improving Alfalfa Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaogeng Lei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Alfalfa is one of the most important legume forage crops in the world. In spite of its agronomic and nutritive advantages, alfalfa has some limitations in the usage of pasture forage and hay supplement. High rapid degradation of protein in alfalfa poses a risk of rumen bloat to ruminants which could cause huge economic losses for farmers. Coupled with the relatively high lignin content, which impedes the degradation of carbohydrate in rumen, alfalfa has unbalanced and asynchronous degradation ratio of nitrogen to carbohydrate (N/CHO in rumen. Genetic engineering approaches have been used to manipulate the expression of genes involved in important metabolic pathways for the purpose of improving the nutritive value, forage yield, and the ability to resist abiotic stress. Such gene modification could bring molecular structural changes in alfalfa that are detectable by advanced structural analytical techniques. These structural analyses have been employed in assessing alfalfa forage characteristics, allowing for rapid, convenient and cost-effective analysis of alfalfa forage quality. In this article, we review two major obstacles facing alfalfa utilization, namely poor protein utilization and relatively high lignin content, and highlight genetic studies that were performed to overcome these drawbacks, as well as to introduce other improvements to alfalfa quality. We also review the use of advanced molecular structural analysis in the assessment of alfalfa forage for its potential usage in quality selection in alfalfa breeding.

  10. Effect of sugar fatty acid esters on rumen fermentation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, M; Hoshino, S

    1987-11-01

    1. The effect of sugar fatty acid esters (SFEs; currently used as food additives for human consumption) on rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA) and gas production was studied with sheep rumen contents in vitro. 2. Some SFEs having monoester contents of more than 70% increased the molar proportion of propionate in conjunction with reduction in the acetate:propionate ratio when the individual SFE was added to rumen contents in a final concentration of 4 g/l. Laurate sugar ester was the most potent propionate enhancer and rumen gas depressor, the effective dose being as low as 1 g/l in a final concentration. Fatty acid esters other than SFEs had little, if any, effect on rumen VFA production and their molar proportions. 3. Approximately 50% of laurate sugar ester was hydrolysed by in vitro incubation with rumen fluid for 2 h. The addition of fatty acids and sucrose was also effective in the alterations of rumen VFA and gas production. However, the effect of SFEs on in vitro rumen fermentation was significantly greater than that of their constituent fatty acids or sucrose, or both. Accordingly, the effect appeared to be ascribed to the complex action of SFE itself and to its constituents, free fatty acids and sucrose. 4. SFEs, at the level of 4 g/l, reduced substantially the froth formation (ingesta volume increase) and seemed to be effective for the prevention of bloat.

  11. The Use of Gene Modification and Advanced Molecular Structure Analyses towards Improving Alfalfa Forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yaogeng; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-01-29

    Alfalfa is one of the most important legume forage crops in the world. In spite of its agronomic and nutritive advantages, alfalfa has some limitations in the usage of pasture forage and hay supplement. High rapid degradation of protein in alfalfa poses a risk of rumen bloat to ruminants which could cause huge economic losses for farmers. Coupled with the relatively high lignin content, which impedes the degradation of carbohydrate in rumen, alfalfa has unbalanced and asynchronous degradation ratio of nitrogen to carbohydrate (N/CHO) in rumen. Genetic engineering approaches have been used to manipulate the expression of genes involved in important metabolic pathways for the purpose of improving the nutritive value, forage yield, and the ability to resist abiotic stress. Such gene modification could bring molecular structural changes in alfalfa that are detectable by advanced structural analytical techniques. These structural analyses have been employed in assessing alfalfa forage characteristics, allowing for rapid, convenient and cost-effective analysis of alfalfa forage quality. In this article, we review two major obstacles facing alfalfa utilization, namely poor protein utilization and relatively high lignin content, and highlight genetic studies that were performed to overcome these drawbacks, as well as to introduce other improvements to alfalfa quality. We also review the use of advanced molecular structural analysis in the assessment of alfalfa forage for its potential usage in quality selection in alfalfa breeding.

  12. Alkaline phosphatase activity of rumen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K J; Costerton, J W

    1977-11-01

    Of the 54 strains of rumen bacteria examined for alkaline phosphatase (APase) production, 9 of 33 gram-negative strains and none of 21 gram-positive strains produced the enzyme. The APase of the cells of the three strains of Bacteroides ruminicola that produced significant amounts of the enzyme was located in the periplasmic area of the cell envelope, whereas the enzyme was located in the strains of Selenomonas ruminantium and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens was associated with the outer membrane. The localization of APase production in the cells of natural populations of rumen bacteria from hay-fed sheep was accomplished by reaction product deposition, and both the proportion of APase-producing bacteria and the location of the enzyme in the cell envelope of the producing cells could be determined. We suggest that this procedure is useful in detecting shifts in the bacterial population and the release of cell-bound APase that accompany feedlot bloat and other sequelae of dietary manipulation in ruminants.

  13. Experimental induction of abdominal tympany, abomasitis, and abomasal ulceration by intraruminal inoculation of Clostridium perfringens type A in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, B L; Chengappa, M M; Nagaraja, T G; Avery, T B; Kennedy, G A

    1988-02-01

    The etiologic role of Clostridum perfringens type A in the acute abdominal syndrome characterized by abomasal and rumen tympany, abomasitis, and abomasal ulceration was investigated in neonatal calves. Eight calves, 4 to 12 days old, were inoculated intraruminally with toxigenic C perfringens type A. Before and after C perfringens inoculation, blood samples were collected from all calves for blood gas and serum biochemical analysis and for determination of serum copper concentration; ruminal fluid was obtained for isolation of C perfringens. Calves were monitored daily for clinical signs of the syndrome and, depending on the severity of clinical signs, they were either euthanatized or redosed within 4 to 7 days. After necropsy, specimens obtained from the abomasum and rumen for macroscopic and microscopic examination and for anaerobic bacteriologic culture were processed in routine manner. Intraruminal inoculation of C perfringens type A into healthy calves induced anorexia, depression, bloat, diarrhea, and in some calves, death. Serum copper concentration was within normal range. Necropsy revealed variable degrees of abomasitis, petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, and ulcers (ranging from pinpoint to nearly perforate) in the abomasum. Seven of those calves also had multiple trichobezoars in the rumen. These necropsy findings were not seen in calves (controls) given distilled H2O only. In affected calves, acute abdominal syndrome was unrelated to copper deficiency, and C perfringens type A given intraruminally was able to induce clinical signs similar to those of the naturally acquired disease.

  14. Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo. © 2011 The Author(s)

  15. Consequences of plant phenolic compounds for productivity and health of ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, Garry C; McNabb, Warren C

    2003-05-01

    Plant phenolic compounds are diverse in structure but are characterised by hydroxylated aromatic rings (e.g. flavan-3-ols). They are categorised as secondary metabolites, and their function in plants is often poorly understood. Many plant phenolic compounds are polymerised into larger molecules such as the proanthocyanidins (PA; condensed tannins) and lignins. Only the lignins, PA, oestrogenic compounds and hydrolysable tannins will be considered here. Lignins slow the physical and microbial degradation of ingested feed, because of resilient covalent bonding with hemicellulose and cellulose, rather than any direct effects on the rumen per se. The PA are prevalent in browse and are expressed in the foliage of some legumes (e.g. Lotus spp.), but rarely in grasses. They reduce the nutritive value of poor-quality diets, but can also have substantial benefits for ruminant productivity and health when improved temperate forages are fed. Beneficial effects are dependent on the chemical and physical structure, and concentration of the PA in the diet, but they have been shown to improve live-weight gain, milk yield and protein concentration, and ovulation rate. They prevent bloat in cattle, reduce gastrointestinal nematode numbers, flystrike and CH4 production. Some phenolic compounds (e.g. coumestans) cause temporary infertility, whilst those produced by Fusarium fungi found in pasture, silage or stored grains can cause permanent infertility. The HT may be toxic because products of their metabolism can cause liver damage and other metabolic disorders.

  16. Curcumin ameliorates gastrointestinal dysfunction and oxidative damage in diabetic rats

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    Nitin Indarchandji Kochar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known to be associated with gastrointestinal complications characterized by nausea, vomiting, early satiety, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. Curcumin is the lipid-soluble antioxidant obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn, also known as turmeric. Curcumin targets multiple chemotherapeutic and oxidative stress pathways and has demonstrated safety and tolerability in humans, supporting its potential as a therapeutic agent; however, literature lacks conclusive evidence supporting its use as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes induced gastrointestinal complications. Hence, Curcumin was given in different doses to SD rats after 4 weeks of diabetic GI complication induction. At the end of 4 weeks, significant GI dysfunction characterized by weight loss, delayed gastric emptying and intestinal transit associated with reduction in antioxidant enzyme levels and increased lipid peroxidation was observed.  Upon treatment with Curcumin for further 4 weeks, reversal of GI dysfunction evidenced by restoration of body weight, GI emptying, intestinal transit, and restoration of antioxidant enzyme level and lipid peroxidation proves the beneficial role of Curcumin in diabetes induced GI complications due to its antioxidant potential.     

  17. The Use of Gene Modification and Advanced Molecular Structure Analyses towards Improving Alfalfa Forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Yaogeng; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-01-29

    Alfalfa is one of the most important legume forage crops in the world. In spite of its agronomic and nutritive advantages, alfalfa has some limitations in the usage of pasture forage and hay supplement. High rapid degradation of protein in alfalfa poses a risk of rumen bloat to ruminants which could cause huge economic losses for farmers. Coupled with the relatively high lignin content, which impedes the degradation of carbohydrate in rumen, alfalfa has unbalanced and asynchronous degradation ratio of nitrogen to carbohydrate (N/CHO) in rumen. Genetic engineering approaches have been used to manipulate the expression of genes involved in important metabolic pathways for the purpose of improving the nutritive value, forage yield, and the ability to resist abiotic stress. Such gene modification could bring molecular structural changes in alfalfa that are detectable by advanced structural analytical techniques. These structural analyses have been employed in assessing alfalfa forage characteristics, allowing for rapid, convenient and cost-effective analysis of alfalfa forage quality. In this article, we review two major obstacles facing alfalfa utilization, namely poor protein utilization and relatively high lignin content, and highlight genetic studies that were performed to overcome these drawbacks, as well as to introduce other improvements to alfalfa quality. We also review the use of advanced molecular structural analysis in the assessment of alfalfa forage for its potential usage in quality selection in alfalfa breeding.

  18. Effect of Ursodeoxycolicacid in Treatment of Bile Gastritis

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    S. Kazem Nezam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bile gastritis (gastropathy is a kind of gastritis which is caused by reflux of bile contents through duodenum on stomach. It can occur spontaneously without any former gastric surgeries which affect sphincter of pylorus. The positive impact of some certain drugs such as prokinetic agents e.g. metoclopramide, Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs, cholestyramine and sucralfate in treating bile gastritis has been confirmed. This study has been conducted in order to analyze the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, which is a harmless drug, on patients with the bile gastritis. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, all patients with dyspepsia who were qualified to undertake endoscopy were enrolled and then 60 patients with bile gastritis were selected for the study. The patients were divided into two groups; a group was treated by UDCA, omeprazole and sucralfate and another one was treated with placebo, omeprazole and sucralfate for two weeks. Finally, at the end of the third week of treatment patients were examined.Results: A total of sixty 19-70 year-old patients (Mean: 46 years old included in this study. At the end of the study, there was not found any meaningful difference between the two groups in terms of pain intensity, heartburn intensity, severity of bloating, vomiting and early satiety; however, each group independently showed improvement of the mentioned indices after termination of the treatment (p=0.0005.Conclusion: Adding UDCA to the standard treatment (sucralfate is not clinically effective in curing the bile gastritis.

  19. A Study on the Dietary Intake and the Nutritional Status among the Pancreatic Cancer Surgical Patients.

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    Kang, Jimin; Park, Joon Seong; Yoon, Dong Sup; Kim, Woo Jeong; Chung, Hae-Yun; Lee, Song Mi; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-10-01

    The adequate dietary intake is important to maintain the nutritional status of the patients after pancreatic cancer surgery. This prospective study was designed to investigate the dietary intake and the nutritional status of the patients who had pancreatic cancer surgery. Thirty-one patients (15 men, 16 women) were enrolled and measured body weight, body mass index (BMI), nutritional risk index (NRI), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Actual oral intake with nutritional impact symptoms recorded on the clinical research foam at every meal and medical information were collected from electronic medical charts. The rates of malnutrition at admission were 45.1% (14/31) and 28.9% (9/31) by NRI and MUST method, respectively, but those were increased to 87% (27/31) and 86.6% (26/31) after operation on discharge. The median values of daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat, and protein were 588.1 kcal, 96.0 g, 11.8 g, and 27.0 g, respectively. Most patients (n = 20, 64.5%) experienced two or more symptoms such as anorexia, abdominal bloating and early satiety. There were negative correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the intake of total energy, protein, fat, and zinc. The rates of malnutrition were increased sharply after surgery and the dietary intake also influenced the inflammatory indicators. The results suggested that need of considering special therapeutic diets for the patients who received pancreatic surgery.

  20. Probiotic treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in children

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    Enck, P.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of functional bowel disorders of irritable bowel-type (IBS in children remains a difficult task because of a lack of drugs with low adverse event profile. We here report the results of a treatment study in 203 children (66 boys and 137 girls age 4 to 18 years (mean: 10.5±4.5 years with typical IBS symptoms with abdominal pain and either predominant diarrhea (n=50, constipation (n=56, alternating stool frequency (n=28 or unspecific pain (n=69. The average duration of symptoms prior to therapy was 175 days. Most (95% patients up to age 11 were treated with a daily dose of 10 drops of Symbioflor 2 (SF2 (SymbioPharm, Herborn (cells and autolysate of 1.5–4.5x107 CFU of bacteria of Escherichia coli type, in the elder children 77% received this dosage, while the remaining received a higher dose up to 30 drops/day. Treatment lasted 43 days on average. Results: All patients tolerated the treatment well and without adverse events. The key IBS symptoms (abdominal pain, stool frequency as well as the other symptoms (bloating, mucous and blood in stool, need for straining at stools, urge to defecate improved significantly during treatment. Global assessment of therapy by parents and doctors was altogether positive. In summary these data confirm efficacy and tolerability of this probiotic compound in children and adolescents and supplement published data of probiotic IBS therapy in adults.

  1. Probiotics and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

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    Riitta Korpela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a major cause of abdominal discomfort and gut dysfunction worldwide. It is a poorly understood functional gastrointestinal disorder for which no effective medication is available. It is a benign condition, but its social and economic burden is significant. The symptoms consist of abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, and irregular bowel movements. Alterations in the intestinal microbiota and mucosal inflammation may contribute to the development of IBS and probiotics could thus relieve the symptoms. This review gives an overview on the existing data on the effects of probiotics on the gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS. Methods: A PUBMED search was made to review the relevant literature, and additional studies were obtained from the references of the selected articles. Results: Clinical trials suggest that certain probiotics or combinations of bacteria have beneficial effects on the IBS symptoms. However the heterogeneity of studies, e.g. suboptimal study design, inadequate number of subjects, different doses and vehicles, inadequate length, make it difficult to compare the differences between probiotics and the effect may be strain-specific. Conclusions: Though evidence is very promising, no general recommendations on the use of probiotics in IBS can be given yet. Further clinical trials and data on the mechanisms of action are needed. Probiotics are considered safe and if future scientific data is able to substantiate their efficacy in IBS, they certainly could be a treatment option in relieving the symptoms in IBS.

  2. Profile of rifaximin and its potential in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

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    Iorio N

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natalya Iorio, Zubair Malik, Ron Schey Section of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain and abnormal bowel patterns. Alteration in gut flora, visceral hypersensitivity, and abnormal bowel motility are among numerous factors in the complex pathophysiology of IBS. Antibiotics have been used adjunctively to treat IBS for many years but are associated with various systemic side effects. Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable, broad-spectrum antimicrobial that inhibits bacterial RNA synthesis by binding the β-subunit of microbial RNA polymerase. It targets the gastrointestinal tract and works by reducing the quantity of gas-producing bacteria and altering the predominant species of bacteria present. In vivo animal studies suggest additional beneficial mechanisms of rifaximin, including reducing mucosal inflammation and visceral hypersensitivity. Clinical studies have demonstrated that rifaximin improves symptoms associated with IBS, such as bloating, flatulence, stool consistency, and abdominal pain, and has a side-effect profile similar to placebo. Although additional investigation into optimal dosing, treatment duration, and potential resistance is required, rifaximin presents as a safe and beneficial addition to the current management options for IBS. Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, rifaximin, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, mucosal inflammation

  3. Allergic Mastocytic Gastroenteritis and Colitis: An Unexplained Etiology in Chronic Abdominal Pain and Gastrointestinal Dysmotility

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    A. Akhavein M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal pain, bloating, early satiety, and changes in bowel habits are common presenting symptoms in individuals with functional GI disorders. Emerging data suggests that these symptoms may be associated with mast cell excess and/or mast cell instability in the GI tract. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the contribution of mast cells to the aforementioned symptoms in individuals with a history of atopic disease. A retrospective chart review of individuals seen in a university GI practice was conducted and twenty-four subjects were identified. The majority had abdominal pain, early satiety, and nocturnal awakening. 66.7% and 37.5% had a history of environmental and/or food allergy. Solid gastric emptying was increased as were the mean number of mast cells reported on biopsies from the stomach, small bowel, and colon (>37/hpf by CD117 staining. Mean whole blood histamine levels were uniformly elevated. This study suggests that in individuals with these characteristics, consideration should be given to staining their gastrointestinal biopsies for mast cells as this may provide them with relatively non-toxic but highly targeted treatment options. Allergic gastroenteritis and colitis may represent a third type of GI mast cell disorder along with mast cell activation syndrome and mastocytic enterocolitis.

  4. PREVALENCE OF SMALL INTESTINAL BACTERIAL OVERGROWTH IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME

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    Premaletha Narayanan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a common functional disorder and the pathophysiology of IBS is poorly understood. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of SIBO in patients with IBS using Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test (LHBT. Diagnosis of IBS was made according to the Rome III Criteria and Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test (LHBT was done. MATERIALS AND METHODS The current hypothesis suggests that altered gastrointestinal motility, disturbance of visceral hypersensitivity and infection may contribute to the symptoms. Gut microbiota and intestinal pathogens are likely to influence the pathogenesis of IBS. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO is defined as an abnormally high bacterial count (≥105 colony-forming units/mL in the proximal small intestine. RESULTS Out of the 120 patients, 9 were LHBT positive (7.5% compared to none in controls (p <0.01. IBS patients with LHBT positivity was correlated well with the increased frequency of stools. There was no correlation noted with LHBT positivity and abdominal pain or flatulence or bloating compared to IBS patients who were LHBT negative. CONCLUSION These findings may suggest that patients with chronic diarrhoea including IBS should be tested for SIBO. Our study also showed that LHBT positivity is associated with increased frequency of stools and diarrhoea. If SIBO is found in patients with chronic diarrhoea, specific treatment with antibiotics may benefit them.

  5. Development of functional gastrointestinal disorders after Giardia lamblia infection

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    Hanevik Kurt

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID may occur following acute gastroenteritis. This long-term complication has previously not been described after infection with the non-invasive protozoan Giardia lamblia. This study aims to characterize persistent abdominal symptoms elicited by Giardia infection according to Rome II criteria and symptoms scores. Methods Structured interview and questionnaires 12–30 months after the onset of Giardia infection, and at least 6 months after Giardia eradication, among 82 patients with persisting abdominal symptoms elicited by the Giardia infection. All had been evaluated to exclude other causes. Results We found that 66 (80.5% of the 82 patients had symptoms consistent with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and 17 (24.3% patients had functional dyspepsia (FD according to Rome II criteria. IBS was sub classified into D-IBS (47.0%, A-IBS (45.5% and C-IBS (7.6%. Bloating, diarrhoea and abdominal pain were reported to be most severe. Symptoms exacerbation related to specific foods were reported by 45 (57.7% patients and to physical or mental stress by 34 (44.7% patients. Conclusion In the presence of an IBS-subtype pattern consistent with post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS, and in the absence of any other plausible causes, we conclude that acute Giardia infection may elicit functional gastrointestinal diseases with food and stress related symptoms similar to FGID patients in general.

  6. Review of Rifaximin: Latest Treatment Frontier for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Mechanism of Action and Clinical Profile

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    Kamesh Gupta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome is classified as a functional gastrointestinal disorder with the primary symptom of abdominal pain in conjunction with bloating and bowel movement disorder. It affects up to 15% of the world’s population. Among its subtypes, the most common is diarrhoea predominant. However, the current treatment options for diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome have had not very promising results; most, such as antispasmodics, only provide partial symptomatic relief. Treatment with antidepressants and alosetron (a 5HT3 antagonist has shown the most promise to date. The latest drug to be approved for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhoea is rifaximin, which was approved in May 2015. It is a minimally absorbed antibiotic that is used to change the gut microbiota. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is one of the causes suggested for irritable bowel syndrome, particularly for the diarrhoea-predominant type. There are various methods for detecting bacterial overgrowth, the simplest of which is breath tests. Rifaximin has been shown to be of benefit to these patients. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to discuss the potential mechanism of action of rifaximin, a minimally absorbed antibiotic. In addition, we evaluate the various clinical trials undertaken to study the efficacy and safety profile of rifaximin.

  7. Abdominal pain localization is associated with non-diarrheic Rome III functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, M; Fysekidis, M; Devroede, G; Raynaud, J-J; Bejou, B; Benamouzig, R

    2013-08-01

    Abdominal pain is common in patients with functional bowel disorders (FBDs). The aim of this study was to characterize the predominant sites of abdominal pain associated with FBD subtypes, as defined by the Rome III criteria. A total of 584 consecutive patients attending FBD consultations in a tertiary center participated in the study. Stool form, abdominal pain location (nine abdominal segments), and pain intensity (10-point Likert scale) during the previous week were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to characterize the association of abdominal pain sites with specific FBD subtypes. FBDs were associated with predominant pain sites. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with constipation was associated with pain in the left flank and patients were less likely to report pain in the right hypochondrium. Patients with functional constipation reported pain in the right hypochondrium and were less likely to report pain in the left flank and left iliac site. IBS with alternating constipation and diarrhea was associated with pain in the right flank, and unsubtyped IBS with pain in the hypogastrium Patients with functional abdominal pain syndrome reported the lower right flank as predominant pain site. Patients with unspecified FBDs were least likely to report pain in the hypogastrium. Patients with functional diarrhea, IBS with diarrhea, or functional bloating did not report specific pain sites. The results from this study provide the basis for developing new criteria allowing for the identification of homogeneous groups of patients with non-diarrheic FBDs based on characteristic sites of pain. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma: case report of an infrequent tumor

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    Óscar Moreno-Loaíza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma is an infrequent tumor both in our environment and in the world. There is no conclusive evidence on its epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, treatment or prognosis. Clinical case. We report a 77 year-old female patient, of mixed racial origin, native of Cusco (Peru who consulted for abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, postprandial vomiting and bloating of three months course. At the time of examination she had second to third degree protein malnutrition with a BMI of 16.88 kg/m2, signs of moderate to severe chronic anemia and an 8 cm abdominal tumor in the epigastrium and right hypochondrium. The multislice spiral abdominal CT and ultrasonography revealed the presence of a solid tumor in the second portion of the duodenum. The patient was submitted to a gastroenterostomy without tumor resection. Biopsy confirmed tubular adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, no other primary tumors were found in the stomach, pancreas, biliary tree and colon. The patient was stabilized and was treated with 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan and leucovorin. Literature review. The article includes a brief review on the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this condition. Discussion. Management is not straightforward. There is little literature on the subject leaving decisions up to the attending physician’s criteria. We believe that all cases of rare diseases should be studied in depth, give rise to a thorough review of literature and, above all, be brought to the attention of the medical community.

  9. Prevention and Treatment of Flatulence From a Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Bagher; Esfahani, Mohammad Medhi; Moghimi, Maryam; Shams Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Hasani Ranjbar, Shirin; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Zargaran, Arman

    2016-01-01

    Context The feeling of abdominal fullness, bloating, and movement of gas in the abdomen is a very uncomfortable sensation termed flatulence. Since flatulence is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms that is bothersome to patients, it is important to identify effective methods to resolve this issue. In modern medicine, management of flatulence is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, traditional systems of medicine can be considered good potential sources to find new approaches for preventing and treating flatulence. The aim of this study is to review flatulence treatments from a traditional Persian medicine (TPM) viewpoint. Evidence Acquisition In this study, the reasons for flatulence and methods for its prevention and treatment are reviewed in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) texts and then related with evidence from modern medicine by searching in databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and IranMedex. Results From a traditional Persian scholar viewpoint, one of the most important causes of flatulence is an incorrect manner of eating; valuable advice to correct bad eating habits will be illustrated. In addition, traditional practitioners describe some herbs and vegetables as well as herbal compounds that are effective food additives to relieve flatulence. The anti-flatulent effect of most of these herbs has been experimentally verified using modern medicine. Conclusions Attention to TPM can lead to the identification of new preventive and curative approaches to avoid and treat flatulence. In addition, Persian viewpoints from the medieval era regarding flatulence are historically important. PMID:27275398

  10. Dismantling the dinosaurs: A look at U.S. M and A trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, R.H.; Heather, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    Current trends in the oil and gas merger and acquisition (M and A) marketplace suggest that business as usual isn't usual anymore. Are these trends the harbinger of bad tidings? Will the industry collapse continue to take on dimensions of a full scale implosion, or are we sitting on the brink of the next boom? What we know at this point is that the dinosaurs-the short-sighted, the bloated, the arrogant, the unchanging-are going extinct. Companies are disappearing. Survivors are turning lean and flexible. The industry isn't just changing; it's evolving a new breed, with M and A activity a bridge between the old and the new. The current state of the industry is shocking. We all know that drilling activity is at its lowest level in 4 decades. That is why acquisitions are the only game in town and why the acquisition business is booming. If drilling activity is down about 25%, that is small beans compared with acquisitions, which are down 50-70%

  11. Comparative gastrointestinal tolerance of sucrose, lactitol, or D-tagatose in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A; Storey, D M

    1999-04-01

    D-tagatose is a potential new sugar substitute. Ingested D-tagatose is incompletely absorbed from the small intestine; unabsorbed D-tagatose reaches the colon where it is completely fermented. In a double-blind, controlled crossover study, the gastrointestinal effects were compared following acute consumption of 40 g plain chocolates containing 20 g of sucrose, lactitol, or D-tagatose by 50 healthy adults ages 18 to 24 years. Consumption of D-tagatose was not associated with a significant increase in the frequency of passing feces, or in the number of subjects passing watery feces. However, lactitol consumption was associated with an increase in both of these occurrences. Consumption of chocolate containing D-tagatose and lactitol resulted in significant increases in colic, flatulence, borborygmi, and bloating compared to consumption of the sucrose-containing chocolate, but the majority of symptoms were described as only "slightly more than usual." D-tagatose-containing chocolate did not provoke significantly more of these symptoms than lactitol-containing chocolate. A significant number of subjects reported nausea following consumption of D-tagatose chocolate compared to the sucrose chocolate control, and multiple symptoms occurred in some subjects. Overall, these results demonstrate that a 20-g dose of D-tagatose is tolerated well in comparison to lactitol. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Influence of inhomogeneous static magnetic field-exposure on patients with erosive gastritis: a randomized, self- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, single centre, pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Márk; Nagy, Viktor L; Székely, Hajnal; Kocsis, Dorottya; Tulassay, Zsolt; László, János F

    2014-09-06

    This pilot study was devoted to the effect of static magnetic field (SMF)-exposure on erosive gastritis. The randomized, self- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study included 16 patients of the 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University diagnosed with erosive gastritis. The instrumental analysis followed a qualitative (pre-intervention) assessment of the symptoms by the patient: lower heartburn (in the ventricle), upper heartburn (in the oesophagus), epigastric pain, regurgitation, bloating and dry cough. Medical diagnosis included a double-line upper panendoscopy followed by 30 min local inhomogeneous SMF-exposure intervention at the lower sternal region over the stomach with peak-to-peak magnetic induction of 3 mT and 30 mT m(-1) gradient at the target site. A qualitative (post-intervention) assessment of the same symptoms closed the examination. Sham- or SMF-exposure was used in a double-blind manner. The authors succeeded in justifying the clinically and statistically significant beneficial effect of the SMF- over sham-exposure on the symptoms of erosive gastritis, the average effect of inhibition was 56% by p = 0.001, n = 42 + 96. This pilot study was aimed to encourage gastroenterologists to test local, inhomogeneous SMF-exposure on erosive gastritis patients, so this intervention may become an evidence-based alternative or complementary method in the clinical use especially in cases when conventional therapy options are contraindicated. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. The Incidence and the Contributing factors of premenstrual syndrome in health working women

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    Bülent Demir

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To report the incidence of premenstrual syndrome in working women and the association of premenstrual syndrome with social and demographical factors, menstrual cycle, and nutritional status. The second aim of this study is to investigate the influence\tof premenstrual syndrome on working performance. Finally, to contribute to decrease the waste of labor time and unnecessary drugs usage caused by premenstrual syndrome.\tMATERIAL-METHODS: Totally 254 women aged between 19-49 years old who work in Dicle University Faculty of Medicine Hospital were enrolled for this prospective study. Data were obtained by face to face interview questionnaires.\tRESULTS: The incidence of premenstrual syndrome was 20.1%. The 91.7% of women had experienced mild or moderate symptoms in premenstrual period. The most common complains were pelvic pain, tension or restlessness, irritability or agitation, abdominal bloating and breast tenderness. Furthermore, in the presence of following factors; women with young ages ( CONCLUSION: The incidence of premenstrual syndrome is higher in working women and this condition may affect the whole population. In order to decrease the incidence of premenstrual syndrome and to increase the life quality of women; more attention\tshould be paid to this condition and proper precautions should be taken.

  14. Factors associated with postoperative complications and mortality in perforated peptic ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Javé, Eduardo Esteban; Corres-Sillas, Omar; Athié-Gutiérrez, César

    2011-01-01

    Elective surgery for uncomplicated peptic ulcer has shown a significant decrease; however, complications such as perforation and obstruction persist and require urgent surgical management. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with early postoperative complications and mortality of patients admitted to the emergency department with perforated peptic ulcer. We performed a clinical, retrospective, cross-sectional and descriptive study of patients who were treated at the General Hospital of Mexico with a diagnosis of perforated peptic ulcer from January 2006 to December 2008. Thirty patients were included in the study. We studied several clinical findings upon admission to the emergency department and intraoperative patient findings in order to determine the association of those with early postoperative complications and mortality. We studied 30 patients with an average age of 57.07 years (± 14.2 years). The male:female ratio was 2:1. We found that the risk of developing postoperative complications was 66.7% and is significantly influenced by time of onset of abdominal pain prior to admission, bloating, septic shock and blood type O positive. Mortality was 16.7% and was correlated with the presence of septic shock on admission. The surgical procedure performed was primary closure with Graham patch in 86.6%. Average hospital stay was 12.8 days. The presence of early postoperative complications is associated with time of onset of abdominal pain before admission, abdominal distension, blood type O positive and the presence of septic shock on admission.

  15. Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, S M; Bharucha, A E; Zinsmeister, A R

    2008-05-01

    Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) prepared either in water or as HFCS, administered in double-blind randomized order on 2 days in 20 healthy subjects and 30 patients with IBS. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Breath hydrogen excretion was more frequently abnormal (P fructose (68%) than HFCS (26%) in controls and patients. Fructose intolerance (i.e. abnormal breath test and symptoms) was more prevalent after fructose than HFCS in healthy subjects (25% vs. 0%, P = 0.002) and patients (40% vs. 7%, P = 0.062). Scores for several symptoms (e.g. bloating r = 0.35) were correlated (P fructose but not HFCS; in the fructose group, this association did not differ between healthy subjects and patients. Symptoms were not significantly different after fructose compared to HFCS. Fructose intolerance is more prevalent with fructose alone than with HFCS in health and in IBS. The prevalence of fructose intolerance is not significantly different between health and IBS. Current methods for identifying fructose intolerance should be modified to more closely reproduce fructose ingestion in daily life.

  16. Therapeutic Effect of Vitex Agnus Castus in Patients with Premenstrual Syndrome

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    Saadat Torabian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical therapies have been widely used for premenstrual syndrome (PMS, but in all of them side effects are predominant. Herbal remedies rarely have side effects and people have more tendencies toward them than chemical therapies. In this study the therapeutic effect of Vitexagnuscastus on women who had the PMS, in comparison with placebo, were investigated. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, from134 selected patients 128 women suffered from PMS were evaluated (active 62, placebo 66.All patients answered to a self assessment questionnaire about their headache, anger, irritability, depression, breast fullness and bloating and tympani during the premenstrual period before the study. Forty drops of Vitexagnus extract or matching placebo, administrated for 6 days before mensesfor 6 consecutive cycles. Patients answered the self-assessment questionnaires after 6 menstrual cycles, again. Each item rated using a visual analogue scale (VAS. The mean age was 30.77 (SD=4.37 years in the active group and 30.89 (SD=4.02 years in the placebo group.Rank of variables had significantly difference in active and placebo group before and after the study (P<0.0001also we noticed significant differences on the use of VitexAgnus in comparison with placebo (P<0.0001.Vitexagnus can be considered as an effective and well tolerated treatment for the relief of symptoms of mild and moderate PMS.

  17. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, R

    2001-01-20

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of agnus castus fruit (Vitex agnus castus L extract Ze 440) with placebo for women with the premenstrual syndrome. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group comparison over three menstrual cycles. General medicine community clinics. 178 women were screened and 170 were evaluated (active 86; placebo 84). Mean age was 36 years, mean cycle length was 28 days, mean duration of menses was 4.5 days. Agnus castus (dry extract tablets) one tablet daily or matching placebo, given for three consecutive cycles. Main efficacy variable: change from baseline to end point (end of third cycle) in women's self assessment of irritability, mood alteration, anger, headache, breast fullness, and other menstrual symptoms including bloating. Secondary efficacy variables: changes in clinical global impression (severity of condition, global improvement, and risk or benefit) and responder rate (50% reduction in symptoms). Improvement in the main variable was greater in the active group compared with placebo group (Pagnus castus fruit is an effective and well tolerated treatment for the relief of symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome.

  18. Veal calves’ clinical/health status in large groups fed with automatic feeding devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the current study was to evaluate the clinical/health status of veal calves in 3 farms that adopt large group housing and automatic feeding stations in Italy. Visits were scheduled in three phases of the rearing cycle (early, middle, and end. Results showed a high incidence of coughing, skin infection and bloated rumen particularly in the middle phase while cross-sucking signs were present at the early stage when calves’ nibbling proclivity is still high. Throughout the rearing cycle, the frequency of bursitis increased reaching 53% of calves at the end. The percentage of calves with a poorer body condition than the mid-range of the batch raised gradually as well, likely due to the non-proportioned teat/calves ratio that increases competition for feed and reduces milk intake of the low ranking animals. The remarked growth differences among pen-mates and the mortality rate close to 7% showed by the use of automatic feeding devices for milk delivery seem not compensating the lower labour demand, therefore its sustainability at the present status is doubtful both for the veal calves’ welfare and the farm incomes.

  19. A model for determining the scope and level of detail that is appropriate for a programmatic EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, C.H.

    1995-03-01

    Since the inception of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), no definitive guidance has been established for determining the scope of topics and issues, or the level of detail suitable for presentation within a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (P-EIS). Lacking such guidance, an inordinate amount of time and resources can be expended in determining the scope that is most appropriately addressed within a P-EIS versus the more detailed scope that is best reserved for lower-tier documents. Faced with this predicament, agencies often err on the side of including too much detail, resulting in P-EISs that are over bloated and unnecessarily complex. Moreover, lack of definitive guidance leads to a great deal of inconsistency in the preparation of P-EISs among federal agency programs. A paradigm for assisting decisionmakers in making such determinations is presented below. This model expedites the preparation of P-EISs by providing a consistent and systematic approach for determining the scope and level of detail that is most appropriately addressed at the programmatic level. In many cases, the model provides agencies with an effective tool for managing and streamlining the NEPA process by de-scoping needless and unnecessary issues from the scope of a P-EIS

  20. Therapeutic effect of Vitex agnus castus in patients with premenstrual syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Mehrangiz; Neghab, Nosrat; Torabian, Saadat

    2012-01-01

    Medical therapies have been widely used for premenstrual syndrome (PMS), but in all of them side effects are predominant. Herbal remedies rarely have side effects and people have more tendencies toward them than chemical therapies. In this study the therapeutic effect of Vitex agnus castus on women who had the PMS, in comparison with placebo, were investigated. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, from 134 selected patients 128 women suffered from PMS were evaluated (active 62, placebo 66). All patients answered to a self assessment questionnaire about their headache, anger, irritability, depression, breast fullness and bloating and tympani during the premenstrual period before the study. Forty drops of Vitex agnus extract or matching placebo, administrated for 6 days before menses for 6 consecutive cycles. Patients answered the self-assessment questionnaires after 6 menstrual cycles, again. Each item rated using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The mean age was 30.77 (SD=4.37) years in the active group and 30.89 (SD=4.02) years in the placebo group.Rank of variables had significantly difference in active and placebo group before and after the study (PVitex agnus in comparison with placebo (PVitex agnus can be considered as an effective and well tolerated treatment for the relief of symptoms of mild and moderate PMS.

  1. Central serotonergic and noradrenergic receptors in functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S O'Mahony; TG Dinan; PW Keeling; ASB Chua

    2006-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia is a symptom complex characterised by upper abdominal discomfort or pain, early satiety,motor abnormalities, abdominal bloating and nausea in the absence of organic disease. The central nervous system plays an important role in the conducting and processing of visceral signals. Alterations in brain processing of pain, perception and affective responses may be key factors in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia. Central serotonergic and noradrenergic receptor systems are involved in the processing of motor,sensory and secretory activities of the gastrointestinal tract. Visceral hypersensitivity is currently regarded as the mechanism responsible for both motor alterations and abdominal pain in functional dyspepsia. Some studies suggest that there are alterations in central serotonergic and noradrenergic systems which may partially explain some of the symptoms of functional dyspepsia. Alterations in the autonomic nervous system may be implicated in the motor abnormalities and increases in visceral sensitivity in these patients.Noradrenaline is the main neurotransmitter in the sympathetic nervous system and again alterations in the functioning of this system may lead to changes in motor function. Functional dyspepsia causes considerable burden on the patient and society. The pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia is not fully understood but alterations in central processing by the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems may provide plausible explanations for at least some of the symptoms and offer possible treatment targets for the future.

  2. The Tolerability and Efficacy of Oral Isotonic Solution versus Plain Water in Dengue Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainggolan, Leonard; Bardosono, Saptawati; Ibrahim Ilyas, Ermita I

    2018-01-01

    Plasma leakage plays an important role in dengue infection, and this condition can lead to hemoconcentration, hypovolemia, and shock. Fluid replacement is the main treatment for dengue. There is a lack of evidence to support certain oral fluid therapy as a treatment for dengue patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate tolerability and efficacy of oral isotonic solution (OIS) compared to plain water as a fluid replacement in dengue patients. A randomized, clinical trial with single-blinded groups was conducted to compare tolerability and efficacy of OIS and plain water in dengue patients. We evaluated gastrointestinal disturbances (nausea, vomiting, and bloating), body temperature, mean arterial pressure (MAP), fluid balance, hematocrit, Na + , and K + levels. Data were analyzed with SPSS 20.0, and figures were made with GraphPad Prism version 5.01. Twenty four subjects were included and divided equally into two groups. Our results showed that there are no significant differences but indicate several noteworthy trends. The intervention group (OIS) experienced less nausea, less vomiting, had positive fluid balance and higher MAP, and became afebrile faster compared to the control group (plain water). Although not statistically significant, this study shows the trend that OIS is well-tolerated and effective for dengue patients compared to plain water.

  3. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to establish the bifidogenic effect of a very-long-chain inulin extracted from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Adele; Kolida, Sofia; Klinder, Annett; Gietl, Eva; Bäuerlein, Michael; Frohberg, Claus; Landschütze, Volker; Gibson, Glenn R

    2010-10-01

    There is growing interest in the use of inulins as substrates for the selective growth of beneficial gut bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli because recent studies have established that their prebiotic effect is linked to several health benefits. In the present study, the impact of a very-long-chain inulin (VLCI), derived from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus), on the human intestinal microbiota compared with maltodextrin was determined. A double-blind, cross-over study was carried out in thirty-two healthy adults who were randomised into two groups and consumed 10 g/d of either VLCI or maltodextrin, for two 3-week study periods, separated by a 3-week washout period. Numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher upon VLCI ingestion compared with the placebo. Additionally, levels of Atopobium group significantly increased, while Bacteroides-Prevotella numbers were significantly reduced. No significant changes in faecal SCFA concentrations were observed. There were no adverse gastrointestinal symptoms apart from a significant increase in mild and moderate bloating upon VLCI ingestion. These observations were also confirmed by in vitro gas production measurements. In conclusion, daily consumption of VLCI extracted from globe artichoke exerted a pronounced prebiotic effect on the human faecal microbiota composition and was well tolerated by all volunteers.

  4. Surgical treatment of gastric carcinoma with ovarian metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesinski Tomasz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian metastases from extragenital neoplasms are rare. The prevalent sites of the primary tumors were the breast, colorectum and the stomach. The Krukenberg tumor (KT is defined as a gastrointestinal cancer which metastasized to the ovaries. Metastasis to the ovary may appear at the time of diagnosis of the primary tumor (synchronous or during observation (metachronous. Common clinical presentations are abdominal distention, pain, palpable mass, bloating, ascites or pain during sexual intercourse. Diagnosis can be made by ultrasound examinations, CT or EMR scans, laparotomy and/or a biopsy of the ovary. The current standard treatment for patients with metastatic gastric cancer is systemic chemotherapy, however, treatment strategy for KTs from gastric cancer has not been clearly established and surgical treatment is considered mainly for metachronous tumors. The prognosis of patients with ovarian metastasis of gastric cancer origin is poorer compared with that of other primary tumors. Although the results of cytoreductive surgery – especially in combination with modern chemotherapy – seems to be promising, the optimal therapeutic strategies for such patients requires further prospective studies.

  5. Chili Peppers, Curcumins, and Prebiotics in Gastrointestinal Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcharatrakul, Tanisa; Gonlachanvit, Sutep

    2016-04-01

    There is growing evidence for the role of several natural products as either useful agents or adjuncts in the management of functional GI disorders (FGIDs). In this review, we examine the medical evidence for three such compounds: chili, a culinary spice; curcumin, another spice and active derivative of a root bark; and prebiotics, which are nondigestible food products. Chili may affect the pathogenesis of abdominal pain especially in functional dyspepsia and cause other symptoms. It may have a therapeutic role in FGIDs through desensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptor. Curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric rhizome, has been shown in several preclinical studies and uncontrolled clinical trials as having effects on gut inflammation, gut permeability and the brain-gut axis, especially in FGIDs. Prebiotics, the non-digestible food ingredients in dietary fiber, may serve as nutrients and selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of certain colonic bacteria. The net effect of this change on colonic microbiota may lead to the production of acidic metabolites and other compounds that help to reduce the production of toxins and suppress the growth of harmful or disease-causing enteric pathogens. Although some clinical benefit in IBS has been shown, high dose intake of prebiotics may cause more bloating from bacterial fermentation.

  6. Gastrointestinal complaints in shift-working and day-working nurses in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravveji Ali

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence in the scientific literature of the adverse physiological and psychological effects of shift work. The work of nurses in hospitals is connected with shift and night work. Several publications have described gastrointestinal disturbances in shift workers. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of gastrointestinal (GI complaints of nurses on a rotating shift with that of nurses on a regular day shift. Methods The study involved 160 nurses (133 working in shifts and at night and 27 working on day shifts in the Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, Iran. These nurses answered a Gastrointestinal Symptom Questionnaire regarding the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms (including heartburn, regurgitation, constipation, diarrhea and bloating. Positive responses required frequent symptom occurrence in the past 4 weeks. Significance of group differences was assessed by chi-square and Fisher-exact tests. Results Prevalence of GI symptoms was significantly higher (p = 0.009 in rotating-shift nurses (81.9% than in day-shift nurses (59.2%. Irregular meal consumption (p = 0.01 and GI medications (p = 0.002 were all significantly higher among the rotating shift nurses. In both groups, regurgitation was the most common symptom. Conclusion Nurses on rotating shifts in Iran experience more GI disturbances than do nurses on day shifts.

  7. [Irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease and gluten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Montoro, Miguel

    2014-08-04

    For many years irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and celiac disease (CD) have been considered 2 completely separate entities, with CD being clearly related to a permanent gluten intolerance and IBS having no relation with gluten ingestion. However IBS and CD symptoms may be indistinguishable, especially when diarrhea, bloating or abdominal pain predominate. In the last decade several studies have shown that the separation between CD and IBS is not so clear. Thus, some patients who have been diagnosed of IBS suffer in fact from CD. In addition, it seems that there is a group of patients who, without having CD, suffer gluten intolerance that cause them digestive symptoms similar to those of IBS. Gluten sensitivity is defined as the spectrum of morphological, immunological and functional abnormalities that respond to a gluten-free diet. This concept includes histological, immunological and clinical manifestations in the absence of evident morphological abnormalities. Therefore, it is mandatory to establish in a scientific way in which patients a gluten-free diet will be beneficial as well as when this is not justified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease: total or partial fundoplication? Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F Ramos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Although the high incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in the population, there is much controversy in this topic, especially in the surgical treatment. The decision to use of a total or partial fundoplication in the treatment of GERD is still a challenge to many surgeons because the few evidence found in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To bring more clear evidence in the comparison between total and partial fundoplication. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of the literature and metaanalysis with randomized controlled trials accessed from MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Controlled Trials Database was done. The outcomes remarked were: dysphagia, inability to belch, bloating, recurrence of acid reflux, heartburn and esophagitis. For data analysis the odds ratio was used with corresponding 95% confidence interval. Statistical heterogeneity in the results of the metaanalysis was assessed by calculating a test of heterogeneity. The software Review Manager 5 (Cochrane Collaboration was utilized for the data gathered and the statistical analysis. Sensitive analysis was applied using only trials that included follow-up over 2 years. RESULTS: Ten trials were included with 1003 patients: 502 to total fundoplication group and 501 to partial fundoplication group. The outcomes dysphagia and inability to belch had statistical significant difference (P = 0.00001 in favor of partial fundoplication. There was not statistical difference in outcomes related with treatment failure. There were no heterogeneity in the outcomes dysphagia and recurrence of the acid reflux. CONCLUSION: The partial fundoplication has lower incidence of obstructive side effects.

  9. Troxipide in the Management of Gastritis: A Randomized Comparative Trial in General Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupesh Dewan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A trial of empirical acid-suppressive therapy is the usual practice for most patients with symptoms of gastritis in primary care. Aim. To assess the relative efficacy of Troxipide and Ranitidine in patients with endoscopic gastritis over a four-week period. Methods. In all, 142 patients were randomized to Troxipide (100 mg tid or Ranitidine (150 mg bid for a period of four weeks. The severity of the signs of endoscopic gastritis at baseline and week 4 using a four-point scale and the subjective symptom severity at baseline and week 2 & week 4 using a Visual analog scale (VAS were documented. Results. Troxipide was found to be superior to Ranitidine for both, the complete resolution and improvement of endoscopic gastritis. Higher proportion of patients showed complete healing of erosions (88.14%, oozing (96.77%, and edema (93.88% with Troxipide as compared to Ranitidine (<.01. Patients receiving Troxipide also showed a greater improvement in the VAS scores for abdominal pain, bloating, and heartburn (<.01. Both the drugs were found to be well tolerated. Conclusion. In patients with endoscopic gastritis, Troxipide, with its superior rate of improvement, resolution of signs, and subjective clinical symptoms, can be considered as an alternative to the commonly used antisecretory agents.

  10. "Leopard skin sign": the use of narrow-band imaging with magnification endoscopy in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchekmedyian, Asadur J; Coronel, Emmanuel; Czul, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Celiac Disease (CD) is an immune reaction to gluten containing foods such as rye, wheat and barley. This condition affects individuals with a genetic predisposition; it targets the small bowel and may cause symptoms including diarrhea, malabsorption, weight loss, abdominal pain and bloating. The diagnosis is made by serologic testing of celiac-specific antibodies and confirmed by histology. Certain endoscopic characteristics, such as scalloping, reduction in the number of folds, mosaic-pattern mucosa or nodular mucosa, are suggestive of CD and can be visualized under white light endoscopy. Due to its low sensitivity, endoscopy alone is not recommended to diagnose CD; however, enhanced visual identification of suspected mucosal abnormalities through the use of new technologies, such as narrow band imaging with magnification (NBI-ME), could assist in targeting biopsies and thereby increasing the sensitivity of endoscopy. This is a case series of seven patients with serologic and histologic diagnoses of CD who underwent upper endoscopies with NBI-ME imaging technology as part of their CD evaluation. By employing this imaging technology, we could identify patchy atrophy sites in a mosaic pattern, with flattened villi and alteration of the central capillaries of the duodenal mucosa. We refer to this epithelial pattern as "Leopard Skin Sign". Since epithelial lesions are easily seen using NBI-ME, we found it beneficial for identifying and targeting biopsy sites. Larger prospective studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  11. Insects associated with exposed decomposing bodies in the Colombian Andean Coffee Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Grisales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, mainly classic forensic medicine methods were used to clarify crimes until 2004. However, other disciplines, including forensic entomology, started to be considered only after the New Accusatory System introduction in Bogotá and the Coffee Region in 2005. In order to provide tools for obtaining evidentiary material elements in judicial trials, it is presented here the succession of insects throughout the decomposition process of an exposed carcass of Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758 (Suidae and the Occurrence Matrix of colonizing species. This process was evaluated under ambient conditions in the Andean rural area of the city of Pereira, in the Mundo Nuevo district, located in a pre-montane Wet Forest area, from October to November 2006. A sampling period of 27 days and 3198 individuals were collected. We found these colonizing species in the following stages of decomposition: Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819 fresh; Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850, Oxelytrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840, and Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius 1775 bloated; Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819, Compsomyiops verena (Walker, 1849, Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830 and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 active; Fannia sp. advanced and Stearibia nigriceps (Meigen, 1826 remains. This study provides support tools to define the Post Mortem Interval that may be used by experts from government institutions and laboratories officially accredited.

  12. The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira Krüger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Species of Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 are found in decomposing bodies, usually in fresh, bloated and decay stages. Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, for example, can be found in animal carcasses. The influence of environmental factors has not been evaluated in puparia of O. albuquerquei. Thus, the focus of this work was motivated by the need for models to predict the development of a necrophagous insect as a function of abiotic factors. Colonies of O. albuquerquei were maintained in the laboratory to obtain pupae. On the tenth day of each month 200 pupae, divided equally into 10 glass jars, were exposed to the environment and checked daily for adult emergence of each sample. We concluded that the high survival rate observed suggested that the diets used for rearing the larvae and maintaining the adults were appropriate. Also, the data adjusted to robust generalized linear models and there were no interruptions of O. albuquerquei pupae development within the limits of temperatures studied in southern Rio Grande do Sul, given the high survival presented.

  13. [Irritable bowel syndrome, levator ani syndrome, proctalgia fugax and chronic pelvic and perineal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watier, Alain; Rigaud, Jérôme; Labat, Jean-Jacques

    2010-11-01

    To define functional gastrointestinal pain, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), levator ani syndrome, proctalgia fugax, the pathophysiology of these syndromes and the treatments that can be proposed. Review of articles published on the theme based on a Medline (PubMed) search and consensus conferences selected according to their scientific relevance. IBS is very common. Patients report abdominal pain and/or discomfort, bloating, and abnormal bowel habit (diarrhoea, constipation or both), in the absence of any structural or biochemical abnormalities. IBS has a complex, multifactorial pathophysiology, involving biological and psychosocial interactions resulting in dysregulation of the brain-gut axis associated with disorders of intestinal motility, hyperalgesia, immune disorders and disorders of the intestinal bacterial microflora and autonomic and hormonal dysfunction. Many treatments have been proposed, ranging from diet to pharmacology and psychotherapy. Patients with various types of chronic pelvic and perineal pain, especially those seen in urology departments, very often report associated IBS. This syndrome is also part of a global and integrated concept of pelviperineal dysfunction, avoiding a rigorous distinction between the posterior segment and the midline and anterior segments of the perineum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastric emptying and motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.

    2003-01-01

    The stomach consists of two functionally distinct parts. The fundus and upper corpus mainly serve as a reservoir and exert primarily a tonic activity, which presses ingesta towards the antrum and duodenum. The phasic contractility of the lower corpus and antrum cause mechanical breakdown and mixing of the food particels. A complex regulation of these mechanisms provides a regular gastric emptying. Various disorders such as diabetes mellitus, mixed connective tissue diseases, gastritis, tumors, dyspeptic disorders but also drugs and gastric surgery may influence or impair gastric function and may cause typical symptoms such as upper abdominal discomfort, bloating, nausea and vomiting. However, the interpretation of gastrointestinal symptoms often is difficult. Radionuclide studies of gastric emptying and motility are the most physiologic tools available for studying gastric motor function. Gastric scintigraphy is non-invasive, uses physiologic meal and is quantitative. Emptying curves generated from the gastric ROI offer information whether a disorder is accompanied by a regular, fast or slow gastric emptying. Data on gastric contractions (amplitude and frequency) provide additional information to results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.) [de

  15. The low-FODMAP diet for irritable bowel syndrome: Lights and shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Infante, Javier; Serra, Jordi; Fernandez-Bañares, Fernando; Mearin, Fermín

    2016-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects 10-15% of the western population. Drug therapy for this entity has shown limited efficacy. The low Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Monosaccharides And Polyols (FODMAP) diet has recently emerged as an effective intervention for reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Currently, several mechanistic studies have proven the rational basis of carbohydrate restriction. In addition, high-quality evidence (prospective studies and randomized controlled trials) from a variety of countries supports the high effectiveness of a low-FODMAP diet for IBS symptoms (70%), especially abdominal bloating, pain, and diarrhea. Importantly, this diet seems to be superior to a gluten-free diet for patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity. The most controversial features of the low FODMAP diet are its short- and long-term limitations (a high level of restriction, the need for monitoring by an expert dietitian, potential nutritional deficiencies, significant gut microbiota reduction, lack of predictors of response), as well as the potential lack of advantage over alternative dietary, pharmacological and psychological interventions for IBS. Although liberalization of carbohydrate intake is recommended in the long-term, the reintroduction process remains to be clarified as, theoretically, global carbohydrate restriction is deemed to be necessary to avoid additive effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  16. Possibilities for using plant extracts added to ruminant feed aimed at improving production results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdović Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with the objective of improving production results and the quality of food articles of animal origin is an area which is acquiring increasing scientific importance. Numerous investigations carried out so far on ruminants and other species of domestic animals have been aimed at examining specific bioactive matter of plants. The results of these investigations have demonstrated a positive influence on the production results. A large number of data indicate that plant extracts added to animal feed contribute to increasing overall productivity. Furthermore, plant extracts as additives in animal feed have a positive effect also on the health condition of the animals. A large number of plants have characteristics which potentially improve consumption, digestibility and conversion of food, and also growth. Examinations have been performed of the effects of different plant extracts on food consumption, wool growth, growth and composition of the trunk, milk production, reproductive parameters, agents for wool shearing, preventing bloat, methane production, as well as the influence of plants on curbing nematode infestations of ruminants. This work presents a review of scientific investigations of different plant species and their effects on the production characteristics of ruminants. .

  17. Repair of paraesophageal hiatal hernias – Is a fundoplication needed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Stich, Beat P.; Achtstätter, Verena; Diener, Markus K.

    2015-01-01

    -F patients postoperative esophagitis was present (p = 0.026). Values of dysphagia (2.1 ± 1.6 vs. 1.9 ± 1.4; p = 0.737), gas bloating (2.6 ± 1.4 vs. 2.8 ± 1.4; p = 0.782) and quality of life (116.0 ± 16.2 vs. 115.9 ± 15.8; p = 0.992) were similar. Relevant postoperative complications occurred in 4 (10......Background: The need for a fundoplication during the repair of paraesophageal hiatal hernias (PEH) remains unclear. Prevention of gastro-esophageal reflux represents a trade-off against the risk of fundoplication related side effects. The aim of the present trial was to compare laparoscopic mesh...... by central randomization to LMAH-C or LMAH-F. Endpoints were postoperative gastro- esophageal reflux, complications, and quality of life 12 months postoperatively. Registration number: DRKS00004492 (www.germanctr.de). Results: Forty patients (9 male, 31 female) were randomized. Patients were well...

  18. Intestinal obstruction due to Vasconcellea seeds: Report of three cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya-González, Juliana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasconcellea spp., is a species of Andean papaya commonly cultivated in rural communities close to Medellín, Colombia. Due to the pleasant and sweet flavor of its fruits, children frequently ingest its seeds accidentally. After ingestion, the seeds are engaged in the colonic lumen and block the exit of stools, causing pain and bloating, and promoting bacterial translocation. Diagnosis is based on clinical history and rectal examination. Treatment depends on the degree of local and systemic involvement and includes disimpaction of rectal contents under general anesthesia and colonic washes with 0.9% saline solution. In severe cases derivative colostomy has been required. In the literature there are no reports of intestinal obstruction due to Vasconcellea seeds, possibly because it has been mistaken for seeds of the genus Carica. In this article, three cases treated at pediatric services in Medellín, Colombia, in 2012 and 2013 are described. We note that this is a rarely suspected disease, leading to late diagnosis and potential catastrophic consequences. It is important to educate people to prevent the ingestion of the seeds.

  19. Conservative Measures for Managing Constipation in Patients Living With a Colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynska, Barbara; Bobkiewicz, Adam; Studniarek, Adam; Szmyt, Krzsztof; Krokowicz, Łukasz; Matysiak, Konrad; Szmeja, Jacek; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Drews, Michał; Banasiewicz, Tomasz

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a conservative regimen for the treatment of constipation in persons living with a colostomy. Prospective, noncontrolled, single-center study. The study sample comprised 35 patients with a colostomy who were diagnosed with constipation. Subjects with morphologic changes causing constipation such as stomal stenosis and neoplastic and inflammatory changes were excluded. The study was conducted in the Proctology and Stoma Outpatient Clinic at Poznan University of Medical Sciences. Patients at our Stoma Outpatient Clinic underwent baseline evaluation, and those with symptoms of constipation (prolonged periods between bowel movements, passage of pasty or hardened fecal effluent, and associated symptoms such as abdominal discomfort or bloating, flatulence, and pain with passage of effluent into the stoma) received individualized dietary recommendations that typically included an increase in dietary fiber and fluid intake, along with increased fluid intake. The outcomes of dietary changes were evaluated during a follow-up visit 3 months later. If dietary changes alone did not improve constipation symptoms, we prescribed a psyllium-based bulk-forming agent, an osmotic stool softener, and a probiotic, with or without a prokinetic agent such as metoclopramide taken 3 times daily. Dietary interventions alone were deemed successful in 60% of study subjects (n = 21); the remaining 14 patients required additional treatment. Dietary modifications alone relieved constipation in more than half of a group of 35 patients with constipation. We therefore recommend a trial of dietary modifications prior to the initiation of pharmacotherapy in patients with a colostomy.

  20. Pin Worms Presenting as Suspected Crohn’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saffar, Farah; Najjar, Nimeh; Ibrahim, Saif; Clark, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 24 Final Diagnosis: Pinworms infection Symptoms: Abdominal pain • bloating Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Colonoscopy and biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is well recognized in developed countries and is generally among the differential diagnoses of young patients presenting with refractory diarrhea once other more common etiologies have been excluded. Pinworm infections, on the other hand, are not as common among adults in the United States. Case Report: Based on computed tomography features, a 24-year-old female patient with a history of multiple autoimmune disorders presented with abdominal pain and was diagnosed recently with Crohn’s disease. Colonoscopy was significant for pinworms seen throughout the colon. Colonic biopsy was negative for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related changes. Conclusions: The diagnosis of IBD is a serious label that requires biopsy confirmation before committing to possibly lifelong treatment and possible adverse effects. Even in the most typical patient and when the presentation and imaging are classical, uncommon conditions (like Enterobius infection in this case) may preclude appropriate diagnosis and management. PMID:26471462

  1. Combination could be another tool for bowel preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Jae Seung; Kim, Kyung-Jo

    2016-01-01

    Optimal bowel preparation increases the cecal intubation rate and detection of neoplastic lesions while decreasing the procedural time and procedural-related complications. Although high-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution is the most frequently used preparation for bowel cleansing, patients are often unwilling to take PEG solution due to its large volume, poor palatability, and high incidence of adverse events, such as abdominal bloating and nausea. Other purgatives include osmotic agents (e.g., sodium phosphate, magnesium citrate, and sodium sulfate), stimulant agents (e.g., senna, bisacodyl, and sodium picosulfate), and prokinetic agents (e.g., cisapride, mosapride, and itopride). A combination of PEG with an osmotic, stimulant, or prokinetic agent could effectively reduce the PEG solution volume and increase patients’ adherence. Some such solutions have been found in several published studies to not be inferior to PEG alone in terms of bowel cleansing quality. Although combination methods showed similar efficacy and safety, the value of these studies is limited by shortcomings in study design. New effective and well-tolerated combination preparations are required, in addition to rigorous new validated studies. PMID:26973388

  2. A Prokinetic Agent with a Dual Effect – Itopride – In the Treatment of Dysmotility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of dyspeptic symptoms in clinical practice reflect the high prevalence of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI tract. Prokinetic agents are the current mainstay in the therapy of functional dyspepsia. One of these drugs is itopride. We evaluated therapeutic efficacy of itopride according to the literature review. The therapeutic potential of itopride is connected with a dual effect: influencing of enzyme acetylcholinesterase activity and blocking dopamine D2 receptors. After the itopride administration, the contractility of smooth muscle in the upper GI tract increases. Itopride is a drug with rapid absorption from the small bowel; its peak serum concentration occurs 35 minutes after oral administration. Itopride does not pass the blood-brain barrier and does not affect the heart rate by influencing the QT segment. Itopride is a safe prokinetic agent with positive influence on the symptoms of functional dyspepsia such as postprandial fullness, bloating, and gastric emptying. Itopride could also be used for the therapy of the mild form of gastro-oesophageal reflux.

  3. Digestive Symptoms in Healthy People and Subjects With Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyonnet, Denis; Donazzolo, Yves; Gendre, David; Tanguy, Jérôme; Guarner, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Goals: The aim of this study was to validate the ability of symptom frequency questionnaire to differentiate between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and healthy subjects. Background: A digestive symptom frequency questionnaire (DSFQ) was previously used in a food efficacy trial in a non-IBS population with mild gastrointestinal symptoms. Study: We compared 2 well-defined populations: 100 IBS patients fulfilling Rome III criteria (mean age 32 y; range, 18 to 59 y), and 100 sex-matched and age-matched healthy subjects. Frequency of individual digestive symptoms (abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating, flatulence, borborygmi) was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale (from none to everyday of the week) and the IBS severity with the IBS-SSS questionnaire. Health-Related Quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed with the Food and Benefits Assessment (FBA) and Functional Digestive Disorders Quality of Life (FDDQL) questionnaires. The digestive (dis)comfort dimension of these questionnaires was considered as the main dimension for HRQoL. Results: The DSFQ discriminated IBS from healthy subjects with a significant difference (Pdigestive discomfort measured by FDDQL (−0.816), digestive comfort measured by FBA (−0.789), and the IBS-SSS score (0.762). Conclusions: Measurement of digestive symptom frequency by means of the DSFQ can differentiate IBS from healthy subjects, and shows a good correlation with other validated questionnaires (clinical trial #NCT01457378). PMID:25014236

  4. Advancing treatment options for chronic idiopathic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M; Neshatian, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a global problem affecting all ages and associated with considerable morbidity and significant financial burden for society. Though formerly defined on the basis of a single symptom, infrequent defecation; constipation is now viewed as a syndrome encompassing several complaints such as difficulty with defecation, a sense of incomplete evacuation, hard stools, abdominal discomfort and bloating. The expanded concept of constipation has inevitably led to a significant change in outcomes in clinical trials, as well as in patient expectations from new therapeutic interventions. The past decades have also witnessed a proliferation in therapeutic targets for new agents. Foremost among these have been novel prokinetics, a new category, prosecretory agents and innovative approaches such as inhibitors of bile salt transport. In contrast, relatively few effective therapies exist for the management of those anorectal and pelvic floor problems that result in difficult defecation. Though constipation is a common and often troublesome disorder, many of those affected can resolve their symptoms with relatively simple measures. For those with more resistant symptoms a number of novel, effective and safe options now exist. Those with defecatory difficulty (anismus, pelvic floor dysfunction) continue to represent a significant management challenge.

  5. Microscopic colitis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth--diagnosis behind the irritable bowel syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoicescu, Adriana; Andrei, M; Becheanu, G; Stoicescu, M; Nicolaie, T; Diculescu, M

    2012-01-01

    Some patients previously diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may develop microscopic colitis or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). To estimate the prevalence of microscopic colitis and SIBO in patients with IBS, to evaluate the symptoms and the efficacy of treatment. We examined patients with IBS admitted in our clinic during a three-year period. We identified patients with microscopic colitis by performing total colonoscopy with multiple biopsies from normal intestinal mucosa and those with SIBO by performing a H2-breath test with glucose. We compared the symptoms and the effectiveness of the treatment. Out of the 132 patients initially diagnosed with IBS 3% (n=4) had microscopic colitis and 43.9% (n=58) had SIBO. Diarrhea was the main symptom in patients with microscopic colitis and SIBO (p=0.041), while abdominal pain, abdominal bloating and flatulence were prominent in IBS patients (p=0.042; p=0.039; p=0.048). Specific treatment with rifaximin in SIBO patients negativated H2-breath test in 70.9% cases. Patients suspected to have irritable bowel syndrome should be evaluated for microscopic colitis and SIBO. The proper diagnosis and the specific treatment may cure some difficult cases of the so called "irritable bowel syndrome".

  6. Case report on babesiosis associated pre-hepatic jaundice in a malabari goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ajith

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pre-hepatic jaundice associated with babesiosis in a malabari goat and its successful management is described. The animal was presented with muco-purulent nasal discharge, dyspnoea, coughing, icteric sclera and oral mucosa, bloated abdomen, diarrhoea, hematochezia and coffee coloured urine. History of tick infestation was reported by the owner. Clinical examination revealed pyrexia, tachycardia, tachypnea, pre-scapular and pre-femoral lymphadenopathy and respiratory wheezes. Laboratory investigations revealed anaemia, neutrophilia, thrombocytopaenia, hypoproteinemia, hyperbilirubinemia and haemoglobinuria. On microscopic examination, small pyriform Babesia sp. (probably B. ovis could be detected in Giemsa stained peripheral blood smear. The animal had undergone babesicidal therapy using diminazene aceturate (3.5 mg/kg bodyweight deep IM, two doses at 48hr interval and oxytetracycline (10 mg/kg body weight once daily for 5 days, and supportive therapy using NSAIDs, polyionic isotonic fluids, antihistamines, B complex vitamins, stomachic and iron supplements. The animal made an uneventful clinical recovery after two weeks.

  7. Post-cholecystectomy alkaline reactive gastritis: a randomized trial comparing sucralfate versus rabeprazole or no treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Luca; Gabrielli, Maurizio; Candelli, Marcello; Cremonini, Filippo; Nista, Enrico C; Cammarota, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2003-09-01

    At present there are no well-established pharmacological approaches in the management of post-cholecystectomy alkaline reactive gastritis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sucralfate versus rabeprazole or no treatment on dyspeptic symptoms and endoscopic/histological signs in a population of patients with a history of cholecystectomy and evidence of alkaline reactive gastritis. Sixty dyspeptic patients fulfilling the following criteria of inclusion took part in this study: (1) a history of cholecystectomy; (2) no use of anti-inflammatory steroidal and non-steroidal drugs, or abuse of alcohol; (3) evidence of abundant gastric bile reflux at endoscopy; (4) endoscopic signs of chronic gastritis; (5) histological signs of chronic gastritis; and (6) absence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Dyspeptic symptoms were evaluated by means of a self-administered validated questionnaire. Patients included in the study were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups for 3 months: sucralfate, rabeprazole, observation. Patients were re-evaluated at the end of the treatment. Sucralfate and rabeprazole therapies were both able to significantly reduce epigastric pain, heartburn, bloating and halitosis. Endoscopic/histological signs were lower in both treatment groups compared to the observation group. Both sucralfate and rabeprazole therapies are effective treatment options in the patients with alkaline gastritis when compared with observation.

  8. Prolonged treatment with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) modulates neuro-gastric motility and plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), motilin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNearney, Terry A; Sallam, Hanaa S; Hunnicutt, Sonya E; Doshi, Dipti; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on neurogastric functioning in scleroderma patients. Seventeen SSc patients underwent 30 min TENS treatment >10Hz at GI acupuncture points PC6 and ST36, once (acute TENS) and then after two weeks of TENS sessions for 30 min twice daily (prolonged TENS). Data collected at Visits 1 and 2 included gastric myoelectrical activity (GMA) by surface electrogastrography (EGG), heart rate variability (HRV) by surface electrocardiography (EKG), GI specific symptoms and health related SF-36 questionnaires. Plasma VIP, motilin and IL-6 levels were determined. Statistical analyses were performed by Student's t-test, Spearman Rank and p-values TENS, the percentages of normal slow waves and average slow wave coupling (especially channels 1, 2 reflecting gastric pacemaker and corpus regions) were significantly increased; 2. the percentage of normal slow waves was significantly correlated to sympathovagal balance; 3. Mean plasma VIP and motilin levels were significantly decreased after acute TENS, (vs. baseline), generally maintained in the prolonged TENS intervals. Compared to baseline, mean plasma IL-6 levels were significantly increased after acute TENS, but significantly decreased after prolonged TENS. 4. After prolonged TENS, the frequency of awakening due to abdominal pain and abdominal bloating were significantly and modestly decreased, respectively. In SSc patients, two weeks of daily TENS improved patient GMA scores, lowered plasma VIP, motilin and IL-6 levels and improved association between GMA and sympathovagal balance. This supports the therapeutic potential of prolonged TENS to enhance gastric myoelectrical functioning in SSc.

  9. A case report of thyroid storm induced by acute sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Yin Yeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid storm is a rare but life-threatening condition, which can be induced by many critical diseases. We reported a 40-year-old woman with thyroid goiter manifesting with acute sepsis-induced hyperthyroidism. She mainly presented with abdominal bloating, diarrhea, lower limbs edema and exertional dyspnea. The lactate was 9.5 mmol/L and procalcitonin was 3.8 ng/mL, suggesting acute sepsis. The thyroid echo showed bilateral thyroid goiter. Relevant data included a thyroid-stimulating hormone level of 0.03 μIU/mL; free tetraiodothyronine, 5.67 ng/dL; thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody, 76.9% (normal range, < 14%; and antimicrosomal antibody titer, 1:102400 (normal range, < 1:100, suggesting toxic goiter with thyroid storm. Piperacillin/tazobactam, methimazole and Lugol's iodine achieved a good outcome. The symptoms of early sepsis and those of thyroid storm could be similar. Therefore, a careful history taking, a thorough physical examination and a high degree of suspicion could make early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  10. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth May Increase the Likelihood of Lactose and Sorbitol but not Fructose Intolerance False Positive Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perets, Tsachi Tsadok; Hamouda, Dalal; Layfer, Olga; Ashorov, Olga; Boltin, Doron; Levy, Sigal; Niv, Yaron; Dickman, Ram

    2017-08-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is defined as a bacterial count of more than 10 5 colony-forming units per milliliter in duodenal aspirate. It shares many symptoms with carbohydrate intolerance, which makes the clinical distinction of the disorders difficult. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between a positive carbohydrate breath test and the presence of SIBO suggested by a positive lactulose hydrogen breath test. The electronic database of the gastroenterology laboratory of a tertiary medical center was searched for all patients clinically tested for SIBO in 2012-2013 for whom previous results for lactose, fructose, and/or sorbitol breath test were available. The correlation between positive findings for carbohydrate intolerance and for SIBO was statistically analyzed. The study group included 349 patients, 231 female and 118 male, of mean age 53±19 years. All had symptoms of abdominal bloating and gas. There was a statistically significant difference in rates of a positive breath test for lactose and sorbitol at ≤90 minutes between patients who were positive and negative for SIBO [χ 2 (1)=12.8, p <0.01 and χ 2 (1)=9.5, p <0.01 respectively]. Findings for fructose were not significant. There was no effect of age or gender. SIBO may represent an important reversible cause of carbohydrate intolerance. It may be especially prudent to exclude SIBO patients with an early peak (≤90 minutes) in H 2 excretion. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  11. Point of view: Paul Simon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P

    1999-02-01

    In this article, former US Senator Paul Simon notes that, in his lifetime, the population of the world has tripled and is expected to quadruple. Among the effects of this population growth will be a 55% increase in nitrate emissions that will feed algae and compromise fish supplies. The US was extremely short-sighted when it reduced funding for the international family planning (FP) programs that benefit all nations. False accusations that the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) operates with a "bloated bureaucracy" ignore the fact that this agency has only 166 employees. More appropriate criticism would assert that the task the UNFPA is trying to accomplish is too important and too vast for such a small staff. Without FP programs, earth would now have to support an additional 400 million people. While contraceptive use by married women in developing countries has increased from 10% in 1965 to above 50% today and life expectancy is increasing, we must recognize the fact that we are currently unable to provide most of the world's population with safe water and sanitation and that increased population size will only exacerbate this problem. Encouraging voluntary FP is humanitarian and prudent and will help protect the entire population of the world.

  12. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Scott L; Lacy, Brian E

    2013-06-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is a rare and serious disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract characterized as a motility disorder with the primary defect of impaired peristalsis; symptoms are consistent with a bowel obstruction, although mechanical obstruction cannot be identified. CIP is classified as a neuropathy, myopathy, or mesenchymopathy; it is a neuropathic process in the majority of patients. The natural history of CIP is generally that of a progressive disorder, although occasional patients with secondary CIP note significant symptomatic improvement when the underlying disorder is identified and treated. Symptoms vary from patient to patient depending on the location of the luminal GI tract involved and the degree of involvement; however, the small intestine is nearly always involved. Common symptoms include dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal distension, constipation or diarrhea, and involuntary weight loss. Unfortunately, these symptoms are nonspecific, which can contribute to misdiagnosis or a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Since many of the symptoms and signs suggest a mechanical bowel obstruction, diagnostic tests typically focus on uncovering a mechanical obstruction, although routine tests do not identify an obstructive process. Nutrition supplementation is required for many patients with CIP due to symptoms of dysphagia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. This review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with CIP, with an emphasis on nutrition assessment and treatment options for patients with nutrition compromise.

  13. Coarsening-densification transition temperature in sintering of uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishna, Palanki; Narasimha Murty, B.; Chakraborthy, K.P.; Jayaraj, R.N.; Ganguly, C.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of coarsening-densification transition temperature (CDTT) has been proposed to explain the experimental observations of the study of sintering undoped uranium dioxide and niobia-doped uranium dioxide powder compacts in argon atmosphere in a laboratory tubular furnace. The general method for deducing CDTT for a given material under the prevailing conditions of sintering and the likely variables that influence the CDTT are described. Though the present work is specific in nature for uranium dioxide sintering in argon atmosphere, the concept of CDTT is fairly general and must be applicable to sintering of any material and has immense potential to offer advantages in designing and/or optimizing the profile of a sintering furnace, in the diagnosis of the fault in the process conditions of sintering, and so on. The problems of viewing the effect of heating rate only in terms of densification are brought out in the light of observing the undesirable phenomena of coring and bloating and causes were identified and remedial measures suggested

  14. The impact of meal timing on performance, sleepiness, gastric upset, and hunger during simulated night shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Crystal Leigh; Dorrian, Jillian; Coates, Alison Maree; Pajcin, Maja; Kennaway, David John; Wittert, Gary Allen; Heilbronn, Leonie Kaye; Vedova, Chris Della; Gupta, Charlotte Cecilia; Banks, Siobhan

    2017-10-07

    This study examined the impact of eating during simulated night shift on performance and subjective complaints. Subjects were randomized to eating at night (n=5; 23.2 ± 5.5 y) or not eating at night (n=5; 26.2 ± 6.4 y). All participants were given one sleep opportunity of 8 h (22:00 h-06:00 h) before transitioning to the night shift protocol. During the four days of simulated night shift participants were awake from 16:00 h-10:00 h with a daytime sleep of 6 h (10:00 h-16:00 h). In the simulated night shift protocol, meals were provided at ≈0700 h, 1900 h and 0130 h (eating at night); or ≈0700 h, 0930 h, 1410 h and 1900 h (not eating at night). Subjects completed sleepiness, hunger and gastric complaint scales, a Digit Symbol Substitution Task and a 10-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task. Increased sleepiness and performance impairment was evident in both conditions at 0400 h (phunger and a small but significant elevation in stomach upset across the night (p<0.026). Eating at night was associated with elevated bloating on night one, which decreased across the protocol. Restricting food intake may limit performance impairments at night. Dietary recommendations to improve night-shift performance must also consider worker comfort.

  15. Short term (14 days) consumption of insoluble wheat bran fibre-containing breakfast cereals improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function in a dose dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Clare L; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-04-22

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  16. Efficacy of Bacillus coagulans Unique IS2 in treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in children: a double blind, randomised placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, M Ratna; Jayanthi, N; Aasin, M; Dhanashri, R D; Anirudh, T

    2018-04-26

    The efficacy of the probiotic strain, Bacillus coagulans Unique IS2 in the treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) was evaluated in children. A total of 141 children of either sex in the age group 4-12 years, diagnosed with IBS according to the Rome III criteria, participated in the double-blind randomised controlled trial. Children received either B. coagulans Unique IS2 chewable tablets or placebo once daily for eight weeks followed by a two week follow-up period. Reduction in pain intensity as well as other symptoms associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome like abdominal discomfort, bloating, distension, sense of incomplete evacuation, straining at stool, urgency of bowel movement, passage of gas and mucus, and bowel habit satisfaction were assessed. B. coagulans Unique IS2 treated group showed a greater reduction in pain scores as evaluated by a weekly pain intensity scale. There was a significant reduction (Pcoagulans Unique IS2 treated group as compared to the placebo group. This study demonstrates the efficacy of B. coagulans Unique IS2 in reducing the symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in children in the age group of 4-12 years.

  17. Prevention and Treatment of Flatulence From a Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Bagher; Esfahani, Mohammad Medhi; Moghimi, Maryam; Shams Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Hasani Ranjbar, Shirin; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Zargaran, Arman

    2016-04-01

    The feeling of abdominal fullness, bloating, and movement of gas in the abdomen is a very uncomfortable sensation termed flatulence. Since flatulence is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms that is bothersome to patients, it is important to identify effective methods to resolve this issue. In modern medicine, management of flatulence is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, traditional systems of medicine can be considered good potential sources to find new approaches for preventing and treating flatulence. The aim of this study is to review flatulence treatments from a traditional Persian medicine (TPM) viewpoint. In this study, the reasons for flatulence and methods for its prevention and treatment are reviewed in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) texts and then related with evidence from modern medicine by searching in databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and IranMedex. From a traditional Persian scholar viewpoint, one of the most important causes of flatulence is an incorrect manner of eating; valuable advice to correct bad eating habits will be illustrated. In addition, traditional practitioners describe some herbs and vegetables as well as herbal compounds that are effective food additives to relieve flatulence. The anti-flatulent effect of most of these herbs has been experimentally verified using modern medicine. Attention to TPM can lead to the identification of new preventive and curative approaches to avoid and treat flatulence. In addition, Persian viewpoints from the medieval era regarding flatulence are historically important.

  18. Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication offers high patient satisfaction with relief of extraesophageal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakita, Steven; Villadolid, Desiree; Thomas, Ashley; Bloomston, Mark; Albrink, Michael; Goldin, Steven; Rosemurgy, Alexander

    2006-03-01

    Nissen fundoplication is applied for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), usually because of symptoms of esophageal injury. When presenting symptoms are extraesophageal, there is less enthusiasm for operative control of reflux because of concerns of etiology and efficacy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in palliating extraesophageal symptoms of GERD. Patients were asked to score their symptoms before and after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication on a Likert scale (0 = never/none to 5 = always/every time I eat). A total of 322 patients with extraesophageal symptoms (asthma, cough, gas/bloat, chest pain, and odynophagia) of 4 to 5 were identified and analyzed. After fundoplication, all extraesophageal symptom scores improved (P < 0.0001 for all, Wilcoxon matched-pairs test). Likewise, postoperative symptoms were noted to be greatly improved or resolved in 67 per cent to 82 per cent of patients for each symptom. Furthermore, after fundoplication, patients were less likely to modify their dietary (82% vs 49%) or sleeping habits (70% vs 28%) to avoid initiating/ exacerbating symptoms. Although extraesophageal symptoms are conventionally thought to be inadequately palliated by surgery, this study documents excellent relief of extraesophageal symptoms after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication, denotes high patient satisfaction, and encourages application of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication.

  19. Premenstrual syndrome in Turkish medical students and their quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goker, A; Artunc-Ulkumen, B; Aktenk, F; Ikiz, N

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to analyse the frequency and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and its effect on quality of life in medical students. Sociodemographic data, a symptom calendar for the following consecutive two menstrual periods and SF-36 quality of life questionnaire were collected. A total of 228 students joined the survey. The average age of the students was 20.77 ± 1.90. The frequency of PMS was 91.8%. The most frequent symptoms were abdominal bloating (89.5%), irritability (88.3%) and breast tenderness (82.6%). Quality of life scores ranged from 17.00 to 97.00 and were lowest in the severe PMS group. Alcohol consumption, stress events and fat rich diets increased the severity of PMS. Family history significantly affected the severity of PMS and quality of life scores. Premenstrual syndrome was found to be a frequent entity among medical students and seemed to affect quality of life in a moderate way.

  20. Diverticular Disease of the Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Emilio Ferreira-Aparicio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A diverticulum is a bulging sack in any portion of the gastrointestinal tract. The most common site for the formation of diverticula is the large intestine. Small intestine diverticular disease is much less common than colonic diverticular disease. The most common symptom is non-specific epigastric pain and a bloating sensation. Major complications include diverticulitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, acute perforation, pancreatic or biliary (in the case of duodenal diverticula disease, intestinal obstruction, intestinal perforation, localized abscess, malabsorption, anemia, volvulus and bacterial overgrowth. We describe the clinical case of a 65-year-old female patient with a diagnosis on hospital admittance of acute appendicitis and a intraoperative finding of diverticular disease of the small intestine, accompanied by complications such as intestinal perforation, bleeding and abdominal sepsis. This was surgically treated with intestinal resection and ileostomy and a subsequent re-intervention comprising perforation of the ileostomy and stomal remodeling. The patient remained hospitalized for approximately 1 month with antibiotics and local surgical wound healing, as well as changes in her diet with food supplements and metabolic control. She showed a favorable clinical evolution and was dismissed from the hospital to her home. We include here a discussion on trends in medical and surgical aspects as well as early handling or appropriate management to reduce the risk of fatal complications.

  1. Temporal Distribution of Blowflies of Forensic Importance (Diptera: Calliphoridae, in Man-Size Domestic Pigs Carcasses, in the Forest Reserve Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ururahy-Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the must forensic importance insect families is Calliphoridae (Diptera and different species of this family were used to demonstrate the efficiency of the experimental model used in this study. The experiments were performed with domestic pig models (approximately 60 kg in Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (Manaus, Amazonas. To minimize the effect of repeated samplings in the same model (a result of pseudoreplication, two models were used to answer two questions: 1 What is the species composition and temporal distribution of Calliphoridae adults? 2 What is the species composition and temporal distribution of Calliphoridae that effectively colonized the carcass? Six pseudoreplicates were studied in three periods: from 06/30/2005 to 07/30/2005 (less rainy season, from 10/18/2005 to 11/17/2005 (transition period between the two seasons and from 03/15/2006 to 04/14/2006 (rainy season. The immatures and adults collected were identified as forensic indicators. The decomposition process presented five stages (fresh, bloated, decay, adipocere-like and skeletonization. The first four days included the first three stages of decomposition and were the most attractive to the Calliphoridae. The three taxa that were most abundant, regular and with highest peaks in the first four samples of each experiment were, in ascending order: Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius e Paralucilia spp.. Linear regressions showed low values of F and high values of P, indicating that rain did not influence the sampling results.

  2. Insects on pig carcasses as a model for predictor of death interval in forensic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Wangko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forensic entomology has not been acknowledged in Indonesia so far. Indonesian carrion insects are very rarely reported. The aim of this study was to obtain the types of insects on pig carcasses that could be used for the estimation of post-mortem interval.Methods: Four domestic pigs sacrificed with different methods were used as a model. The carcasses were observed twice daily (around 9 a.m and 4 p.m during 15 days to assess the stages of decomposition and to collect insects, both in mature and immature stages. The immature insects were reared and the mature insects were indentified in the Laboratory of Pests and Plant Diseases, University of Sam Ratulangi, Manado. Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies were identified both morphologically and with deoxyribose-nucleic acid (DNA techniques.Results: Five stages of decomposition (fresh, bloated, active decay, post-decay, and skeletonization were observed. A total of 11 Diptera and 8 Coleoptera species were found during a 15-days succession study. Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and Hermetia illucens colonized in all carcasses.Conclusion: Insects found on four different pig carcasses consisted mainly of widespread Diptera and Coleoptera. Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and Hermetia illucens seemed to be primary candidates for the estimation of the post-mortem interval.

  3. Forensic entomology of decomposing humans and their decomposing pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R

    2015-02-01

    Domestic pets are commonly found in the homes of decedents whose deaths are investigated by a medical examiner or coroner. When these pets become trapped with a decomposing decedent they may resort to feeding on the body or succumb to starvation and/or dehydration and begin to decompose as well. In this case report photographic documentation of cases involving pets and decedents were examined from 2009 through the beginning of 2014. This photo review indicated that in many cases the pets were cats and dogs that were trapped with the decedent, died and were discovered in a moderate (bloat to active decay) state of decomposition. In addition three cases involving decomposing humans and their decomposing pets are described as they were processed for time of insect colonization by forensic entomological approach. Differences in timing and species colonizing the human and animal bodies were noted as was the potential for the human or animal derived specimens to contaminate one another at the scene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. What is the evidence for the use of probiotics in functional disorders?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2012-02-03

    A rationale for the use of probiotics for a number of functional gastrointestinal symptoms and syndromes can be developed, and an experimental basis for their use continues to emerge, but data from well-conducted clinical trials of probiotics in this area remain scarce. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has attracted the most attention; recent revelations regarding the potential pathogenic roles of the enteric flora and immune activation have led to reawakened interest in bacterio-therapy for this common and challenging disorder. Some recent randomized, controlled studies attest to the efficacy of some probiotics in alleviating individual IBS symptoms, and selected strains have a more global impact. Evidence for long-term efficacy is also beginning to emerge, though more studies are needed in this regard. In other functional syndromes, data are far from adequate to make recommendations, but there is evidence for efficacy of probiotics in treating individual symptoms such as diarrhea, constipation, and bloating. The interpretation of much of the literature in this area is complicated by lack of quality control, use of many different species and strains, and, above all, significant deficiencies in trial methodology.

  5. Guidelines on the irritable bowel syndrome: mechanisms and practical management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, R; Aziz, Q; Creed, F; Emmanuel, A; Houghton, L; Hungin, P; Jones, R; Kumar, D; Rubin, G; Trudgill, N; Whorwell, P

    2007-01-01

    Background IBS affects 5–11% of the population of most countries. Prevalence peaks in the third and fourth decades, with a female predominance. Aim To provide a guide for the assessment and management of adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Members of the Clinical Services Committee of The British Society of Gastroenterology were allocated particular areas to produce review documents. Literature searching included systematic searches using electronic databases such as Pubmed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases and extensive personal reference databases. Results Patients can usefully be classified by predominant bowel habit. Few investigations are needed except when diarrhoea is a prominent feature. Alarm features may warrant further investigation. Adverse psychological features and somatisation are often present. Ascertaining the patients' concerns and explaining symptoms in simple terms improves outcome. IBS is a heterogeneous condition with a range of treatments, each of which benefits a small proportion of patients. Treatment of associated anxiety and depression often improves bowel and other symptoms. Randomised placebo controlled trials show benefit as follows: cognitive behavioural therapy and psychodynamic interpersonal therapy improve coping; hypnotherapy benefits global symptoms in otherwise refractory patients; antispasmodics and tricyclic antidepressants improve pain; ispaghula improves pain and bowel habit; 5‐HT3 antagonists improve global symptoms, diarrhoea, and pain but may rarely cause unexplained colitis; 5‐HT4 agonists improve global symptoms, constipation, and bloating; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors improve global symptoms. Conclusions Better ways of identifying which patients will respond to specific treatments are urgently needed. PMID:17488783

  6. Clinical Onset of Celiac Disease after an Episode of Campylobacter jejuni Enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EF Verdu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes a young woman with no previous gastrointestinal complaints who was initially diagnosed with postinfective irritable bowel syndrome (IBS after a confirmed case of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis. However, because of persistent diarrhea, new-onset bloating and the development of iron and vitamin deficiencies, serological markers for celiac disease (CD were evaluated. A positive tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin A antibody test and repeat endoscopy with duodenal biopsy showing a Marsh IIIa lesion confirmed the diagnosis of CD. Infectious gastroenteritis is a well-established risk factor for the development of IBS, and there is recent evidence that it could play a role in the initiation and exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease. The present case suggests that the clinical expression of CD can be unmasked by an acute gastrointestinal infection and supports the hypothesis that environmental factors other than gliadin may play a role in the clinical onset of CD in a genetically susceptible host. The increasing availability of serological testing and upper endoscopy has led to increasingly frequent diagnoses of CD and recognition that it may mimic IBS. The present case findings suggest that CD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent IBS-like symptoms after an episode of infectious gastroenteritis.

  7. Clinical evaluation, biochemistry and genetic polymorphism analysis for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in a population from northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Paulo Roberto Lins; de Medeiros, Pedro Henrique Quintela Soares; Havt, Alexandre; Caetano, Joselany Afio; Cid, David A C; de Moura Gondim Prata, Mara; Soares, Alberto Melo; Guerrant, Richard L; Mychaleckyj, Josyf; Lima, Aldo Ângelo Moreira

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to evaluate and correlate symptoms, biochemical blood test results and single nucleotide polymorphisms for lactose intolerance diagnosis. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, with a total of 119 patients, 54 of whom were lactose intolerant. Clinical evaluation and biochemical blood tests were conducted after lactose ingestion and blood samples were collected for genotyping evaluation. In particular, the single nucleotide polymorphisms C>T-13910 and G>A-22018 were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism/polymerase chain reaction and validated by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Lactose-intolerant patients presented with more symptoms of flatulence (81.4%), bloating (68.5%), borborygmus (59.3%) and diarrhea (46.3%) compared with non-lactose-intolerant patients (plactose-tolerant phenotype (plactose, we found that the most effective cutoff for glucose levels obtained for lactose malabsorbers was T-13910 and G>A-22018) with lactose tolerance in this population and suggest clinical management for patients with lactose intolerance that considers single nucleotide polymorphism detection and a change in the biochemical blood test cutoff from <25 mg/dL to <15 mg/dL. PMID:26934237

  8. Neutrino-heated stars and broad-line emission from active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, James; Stanev, Todor; Biermann, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation from active galactic nuclei indicates the presence of highly relativistic particles. The interaction of these high-energy particles with matter and photons gives rise to a flux of high-energy neutrinos. In this paper, the influence of the expected high neutrino fluxes on the structure and evolution of single, main-sequence stars is investigated. Sequences of models of neutrino-heated stars in thermal equilibrium are presented for masses 0.25, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 solar mass. In addition, a set of evolutionary sequences for mass 0.5 solar mass have been computed for different assumed values for the incident neutrino energy flux. It is found that winds driven by the heating due to high-energy particles and hard electromagnetic radiation of the outer layers of neutrino-bloated stars may satisfy the requirements of the model of Kazanas (1989) for the broad-line emission clouds in active galactic nuclei.

  9. Investigation of nocturnal oviposition by necrophilous flies in central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Robert S; Wallace, Susan G; Kirkpatrick, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    The need to accurately estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) has prompted research into factors affecting fly oviposition (i.e., oviposition and/or larviposition) on a corpse. Research efforts have focused on whether or not diurnally active flies oviposit during nighttime hours. This study reports that nocturnal oviposition (defined as occurring between 2100-0600 h CDST (Central Daylight Savings Time)) did not occur on freshly killed white rats or mice, on beef (fresh or aged up to 48 h), on freshly thawed pigs, nor, usually, on thawed pigs that were aged for up to 48 h. Limited oviposition did occur between 2100 and 2120 h on one bloated pig at a lighted rural site. Necrophilous flies were present and active at lighted and dark sites (urban and rural) before and immediately after sunset, but fly activity on the bait ceased within 50 min postsunset and did not resume until after 0600 h. These observations support other studies reporting that diurnally active flies do not oviposit during the nighttime.

  10. Bit-Grooming: Shave Your Bits with Razor-sharp Precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, C. S.; Silver, J.

    2017-12-01

    Lossless compression can reduce climate data storage by 30-40%. Further reduction requires lossy compression that also reduces precision. Fortunately, geoscientific models and measurements generate false precision (scientifically meaningless data bits) that can be eliminated without sacrificing scientifically meaningful data. We introduce Bit Grooming, a lossy compression algorithm that removes the bloat due to false-precision, those bits and bytes beyond the meaningful precision of the data.Bit Grooming is statistically unbiased, applies to all floating point numbers, and is easy to use. Bit-Grooming reduces geoscience data storage requirements by 40-80%. We compared Bit Grooming to competitors Linear Packing, Layer Packing, and GRIB2/JPEG2000. The other compression methods have the edge in terms of compression, but Bit Grooming is the most accurate and certainly the most usable and portable.Bit Grooming provides flexible and well-balanced solutions to the trade-offs among compression, accuracy, and usability required by lossy compression. Geoscientists could reduce their long term storage costs, and show leadership in the elimination of false precision, by adopting Bit Grooming.

  11. Medical image of the week: splenic infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey DJ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 52-year-old Hispanic woman with a past medical history significant for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, hypertension, and rheumatoid arthritis presented with left upper quadrant pain for one day. Her review of systems was positive for bloating, severe epigastric and left upper quadrant tenderness that radiated to the back and left shoulder, nausea with non-bilious emesis, and diarrhea for one day prior to admission. Physical exam only revealed epigastric and left upper quadrant tenderness to light palpation without rebound or guarding. Abdominal computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated a new acute or subacute splenic infarct with no clear evidence of an embolic source in the abdomen or pelvis (Figure 1. Echocardiogram with bubble study and contrast did not demonstrate valve abnormalities, cardiac mass, vegetation, valve or wall motion abnormalities and no evidence of patent foramen ovale. Splenic infarction should be suspected when patients present with sharp, acute left upper quadrant pain ...

  12. Medium-chain Triglyceride Ketogenic Diet, An Effective Treatment for Drug-resistant Epilepsy and A Comparison with Other Ketogenic Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeou-mei Christiana Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet (KD is one of the most effective therapies for drug-resistant epilepsy. The efficacy of the medium-chain triglyceride KD (MCTKD is as excellent as the classic KD (CKD, which has been documented in several subsequent retrospective, prospective, and randomized studies. MCT oil is more ketogenic than long-chain triglycerides. Therefore, the MCTKD allows more carbohydrate and protein food, which makes the diet more palatable than the CKD. The MCTKD is not based on diet ratios as is the CKD, but uses a percentage of calories from MCT oil to create ketones. There has also been literature which documents the associated gastrointestinal side effects from the MCTKD, such as diarrhea, vomiting, bloating, and cramps. Therefore, the MCTKD has been an underutilized diet therapy for intractable epilepsy among children.The author has used up to >70% MCTKD diet to maximize seizure control with gastrointestinal side effects optimally controlled. As long as health care professionals carefully manage MCTKD, many more patients with epilepsy who are not appropriate for CKD or modified Atkins diet or low glycemic index treatment will benefit from this treatment. A comparison between the MCTKD and other KDs is also discussed.

  13. In Vitro Evaluation of Tc-99m Radiopharmaceuticals for Gastric Emptying Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan Ertay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal motility and functional motility disorders causing either delayed or accelerated gastric emptying (GE may result in similar symptoms including nausea, vomiting, early satiety, fullness, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain. Hence, it is important to evaluate patients for both rapid and delayed GE in the same test. The gold standard technique to measure GE is scintigraphy by radiolabeled test meals. The aim of this study was to test alternative Tc-99m agents to label eggs as the solid meal and compare to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC for gastric emptying studies. Methods: In search of alternative agents for gastric emptying studies, we mixed and fried eggs with four different particulate compounds (Tc-99m labeled SC, tin colloid, nanocolloid and MAA, as well as with free pertechnetate and Tc-99m DTPA. We then measured the stability of these compounds in simulated gastric juice. Results: Our experiments demonstrated that in addition to Tc-99m sulfur colloid;Tc-99m MAA, Tc-99m nanocolloid and Tc-99m tin colloid also appear to make stable complexes with eggs in acidic environment. Conclusion: Therefore, these agents may be used for gastric emptying studies which could be more practical in routine conditions.

  14. Gastrointestinal transit in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fynne, Lotte; Worsøe, Jonas; Gregersen, Tine; Schlageter, Vincent; Laurberg, Søren; Krogh, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis and collagen deposits. Gastrointestinal symptoms of SSc, including abdominal pain, bloating and discomfort, are common but diffuse and their pathophysiology remains obscure. To investigate the pathophysiology of abdominal pain and discomfort in individuals with SSc. A total of 15 individuals with SSc (13 women, median age 58 years), all suffering from diffuse abdominal symptoms, and 17 healthy volunteers (12 women, median age 52 years) were evaluated with the Motility Tracking System, MTS-1, measuring gastric emptying (GE) and velocity through the small intestine. SSc patients were also examined for bacterial overgrowth using the hydrogen breath test and with radiopaque markers to determine the total gastrointestinal transit time (GITT). Assessed with the MTS-1, the velocity through the proximal small intestine was significantly reduced in SSc patients (median 0.525 m/h, range 0.11-1.15) when compared to healthy subjects (median 0.91 m/h, range 0.51-1.74) (p = 0.02). Prolonged GE was found in 4 SSc patients (27%) but in none of the healthy volunteers (p = 0.04). Only 3 SSc patients (21%) had positive breath tests for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. GITT was >3 days in 8 patients (53%). Slow small intestinal transit was associated with a prolonged GITT (p < 0.05). Velocity through the small intestine is significantly reduced in SSc patients with diffuse abdominal symptoms.

  15. May 2016 critical care case of the month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jashaami L

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first 150 words. History of Present Illness: A 50-year-old African American woman presented with weakness, altered mental status and constipation of 12 days duration. She was complaining of abdominal distension with diffuse pain and bloating. She denied melena, hematochezia or hematemesis. She had a history weight loss, anorexia and fatigue which had evolved over the past few months leading to recent severe weakness and inability to get out of bed. Past Medical History, Social History and Family History: Her past medical history included HIV infection with AIDS and noncompliance with her antiretroviral medications. Her most recent CD4 count was <20 cells/uL and viral load of 554,483 copies/mL. Physical Examination: Vital signs: Blood pressure, 120/80 mmHg, heart rate, 105/min, temperature, 98.6° and respiratory rate, 20/min. General: Physical examination showed a lethargic female who was poorly responsive to questioning. Abdomen: Distended, tympanic abdomen with hypoactive bowel sounds and diffuse tenderness. Radiography: Plain x-ray examination of ...

  16. Diptera of Medico-Legal Importance Associated With Pig Carrion in a Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, S D; Salgado, R L; Barbosa, T M; Souza, J R B

    2016-06-20

    The diversity of necrophagous Diptera is largely unknown in seasonally dry tropical forests, despite their medical, veterinary, and forensic relevance. We performed a study in the dry Caatinga forest exclusive to Brazil in order to assess the diversity and temporal pattern of Diptera species using pig carcasses as substrates. Adults were collected daily until complete skeletonization. We collected 17,142 adults from 18 families, 10 of which comprise species with known necrophagous habits. The most abundant families were Calliphoridae (47.3% of specimens), Sarcophagidae (20.8%), and Muscidae (15.5%), whereas Sarcophagidae stood out in terms of richness with 21 species. The native Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the invasive Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedmann) (Calliphoridae) were the dominant species. A total of 18 species reached the carcass during the first 48 h postdeath. The bloated and active decay stages had the highest richness and abundance of dipterans. From a forensic standpoint, C. macellaria and C. albiceps are likely to aid in establishing postmortem interval due to their early arrival and high abundance on the carcass. Despite harsh environmental conditions, the Caatinga harbors a rich assemblage of dipterans that play a key role in carrion decomposition. Their medico-veterinary importance is strengthened by the poor local sanitary conditions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Short Term (14 Days Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Dye

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29 completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort. Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches. In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  18. Management of the clinical issue of constipation with abdominal complaints in adults: a national survey of Primary Care physicians and gastroenterologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rey

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation represent a relevant and common health issue. However, real-world clinical practice includes patients with constipation who may or may not have other abdominal complaints (pain, bloating, abdominal discomfort with variable frequency. The goal of the present study was to obtain information on the workload entailed by patients with constipation and associated abdominal complaints, predominant clinical behaviors, education needs, and potential daily practice aids both in Primary Care and gastroenterology settings. The clinical behavior of doctors is generally similar at both levels, despite differences in healthcare approach: use of empiric therapies and clinically guided diagnostic tests, with some differences in colonoscopy use (not always directly accessible from Primary Care. Regarding perceptions, general support and osmotic laxatives are most valued by PC doctors, whereas osmotic laxatives, combined laxatives, and linaclotide are most valued by GE specialists. Furthermore, over half of respondents considered differentiating both diagnoses as challenging. Finally, considerable education needs are self-acknowledged at both levels, as is a demand for guidelines and protocols to help in managing this issue in clinical practice. A strength of this study is its providing a joint photograph of the medical approach and the perceptions of constipation with abdominal discomfort from a medical standpoint. Weaknesses include self-declaration (no formal validation and a response rate potentially biased by professional motivation.

  19. Services under siege--the restructuring imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, S S

    1991-01-01

    Recent job losses in the U.S. service sector do not reflect a temporary recession. Those jobs are gone, the result of a massive restructuring of the sector that is just getting under way. The explanation for the restructuring is quite simple. Until recently, services have been shielded by regulation and confronted by few foreign competitors. They have allowed their white-collar payrolls to become bloated, their investment in information technology to outstrip the paybacks, and their productivity to stagnate. Now competition is heating up and exposing these inefficiencies. Just as intense competition forced the restructuring of Smokestack America in the 1980s, deregulation and foreign direct investment are shaking out service companies that cannot confront their shortcomings. The need for sweeping change in the service sector may come as a great shock to Americans who saw services as the means to continued economic prosperity. But there is a painful irony at work: job creation, the very thing proponents use to demonstrate the U.S. service sector's strength, is in fact a symptom of the sector's chronic neglect of economic efficiency. It is precisely that neglect that makes the service sector vulnerable as the race for market share intensifies and new players shift the terms of competition. Services must respond to the new competitive environment, but not by indiscriminate cost cutting. Instead, they should balance financial discipline with a comprehensive and immediate reexamination of strategy.

  20. A rare adrenal incidentaloma: adrenal schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adas, Mine; Ozulker, Filiz; Adas, Gokhan; Koc, Bora; Ozulker, Tamer; Sahin, Ilknur Mansuroglu

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal schwannoma is an extremely uncommon cause of incidentaloma. It originates from neural sheath Schwann cells of the adrenal gland. We report the case of a left adrenal schwannoma incidentally discovered in a 32-year-old woman during examination of bloated feeling and stomach ache. The patient was incidentally found to have a left adrenal mass of 9 cm on abdominal ultrasonography. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) were also performed. Metabolic evaluation was unremarkable. Due to the large size of the tumor, left adrenalectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Histological examination established the diagnosis of schwannoma. This diagnosis was supported by immunohistochemistry of S-100 and vimentin positivity. In conclusion, adrenal schwannoma is an extremely rare entity and can grow considerably in size. The present case report emphasizes that clinicians should be aware of the possibility of retroperitoneal schwannoma. Total excision of benign schwannoma is associated with a favorable outcome. To our knowledge, there are case reports of schwannoma with CT and magnetic resonance imaging findings in the literature, although this is the first schwannoma case with PET-CT imaging.

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation in the primary-care setting: focus on linaclotide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandar AK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Apoorva Krishna Chandar1,2 1Department of Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Case Western Reserve University, 2Digestive Health Institute, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a complex functional gastrointestinal disorder that is exceedingly common in clinical practice. IBS with predominant constipation (IBS-C is a subtype of IBS that accounts for more than a third of the IBS diagnosed. Diagnosis of IBS requires a careful personalized approach, a comprehensive clinical history, limited but relevant investigations, and continued follow-up. Major IBS societies and guidelines recommend offering a positive diagnosis of IBS based on presenting symptomatology. Abdominal pain that may or may not be relieved by defecation is the cardinal symptom of IBS; distension and bloating are other common symptoms. Careful attention should be paid to alarm symptoms before a diagnosis of IBS is made. Pharmacotherapy with linaclotide is recommended for moderate–severe IBS-C, based on high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials. Diarrhea is the major side effect of linaclotide, and limited cost-effectiveness data currently exist. Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation, primary care, Rome IV, linaclotide, systematic review 

  2. Calcium vitamin D3 supplementation in clinical practice: side effect and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei, Maryam; Banasiri, Mohammad; Shafiee, Gita; Rostami, Mahsa; Alizad, Saba; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Larijani, Bagher; Heshmat, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess side effects and satisfaction about OsteoCalVitFort (500 mg calcium and 400 I.U. of vitamin D3) usage. A total 186 people were participated with range age from 18 to 65 years old. Each participant received 1 pack that contains 60 OsteoCalVitFort tablet and used two tablet OsteoCalVitFort daily (1 tablet after breakfast and 1 after dinner). By a phone call, side effects and satisfaction about OsteoCalVitFort were assessed. The rate of constipating (8.0 %) and bloating (12.5 %) were decreased significantly after OsteoCalVitFort supplement intake (1.2 %, and 0.6 %, respectively). Similar results were observed in metallic taste in mouth, tiredness, weakness, loss of appetite, bone/muscle pain and mental/mood change after Calcium Vitamin D3 supplementation intake. Totally, 94 % of patients were satisfied about OsteoCalVitFort usage. The results of the research indicate despite the high quality of OsteoCalVitFort supplement, there are no side effects which have been seen in other supplements.

  3. Densification of boron carbide at relatively low temperatures by hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telle, R.

    1988-01-01

    The poor sinterability of B 4 C limits its widespread application because both high temperatures and high pressures are required for a complete densification. Moreover, B 4 C suffers from a low strength and fracture toughness, possesses, however, a high potential because of its extreme hardness. Reaction hot pressing of B 4 C-WC-TiC-Si-Co mixtures resulting in B 4 C-TiB 2 -W 2 B 5 composites of high density exhibit remarkable mechanical properties. The influence of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) on the microstructure and the mechanical properties is investigated in cooperation with participants of the COST 503 activities and related to the strengthening and toughening mechanisms. Difficulties during densification by HIP arise from the evaporation of adsorbed volatiles as well as from the strong swelling of the powder compact due to the sintering reaction. Several HIP cycle designs were tested in order to prevent the bloating of the capsule and to control internal stresses due to the misfit of the thermal expansion of the entire phases. In comparison to single phase B 4 C ceramics, bending strength was improved to 1030 MPa, K Ic to 5.2 MPa/m, while hardness was comparable with HV1=38 GPa. Wear test were performed and related to the toughening mechanisms. (orig.) With 56 refs., 9 tabs., 64 figs

  4. Gastric volvulus through morgagni hernia: an easily overlooked emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonthalia, Nikhil; Ray, Sayantan; Khanra, Dibbendhu; Saha, Avishek; Maitra, Subhasis; Saha, Manjari; Talukdar, Arunansu

    2013-06-01

    Intractable vomiting in an elderly patient is an emergency condition requiring prompt diagnosis and intervention. Acute gastric outlet obstruction due to gastric volvulus through Morgagni-type diaphragmatic hernia is an exceedingly rare cause of this nonspecific complaint. Our aim was to highlight that Morgagni hernia, although rare in adults, should be suspected in the appropriate clinical setting, and that a clue toward diagnosis often comes from routine chest and abdominal x-ray studies. In addition, we emphasize the atypical radiological findings and importance of emergency surgical intervention in such a case. We describe the case of a 78-year-old woman who presented to the Emergency Department with a 4-day history of intractable vomiting, and with no definitive clue to the diagnosis on examination. Her routine chest and abdomen x-ray studies suggested abnormal air-fluid level at right hemithorax, which prompted a computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and an upper gastrointestinal contrast study. Gastric volvulus through a foramen of Morgagni was diagnosed and transthoracic reduction of the contents was performed, along with repair of the defect. A symptomatic Morgagni hernia in adults, although rare, can present with a variety of symptoms ranging from nonspecific complaints of bloating and indigestion to the more severe complaint of intestinal obstruction. Gastric volvulus and obstructive features are less frequently reported as acute complications of these hernias, which need early identification and intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ovarian Cancer Stroma: Pathophysiology and the Roles in Cancer Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Mitsuko

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers

  6. Short Term (14 Days) Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Clare L.; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29) completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption. PMID:23609776

  7. Feeding difficulties in children with food protein-induced gastrointestinal allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rosan; Rommel, Nathalie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Fleming, Catharine; Dziubak, Robert; Shah, Neil

    2014-10-01

    There is paucity of data on the prevalence of feeding difficulties in Food Protein-Induced Gastrointestinal Allergies (FPIGA) and their clinical characteristics. However, it is a commonly reported problem by clinicians. We set out to establish the occurrence of feeding difficulties in children with FPIGA, the association with gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms and number of foods eliminated from the diet. This retrospective observational analysis was performed in patients seen between 2002 and 2009 at Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital, Gastroenterology Department, London. Medical records where FPIGA was documented using the terms from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease and National Institute of Clinical Excellence and confirmed using an elimination diet, followed by a challenge were included. Feeding difficulties were assessed using a criteria previously used in healthy toddlers in the UK. Data from 437 children (203 female) were collected. Significantly more children with feeding difficulties presented with abdominal distention and bloating (P = 0.002), vomiting (P foods eliminated from the diet in the children with/without feeding difficulties (P = 0.028). Clinical manifestations like vomiting, constipation, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and the presence of extra-intestinal manifestations in addition to the number of foods avoided are in our FPIGA population linked to feeding difficulties. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Symptoms Experienced and Information Needs of Women Receiving Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Neşe; Toprak, Filiz Ünal; Kutlutsürkan, Sevinç; Erenel, Ayten Şentürk

    2018-01-01

    This study is carried out to determine the symptoms and information necessity on chemotherapy (CT) treatment of the women with breast cancer. A total of 170 women older than 18 years old, who receive CT with breast cancer diagnosis, are volunteered to participate in the study. Mixed method was used in the study. Data are collected using Descriptive Data Form, Interview Form and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. As a result of the cluster analysis, four clusters and the symptoms within have been obtained. These are: pain, lack of energy, feeling drowsy, sweat, swelling of hands, and feet in the first cluster; feeling nervous, difficulty sleeping, feeling sad, worrying in the second cluster; nausea, feeling bloating, change in the way food tastes, hair loss, constipation in the third cluster; vomiting, diarrhea, problems with sexual interest, lack of appetite, dizziness, and weight loss in the forth cluster. Women's information necessity related to the CT are follows: the effects of CT, other treatment options beyond CT, complementary methods, the effect of the CT treatment on reproductive health and sexuality, nutrition, and symptom control. The results of this study will enable determination of symptom clusters, which health professionals are easier to focus on these symptoms. An understanding information need of patients can help to ensure that individual's coping strategies and self-management.

  9. The mind-body connection in irritable bowel syndrome: A randomised controlled trial of hypnotherapy as a treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Moore, Julie S; Talley, Nicholas J; Jones, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotherapy has been reported as being beneficial in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to test the hypothesis that patients with IBS treated 'holistically' by hypnosis (i.e. by combined psychological and physiological symptom imagery) would have greater improvement in their IBS symptoms than patients treated by hypnosis using standard 'gut-directed' hypnotherapy, and both would be superior to simple relaxation therapy. Patients ( n  = 51) with Rome II criteria were randomised to 'individualised' (holistic) hypnotherapy, standard 'gut-directed' hypnotherapy or relaxation therapy for a period of 11 weeks with two follow-up assessments at 2 weeks and at 3 months after the completion of the trial. The primary outcome was bowel symptom severity scale (BSSS). All the participants in this study improved their IBS symptoms (pain, bloating, constipation and diarrhoea) and physical functioning at the end of the treatment from baseline, but this was not significantly different across the treatment arms. Neither 'individualised' nor 'gut-directed' hypnotherapy is superior to relaxation therapy in IBS.

  10. The mind–body connection in irritable bowel syndrome: A randomised controlled trial of hypnotherapy as a treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie S Phillips-Moore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypnotherapy has been reported as being beneficial in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. We aimed to test the hypothesis that patients with IBS treated ‘holistically’ by hypnosis (i.e. by combined psychological and physiological symptom imagery would have greater improvement in their IBS symptoms than patients treated by hypnosis using standard ‘gut-directed’ hypnotherapy, and both would be superior to simple relaxation therapy. Methods: Patients ( n  = 51 with Rome II criteria were randomised to ‘individualised’ (holistic hypnotherapy, standard ‘gut-directed’ hypnotherapy or relaxation therapy for a period of 11 weeks with two follow-up assessments at 2 weeks and at 3 months after the completion of the trial. The primary outcome was bowel symptom severity scale (BSSS. Results: All the participants in this study improved their IBS symptoms (pain, bloating, constipation and diarrhoea and physical functioning at the end of the treatment from baseline, but this was not significantly different across the treatment arms. Conclusion: Neither ‘individualised’ nor ‘gut-directed’ hypnotherapy is superior to relaxation therapy in IBS.

  11. The mind–body connection in irritable bowel syndrome: A randomised controlled trial of hypnotherapy as a treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Nicholas J; Jones, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypnotherapy has been reported as being beneficial in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to test the hypothesis that patients with IBS treated ‘holistically’ by hypnosis (i.e. by combined psychological and physiological symptom imagery) would have greater improvement in their IBS symptoms than patients treated by hypnosis using standard ‘gut-directed’ hypnotherapy, and both would be superior to simple relaxation therapy. Methods: Patients (n = 51) with Rome II criteria were randomised to ‘individualised’ (holistic) hypnotherapy, standard ‘gut-directed’ hypnotherapy or relaxation therapy for a period of 11 weeks with two follow-up assessments at 2 weeks and at 3 months after the completion of the trial. The primary outcome was bowel symptom severity scale (BSSS). Results: All the participants in this study improved their IBS symptoms (pain, bloating, constipation and diarrhoea) and physical functioning at the end of the treatment from baseline, but this was not significantly different across the treatment arms. Conclusion: Neither ‘individualised’ nor ‘gut-directed’ hypnotherapy is superior to relaxation therapy in IBS. PMID:28070348

  12. Dynamics of the oral microbiota as a tool to estimate time since death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adserias-Garriga, J; Quijada, N M; Hernandez, M; Rodríguez Lázaro, D; Steadman, D; Garcia-Gil, L J

    2017-06-27

    The oral cavity harbors one of the most diverse microbiomes in the human body. It has been shown to be the second most complex in the body after the gastrointestinal tract. Upon death, the indigenous microorganisms lead to the decomposition of the carcass. Therefore, the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract microbiomes play a key role in human decomposition. The aim of the present study is to monitor the microbiome of decaying bodies on a daily basis and to identify signature bacterial taxa, that can improve postmortem interval estimation. Three individuals (one male and two female) donated to the University of Tennessee Forensic Anthropology Center for the W.M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection were studied. Oral swab samples were taken daily throughout the different stages of cadaveric putrefaction. DNA was extracted and analyzed by next-generation sequencing techniques. The three cadavers showed similar overall successional changes during the decomposition process. Firmicutes and Actinobacteria are the predominant phyla in the fresh stage. The presence of Tenericutes corresponds to bloat stage. Firmicutes is the predominant phylum in advanced decay, but the Firmicutes community is a different one from the predominant Firmicutes of the fresh stage. This study depicts the thanatomicrobiome successional changes in the oral cavity, and highlights its potential use in forensic cases as a quantitative and objective approach to estimate postmortem interval, from an ecological rationale. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Initial insights into bacterial succession during human decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Embriette R; Haarmann, Daniel P; Petrosino, Joseph F; Lynne, Aaron M; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-05-01

    Decomposition is a dynamic ecological process dependent upon many factors such as environment, climate, and bacterial, insect, and vertebrate activity in addition to intrinsic properties inherent to individual cadavers. Although largely attributed to microbial metabolism, very little is known about the bacterial basis of human decomposition. To assess the change in bacterial community structure through time, bacterial samples were collected from several sites across two cadavers placed outdoors to decompose and analyzed through 454 pyrosequencing and analysis of variable regions 3-5 of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. Each cadaver was characterized by a change in bacterial community structure for all sites sampled as time, and decomposition, progressed. Bacteria community structure is variable at placement and before purge for all body sites. At bloat and purge and until tissues began to dehydrate or were removed, bacteria associated with flies, such as Ignatzschineria and Wohlfahrtimonas, were common. After dehydration and skeletonization, bacteria associated with soil, such as Acinetobacter, were common at most body sites sampled. However, more cadavers sampled through multiple seasons are necessary to assess major trends in bacterial succession.

  14. Daily thanatomicrobiome changes in soil as an approach of postmortem interval estimation: An ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adserias-Garriga, Joe; Hernández, Marta; Quijada, Narciso M; Rodríguez Lázaro, David; Steadman, Dawnie; Garcia-Gil, Jesús

    2017-09-01

    Understanding human decomposition is critical for its use in postmortem interval (PMI) estimation, having a significant impact on forensic investigations. In recognition of the need to establish the scientific basis for PMI estimation, several studies on decomposition have been carried out in the last years. The aims of the present study were: (i) to identify soil microbiota communities involved in human decomposition through high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA sequences from the different bacteria, (ii) to monitor quantitatively and qualitatively the decay of such signature species, and (iii) to describe succesional changes in bacterial populations from the early putrefaction state until skeletonization. Three donated individuals to the University of Tennessee FAC were studied. Soil samples around the body were taken from the placement of the donor until advanced decay/dry remains stage. Bacterial DNA extracts were obtained from the samples, HTS techniques were applied and bioinformatic data analysis was performed. The three cadavers showed similar overall successional changes. At the beginning of the decomposition process the soil microbiome consisted of diverse indigenous soil bacterial communities. As decomposition advanced, Firmicutes community abundance increased in the soil during the bloat stage. The growth curve of Firmicutes from human remains can be used to estimate time since death during Tennessee summer conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Barber Pole Sign in CT Angiography, Adult Presentation of Midgut Malrotation: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcelan-Trigo, Juan Arsenio; Tello-Moreno, Manuel; Rabaza-Espigares, Manuel Jesus; Talavera-Martinez, Ildefonso

    2015-01-01

    Adult midgut volvulus is a challenging diagnosis because of its low incidence and nonspecific symptoms. Diagnostic delay and long-term complaints are frequent in this clinical scenario. We reported a patient referred to our diagnostic imaging unit with intermittent abdominal pain, bloating and episodic vomiting for several years. He underwent barium gastrointestinal transit and abdominal ultrasound, which revealed severe gastric dilatation, food retention and slow transit until a depressed duodenojejunal flexure, with malrotation of the midgut and jejunal loops being located in the right upper quadrant. Computed tomography angiography was performed, showing rotation of the small intestine around the mesentery root, suggestive of midgut malrotation. In addition, an abnormal twisted disposition of superior mesenteric artery with corkscrew appearance was seen, shaping the pole-barber sign which was evident in volume rendering three-dimensional reconstructions. The patient underwent scheduled surgical treatment without any complication and had good outcome after hospital discharge and follow-up. Computed tomography plays an important role in evaluation of adult midgut volvulus. In addition, angiographic reconstructions can help us to assess the anatomic disposition of mesenteric vascular supply. Both of these assessments are useful in preoperative management

  16. Stoneware tile manufacturing using rice straw ash as feldspar replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvaro Guzman, A.; John Torres, L.; Martha Cedeno, V.; Silvio Delvasto, A.; Vicente Amigo, B.; Enrique Sanchez, V.

    2013-01-01

    In this research are presented the results of using rice straw ash (RSA) in low proportions as substitute of feldspar for manufacturing stoneware tiles. Specimens of semidry triaxial mixtures, where feldspar was substituted for different percentages (25 % and 50 %) of RSA, were prepared by uniaxial pressing, followed by drying and sintering. Physical and mechanical properties of sintered bodies were evaluated. Porcelain stoneware tile specimens C0 and CF25 reached bending strength and water absorption values were in accordance with standard ISO 13006 (Annex G, BIa) ( ≥ 35 MPa and ≤ 0.5 %, respectively). However, in porcelain stoneware tile specimens CF50 due to bloating phenomenon was not possible obtain commercial tiles in accordance with standard ISO 13006. By using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) needles of primary and secondary mullite were identified in a vitreous phase; and by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) mullite and quartz phases were identified. It was concluded that feldspar can be substituted positively by RSA in stoneware tile pastes. (Author)

  17. Stoneware tile manufacturing using rice straw ash as feldspar replacement; Fabricacion de gres porcelanico empleando ceniza de tamo de arroz en sustitucion del feldespato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvaro Guzman, A.; John Torres, L.; Martha Cedeno, V.; Silvio Delvasto, A.; Vicente Amigo, B.; Enrique Sanchez, V.

    2013-07-01

    In this research are presented the results of using rice straw ash (RSA) in low proportions as substitute of feldspar for manufacturing stoneware tiles. Specimens of semidry triaxial mixtures, where feldspar was substituted for different percentages (25 % and 50 %) of RSA, were prepared by uniaxial pressing, followed by drying and sintering. Physical and mechanical properties of sintered bodies were evaluated. Porcelain stoneware tile specimens C0 and CF25 reached bending strength and water absorption values were in accordance with standard ISO 13006 (Annex G, BIa) ( {>=} 35 MPa and {<=} 0.5 %, respectively). However, in porcelain stoneware tile specimens CF50 due to bloating phenomenon was not possible obtain commercial tiles in accordance with standard ISO 13006. By using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) needles of primary and secondary mullite were identified in a vitreous phase; and by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) mullite and quartz phases were identified. It was concluded that feldspar can be substituted positively by RSA in stoneware tile pastes. (Author)

  18. A long-term profile of patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, N.; Niazi, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the symptom profile, course and prognosis of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) over a 15 years period. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from 1996 to 2011. Methodology: Patients diagnosed with IBS at the study centre were followed for their clinical features, course over the period of time, management and its results. Only those patients were included in the study who completed the follow-up period. Results: A total of 292 patients with mean age of 40.44 +- 13.69 years were inducted. There were 156 (53.4%) males and 136 (46.6%) females. Nearly all male and female patients had abdominal pain and bloating. However, constipation was seen in 79.4% females and 71.6 males. Diarrhea was seen in 46.5% females and 42.7% males. Both constipation and diarrhea were seen in 27.3% female and 15.6% males. A high number of patients had concomitant illnesses and a large proportion of them had sleep disturbances, exacerbations with stress and had food sensitivities. Conclusion: This longitudinal follow-up study showed that, in our setting, there were more males suffering from this illness; females had more constipation-dominant features. Prognosis over the course of illness was excellent in all patients. (author)

  19. Comparing the Effects of Yoga & Oral Calcium Administration in Alleviating Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome in Medical Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Bharati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical undergraduates are heavily burdened by their curriculum. The females, in addition, suffer from vivid affective or somatic premenstrual syndrome (PMS symptoms such as bloating, mastalgia, insomnia, fatigue, mood swings, irritability, and depression. The present study was proposed to attenuate the symptoms of PMS by simple lifestyle measures like yoga and/or oral calcium. Methods: 65 medical female students (18-22 years with a regular menstrual cycle were asked to self-rate their symptoms, along with their severity, in a validated questionnaire for two consecutive menstrual cycles. Fifty-eight students were found to have PMS. Twenty girls were given yoga training (45 minutes daily, five days a week, for three months. Another group of 20 was given oral tablets of calcium carbonate daily (500 mg, for three months and rest 18 girl served as control group. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver.13 software. Results: The yoga and calcium groups showed a significant decrease in number and severity of premenstrual symptoms whereas in the control group there was not the significant difference. Conclusion: Encouraging a regular practice of yoga or taking a tablet of calcium daily in the medical schools can decrease the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.

  20. Crohn's disease in a Saudi outpatient population: Is it still rare?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMofarreh, Mohammad A; Al Mofleh, Ibrahim A; AlJebreen Abdulrahman M; AlTeimi, Ibrahim N

    2009-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of Crohn's disease (CD) in an outpatient clinic and compare it with data previously reported from different centers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and outside. The medical records of all patients with CD seen in the clinic in the period from January 1993 through December 2007 were reviewed. The demographic, clinical data and methods of diagnosis were retrieved. Over a period of 15 years, we saw 133 Saudi patients with CD. They were predominantly young, with a median age of 26.2 years and male preponderance (2.3:1). The final diagnosis was established within 1 week of presentation in 47% of the patients. The leading symptoms were abdominal pain (88%), diarrhea (70%), bloating (61%), rectal bleeding (50%), weight loss (33%), constipation (24%) and perianal disease (23%). The diagnosis was established by endoscopy and histopathology. Ileocecal involvement was encountered in 40% of the patients. From the current study, it is obviously possible to diagnose a large proportion of patients with CD in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic. The data revealed a strikingly increased incidence of CD in a mainly young Saudi population in the past few years. (author)

  1. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Case-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen H. Reynolds

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is a condition of increased microbial load in the small intestine. The microbes feed on dietary carbohydrates and starches via fermentation, leading to gas production, inflammation and damage to the lining of the small intestine. Clinical presentation is varied, including abdominal pain, bloating, malabsorption and systemic symptoms. SIBO is associated with many challenging and chronic conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and chronic pain syndromes, and has been shown to be a causative factor in two out of three cases of irritable bowel syndrome. Symptoms improve with antimicrobial treatment, but recurrence is common. Many providers may not be aware of SIBO. This narrative review highlights a clinical case and the most recent literature regarding SIBO, including history, clinical presentation, prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnostic workup, treatment and prevention. Integrative medicine approaches, including diet, supplements and manual therapies, are also reviewed. SIBO can be a challenging condition and requires an integrative, patient-centered approach. Further studies are needed to guide clinicians in the workup and treatment of SIBO.

  2. Small intestine bacterial overgrowth and irritable bowel syndrome-related symptoms: experience with Rifaximin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Sergio; Cottone, Claudia; Doveri, Tiziana; Almasio, Piero Luigi; Craxi, Antonio

    2009-06-07

    To estimate the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in our geographical area (Western Sicily, Italy) by means of an observational study, and to gather information on the use of locally active, non-absorbable antibiotics for treatment of SIBO. Our survey included 115 patients fulfilling the Rome II criteria for diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); a total of 97 patients accepted to perform a breath test with lactulose (BTLact), and those who had a positive test, received Rifaximin (Normix, Alfa Wassermann) 1200 mg/d for 7 d; 3 wk after the end of treatment, the BTLact was repeated. Based on the BTLact results, SIBO was present in about 56% of IBS patients, and it was responsible for some IBS-related symptoms, such as abdominal bloating and discomfort, and diarrhoea. 1-wk treatment with Rifaximin turned the BTLact to negative in about 50% of patients and significantly reduced the symptoms, especially in those patients with an alternated constipation/diarrhoea-variant IBS. SIBO should be always suspected in patients with IBS, and a differential diagnosis is done by means of a "breath test". Rifaximin may represent a valid approach to the treatment of SIBO.

  3. Tolerability of a probiotic in subjects with a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrack, S; Panjikar, P; Duster, M; Safdar, N

    2014-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen of major public health importance. Colonisation precedes infection; thus reducing MRSA carriage may be of benefit for reducing infection. Probiotics represent a novel approach to reducing MRSA carriage. We undertook a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial of the tolerability and acceptability of probiotics for reducing nasal and intestinal carriage of MRSA. In addition, subjects were screened for vancomycin-resistant enterocococci (VRE). Subjects with a history of MRSA were recruited from a large, academic medical center and randomised to take either a placebo or probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001). Subjects returned to the clinic after four weeks for further testing to determine adherence to the probiotic regimen and colonisation of MRSA. 48 subjects were enrolled and randomised. Nearly 25% were transplant recipients and 30% had diabetes. The probiotic was well tolerated in the study population though minor side effects, such as nausea and bloating, were observed. A majority of the subjects randomised to HN001 had good adherence to the regimen. At the four week time point among subjects randomised to the probiotic, MRSA was detected in 67 and 50% of subjects colonised in the nares and the gastrointestinal tract, respectively. Three subjects who initially tested positive for VRE were negative after four weeks of probiotic exposure. Probiotics were well tolerated in our study population of largely immunocompromised subjects with multiple comorbidities. Adherence to the intervention was good. Probiotics should be studied further for their potential to reduce colonisation by multidrug resistant bacteria.

  4. A Preliminary Analysis of Insects of Medico-legal Importance in Curitiba, State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Osvaldo Moura

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the carrion fauna was made at two sites in Curitiba, State of Paraná, with the objective of describing the insects associated with carrion and setting up a preliminary data-base for medico-legal purposes in south Brazil. Vertebrate exclusion experiments were carried out in each season between 1994 and 1995 with a 250 g laboratory-bred rat (Rattus norvegicus. Five stages of decomposition were identified: fresh, bloated, decaying, dry and adipocere-like. Some species showed seasonal and site preference and so could be used to identify the probable place and season where death took place. Sarconesia chlorogaster (Diptera, Calliphoridae was restricted to an open field site and to cooler months. Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Diptera, Calliphoridae and Pattonella resona (Diptera, Sarcophagidae were restricted to the forest site and warmer months. Phaenicia eximia (Diptera, Calliphoridae and Oxyletrum discicolle (Coleoptera, Silphidae were present at both sites throughout the year and could be useful for population level analysis. Dissochaetus murray (Coleoptera, Cholevidae was present throughout the year at the forest site and was associated with the adipocere-like stage. Ants played an important role producing post-mortem injuries to the carcasses. Insects of 32 species are reported as being useful in community level approaches

  5. Ethnoveterinary treatments for common cattle diseases in four districts of the Southern Province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syakalima, Michelo; Simuunza, Martin; Zulu, Victor Chisha

    2018-02-01

    Ethno veterinary knowledge has rarely been recorded, and no or limited effort has been made to exploit this knowledge despite its widespread use in Zambia. This study documented the types of plants used to treat important animal diseases in rural Zambia as a way of initiating their sustained documentation and scientific validation. The study was done in selected districts of the Southern Zambia, Africa. The research was a participatory epidemiological study conducted in two phases. The first phase was a pre-study exploratory rapid rural appraisal conducted to familiarize the researchers with the study areas, and the second phase was a participatory rural appraisal to help gather the data. The frequency index was used to rank the commonly mentioned treatments. A number of diseases and traditional treatments were listed with the help of local veterinarians. Diseases included: Corridor disease (Theileriosis), foot and mouth disease, blackleg, bloody diarrhea, lumpy skin disease, fainting, mange, blindness, coughing, bloat, worms, cobra snakebite, hemorrhagic septicemia, and transmissible venereal tumors. The plant preparations were in most diseases given to the livestock orally (as a drench). Leaves, barks, and roots were generally used depending on the plant type. Ethno veterinary medicine is still widespread among the rural farmers in the province and in Zambia in general. Some medicines are commonly used across diseases probably because they have a wide spectrum of action. These medicines should, therefore, be validated for use in conventional livestock healthcare systems in the country to reduce the cost of treatments.

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome: new insights into symptom mechanisms and advances in treatment [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Spiller

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite being one of the most common conditions leading to gastroenterological referral, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is poorly understood. However, recent years have seen major advances. These include new understanding of the role of both inflammation and altered microbiota as well as the impact of dietary intolerances as illuminated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which has thrown new light on IBS. This article will review new data on how excessive bile acid secretion mediates diarrhea and evidence from post infectious IBS which has shown how gut inflammation can alter gut microbiota and function. Studies of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD have also shown that even when inflammation is in remission, the altered enteric nerves and abnormal microbiota can generate IBS-like symptoms. The efficacy of the low FODMAP diet as a treatment for bloating, flatulence, and abdominal discomfort has been demonstrated by randomized controlled trials. MRI studies, which can quantify intestinal volumes, have provided new insights into how FODMAPs cause symptoms. This article will focus on these areas together with recent trials of new agents, which this author believes will alter clinical practice within the foreseeable future.

  7. Ovarian Cancer Stroma: Pathophysiology and the Roles in Cancer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Mitsuko [Department of Pathology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan)

    2012-07-18

    Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers.

  8. A meta-analysis of long follow-up outcomes of laparoscopic Nissen (total) versus Toupet (270°) fundoplication for gastro-esophageal reflux disease based on randomized controlled trials in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xing; Hu, Zhiwei; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Zhonggao; Wu, Jimin

    2016-08-02

    Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) is the most common surgical procedure for the surgical management of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF) has been reported to have a lower prevalence of postoperative complications yet still obtain a similar level of reflux control. We conducted a meta-analysis to confirm the value of LNF and LTF. PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Springerlink were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing LNF and LTF. Data regarding the benefits and adverse results of two techniques were extracted and compared using a meta-analysis. Eight eligible RCTs comparing LNF (n = 625) and LTF (n = 567) were identified. There were no significant differences between LNF and LTF with regard to hospitalization duration, perioperative complications, patient satisfaction, postoperative heartburn, regurgitation, postoperative DeMeester scores, or esophagites. A shorter operative time and higher postoperative lower esophageal sphincter pressure were associated with LNF. Prevalence of postoperative dysphagia, gas-bloating, inability to belch, dilatation for dysphagia and reoperation were higher after LNF, but subgroup analyses showed that differences with respect to dysphagia between LNF and LTF disappeared over time. Subgroup analyses did not support "tailored therapy" according to preoperative esophageal motility. LNF and LTF have equivalently good control of GERD and result in a similar prevalence of patient satisfaction. Based on current evidence, it is not rational or advisable to abandon LNF when choosing a surgical procedure for GERD.

  9. Pseudoaneurysm of the splenic artery mimicking a solid lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old man presented to the hospital because of hematemesis; on admission, he had weakness and pale skin, tachycardia and hypotension. Laboratory tests revealed severe anemia (hemoglobin 7.8 g/dL; liver, renal and pancreatic function tests were normal. An upper digestive endoscopy revealed a gastric ulcer of the cardia, treated with metallic clips and adrenalin injection. The patient was treated with fluids and was transfused with three units of red blood cells. In the previous two months, due to the presence of bloating and diarrhea, associated with abdominal distension, a colon-computed tomography (CT revealed a large retroperitoneal hypodense mass, 53x37 mm in size, without contrast enhancement localized between the body and the tail of the pancreas and the stomach, near the splenic artery and without signs of infiltration. To better define the mass, endoscopic ultrasound and biopsy were performed; however histopathology of multiple biopsies was not diagnostic, because of the presence of necrotic tissue and inflammatory cells. Since hematemesis recurred, the patient underwent a second upper digestive endoscopic examination, but no source of bleeding was found. Then a new contrast enhanced CT was performed that showed a size reduction of the mass, the presence of blood in the stomach and a small pseudoaneurysm of the splenic artery. Because of these findings an angiograpghic study was carried out; angiography confirmed a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm that was successfully embolized with metal microcoils.

  10. The wisdom of the deep south of Thailand: Case study on utilization of herbal medicine to treat domestic animal diseases by traditional doctors in Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poh-etae A.

    2007-03-01

    used; to treat conjunctivitis, chilli (2.3% was used; and to treat broken bones, Alocasia macrorrhizos (2.3% was used.The pharmacopeia herbal medicine used to treat domestic animal diseases by traditional doctors were reported as follows: Blumea balasamifera leaves mixed with bullet wood flower (1.5% was used to treat bloat; mangosteen skin mixed with calcium hydroxide - Ca(OH2 (2.5% was used to treat deep wounds from foot and mouth disease.The most popular herbal medicine used by most traditional doctors in the pharmacopeia to treat diarrhea Tinospora crispa (50.0% was the most popular, followed by curcuma rhizomes (30.0% and Andrographis paniculata (20.0%; to treat bloat, Blumea balasamifera leaves or salt or cattle bone (22.2% was used; to treat worms in intestines, salt (25.0% was used; as an expectorant, Tinospora crispa or curcuma rhizomes (66.7% was used; to treat abscess, lime (100.0% was used to treat deep wounds from foot and mouth disease, curcuma rhizomes (66.7% came first, followed by Zingiber cassumunar or salt (33.3% and to chase away insects, curcuma rhizomes (50.0% came first, followed by vegetable oils or betel nuts or tobacco (33.3%.

  11. Precision modelling of M dwarf stars: the magnetic components of CM Draconis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, J.; Mullan, D. J.

    2012-04-01

    The eclipsing binary CM Draconis (CM Dra) contains two nearly identical red dwarfs of spectral class dM4.5. The masses and radii of the two components have been reported with unprecedentedly small statistical errors: for M, these errors are 1 part in 260, while for R, the errors reported by Morales et al. are 1 part in 130. When compared with standard stellar models with appropriate mass and age (≈4 Gyr), the empirical results indicate that both components are discrepant from the models in the following sense: the observed stars are larger in R ('bloated'), by several standard deviations, than the models predict. The observed luminosities are also lower than the models predict. Here, we attempt at first to model the two components of CM Dra in the context of standard (non-magnetic) stellar models using a systematic array of different assumptions about helium abundances (Y), heavy element abundances (Z), opacities and mixing length parameter (α). We find no 4-Gyr-old models with plausible values of these four parameters that fit the observed L and R within the reported statistical error bars. However, CM Dra is known to contain magnetic fields, as evidenced by the occurrence of star-spots and flares. Here we ask: can inclusion of magnetic effects into stellar evolution models lead to fits of L and R within the error bars? Morales et al. have reported that the presence of polar spots results in a systematic overestimate of R by a few per cent when eclipses are interpreted with a standard code. In a star where spots cover a fraction f of the surface area, we find that the revised R and L for CM Dra A can be fitted within the error bars by varying the parameter α. The latter is often assumed to be reduced by the presence of magnetic fields, although the reduction in α as a function of B is difficult to quantify. An alternative magnetic effect, namely inhibition of the onset of convection, can be readily quantified in terms of a magnetic parameter δ≈B2/4

  12. Perbedaan Tolerabilitas Meloxicam dengan Natrium Diklofenak terhadap Saluran Cerna pada Pasien Rawat Jalan di PoliklinikPenyakit Saraf Rumah Sakit Angkatan Laut Dr. Mintohardjo Jakarta 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lailan Azizah

    2013-06-01

    gastrointestinal side-effects. Inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX enzyme is the basis for both the efficacy and toxicity of NSAIDs. The aim of thisstudy was to avaluate the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were used in neuro polyclinic hospital of Dr. Mintohardjo Jakarta, and to evaluate gastrointestinal tolerability of meloxicam 15 mg compared with diclofenac sodium 100 mg. The methode of this study was cross-sectional observation and cohort prospective on December 2010-March 2011. The data of dyspepsia associated were used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs consist of pain in upper abdomen, nausea, vomiting, upper abdominal bloating and early satiety collected with the porto alegre dyspeptic symptoms questionnaire (PADYQ were assessed at baseline and after 2 and 4weeks of treatment. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used in neuro polyclinic hospital of Dr. Mintohardjo Jakarta were meloxicam (48.21%, diclofenac sodium (31.07%, mefenamic acid (15.36%, piroxicam (3.93% dan acetaminophen (1.43%. Insiden of adverse event after 2 weeks treatment was significantly lower in the meloxicam group compared with diclofenac sodium group in pain in upper abdomen and upper abdominal bloating (p = 0.020 and p = 0.037. These result suggest that meloxicam was much better tolerated than diclofenac sodium after 2 weeks treatment.

  13. Characterization and control of Mucor circinelloides spoilage in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abigail B; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2016-07-02

    Consumer confidence in the food industry is severely affected by large-scale spoilage incidents. However, relatively little research exists on spoilage potential of members of the fungal subphylum Mucormycotina (e.g. Mucor), which includes dimorphic spoilage organisms that can switch between a yeast-like and hyphal phase depending on environmental conditions. The presence of Mucor circinelloides in yogurt may not cause spoilage, but growth and subsequent changes in quality (e.g. container bloating) can cause spoilage if not controlled. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on M. circinelloides of pasteurization regimen, natamycin concentrations, and storage temperature in yogurt production, as measured by fungal proliferation and carbon dioxide production. A strain of M. circinelloides isolated from commercially spoiled yogurt showed greater yogurt-spoilage potential than clinical isolates and other industrial strains. D-values and z-values were determined for the spoilage isolate in milk as an evaluation of the fungus' ability to survive pasteurization. Natamycin was added to yogurt at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20ppm (μg/ml) to determine its ability to inhibit M. circinelloides over the course of month-long challenge studies at 4°C, 15°C, and 25°C. Survivors were recovered on acidified PDA and carbon dioxide levels were recorded. The D-values at 54°C, 56°C, and 58°C for hyphae/sporangiospores were (in min) 38.31±0.02, 10.17±0.28, and 1.94±0.53, respectively, which yielded a z-value of 3.09°C. The D-values at 51°C, 53°C, and 55°C for yeast-like cells were (in min) 14.25±0.12, 6.87±1.19, and 2.44±0.35, respectively, which yielded a z-value of 0.34°C. These results indicated that M. circinelloides would not survive fluid milk pasteurization if contamination occurred prior to thermal treatment. CO2 production was only observed when M. circinelloides was incubated under low-oxygen conditions, and occurred only at temperatures above 4

  14. Evaluating the efficacy of mixture of Boswellia carterii, Zingiber officinale, and Achillea millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in irritable bowel syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemian, Afarin; Toghiani, Ali; Shafiei, Katayoun; Afshar, Hamid; Rafiei, Rahmatollah; Memari, Mahnaz; Adibi, Peyman

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) that affects in different aspects of life and patients experienced depression and anxiety more than others. There are several herbal medicines with positive effects in these patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of mixture of Boswellia carterii , Zingiber officinale , and Achillea Millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in IBS patients. This clinical trial study was done in sixty IBS patients (with mild-to-moderate symptoms) divided into two case and control groups. Patients were assessed at the beginning, 1 month, and 3 months after by IBS-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. IBS-SSS is used for quality of life evaluation too. Sixty IBS patients (with mild to moderate symptoms) with a mean age of 38.75 ± 11.74 participated that 55.4% of cases and 72.8% of controls were men. The most prevalent type of IBS was the mixed type of IBS. The mean score of abdominal pain severity and frequency, bloating score, and depression and anxiety score were decreased in patients administered herbal medication, but changes in these variables in controls were not statistically significant. The changes in quality of life score between cases and controls were significant in men ( P = 0.01) although it was not significant in women. A mixture of B. Carterii , Z. officinale , and A. millefolium is effective in eliminating IBS symptoms and its related depression and anxiety and using herbal medicine in IBS treatment is suggested.

  15. Polyethylene glycol 3350 in occasional constipation: A one-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Thomas

    2016-05-06

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 in subjects with self-reported occasional constipation. Eligible subjects ≥ 17 years of age were randomized to receive either placebo or PEG 3350 17 g once daily in this multicenter, double-blind trial. Evaluations were conducted before (baseline) and after a 7-d treatment period. The primary efficacy variable was the proportion of subjects reporting complete resolution of straining and hard or lumpy stools. Secondary efficacy variables assessed the severity of the subjects' daily bowel movement (BM) symptoms, and preference of laxatives based on diary entries, visual analog scale scores, and questionnaires. Of the 203 subjects enrolled in the study, 11 had major protocol violations. Complete resolution was noted by 36/98 (36.7%) subjects in the PEG 3350 group and 23/94 (24.5%) in the placebo group (P = 0.0595). The number of complete BMs without straining or lumpy stools was similar between both groups. Subjects receiving PEG 3350 experienced significant relief in straining and reduction in hardness of stools over a 7-d period (P PEG 3350 had a better effect on their daily lives, provided better control over a BM, better relief from constipation, cramping, and bloating, and was their preferred laxative. Adverse events (AEs) were balanced between the PEG 3350 and the placebo groups. No deaths, serious AEs, or discontinuations due to AEs were reported. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00770432. Oral administration of 17 g PEG 3350 once daily for a week is effective, safe, and well tolerated in subjects with occasional constipation.

  16. Fructose and/or Sorbitol Intolerance in a Subgroup of Lactose Intolerant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Mishkin

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of lactose intolerance often does not resolve all the symptoms of postcibal bloating and flatulence. Included in this study were 104 lactose intolerant patients (71 female, 33 male who complained of residual postcibal discomfort in spite of adherence to and benefit from appropriate measures for their documented lactose intolerance (at least 20 ppm H2 after 25 g lactose as well as appropriate symptomatic discomfort. Clinical characteristics common to this group included: symptomatic diarrhea (12.5%, history of foreign travel (5.8%, endoscopic and pathological evidence of gastritis and helicobacter infection (19.2 and 8.7%, respectively, nonspecific abnormalities of small bowel follow-through (15.4%, Crohn’s disease (8.7% and colonic cliverticulosis (14.4%. Intolerance co fructose (at least 10 ppm H2 after 25 g fructose plus appropriate symptoms or sorbitol (at least 10 ppm H2 after 5 g sorbitol plus appropriate symptoms was documented in 17.3 and 18.3%, respectively. Intolerance to both fructose and sorbicol (administered as separate challenges, more than twice as common as intolerance to either one alone, occurred in 41.4% and was independent of sex. In conclusion, additional carbohydrate intolerances contribute to postcibal discomfort in more than 75% of lactose intolerant patients who remain symptomatic in spite of adherence to appropriate measures for this condition. While 62% of all patients had benefited significantly (greater than 50% from appropriate dietary measures and enzyme replacement for lactose intolerance, only 40% of those who were also fructose intolerant and 47% who were sorbitol intolerant benefited (greater than 50% from appropriate dietary measures (no enzyme replacement yet available for intolerance to these sugars.

  17. Improving lactose digestion and symptoms of lactose intolerance with a novel galacto-oligosaccharide (RP-G28): a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaiano, Dennis A; Ritter, Andrew J; Klaenhammer, Todd R; James, Gareth M; Longcore, Amy T; Chandler, Justin R; Walker, W Allan; Foyt, Howard L

    2013-12-13

    Lactose intolerance (LI) is a common medical problem with limited treatment options. The primary symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Limiting dairy foods to reduce symptoms contributes to low calcium intake and the risk for chronic disease. Adaptation of the colon bacteria to effectively metabolize lactose is a novel and potentially useful approach to improve lactose digestion and tolerance. RP-G28 is novel galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) being investigated to improve lactose digestion and the symptoms of lactose intolerance in affected patients. A randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study was conducted at 2 sites in the United States. RP-G28 or placebo was administered to 85 patients with LI for 35 days. Post-treatment, subjects reintroduced dairy into their daily diets and were followed for 30 additional days to evaluate lactose digestion as measured by hydrogen production and symptom improvements via a patient-reported symptom assessment instrument. Lactose digestion and symptoms of LI trended toward improvement on RP-G28 at the end of treatment and 30 days post-treatment. A reduction in abdominal pain was also demonstrated in the study results. Fifty percent of RP-G28 subjects with abdominal pain at baseline reported no abdominal pain at the end of treatment and 30 days post treatment (p = 0.0190). RP-G28 subjects were also six times more likely to claim lactose tolerance post-treatment once dairy foods had been re-introduced into their diets (p = 0.0389). Efficacy trends and favorable safety/tolerability findings suggest that RP-G28 appears to be a potentially useful approach for improving lactose digestion and LI symptoms. The concurrent reduction in abdominal pain and improved overall tolerance could be a meaningful benefit to lactose intolerant individuals.

  18. [Breath tests in children with suspected lactose intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, P Ángela; Furió, C Simone; Arancibia, A Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Up to 70% of the world population is lactose intolerance. However, there are no epidemiological studies among Chilean pediatric population affected by this condition. Clinical characterization of a series of children who underwent the lactose intolerance breath test for lactose intolerance study, establishing intolerance and malabsorption frequencies, the most frequent symptoms, and test performance depending on the origin. Patients under 18 years old who took the lactose intolerance breath test in the Gastroenterology Laboratory of the Catholic University of Chile, and who were admitted due to clinically suspected lactose intolerance. Malabsorption was considered when there was as an increase of ≥20ppm above the baseline (H2) or ≥34ppm of H2 and methane (CH4) combined. Intolerance was considered when the above was associated with a symptom intensity score ≥7 during registration. The analysis included194 patients aged 1 to17 years of age. Of these, 102 (53%) presented with malabsorption, and 53 (27%) were intolerant. The frequency of lactose intolerance varied from 7.1 to 45.4%, and it occurred more frequently at older ages. The most common reported symptoms were abdominal pain, bloating and rumbling. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance can be investigated from the first years of life using the lactose breath test plus a symptom questionnaire. An increase in the frequency of intolerance with age, and a greater number of positive tests, if they were requested by a gastroenterologist, were observed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Low-mass Pre-He White Dwarf Stars in Kepler Eclipsing Binaries with Multi-periodic Pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. B.; Fu, J. N.; Liu, N.; Luo, C. Q.; Ren, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    We report the discovery of two thermally bloated low-mass pre-He white dwarfs (WDs) in two eclipsing binaries, KIC 10989032 and KIC 8087799. Based on the Kepler long-cadence photometry, we determined comprehensive photometric solutions of the two binary systems. The light curve analysis reveals that KIC 10989032 is a partially eclipsed detached binary system containing a probable low-mass WD with the temperature of about 10,300 K. Having a WD with the temperature of about 13,300, KKIC 8087799 is typical of an EL CVn system. By utilizing radial velocity measurements available for the A-type primary star of KIC 10989032, the mass and radius of the WD component are determined to be 0.24+/- 0.02 {M}⊙ and 0.50+/- 0.01 {R}⊙ , respectively. The values of mass and radius of the WD in KIC 8087799 are estimated as 0.16 ± 0.02 M ⊙ and 0.21 ± 0.01 R ⊙, respectively, according to the effective temperature and mean density of the A-type star derived from the photometric solution. We therefore introduce KIC 10989032 and KIC 8087799 as the eleventh and twelfth dA+WD eclipsing binaries in the Kepler field. Moreover, both binaries display marked multi-periodic pulsations superimposed on binary effects. A preliminary frequency analysis is applied to the light residuals when subtracting the synthetic eclipsing light curves from the observations, revealing that the light pulsations of the two systems are both due to the δ Sct-type primaries. We hence classify KIC 10989032 and KIC 8087799 as two WD+δ Sct binaries.

  20. Role of alimentation in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapoigny, M; Stockbrügger, R W; Azpiroz, F; Collins, S; Coremans, G; Müller-Lissner, S; Oberndorff, A; Pace, F; Smout, A; Vatn, M; Whorwell, P

    2003-01-01

    Different food items are made responsible for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, but the physiopathology of IBS remains unclear. During a meeting in Nice, France, experts of the European Working Team of the IBiS Club discussed selected data regarding the relationships between alimentation, food items (including fibers) and IBS symptoms. Food allergy remains a difficult diagnosis, but medical and general history, presence of general symptoms such as skin rash, and hypersensitivity tests may help in achieving a positive diagnosis. On the other hand, food intolerance is more confusing because of the subjectivity of the relationship between ingestion of certain foods and the appearance of clinical symptoms. Different food items which are commonly implicated in adverse reactions mimicking IBS were found to be stimulants for the gut, suggesting that patients with predominant diarrhea IBS have to be carefully questioned about consumption of different kinds of food (i.e., coffee, alcohol, chewing gum, soft drinks) and not only on lactose ingestion. Gas production is discussed on the basis of retention of intestinal gas as well as on malabsorption of fermentable substrates. The role of a large amount of this kind of substrate reaching the colon is suggested as a potential mechanism of IBS-type symptoms in overeating patients. Regarding the role of fiber in IBS, the expert group concluded that fibers are not inert substances and that they could trigger pain or bloating in some IBS patients. Despite numerous reviews on this subject, it is very difficult to give general dietary advice to IBS patients, but dieteticians may have a positive role in managing such patients. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. [Combined treatment of endometriosis: radical yet gentle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkatout, Ibrahim; Wedel, Thilo; Maass, Nicolai

    2018-02-01

    Endometriosis is the second most common benign female genital disease after uterine myoma. This review discusses the management of individual patients. This should take into account the severity of the disease and whether the patient desires to have children. Particular emphasis is laid on the anatomical intersections which, when injured, can lead to persistent damage of the anterior, middle or posterior compartment and are not infrequently the cause of urological and urogynaecological follow-up measures. Typical symptoms of endometriosis include chronic pelvic pain, subfertility, dysmenorrhoea, deep dyspareunia, cyclical bowel or bladder symptoms (e. g. dyschezia, bloating, constipation, rectal bleeding, diarrhoea and haematuria), abnormal menstrual bleeding, chronic fatigue and low back pain. Approx. 50 % of all female teenagers and up to 32 % of all women of reproductive age who have been operated for chronic pelvic pain or dysmenorrhoea suffer from endometriosis. The time interval between the first unspecific symptoms and the medical diagnosis of endometriosis is about 7 years. This is caused not only by the non-specific nature of the symptoms but also by the frequent lack of awareness on the part of the cooperating disciplines with which the patients have first contact. As the pathogenesis of endometriosis is not clearly understood, causal treatment is still impossible. Treatment options include expectant management, analgesia, hormonal medical therapy, surgical intervention and the combination of medical treatment before and/or after surgery. The treatment should be as radical as necessary and as minimal as possible. The recurrence rate among treated patients lies between 5 % and > 60 % and is very much dependent on integrated management and surgical skills. Consequently, to optimise the individual patient's treatment, a high degree of interdisciplinary cooperation in diagnosis and treatment is crucial and should be reserved to appropriate

  2. Glucomannan for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in children: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Andrea; Dziechciarz, Piotr; Szajewska, Hania

    2013-05-28

    To assess the efficacy of glucomannan (GNN) as the sole treatment for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Patients were recruited among children referred to the Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Warsaw. Included in the study were children aged 7-17 years with abdominal pain-related FGIDs classified according to the Rome III diagnostic criteria. The children were randomly assigned to receive GNN, a polysaccharide of 1,4-D-glucose and D-mannose, a soluble fiber from the Japanese Konjac plant, at a dosage of 2.52 g/d (1 sachet of 1.26 g 2 times a day), or a comparable placebo (maltodextrin) at the same dosage. The content of each sachet was dissolved in approximately 125 mL of fluid and was consumed twice daily for 4 wk. Of the 89 eligible children, 84 (94%) completed the study. "No pain" and "treatment success" (defined as no pain or a decrease ≥ 2/6 points on the FACES Pain Scale Revised) were similar in the GNN (n = 41) and placebo (n = 43) groups [no pain (12/41 vs 6/43, respectively; RR = 2.1, 95%CI: 0.87-5.07) as well as treatment success (23/41 vs 20/43; RR = 1.2, 95%CI: 0.79-1.83)]. No significant differences between the groups were observed in the secondary outcomes, such as abdominal cramps, abdominal bloating/gassiness, episodes of nausea or vomiting, or a changed in stool consistency. GNN demonstrated no significant influence on the number of children requiring rescue therapy, school absenteeism, or daily activities. In our setting, GNN, as dosed in this study, was no more effective than the placebo in achieving therapeutic success in the management of FGIDs in children.

  3. Effects of a dietary intervention on acute gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of health-related quality of life: A randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Anna; Johansson, Birgitta; Persson, Christina; Berglund, Anders; Turesson, Ingela

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effect of a dietary intervention on acute gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in prostate cancer patients referred to radiotherapy. Materials and methods: A total of 130 patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an intervention group (IG, n = 64), instructed to reduce their intake of insoluble dietary fibres and lactose, a standard care group (SC, n = 66), instructed to continue their normal diet. Gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of HRQOL were evaluated from baseline up to 2 months after completed radiotherapy, using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25 and the study-specific Gastrointestinal Side Effects Questionnaire (GISEQ). A scale indicating adherence to dietary instructions was developed from a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), with lower scores representing better compliance. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted. Results: There was an interaction effect between randomization and time in the FFQ Scores (p < 0.001), indicating that both groups followed their assigned dietary instructions. The dietary intervention had no effect on gastrointestinal side effects or other aspects of HRQOL. During radiotherapy, the percentage of patients with bowel symptoms and bloated abdomen was lower in IG compared to SC, but the between-group differences were not statistically significant. During radiotherapy, the percentage of patients with bowel symptoms, urinary symptoms, pain, fatigue and diminished physical and role functioning increased in both groups. Conclusions: The dietary intervention had no effect on gastrointestinal side effects or other aspects of HRQOL. The tendency towards lower prevalence of bowel symptoms in IG may indicate some positive effect of the dietary intervention, but methodological refinements, clearer results and longer follow-up are needed before the value of diet change can be established with certainty.

  4. Relating gastric scintigraphy and symptoms to motility capsule transit and pressure findings in suspected gastroparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, W L; May, K P; Wilson, L A; Van Natta, M; Parkman, H P; Pasricha, P J; Koch, K L; Abell, T L; McCallum, R W; Nguyen, L A; Snape, W J; Sarosiek, I; Clarke, J O; Farrugia, G; Calles-Escandon, J; Grover, M; Tonascia, J; Lee, L A; Miriel, L; Hamilton, F A

    2018-02-01

    Wireless motility capsule (WMC) findings are incompletely defined in suspected gastroparesis. We aimed to characterize regional WMC transit and contractility in relation to scintigraphy, etiology, and symptoms in patients undergoing gastric emptying testing. A total of 209 patients with gastroparesis symptoms at NIDDK Gastroparesis Consortium centers underwent gastric scintigraphy and WMCs on separate days to measure regional transit and contractility. Validated questionnaires quantified symptoms. Solid scintigraphy and liquid scintigraphy were delayed in 68.8% and 34.8% of patients; WMC gastric emptying times (GET) were delayed in 40.3% and showed 52.8% agreement with scintigraphy; 15.5% and 33.5% had delayed small bowel (SBTT) and colon transit (CTT) times. Transit was delayed in ≥2 regions in 23.3%. Rapid transit was rarely observed. Diabetics had slower GET but more rapid SBTT versus idiopathics (P ≤ .02). GET delays related to greater scintigraphic retention, slower SBTT, and fewer gastric contractions (P ≤ .04). Overall gastroparesis symptoms and nausea/vomiting, early satiety/fullness, bloating/distention, and upper abdominal pain subscores showed no relation to WMC transit. Upper and lower abdominal pain scores (P ≤ .03) were greater with increased colon contractions. Constipation correlated with slower CTT and higher colon contractions (P = .03). Diarrhea scores were higher with delayed SBTT and CTT (P ≤ .04). Wireless motility capsules define gastric emptying delays similar but not identical to scintigraphy that are more severe in diabetics and relate to reduced gastric contractility. Extragastric transit delays occur in >40% with suspected gastroparesis. Gastroparesis symptoms show little association with WMC profiles, although lower symptoms relate to small bowel or colon abnormalities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Hormonal treatment for endometriosis associated pelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shun Felix Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Endometriosis is a common gynecological problem associated with chronic pelvic pain. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of current hormonal treatments of endometriosis associated pain.Materials and Methods: Randomized Controlled studies identified from databases of Medline and Cochrane Systemic Review groups were pooled. 7 RCTs were recruited for evaluation in this review. Data from these studies were pooled and meta-analysis was performed in three comparison groups: 1 Progestogen versus GnRHa; 2 Implanon versus Progestogen (injection; 3 Combined oral contraceptive pills versus placebo and progestogen. Response to treatment was measured as a reduction in pain score. Pain improvement was defined as improvement ≥1 at the end of treatment. Results: There was no significant difference between treatment groups of progestogen and GnRHa (RR: 0.036; CI:-0.030-0.102 for relieving endometriosis associated pelvic pain. Long acting progestogen (Implanon and Mirena are not inferior to GnRHa and depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA (RR: 0.006; CI:-0.142-0.162. Combined oral contraceptive pills demonstrated effective treatment of relieving endometriosis associated pelvic pain when compared with placebo groups (RR:0.321CI-0.066-0.707. Progestogen was more effective than combined oral contraceptive pills in controlling dysmenorrhea (RR:-0.160; CI:-0.386-0.066, however, progestogen is associated with more side effects like spotting and bloating than the combined contraceptive pills. Conclusion: Combined oral contraceptive pills (COCP, GnRHa and progestogens are equally effective in relieving endometriosis associated pelvic pain. COCP and progestogens are relatively cheap and more suitable for long-term use as compared to GnRHa. Long-term RCT of medicated contraceptive devices like Mirena and Implanon are required to evaluate their long-term effects on relieving the endometriosis associated pelvic pain

  6. Associations between Medication Use and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Rok Seon; Locke, G. Richard.; Schleck, Cathy D.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional GI syndromes are known to be very prevalent but this may be associated with unrecognized medications use. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of PPI, antidepressant, and narcotic use in the general population, and evaluate the association between each medication and functional GI syndromes adjusting for potential confounders. Methods In 2008 and 2009, newly revised versions of a validated bowel disease questionnaire were mailed to a community based cohort (total mailed=8006) of Olmsted County, MN residents; 3831 returned the questionnaire (response rate=48.0%). Medication usage, specifically PPIs, narcotics, and antidepressants in the last year, was elicited via three separate questions on the questionnaire. The association between each medication and GI symptom complexes was assessed using multiple variable logistic regression models. Results A total of 3515 of the respondents (92%) had complete data (mean age: 61±15; 54% female). The overall proportion reporting PPI use was 20% (95% CI: 19, 22), narcotic use 12% (95% CI: 11, 13), and antidepressant use 15% (95% CI: 14, 16). PPI use was significantly associated with IBS status (OR=1.4, 95% CI 1.1, 1.7) as well as with GERD (OR=3.5, 95% CI 2.7, 4.4) and dyspepsia (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.5, 2.7). The association of PPI use with IBS was not explained by coexistent GERD or dyspepsia. Antidepressant use was significantly associated only with bloating (OR=1.6, 1.1, 2.2). Conclusions Some medications that may alter intestinal transit or bowel flora are commonly utilized by the general population, and PPI use appears to be linked to IBS. PMID:23360217

  7. Refining Ovarian Cancer Test accuracy Scores (ROCkeTS): protocol for a prospective longitudinal test accuracy study to validate new risk scores in women with symptoms of suspected ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Sudha; Rick, Caroline; Dowling, Francis; Au, Pui; Rai, Nirmala; Champaneria, Rita; Stobart, Hilary; Neal, Richard; Davenport, Clare; Mallett, Susan; Sutton, Andrew; Kehoe, Sean; Timmerman, Dirk; Bourne, Tom; Van Calster, Ben; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Deeks, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ovarian cancer (OC) is associated with non-specific symptoms such as bloating, making accurate diagnosis challenging: only 1 in 3 women with OC presents through primary care referral. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommends sequential testing with CA125 and routine ultrasound in primary care. However, these diagnostic tests have limited sensitivity or specificity. Improving accurate triage in women with vague symptoms is likely to improve mortality by streamlining referral and care pathways. The Refining Ovarian Cancer Test Accuracy Scores (ROCkeTS; HTA 13/13/01) project will derive and validate new tests/risk prediction models that estimate the probability of having OC in women with symptoms. This protocol refers to the prospective study only (phase III). Methods and analysis ROCkeTS comprises four parallel phases. The full ROCkeTS protocol can be found at http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/ROCKETS. Phase III is a prospective test accuracy study. The study will recruit 2450 patients from 15 UK sites. Recruited patients complete symptom and anxiety questionnaires, donate a serum sample and undergo ultrasound scored as per International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) criteria. Recruitment is at rapid access clinics, emergency departments and elective clinics. Models to be evaluated include those based on ultrasound derived by the IOTA group and novel models derived from analysis of existing data sets. Estimates of sensitivity, specificity, c-statistic (area under receiver operating curve), positive predictive value and negative predictive value of diagnostic tests are evaluated and a calibration plot for models will be presented. ROCkeTS has received ethical approval from the NHS West Midlands REC (14/WM/1241) and is registered on the controlled trials website (ISRCTN17160843) and the National Institute of Health Research Cancer and Reproductive Health portfolios. PMID:27507231

  8. Do interactions between stress and immune responses lead to symptom exacerbations in irritable bowel syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Dervla; Quigley, Eamonn M M; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2011-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, debilitating gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, with a worldwide prevalence of between 10% and 20%. This functional gut disorder is characterized by episodic exacerbations of a cluster of symptoms including abdominal pain, bloating and altered bowel habit, including diarrhea and/or constipation. Risk factors for the development of IBS include a family history of the disorder, childhood trauma and prior gastrointestinal infection. It is generally accepted that brain-gut axis dysfunction is fundamental to the development of IBS; however the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain elusive. Additional considerations in comprehending the chronic relapsing pattern that typifies IBS symptoms are the effects of both psychosocial and infection-related stresses. Indeed, co-morbidity with mood disorders such as depression and anxiety is common in IBS. Accumulating evidence points to a role for a maladaptive stress response in the initiation, persistence and severity of IBS-associated symptom flare-ups. Moreover, mechanistically, the stress-induced secretion of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is known to mediate changes in GI function. Activation of the immune system also appears to be important in the generation of IBS symptoms and increasing evidence now implicates low-grade inflammation or immune activation in IBS pathophysiology. There is a growing body of research focused on understanding at a molecular, cellular and in vivo level, the relationship between the dysregulated stress response and immune system alterations (either individually or in combination) in the etiology of IBS and to the occurrence of symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Deep Vein Thrombosis as Initial Manifestation of Whipple Disease

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    Mônica Souza de Miranda Henriques

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wipple disease (WD is a rare chronic disease caused by the bacillus Tropheryma whipplei. Constitutive, rheumatologic, gastrointestinal, cardiac, cerebral, lymphatic, cutaneous, and ophthalmological signs are possible systemic symptoms. However, thrombotic manifestations are rarely described as “stroke-like syndrome” or arterial thrombosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations and pathological examination. Laboratory findings may include anemia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytosis. Objective: We report a case of venous thrombosis as initial manifestation of WD. Case Report: We describe the case of a 53-year-old male with iliofemoral vein thrombosis followed by intermittent diarrhea, loss of appetite, abdominal distension, and bloating. A mild malnutrition state with a weight loss of 13 kg, pallor (+/4 +, presence of lower-limb edema (+/4 +, and hypertympanic distended abdomen occurred. Laboratory tests on admission revealed anemia, positive inflammatory activity tests, and normal coagulation. Endoscopic examination showed villous edema with white dotted infiltrates in the second duodenal portion and intestinal lymphangiectasia in the terminal ileum. Pathological examination revealed numerous macrophages with positive periodic acid-Schiff inclusions. Venous Doppler ultrasound showed extensive deep thrombosis on the left lower limb and recanalization of the femoral vein in the right lower limb. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone and enoxaparin sodium, which led to an improvement of gastrointestinal and thrombosis symptoms. Comments: Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, vasculitis, and blood stasis are present in T. whipplei infection, which are associated with the activation of inflammatory mechanisms as well as procoagulant and thromboembolic events. WD should be part of the differential diagnosis of diseases that cause venous thrombosis of unknown origin.

  10. Evaluation and management of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackiewicz, E J; Shiovitz, T M

    2001-01-01

    To review premenstrual disorders, their varied symptoms, possible etiology, and treatment options. Published articles identified through MEDLINE (1966-2001) using the search terms premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and the additional terms treatment and etiology. Additional references were identified from the bibliographies of the retrieved articles. PMS refers to a group of menstrually related disorders that are estimated to affect up to 40% of women of childbearing age. The varied symptoms of PMS include mood swings, tension, anger, irritability, headache, bloating, and increased appetite with food cravings. PMS symptoms occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and remit with the onset of menstruation or shortly afterward. Approximately 5% of women with PMS suffer from PMDD, a more disabling and severe form of PMS in which mood symptoms predominate. Because no tests can confirm PMS or PMDD, the diagnosis should be made on the basis of a patient-completed daily symptom calendar and the exclusion of other medical disorders. The causes of PMS and PMDD are uncertain, but are likely associated with aberrant responses to normal hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle. For most women, symptoms can be relieved or reduced through lifestyle interventions, such as dietary changes and exercise, and drug therapy with hormonal or psychotropic agents. For PMDD, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have recently emerged as first-line therapy. Certain dietary supplements, including calcium, also may be an option for some women. PMS and PMDD are complex but highly treatable disorders. Pharmacists can improve the recognition and management of these common conditions by providing patient education on premenstrual symptoms and counseling women on lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy to relieve their discomfort.

  11. Association of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder with bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder in a nationally representative epidemiological sample.

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    Nobles, Carrie J; Thomas, Jennifer J; Valentine, Sarah E; Gerber, Monica W; Vaewsorn, Adin S; Marques, Luana

    2016-07-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED) are associated with significant health impairment. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) comprise both psychological (disturbances in mood and affect) and physiological (bloating and changes in appetite) symptoms that may trigger binge-eating and/or purging. Female participants were drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys, conducted from 2001 to 2003. Weighted multivariable logistic regression modeled the association between lifetime PMS and PMDD and lifetime odds of BN or BED. Among 8,694 participants, 133 (1.0%) had BN and 185 (1.8%) BED. Additionally, 366 (4.2%) had PMDD and 3,489 (42.4%) had PMS. Prevalence of PMDD and PMS were 17.4 and 55.4% among those with BN, 10.7 and 48.9% among those with BED and 3.4 and 59.1% among those with subthreshold BED. After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, body mass index, age at menarche, birth control use, and comorbid mental health conditions, PMDD was associated with seven times the odds of BN (OR 7.2, 95% CI 2.3, 22.4) and PMS with two times the odds of BN (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1, 5.7). Neither PMDD nor PMS were significantly associated with BED. Women with PMS and PMDD have a higher odds of BN, independent of comorbid mental health conditions. PMS and PMDD may be important comorbidities to BN to consider in clinical settings, and future research should investigate whether PMS and PMDD affect the onset and duration of bulimic symptoms as well as the potential for shared risk factors across disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:641-650). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A prospective cross-sectional study of laparoscopic subtotal Lind fundoplication for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease--a durable and effective anti-reflux procedure.

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    Shapey, I M; Agrawal, S; Peacock, A; Super, P

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic partial fundoplication for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is reported to have fewer side effects when compared to Nissen fundoplication, but doubts remain over its long term durability in controlling reflux. The aim of this study was to assess outcome of symptoms for all patients presenting with GORD undergoing routine laparoscopic subtotal Lind fundoplication. All patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication between August, 1999 and November, 2007 performed by a single surgeon were included in the study. The anti-reflux procedure studied was laparoscopic Lind (300°) fundoplication with crural repair in all cases. Patients completed pre and post-operative questionnaires containing validated scoring systems for heartburn, gas bloat, dysphagia and overall patient satisfaction. Over the 100-month period, 320 consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic subtotal Lind fundoplication. Of these, 256 (80%) replied to the questionnaire at a mean of 31 months (range 3-96 months) following surgery. 91.4% of respondents had an improvement in heartburn symptom score with a significant reduction in score from 7.74 preoperatively to 1.25 postoperatively (preflux control (heartburn and regurgitation) from 3.49 preoperatively to 1.48 after surgery (preflux symptoms with half of these reporting their recurrence within two years following surgery. Because of this all were tested with post-operative pH testing, yet only one had a 24-h pH time outside the normal range. Overall patient satisfaction was high with a visual analogue score of 9 and 88% of the patients claimed they would have the operation again. Laparoscopic Lind fundoplication demonstrates excellent reflux control when performed routinely for all patients presenting with GORD. This technique is both durable and efficacious in controlling reflux symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Severity of Giardia infection associated with post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after

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    Rortveit Guri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high rate of post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after a waterborne outbreak of giardiasis in Bergen, Norway in 2004 has previously been reported. The aim of this report was to identify risk factors associated with such manifestations. Methods All laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis (n = 1262 during the outbreak in Bergen in 2004 received a postal questionnaire two years after. Degree of post-infectious abdominal symptoms and fatigue, as well as previous abdominal problems, was recorded. In the statistical analyses number of treatment courses, treatment refractory infection, delayed education and sick leave were used as indices of protracted and severe Giardia infection. Age, gender, previous abdominal problems and symptoms during infection were also analysed as possible risk factors. Simple and multiple ordinal logistic regression models were used for the analyses. Results The response rate was 81% (1017/1262, 64% were women and median age was 31 years (range 3-93, compared to 61% women and 30 years (range 2-93 among all 1262 cases. Factors in multiple regression analysis significantly associated with abdominal symptoms two years after infection were: More than one treatment course, treatment refractory infection, delayed education, bloating and female gender. Abdominal problems prior to Giardia infection were not associated with post-infectious abdominal symptoms. More than one treatment course, delayed education, sick leave more than 2 weeks, and malaise at the time of infection, were significantly associated with fatigue in the multiple regression analysis, as were increasing age and previous abdominal problems. Conclusion Protracted and severe giardiasis seemed to be a risk factor for post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after clearing the Giardia infection.

  14. Manometric evaluation of the esophagus in patients with Behçet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Mehmet; Altan, Mehmet; Alkan, Murat; Ormeci, Necati; Soykan, Irfan

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement in Behçet's disease (BD) mainly appears in mucosa and affects 5-40% of patients, however the effects of the disease on lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and esophageal contractions are not well known. The aims of this study were to evaluate esophageal motor function and to identify whether there was any specific motility pattern for patients with BD who had upper GI symptoms without endoscopic abnormality. 25 patients with BD, with a mean age of 43.1 (range 20-66) years, were admitted to our clinic whose main complaints were dyspeptic such as reflux, epigastric pain, vomiting and bloating. 25 healthy and age-matched individuals were also included in the study as controls. After one night fasting, LES pressure and esophageal contractions were measured. Esophageal motor abnormalities were detected in 16% (4/25) of these patients with manometric studies (non-specific esophageal motor disorder in 1, esophageal hypomotility in 2, and LES hypotension in 1 patient); 16% (4/25) of these patients had endoscopic findings and overall 32% (8/25) of the cases showed esophageal pathology. All cases with esophageal motor abnormalities were suffering from reflux and endoscopy showed grade B esophagitis in 2 of these cases. Median LES pressure and LES relaxation were significantly lower in patients with BD compared to the control group (16.8 +/- 10.5 vs. 20.4 +/- 6.1, p = 0.02, and 92.1 +/- 10.1 vs. 96.4 +/- 4.5, p = 0.03 respectively). Esophageal involvement in BD is significantly high. We propose manometric studies are necessary to evaluate esophageal manifestations in BD patients with esophageal symptoms even without endoscopic findings.

  15. Gluten causes gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects without celiac disease: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiekierski, Jessica R; Newnham, Evan D; Irving, Peter M; Barrett, Jacqueline S; Haines, Melissa; Doecke, James D; Shepherd, Susan J; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R

    2011-03-01

    Despite increased prescription of a gluten-free diet for gastrointestinal symptoms in individuals who do not have celiac disease, there is minimal evidence that suggests that gluten is a trigger. The aims of this study were to determine whether gluten ingestion can induce symptoms in non-celiac individuals and to examine the mechanism. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled rechallenge trial was undertaken in patients with irritable bowel syndrome in whom celiac disease was excluded and who were symptomatically controlled on a gluten-free diet. Participants received either gluten or placebo in the form of two bread slices plus one muffin per day with a gluten-free diet for up to 6 weeks. Symptoms were evaluated using a visual analog scale and markers of intestinal inflammation, injury, and immune activation were monitored. A total of 34 patients (aged 29-59 years, 4 men) completed the study as per protocol. Overall, 56% had human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8. Adherence to diet and supplements was very high. Of 19 patients (68%) in the gluten group, 13 reported that symptoms were not adequately controlled compared with 6 of 15 (40%) on placebo (P=0.0001; generalized estimating equation). On a visual analog scale, patients were significantly worse with gluten within 1 week for overall symptoms (P=0.047), pain (P=0.016), bloating (P=0.031), satisfaction with stool consistency (P=0.024), and tiredness (P=0.001). Anti-gliadin antibodies were not induced. There were no significant changes in fecal lactoferrin, levels of celiac antibodies, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, or intestinal permeability. There were no differences in any end point in individuals with or without DQ2/DQ8. "Non-celiac gluten intolerance" may exist, but no clues to the mechanism were elucidated.

  16. Latiglutenase Improves Symptoms in Seropositive Celiac Disease Patients While on a Gluten-Free Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syage, Jack A; Murray, Joseph A; Green, Peter H R; Khosla, Chaitan

    2017-09-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a widespread condition triggered by dietary gluten and treated with a lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD); however, inadvertent exposure to gluten can result in episodic symptoms. A previous trial of latiglutenase (clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01917630), an orally administered mixture of two recombinant gluten-specific proteases, was undertaken in symptomatic subjects with persistent injury. The primary endpoint for histologic improvement was not met, presumably due to a trial effect. In this post hoc analysis, we investigated the efficacy of latiglutenase for reducing symptoms in subgroups of the study participants based on their seropositivity. The study involved symptomatic CD patients following a GFD for at least one year prior to randomization. Patients were treated for 12 weeks with latiglutenase or placebo. Of 398 completed patients, 173 (43%) were seropositive at baseline. Symptoms were recorded daily, and weekly symptom scores were compiled. p values were calculated by analysis of covariance. A statistically significant, dose-dependent reduction was detected in the severity and frequency of symptoms in seropositive but not seronegative patients. The severity of abdominal pain and bloating was reduced by 58 and 44%, respectively, in the cohort receiving the highest latiglutenase dose (900 mg, n = 14) relative to placebo (n = 54). Symptom improvement increased from week 6 to week 12. There was also a trend toward greater symptom improvement with greater baseline symptom severity. Seropositive CD patients show symptomatic improvement from latiglutenase taken with meals and would benefit from the availability of this treatment.

  17. Yield of diagnostic tests for celiac disease in individuals with symptoms suggestive of irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Alexander C; Chey, William D; Talley, Nicholas J; Malhotra, Ashish; Spiegel, Brennan M R; Moayyedi, Paul

    2009-04-13

    Individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) report abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea, symptoms similar to those in celiac disease. Studies suggest that the prevalence of celiac disease is increased in individuals with IBS; however, evidence is conflicting, and current guidelines do not always recommend screening for celiac disease in these individuals. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate prevalence of celiac disease in unselected adults who met diagnostic criteria for IBS. MEDLINE (1950 to May 31, 2008) and EMBASE (1980 to May 31, 2008) were searched. Case series and case-control studies that used serologic tests for celiac disease were eligible for inclusion. Prevalence of positive serologic indications of celiac disease and biopsy-proved celiac disease were extracted and pooled for all studies and were compared between cases and controls using an odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Fourteen studies were identified comprising 4204 individuals, of whom 2278 (54%) met diagnostic criteria for IBS. Pooled prevalence of positive IgA-class antigliadin antibodies, either positive endomysial antibodies or tissue transglutaminase, and biopsy-proved celiac disease were 4.0% (95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.2), 1.63% (0.7-3.0), and 4.1% (1.9-7.0), respectively. Pooled odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for positive IgA-class antigliadin antibodies, either positive endomysial antibodies or tissue transglutaminase, and biopsy-proved celiac disease in cases meeting diagnostic criteria for IBS compared with controls without IBS were 3.40 (1.62-7.13), 2.94 (1.36-6.35), and 4.34 (1.78-10.6). Prevalence of biopsy-proved celiac disease in cases meeting diagnostic criteria for IBS was more than 4-fold that in controls without IBS.

  18. Clinical features and symptom recovery on a gluten-free diet in Canadian adults with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Olga; Zarkadas, Marion; Dubois, Sheila; Macisaac, Krista; Cantin, Isabelle; La Vieille, Sebastien; Godefroy, Samuel; Rashid, Mohsin

    2013-08-01

    Celiac disease can present with mild or nongastrointestinal symptoms, and may escape timely recognition. The treatment of celiac disease involves a gluten-free diet, which is complex and challenging. To evaluate clinical features and symptom recovery on a gluten-free diet in a Canadian adult celiac population. All adult members (n=10,693) of the two national celiac support organizations, the Canadian Celiac Association and Fondation québécoise de la maladie coeliaque, were surveyed using a questionnaire. A total of 5912 individuals (≥18 years of age) with biopsy-confirmed celiac disease and⁄or dermatitis herpetiformis completed the survey. The female to male ratio was 3:1, and mean (± SD) age at diagnosis was 45.2 ± 16.4 years. Mean time to diagnosis after onset of symptoms was 12.0 ± 14.4 years. Abdominal pain and bloating (84.9%), extreme weakness⁄tiredness (74.2%), diarrhea (71.7%) and anemia (67.8%) were the most commonly reported symptoms at the time of diagnosis. Many respondents continued to experience symptoms after being on a gluten-free diet for >5 years. Sex differences were reported in clinical features before diagnosis, recovery after being on gluten-free diet and perceived quality of life, with women experiencing more difficulties than men. Delays in diagnosis of celiac disease in Canada remain unacceptably long despite wider availability of serological screening tests. Many patients report continuing symptoms despite adhering to a gluten-free diet for >5 years, with women experiencing more symptoms and a lower recovery rate than men. Awareness of celiac disease needs improvement, and follow-up with a physician and a dietitian is essential for all patients with celiac disease.

  19. LINX®, a novel treatment for patients with refractory asthma complicated by gastroesophageal reflux disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriratanaviriyakul, Narin; Kivler, Celeste; Vidovszky, Tamas J; Yoneda, Ken Y; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Murin, Susan; Louie, Samuel

    2016-05-24

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is one of the most common comorbidities in patients with asthma. Gastroesophageal reflux disease can be linked to difficult-to-control asthma. Current management includes gastric acid suppression therapy and surgical antireflux procedures. The LINX® procedure is a novel surgical treatment for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease refractory to medical therapy. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of successful treatment of refractory asthma secondary to gastroesophageal reflux disease using the LINX® procedure. Our patient was a 22-year-old white woman who met the American Thoracic Society criteria for refractory asthma that had remained poorly controlled for 5 years despite progressive escalation to step 6 treatment as recommended by National Institutes of Health-National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines, including high-dose oral corticosteroids, high-dose inhaled corticosteroid plus long-acting β2-agonist, leukotriene receptor antagonist, and monthly omalizumab. Separate trials with azithromycin therapy and roflumilast did not improve her asthma control, nor did bronchial thermoplasty help. Additional consultations with two other university health systems left the patient with few treatment options for asthma, which included cyclophosphamide. Instead, the patient underwent a LINX® procedure after failure of maximal medical therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease with the additional aim of improving asthma control. After she underwent LINX® treatment, her asthma improved dramatically and was no longer refractory. She had normal exhaled nitric oxide levels and loss of peripheral eosinophilia after LINX® treatment. Prednisone was discontinued without loss of asthma control. The only immediate adverse effects due to the LINX® procedure were bloating, nausea, and vomiting. LINX® is a viable alternative to the Nissen fundoplication procedure for the treatment of patients with

  20. New onset of constipation during long-term physical inactivity: a proof-of-concept study on the immobility-induced bowel changes.

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    Paola Iovino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological mechanisms underlining constipation are incompletely understood, but prolonged bed rest is commonly considered a relevant determinant. AIMS: Our primary aim was to study the effect of long-term physical inactivity on determining a new onset of constipation. Secondary aim were the evaluation of changes in stool frequency, bowel function and symptoms induced by this prolonged physical inactivity. METHODS: Ten healthy men underwent a 7-day run-in followed by 35-day study of experimentally-controlled bed rest. The study was sponsored by the Italian Space Agency. The onset of constipation was evaluated according to Rome III criteria for functional constipation. Abdominal bloating, flatulence, pain and urgency were assessed by a 100mm Visual Analog Scales and bowel function by adjectival scales (Bristol Stool Form Scale, ease of passage of stool and sense of incomplete evacuation. Daily measurements of bowel movements was summarized on a weekly score. Pre and post bed rest Quality of Life (SF-36, general health (Goldberg's General Health and depression mood (Zung scale questionnaires were administered. RESULTS: New onset of functional constipation fulfilling Rome III criteria was found in 60% (6/10 of participants (p=0.03. The score of flatulence significantly increased whilst the stool frequency significantly decreased during the week-by-week comparisons period (repeated-measures ANOVA, p=0.02 and p=0.001, respectively. Stool consistency and bowel symptoms were not influenced by prolonged physical inactivity. In addition, no significant changes were observed in general health, in mood state and in quality of life at the end of bed rest. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that prolonged physical inactivity is relevant etiology in functional constipation in healthy individuals. The common clinical suggestion of early mobilization in bedridden patients is supported as well.

  1. [Effectiveness of penile ventral scrotum cohesion place wedge cutting and improved Brisson technique for congenital buried penis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huafeng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of the penile ventral scrotum cohesion place wedge cutting and improved Brisson technique for congenital buried penis. Between March 2010 and June 2012, 68 boys with congenital buried penis were treated by the penile ventral scrotum cohesion place wedge cutting and improved Brisson technique, with a median age of 4 years and 10 months (range, 3 months-13 years). Of 68 cases, 14 were classified as phimosis type, 14 as rope belt type, 20 as moderate type, and 20 as severe type. The body of penis developed well and had no deformity. After operation, complications were observed, and the effectiveness was evaluated by the designed questionnaire. Early postoperative complications occurred in 11 cases, including obvious adhesion of the outside wrapping mouth in 4 cases, scrotal skin bloat in 5 cases, and distal foreskin necrosis in 2 cases; long-term complications occurred in 9 cases, including abdominal incision scar formation in 4 cases, wrapping mouth scar stricture in 3 cases, and short penis in 2 cases. Primary healing of incision was obtained in the other boys. Fifty-four cases were followed up 6-12 months (mean, 8 months). According to the designed questionnaire, satisfaction rate with the overall view in parents was 77.78% (42/54); the clinical improvement rate was 85.19% (46/54); exposure of the penis was satisfactory in parents of 50 cases; and the parents had no psychological burden of penis exposure in 46 cases, which were significantly improved when compared with preoperative ones (P penis exposure in 29 cases (53.70%) after operation, showing no significant difference when compared with preoperative one (18 cases, 33.33%) (chi2 = 1.22, P = 0.31). Application of the penile ventral scrotum cohesion place wedge cutting and improved Brisson technique can effectively correct congenital buried penis.

  2. Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms.

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    Jonna Jalanka-Tuovinen

    Full Text Available While our knowledge of the intestinal microbiota during disease is accumulating, basic information of the microbiota in healthy subjects is still scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults and specifically address its temporal stability, core microbiota and relation with intestinal symptoms. We carried out a longitudinal study by following a set of 15 healthy Finnish subjects for seven weeks and regularly assessed their intestinal bacteria and archaea with the Human Intestinal Tract (HIT Chip, a phylogenetic microarray, in conjunction with qPCR analyses. The health perception and occurrence of intestinal symptoms was recorded by questionnaire at each sampling point.A high overall temporal stability of the microbiota was observed. Five subjects showed transient microbiota destabilization, which correlated not only with the intake of antibiotics but also with overseas travelling and temporary illness, expanding the hitherto known factors affecting the intestinal microbiota. We identified significant correlations between the microbiota and common intestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain and bloating. The most striking finding was the inverse correlation between Bifidobacteria and abdominal pain: subjects who experienced pain had over five-fold less Bifidobacteria compared to those without pain. Finally, a novel computational approach was used to define the common core microbiota, highlighting the role of the analysis depth in finding the phylogenetic core and estimating its size. The in-depth analysis suggested that we share a substantial number of our intestinal phylotypes but as they represent highly variable proportions of the total community, many of them often remain undetected.A global and high-resolution microbiota analysis was carried out to determine the temporal stability, the associations with intestinal symptoms, and the individual and common core microbiota in healthy adults. The

  3. High-Fiber Orange Juice as a Nutrition Supplement in Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Tolerance and Effectiveness.

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    Bergamasco, Christiane; Horie, Lilian Mika; Torrinhas, Raquel Susana; Waitzberg, Dan L

    2015-11-01

    The daily consumption of dietary fiber is frequently below suggested recommendations. Using a double-blind, controlled, randomized study, we assessed the efficiency and tolerance of a fiber-enriched orange juice to supplement fiber intake in women. After 1 week of noninterventional observation, 192 healthy adult women ingested 400 mL of orange juice for 21 days, which either was not (placebo group) or was enriched with fiber (fiber group). Orange juice ingestion was registered daily and controlled for each week during the study period. Macronutrient, fiber, and energy intake were determined using a 3-day food record, validated food chemical composition databases, and the "Pro Diet" software. Gastrointestinal symptoms were self-evaluated daily by scoring 4 grades of symptom intensity and using a visual analog scale to grade pain severity. No changes were observed for macronutrient and energy ingestion. For the placebo group (n = 97), the total fiber intake record was under the daily recommended value. In contrast, the fiber group (n = 95) displayed higher comparative values of total and soluble fiber consumption (P ≤ .001), achieving the daily recommended values of fiber intake. Both groups reported an increased frequency of slight bloating and rumbles over time (P ≤ .05). The fiber group also experienced a higher frequency of slight flatulence over time (P = .002). Consumption of fiber-enriched orange juice was efficient to achieve the daily fiber intake recommendation for women, was not accompanied by intense adverse events, and may represent a suitable method to supplement fiber intake in woman. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  4. Progressive retinal degeneration and glial activation in the CLN6 (nclf mouse model of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis: a beneficial effect of DHA and curcumin supplementation.

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    Myriam Mirza

    Full Text Available Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL is a group of neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders characterized by vision loss, mental and motor deficits, and spontaneous seizures. Neuropathological analyses of autopsy material from NCL patients and animal models revealed brain atrophy closely associated with glial activity. Earlier reports also noticed loss of retinal cells and reactive gliosis in some forms of NCL. To study this phenomenon in detail, we analyzed the ocular phenotype of CLN6 (nclf mice, an established mouse model for variant-late infantile NCL. Retinal morphometry, immunohistochemistry, optokinetic tracking, electroretinography, and mRNA expression were used to characterize retinal morphology and function as well as the responses of Müller cells and microglia. Our histological data showed a severe and progressive degeneration in the CLN6 (nclf retina co-inciding with reactive Müller glia. Furthermore, a prominent phenotypic transformation of ramified microglia to phagocytic, bloated, and mislocalized microglial cells was identified in CLN6 (nclf retinas. These events overlapped with a rapid loss of visual perception and retinal function. Based on the strong microglia reactivity we hypothesized that dietary supplementation with immuno-regulatory compounds, curcumin and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, could ameliorate microgliosis and reduce retinal degeneration. Our analyses showed that treatment of three-week-old CLN6 (nclf mice with either 5% DHA or 0.6% curcumin for 30 weeks resulted in a reduced number of amoeboid reactive microglia and partially improved retinal function. DHA-treatment also improved the morphology of CLN6 (nclf retinas with a preserved thickness of the photoreceptor layer in most regions of the retina. Our results suggest that microglial reactivity closely accompanies disease progression in the CLN6 (nclf retina and both processes can be attenuated with dietary supplemented immuno-modulating compounds.

  5. Insect succession on a decomposing piglet carcass placed in a man-made freshwater pond in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, C C; Mohamad, A M; John, J; Baharudin, O

    2008-04-01

    This entomological study was conducted in a man-made freshwater pond in a palm oil plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor from 23 July 2007 by using pig (Sus scrofa) as a carcass model. A 1.5 month old piglet (5 kg), which died of asphyxia after being accidentally crushed by its mother, was thrown into a pond. Observation was made for ten days; one visit per day and climatological data were recorded. On the first two days, the piglet carcass sunk to the bottom of the pond. The carcass floated to the surface on the third day but no fly activities were seen. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies started to oviposit on the fourth day. Other than adult flies, a spider (Arachnida) was also observed on the carcass. Bubbles accumulated at the mouthpart, and the abdomen was greenish black. A lot of blow fly eggs were seen on the body surface on the fifth day (floating decay), along with first and second instars C. megacephala crawling under the piglet's skin. On the sixth day, adult blow fly, C. megacephala,and C. rufifacies,and muscid flies, Ophyra spinigera and Musca domestica were observed on to the carcass. High numbers of first and second instars of flies were observed wandering around the body surface with C. megacephala larvae being the predominant species. Two prominent maggot masses occurred on seventh and eighth days. Bloated deterioration stage began on day eighth exposing rib bones, humerus bones and intestines. Carcass was partially sinking and the maggot masses were at the water level. On day ninth, the carcass was partially sinking and three maggot masses were observed on the exposed surface. There were very few adult flies, including a scarab beetle was sighted on the carcass at this stage. The carcass along with the maggots sunk on day tenth, leaving an oily layer on the water surface.

  6. Genetics, environment, and asthma associated with celiac disease in the extended family of an affected child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigala-Robles, R; Aguayo-Patrón, S V; Calderón de la Barca, A M

    2017-11-18

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy associated with gluten ingestion. In extended families of celiac patients that live in close proximity of one another, shared genetic and environmental factors can predispose them to CD. The aim of this study was to provide evidence about the genetic and environmental factors involved in the development of CD in the extended family of a pediatric patient. The medical history, environmental conditions, and participant weight, height, and peripheral blood samples were evaluated. The HLA-DQ2/DQ8 haplotypes were genotyped through qPCR testing and the IgA anti-gliadin and anti-transglutaminase antibodies were quantified using the ELISA test. Twelve close-living maternal relatives of the index case participated in the study. Eight of them presented with the HLA-DQ2 haplotype, inherited from the grandfather, and 7/12 and 9/12 were positive for IgA anti-gliadin and IgA anti-transglutaminase antibodies, respectively. The main intestinal symptoms stated by the participants were abdominal bloating, excess flatulence, constipation, and gastroesophageal reflux. The most frequent extra-intestinal symptoms were fatigue, stress, and anxiety. In addition, 6/13 participants had bronchial asthma. The extended family living in close proximity of one another shared a genetic predisposition, environmental conditions, and asthma, which could have predisposed them to celiac disease. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic engineering to simultaneously activate anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthetic pathways in Nicotiana spp.

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    Sandra Fresquet-Corrales

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs, or condensed tannins, are powerful antioxidants that remove harmful free oxygen radicals from cells. To engineer the anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthetic pathways to de novo produce PAs in two Nicotiana species, we incorporated four transgenes to the plant chassis. We opted to perform a simultaneous transformation of the genes linked in a multigenic construct rather than classical breeding or retransformation approaches. We generated a GoldenBraid 2.0 multigenic construct containing two Antirrhinum majus transcription factors (AmRosea1 and AmDelila to upregulate the anthocyanin pathway in combination with two Medicago truncatula genes (MtLAR and MtANR to produce the enzymes that will derivate the biosynthetic pathway to PAs production. Transient and stable transformation of Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana tabacum with the multigenic construct were respectively performed. Transient expression experiments in N. benthamiana showed the activation of the anthocyanin pathway producing a purple color in the agroinfiltrated leaves and also the effective production of 208.5 nmol (- catechin/g FW and 228.5 nmol (- epicatechin/g FW measured by the p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA method. The integration capacity of the four transgenes, their respective expression levels and their heritability in the second generation were analyzed in stably transformed N. tabacum plants. DMACA and phoroglucinolysis/HPLC-MS analyses corroborated the activation of both pathways and the effective production of PAs in T0 and T1 transgenic tobacco plants up to a maximum of 3.48 mg/g DW. The possible biotechnological applications of the GB2.0 multigenic approach in forage legumes to produce "bloat-safe" plants and to improve the efficiency of conversion of plant protein into animal protein (ruminal protein bypass are discussed.

  8. Ovarian Cancer Stroma: Pathophysiology and the Roles in Cancer Development

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    Mitsuko Furuya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers.

  9. Modification of abomasum contractility by flavonoids present in ruminants diet: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, M; Chłopecka, M; Dziekan, N; Karlik, W

    2016-09-01

    Flavonoid supplementation is likely to be beneficial in improving rumen fermentation and in reducing the incidence of rumen acidosis and bloat. Flavonoids are also said to increase the metabolic performance during the peripartum period. Ruminants are constantly exposed to flavonoids present in feed. However, it is not clear if these phytochemicals can affect the activity of the gut smooth muscle. Therefore, the aim of the study was to verify the effect of three flavonoids on bovine isolated abomasum smooth muscle. The study was carried out on bovine isolated circular and longitudinal abomasal smooth muscle specimens. All experiments were conducted under isometric conditions. The effect of apigenin, luteolin and quercetin (0.001 to 100 µM) was evaluated on acetylcholine-precontracted preparations. The effect of multiple, but not cumulative, treatment and single treatment with each flavonoid on abomasum strips was compared. Apigenin (0.1 to 100 µM) dose-dependently showed myorelaxation effects. Luteolin and quercetin applied in low doses increased the force of the ACh-evoked reaction. However, if used in high doses in experiments testing a wide range of concentrations, their contractile effect either declined (luteolin) or was replaced by an antispasmodic effect (quercetin). Surprisingly, the reaction induced by flavonoids after repeated exposure to the same phytochemical was not reproducible in experiments testing only single exposure of abomasum strips to the same flavonoid used in a high concentration. Taking into account the physicochemical properties of flavonoids, this data suggests the ability of flavonoids to interfere with cell membranes and, subsequently, to modify their responsiveness. Assuming ruminant supplementation with luteolin or quercetin or their presence in daily pasture, a reduction of the likelihood of abomasum dysmotility should be expected.

  10. Livestock disease threats associated with intensification of pastoral dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Ij; Westwood, Ct; Playford, Mc

    2008-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the changes in the pasture-based dairy systems of New Zealand and Australia that may influence the health of cattle. There are relatively few available data that can be used to quantify the effects of increased intensification of milk production on the health of cattle. There is evidence that increased production increases the risk of mastitis and culling for udder health. Increased risks of mastitis with treatment with somatotropin support these findings; however, the risk of mastitis may decrease with increased milking frequency. Larger herds with greater stocking density should increase the risk for infectious disease, but evidence to support this contention is sparse. Very intensive grazing patterns associated with higher grass yields achieved using better cultivars and greater use of fertilisers favour nematode parasites. There is some evidence of anthelmintic resistance in both nematodes and liver fluke. Veterinarians will need to be aware of the potential for these to reduce the productivity of cattle. There have been benefits of improved nutrition on the efficiency of energy use for dairy production. Diseases such as bloat and ketosis appear to be of lower prevalence. It also appears that mineral nutrition of pasture-fed cattle is being better addressed, with gains in the control of milk fever, hypomagnesaemia and trace-element deficiencies. However, acidosis is a condition with a high point prevalence in pasture-based dairy systems where cows are fed supplements; one study in Australia found a point prevalence of approximately 11% of cows with acidosis. There is evidence from this study that the neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in pasture-based diets may need to be higher than 30% of the diet to maintain rumen stability. Laminitis and acidosis are different conditions with a similar pathogenesis, specifically highly fermentable diets. The prevalence of lameness was 28% in herds in Australia, suggesting that this condition

  11. Decreasing the roughage:concentrate ratio of a diet to determine the critical roughage part for beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campeneere, S; Fiems, L O; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M; De Brabander, D L

    2002-02-01

    The critical roughage part (CRP) of 2 diet types was determined in a cross-over design with 6 double-muscled and 6 normally conformed Belgian Blue bulls fitted with rumen cannulae. The roughage:concentrate ratio was lowered weekly until signs of a lack of physical structure were observed. For diet 1, consisting of maize silage and concentrates, the initial proportion of maize silage was 25% of DM but it decreased weekly with 5% units of DM. For the second diet, consisting of wheat straw and concentrate, 12% straw (DM basis) was provided during the first week and thereafter the proportion of straw decreased weekly with 3% units of DM. Several directly observable parameters (rumen pH, feed intake, bloat, faecal consistency) were evaluated weekly for each bull. Apart from these direct indicators of acidosis, also other parameters, whose results were only available after the end of the trial, were determined (volatile fatty acid profile, lactic acid concentration, chewing time). The roughage part between the part fed when signs of a lack of physical structure was first observed and the part that was fed the week before, was considered as the CRP. Most animals showed no acute signs of clinical acidosis (directly observable parameters) and finished the trial on a 100% concentrate diet. However, in sacco rumen DM-degradabilities of maize silage, grass silage and wheat grain was depressed considerably when low roughage diets were fed. Based on all observed parameters, the mean CRP was calculated to be 14.7% for diet 1 and 8.1% for diet 2. The beef type (double-muscled or not) had no influence on the CRP.

  12. Perioperative management of calves undergoing implantation of a left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D V; Kantrowitz, A; Pacholewicz, J; Salat, O; Paules, B R; Zhou, Y; Dawe, E J

    2000-01-01

    To describe perioperative management of calves that underwent left lateral thoracotomy, aortic cross-clamping, partial left heart bypass and implantation of a left ventricular assist device. A total of 43 healthy castrated male calves, weighing 121 +/- 24 kg. Diazepam (mean +/- SD, 0.26 +/- 0.07 mg/kg), ketamine (5.9 +/- 2.17 mg/kg) and isoflurane were used in the anesthetic management of calves undergoing implantation of a left ventricular assist device in the descending thoracic aorta. Other adjunctive agents administered were fentanyl (11 +/- 5.4 microg/kg), lidocaine (4.9 +/- 3.19 mg/kg), bupivacaine (0.75%) and butorphanol (0.49 +/- 0.13 mg/kg). None of the calves regurgitated at induction or during intubation. A tube was used to drain the rumen and prevent bloat during the procedure. Partial left heart bypass was used to perfuse the caudal half of the body during the period of aortic cross clamp and device implantation. Initial mean systemic blood pressure was 96 +/- 25 mm Hg, and pressures measured in the auricular artery increased during aortic cross-clamping and bypass. Vasoconstrictor therapy was required to treat caudal arterial hypotension during the procedure in 9 calves. Mean systemic arterial pressures returned to baseline values by the end of the anesthetic period. Initial mean pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP) were 22 +/- 3 mm Hg. A significant but transient increase in pulmonary arterial pressure occurred after both heparin and protamine administration. The described anesthetic protocol was effective for thoracotomy and implantation of an intra-aortic left ventricular assist device in normal calves. Partial left ventricular bypass was a useful adjunct during the period of aortic cross clamp. The doses of heparin and protamine administered were effective. Responsibility to monitor oxygenation of the cranial half of the animal continues during the bypass period as hypoxemia due to pulmonary dysfunction will not be detected by the perfusionist.

  13. Efficacy of the low FODMAP diet for treating irritable bowel syndrome: the evidence to date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanayakkara WS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wathsala S Nanayakkara,1 Paula ML Skidmore,1 Leigh O'Brien,2 Tim J Wilkinson,3 Richard B Gearry,31Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 2Dietary Specialists, Christchurch, New Zealand; 3Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand Abstract: This review summarizes the published clinical studies concerning the management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS using restriction of Fermentable Oligosaccharide, Disaccharide, Monosaccharide, and Polyols in the diet (low FODMAP diet. In recent years, the data supporting low FODMAP diet for the management of IBS symptoms have emerged, including several randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, and other observational studies. Unlike most dietary manipulations tried in the past to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS, all studies on low FODMAP diet have consistently shown symptomatic benefits in the majority of patients with IBS. However, dietary adherence by the patients and clear dietary intervention led by specialized dietitians appear to be vital for the success of the diet. Up to 86% of patients with IBS find improvement in overall gastrointestinal symptoms as well as individual symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal distention, and flatulence following the diet. FODMAP restriction reduces the osmotic load and gas production in the distal small bowel and the proximal colon, providing symptomatic relief in patients with IBS. Long-term health effects of a low FODMAP diet are not known; however, stringent FODMAP restriction is not recommended owing to risks of inadequate nutrient intake and potential adverse effects from altered gut microbiota. In conclusion, the evidence to date strongly supports the efficacy of a low FODMAP diet in the treatment of IBS. Further studies are required to understand any potential adverse effects of long-term restriction of FODMAPs. Keywords: irritable bowel

  14. Refining Ovarian Cancer Test accuracy Scores (ROCkeTS): protocol for a prospective longitudinal test accuracy study to validate new risk scores in women with symptoms of suspected ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Sudha; Rick, Caroline; Dowling, Francis; Au, Pui; Snell, Kym; Rai, Nirmala; Champaneria, Rita; Stobart, Hilary; Neal, Richard; Davenport, Clare; Mallett, Susan; Sutton, Andrew; Kehoe, Sean; Timmerman, Dirk; Bourne, Tom; Van Calster, Ben; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Deeks, Jon

    2016-08-09

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is associated with non-specific symptoms such as bloating, making accurate diagnosis challenging: only 1 in 3 women with OC presents through primary care referral. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommends sequential testing with CA125 and routine ultrasound in primary care. However, these diagnostic tests have limited sensitivity or specificity. Improving accurate triage in women with vague symptoms is likely to improve mortality by streamlining referral and care pathways. The Refining Ovarian Cancer Test Accuracy Scores (ROCkeTS; HTA 13/13/01) project will derive and validate new tests/risk prediction models that estimate the probability of having OC in women with symptoms. This protocol refers to the prospective study only (phase III). ROCkeTS comprises four parallel phases. The full ROCkeTS protocol can be found at http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/ROCKETS. Phase III is a prospective test accuracy study. The study will recruit 2450 patients from 15 UK sites. Recruited patients complete symptom and anxiety questionnaires, donate a serum sample and undergo ultrasound scored as per International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) criteria. Recruitment is at rapid access clinics, emergency departments and elective clinics. Models to be evaluated include those based on ultrasound derived by the IOTA group and novel models derived from analysis of existing data sets. Estimates of sensitivity, specificity, c-statistic (area under receiver operating curve), positive predictive value and negative predictive value of diagnostic tests are evaluated and a calibration plot for models will be presented. ROCkeTS has received ethical approval from the NHS West Midlands REC (14/WM/1241) and is registered on the controlled trials website (ISRCTN17160843) and the National Institute of Health Research Cancer and Reproductive Health portfolios. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  15. Quality of life and health care consultation in 13 to 18 year olds with abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Benninga, Marc A

    2014-08-21

    Abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases (AP-FGD) are commonly seen in the paediatric age group. It has significant impact on daily activities of affected children. Main objective of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with AP-FGD. This was a cross sectional survey conducted in children aged 13-18 years, in four randomly selected schools in Western province of Sri Lanka. Data was collected using a previously validated, self-administered questionnaire. It had questions on symptoms, HRQoL and health care consultation. AP-FGD were diagnosed using Rome III criteria. A total of 1850 questionnaires were included in the analysis [males 1000 (54.1%), mean age 14.4 years and SD 1.3 years]. Of them, 305 (16.5%) had AP-FGD [irritable bowel syndrome = 91(4.9%), functional dyspepsia = 11 (0.6%), abdominal migraine = 37 (1.9%) and functional abdominal pain = 180 (9.7%)]. Lower HRQoL scores for physical (83.6 vs. 91.4 in controls), social (85.0 vs. 92.7), emotional (73.6 vs. 82.7) and school (75.0 vs. 82.5) functioning domains, and lower overall scores (79.6 vs. 88.0) were seen in children with AP-FGD (p abdominal pain (r = -0.24, p abdominal bloating and vomiting (p < 0.05). Children with AP-FGD have lower quality of life in all 4 domains. Those with severe symptoms have lower HRQoL. Approximately 28% of children with AP-FGD seek healthcare for their symptoms.

  16. Evaluating the efficacy of mixture of Boswellia carterii, Zingiber officinale, and Achillea millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in irritable bowel syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afarin Kazemian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs that affects in different aspects of life and patients experienced depression and anxiety more than others. There are several herbal medicines with positive effects in these patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of mixture of Boswellia carterii, Zingiber officinale, and Achillea Millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in IBS patients. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was done in sixty IBS patients (with mild-to-moderate symptoms divided into two case and control groups. Patients were assessed at the beginning, 1 month, and 3 months after by IBS-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. IBS-SSS is used for quality of life evaluation too. Results: Sixty IBS patients (with mild to moderate symptoms with a mean age of 38.75 ± 11.74 participated that 55.4% of cases and 72.8% of controls were men. The most prevalent type of IBS was the mixed type of IBS. The mean score of abdominal pain severity and frequency, bloating score, and depression and anxiety score were decreased in patients administered herbal medication, but changes in these variables in controls were not statistically significant. The changes in quality of life score between cases and controls were significant in men (P = 0.01 although it was not significant in women. Conclusion: A mixture of B. Carterii, Z. officinale, and A. millefolium is effective in eliminating IBS symptoms and its related depression and anxiety and using herbal medicine in IBS treatment is suggested.

  17. Treatment of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan F; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2014-08-01

    Functional abdominal pain in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a challenging problem for primary care physicians, gastroenterologists and pain specialists. We review the evidence for the current and future non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options targeting the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Cognitive interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy have demonstrated excellent results in IBS patients, but the limited availability and labor-intensive nature limit their routine use in daily practice. In patients who are refractory to first-line therapy, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are both effective to obtain symptomatic relief, but only TCAs have been shown to improve abdominal pain in meta-analyses. A diet low in fermentable carbohydrates and polyols (FODMAP) seems effective in subgroups of patients to reduce abdominal pain, bloating, and to improve the stool pattern. The evidence for fiber is limited and only isphagula may be somewhat beneficial. The efficacy of probiotics is difficult to interpret since several strains in different quantities have been used across studies. Antispasmodics, including peppermint oil, are still considered the first-line treatment for abdominal pain in IBS. Second-line therapies for diarrhea-predominant IBS include the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5HT3 antagonists alosetron and ramosetron, although the use of the former is restricted because of the rare risk of ischemic colitis. In laxative-resistant, constipation-predominant IBS, the chloride-secretion stimulating drugs lubiprostone and linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase C agonist that also has direct analgesic effects, reduce abdominal pain and improve the stool pattern.

  18. Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial on Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938: improvement in symptoms and bowel habit in functional constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riezzo, G; Orlando, A; D'Attoma, B; Linsalata, M; Martulli, M; Russo, F

    2018-01-29

    Dysbiosis may contribute to constipation and its symptoms, therefore probiotic administration could improve significantly gut health and functions. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a long-lasting administration of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (LR DSM 17938) on symptoms and quality of life (QoL) score in patients with functional constipation (FC). 56 FC patients with normal colonic transit time and without anorectal disorders and pelvic floor dysfunctions completed the study. LR DSM 17938 was administered for 105 days in a randomised double-blind clinical trial (28 patients per arm). Individual and cumulative scores including the Constipaq, a modified Constipation Scoring System (CSS) that considers the patient assessment of constipation-QoL (PAC-QoL), were calculated during the preliminary visit (V0), at day 15 (end of the induction period with a LR DSM 17938 double dosage, 4×10 8 cfu), day 60 (intermediate evaluation) and day 105 (V4) after a standard dosage (2×10 8 cfu). At the end of treatment, the beneficial effect of LR DSM 17938 compared to placebo was significantly evident for symptoms related to gas content and dysbiosis (abdominal discomfort, pain and bloating), incomplete defecation and helps for defecation (PDSM 17938 treatment, a marked and positive effect on both the CSS single and the cumulative items was evident with the exception of unfruitful attempt and Bristol score. Present findings indicate that LR DSM 17938 has an effect on symptoms different from stool consistency, and they suggest that this probiotic can effectively be used in association therapy rather than as single-drug therapy in the management of FC.

  19. Nutritional Habits in Management of Shigellosis in Children with Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Kurlan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ways of improving of diet management in children with Shigellosis infected with H. pylori were determined. The study involved 29 children with H. pylori infection aged from 1 to 10, who were hospitalized in the Regional Children’s Infectious Diseases Hospital (Kharkiv and had a diagnosis of Shigellosis sonnei of moderate severity. The children were divided into two groups depending on the feeding mode. The first group was represented by 13 children, who were undergone standard treatment. The second group included 16 children who had two days prolonged gradual increase in the volume of food at each feeding, and decreased number of feedings per day. Children of the second group received aluminum phosphate from the first day and after discharge they were advised to keep on the regime of feeding «more frequently, but in small portions». A longer duration of the symptoms of bowel dysfunction and vomiting, pain in periumbilical area, bloating, changes in fecal examination in the form of the presence of undigested food in children of the first group were revealed. Patients of the second group regained their weight in much shorter period. Rational diet therapy makes it possible to prevent recrudescence of shi­gellosis in children at early stages of recovery. Studies have shown that early detection of H. pylori infection in children with shigellosis as well as timely correction of feeding have a positive effect on recovery of functional activity of digestive processes, faster normalization of clinical and laboratory parameters of patients, contribute to regression of clinical symptoms of the underlying disease.

  20. HIV-related symptoms and patient clusters among Chileans living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, A X; Norr, K F; Pérez, C M; Levy, J A; Park, C G; Kim, M J

    2013-01-01

    Identifying both Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related and co-morbid symptoms experienced by people living with HIV (PLWH) who are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment is a major challenge for healthcare providers globally. Yet, little research to date has examined the symptoms of illness experienced by PLWH including patients living in Central and South American. To address this gap, this study was designed to identify symptoms of HIV by socio-demographic and/or clinical characteristics among Chilean patients living with the virus. A convenience sample of 209 Chilean PLWH was recruited from an outpatient clinic in Santiago, Chile. A structured interview was used to elicit socio-demographic information and HIV symptoms status. Additional clinical information was obtained through a review of the participants' medical records. Results show that patients' most commonly reported HIV-related symptoms were fear/worries (66%), anxiety (52%), gas/bloating (50%), and thirst (50%). Multivariate analysis revealed a positive association between the number of reported HIV-related symptoms and number of years living with HIV. Having completed college was negatively associated with number of symptoms. Latent class analysis indicated that PLWH in the sample who had completed college were two times more likely to experience a mild intensity of HIV-related symptoms than their lesser educated counterparts. Similarly, logistic regression revealed that college-educated PLWH were twice as likely to be classified in the subgroup reporting mild intensity of symptoms than those who lacked a college degree. Overall, the study's results reveal that many Chilean PLWH, even those with high CD4 counts and low or undetectable viral loads, are not symptom free. The findings point to the need for clinicians to tailor a plan of care for individuals living with HIV that is based on their symptomatology.

  1. How the Change in IBS Criteria From Rome III to Rome IV Impacts on Clinical Characteristics and Key Pathophysiological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Imran; Törnblom, Hans; Palsson, Olafur S; Whitehead, William E; Simrén, Magnus

    2018-06-08

    The diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have recently been updated from Rome III to Rome IV. Whereas in Rome III a diagnosis of IBS entailed chronic abdominal pain or discomfort at least 3 days per month, in Rome IV the term discomfort has been removed and the frequency of abdominal pain increased to at least 1 day per week. We examined how this change in IBS criteria impacts on clinical characteristics and pathophysiological factors. A total of 542 Swedish subjects with Rome III IBS completed a baseline questionnaire enquiring for the number of abdominal pain days in the last 10 days; this was subsequently used as a surrogate marker to identify Rome IV IBS, in that (a) those with 0 or 1 day of pain were classed as Rome IV-negative, and (b) those with ≥2 days of pain were classed as Rome IV-positive. Comparisons were made between Rome IV-positive and -negative IBS groups for demographics, IBS subtype, gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms, somatisation, fatigue, disease-specific quality of life, rectal sensitivity, and oro-anal transit time. Overall, 85% of Rome III IBS patients fulfilled the Rome IV criteria for IBS, but 15% did not. Rome IV-positive subjects were significantly more likely to be female, have poorer quality of life, greater pain severity, bloating, somatisation, fatigue, and rectal sensitivity than Rome IV-negative subjects. There were no differences in severity of anxiety or depression, IBS subtypes, bowel habit dissatisfaction, or oro-anal transit time. Finally, increasing number of pain days correlated positively with symptoms and visceral hypersensitivity. Most Rome III-positive IBS patients seeking healthcare fulfil the Rome IV IBS criteria. They constitute a more severe group than those who lose their IBS diagnosis.

  2. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in gonadotropin-treated laboratory South African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sherril L; Parker, John; Davis, Corrine; Bouley, Donna M

    2007-05-01

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHS) is a rare but sometimes fatal iatrogenic complication of ovarian stimulation associated with the administration of exogenous gonadotropins to women undergoing treatment for infertility. Laboratory Xenopus spp are commonly treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to stimulate ovulation and optimize the number of oocytes harvested for use in biomedical research. Here we report cases of OHS in 2 gonadotropin-treated laboratory Xenopus laevis. After receiving hCG, the frogs developed severe subcutaneous accumulation of fluid, coelomic distention, and whole-body edema and were unable to dive, although they continued to eat and swim. At postmortem examination, extensive subcutaneous edema was present; ascites and massive numbers of free-floating eggs were found in the coelomic cavity and in aberrant locations: around the heart-sac and adhered to the liver capsule. Whole-body edema, gross enlargement of the ovaries, ascites, and abdominal distention are findings comparable to those observed in women with OHS. The pathophysiology of OHS is thought to be related to hormonally induced disturbances of vasoactive mediators, one of which may be vascular endothelial growth factor secreted by theca and granulosa cells. We know of no other report describing OHSlike symptoms in gonadotropin-treated frogs, and the cases described here are 2 of the 3 we have observed at our respective institutions over the last 6 y. According to these results, OHS appears to be rare in gonadotropin-treated laboratory Xenopus. However, the condition should be included in the differential diagnosis for the bloated frog.

  3. Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontiveros, Noe; López-Gallardo, Jesús A; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco

    2015-07-21

    The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mexican population. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI): 11.9% (9.9-13.5) and 7.8 (6.4-9.4) for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to gluten respectively; adherence to gluten-free diet 3.7% (2.7-4.8), wheat allergy 0.72% (0.38-1.37); celiac disease 0.08% (0.01-0.45), and NCGS 0.97% (0.55-1.68). Estimated pooled prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.88% (0.49-1.5), and 93.3% respondents reported adherence to gluten-free diet without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders. Symptom comparisons between those who reported recurrent adverse reactions to gluten and other foods showed statistically significant differences for bloating, constipation, and tiredness (p Gluten-related disorders may be underdiagnosed in the Mexican population and most people adhering to a gluten-free diet are doing it without proper diagnostic work-up of these disorders, and probably without medical/dietician advice.

  4. Effectiveness and safety of tolvaptan in liver cirrhosis patients with edema: Interim results of post-marketing surveillance of tolvaptan in liver cirrhosis (START study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaida, Isao; Terai, Shuji; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Yasuda, Moriyoshi; Okada, Mitsuru; Bando, Kosuke; Fukuta, Yasuhiko

    2017-10-01

    Loop diuretics and spironolactone are used in patients with hepatic edema, but they are sometimes associated with insufficient responses as well as adverse events. Tolvaptan, a vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist, was approved for hepatic edema in 2013. A large-scale post-marketing surveillance study has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tolvaptan in real-world clinical settings. Patients with hepatic cirrhosis with insufficient response to conventional diuretics were enrolled. The observational period was up to 6 months. Changes in body weight and clinical symptoms were measured to evaluate effectiveness. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was summarized as a safety measure. Of 970 patients enrolled, 463 were included in the safety analysis. Of this group, 340 were included in the effectiveness analysis. Decreases in body weight from baseline were -2.38 kg on day 7 and -3.52 kg on day 14. Ascites and bloated feeling was significantly improved within 14 days. The mean change in body weight depended on estimated glomerular filtration rate levels. The most frequently reported adverse drug reaction was thirst (6.9% of patients). Serum sodium level of ≥146 mEq/L was observed in 12 patients (2.7%). In the real-world clinical setting, tolvaptan showed aquaretic effectiveness in patients with cirrhosis. The mean change in body weight depended on renal function. We recommend tolvaptan use for hepatic cirrhosis at a stage in which the renal function is maintained. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  5. Dose-dependent efficacy of the Vitex agnus castus extract Ze 440 in patients suffering from premenstrual syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Ruediger; Zimmermann, Christian; Drewe, Jürgen; Hoexter, Godehard; Zahner, Catherine

    2012-11-15

    Preparations of Vitex agnus castus L. (VAC) have been shown to be effective to treat irregular menstrual cycles, cyclical mastalgia and symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS). However, the dose-effect relationship for the treatment of PMS has not yet been established. This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of three different doses of the VAC extract Ze 440 in comparison to placebo in patients suffering from PMS. In a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, 162 female patients with PMS (18-45 years) were randomized to either placebo or different doses of Ze 440 (8, 20 and 30 mg) over three menstrual cycles. PMS symptoms' severity was assessed by patients using visual analog scales (VAS) for the symptoms irritability, mood alteration, anger, headache, bloating and breast fullness. Each of the treatments was well tolerated. Improvement in the total symptom score (TSS) in the 20mg group was significantly higher than in the placebo and 8 mg treatment group. The higher dose of 30 mg, on the other hand, did not significantly decrease symptom severity compared to the 20mg treatment, providing a rational for the usage of 20mg. Corresponding results were observed with the single PMS symptom scores. This study demonstrated that the VAC extract Ze 440 was effective in relieving symptoms of PMS, when applied in a dose of 20mg. Therefore, for patients suffering from PMS, 20mg Ze 440 should be the preferred daily dose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy and safety of Vitex agnus-castus extract for treatment of premenstrual syndrome in Japanese patients: a prospective, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoeda, Mikio; Sasaki, Hidetaka; Tagashira, Eiko; Ogishima, Masayuki; Takano, Yuichi; Ochiai, Kazunori

    2014-03-01

    Herbal medicine containing Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) extract is widely used by women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in Europe, however, in Japan, clinical evidence remains to be determined. This study attempted to investigate the efficacy and safety profiles of VAC extract in Japanese patients with PMS. A multi-center, prospective, open-label, single-arm, phase 3 study was performed in Japanese women with PMS and aged 18-44 years. The patients received Prefemin® (Max Zeller Söhne AG, Romanshorn, Switzerland), containing 20 mg of VAC extract, once daily for three menstrual cycles. The efficacy profile was examined based on the intensity of ten PMS symptoms-irritability, depressed mood, anger, headache, bloating, breast fullness, skin disorder, fatigue, drowsiness, and sleeplessness-recorded by patients via a visual analog scale (VAS). In addition, the responder rate was calculated based on the total VAS score defined by the sum of the VAS scores of the first six symptoms mentioned above. Furthermore, physician's global assessment (PGA) scores were recorded. Adverse events including vital signs and laboratory test values were monitored as safety evaluation. Sixty-nine patients received Prefemin®. After the first menstrual cycle, a statistically significant decrease in total VAS score was observed (P<0.001), and the score continued to diminish for the following two cycles. Each of the ten symptom scores decreased significantly in this manner. In addition, the responder rate increased in a time-dependent manner; the rate at the third menstrual cycle was 91.0%, and almost all of the patients were without symptoms or exhibited only mild symptoms based on PGA. Eight patients exhibited non-serious adverse events, one of which was allergic dermatitis whose causal relationship with VAC was not ruled out. VAC extract improved PMS symptoms in Japanese patients, with no substantial adverse events. This is the first study to report the effect of VAC extract in Japanese

  7. Wild tobacco genomes reveal the evolution of nicotine biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuqing; Brockmöller, Thomas; Navarro-Quezada, Aura; Kuhl, Heiner; Gase, Klaus; Ling, Zhihao; Zhou, Wenwu; Kreitzer, Christoph; Stanke, Mario; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Pandey, Priyanka; Pandey, Shree P; Timmermann, Bernd; Gaquerel, Emmanuel; Baldwin, Ian T

    2017-06-06

    Nicotine, the signature alkaloid of Nicotiana species responsible for the addictive properties of human tobacco smoking, functions as a defensive neurotoxin against attacking herbivores. However, the evolution of the genetic features that contributed to the assembly of the nicotine biosynthetic pathway remains unknown. We sequenced and assembled genomes of two wild tobaccos, Nicotiana attenuata (2.5 Gb) and Nicotiana obtusifolia (1.5 Gb), two ecological models for investigating adaptive traits in nature. We show that after the Solanaceae whole-genome triplication event, a repertoire of rapidly expanding transposable elements (TEs) bloated these Nicotiana genomes, promoted expression divergences among duplicated genes, and contributed to the evolution of herbivory-induced signaling and defenses, including nicotine biosynthesis. The biosynthetic machinery that allows for nicotine synthesis in the roots evolved from the stepwise duplications of two ancient primary metabolic pathways: the polyamine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) pathways. In contrast to the duplication of the polyamine pathway that is shared among several solanaceous genera producing polyamine-derived tropane alkaloids, we found that lineage-specific duplications within the NAD pathway and the evolution of root-specific expression of the duplicated Solanaceae-specific ethylene response factor that activates the expression of all nicotine biosynthetic genes resulted in the innovative and efficient production of nicotine in the genus Nicotiana Transcription factor binding motifs derived from TEs may have contributed to the coexpression of nicotine biosynthetic pathway genes and coordinated the metabolic flux. Together, these results provide evidence that TEs and gene duplications facilitated the emergence of a key metabolic innovation relevant to plant fitness.

  8. Efectul unor plante medicinale asupra profilului lipidic și al activității enzimelor hepatice în comparație cu statinele

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    Mohamed, Erieg Abdul Wahab

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, hyperlipidemia has considerably increased with the development of machine life. It has been accompanied by diseases such as hypothyroidism, liver and kidney diseases, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, as well as obesity and can cause complications such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, increased risk of stroke, and fatty liver disease. Currently, the prevalence of hyperlipidemia and its related diseases has increased in developing as well as developed countries. In the most cases, drug therapy is needed to control and treat hyperlipidemia. However, problems related to conventional drugs including adverse events (digestive complications such as indigestion, bloating, constipation along with neurologic complications such as myopathy and neuralgia. In addition to the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Growing rate of hyperlipidemia and its related complications despite the availability of these drugs dissatisfaction of patients with these drugs, emergence of complications induced by their prolonged use, as well as high drug costs have increased tendency to complementary and alternative treatments for the control and treatment of this disease. In this regard, traditional medical information of each region as well as identification and utilization of medicinal plants of that area may have an important role in identifying new medicines with plant origin for alternative treatments. In addition to endogenous antioxidants, there are exogenous antioxidants. The beneficial effects of foods have been linked to the presence of bioactive compounds and other nutrients. Examples of biomolecules that have antioxidant potential are phenolic compounds such as isoflavones, phenolic acids, catechins, chlorogenic acids, anthocyanins, and terpenes. Thus, plants have been described as an alternative to the development of new drugs applied to treatment of many diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, ulcers, depurative blood and cancer.

  9. Diagnosis and management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikfarjam, Mehrdad; Wilson, Jeremy S; Smith, Ross C

    2017-08-21

    In 2015, the Australasian Pancreatic Club (APC) published the Australasian guidelines for the management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (http://pancreas.org.au/2016/01/pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency-guidelines). Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) occurs when normal digestion cannot be sustained due to insufficient pancreatic digestive enzyme activity. This may be related to a breakdown, at any point, in the pancreatic digestive chain: pancreatic stimulation; synthesis, release or transportation of pancreatic enzymes; or synchronisation of secretions to mix with ingested food. Main recommendations: The guidelines provide advice on diagnosis and management of PEI, noting the following: A high prevalence of PEI is seen in certain diseases and conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and pancreatic surgery. The main symptoms of PEI are steatorrhoea or diarrhoea, abdominal pain, bloating and weight loss. These symptoms are non-specific and often go undetected and untreated. PEI diagnosis is predominantly based on clinical findings and the presence of underlying disease. The likelihood of PEI in suspected patients has been categorised into three groups: definite, possible and unlikely. If left untreated, PEI may lead to complications related to fat malabsorption and malnutrition, and have an impact on quality of life. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) remains the mainstay of PEI treatment with the recommended adult initial enzyme dose being 25 000-40 000 units of lipase per meal, titrating up to a maximum of 75 000-80 000 units of lipase per meal. Adjunct acid-suppressing therapy may be useful when patients still experience symptoms of PEI on high dose PERT. Nutritional management by an experienced dietitian is essential. Changes in management as a result of these guidelines: These are the first guidelines to classify PEI as being definite, possible or unlikely, and provide a diagnostic algorithm to

  10. Effects of Prebiotics and Synbiotics on Functional Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ting; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Tan, Jia-Cheng; Xiong, Wen-Jie; Wang, Yun; Lin, Lin

    2017-03-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of prebiotics and synbiotics on adults with functional constipation (FC). Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched for literature published up to February 2015. We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported administration of prebiotics or synbiotics to adults with FC. The end points included stool frequency, stool consistency and other symptoms related to constipation. Mean differences (MD) or standard mean differences (SMD) were used for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for discontinuous outcomes using a random-effects model. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to determine the quality of the trials. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to analyze for publication bias. We included 5 RCTs involving 199 patients who were administered prebiotics and 8 RCTs involving 825 patients who were administered synbiotics. Prebiotics increased weekly stool frequency (MD: 1.01bowel movements/week, 95% CI: 0.04-1.99) and improved stool consistency (SMD: -0.59, 95% CI: -1.16 to -0.02). Subgroup analysis showed specific effects for galacto-oligosaccharides on stool frequency, consistency, ease of defecation and abdominal pain. Synbiotics significantly improved stool frequency (MD: 1.15bowel movements/week, 95% CI: 0.58-1.71), consistency (SMD: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.33-0.92) and reduced whole-gut transit time (MD: 13.52, 95% CI: -26.56 to -0.49) in patients with FC. Subgroup analysis showed specific effects for fructo-oligosaccharides and probiotic combinations on stool frequency, consistency, straining defecation and bloating. Galacto-oligosaccharides and synbiotics made up of fructo-oligosaccharides with probiotic combinations may improve stool frequency, consistency and some other symptoms related to constipation. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder with bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder in a nationally representative epidemiological sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Carrie J.; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Valentine, Sarah E.; Gerber, Monica W.; Vaewsorn, Adin S.; Marques, Luana

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are associated with significant health impairment. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) comprise both psychological (disturbances in mood and affect) and physiological (bloating and changes in appetite) symptoms that may trigger binge eating and/or purging. Method Female participants were drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys, conducted from 2001–2003. Weighted multivariable logistic regression modeled the association between lifetime PMS and PMDD and lifetime odds of BN or BED. Results Among 8,694 participants, 133 (1.0%) had BN and 185 (1.8%) BED. Additionally, 366 (4.2%) had PMDD and 3,489 (42.4%) had PMS. Prevalence of PMDD and PMS were 17.4% and 55.4% among those with BN, 10.7% and 48.9% among those with BED and 3.4% and 59.1% among those with subthreshold BED. After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, body mass index, age at menarche, birth control use and comorbid mental health conditions, PMDD was associated with 7-times the odds of BN (OR 7.2, 95% CI 2.3, 22.4) and PMS with 2-times the odds of BN (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1, 5.7). Neither PMDD nor PMS were significantly associated with BED. Discussion Women with PMS and PMDD have a higher odds of BN, independent of comorbid mental health conditions. PMS and PMDD may be important comorbidities to BN to consider in clinical settings, and future research should investigate whether PMS and PMDD affect the onset and duration of bulimic symptoms as well as the potential for shared risk factors across disorders. PMID:27206163

  12. Overservicing in dental practice--ethical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshorne, Johan; Hasegawa, Thomas K

    2003-10-01

    Overservicing or the acceptance of unnecessary, inappropriate, excessive or fraudulent treatment is regarded as sanctioned lying, cheating or stealing and thus constitutes unethical conduct and a breach of the integrity of the profession. During the past year the media have repeatedly reported that the private sector is bloated with overservicing: one of the most important factors contributing to the increasing inflation of health care costs. Overservicing is an ethical problem presenting with a conflict situation among the interests of the patient, the provider and the funder. For example, since dentists are in a position to gain financially from their professional recommendations, they are at risk of having a conflict of interest: by overservicing they collect more fees. Low medical aid tariffs, delayed payment of benefits, oversupply of dentists, decreasing business and the spiralling costs of dental materials and equipment are the primary causes of high practice overheads and low cash-flow levels. Dentists may seek alternatives such as overservicing or unnecessary treatment to generate income and to improve their cash flow and/or profit. The main motives for overservicing are economic survival and financial gain. Some dentists may overtreat unintentionally due to out-dated treatment philosophies or where criteria for diagnosis and effective care are not clear, leading to variation in treatment decisions. Some overservicing may be due to patient-initiated demand. Dentists are largely unregulated as to the appropriateness or necessity of treatment decisions because of their professional status. Society trusts that their professionals will put the benefit of those they serve above their own self-interests. The aim of this review is to provide dentists with some guidance to the process of ethical decision making, the ethical principles involved, moral rules, and guidelines for professional standard of care. Business considerations whether profit, financial gain or

  13. The low FODMAP diet: recent advances in understanding its mechanisms and efficacy in IBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudacher, Heidi M; Whelan, Kevin

    2017-08-01

    There is an intensifying interest in the interaction between diet and the functional GI symptoms experienced in IBS. Recent studies have used MRI to demonstrate that short-chain fermentable carbohydrates increase small intestinal water volume and colonic gas production that, in those with visceral hypersensitivity, induces functional GI symptoms. Dietary restriction of short-chain fermentable carbohydrates (the low fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP) diet) is now increasingly used in the clinical setting. Initial research evaluating the efficacy of the low FODMAP diet was limited by retrospective study design and lack of comparator groups, but more recently well-designed clinical trials have been published. There are currently at least 10 randomised controlled trials or randomised comparative trials showing the low FODMAP diet leads to clinical response in 50%-80% of patients with IBS, in particular with improvements in bloating, flatulence, diarrhoea and global symptoms. However, in conjunction with the beneficial clinical impact, recent studies have also demonstrated that the low FODMAP diet leads to profound changes in the microbiota and metabolome, the duration and clinical relevance of which are as yet unknown. This review aims to present recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms by which the low FODMAP diet impacts on symptoms in IBS, recent evidence for its efficacy, current findings regarding the consequences of the diet on the microbiome and recommendations for areas for future research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. A preliminary study of insect succession on a pig carcass in a palm oil plantation in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, C C; Mohamad, A M; Ahmad Firdaus, M S; Jeffery, J; Baharudin, Omar

    2007-12-01

    This preliminary study was carried out in a palm oil plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor in 17 May 2007 by using pig (Sus scrofa) as a carcass model in forensic entomological research. A 3 month old pig (8.5 kg) that died of pneumonio was placed in the field to observe the decomposition stages and the fauna succession of forensically important flies. Observation was made for two weeks; two visits per day and all climatological data were recorded. The first visitor to the pig carcass was a muscid fly, seen within a minute, and followed by ants and spiders. Within half an hour, calliphorid flies came over. On the second day (fresh), few calliphorid and sarcophagid flies were found on the carcass. Two different species of moths were trapped in the hanging net. The first larva mass occurred on the third day (bloated) around the mouthpart, with some L1 and L2 found in the eyes. Reduvid bugs and Staphylinidae beetles were recovered on the fourth day (active decay), and new maggot masses occurred in the eyes and anus. L3 larvae could be found beneath the pig carcass on the fourth day. On the fifth day (active decay), new maggot masses were found on neck, thorax, and hind legs. Advance decay occurred on the sixth day with abundant maggots covering all over the body. The main adult fly population was Chrysomya megacephala (day 2 to day 6), but the larvae population was mainly those of Chrysomya rufifacies (day 4 to day 14). The dry stage began on the eighth day. Hermetia illucens adult was caught on day-13, and a larvae mass of Chrysomya rufifacies was seen burrowing under the soil. This forensic entomological research using pig carcass model was the first record in this country.

  15. Flexible video-endsocopic injection sclerotherapy for second and third degree internal hemorrhoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Nijhawan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Bleeding from hemorrhoids is the commonest cause of rectal bleeding in adults. Injection sclerotherapy of internal hemorrhoids is one of the non-surgical treatments, and is simple, safe and feasible. Conventionally sclerotherapy is performed with rigid proctoscope which has limitations of maneuverability, narrower field of vision and documentation compared to flexible videoendoscope. Therefore, we assessed the efficacy and safety of video-colonoscopic sclerotherapy for bleeding internal hemorrhides. Methods: Seventy-nine patients of bleeding internal hemorrhoids were subjected to colonoscopic sclerotherapy using 1.5% polidocanol in retroflexed or forward viewing positions. Success of treatment was defined as cessation of bleeding for six weeks. Patients were observed for complications and were followed up regularly for 3 months. Results: A total of 79 evaluable patients, 61 had grade II and 18 had grade III hemorrhoids. There was no statistically significant differences in achieving excellent or good results for control of bleeding between patients with grade II and grade III hemorrhoids (100% vs 94,5%; p>0.05. The number of sessions of sclerotherapy required were significantly more in grade II than grade III hemorrhoids (1.1 ± 0.3 vs 1.3 ± 0.7; p = 0.04. No significant complications were noted except for bloating in ten patients (12.6 % and rectal pain in 6 (7.6% patients. Median time taken for the procedure was 30 minutes. Conclusions: Video-endoscopic sclerotherapy is safe, well-tolerated and effective treatment for bleeding internal hemorrhoids.

  16. Imaging in gynecological disease (9): clinical and ultrasound characteristics of tubal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovisi, M; De Blasis, I; Virgilio, B; Fischerova, D; Franchi, D; Pascual, M A; Savelli, L; Epstein, E; Van Holsbeke, C; Guerriero, S; Czekierdowski, A; Zannoni, G; Scambia, G; Jurkovic, D; Rossi, A; Timmerman, D; Valentin, L; Testa, A C

    2014-03-01

    To describe clinical history and ultrasound findings in patients with tubal carcinoma. Patients with a histological diagnosis of tubal cancer who had undergone preoperative ultrasound examination were identified from the databases of 13 ultrasound centers. The tumors were described by the principal investigator at each contributing center on the basis of ultrasound images, ultrasound reports and research protocols (when applicable) using the terms and definitions of the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) group. In addition, three authors reviewed together all available digital ultrasound images and described them using subjective evaluation of gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasound findings. We identified 79 women with a histological diagnosis of primary tubal cancer, 70 of whom (89%) had serous carcinomas and 46 (58%) of whom presented at FIGO stage III. Forty-nine (62%) women were asymptomatic (incidental finding), whilst the remaining 30 complained of abdominal bloating or pain. Fifty-three (67%) tumors were described as solid at ultrasound examination, 14 (18%) as multilocular solid, 10 (13%) as unilocular solid and two (3%) as unilocular. No tumor was described as a multilocular mass. Most tumors (70/79, 89%) were moderately or very well vascularized on color or power Doppler ultrasound. Normal ovarian tissue was identified adjacent to the tumor in 51% (39/77) of cases. Three types of ultrasound appearance were identified as being typical of tubal carcinoma using pattern recognition: a sausage-shaped cystic structure with solid tissue protruding into it like a papillary projection (11/62, 18%); a sausage-shaped cystic structure with a large solid component filling part of the cyst cavity (13/62, 21%); an ovoid or oblong completely solid mass (36/62, 58%). A well vascularized ovoid or sausage-shaped structure, either completely solid or with large solid component(s) in the pelvis, should raise the suspicion of tubal cancer, especially if normal

  17. The Epidemiology of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Mexico: A Population-Based Study

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    Aurelio López-Colombo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The frequency of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs in the general population of Mexico is unknown. Methods. To determine the prevalence of FGIDs, associated depression, and health care utilization, a population-based sampling strategy was used to select 500 households in the State of Tlaxcala, in central Mexico. Household interviews were conducted by two trained physicians using the Rome II Modular Questionnaire, a health-care and medication used questionnaire and the CES-D depression scale. Results. The most common FGIDs were IBS: 16.0% (95% CI: 12.9–19.5; functional bloating: 10.8% (8.2–13.9; unspecified functional bowel disorder: 10.6% (8.0–13.6; and functional constipation (FC: 7.4% (5.3–10.1. Uninvestigated heartburn was common: 19.6% (16.2–23.4. All FGIDs were equally prevalent among both genders, except for IBS (P=0.001, IBS-C (P<0.001, IBS-A/M (P=0.049, and FC (P=0.039 which were more frequent in women. Subjects with FGIDs reported higher frequencies of medical visits: 34.6 versus 16.8%; use of medications: 40.7 versus 21.6%; (both P<0.001; and reported depression: 26.7 versus 6.7%, (P<0.001. Conclusion. In this first population-based study of FGIDs in Mexico, heartburn, IBS, functional distension, and FC were common. Only IBS, IBS-C, IBS-A/M, and FC were more frequent in women. Finally, FGIDs in Mexico had an increased burden of health care utilization and depression.

  18. Impact of volcanic plume emissions on rain water chemistry during the January 2010 Nyamuragira eruptive event: implications for essential potable water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuoco, Emilio; Tedesco, Dario; Poreda, Robert J; Williams, Jeremy C; De Francesco, Stefano; Balagizi, Charles; Darrah, Thomas H

    2013-01-15

    On January 2, 2010 the Nyamuragira volcano erupted lava fountains extending up to 300 m vertically along an ~1.5 km segment of its southern flank cascading ash and gas on nearby villages and cities along the western side of the rift valley. Because rain water is the only available potable water resource within this region, volcanic impacts on drinking water constitutes a major potential hazard to public health within the region. During the 2010 eruption, concerns were expressed by local inhabitants about water quality and feelings of physical discomfort (e.g. nausea, bloating, indigestion, etc.) after consuming rain water collected after the eruption began. We present the elemental and ionic chemistry of drinking water samples collected within the region on the third day of the eruption (January 5, 2010). We identify a significant impact on water quality associated with the eruption including lower pH (i.e. acidification) and increases in acidic halogens (e.g. F(-) and Cl(-)), major ions (e.g. SO(4)(2-), NH(4)(+), Na(+), Ca(2+)), potentially toxic metals (e.g. Al(3+), Mn(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Hf(4+)), and particulate load. In many cases, the water's composition significantly exceeds World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards. The degree of pollution depends upon: (1) ash plume direction and (2) ash plume density. The potential negative health impacts are a function of the water's pH, which regulates the elements and their chemical form that are released into drinking water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve on antibiotic-associated diarrhea treatment: randomized double-blind clinical trial

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    Daniela Nogueira Prado de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD is an important side effect of this specific class of drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the use of probiotics in the treatment of AAD. METHODS: A group of hospitalized patients, who contracted diarrhea during or after 7 days of suspension of antimicrobial medication, was blindly randomized to receive a standardized diet associated with the use of the probiotics (Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve or its corresponding placebo, three times a day. RESULTS: Seventy patients were studied. For the experimental (n=35 and control (n=35 groups, respectively, the average time of treatment was 5.06±2.18 and 5.49±3.17 days (p=0.95, and the average duration of diarrhea, among those who were healed, was 4.87±2.13 and 4.52±2.55 days (p=0.36. Four (11.4% patients who received probiotics and ten (28.6% who received the placebo were not cured (p=0.13, and relapse rates were similar between both groups. Seven patients from each group, in addition to diarrhea, presented cases of bloating and/or abdominal cramps and/or vomiting (p=1.00. CONCLUSIONS: In this light, it is concluded that L. casei associated with B. breve, in the administered dosage and frequency, has no effect on the antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Similar studies need to be conducted with higher doses of these or other probiotics.

  20. Efficacy of Bifidobacterium breve Fermented Milk in Maintaining Remission of Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Uemura, Yukari; Kanai, Takanori; Kunisaki, Reiko; Suzuki, Yasuo; Yokoyama, Kaoru; Yoshimura, Naoki; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2018-02-15

    Fermented milk products containing Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult (BFM) may improve clinical status in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. To assess efficacy of BFM in maintaining remission in Japanese patients with quiescent UC. This double-blind study (B-FLORA) enrolled 195 patients with quiescent UC, randomized to receive one pack of BFM fermented milk per day [Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult (10 billion bacteria) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (1 billion bacteria)] (n = 98) or matching placebo (n = 97) for 48 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was relapse-free survival (relapse: rectal bleeding score ≥ 2 on Sutherland disease activity index scale for 3 consecutive days and/or initiation of remission induction therapy for worsening of UC). An interim analysis was conducted after inclusion and follow-up of one-third of patients for the first phase of the study (n = 195). Relapse-free survival was not significantly different between the BFM and placebo groups (P = 0.643; hazard ratio 1.16; 95% CI 0.63-2.14, log-rank test), nor was the incidence of relapse. Therefore, the study was discontinued for lack of efficacy. An exploratory analysis of fecal samples from a subgroup of patients revealed no effects of either study beverage on intestinal microbiota, but there was a significant decrease in Bifidobacterium species before relapse, regardless of treatment group. Three mild adverse events occurred for which a causal relationship with the study beverage could not be ruled out (placebo: abdominal bloating and stress in one patient; BFM: body odor in one patient). BFM had no effect on time to relapse in UC patients compared with placebo. UMIN000007593.

  1. Pilot cohort study of endoscopic botulinum neurotoxin injection in Parkinson's disease.

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    Triadafilopoulos, George; Gandhy, Rita; Barlow, Carrolee

    2017-11-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as dysphagia, postprandial bloating, and defecatory straining are common in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and they impact quality of life. Endoscopic botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injection has been used in the treatment of dysphagia, gastroparesis and chronic anismus. To examine the feasibility, safety and efficacy of endoscopically delivered BoNT injection to distal esophagus, pylorus or anal canal aiming at relieving regional gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with PD. This is a retrospective open cohort pilot study to assess the clinical response to endoscopic BoNT injection on selected PD patients with symptoms and identifiable abnormalities on high-resolution manometry and wireless motility capsule, to generate early uncontrolled data on feasibility, tolerability, safety and efficacy. Baseline symptoms and response to therapy were assessed by questionnaires. Fourteen PD patients (10 M:4 F), mean age 73 (range: 62-93) were treated. Three patients had esophageal Botox for ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) (n = 1), esophago-gastric junction outlet obstruction (EGJOO) & IEM (n = 1), and diffuse esophageal spasm (DES) (n = 1). Nine patients were treated with pyloric BoNT injection for gastroparesis with mean gastric transit time of 21.2 h; range 5.2-44.2 h. Two patients received anal Botox for defecatory dyssynergia ((Type I) (n = 1) and overlap (slow-transit and dyssynergic) constipation (n = 1). Endoscopic BoNT injection (100-200 units) was well tolerated and there were no significant adverse events. Endoscopic BoNT injection to esophagus, pylorus or anal canal is safe, well-tolerated and leads to symptomatic improvement that lasts up to several months. The procedure can be repeated as needed and combined with other therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal presentation in patients with celiac disease.

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    Ehsani-Ardakani, Mohammad Javad; Rostami Nejad, Mohammad; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Volta, Umberto; Manenti, Stefania; Caio, Giacomo; Giovenali, Paolo; Becheanu, Gabriel; Diculescu, Mircea; Pellegrino, Salvatore; Magazzù, Giuseppe; Casella, Giovanni; Di Bella, Camillo; Decarli, Nicola; Biancalani, Mauro; Bassotti, Gabrio; Hogg-Kollars, Sabine; Zali, Mohammad Reza; Rostami, Kamran

    2013-02-01

    Celiac disease (CD) may have a variety of different presentations. This study has aimed to explore the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI symptoms in patients with CD according to data collected in Italy and Romania (Europe) and Iran (Middle East). This is a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted in Iran, Romania and Italy with data collection during the period from May 2009 - May 2011. For each center we included only patients with CD that was confirmed by endoscopy, small bowel biopsies and positive serology. GI symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, nausea and vomiting, weight loss and flatulence, as well as additional signs and symptoms of iron deficiency anemia (IDA), osteoporosis, hypertransaminasemia, and other related abnormalities were collected. Overall, 323 women and 127 men, whose mean age at diagnosis was 34.2 ± 16.47 years were included in this study. Of these, 157 subjects (34.9%) reported at least one GI symptom. The majority of cases had the following primary presenting GI symptoms: diarrhea (13.6%), dyspepsia and constipation (4.0%). Other disease symptoms were reported by 168 (37.3%) patients. The most presenting non-GI symptoms in the majority of cases were anemia (20.7%) and osteopenia (6%). There were statistically significant differences between the majority of symptoms when we compared the reported clinical symptoms from different countries. This study indicated that upper abdominal disorders such as abdominal pain and dyspepsia were the most common primary complaints among European patients, whereas Iranian patients had complaints of diarrhea and bloating as the classic presentations of CD. For non-GI symptoms, anemia was the most frequent complaint for both Iranian and Italian patients; however it was significantly higher in Iranians.

  3. Microscopic colitis - a missed diagnosis in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoicescu, Adriana; Becheanu, Gabriel; Dumbrava, Mona; Gheorghe, Cristian; Diculescu, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    Clinical presentation in microscopic colitis (MC) is similar in many cases to that of diarrhea-predominent irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). The proper differential diagnosis requires total colonoscopy with multiple biopsies from normal-appearing mucosa and a detailed histopathological exam. Specific treatment may improve symptomatology. To evaluate the prevalence of MC in patients with an initial diagnosis of IBS-D, to analyse demographic and clinical features of MC patients and to assess the efficacy of specific treatment. Our retrospective study analyzed patients diagnosed with microscopic colitis in clinic during a three-year period. Diagnosis was established on histological exams of the samples obtained during colonoscopy in patients previously thought to have IBS-D. We evaluated clinical manifestations, time lapsed from their onset to definitive diagnosis, the association of MC with autoimmune diseases or with prior medication and the efficacy of treatment with budesonide or mesalazine. From 247 patients considered to have IBS-D, 15 patients (6.07%) had actually MC (13 lymphocytic colitis and 2 collagenous colitis). MC was associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (3 patients), Lansoprazole (2 patients) and autoimmune diseases (6 patients). Watery, non-bloody diarrhea was present in all patients with MC. Other frequent complaints were nocturnal diarrhea (11 patients), abdominal pain (8 patients), abdominal bloating and flatulence (8 patients) and slight weight loss (6 patients). The diagnostic samples were obtained from the right colon in 6 cases and from rectosigmoid or transverse colon in 9 patients. Treatment was initial symptomatic in all patients, but there were 5 patients that required mesalazine and/or Budesonide, with favourable outcome. All the patients thought to have diarrhea-irritable bowel syndrome should be evaluated for microscopic colitis. Symptomatology is almost superimposable, but a few distinct features can be noticed. The proper

  4. Clinical Practice Guideline: irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and functional constipation in the adult

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    Fermín Mearin

    Full Text Available In this Clinical Practice Guideline we discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of adult patients with constipation and abdominal complaints at the confluence of the irritable bowel syndrome spectrum and functional constipation. Both conditions are included among the functional bowel disorders, and have a significant personal, healthcare, and social impact, affecting the quality of life of the patients who suffer from them. The first one is the irritable bowel syndrome subtype, where constipation represents the predominant complaint, in association with recurrent abdominal pain, bloating, and abdominal distension. Constipation is characterized by difficulties with or low frequency of bowel movements, often accompanied by straining during defecation or a feeling of incomplete evacuation. Most cases have no underlying medical cause, and are therefore considered as a functional bowel disorder. There are many clinical and pathophysiological similarities between both disorders, and both respond similarly to commonly used drugs, their primary difference being the presence or absence of pain, albeit not in an "all or nothing" manner. Severity depends not only upon bowel symptom intensity but also upon other biopsychosocial factors (association of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal symptoms, grade of involvement, and perception and behavior variants. Functional bowel disorders are diagnosed using the Rome criteria. This Clinical Practice Guideline has been made consistent with the Rome IV criteria, which were published late in May 2016, and discuss alarm criteria, diagnostic tests, and referral criteria between Primary Care and gastroenterology settings. Furthermore, all the available treatment options (exercise, fluid ingestion, diet with soluble fiber-rich foods, fiber supplementation, other dietary components, osmotic or stimulating laxatives, probiotics, antibiotics, spasmolytics, peppermint essence, prucalopride, linaclotide, lubiprostone

  5. Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population

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    Noe Ontiveros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mexican population. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI: 11.9% (9.9–13.5 and 7.8 (6.4–9.4 for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to gluten respectively; adherence to gluten-free diet 3.7% (2.7–4.8, wheat allergy 0.72% (0.38–1.37; celiac disease 0.08% (0.01–0.45, and NCGS 0.97% (0.55–1.68. Estimated pooled prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.88% (0.49–1.5, and 93.3% respondents reported adherence to gluten-free diet without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders. Symptom comparisons between those who reported recurrent adverse reactions to gluten and other foods showed statistically significant differences for bloating, constipation, and tiredness (p < 0.05. Gluten-related disorders may be underdiagnosed in the Mexican population and most people adhering to a gluten-free diet are doing it without proper diagnostic work-up of these disorders, and probably without medical/dietician advice.

  6. THE PREVALENCE OF CELIAC DISEASE AMONG PATIENTS WITH FAMILIAL MEDITERRANEAN FEVER

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    Sedat IŞIKAY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Familial Mediterranean Fever and celiac disease are both related to auto-inflammation and/or auto-immunity and they share some common clinical features such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating and flatulence. Objectives We aimed to determine the association of these two diseases, if present. Methods Totally 112 patients diagnosed with Familial Mediterranean Fever and 32 cases as healthy control were included in the study. All participants were examined for the evidence of celiac disease, with serum tissue transglutaminase IgA levels (tTG IgA. Results Totally 144 cases, 112 with Familial Mediterranean Fever and 32 healthy control cases were included in the study. tTG IgA positivity was determined in three cases with Familial Mediterranean Fever and in one case in control group. In that aspect there was no significant difference regarding the tTG IgA positivity between groups (P=0.81. Duodenum biopsy was performed to the tTG IgA positive cases and revealed Marsh Type 3b in two Familial Mediterranean Fever cases and Marsh Type 3c in the other one while the biopsy results were of the only tTG IgA positive case in control group was Marsh Type 3b. In HLA evaluation of the celiac cases; HLA DQ2 was present in two celiac cases of the Familial Mediterranean Fever group and in the only celiac case of the control group while HLA DQ8 was present in one celiac case of the Familial Mediterranean Fever group. Conclusions We did not determine an association of Familial Mediterranean Fever with celiac disease. Larger studies with subgroup analysis are warranted to determine the relationship of these two diseases.

  7. [Empacho: An historical review of popular Chilean childhood disease (1674-2014)].

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    Campos Navarro, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    "Empacho" (abdominal pain and bloating), "mal de ojo" (evil eye), "los aires" (illnesses said to be caught by catching draughts), "el susto" or "espanto" (fright or panic), are the principal and most well-known popular Latin American illnesses. As regards empacho, the medical, historical and ethnographic information is extensive and detailed, since there documents recording it from the 16th century until recent times (2014), and in the case of Chile since 1674. For this review, 109 source documents from libraries in Chile, including some foreign ones, were consulted. It was found that the illness is known all over the country. It is a digestive system disorder caused by over-eating and the ingestion of products difficult to digest or indigestible, which cause problems in gastrointestinal transit. The most significant clinical data are gastralgia, diarrhoea or constipation, vomiting, fever, and other discomforts. The illness is treated at home, and if necessary, popular specialists are employed, with a visit to a qualified doctor being exceptional. There are many complex and combined treatments, which go from herbal products to ritual elements, not forgetting the so-called "quebradura del empacho". This review summary of empacho in Chile should enable the paediatrician to enter the world of popular knowledge and practices with the aim of improving the care of child patients and their families. It should also lead to the serious and systematic study of this nosological condition that will continue to exist in the future. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 supplementation in the management of diarrhea predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: a double blind randomized placebo controlled pilot clinical study.

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    Majeed, Muhammed; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Natarajan, Sankaran; Sivakumar, Arumugam; Ali, Furqan; Pande, Anurag; Majeed, Shaheen; Karri, Suresh Kumar

    2016-02-27

    Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 has been marketed as a dietary ingredient, but its efficacy in diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) condition has not been clinically elucidated till date. Thus, a double blind placebo controlled multi-centered trial was planned to evaluate the safety and efficacy of B. coagulans MTCC 5856 in diarrhea predominant IBS patients. Thirty six newly diagnosed diarrhea predominant IBS patients were enrolled in three clinical centres. Along with standard care of treatment, 18 patients in group one received placebo while in group two 18 patients received B. coagulans MTCC 5856 tablet containing 2 × 10(9) cfu/day as active for 90 days. Clinical symptoms of IBS were considered as primary end point measures and were evaluated through questionnaires. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used for abdominal pain. Physician's global assessment and IBS quality of life were considered as secondary efficacy measures and were monitored through questionnaires. Laboratory parameters, anthropometric and vital signs were within the normal clinical range during the 90 days of supplementation in placebo and B. coagulans MTCC 5856 group. There was a significant decrease in the clinical symptoms like bloating, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and stool frequency in a patient group receiving B. coagulans MTCC 5856 when compared to placebo group (p coagulans MTCC 5856 when compared to placebo group. The study concluded that the B. coagulans MTCC 5856 at a dose of 2 × 10(9) cfu/day along with standard care of treatment was found to be safe and effective in diarrhea predominant IBS patients for 90 days of supplementation. Hence, B. coagulans MTCC 5856 could be a potential agent in the management of diarrhea predominant IBS patients.

  9. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group dual site trial to evaluate the effects of a Bacillus coagulans-based product on functional intestinal gas symptoms

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    Feldman Samantha

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This randomized double blind placebo controlled dual site clinical trial compared a probiotic dietary supplement to placebo regarding effects on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post-prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms (abdominal pain, distention, flatulence but no gastrointestinal (GI diagnoses to explain the symptoms. Methods Sixty-one adults were enrolled (age 36.5 ± 12.6 years; height 165.1 ± 9.2 cm; weight 75.4 ± 17.3 kg and randomized to either Digestive Advantage™ Gas Defense Formula - (GanedenBC30 Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086: n = 30; or Placebo: n = 31. Study subjects were evaluated every two weeks over a four-week period using validated questionnaires and standard biochemical safety testing. Outcome criteria of interest included change from baseline in Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS abdominal pain, abdominal distention, flatus, and the Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment (SODA bloating and gas subscores over four weeks of product use. Results Measured against the placebo, subjects in the probiotic group achieved significant improvements in GSRS abdominal pain subscore (p = 0.046 and the GSRS total score (p = 0.048, with a strong trend for improvement on the GSRS abdominal distension subscore (p = 0.061. A strong placebo effect was evident which could explain the lack of statistical significant differences between the groups for many of the efficacy variables. Conclusion In conclusion, the Bacillus coagulans-based product was effective in improving the quality of life and reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms and no GI diagnoses. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00881322

  10. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group dual site trial to evaluate the effects of a Bacillus coagulans-based product on functional intestinal gas symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background This randomized double blind placebo controlled dual site clinical trial compared a probiotic dietary supplement to placebo regarding effects on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post-prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms (abdominal pain, distention, flatulence) but no gastrointestinal (GI) diagnoses to explain the symptoms. Methods Sixty-one adults were enrolled (age 36.5 ± 12.6 years; height 165.1 ± 9.2 cm; weight 75.4 ± 17.3 kg) and randomized to either Digestive Advantage™ Gas Defense Formula - (GanedenBC30 Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086): n = 30; or Placebo: n = 31. Study subjects were evaluated every two weeks over a four-week period using validated questionnaires and standard biochemical safety testing. Outcome criteria of interest included change from baseline in Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) abdominal pain, abdominal distention, flatus, and the Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment (SODA) bloating and gas subscores over four weeks of product use. Results Measured against the placebo, subjects in the probiotic group achieved significant improvements in GSRS abdominal pain subscore (p = 0.046) and the GSRS total score (p = 0.048), with a strong trend for improvement on the GSRS abdominal distension subscore (p = 0.061). A strong placebo effect was evident which could explain the lack of statistical significant differences between the groups for many of the efficacy variables. Conclusion In conclusion, the Bacillus coagulans-based product was effective in improving the quality of life and reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms and no GI diagnoses. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00881322 PMID:19922649

  11. Symptoms of pseudoallergy and histamine metabolism disorders

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    Joanna Kacik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Histamine intolerance is a poorly investigated type of hypersensitivity responsible for a number of often serious symptoms, erroneously interpreted as food allergy. Endogenous histamine originates from the histidine amino acid with the help of the histidine decarboxylase enzyme. Apart from the endogenous production histamine may be supplied to the body with food. Slow-maturing and fermenting products are characterised by particularly high levels of histamine. Some food products stimulate excessive release of histamine from stores in the body as well as containing significant amounts of it. These products include spices, herbs, dried fruits and a large group of food additives. Histamine intolerance is considered to be a condition in which the amount of histamine in the body exceeds its tolerance threshold, which leads to the development of adverse reactions. These reactions primarily include skin symptoms (pruritus, urticaria, skin reddening, acne lesions, angioedema, respiratory symptoms (nasal obstruction and watery discharge, sneezing, coughing, wheezing, gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, bloating, nervous system symptoms (headaches, fatigue, irritability, anxiety, panic attacks, cardiovascular symptoms (tachycardia, hypotension, chest pain, primary dysmenorrhoea and many more. It is estimated that nearly 1% of society is susceptible to histamine intolerance. The diagnosis of this disorder is based on observing at least two characteristic symptoms and their disappearance or improvement following histamine-free diet. A new, although not easily accessible diagnostic tool is assay for serum diamine oxidase activity, which correlates to a significant extent with symptoms of histamine intolerance. Normal activity of diamine oxidase is considered to be the amount of >80 HDU/mL, decreased activity – 40–80 HDU/mL and severely decreased activity – <40 HDU/mL. Currently the option of diamine oxidase supplementation is

  12. Evolving paradigms in the treatment of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction.

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    Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Brock, Christina; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Nilsson, Matias; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2015-11-01

    In recent years prescription of opioids has increased significantly. Although effective in pain management, bothersome gastrointestinal adverse effects are experienced by a substantial proportion of opioid-treated patients. This can lead to difficulties with therapy and subsequently inadequate pain relief. Collectively referred to as opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, these adverse effects are the result of binding of exogenous opioids to opioid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This leads to disturbance of three important gastrointestinal functions: motility, coordination of sphincter function and secretion. In the clinic this manifests in a wide range of symptoms such as reflux, bloating, abdominal cramping, hard, dry stools, and incomplete evacuation, although the most known adverse effect is opioid-induced constipation. Traditional treatment with laxatives is often insufficient, but in recent years a number of novel pharmacological approaches have been introduced. In this review the pathophysiology, symptomatology and prevalence of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction is presented along with the benefits and caveats of a suggested consensus definition for opioid-induced constipation. Finally, traditional treatment is appraised and compared with the latest pharmacological developments. In conclusion, opioid antagonists restricted to the periphery show promising results, but use of different definitions and outcome measures complicate comparison. However, an international working group has recently suggested a consensus definition for opioid-induced constipation and relevant outcome measures have also been proposed. If investigators within this field adapt the suggested consensus and include symptoms related to dysfunction of the upper gut, it will ease comparison and be a step forward in future research.

  13. Systematic review: probiotics in the management of lower gastrointestinal symptoms in clinical practice – an evidence-based international guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungin, A P S; Mulligan, C; Pot, B; Whorwell, P; Agréus, L; Fracasso, P; Lionis, C; Mendive, J; Philippart de Foy, J-M; Rubin, G; Winchester, C; Wit, N

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundEvidence suggests that the gut microbiota play an important role in gastrointestinal problems. AimTo give clinicians a practical reference guide on the role of specified probiotics in managing particular lower gastrointestinal symptoms/problems by means of a systematic review-based consensus. MethodsSystematic literature searching identified randomised, placebo-controlled trials in adults; evidence for each symptom/problem was graded and statements developed (consensus process; 10-member panel). As results cannot be generalised between different probiotics, individual probiotics were identified for each statement. ResultsThirty seven studies were included; mostly on irritable bowel syndrome [IBS; 19 studies; treatment responder rates: 18–80% (specific probiotics), 5–50% (placebo)] or antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD; 10 studies). Statements with 100% agreement and ‘high’ evidence levels indicated that: (i) specific probiotics help reduce overall symptom burden and abdominal pain in some IBS patients; (ii) in patients receiving antibiotics/Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, specified probiotics are helpful as adjuvants to prevent/reduce the duration/intensity of AAD; (iii) probiotics have favourable safety in patients in primary care. Items with 70–100% agreement and ‘moderate’ evidence were: (i) specific probiotics help relieve overall symptom burden in some patients with diarrhoea-predominant IBS, and reduce bloating/distension and improve bowel movement frequency/consistency in some IBS patients and (ii) with some probiotics, improved symptoms have led to improvement in quality of life. ConclusionsSpecified probiotics can provide benefit in IBS and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea; relatively few studies in other indications suggested benefits warranting further research. This study provides practical guidance on which probiotic to select for a specific problem. PMID:23981066

  14. Digestive tolerance and postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after consumption of dairy desserts containing maltitol and fructo-oligosaccharides in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respondek, F; Hilpipre, C; Chauveau, P; Cazaubiel, M; Gendre, D; Maudet, C; Wagner, A

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the short-term digestive tolerance and glycaemic response of several associations of maltitol and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) used to replace sugars (for example, dextrose) in foods. Thirty-six healthy subjects aged 18-60 years were recruited for the study and 32 completed it. The subjects consumed six different mixtures of dextrose, maltitol and scFOS added in a chocolate dairy dessert at a dosage of 35 g. The test days were separated by 2-week washout periods. The subjects reported the intensity of four individual gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, number of bowel movements and stool frequency for the 48 h following consumption of the dessert. A subgroup of 18 subjects also provided blood samples 2 h after intake to evaluate the postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. The composite score calculated from the intensity of flatulence, borborygmi, bloating and discomfort was significantly higher (Pdesserts containing maltitol and/or scFOS than for the control dessert containing dextrose, but remains at the level of mild effects. The number of bowel movements was also slightly increased (P=0.0006) and the stools were softer (P=0.0045) for the first 24 h but not after (P=0.1373 and 0.5420, respectively). Blood glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were lower for all the sugar-free recipes containing maltitol and scFOS in comparison to the control one (P<0.0001). This study has shown that maltitol and scFOS can be used jointly when formulating sugar-free foods with the benefit to lower postprandial glycaemic response with only a small and transient increase in non-serious GI symptoms.

  15. Effectiveness of Sodium Picosulfate/Magnesium Citrate (PICO) for Colonoscopy Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Wu Seok; Jeong, Jin Sik; Kim, Dong Sik; Kim, Sang Woo; Kwak, Dong Min; Hwang, Jong Seong; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Man Woo; Shim, Min Chul; Koo, Ja-Il; Kim, Jae Hwang; Shon, Dae Ho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bowel preparation with sodium phosphate was recently prohibited by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is safe and effective; however, it is difficult to drink. To identify an easy bowel preparation method for colonoscopy, we evaluated three different bowel preparation regimens regarding their efficacy and patient satisfaction. Methods In this randomized, comparative study, 892 patients who visited a secondary referral hospital for a colonoscopy between November 2012 and February 2013 were enrolled. Three regimens were evaluated: three packets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (PICO, group A), two packets of PICO with 1 L of PEG (PICO + PEG 1 L, group B), and two packets of PICO with 2 L of PEG (PICO + PEG 2 L, group C). A questionnaire survey regarding the patients' preference for the bowel preparation regimen and satisfaction was conducted before the colonoscopies. The quality of bowel cleansing was scored by the colonoscopists who used the Aronchick scoring scale and the Ottawa scale. Results The patients' satisfaction rate regarding the regimens were 72% in group A, 64% in group B, and 45.9% in group C. Nausea and abdominal bloating caused by the regimens were more frequent in group C than in group A or group B (P < 0.01). Group C showed the lowest preference rate compared to the other groups (P < 0.01). Group C showed better right colon cleansing efficacy than group A or group B. Conclusion Group A exhibited a better result than group B or group C in patient satisfaction and preference. In the cleansing quality, no difference was noted between groups A and C. PMID:25360429

  16. Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Strategies for Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease of the Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaioli, Eleonora; Colecchia, Antonio; Marasco, Giovanni; Schiumerini, Ramona; Festi, Davide

    2016-03-01

    Colonic diverticulosis imposes a significant burden on industrialized societies. The current accepted causes of diverticula formation include low fiber content in the western diet with decreased intestinal content and size of the lumen, leading to the transmission of muscular contraction pressure to the wall of the colon, inducing the formation of diverticula usually at the weakest point of the wall where penetration of the blood vessels occurs. Approximately 20 % of the patients with colonic diverticulosis develop abdominal symptoms (i.e., abdominal pain and discomfort, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea), a condition which is defined as symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD). The pathogenesis of SUDD symptoms remains uncertain and even less is known about how to adequately manage bowel symptoms. Recently, low-grade inflammation, altered intestinal microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, and abnormal colonic motility have been identified as factors leading to symptom development, thus changing and improving the therapeutic approach. In this review, a comprehensive search of the literature regarding on SUDD pathogenetic hypotheses and pharmacological strategies was carried out. The pathogenesis of SUDD, although not completely clarified, seems to be related to an interaction between colonic microbiota alterations, and immune, enteric nerve, and muscular system dysfunction (Cuomo et al. in United Eur Gastroenterol J 2:413-442, 2014). Greater understanding of the inflammatory pathways and gut microbiota composition in subjects affected by SUDD has increased therapeutic options, including the use of gut-directed antibiotics, mesalazine, and probiotics (Bianchi et al. in Aliment Pharmacol Ther 33:902-910, 2011; Comparato et al. in Dig Dis Sci 52:2934-2941, 2007; Tursi et al. in Aliment Pharmacol Ther 38:741-751, 2013); however, more research is necessary to validate the safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of these interventions.

  17. The effect of cyclic rifaximin therapy on symptoms of diverticular disease from the perspective of the gastroenterology outpatient clinic: a "real-life" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniuszko, Andrzej; Rydzewska, Grażyna

    2017-01-01

    Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon (SUDD) is one of the most common diseases with which patients present to a gastroenterologist. Mild forms of diverticulitis can also be treated using rifaximin. Although numerous randomised controlled trials have already demonstrated the efficacy of rifaximin therapy, there is still a lack of data from daily medical practice. To assess the effect of rifaximin on the symptoms of diverticular disease (SUDD and mild diverticulitis) in patients undergoing routine treatment in gastroenterology outpatient clinics in Poland. The retrospective study included 142 patients with a diagnosis of SUDD and mild diverticulitis, with a mean age of 60-69 years (41%), of whom 65% were women. Patients underwent three cycles of rifaximin therapy at a dose of 2 × 400 mg daily for 7 days over 3 consecutive months. Survey data were collected during monthly clinic appointments using a questionnaire completed by 48 gastroenterologists, and in selected cases standard inflammatory parameters were also determined. After just one cycle of therapy a significant reduction in disease symptoms was observed (abdominal pain, abdominal tenderness, bloating, disturbances in bowel habit), defined over a scale of 0-3 points. The mean intensity of symptoms decreased from 1.7 ±0.7 to 0.8 ±0.3 points (with a maximum symptom intensity of 3.0 points). After three cycles, the severity of symptoms decreased markedly to an average of 0.3 ±0.1, and as many as 75% of patients reported no abdominal pain (previously the percentage was only 4%). These differences were statistically significant, p diverticular disease of the large bowel, and it is also effective in the treatment of mild forms of diverticulitis. Although the effects were already visible after the first cycle of therapy, the highest efficacy was obtained after three cycles of therapy. Rifaximin can be successfully used in routine medical practice.

  18. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 2 (Nmnat2 regulates axon integrity in the mouse embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy N Hicks

    Full Text Available Using transposon-mediated gene-trap mutagenesis, we have generated a novel mouse mutant termed Blad (Bloated Bladder. Homozygous mutant mice die perinatally showing a greatly distended bladder, underdeveloped diaphragm and a reduction in total skeletal muscle mass. Wild type and heterozygote mice appear normal. Using PCR, we identified a transposon insertion site in the first intron of Nmnat2 (Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenyltransferase 2. Nmnat2 is expressed predominantly in the brain and nervous system and has been linked to the survival of axons. Expression of this gene is undetectable in Nmnat2(blad/blad mutants. Examination of the brains of E18.5 Nmnat2(blad/blad mutant embryos did not reveal any obvious morphological changes. In contrast, E18.5 Nmnat2(blad/blad homozygotes showed an approximate 60% reduction of spinal motoneurons in the lumbar region and a more than 80% reduction in the sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG. In addition, facial motoneuron numbers were severely reduced, and there was virtually a complete absence of axons in the hind limb. Our observations suggest that during embryogenesis, Nmnat2 plays an important role in axonal growth or maintenance. It appears that in the absence of Nmnat2, major target organs and tissues (e.g., muscle are not functionally innervated resulting in perinatal lethality. In addition, neither Nmnat1 nor 3 can compensate for the loss of Nmnat2. Whilst there have been recent suggestions that Nmnat2 may be an endogenous modulator of axon integrity, this work represents the first in vivo study demonstrating that Nmnat2 is involved in axon development or survival in a mammal.

  19. Eosinophilia in a patient with cyclical vomiting: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzgerald S Matthew

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eosinophilic gastritis is related to eosinophilic gastroenteritis, varying only in regards to the extent of disease and small bowel involvement. Common symptoms reported are similar to our patient's including: abdominal pain, epigastric pain, anorexia, bloating, weight loss, diarrhea, ankle edema, dysphagia, melaena and postprandial nausea and vomiting. Microscopic features of eosinophilic infiltration usually occur in the lamina propria or submucosa with perivascular aggregates. The disease is likely mediated by eosinophils activated by various cytokines and chemokines. Therapy centers around the use of immunosuppressive agents and dietary therapy if food allergy is a factor. Case presentation The patient is a 31 year old Caucasian female with a past medical history significant for ulcerative colitis. She presented with recurrent bouts of vomiting, abdominal pain and chest discomfort of 11 months duration. The bouts of vomiting had been reoccurring every 7–10 days, with each episode lasting for 1–3 days. This was associated with extreme weakness and cachexia. Gastric biopsies revealed intense eosinophilic infiltration. The patient responded to glucocorticoids and azathioprine. The differential diagnosis and molecular pathogenesis of eosinophilic gastritis as well as the molecular effects of glucocorticoids in eosinophilic disorders are discussed. Conclusions The patient responded to a combination of glucocorticosteroids and azathioprine with decreased eosinophilia and symptoms. It is likely that eosinophil-active cytokines such as interleukin-3 (IL-3, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF and IL-5 play pivotal roles in this disease. Chemokines such as eotaxin may be involved in eosinophil recruitment. These mediators are downregulated or inhibited by the use of immunosuppressive medications.

  20. 饲草中缩合单宁的研究进展%Progress in Condensed Tannins of Forage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳; 陈鑫珠; 张建国

    2012-01-01

    Feeding a high concentration of condensed tannins will reduce protein degradation and voluntary feed intake, damage abomasum or intestine. However, appropriate concentration of condensed tannins have beneficial effects on prevention of bloat and pulmonary edema, reducing parasitic disease and pastoral flavour in meat products, improving animal performance. Condensed tannins are clearly a "double edged sword" for feeding value. Successful management of condensed tannins depends on a combination of chemical analysis and animal experimentation. This paper is a review on nutrition and anti-nutrition of condensed tannins for ruminants, the factors affecting content of condensed tannins in forage, and the methods of controling concentration of condensed tannins. Research on successful management of condensed tannins will offer a real benefit for farmers.%饲料中高浓度的缩合单宁会降低动物对营养物质的消化利用率,影响自愿采食量,甚至损伤肠胃.适宜含量的缩合单宁,又能阻止臌胀病、肺水肿的发生,降低寄生虫病害的影响,改善肉质品味,提高动物的生产性能.论文概述了缩合单宁的营养作用、抗营养作用,影响饲草缩合单宁含量的因素,以及控制缩合单宁含量的方法,以便在实践中合理应用缩合单宁.