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Sample records for blizzard deposit

  1. A Blizzard of a Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    "Who has been to Dairy Queen® and purchased a Blizzard?®" Ms. Bosetti asked her students. During the summer, Bosetti had seen many of her former and future students at the local Dairy Queen enjoying Blizzard desserts and wondered, "Which Blizzard size is the best value?" She used this context for a ratios and proportions task…

  2. Choosing a process for Blizzard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental suitability of various processes for concentrating uranium is discussed in relation to the presentation by Norcen Energy Resources to the British Columbia government inquiry on uranium mining at Norcen's Blizzard property. Generally, processes that use large quantities of nitric acid or ammonia were considered to be unsuitable. The two processes selected for design study are LAMIX (Limestone-Acid-Magnesia-Ion exchange) and ASSMP (Acidified Salt Stripping with Magnesia Precipitation). The LAMIX process, which uses ion exchange, is attractive because the effluent contains little except calcium and magnesium sulphates. The ASSMP solvent extraction process uses chloride, but it is thought that discharges can be controlled adequately by dilution. (NDH)

  3. Oblique facial clefts in Johanson-Blizzard syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Rivera, Jorge Román; Zapata-Aldana, Eugenio; Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo; Peña-Padilla, Christian; Solis-Hernández, Elizabeth; Guzmán, Celina; Richmond, Erick; Zahl, Christian; Zenker, Martin; Sukalo, Maja

    2016-06-01

    Johanson-Blizzard syndrome (JBS) is considered as an infrequent, but clinically easily recognizable autosomal recessive entity by the pathognomonic combination of congenital exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and hypoplastic alae nasi, in addition to other distinctive findings such as scalp defects, hypothyroidism, and rectourogenital malformations. There are few reports of patients with JBS in association with facial clefting, referring all to types 2 to 6 of Tessier's classification that can be characterized properly as oblique facial clefts (OFCs). We describe the clinical aspects in four patients with JBS and extensive OFCs. In all of them, the diagnosis of JBS was confirmed by the demonstration of homozygous or compound-heterozygous mutations in the UBR1 gene. Additionally, we review three previously reported cases of JBS with OFCs. Taking into account a number of approximately 100 individuals affected by JBS that have been published in the literature we estimate that the frequency of OFCs in JBS is between 5% and 10%. This report emphasizes that extensive OFCs may be the severe end of the spectrum of facial malformations occurring in JBS. No obvious genotype phenotype correlation could be identified within this cohort. Thus, UBR1 should be included within the list of contributory genes of OFCs, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26989884

  4. BLIZZARDS OF THE WINTER OF 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION MARINICĂ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the main blizzards from the winter of 2011-2012, caused by the radical weather change on January 25th, 2012. After the excessively droughty autumn of 2011 (Marinică, Marinică, 2012, the warm December on the whole was followed by a warm January in the first 25 days, and then a sudden change of the thermal time type occurred. The excessively cold interval January 26th- February 15th, 2012 caused many human victims in the entire country and at the level of the whole European continent, as well as significant material damages, this short episode of severe winter has been one of the coldest of the history of climatic observations. The analysis is a continuation of extended studies on the ever-growing climatic oscillations and risks, as a consequence of the climatic variability increase in Romania (Bogdan, Marinică, 2007, 2009.The paper is useful for a broad category of specialists interested in the climate and climatic risk.

  5. Blizzard Sign as a specific endobronchial ultrasound image for ground glass opacity: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sasada, M.D. Ph.D.

    2014-01-01

    On hindsight, it was the aforementioned ultrasound pattern that helped us decide the sampling site for EBUS-GS guided TBB when fluoroscopy was equivocal. We hypothesize that this pattern is specific for GGO and we name it the Blizzard Sign.

  6. THE BLIZZARD FROM 25-26 OCTOBER 2014 AND ITS IMPACT ON AIR FLIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞCHIOPU C.-L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On a calendar basis, October is considered the middle month of the fall, and for this reason, some meteorological phenomena such as blizzards, specific of the cold season, may occur extremely rare. Throughout the latest years there haven’t been any blizzards on this specific month, the earliest snow occurring on 15 October 1970 and the first snow cover on 26 October 1988. Climatologically the first month in which blizzard occurs is November with 0-1 days, when the multi-annual average is 0.4 days, therefore, the occurrence of this phenomenon on this month may be considered as an abnormal event which exceeds by far the multi-annual climatologic normalized standards. In order to highlight the synoptic context which determined the blizzard, the authors have revised the synoptic maps of air-pressure topography at the 500 hPa and ground levels and the meteorological data which were extracted from www.wetter3.de, www.ogimet.com, www.sat24.com, www.zamg.ac.at, www.weather.uwyo.edu. On 25-26 October 2014, the air flight activity was disturbed by the unexpected blizzard conditions and the Air Operators were taken by surprise and the Emergency and Rescue Air Unit (SMURD could not intervene. Also, the military helicopters were not able to fly in transport missions to Carei (Satu Mare county where there is the commemoration of the Romanian Army Day and the high officials of the Romanian state which were taking part have arrived with military aircrafts (C-27J Spartan, C-130B Hercules, An-30. After this event, at the landing on Otopeni Military Aerodrome they encountered severe meteorological hazard, but the aircrafts landed in safety conditions.

  7. Johanson-Blizzard syndrome with mild phenotypic features confirmed by UBR1 gene testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naim Alkhouri; Barbara Kaplan; Marsha Kay; Amy Shealy; Carol Crowe; Susanne Bauhuber; Nartin Zenker

    2008-01-01

    Johanson-Blizzard syndrome (JBS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition associated with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and is characterized by hypoplastic nasal alae, mental retardation, sensorineural hearing loss, short stature, scalp defects, dental abnormalities and abnormal hair patterns. Growth hormone deficiency, hypopituitarism, and impaired glucagon secretion response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia have been reported. Congenital heart defects have also been described in this condition. Mental retardation is typically moderate to severe in patients with JBS; however, normal intelligence can occur. In the pancreas, there is a selective defect of acinar tissue, whereas the islets of Langerhans and ducts are preserved. Diabetes has been reported in older children, suggesting the progressive nature of pancreatic disease. The molecular basis of JBS has recently been mapped to chromosome 15q15-q21 with identified mutations in the UBR1 gene. We report the case of a 7-year-old female with pancreatic insufficiency and mild phenotypic features, in whom the diagnosis of JBS was established using recently described molecular testing for the UBR1 gene.

  8. Síndrome de Johanson-Blizzard: importância do diagnóstico diferencial em pediatria Johanson-Blizzard syndrome: the importance of differential diagnostic in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta W. Vieira

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: colaborar para a divulgação de uma entidade clínica que pode fazer parte do diagnóstico diferencial de vários quadros que acometem essa faixa etária pediátrica. Descrição: descrevemos uma criança brasileira afetada por esta condição e revemos a literatura. Comentários: a síndrome de Johanson Blizzard é uma condição autossômica recessiva, caracterizada por hipoplasia de asa nasal, agenesia de couro cabeludo, deficiência auditiva e insuficiência pancreática exócrina com má absorção. Observando os principais sinais, esta condição clínica deve ser considerada como diagnóstico diferencial em algumas doenças pediátricas. Conclusão: a litotripsia extracorpórea demonstrou ser uma forma eficiente de tratamento de cálculos piélicos, caliciais, ureterais e vesicais em crianças. Cálculos coraliformes não tiveram bons resultados quando tratados por meio de litotripsia extracorpórea. Os resultados deste método foram influenciados pela localização e tamanho dos cálculos.Objective: to promote a clinical entity that could be part of differential diagnosis of most disorders that affect the pediatric age group. Description: we describe a Brazilian girl affected by Johanson-blizzard syndrome and review the literature. Comments: Johanson-Blizzard syndrome is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by hypoplastic alae nasi, scalp defect, deafness and pancreatic insufficiency with malabsorption. Looking at the major signs, this disorder should be considered as differential diagnosis in several pediatric diseases.

  9. Short and long-term effects of an historic blizzard in Asturias (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Cristina; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Gallinar, David

    2016-04-01

    This research has combined the consult of several historical sources (historic newspapers, church records, meteorological records) with fieldwork (geographical checking and interviews) and the application of statistical techniques for data processing in order to define, locate and analyze the causes and physical, social, economic and demographic effects (both short- and long-term) of an historic natural disaster that concerned the territory of Asturias (Northern Spain). The storm that hit the Spanish northwest in the winter of 1888 consisted of a four snowstorms concatenation occurred between 14th February 1888 and 8th April 1888. It was a phenomenon that, by its magnitude and rarity, was especially harmful because of the triggering of avalanches of snow and landslides; the generation of large snow deposits (up to 9 meters depth), and the floods related with the effects of the snow thawing. The first results of this research point to 36 people dead and 23 injured, more than 1,000 buildings ruined and more than 19,000 head of cattle lost as a result of all these events. However, the personal and material losses increase if we investigate the long-term consequences and, in this aspect, we have identified several singularities in the 1888 mortality patterns (ie an increase in neonatal mortality rate), and a clear increase in overall mortality in the two years following this episode, affecting to women more than to men.

  10. A case study for natural cascading hazard: the Great Blizzard of 1888 in the Asturian Massif (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Cristina; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Gallinar, David

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we study the events triggered by the Great Blizzard of 1888 in the Asturian Massif as a case study that shows how one hazard can be the main cause of another hazard occurring. The reconstruction of the chain of hazards triggered by the episode has been done on the basis of nivo-meteorogical conditions, event geographical location, and socio-economic impact. The episode has been studied through the analysis of the issues published in six different newspapers between the 20th of January and 30th of May 1888. We have collected the data of the ancient meteorological station of the University of Oviedo, and those contained in parish documents. Field work consisted in visual inspection and interviews to the contemporary residents. The information has been stored and crossed for statistical analysis using a logical database structure that has been designed with this purpose. The snowfall episode consisted in four consecutive snowstorms that occurred between the 14th of February 1888 and the 8th of April 1888, creating snow covers with an average depth ranging between 5 and 7 m. The snow accumulations were the main cause of material damage, affecting 27 high- and mid-elevation mountain municipalities. However, we have to consider that the newspapers only reflected those events affecting densely populated areas along with those which affected vital economic spaces (railway lines, roads in mountain passes, etc.). There were more than 200 interruptions with the traffic flow and communication outages, hampering economic activities. Snow built up on the roofs added extra weight to the structure of the buildings so more than 900 constructions collapsed, killing three persons and causing the loss of more than 19.000 head of cattle. Moreover, these snow accumulations were the basis of an episode of sixty-four snow avalanches that, undoubtedly, meant the main personal damage with a number of dead and wounded that reached 29 and 23 respectively. During the snowfall

  11. The Cause Analysis of a Blizzard Process in Yangqu County of Taiyuan City in February 2015%2015年2月太原市阳曲县一次暴雪过程成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡晓芳; 王亮荣

    2015-01-01

    Using the snowfall data and high space-time resolution T639 0 field prediction data provided by Taiyuan Meteorological Observatory from February 19 to 20 of 2015,this paper analyzes the blizzard process in Yangqu County of Taiyuan City, the results of which show that this blizzard process in Yangqu County had the features of that the snowing time is longer and the snowing is more uniform, and the joint action of 500 hPa west wind shallow slot and southern slot,and the joint action of 700 hPa and 850 hPa shear line,700 hPa southwest rush-flow and south airflow at the rear part of ground high pressure were this blizzard weather process'circulation background conditions; this blizzard weather process occurred in strong energy frontal zon, high wet area and moisture flux convergence zone;and in the course of the blizzard weather, there was a zonal dynamical circumfluence circle which formed from lower to higher over the Hetao area, offering continual dynamical condition for the combined action of cold airflow and warm airflow.%利用2015年2月19日到20日太原气象观测站的降雪量资料及高时空分辨率的T6390场预报资料,对太原市阳曲县暴雪天气过程进行分析。结果表明:阳曲县此次暴雪过程具有降雪时间较长、降雪较均匀的特点,500 hPa西风浅槽及南支槽共同作用、700 hPa和850 hPa切变线、700 hPa西南急流、地面高压后部偏南气流的共同作用是产生阳曲地区此次暴雪天气过程的环流背景条件;此次暴雪天气发生在较强的能量锋区以及高湿区和水汽通量辐合区内;暴雪气发生时,在河套地区上空形成一个由低层到高层的动力性的纬向垂直环流圈,为冷暖气流共同作用提供了持续不断的动力条件。

  12. Ubiquitin ligases of the N-end rule pathway: assessment of mutations in UBR1 that cause the Johanson-Blizzard syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol-Sang Hwang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Johanson-Blizzard syndrome (JBS; OMIM 243800 is an autosomal recessive disorder that includes congenital exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, facial dysmorphism with the characteristic nasal wing hypoplasia, multiple malformations, and frequent mental retardation. Our previous work has shown that JBS is caused by mutations in human UBR1, which encodes one of the E3 ubiquitin ligases of the N-end rule pathway. The N-end rule relates the regulation of the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue. One class of degradation signals (degrons recognized by UBR1 are destabilizing N-terminal residues of protein substrates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Most JBS-causing alterations of UBR1 are nonsense, frameshift or splice-site mutations that abolish UBR1 activity. We report here missense mutations of human UBR1 in patients with milder variants of JBS. These single-residue changes, including a previously reported missense mutation, involve positions in the RING-H2 and UBR domains of UBR1 that are conserved among eukaryotes. Taking advantage of this conservation, we constructed alleles of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae UBR1 that were counterparts of missense JBS-UBR1 alleles. Among these yeast Ubr1 mutants, one of them (H160R was inactive in yeast-based activity assays, the other one (Q1224E had a detectable but weak activity, and the third one (V146L exhibited a decreased but significant activity, in agreement with manifestations of JBS in the corresponding JBS patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results, made possible by modeling defects of a human ubiquitin ligase in its yeast counterpart, verified and confirmed the relevance of specific missense UBR1 alleles to JBS, and suggested that a residual activity of a missense allele is causally associated with milder variants of JBS.

  13. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102406 Chen Gang(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Li Fengming Discussion on Geological Characteristics and Genesis of Yuquanshan Graphite Deposit of Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,27(4),2009,p.325-329,4 illus.,4 tables,5 refs.)Key words:graphite deposit,XinjiangYuquanshan graphite deposit of Xinjiang occurs in mica-quartz schist of Xingeer Information which belongs to Xinditate Group of Lower Pt in Kuluketage Block of Tarim paleo-continent,and experiences two mineralizing periods of

  14. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140876 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550025,China);Yang Ruidong Study on the Strontium Isotopic Composition of Large Devonian Barite Deposits from Zhenning,Guizhou Province(Geochimica,

  15. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122457 Cai Jianshe ( Fujian Institute of Geological Survey and Drawing,Fuzhou 350011,China ) On the Geologic Characteristics and Genesis of the Longtangsi Fluorite Deposit in Pucheng County,Fujian Province ( Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080 / P,30 ( 4 ), 2011,p.301-306,3illus.,1table,6 refs.,with English abstract ) Key words:fluorspar deposit,Fujian Province

  16. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110947 Chen Xinglong(Guizhou Bureau of Nonferrous Metal and Nuclear Geology,Guiyang 550005,China);Gong Heqiang Endowment Factors and Development & Utilization Strategy of Bauxite Resource in North Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(2),2010,p.106-110,6 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province20110948 Dang Yanxia(Mineral Resource & Reservoir Evaluation Center,Urumiq 830000,China);Fan Wenjun Geological Features and a Primary Study of Metallogenesis of the Wucaiwang Zeolite Deposit,Fuyun County(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(2),2010,p.167-170,2 illus.,1 table,5 refs.)Key words:zeolite deposit,Xinjiang Nearly all zeolite deposits in the world result from low-temperature-alteration of glass-bearing volcanic rocks.The southern slope of the Kalamali Mountain is one of the regions where medium to acid volcanics are major lithological type,thus it is a preferred area to look for zeolite deposit.The Wucaiwang zeolite ore district consists of mainly acid volcanic-clastic rocks.

  17. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091594 Bao Yafan(The Third Geologic Survey of Jilin Province,Siping 136000,China);Liu Yanjun Relations between Bashenerxi Granite,West Dongkunlun and Baiganhu Tungsten-Tin Deposit(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,27(3),2008,p.56-59,67,5 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:tungsten ores,tin ores,monzogranite,Kunlun Mountains20091595 Chen Fuwen(Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Yichang 443003,China);Dai Pingyun Metallogenetic and Isotopic Chronological Study on the Shenjiaya Gold Deposit in Xuefeng Mountains,Hunan Province(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,82(7),2008,p.906-911,3 illus.,2 tables,30 refs.)Key words:gold ores,HunanThe Shenjiaya gold deposit is a representative one

  18. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111705 An Junbo(Team 603,Bureau of Nonferrous Metals Geological Exploration of Jilin Province,Hunchun 133300,China);Xu Renjie Geological Features and Ore Genesis of Baishilazi Scheelite Deposit in Yanbian Area(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,29(3),2010,p.39-43,2 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.)Key words:tungsten ores,Jilin ProvinceThe Baishilazi scheelite deposit is located in contacting zone between the marble of the Late Palaeozoic Qinglongcun Group and the Hercynian biotite granite.The vein and lenticular major ore body is obviously controlled by NE-extending faults and con

  19. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131565 Cai Lianyou(No.332 Geological Team,Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Anhui Province,Huangshan 245000,China);Weng Wangfei Geological Characteristics and Genesis Analysis of Guocun Navajoite Deposit in South Anhui Province(Mineral Resources and Geology,

  20. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102341 Bao Peisheng(Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Science,Beijing 100037,China)Further Discussion on the Genesis of the Podiform Chromite Deposits in the Ophiolites-Questioning about the Rock:Melt Interaction Metallogeny(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,28(12),2009,p.1741-1761

  1. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131601 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550003,China);Yang Ruidong Hydrothermal Venting-Flowing Sedimentation Characteristics of Devonian Barite Deposits from Leji,Zhenning County,Guizhou Province(Acta Sedimentologica Sinica,ISSN1000-0550,CN62-1038/P,30(3),

  2. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150904An Fang(State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics,Department of Geology,Northwest University,Xi’an 710069,China);Wang Juli Skarn Mineral Assemblage in Representative Ore Districts of Sayak Copper Orefield,Kazakhstan,and Its Genetic Implications(Mineral Deposits,ISSN0258-7106,CN11-1965/P,33(3),2014,p.521-540,

  3. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111761 Chen Hua(115 Geological Party,Guizhou Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration & Development,Guiyang 551400,China);Deng Chao Analysis on the Metallogenic Environment of Maochang Bauxite in Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(3),2010,p.198-201,2 illus.,1 table,8 refs.)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province By long time physical and chemical process,the carbonate rock after Central Guizhou uplidft,becomes red clay,after further weathering,the red clay decomposed into the oxide,hydroxide of Al and Fe,in the dissolution hole and depression,it concentrates primary fragmentary tight and earthy karst bauxite ore.Because the variation of landform,it decomposes and cracks again,affords the material source

  4. Deposit model for volcanogenic uranium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, George N.; Hall, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanism is a major contributor to the formation of important uranium deposits both close to centers of eruption and more distal as a result of deposition of ash with leachable uranium. Hydrothermal fluids that are driven by magmatic heat proximal to some volcanic centers directly form some deposits. These fluids leach uranium from U-bearing silicic volcanic rocks and concentrate it at sites of deposition within veins, stockworks, breccias, volcaniclastic rocks, and lacustrine caldera sediments. The volcanogenic uranium deposit model presented here summarizes attributes of those deposits and follows the focus of the International Atomic Energy Agency caldera-hosted uranium deposit model. Although inferred by some to have a volcanic component to their origin, iron oxide-copper-gold deposits with economically recoverable uranium contents are not considered in this model.

  5. Externalities of Testing: Lessons from the Blizzard of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents lessons learned from a story of a snowy and dangerous intersection where there was no way for pedestrians to cross. The basic theme of this paper is that if political economy is preoccupied largely with the measurement of externalities, then a goal for the testing and assessment policy community should be to devise strategies…

  6. An Episode of Late Blizzard, 25-26 March 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danciu-Ciurlãu Doruţa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climatologically speaking, March is a month of transition, from the cold season to a less cold season, and, therefore, weather phenomena occur in a different way from how they usually do during the cold season. The transition between seasons or a late winter can sometimes cause phenomena that usually happened in January or February, at the end of March. Such a case was the snowstorm occurred in two episodes (22nd - 24th and 25th - 27th of March 2013 in Romania in March 2013. In this paper is analyzed the first episode which affected southeastern Romania from different points of view: climatologically, synoptically, economically and social. It was used climatologically data over a period of 112 years, as well as a data for the first 3 month of 2013 which were provided by the National Meteorological Administration (NMA. It has been used synoptic maps, different pressure levels maps, and satellite data, radar data, soundings, all provided by the National Center of Weather Forecast of the NMA. Other type of information from the General Inspectorate for Emergency Situation (IGSU or other ministries and media were also taken into consideration.

  7. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  8. Electro-Deposition Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The electro-deposition laboratory can electro-deposit various coatings onto small test samples and bench level prototypes. This facility provides the foundation for...

  9. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  10. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H2SO4) and nitric acids (HNO3), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  11. Airfoil deposition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    The methodology to predict deposit evolution (deposition rate and subsequent flow of liquid deposits) as a function of fuel and air impurity content and relevant aerodynamic parameters for turbine airfoils is developed in this research. The spectrum of deposition conditions encountered in gas turbine operations includes the mechanisms of vapor deposition, small particle deposition with thermophoresis, and larger particle deposition with inertial effects. The focus is on using a simplified version of the comprehensive multicomponent vapor diffusion formalism to make deposition predictions for: (1) simple geometry collectors; and (2) gas turbine blade shapes, including both developing laminar and turbulent boundary layers. For the gas turbine blade the insights developed in previous programs are being combined with heat and mass transfer coefficient calculations using the STAN 5 boundary layer code to predict vapor deposition rates and corresponding liquid layer thicknesses on turbine blades. A computer program is being written which utilizes the local values of the calculated deposition rate and skin friction to calculate the increment in liquid condensate layer growth along a collector surface.

  12. Deposition patterns with Turbuhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgström, L

    1994-01-01

    The degree of lung deposition is an important factor in the evaluation of different inhalation flow driven dry powder inhalers. A number of studies using radioactive and non-radioactive methods have been performed with Turbuhaler to assess lung deposition under different conditions. Mean total lung deposition of terbutaline sulfate or budesonide via Turbuhaler in healthy volunteers ranged from 21-32% of the dose when a normal inhalation flow (60L/min) was used. At a low flow (30L/min) a mean 15% of the dose was deposited in the lungs, a similar value as for a well-performed inhalation via a pressurized metered dose inhaler. Regional deposition of inhaled drug can be expressed as the ratio between the amount of drug deposited in the more peripheral parts of the lung relative to the more central parts. In a comparative study, budesonide and terbutaline sulfate were given by inhalation via Turbuhaler to healthy volunteers. The ratio of peripheral to central deposition was 2.03 for terbutaline and 1.72 for budesonide. Thus, both the water-soluble terbutaline sulfate and the non-water soluble budesonide seemed to behave in the same way when inhaled via Turbuhaler. In conclusion, Turbuhaler delivers over 20% of a metered dose to the lungs when inhaled at a normal inhalation flow rate. The regional deposition pattern in the lungs was the same for terbutaline sulfate and budesonide, in spite of differences in water solubility. PMID:10147081

  13. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caricato, A.P., E-mail: annapaola.caricato@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Arima, V.; Catalano, M. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesaria, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cozzoli, P.D. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, A.; Rella, R. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, IMM-CNR, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Scarfiello, R. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Tunno, T. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Zacheo, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  14. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

    1995-09-01

    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  15. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  16. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  17. Podiform chromite deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Location and characteristics of 1,124 individual mineral deposits of this type, with grade and tonnage models for chromium as well as several related elements.

  18. Uranium deposit research, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on uranium deposits in Canada, conducted as a prerequisite for assessment of the Estimated Additional Resources of uranium, revealed that (a) the uranium-gold association in rudites of the Huronian Supergroup preferably occurs in the carbon layers; (b) chloritized ore at the Panel mine, Elliot Lake, Ontario, occurs locally in tectonically disturbed areas in the vicinity of diabase dykes; (c) mineralization in the Black Sturgeon Lake area, Ontario, formed from solutions in structural and lithological traps; (d) the Cigar Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, has two phases of mineralization: monomineralic and polymetallic; (e) mineralization of the JEB (Canoxy Ltd.) deposit is similar to that at McClean Lake; (f) the uranium-carbon assemblage was identified in the Claude deposit, Carswell Structure; and (g) the Otish Mountains area, Quebec, should be considered as a significant uranium-polymetallic metallogenic province

  19. Alluvial Deposits in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage maps alluvial deposits throughout Iowa. This generally would include areas of alluvial soils associated with modern streams that are identified on...

  20. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  1. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc., jasper (picture, landscape, red etc., common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc., silica masses (undivided, and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.. Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine, garnet (almandine and pyrope, tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  2. Uranium deposits in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)

  3. Pulsed laser deposition: Prospects for commercial deposition of epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchausen, R.E.

    1999-03-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique for the deposition of thin films. The vapor source is induced by the flash evaporation that occurs when a laser pulse of sufficient intensity (about 100 MW/cm{sup 2}) is absorbed by a target. In this paper the author briefly defines pulsed laser deposition, current applications, research directed at gaining a better understanding of the pulsed laser deposition process, and suggests some future directions to enable commercial applications.

  4. Vein type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veins are tabular- or sheet-like masses of minerals occupying or following a fracture or a set of fractures in the enclosing rock. They have been formed later than the country rock and fractures, either by filling of the open spaces or by partial or complete replacement of the adjoining rock or most commonly by both of these processes combined. This volume begins with the occurrences and deposits known from old shield areas and the sedimentary belts surrounding them. They are followed by papers describing the European deposits mostly of Variscan age, and by similar deposits known from China being of Jurassic age. The volume is completed by two papers which do not fit exactly in the given scheme. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 papers in this report

  5. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  6. "Total Deposition (TDEP) Maps"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation provides an update on the use of a hybrid methodology that relies on measured values from national monitoring networks and modeled values from CMAQ to produce of maps of total deposition for use in critical loads and other ecological assessments. Additionally, c...

  7. Thorium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main occurences of the thorium minerals of the Argentine Republic which have not been exploited, due to their reduced volume, are described. The thoriferous deposits have three genetic types: pegmatitic, hydrothermal and detritic, being the most common minerals: monazite, thorite and thorogummite. The most important thorium accumulations are located in Salta, being of less importance those of Cordoba, Jujuy and San Juan. (M.E.L.)

  8. The classification of minerals deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this part of book author present the classification of minerals deposits. Deposit formation take place as a result of complicated and long geology processes in the wide temperature intervals (from 1500 digC to usual) and pressures (from usual and to tens kilobars). Deposits of minerals as other investigation objects require in definite systematization on the base of definite characteristics

  9. Limited Deposit Insurance Coverage and Bank Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz; Stenbacka, Rune; Yankov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Deposit insurance designs in many countries place a limit on the coverage of deposits in each bank. However, no limits are placed on the number of accounts held with different banks. Therefore, under limited deposit insurance, some consumers open accounts with different banks to achieve higher or full deposit insurance coverage. We compare three regimes of deposit insurance: No deposit insurance, unlimited deposit insurance, and limited deposit insurance. We show that limited deposit insuranc...

  10. FDIC Summary of Deposits (SOD) Download File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation — The FDIC's Summary of Deposits (SOD) download file contains deposit data for branches and offices of all FDIC-insured institutions. The Federal Deposit Insurance...

  11. Some characteristics of electrospark deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesnjak, A. [Q-Techna, Krsko (Sierra Leone); Tusek, J. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ljubljana (Sierra Leone)

    2003-11-01

    The paper deals with some characteristics of electrospark deposition. A relevant device and the process are described, the material transfer is shown schematically, and the average droplet mass, the thickness of deposited layer, and the layer roughness are determined. Two types of substrate (tool steel, austenitic stainless steel), two types of shielding gas, (Ar, He), and three types of filler material, (WC, TiC, Stellite 6) were used. With some deposit, chemical analyses of deposit surfaces were performed and with some others through-thickness chemical analyses. Among the final conclusions the most important one is that the addition of a shielding gas results in a considerable increase in deposit quality. The device manufacturer, however, recommends deposition without the addition of a shielding gas. (orig.)

  12. Momentum Deposition in Curvilinear Coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, Mathew Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lowrie, Robert Byron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockefeller, Gabriel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thompson, Kelly Glen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-03

    The momentum imparted into a material by thermal radiation deposition is an important physical process in astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) simulations. In recent work we presented a new method of evaluating momentum deposition that relies on the combination of a time-averaged approximation and a numerical integration scheme. This approach robustly and efficiently evaluates the momentum deposition in spherical geometry. Future work will look to extend this approach to 2D cylindrical geometries.

  13. Electrophoretic Deposition of Hydroxyapatite Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) coatings were deposited onto titanium substrates by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) fromethanol. The results indicated that the addition of very small amount of HCI resulted in a decrease in the aging timeas well as the suspension concentration required to obtain a coating. In addition, the results revealed the existenceof a critical saturated voltage (Vsat), which had significant effect on the quality of deposition. The mean interfacialshear strengths of HAP coatings after sintering were found to be greater than 13 MPa.

  14. Multiphase flow wax deposition modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzain, A. [Petronas Research and Scientific Services, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Zhang, H.-Q.; Volk, M.; Redus, C.L.; Brill, J.P. [University of Tulsa (United States); Apte, M.S. [Shell Technology EP (United States); Creek, J.L. [Chevron Petroleum Technology (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Results are presented from two-phase flow wax deposition tests using a state-of-the-art, high pressure, multiphase flow test facility. Wax deposition was found to be flow pattern dependent and occurs only along the pipe wall in contact with the waxy crude oil. The deposition buildup trend at low mixture velocities is similar to that observed in laminar single-phase flow tests. The buildup trend at high mixture velocities is similar to that observed in turbulent single-phase flow tests. Thinner and harder deposits at the bottom than at the top of the pipe were observed in horizontal intermittent flow tests. Thicker and harder deposits were observed at low liquid superficial velocity than at high liquid superficial velocity annular flow tests. No wax deposition was observed along the upper portion of the pipe in stratified flow tests. A semi-empirical kinetic model tailored for the wax deposition tests predicted wax thickness with an acceptable accuracy, especially at high oil superficial velocity. Deposition rate reduction due to shear stripping and rate enhancement due to entrapment of oil and other mechanisms not accounted for by the classical Fick's mass diffusion theory were incorporated through the use of dimensionless variables and empirical constants derived from the wax deposition data. The kinetic model, although semi-empirical, provides an insight for future model development. (author)

  15. 78 FR 56583 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Definition of Insured Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... U.S. bank under deposit agreements governed by non-U.S. law to take advantage of a large bank's... 330 Bank deposit insurance, Banks, Banking, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Savings and Loan... of U.S. insured depository institutions (``IDI'' or ``U.S. bank''). The Final Rule clarifies...

  16. Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuejun; Zhang, Ying; Han, Wenxuan; Tang, Aohan; Shen, Jianlin; Cui, Zhenling; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Vitousek, Peter [Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Erisman, Jan Willem [VU University Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Goulding, Keith [The Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Fangmeier, Andreas [Institute of Landscape and Plant Ecology, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-02-28

    China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen. These emissions result in the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with implications for human and ecosystem health, greenhouse gas balances and biological diversity. However, information on the magnitude and environmental impact of N deposition in China is limited. Here we use nationwide data sets on bulk N deposition, plant foliar N and crop N uptake (from long-term unfertilized soils) to evaluate N deposition dynamics and their effect on ecosystems across China between 1980 and 2010. We find that the average annual bulk deposition of N increased by approximately 8 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare (P < 0.001) between the 1980s (13.2 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare) and the 2000s (21.1 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare). Nitrogen deposition rates in the industrialized and agriculturally intensified regions of China are as high as the peak levels of deposition in northwestern Europe in the 1980s, before the introduction of mitigation measures. Nitrogen from ammonium (NH4+) is the dominant form of N in bulk deposition, but the rate of increase is largest for deposition of N from nitrate (NO3-), in agreement with decreased ratios of NH3 to NOx emissions since 1980. We also find that the impact of N deposition on Chinese ecosystems includes significantly increased plant foliar N concentrations in natural and semi-natural (that is, non-agricultural) ecosystems and increased crop N uptake from long-term-unfertilized croplands. China and other economies are facing a continuing challenge to reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen, N deposition and their negative effects on human health and the environment.

  17. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.;

    A new experimental set-up to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airBorne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust related problems in rooms, there is a...

  18. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World-class sandstone-type uranium deposits are defined as epigenetic concentrations of uranium minerals occurring as uneven impregnations and minor massive replacements primarily in fluvial, lacustrine, and deltaic sandstone formations. The main purpose of this introductory paper is to define, classify, and introduce to the general geologic setting for sandstone-type uranium deposits

  19. Liquefier Dynamics in Fused Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Guceri, Selcuk; Bertoldi, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    Layered manufacturing (LM) is an evolution of rapid prototyping (RP) technology whereby a part is built in layers. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a particular LM technique in which each section is fabricated through vector style deposition of building blocks, called roads, which...

  20. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Sheldon, Peter

    1998-01-01

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  1. Ni-Co laterite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Erin E.; Anderson, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) laterite deposits are an important source of nickel (Ni). Currently, there is a decline in magmatic Ni-bearing sulfide lode deposit resources. New efforts to develop an alternative source of Ni, particularly with improved metallurgy processes, make the Ni-Co laterites an important exploration target in anticipation of the future demand for Ni. This deposit model provides a general description of the geology and mineralogy of Ni-Co laterite deposits, and contains discussion of the influences of climate, geomorphology (relief), drainage, tectonism, structure, and protolith on the development of favorable weathering profiles. This model of Ni-Co laterite deposits represents part of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program's effort to update the existing models to be used for an upcoming national mineral resource assessment.

  2. Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejun; Zhang, Ying; Han, Wenxuan; Tang, Aohan; Shen, Jianlin; Cui, Zhenling; Vitousek, Peter; Erisman, Jan Willem; Goulding, Keith; Christie, Peter; Fangmeier, Andreas; Zhang, Fusuo

    2013-02-28

    China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen. These emissions result in the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with implications for human and ecosystem health, greenhouse gas balances and biological diversity. However, information on the magnitude and environmental impact of N deposition in China is limited. Here we use nationwide data sets on bulk N deposition, plant foliar N and crop N uptake (from long-term unfertilized soils) to evaluate N deposition dynamics and their effect on ecosystems across China between 1980 and 2010. We find that the average annual bulk deposition of N increased by approximately 8 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare (P effects on human health and the environment.

  3. Glacial atmospheric phosphorus deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Dallmayr, Remi; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus in the atmosphere is poorly studied and thus not much is known about atmospheric phosphorus and phosphate transport and deposition changes over time, though it is well known that phosphorus can be a source of long-range nutrient transport, e.g. Saharan dust transported to the tropical forests of Brazil. In glacial times it has been speculated that transport of phosphorus from exposed shelves would increase the ocean productivity by wash out. However whether the exposed shelf would also increase the atmospheric load to more remote places has not been investigated. Polar ice cores offer a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric transport of aerosols on various timescales, from glacial-interglacial periods to recent anthropogenic influences. We have for the first time determined the atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic by means of ice core analysis. Both total and dissolved reactive phosphorus were measured to investigate current and past atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic. Results show that glacial cold stadials had increased atmospheric total phosphorus mass loads of 70 times higher than in the past century, while DRP was only increased by a factor of 14. In the recent period we find evidence of a phosphorus increase over the past 50 yrs in ice cores close to human occupation likely correlated to forest fires. References: Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Continuous flow analysis method for determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in ice cores." Environmental science & technology 47.21 (2013): 12325-12332. Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Greenland ice cores constrain glacial atmospheric fluxes of phosphorus." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres120.20 (2015).

  4. TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Cem Sarica

    2003-10-01

    As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multiphase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines. The following deliverables are scheduled during the first three projects of the program: (1) Single-Phase Studies, with three different black oils, which will yield an enhanced computer code for predicting paraffin deposition in deepwater and surface pipelines. (2) Two

  5. Plasma Deposition of Amorphous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcote, H. F.

    1982-01-01

    Strongly adhering films of silicon are deposited directly on such materials as Pyrex and Vycor (or equivalent materials) and aluminum by a non-equilibrium plasma jet. Amorphous silicon films are formed by decomposition of silicon tetrachloride or trichlorosilane in the plasma. Plasma-jet technique can also be used to deposit an adherent silicon film on aluminum from silane and to dope such films with phosphorus. Ability to deposit silicon films on such readily available, inexpensive substrates could eventually lead to lower cost photovoltaic cells.

  6. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  7. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on

  8. Cathodoluminescence in Quaternary carbonate deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Colin J. R.

    2016-05-01

    The cathodoluminescent oscillatory and sectoral growth zones common in crystals formed in ancient limestone successions in a variety of putative environments appear to be rare or absent from Recent and Pleistocene marine carbonate sequences. The factors controlling cathodoluminescence and reasons for this disparity are examined. The cathodoluminescent zones in the cements of ancient rocks have been interpreted as responses to variations in the redox potential of formative pore waters during crystal growth; although similar cathodoluminescent behaviour is recorded from some deposits, including travertines and Quaternary speleothems, formed in what are thought to have been strongly oxidizing environments. The apparent absence of cathodoluminescence in the most Recent and Pleistocene marine deposits, that presumably reflect deposition and diagenesis in environments that are also characteristically oxidized, therefore seems anomalous. The controlling influences on cathodoluminescence are reviewed, together with evidence relating to observations of Pleistocene marine deposits and likely conditions of formation but, where it is present, the mechanism(s) for its development remain elusive.

  9. Hereditary iron and copper deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary deposition of iron (primary haemochromatosis) or copper (Wilson's disease) are autosomal recessive metabolic disease characterized by progressive liver pathology and subsequent involvement of various other organs. The prevalence of primary haemochromatosis is approximately 0.5%, about...

  10. Electrospark deposition for die repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tušek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrospark deposition is a process for surfacing of hard metal alloys, e.g. carbides and stellites, on the surfaces of new or old machine elements. In this process, a high current is conducted through an oscillating electrode and a substrate for a very short period of time. In the paper, the process is described and the thickness of deposited layer, chemical composition, dilution rate and the layer roughness are determined.

  11. Uranium deposits in volcanic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-eight papers were presented at the meeting and two additional papers were provided. Three panels were organized to consider the specific aspects of the genesis of uranium deposits in volcanic rocks, recognition criteria for the characterization of such deposits, and approaches to exploration. The papers presented and the findings of the panels are included in the Proceedings. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of these papers

  12. Vapor deposition of hardened niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocher, Jr., John M.; Veigel, Neil D.; Landrigan, Richard B.

    1983-04-19

    A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

  13. 12 CFR 19.170 - Discovery depositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery depositions. 19.170 Section 19.170... PROCEDURE Discovery Depositions and Subpoenas § 19.170 Discovery depositions. (a) General rule. In any... deposition of an expert, or of a person, including another party, who has direct knowledge of matters...

  14. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    CERN Document Server

    Guiseppe, V E; Hime, A; Rielage, K; Westerdale, S

    2011-01-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly Rn-222) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of Pb-210 on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to depos...

  15. [Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koitschev, C; Kaiserling, E; Koitschev, A

    2003-08-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) of the temporomandibular joint is rare. The disorder is characterized by the presence of crystal deposits within the affected joint. The deposition of crystals in adjacent soft tissue may lead to the formation of pseudotumors. This form of the disease is called tophaceous pseudogout and typically affects the temporomandibular joint. It is difficult to differentiate the disease, particularly from malignant tumors, on the clinical and radiographic findings alone. The diagnosis is based on histological identification of the calcium pyrophosphate crystals. We present an unusually advanced case of tophaceous pseudogout of the temporomandibular joint. The etiology, clinical and diagnostic criteria as well as treatment options are discussed on the basis of our own experience and a review of the literature. PMID:12942180

  16. Sub-aerial tailings deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sub-aerial technique involves the systematic deposition of tailings in thin layers and allowing each layer to settle, drain and partially air dry prior to covering with a further layer. Underdrainage produces densities in excess of those achieved by sub-aqueous deposition and any air-drying serves to preconsolidate each layer with a resulting further increase in density. The low permeability of the tailings surface resulting from this deposition technique results in high runoff coefficients and, by decanting the runoff component of direct precipitation, a net evaporation condition can be achieved even in high rainfall areas. An underdrainage system prevents the build-up of excess pore-pressures within the tailings mass and at decommissioning the tailings are fully consolidated and drained thereby eliminating the possibility of any long term seepage. This paper presents a general description of these design concepts, and details of two projects where the concepts have been applied

  17. TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cem Sarica; Michael Volk

    2004-06-01

    As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multi-phase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines, because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines.

  18. Nanofriction properties of molecular deposition films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强斌; 高芒来; 张嗣伟

    2000-01-01

    The nanofriction properties of Au substrate and monolayer molecular deposition film and multilayer molecular deposition films on Au substrate and the molecular deposition films modified with alkyl-terminal molecule have been investigated by using an atomic force microscope. It is concluded that ( i ) the deposition of molecular deposition films on Au substrate and the modification of alkyl-terminal molecule to the molecular deposition films can reduce the frictional force; (ii) the molecular deposition films with the same terminal exhibit similar nanofriction properties, which has nothing to do with the molecular chain-length and the layer number; (iii) the unstable nanofriction properties of molecular deposition films are contributed to the active terminal of the molecular deposition film, which can be eliminated by decorating the active molecular deposition film with alkyl-terminal molecule, moreover, the decoration of alkyl-terminal molecule can lower the frictional force conspicuously; (iv) the relat

  19. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.;

    To investigate the physical process of deposition and resuspension of particles in the indoor environment, scale experiments are used and a sampling method is established. The influences of surface orientation and turbulence and velocity of the air on the dust load on a surface are analysed....

  20. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (2)NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082329 Chen Wang(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China) Control Factors on Distribution of Carboniferous Bauxite Deposits in Western Henan Province (Geotectonica et Metallogenia,ISSN1001—1552,CN44—1595/P,31(4),2007,p.452—456,1 illus.,10 refs.) Key words:bauxite,mineralization con- trols,Henan Province

  1. A remote coal deposit revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen-Kofoed, Jørgen A.; Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Petersen, Henrik I.;

    2012-01-01

    environment related to meandering river channels. Spores and pollen in the lower fluvial deposits reflect abundant vegetation of ferns along the river banks. In contrast, a sparse spore and pollen flora in the coals show a mixed vegetation of ferns and gymnosperms. Based on proximate and petrographic analyses...

  2. Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a process commonly used for the synthesis of thin films for several important technological applications, for example, microelectronics, hard coatings, and smart windows. Unfortunately, the complexity and prohibitive cost of CVD equipment makes it seldom available for undergraduate chemistry students. Here, a…

  3. Electro-spark deposition technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Electro-Spark Deposition (ESD) is a micro-welding process that uses short duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit or alloy a consumable electrode material onto a metallic substrate. The ESD process was developed to produce coatings for use in severe environments where most other coatings fail. Because of the exceptional damage resistance of these coatings, and the versatility of the process to apply a wide variety of alloys, intermetallics, and cermets to metal surfaces, the ESD process has been designated critical to the life and economy of the advanced fossil energy systems as the higher temperatures and corrosive environments exceed the limits of known structural materials to accommodate the service conditions. Developments include producing iron aluminide-based coatings with triple the corrosion resistance of the best previous Fe{sub 3}Al coatings, coatings with refractory metal diffusion barriers and multi layer coatings for achieving functionally gradient properties between the substrate and the surface. A new development is the demonstration of advanced aluminide-based ESD coatings for erosion and wear applications. One of the most significant breakthroughs to occur in the last dozen years is the discovery of a process regime that yields an order of magnitude increase in deposition rates and achievable coating thicknesses. Achieving this regime has required the development of advanced ESD electronic capabilities. Development is now focused on further improvements in deposition rates, system reliability when operating at process extremes, and economic competitiveness.

  4. Systems for Guaranteeing Bank Deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Untaru

    2013-01-01

    The advent of the financial crisis and the latest event that occurred in Cyprus bring new light to how states intervene when commercial banks are facing the risk of bankruptcy. While until now institutions had a clear traditional role to protect depositors, currently there is a trend to transfer damage to companies and individuals that hold deposits.

  5. Chemical-vapor-deposition reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, S.

    1979-01-01

    Reactor utilizes multiple stacked trays compactly arranged in paths of horizontally channeled reactant gas streams. Design allows faster and more efficient deposits of film on substrates, and reduces gas and energy consumption. Lack of dead spots that trap reactive gases reduces reactor purge time.

  6. Mergers and acquisitions : the case of Microsoft Corporation and Activision Blizzard Inc.

    OpenAIRE

    Stenmark, Robert Vicent Leon

    2012-01-01

    Globalization, geographic diversification and deregulation of markets have led to an increasingly competitive environment for most companies. Increasing competition often leads to higher efforts to persuade consumers to by the given company’s product, and consequently margins are affected. Moreover, this development of the business environment also faces as a threat to most companies’ organic growth. For this reason, companies often envision mergers and acquisitions as a sol...

  7. Chicago blizzard found University of Chicago Hospitals prepared for weather crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The University of Chicago Hospitals has planned for every kind of crisis, including last January's snow-storm of the decade. Executives only used internal communication and situation updates to ensure the hospital was ready to cope with adequate staffing and supply demands. PMID:10387295

  8. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao;

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, timely removal of ash deposits is essential for optimal boiler operation. In order to improve the qualitative and quantitative understanding of deposit shedding in boilers, this study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash...... deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The results reveal the effect of temperature, ash/deposit composition......, sintering duration, and steel type on the adhesion strength....

  9. Vapor deposition of tantalum and tantalum compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantalum, and many of its compounds, can be deposited as coatings with techniques ranging from pure, thermal chemical vapor deposition to pure physical vapor deposition. This review concentrates on chemical vapor deposition techniques. The paper takes a historical approach. The authors review classical, metal halide-based techniques and current techniques for tantalum chemical vapor deposition. The advantages and limitations of the techniques will be compared. The need for new lower temperature processes and hence new precursor chemicals will be examined and explained. In the last section, they add some speculation as to possible new, low-temperature precursors for tantalum chemical vapor deposition

  10. Computational study of wax deposition in pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jimiao; Gong, Jing; Liu, Huishu

    2013-07-01

    Wax deposition in subsea pipelines is one of the flow assurance problems for oil and gas production. In contrast to many studies about single phase wax deposition, gas-oil wax deposition studies are very limited. The wax deposition mechanism and model prediction are restricted by many factors such as hydrodynamic and thermal when multiphase flow is involved. Wax deposition modeling becomes complicated under multiphase flowing conditions. wax deposition is depended by the flow pattern. The stratified flow is one of the most common flow patterns in the actual subsea gas-oil flowing conditions. In this work, numerical methods are used to study wax deposition in oil-gas stratified flow through a pipe. Based on the flow analysis about stratified flow, the non-isothermal heat and mass transfer is calculated. The temperature profile of the oil and the concentration profile of wax in oil are obtained. The change of the oil-gas interface i.e. the liquid holdup throughout the pipe must be taken into the heat and mass balance. The valid wax deposition surface must be taken into the wax deposition modeling by establishing function of the liquid holdup and the wetted area by oil. The molecular diffusion is as the deposition mechanism. The increase of the wax fraction in the deposit as a function of time depends on the mass flux from the oil deposit interface into the gel and the growth of the deposit thickness depends on the difference between the mass flux from the bulk oil to the oil deposit interface and the mass flux from the interface into the deposit. In addition, the growth of the wax deposit as a function of time along with the effect oil flow rate, gas flow rate and the inlet temperature are discussed. The presence of gas significantly reduces the severity of wax deposition by altering the heat and mass transfer characteristics.

  11. Thunderstorms Increase Mercury Wet Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christopher D; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth P; Caffrey, Jane M; Landing, William M; Edgerton, Eric S; Knapp, Kenneth R; Nair, Udaysankar S

    2016-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) wet deposition, transfer from the atmosphere to Earth's surface by precipitation, in the United States is highest in locations and seasons with frequent deep convective thunderstorms, but it has never been demonstrated whether the connection is causal or simple coincidence. We use rainwater samples from over 800 individual precipitation events to show that thunderstorms increase Hg concentrations by 50% relative to weak convective or stratiform events of equal precipitation depth. Radar and satellite observations reveal that strong convection reaching the upper troposphere (where high atmospheric concentrations of soluble, oxidized mercury species (Hg(II)) are known to reside) produces the highest Hg concentrations in rain. As a result, precipitation meteorology, especially thunderstorm frequency and total rainfall, explains differences in Hg deposition between study sites located in the eastern United States. Assessing the fate of atmospheric mercury thus requires bridging the scales of global transport and convective precipitation. PMID:27464305

  12. Atmosfærisk deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermann, T.; Hertel, O.; Kemp, K.;

    Kvælstofdepositionen til danske havområder, fjorde, vige og bugte er for 2001 blevet beregnet til 118 ktons N, hvilket er ca. 20 % lavere end i 2000. Tilsvarende er depositionen til landområderne beregnet til 87 ktons N, hvilket svarer til deposition i 2000. Den primære årsag til den højere...... deposition for 1999-2001, i forhold til tidligere år, er ændringer i beregningsmetoden. Den samlede kvælstofdeposition til farvandene er faldet svagt i perioden 1989-2001. Depositionen til landoverflader skønnes ikke ændret betydeligt. Depositionen af svovlforbindelser til danske landområder er for 2001...

  13. Complexing and hydrothermal ore deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Helgeson, Harold C

    1964-01-01

    Complexing and Hydrothermal Ore Deposition provides a synthesis of fact, theory, and interpretative speculation on hydrothermal ore-forming solutions. This book summarizes information and theory of the internal chemistry of aqueous electrolyte solutions accumulated in previous years. The scope of the discussion is limited to those aspects of particular interest to the geologist working on the problem of hydrothermal ore genesis. Wherever feasible, fundamental principles are reviewed. Portions of this text are devoted to calculations of specific hydrothermal equilibriums in multicompone

  14. Electrochemical Depositions in Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    De Vreese, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, several aspects of the electrodeposition of metals and alloys in ionic liquids were investigated. First, the deposition of brass from choline acetate was studied. Secondly, the electrodeposition of pure molybdenum from ionic liquids based on phosphonium chloride and zinc chloride was treated. In each case, the influence of water, either as a main constituent of the electrolyte or an impurity, was investigated. When comparing electrochemical processes such as electrodeposit...

  15. Electro-spark deposition technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N. [Pacific Northwest Lab., WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Electro-Spark Deposition (ESD) is a micro-welding process that uses short duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit or alloy a consumable electrode material onto a metallic substrate. The ESD process was developed to produce coatings for use in severe environments where most other coatings fail. Because of the exceptional damage resistance of these coatings, and the versatility of the process to apply a wide variety of alloys, intermetallics, and cermets to metal surfaces, the ESD process has been designated as one of the enabling technologies for advanced energy systems. Developments include producing iron aluminide-based coatings with triple the corrosion resistance of the best previous Fe{sub 3}Al coatings, coatings with refractory metal diffusion barriers and multi layer coatings for achieving functionally gradient properties between the substrate and the surface. One of the most significant breakthroughs to occur in the last dozen years is the discovery of a process regime that promises an order of magnitude increase in deposition rates and achievable coating thicknesses. Since this regime borders on and exceeds the normal operating limits of existing ESD electronic equipment, development is in progress to produce equipment that can consistently and reliably achieve these conditions for a broad range of materials. Progress so far has resulted in a consistent 500% increase in deposition rates, and greater rates still are anticipated. Technology transfer activities are a significant portion of the ESD program effort. Notable successes now include the start-up of a new business to commercialize the ESD technology, the incorporation of the process into the operations of a major gas turbine manufacturer, major new applications in gas turbine blade and steam turbine blade protection and repair, and in military, medical, metal-working, and recreational equipment applications.

  16. Crediting Tritium Deposition in Accident Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    2001-06-20

    This paper describes the major aspects of tritium dispersion phenomenology, summarizes deposition attributes of the computer models used in the DOE Complex for tritium dispersion, and recommends an approach to account for deposition in accident analysis.

  17. Isotropic metal deposition technique for metamaterials fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    In this work we will present the first steps taken towards isotropic deposition of thin metallic layers on dielectric substrates. The deposition takes place in aqueous environment thus making it both cheap and easy to be implemented....

  18. CTD_DATABASE - Cascadia tsunami deposit database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have...

  19. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao; Bøjer, M.; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Glarborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Ash deposition on boiler surfaces is a major problem encountered during biomass combustion. Ash deposition adversely influences the boiler efficiency, may corrode heat transfer surfaces, and may even completely block flue gas channels in severe cases, causing expensive unscheduled boiler shutdowns. Therefore, timely removal of ash deposits is essential for optimal boiler operation. In order to improve the qualitative and quantitative understanding of deposit shedding in boilers, this study in...

  20. 75 FR 6348 - Deposit of Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Deposit of Biological Materials ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request....Fawcett@uspto.gov . Include ``0651-0022 Deposit of Biological Materials comment'' in the subject line of....Hanlon@uspto.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The deposit of biological materials as part...

  1. Towards a genetic classification of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the IAEA's uranium deposit classification is based on the deposit nature and morphology, some deposits which have been formed by very different genetic processes and located in very different geological environments, are grouped according to this classification. In order to build up a reliable genetic classification based on the mechanism at the origin of the formation of the deposit, the author presents the five main categories according to which uranium deposits can be classified: magmatic, hydrothermal, evapotranspiration, syn-sedimentary, and infiltration of meteoric water

  2. Particle deposition in granular media: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, Chi

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses topics on particle deposition in granular media. The six topics discussed are: experimental determination of initial collection efficiency in granular beds - an assessment of the effect of instrument sensitivity and the extent of particle bounce-off; deposition of polydispersed aerosols in granular media; in situ observation of aerosol deposition in a two-dimensional model filter; solid velocity in cross-flow granular moving bed; aerosol deposition in granular moving bed; and aerosol deposition in a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed. (LSP)

  3. Depositing Materials on the Micro- and Nanoscale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mar, Mikkel Dysseholm; Herstrøm, Berit; Shkondin, Evgeniy;

    2014-01-01

    that can be used separately or in combination to give the micro/nano system the properties needed. These techniques and film properties are presented. ALD (Atomic Layer Deposition) is good for very thin films (down to monolayers) with extremely good stepcoverage and extremely good control of the layer...... is good for high quality thin film metal deposition e.g. for electrical leads or surfaceplasmonic devices. MVD (Molecular Vapor Deposition) is used for making anti stiction coating. Below is shown an example of Atomic Layer Deposition which is a self-terminating chemical vapor deposition technique based...

  4. Deposit Reserve Rate No Panacea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark; A.DeWeaver

    2006-01-01

    To rein in runaway investment, China's central bank, the People's Bank of China (PBOC), took several measures in mid-June, including the most dramatic step of raising the deposit reserve rate by 0.5 percentage point According to Mark A. DeWeaver, who manages Quantrarian Asia Hedge, a fund that invests in Asian equities, the PBOC's measures may lower money supply growth in the short term; that is, the effect of these measures "may be only temporary." He believes that "attempts to slow money supply growth ...

  5. Minerals deposited as thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free matrix effects are due to thin film deposits. Thus, it was decided to investigate this technique as a possibility to use pure oxide of the desired element, extrapolating its concentration from analytical curves made with avoiding, at the same time, mathematical corrections. The proposed method was employed to determine iron and titanium concentrations in geological samples. The range studied was 0.1-5%m/m for titanium and 5-20%m/m for iron. For both elements the reproducibility was about 7% and differences between this method and other chemical determinations were 15% for titanium and 7% for iron. (Author)

  6. Metal deposition using seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  7. Energetic deposition of thin metal films

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Busaidy, M S K

    2001-01-01

    deposited films. The primary aim of this thesis was to study the physical effect of energetic deposition metal thin films. The secondary aim is to enhance the quality of the films produced to a desired quality. Grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity (GIXR) measurements from a high-energy synchrotron radiation source were carried out to study and characterise the samples. Optical Profilers Interferometery, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Medium energy ion spectroscopy (MEIS), and the Electron microscope studies were the other main structural characterisation tools used. AI/Fe trilayers, as well as multilayers were deposited using a Nordico planar D.C. magnetron deposition system at different voltage biases and pressures. The films were calibrated and investigated. The relation between energetic deposition variation and structural properties was intensely researched. Energetic deposition refers to the method in which the deposited species possess higher kinetic energy and impact ...

  8. Thermoluminescence dating of the british coversand deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, M. D.

    Coversand deposits, thought to be of Lateglacial age are found in Britain in North Lincolnshire, South-West Lancashire and Central East Anglia. A comprehensive dating study of them, using thermoluminescence (TL) techniques, is currently underway in an attempt to link the British coversand deposits to the European coversand chronology. Initial results from four of the British coversand sites sampled are presented. The 26 TL dates from 14 samples show that in Lincolnshire aeolian deposition took place from 12.5 ka to I1 ka. Cessation of the initial sand deposition was synchronous with this in Lancashire, but sand deposition occurred significantly earlier in East Anglia. The upper layers of aeolian sand in Lancashire are much younger and are attributed to Holocene reworking. On the basis of these dates, Lincolnshire and Lancashire coversand deposition occurred at a similar time to the Younger Coversand II, whilst East Anglian coversand deposition coincided with the Younger Coversand I phase in the European coversand chronology.

  9. Digital electrospray for controlled deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weiwei; Waits, C Mike; Gomez, Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    Many novel functional structures are now fabricated by controlled deposition as a maskless, bottom-up fabrication technique. These applications require rapid and precise deposition of minute amounts of solutions/suspensions or their ultimate particle products in predefined patterns. The electrospray is a promising alternative to the commonly used inkjet printing because it can easily handle highly viscous liquid, avoid high shear rates, and has low risk of clogging. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept digital electrospray. This system consists of a 61-nozzle array microfabricated in silicon and a 61-element digital extractor fabricated using flexible polyimide substrates. "Digital" refers to the state of each electrospray source that can be tuned either on or off independently and responsively. We showed a resolution of 675 mum and a response frequency up to 100 Hz. With similar design and industry standard fabrication procedures, it is feasible to scale up the system to O(1000) sources with spatial resolution better than 250 mum and a O(kHz) response frequency. The latter is controlled by the viscous damping time. PMID:20370220

  10. Nanofriction properties of molecular deposition films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The nanofriction properties of Au substrate and monolayer molecular deposition film and multilayer molecular deposition films on Au substrate and the molecular deposition films modified with alkyl-terminal molecule have been investigated by using an atomic force microscope. It is concluded that (ⅰ) the deposition of molecular deposition films on Au substrate and the modification of alkyl-terminal molecule to the molecular deposition films can reduce the frictional force; (ⅱ) the molecular deposition films with the same terminal exhibit similar nanofriction properties, which has nothing to do with the molecular chain-length and the layer number; (ⅲ) the unstable nanofriction properties of molecular deposition films are contributed to the active terminal of the molecular deposition film, which can be eliminated by decorating the active molecular deposition film with alkyl-terminal molecule, moreover, the decoration of alkyl-terminal molecule can lower the frictional force conspicuously; (ⅳ) the relative humidity affects the frictional force; the higher the RH, the lower the frictional force.

  11. Oil shales, evaporites and ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Hans P.

    1985-03-01

    The relationships between oil shales, evaporites and sedimentary ore deposits can be classified in terms of stratigraphic and geochemical coherence. Oil shale and black shale deposition commonly follows continental red beds and is in turn followed by evaporite deposition. This transgressive-regressive sequence represents an orderly succession of depositional environments in space and time and results in stratigraphic coherence. The amount of organic carbon of a sediment depends on productivity and preservation, both of which are enhanced by saline environments. Work on Great Salt Lake. Utah, allows us to estimate that only 5% of TOC originally deposited is preserved. Inorganic carbonate production is similar to TOC production, but preservation is much higher. Oil shales and black shales commonly are enriched in heavy metals through scavenging by biogenic particles and complexation by organic matter. Ore deposits are formed from such rocks through secondary enrichment processes, establishing a geochemical coherence between oil shales and ore deposits. The Permian Kupferschiefer of N. Europe is used as an example to define a Kupferschiefer type (KST) deposit. Here oxygenated brines in contact with red beds become acidified through mineral precipitation and acquire metals by dissolving oxide coatings. Oxidation of the black shale leads to further acid production and metal acquisition and eventually to sulfide deposition along a reducing front. In order to form ore bodies, the stratigraphic coherence of the red bed-black shale-evaporite succession must be joined by the geochemical coherence of the ore body-evaporite-black shale association. The Cretaceous Cu-Zn deposits of Angola, the Zambian Copperbelt as well as the Creta, Oklahoma, deposits are other KST examples. In the Zambian Copperbelt, evaporites are indicated by the carbonate lenticles thought to be pseudomorphs after gypsum-anhydrite nodules. MVT deposits are also deposited by acid brines, but at more

  12. Analysing the Cenozoic depositional record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goledowski, Bartosz; Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.

    between the global climate record (oxygen isotopes) and lithology variations on the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the eastern North Sea. Due to the strongly limited time resolution of low temperature thermochronology, the Cenozoic sedimentary record potentially provides the most detailed history of...... lower limit to erosion rate in source areas of the respective sedimentary bodies. The lower limit arises because some erosional products are transported out of the mapped area, and some erosion is caused by chemical dissolution. The development of the source areas will be modelled using surface process...... models. The matrix mass deposition history will be compared with the paleoclimate record (e.g. oxygen isotope curves) to see if the previously observed correlation in the eastern North Sea can be extended to other ages and locations.  ...

  13. UFOMOD - atmospheric dispersion and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives an introduction into the modelling of atmospheric dispersion and deposition which has been implemented in the new program system UFOMOD for assessing the consequences after nuclear accidents. According to the new structure of UFOMOD, different trajectory models with ranges of validity near to the site and at far distances are applied. Emphasis is laid on the description of the segmented plume model MUSEMET and its affilated submodels, being the removal of activity from the cloud by dry and wet deposition, and special effects like plume rise and the behaviour of plumes released into building wakes. In addition, the evaluation of γ-dose correction factors to take account of the finite extent of the radioactive plume in the near range (up to about 20 km) are described. Only brief introductions are given into the principles of the other models available: the puff model RIMPUFF, the long-range puff model MESOS, and the special straight-line Gaussian model ISOLA which are used if low-level long-duration releases are considered. To define starting times of weather sequences and the probabilities of occurrence of these sequences, it is convenient to perform stratified sampling. Therefore, the preprocessing program package METSAM has been developed to perform for generic ACAs a random sampling of weather sequences out off a population of classified weather conditions. The sampling procedure and a detailed input/output (I/O) description is presented and an additional appendix, respectively. A general overview on the I/O structure of MUSEMET as well as a brief user guide to run the KfK version of the MESOS code are also given in the appendix. (orig.)

  14. Update on calcium pyrophosphate deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishek, Abhishek; Doherty, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPPD) associates with ageing, osteoarthritis (OA), uncommon metabolic diseases, mutations and polymorphisms in the ankylosis human gene (ANKH). CPPD is frequently polyarticular, occurs due to a generalised articular predisposition, and the association between CPPD and OA is joint specific, for example CPPD associates with knee OA, but not with hip OA. Other recently identified associations include knee malalignment (knee CC), low cortical BMD and soft-tissue calcification. CPPD is generally asymptomatic. A recent study reported that knees with OA plus CC at the index joint, or at distant joints (in absence of index joint CC), were more likely to have attrition. CPPD can cause acute CPP crystal arthritis, chronic CPP crystal inflammatory arthritis, and is frequently present in joints with OA. Joint aspiration remains the gold standard for diagnosing CPPD, although other promising techniques are emerging. Patients with polyarticular or young onset CPPD should be screened for underlying metabolic abnormalities, however, such testing can be unrewarding. The treatment of CPPD is symptomatic. Acute CPP crystal arthritis is treated with rest, local application of ice-packs, joint aspiration, colchicine and/or intra-articular corticosteroid injection (once infection is excluded). Colchicine, low-dose corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine and radiosynovectomy are recommended for the treatment of chronic or recurrent acute CPP crystal arthritis. Recent RCTs did not confirm any benefit from methotrexate, and although there is increasing interest in the use of anti-IL1 agents for acute or chronic CPP crystal arthritis, their efficacy has not been formally examined. Unlike gout, currently there are no treatments to eliminate CPP crystal deposits. PMID:27586801

  15. Laboratory Deposition Apparatus to Study the Effects of Wax Deposition on Pipe Magnetic Field Leakage Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mohd Fauzi Abd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate technique for wax deposition detection and severity measurement on cold pipe wall is important for pipeline cleaning program. Usually these techniques are validated by conventional techniques on laboratory scale wax deposition flow loop. However conventional techniques inherent limitations and it is difficult to reproduce a predetermine wax deposit profile and hardness at designated location in flow loop. An alternative wax deposition system which integrates modified pour casting method and cold finger method is presented. This system is suitable to reproduce high volume of medium hard wax deposit in pipe with better control of wax deposit profile and hardness.

  16. Review of cooling tower drift deposition models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, N.C.J.

    1977-05-04

    The behavior, basic assumptions, and limitations of ten different models for calculating the drift deposition rate from wet cooling towers are reviewed and then their predicted results for such deposition with a common set of input parameters are compared. The predicted maximum deposition differs among the models by two orders of magnitude with a wide range in peak location. Comments and suggestions to improve the models are included.

  17. Vapor wall deposition in Teflon chambers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, X; R. H. Schwantes; R. C. McVay; H Lignell; M. M. Coggon; Flagan, R C; Seinfeld, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Teflon chambers are ubiquitous in studies of atmospheric chemistry. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation can be substantially underestimated owing to deposition of SOA-forming compounds to chamber walls. We present here an experimental protocol to constrain the nature of wall deposition of organic vapors in Teflon chambers. We measured the wall deposition rates of 25 oxidized organic compounds generated from the photooxidation of isoprene, toluene, α-pinene, and dodecan...

  18. CPI Overruns Deposit Reserve Rate Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The People's Bank of China has announced its intention to raise the deposit reserve rate again,less than one month after the last rate increase, this means that the deposit reserve rate has increased a total of ten times this year. However, this time the central bank increased the deposit reserve rate by a full 1 percent, a bigger increase than the last nine adjustments of 0.5 percent.

  19. FTIR analysis of aviation fuel deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmick, L. S.; Seng, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    Five modes of operation of the Nicolet 7199 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer have been evaluated for application in analysis of the chemical structure of accelerated storage/thermal deposits produced by jet fuels. Using primarily the absorption and emission modes, the effects of fuel type, stress temperature, stress time, type of spiking agent, spiking agent concentration, fuel flow, and post-depositional treatment on the chemical nature of fuel deposits have been determined.

  20. Bilateral Pseudoexfoliation Deposits on Intraocular Lens Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bonafonte Marquez; Sergio Bonafonte Royo

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of bilateral pseudoexfoliative deposits on both intraocular lens (IOL) implants in an 83-year-old woman with no other associated pathology, 5 years after cataract surgery. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide and these deposits are usually found on the natural lens. The fact that pseudoexfoliative deposits have been found on IOL implants implies the need for a thorough examination in pseudophakic patients, for i...

  1. Solid Organic Deposition During Gas Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandekar, Abhijit Y.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    . The asphaltene content of the different oil samples were determined by the TP 143 method. The standard asphaltenes and the solid organic deposit recovered from the swelling tests were analyzed using FTIR, HPLC-SEC and H-1 NMR. The aim of these analyses is to reveal the molecular nature of the deposits formed...... during the gas injection process in comparison with the standard asphaltenes in order to understand the mechanisms involved in asphaltene deposition....

  2. DETERMINATION METHODS OF THE ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanefi BAYRAKTAR

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric deposition is defined as the turning back of pollutants to the earth, emitted either from natural or anthropogenic sources, after the some transformation stages of pollutants in the atmosphere. Because the atmospheric deposition (wet and dry deposition damages water, plants, soil, historical and other structures, it is one of the popular subject to study in recent years. However, it is difficult to study the determination of atmospheric deposition because it has a lot of various and changeable parameters. So, there is a need for various systems and surfaces for sampling. As wet deposition can be sampled by manual and automatic systems, the different developed sampling surfaces which minimize the effect of various topographic and meteorological conditions are used to sample dry deposition. Studies show that sampling with water surfaces is more suitable to collect both dry and bulk deposition. In this study, atmospheric deposition and its determination methods were explained and sampling surfaces that were developed to collect deposition of different air pollutants compared each other.

  3. Structural characterization of MAPLE deposited lipase biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Lipase from Candida Rugosa was deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) on KBr pellets, mica and glass substrate. • The deposited film was characterized morphologically and structurally by optical microscopy, SEM and FTIR analysis. • Results of characterization underlined a phenomenon of aggregation taking place. • The aggregation phenomenon was reversible since lipase showed activity in the transesterification reaction between soybean oil and isopropyl alcohol once detached from the substrate. - Abstract: Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases) are enzymes used in several industrial applications. Enzymes immobilization can be used to address key issues limiting widespread application at industrial level. Immobilization efficiency is related to the ability to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme. MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique, a laser deposition procedure for treating organic/polymeric/biomaterials, was applied for the deposition of lipase enzyme in an ice matrix, using near infrared laser radiation. Microscopy analysis showed that the deposition occurred in micrometric and submicrometric clusters with a wide size distribution. AFM imaging showed that inter-cluster regions are uniformly covered with smaller aggregates of nanometric size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for both recognizing the deposited material and analyzing its secondary structure. Results showed that the protein underwent reversible self-association during the deposition process. Actually, preliminary tests of MAPLE deposited lipase used for soybean oil transesterification with isopropyl alcohol followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry gave results consistent with undamaged deposition of lipase

  4. Mass deposition from inspired polydisperse aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf, G.; Gebhart, J.; Heyder, J.; Scheuch, G.; Stahlhofen, W. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H., Frankfurt (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Biophysikalische Strahlenforschung)

    1988-01-01

    Mass deposition of polydisperse hydrophobic aerosol particles in various regions of the human respiratory tract has been calculated using a semi-empirical deposition model and assuming lognormal particle size distributions. The effects of polydispersity, breathing mode (nose versus mouth breathing), breathing pattern, particle size and density upon mass deposition are discussed. Significant differences are found from the model predictions of the ICRP TASK GROUP ON LUNG DYNAMICS (1966) and later ICRP recommendations. The influence of the geometric standard deviation of the size distribution upon mass deposition depends on particle size, and a simple explanation of this effect is introduced. (author).

  5. Structural characterization of MAPLE deposited lipase biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronne, Antonio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Ausanio, Giovanni; Bloisi, Francesco [CNR-SPIN and Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Calabria, Raffaela [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Califano, Valeria, E-mail: v.califano@im.cnr.it [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Fanelli, Esther [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Massoli, Patrizio [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Vicari, Luciano R.M. [CNR-SPIN and Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Lipase from Candida Rugosa was deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) on KBr pellets, mica and glass substrate. • The deposited film was characterized morphologically and structurally by optical microscopy, SEM and FTIR analysis. • Results of characterization underlined a phenomenon of aggregation taking place. • The aggregation phenomenon was reversible since lipase showed activity in the transesterification reaction between soybean oil and isopropyl alcohol once detached from the substrate. - Abstract: Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases) are enzymes used in several industrial applications. Enzymes immobilization can be used to address key issues limiting widespread application at industrial level. Immobilization efficiency is related to the ability to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme. MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique, a laser deposition procedure for treating organic/polymeric/biomaterials, was applied for the deposition of lipase enzyme in an ice matrix, using near infrared laser radiation. Microscopy analysis showed that the deposition occurred in micrometric and submicrometric clusters with a wide size distribution. AFM imaging showed that inter-cluster regions are uniformly covered with smaller aggregates of nanometric size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for both recognizing the deposited material and analyzing its secondary structure. Results showed that the protein underwent reversible self-association during the deposition process. Actually, preliminary tests of MAPLE deposited lipase used for soybean oil transesterification with isopropyl alcohol followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry gave results consistent with undamaged deposition of lipase.

  6. Low-fluorine Stockwork Molybdenite Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2009-01-01

    Low-fluorine stockwork molybdenite deposits are closely related to porphyry copper deposits, being similar in their tectonic setting (continental volcanic arc) and the petrology (calc-alkaline) of associated igneous rock types. They are mainly restricted to the Cordillera of western Canada and the northwest United States, and their distribution elsewhere in the world may be limited. The deposits consist of stockwork bodies of molybdenite-bearing quartz veinlets that are present in and around the upper parts of intermediate to felsic intrusions. The deposits are relatively low grade (0.05 to 0.2 percent Mo), but relatively large, commonly >50 million tons. The source plutons for these deposits range from granodiorite to granite in composition; the deposits primarily form in continental margin subduction-related magmatic arcs, often concurrent with formation of nearby porphyry copper deposits. Oxidation of pyrite in unmined deposits or in tailings and waste rock during weathering can lead to development of acid-rock drainage and limonite-rich gossans. Waters associated with low-fluorine stockwork molybdenite deposits tend to be nearly neutral in pH; variable in concentrations of molybdenum (10,000 ug/L); below regulatory guidelines for copper, iron, lead, zinc, and mercury; and locally may exceed guidelines for arsenic, cadmium, and selenium.

  7. Atomic layer deposition of nanoporous biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger J Narayan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

  8. Hideout in steam generator tube deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideout in deposits on steam generator tubes was studied using tubes coated with magnetite. Hideout from sodium chloride solutions at 279 degrees C was followed using an on-line high-temperature conductivity probe, as well as by chemical analysis of solution samples from the autoclave in which the studies were done. Significant hideout was observed only at a heat flux greater than 200 kW/m2, corresponding to a temperature drop greater than 2 degrees C across the deposits. The concentration factor resulting from the hideout increased highly non-linearly with the heat flux (varying as high as the fourth power of the heat flux). The decrease in the apparent concentration factor with increasing deposit thickness suggested that the pores in the deposit were occupied by a mixture of steam and water, which is consistent with the conclusion from the thermal conductivity measurements on deposits in a separate study. Analyses of the deposits after the hideout tests showed no evidence of any hidden-out solute species, probably due to the concentrations being very near the detection limits and to their escape from the deposit as the tests were being ended. This study showed that hideout in deposits may concentrate solutes in the steam generator bulk water by a factor as high as 2 x 103. Corrosion was evident under the deposit in some tests, with some chromium enrichment on the surface of the tube. Chromium enrichment usually indicates an acidic environment, but the mobility required of chromium to become incorporated into the thick magnetite deposit may indicate corrosion under an alkaline environment. An alkaline environment could result from preferential accumulation of sodium in the solution in the deposit during the hideout process. (author)

  9. Colloid Deposit Morphology and Clogging in Porous Media: Fundamental Insights Through Investigation of Deposit Fractal Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eric J; Gilbert, Benjamin; Mays, David C

    2015-10-20

    Experiments reveal a wide discrepancy between the permeability of porous media containing colloid deposits and the available predictive equations. Evidence suggests that this discrepancy results, in part, from the predictive equations failing to account for colloid deposit morphology. This article reports a series of experiments using static light scattering (SLS) to characterize colloid deposit morphology within refractive index matched (RIM) porous media during flow through a column. Real time measurements of permeability, specific deposit, deposit fractal dimension, and deposit radius of gyration, at different vertical positions, were conducted with initially clean porous media at various ionic strengths and fluid velocities. Decreased permeability (i.e., increased clogging) corresponded with higher specific deposit, lower fractal dimension, and smaller radius of gyration. During deposition, fractal dimension, radius of gyration, and permeability decreased with increasing specific deposit. During flushing with colloid-free fluid, these trends reversed, with increased fractal dimension, radius of gyration, and permeability. These observations suggest a deposition scenario in which large and uniform aggregates become deposits, which reduce porosity, lead to higher fluid shear forces, which then decompose the deposits, filling the pore space with small and dendritic fragments of aggregate.

  10. The mechanical properties of thin alumina film deposited by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Gellings, P.J.; Vendel, van de D.; Metselaar, H.S.C.; Corbach, van H.D.; Fransen, T.

    1995-01-01

    Amorphous alumina films were deposited by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) on stainless steel, type AISI 304. The MOCVD experiments were performed in nitrogen at low and atmospheric pressures. The effects of deposition temperature, growth rate and film thickness on the mechanical pro

  11. Yangshan Gold Deposit: The Largest Carlin and Carlin-like Type Gold Deposit in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Fengzeng; LI Qiangzhi

    2008-01-01

    Gold Headquarter of the CAPF has discovered the Yangshan super large-scale gold depositin Gansu Province, which is a great breakthrough of gold exploration and prospecting in WesternQiniing Mountains of China. The gold resources of this deposit achieved 308 tons with increasingpotentials. Preliminary geological investigations indicate that the Yangshan gold deposit is located inthe intra-continental collision orogenic belt; and the deposit was formed during the continent-continentcollision orogenic processes. The geological characteristics of the deposit are similar to that of thetypical Carlin-type gold deposits, while differences still exist. The ore-forming background is notablydifferent from the Carlin gold deposit province in the United States; and the ore-forming fluids aresimilar with that of the orogenic-type gold deposit. Accordingly, the Yangshan gold deposit is atransitional type between the Carlin-type and the orogenic type gold deposits. At present, the Yangshangold deposit is the largest Carlin and Carlin-like type gold deposit that is ever discovered in China.Researches on metaliogeny, metaliogenic model and ore-enrichment regularities of the Yangshan golddeposit are crucial to meet the pressing needs of the current geological investigation and oreexploration of the deposit.

  12. The geomicrobiology of bauxite deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiluo Hao; Kwunlun Leung; Rucheng Wang; Weidong Sun; Yiliang Li

    2010-01-01

    Bauxite deposits are studied because of their economic value and because they play an important role in the study of paleoclimate and paleogeography of continents. They provide a rare record of the weathering and evolution of continental surfaces. Geomicrobiological analysis makes it possible to verify that microorganisms have played a critical role during the formation of bauxite with the possibility already intimated in previous studies. Ambient temperature, abundance of water, organic carbon and bioavailable iron and other metal substrates provide a suitable environment for microbes to inhabit. Thiobacillus, Leptospirilum, Thermophilic bacteria and Heterotrophs have been shown to be able to oxidize ferrous iron and to reduce sulfate-generating sulfuric acid, which can accelerate the weathering of aluminosilicates and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides. Microorganisms referred to the genus Bacillus can mediate the release of alkaline metals. Although the dissimilatory iron-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in bauxites have not yet been identified, some recorded authigenic carbonates and "bacteriopyrites" that appear to be unique in morphology and grain size might record microbial activity. Typical bauxite minerals such as gibbsite, kaolinite, covellite, galena, pyrite, zircon, calcium ptagioclase, orthoclase, and albite have been investigated as part of an analysis of microbial mediation. The paleoecologyof such bauxitic microorganisms inhabiting continental (sub) surfaces, revealed through geomicrobiological analysis, will add a further dimension to paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental studies.

  13. 78 FR 16472 - Deposit of Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Deposit of Biological Materials ACTION: Proposed collection....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The deposit of biological materials as part of a patent application is... use the invention as specified by 35 U.S.C. 112. The term ``biological material'' is defined by 37...

  14. Review of Gaussian diffusion-deposition models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    The assumptions and predictions of several Gaussian diffusion-deposition models are compared. A simple correction to the Chamberlain source depletion model is shown to predict ground-level airborne concentrations and dry deposition fluxes in close agreement with the exact solution of Horst.

  15. Atmospheric deposition maps for the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Campbell, D.H.; Ingersoll, G.P.; Clow, D.W.; Mast, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Variability in atmospheric deposition across the Rocky Mountains is influenced by elevation, slope, aspect, and precipitation amount and by regional and local sources of air pollution. To improve estimates of deposition in mountainous regions, maps of average annual atmospheric deposition loadings of nitrate, sulfate, and acidity were developed for the Rocky Mountains by using spatial statistics. A parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) was incorporated to account for variations in precipitation amount over mountainous regions. Chemical data were obtained from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and from annual snowpack surveys conducted by the US Geological Survey and National Park Service, in cooperation with other Federal, State and local agencies. Surface concentration maps were created by ordinary kriging in a geographic information system, using a local trend and mathematical model to estimate the spatial variance. Atmospheric-deposition maps were constructed at 1-km resolution by multiplying surface concentrations from the kriged grid and estimates of precipitation amount from the PRISM model. Maps indicate an increasing spatial trend in concentration and deposition of the modeled constituents, particularly nitrate and sulfate, from north to south throughout the Rocky Mountains and identify hot-spots of atmospheric deposition that result from combined local and regional sources of air pollution. Highest nitrate (2.5-3.0kg/ha N) and sulfate (10.0-12.0kg/ha SO4) deposition is found in northern Colorado.

  16. Plasma Deposition of Doped Amorphous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcote, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Pair of reports present further experimental details of investigation of plasma deposition of films of phosphorous-doped amosphous silicon. Probe measurements of electrical resistance of deposited films indicated films not uniform. In general, it appeared that resistance decreased with film thickness.

  17. A Simplified Diffusion-Deposition Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto

    1980-01-01

    The use of a simple top hat plume model facilitates an analytical treatment of the deposition problem. A necessary constraint, however, is that the diffusion velocity (e.g., in terms of the plume growth-rate) is large compared to the deposition velocity. With these limitations, explicit formulae...

  18. Fuzzy Comprehensive Appraisal of Concealed Ore Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the transformation from the fuzzy to the accurate process is exemplified by the Jiaodong gold ore deposits concentrated region where the mathematical analysis is used to appraise and forecast regional concealed gold ore deposits. In this sense, this paper presents a new way to the appraisal of the non-traditional mineral resources.

  19. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.L.

    1991-11-01

    During the current report experimental studies of upper respiratory deposition of radon progeny aerosols and stimulant aerosols were carried out in replicate casts of nasal and oral passages of adults and children. Additionally, preliminary studies of nasal passage deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles was carried out in four human subjects. Data on nasal inspiratory deposition in replicate models of adults and infants from three collaborating laboratories were compared and a best-fit curve of deposition efficiency for both attached and unattached particles was obtained, showing excellent inter-laboratory agreement. This curve demonstrates that nasal inspiratory deposition of radon progeny is weakly dependent upon flow rate over physiologically realistic ranges of flow, does not show a significant age effect, and is relatively independent of nasal passage dimensions for a given age range. Improved replicate models of the human adult oral passage extending to the mid-trachea were constructed for medium and higher flow mouth breathing states; these models were used to assess the deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles during oronasal breathing in the oral passage and demonstrated lower deposition efficiency than the nasal passage. Measurements of both Po{sup 218} particle and attached fraction particle size deposition were performed in replicate nasal passage of a four week old infant. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Resource assessment of copper deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-li; GU De-sheng; T. Shoji; H. Kaneda

    2005-01-01

    Copper-bearing deposits of China are statistically analyzed in terms of ore grade, metal amount and ore tonnage. Each of grade and metal amount shows more or less a lognormal distribution. Analysis gives 10 copper metallogenic districts, each having specific densities of deposit numbers and copper reserves larger than 3. Based on the ratio of copper in ore value (Rcu), Chinese copper deposits are classified into two groups: mainly copper-producing deposits (MC: Rcu≥0.5) and accessorily copper-producing deposits (AC: Rcu<0. 5). The grade-tonnage relation of MC deposits can be combined by two exponential functions approximating high grade (> 3.0 %) and low grade (<2.0%) parts. The critical copper grade, which is obtained from the low grade part of the relation, is 0. 34 %. Chinese copper resources are concluded to become pessimistic, because some mines are working with grades close to this critical value. Taking account of the fact that many copper deposits are actually polymetallic, Cu-equivalent grades, which are converted from ratios of metal prices to the copper price, are also introduced. The critical Cu-equivalent grade of MC deposits (0. 43 % ) also suggests that Chinese copper resources are pessimistic.

  1. 24 CFR 891.775 - Security deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security deposits. 891.775 Section 891.775 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.775 Security deposits. The general requirements for security...

  2. Large Nonferrous Metals Deposits Found in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to the Department of Land and Resources of Yunnan, Yunnan has made great achievements since implementation of the geological prospecting action plan. 5 ultra-large deposits and several large deposits have been found, and a group of key areas with favorable ore-forming prospect have been pinpointed.

  3. 37 CFR 2.208 - Deposit accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Fees and Payment of Money in Trademark Cases § 2.208 Deposit... replenish a deposit account may be submitted by electronic funds transfer through the Federal Reserve... electronic funds transfer over the Office's Internet Web site (www.uspto.gov). (3) A payment to replenish...

  4. Goudafzettingen in Suriname (Gold deposits in Surinam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinck, J.W.

    1956-01-01

    THE GOLD DEPOSITS IN SURINAM AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF CONCESSIONS THROUGH THE COUNTRY The fieldwork on the occurrence of primary and secondary gold deposits in Surinam on which this thesis is based was carried out by order of the Welfare Fund Surinam (Welvaarts Fonds Suriname) during the periods Dece

  5. Assessment of Global Mercury Deposition through Litterfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Bao, Zhengduo; Lin, Che-Jen; Yuan, Wei; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-08-16

    There is a large uncertainty in the estimate of global dry deposition of atmospheric mercury (Hg). Hg deposition through litterfall represents an important input to terrestrial forest ecosystems via cumulative uptake of atmospheric Hg (most Hg(0)) to foliage. In this study, we estimate the quantity of global Hg deposition through litterfall using statistical modeling (Monte Carlo simulation) of published data sets of litterfall biomass production, tree density, and Hg concentration in litter samples. On the basis of the model results, the global annual Hg deposition through litterfall is estimated to be 1180 ± 710 Mg yr(-1), more than two times greater than the estimate by GEOS-Chem. Spatial distribution of Hg deposition through litterfall suggests that deposition flux decreases spatially from tropical to temperate and boreal regions. Approximately 70% of global Hg(0) dry deposition occurs in the tropical and subtropical regions. A major source of uncertainty in this study is the heterogeneous geospatial distribution of available data. More observational data in regions (Southeast Asia, Africa, and South America) where few data sets exist will greatly improve the accuracy of the current estimate. Given that the quantity of global Hg deposition via litterfall is typically 2-6 times higher than Hg(0) evasion from forest floor, global forest ecosystems represent a strong Hg(0) sink. PMID:27418119

  6. Diamond deposition on thin cylindrical substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORDANA S. RISTIĆ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Diamond coatings were deposited onto different cylindrical substrates (Cu, SiC, W and Mo by the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD method. Continuous, adhered and well-faceted crystalline coatings of diamond were obtained on Cu-wire using a special pretreatment with a mixture of diamond and metal powders as well as carefully controlled deposition at lower power. Diamond deposition on SiC-fiber gave continuous and uniform coatings when only the filament power was properly selected. Uniform, homogeneous, euchedral diamond coatings on W- and Mo-wires, attained at a higher filament power, confirmed once more the convenience of refractory metals as substrates for diamond deposition by the CVD technique. Characterization of the obtained coatings was realized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The obtained results are compared with the literature data. Differences are discussed with regard to the chemical nature of the substrates as well as their thermophysical characteristics.

  7. A Complexity View of Acid Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建林; 方见树

    2003-01-01

    We show that acid deposition is analogous to complex systems composed of a series of interconnected components.Frequency-size distributions of weekly hydrogen deposition (WHD) of precipitation are consistent with double power-law in two different regimes separated by a crossover WHD. The distribution of variations in acid deposition over a week interval is remarkably symmetrical, with long tail extending over eight orders of magnitude. The acid deposition fluctuations exhibit fractal Brown motion with two different temporal scaling regimes and long-range correlation exists in the series. The power-laws in the acid deposition dynamics are considered to be indicators of seff-organization of atmosphere under environmental pollution stress.

  8. Biosensor Applications of MAPLE Deposited Lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Califano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE is a thin film deposition technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD for deposition of delicate (polymers, complex biological molecules, etc. materials in undamaged form. The main difference of MAPLE technique with respect to PLD is the target: it is a frozen solution or suspension of the (guest molecules to be deposited in a volatile substance (matrix. Since laser beam energy is mainly absorbed by the matrix, damages to the delicate guest molecules are avoided, or at least reduced. Lipase, an enzyme catalyzing reactions borne by triglycerides, has been used in biosensors for detection of β-hydroxyacid esters and triglycerides in blood serum. Enzymes immobilization on a substrate is therefore required. In this paper we show that it is possible, using MAPLE technique, to deposit lipase on a substrate, as shown by AFM observation, preserving its conformational structure, as shown by FTIR analysis.

  9. Chemical vapor deposition coating for micromachines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANI,SEETHAMBAL S.; FLEMING,JAMES G.; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.; DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; IRWIN,LAWRENCE W.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; TANNER,DANELLE M.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.

    2000-04-21

    Two major problems associated with Si-based MEMS devices are stiction and wear. Surface modifications are needed to reduce both adhesion and friction in micromechanical structures to solve these problems. In this paper, the authors will present a process used to selectively coat MEMS devices with tungsten using a CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) process. The selective W deposition process results in a very conformal coating and can potentially solve both stiction and wear problems confronting MEMS processing. The selective deposition of tungsten is accomplished through silicon reduction of WF{sub 6}, which results in a self-limiting reaction. The selective deposition of W only on polysilicon surfaces prevents electrical shorts. Further, the self-limiting nature of this selective W deposition process ensures the consistency necessary for process control. Selective tungsten is deposited after the removal of the sacrificial oxides to minimize process integration problems. This tungsten coating adheres well and is hard and conducting, requirements for device performance. Furthermore, since the deposited tungsten infiltrates under adhered silicon parts and the volume of W deposited is less than the amount of Si consumed, it appears to be possible to release stuck parts that are contacted over small areas such as dimples. Results from tungsten deposition on MEMS structures with dimples will be presented. The effect of wet and vapor phase cleanings prior to the deposition will be discussed along with other process details. The W coating improved wear by orders of magnitude compared to uncoated parts. Tungsten CVD is used in the integrated-circuit industry, which makes this approach manufacturable.

  10. Sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposit model: Chapter M in Mineral deposit model for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Timothy S.; Cox, Dennis P.; Bliss, James D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2015-01-01

    This report contains a descriptive model of sediment-hosted stratabound copper (SSC) deposits that supersedes the model of Cox and others (2003). This model is for use in assessments of mineral resource potential. SSC deposits are the second most important sources of copper in the world behind porphyry copper deposits. Around 20 percent of the copper in the world is produced from this class of deposits. They are also the most important sources of cobalt in the world, and they are fourth among classes of ore deposits in production of silver. SSC deposits are the basis of the economies of three countries: Democratic Republic of Congo, Poland, and Zambia. This report provides a description of the key features of SSC deposits; it identifies their tectonic-sedimentary environments; it illustrates geochemical, geophysical, and geoenvironmental characteristics of SSC deposits; it reviews and evaluates hypotheses on how these deposits formed; it presents exploration and assessment guides; and it lists some gaps in our knowledge about the SSC deposits. A summary follows that provides overviews of many subjects concerning SSC deposits.

  11. Research on depositing Ni45 alloy on titanium alloy surface by electrospark deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Tao; Zhang Chunhui; Su Guiqiao; Yan Ping

    2008-01-01

    Taking Ni45 bar as electrode, a strengthened layer of thickness up to 50 pm was built up on BT20 titanium alloy matrix by means of electrospark deposition. Results of phase analysis by using of X-ray diffraction confirmed that the deposition layer was composed mostly of three phases, NiTi, NiTi2layer was up to 910 HV0.05, about 2.7 times as high as that of the matrix. The hardness at the cross-section of the entire deposition layer showed a gradient distribution. The effects of capacitance and deposition time on thickness of deposition layer were also studied, and results showed that with relatively low capacity and short deposition time the deposition layer without cracks can be obtained.

  12. Reducing tube bundle deposition using alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle deposition rates were measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled, using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates 10 times greater than those measured for magnetite although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) : ammonia (0.51) dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat-transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to 2-phase forced-convection through a thin film. (author)

  13. Deposition of large particles in human lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-four nonsmoking males, all without history of pulmonary disease, were randomly divided into four groups of six subjects each. The subjects in each group inhaled monodisperse Teflon particles labelled with 111In (half-life 2.83 days); 8.2, 11.5, 13.7 and 16.4 micron aerodynamic diameter, respectively. Radioactivity in head and throat, lung and stomach was determined after 0, 3 and 24 hrs using a profile scanner. For some subjects radioactivity was also determined using a whole-body scanner at 3.5 and 24 hrs. After the 24-hr determination the subjects inhaled labelled Teflon particles again, this time with a filter in front of the mouth. Average values for total deposition in the body, obtained using a profile scanner, whole-body scanner and filter measurements, agreed fairly well. Lung retention values obtained by whole-body and profile scanning also agreed well. The average deposition in the lung, expressed as a percentage of total deposition, was 49, 31, 21 and 13% for the four particle sizes (8.2-16.4 micron). Alveolar deposition, determined as retention at 24 hrs and expressed in percent of total deposition, was 15, 4, 4 and 1%. For the smallest particle sizes the deposition values agreed with earlier investigations. However, for the larger particles the two deposition values were higher than expected when compared to earlier studies

  14. Deposition of large particles in human lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartengren, M; Falk, R; Linnman, L; Philipson, K; Camner, P

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-four nonsmoking males, all without history of pulmonary disease, were randomly divided into four groups of six subjects each. The subjects in each group inhaled monodisperse Teflon particles labelled with 111In (half-life 2.83 days); 8.2, 11.5, 13.7 and 16.4 micron aerodynamic diameter, respectively. Radioactivity in head and throat, lung and stomach was determined after 0, 3 and 24 hrs using a profile scanner. For some subjects radioactivity was also determined using a whole-body scanner at 3.5 and 24 hrs. After the 24-hr determination the subjects inhaled labelled Teflon particles again, this time with a filter in front of the mouth. Average values for total deposition in the body, obtained using a profile scanner, whole-body scanner and filter measurements, agreed fairly well. Lung retention values obtained by whole-body and profile scanning also agreed well. The average deposition in the lung, expressed as a percentage of total deposition, was 49, 31, 21 and 13% for the four particle sizes (8.2-16.4 micron). Alveolar deposition, determined as retention at 24 hrs and expressed in percent of total deposition, was 15, 4, 4 and 1%. For the smallest particle sizes the deposition values agreed with earlier investigations. However, for the larger particles the two deposition values were higher than expected when compared to earlier studies. PMID:3102217

  15. Deposition of large particles in human lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svartengren, M.; Falk, R.; Linnman, L.; Philipson, K.; Camner, P.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-four nonsmoking males, all without history of pulmonary disease, were randomly divided into four groups of six subjects each. The subjects in each group inhaled monodisperse Teflon particles labelled with /sup 111/In (half-life 2.83 days); 8.2, 11.5, 13.7 and 16.4 micron aerodynamic diameter, respectively. Radioactivity in head and throat, lung and stomach was determined after 0, 3 and 24 hrs using a profile scanner. For some subjects radioactivity was also determined using a whole-body scanner at 3.5 and 24 hrs. After the 24-hr determination the subjects inhaled labelled Teflon particles again, this time with a filter in front of the mouth. Average values for total deposition in the body, obtained using a profile scanner, whole-body scanner and filter measurements, agreed fairly well. Lung retention values obtained by whole-body and profile scanning also agreed well. The average deposition in the lung, expressed as a percentage of total deposition, was 49, 31, 21 and 13% for the four particle sizes (8.2-16.4 micron). Alveolar deposition, determined as retention at 24 hrs and expressed in percent of total deposition, was 15, 4, 4 and 1%. For the smallest particle sizes the deposition values agreed with earlier investigations. However, for the larger particles the two deposition values were higher than expected when compared to earlier studies.

  16. Structural characterization of MAPLE deposited lipase biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronne, Antonio; Ausanio, Giovanni; Bloisi, Francesco; Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria; Fanelli, Esther; Massoli, Patrizio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2014-11-01

    Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases) are enzymes used in several industrial applications. Enzymes immobilization can be used to address key issues limiting widespread application at industrial level. Immobilization efficiency is related to the ability to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme. MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique, a laser deposition procedure for treating organic/polymeric/biomaterials, was applied for the deposition of lipase enzyme in an ice matrix, using near infrared laser radiation. Microscopy analysis showed that the deposition occurred in micrometric and submicrometric clusters with a wide size distribution. AFM imaging showed that inter-cluster regions are uniformly covered with smaller aggregates of nanometric size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for both recognizing the deposited material and analyzing its secondary structure. Results showed that the protein underwent reversible self-association during the deposition process. Actually, preliminary tests of MAPLE deposited lipase used for soybean oil transesterification with isopropyl alcohol followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry gave results consistent with undamaged deposition of lipase.

  17. Reducing tube bundle deposition with alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle deposition rates have been measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates an order of magnitude greater than those measured for magnetite, although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) ammonia (0.51) : dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to two-phase forced convection through a thin film. (author)

  18. Depositional process for the Triassic-Jurassic stratiform manganese deposits in the Chichibu Belt, Southwest Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimatsu, Y.; Onoue, T.

    2015-12-01

    The chert-hosted manganese deposits have been known to occur in the Triassic to Jurassic chert or chert-greenstone complex within a Jurassic accretionary complex in Japan. In order to reveal the origin of these manganese deposits, we investigated the stratigraphy, age and geochemistry of manganese deposits from the Triassic to Jurassic bedded chert succession of the Chichibu Belt, defined as a Jurassic subduction-generated accretionary complex in Southwest Japan. The Triassic to Jurassic bedded cherts in the Chichibu Belt are considered to be deep-sea sediments that accumulated in an open-ocean realm of the Panthalassa Ocean. Our biostratigraphic analysis of radiolarians reveals that the stratiform manganese deposits intercalated in the bedded cherts were deposited in the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic. Upper Triassic manganese deposit occurs associated with the massive cherts which appear to have been formed by hydrothermal activity. The red bedded chert above the manganese deposit yields radiolarian fossils, including Trialatus longicornutus and Poulpus carcharus. These radiolarians indicate that age of manganese deposits can be correlated with the late Carnian age. Lower Jurassic manganese deposit occurs intercalated within the gray to dark gray bedded cherts. Detailed biostratigraphic analysis of radiolarians reveals that manganese deposit is embedded in the upper Pliensbachian to Toarcian (Trillus elkhornensis Zone). Chemical compositions of Upper Triassic deposits are characterized by enrichments in Mn and depletion of Co, Ni and Zn. These geochemical features are similar to those of modern submarine hydrothermal manganese deposits from hydrothermal activity. In contrast, lower Jurassic manganese deposits were triggered by an influx of warm, saline and oxic water into a stagnant deep ocean floor basin. It is likely that the deposits are considered to have formed by oceanic anoxic event.

  19. 24 CFR 886.315 - Security and utility deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security and utility deposits. 886... utility deposits. (a) Amount of deposits. If at the time of the initial execution of the Lease the Owner... security deposits and utility deposits from its resources and/or other public or private sources. (b)...

  20. Wet deposition in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J; Mohnen, V; Kadlecek, J

    1980-12-01

    Attempts are made to examine concentration and wet deposition of pollutant material at selected stations within the northeastern United States and to characterize as many events as possible with respect to air mass origin. Further attempts are made to develop a regional pattern for the deposition of dominant ion species. MAP3S (US Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study) data for 1977 to 1979 are used to determine concentration and deposition on an event basis from which monthly, seasonal, annual, and cumulative averages are developed. The ARL-ATAD trajectory model is used to characterize individual events as to air mass origin. Case studies are examined to illustrate variability in the chemical composition of precipitation originating from distinctly different air mass trajectories. A difference in concentration of pollution-related ions in precipitation is noted between Midwest/Ohio Valley and Great Lakes/Canadian air mass origins for carefully selected cases. Total deposition of the major ions is examined in an effort to develop a regional pattern for deposition over a period of at least one year. For that purpose, total deposition is normalized to remove the variability in precipitation amounts for inter-station comparison. No marked gradient is noted in the normalized deposition totals within the northeast of the United States. The Adirondack region exhibited the lowest normalized ion deposition value, while the Illinois station showed the highest of the MAP3S network. The data analysis suggest that the acid rain phenomena covers the entire northeast. The concept of large scale mixing emerges to account for the lack of a significant gradient in the normalized deposition.

  1. TEOS-based oxides: deposition dependent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the effects of three important parameters, deposition temperature, TEOS concentration and RF power in the plasma enhanced CVD of TEOS-based oxides on the resulting film characteristics such as impurity incorporation, film density, moisture absorption, intrinsic and thermal stresses. Ion-bombardment induced desorption of reactive precursor species is suggested to occur under certain conditions. Further, it is shown that the film properties continue to evolve until the film thickness exceeds 3000A. For 1 μm films deposited using typical settings of deposition parameters, the average TCE is estimated to be 0.9 ppm/ C using the stress-temperature characteristics. (orig.)

  2. Characteristics that distinguish types of epithermal deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayba, D.O.; Foley, N.K.; Heald-Wetlaufer, P.

    1984-01-01

    Three distinctive groupings of epithermal deposits were recognized from a literature study of fifteen well-described precious- and base-metal epithermal districts, supplemented by L. J. Buchanan's 1981 compilation of data from 47 less completely documented deposits. The three groups are distinguished primarily by the type of alteration and the sulfur fugacity indicated by the vein mineral assemblage. Additional discriminating criteria include composition of the host rock, timing of ore deposition relative to emplacement of the host, and relative abundances of gold, silver, and base metals.

  3. Bilateral Pseudoexfoliation Deposits on Intraocular Lens Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bonafonte Marquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of bilateral pseudoexfoliative deposits on both intraocular lens (IOL implants in an 83-year-old woman with no other associated pathology, 5 years after cataract surgery. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide and these deposits are usually found on the natural lens. The fact that pseudoexfoliative deposits have been found on IOL implants implies the need for a thorough examination in pseudophakic patients, for it could be the only sign of secondary glaucoma.

  4. Deposition of contaminant aerosol on human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roed, Jørn; Byrne, M.A.;

    2006-01-01

    Over recent years, it has been established that deposition of various types of pollutant aerosols (e.g., radioactive) on human skin can have serious deleterious effects on health. However. only few investigations in the past have been devoted to measurement of deposition velocities on skin...... to this variation. Part of the variation was found to be caused by differences between individuals, whereas another part was found to be related to environmental factors, The identification of major influences on skin contaminant deposition is important in estimating health effects as well as in identifying means...

  5. Thermodynamic analysis and deposition of refractory materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article does not pretend to be an exhaustive review of all publications in which a thermodynamic analysis has been used to analyse the chemical vapour deposition of refractory materials. It simply covers a certain number of experiments in which the present authors made use of various aspects of this method: overall or partial optimization of a process, determination of the deposition material most suited to fulfilling a given role and approach to mechanisms governing the chemical deposition reaction. A thermodynamic analysis is presented here from a more unusual angle, by examples of localized and varied intervention, in order to demonstrate the multiple uses of the method. (orig.)

  6. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao;

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000°C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off with the help of an electrically...... controlled arm. Higher sintering temperatures resulted in greater adhesion strengths, with a sharp increase observed near the melting point of the ash. Repetition of experiments with fixed operation conditions revealed considerable variation in the obtained adhesion strengths, portraying the stochastic...

  7. Magnetoresistive multilayers deposited on the AAO membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkinski, Leszek M. [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, 2000 Lakeshore Drive, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)]. E-mail: lmalkins@uno.edu; Chalastaras, Athanasios [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, 2000 Lakeshore Drive, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Vovk, Andriy [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, 2000 Lakeshore Drive, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Jung, Jin-Seung [Department of Chemistry, Kangnung National University, Kangnung 210702 (Korea, Republic of) ; Kim, Eun-Mee [Department of Chemistry, Kangnung National University, Kangnung 210702 (Korea, Republic of) ; Jun, Jong-Ho [Department of Applied Chemistry, Kunkuk University, Chungju 151747 (Korea, Republic of) ; Ventrice, Carl A. [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, 2000 Lakeshore Drive, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Silicon and GaAs wafers are the most commonly used substrates for deposition of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) multilayers. We explored a new type of a substrate, prepared electrochemically by anodization of aluminum sheets, for deposition of GMR multilayers. The surface of this AAO substrate consists of nanosized hemispheres organized in a regular hexagonal array. The current applied along the substrate surface intersects many magnetic layers in the multilayered structure, which results in enhancement of giant magnetoresistance effect. The GMR effect in uncoupled Co/Cu multilayers was significantly larger than the magnetoresistance of similar structures deposited on Si.

  8. Platinum-ruthenium bimetallic clusters on graphite: a comparison of vapor deposition and electroless deposition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhenage, Randima P; Xie, Kangmin; Diao, Weijian; Tengco, John Meynard M; Seuser, Grant S; Monnier, John R; Chen, Donna A

    2015-11-14

    Bimetallic Pt-Ru clusters have been grown on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces by vapor deposition and by electroless deposition. These studies help to bridge the material gap between well-characterized vapor deposited clusters and electrolessly deposited clusters, which are better suited for industrial catalyst preparation. In the vapor deposition experiments, bimetallic clusters were formed by the sequential deposition of Pt on Ru or Ru on Pt. Seed clusters of the first metal were grown on HOPG surfaces that were sputtered with Ar(+) to introduce defects, which act as nucleation sites for Pt or Ru. On the unmodified HOPG surface, both Pt and Ru clusters preferentially nucleated at the step edges, whereas on the sputtered surface, clusters with relatively uniform sizes and spatial distributions were formed. Low energy ion scattering experiments showed that the surface compositions of the bimetallic clusters are Pt-rich, regardless of the order of deposition, indicating that the interdiffusion of metals within the clusters is facile at room temperature. Bimetallic clusters on sputtered HOPG were prepared by the electroless deposition of Pt on Ru seed clusters from a Pt(+2) solution using dimethylamine borane as the reducing agent at pH 11 and 40 °C. After exposure to the electroless deposition bath, Pt was selectively deposited on Ru, as demonstrated by the detection of Pt on the surface by XPS, and the increase in the average cluster height without an increase in the number of clusters, indicating that Pt atoms are incorporated into the Ru seed clusters. Electroless deposition of Ru on Pt seed clusters was also achieved, but it should be noted that this deposition method is extremely sensitive to the presence of other metal ions in solution that have a higher reduction potential than the metal ion targeted for deposition. PMID:26018140

  9. NOAA/WDC Global Tsunami Deposits Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Discover where, when and how severely tsunamis affected Earth in geologic history. Information regarding Tsunami Deposits and Proxies for Tsunami Events complements...

  10. ROE Total Nitrogen Deposition 1989-1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset identifies the amount of wet, dry, and total deposition of nitrogen in kilograms per hectare from 1989 to 1991 at a set of point locations across the...

  11. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  12. ROE Wet Nitrate Deposition 1989-1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet nitrate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 1989 to 1991. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  13. ROE Total Sulfur Deposition 1989-1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset identifies the amount of wet, dry, and total deposition of sulfur in kilograms per hectare from 1989 to 1991 at a set of point locations across the...

  14. ROE Wet Nitrate Deposition 2011-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet nitrate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2011 to 2013. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  15. ROE Total Nitrogen Deposition 2011-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset identifies the amount of wet, dry, and total deposition of nitrogen in kilograms per hectare from 2011 to 2013 at a set of point locations across the...

  16. ROE Total Sulfur Deposition 2011-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset identifies the amount of wet, dry, and total deposition of sulfur in kilograms per hectare from 2011 to 2013 at a set of point locations across the...

  17. Rare earth element mines, deposits, and occurrences

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains location, geologic and mineral economic data for world rare earth mines, deposits, and occurrences. The data in this compilation were derived...

  18. Tax Evasion and Swiss Bank Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    Bank deposits in jurisdictions with banking secrecy constitute an effective tool to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform reduces the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a source tax on interest income earned by EU residents in Switzerland and several other jurisdictions...... with banking secrecy. In this paper, we estimate the impact of the source tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using that non-EU residents were not subject to the tax to apply a natural experiment methodology. We find that the 15% source tax caused Swiss bank deposits of EU residents to drop...... by more than 40% with most of the response occurring in two quarters immediately before and after the source tax was introduced. The estimates imply an elasticity of Swiss deposits with respect to the net-of-source-tax-rate in the range 2.5-3....

  19. The neutron characteristics of coal deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron parameters of coal vs. its hydrogen content are calculated. The strong dependences observed point the possibilities of neutron analytical methods for determining hydrogen content in coal deposits. (author)

  20. Porphyry copper deposits of the world

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Information on porphyry copper deposits from around the world with grade and tonnage models, a general classification based on geologic setting, mineralogy, with...

  1. Major mineral deposits of the world

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Regional locations and general geologic setting of known deposits of major nonfuel mineral commodities. Originally compiled in five parts by diverse authors,...

  2. Making Lightweight Structures By Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goela, Jitendra S.; Pickering, Michael A.; Taylor, Raymond L.

    1990-01-01

    Technique developed for fabrication of stiff, strong, lightweight structures of silicon carbide or other materials by any of several deposition processes. Structures made by method can have complicated shapes. Ability to manufacture complex shape from pure deposited SiC useful and leads to new products in several fields. These lightweight structures used as backup structures for optical components, as structural components in automotive, aerospace, and outer space applications, and as lightweight parts of furniture for outer space.

  3. Ultramafic-Hosted Talc-Magnesite Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Foley, Nora K.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation on the geology of ultramafic-hosted talc-magnesite deposits was given at the 42nd Forum on the Geology of Industrial Minerals, May 7-13, 2006, in Asheville, North Carolina (USA). Talc is a soft inert industrial mineral commodity commonly used as a component or filler in ceramic, paint, paper, plastic, roofing, and electrical applications. Ultramafic-hosted talc-magnesite deposits are important sources of talc.

  4. Modelling The Dynamic Distribution Of Spray Deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Lebeau, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model to estimate the spray distribution of phytopharmaceutical deposits under a spray boom is proposed. It focuses on the need to take account of the dynamic effects of the forward movement of the boom. These are related both to the horizontal and vertical boom movement and to the influence of aerodynamic factors on the nozzle spray distribution. The distribution of the spray deposits is computed by multiplying the nozzle spray pattern by the time needed to m...

  5. A Game Theory Approach of Deposit Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong-xun; QIU Wan-hua; MING Ming

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic game theory approach for deposit insurance. We formulate a deposit insurance problem as an incomplete information game theory model, which deduces the expression of Capital Charge Ratio for national central bank. The main contribution of the paper however is that we then extrapolate the declared value of the bank in best its policy. Finally a numerical example is used to illustrate the approach proposed in this paper.

  6. An Introduction to Copper Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    There are 11 genetic types of copper deposit in China, three of which (porphyry,contact metasomatic and VMS types) are the most important. The copper deposits distribute widely both temporally and spatially in China. The features of copper ores in China are mostly poor in copper tenor and complex in metal associated. The copper metallogeny in China predominantly occurs in three metallogenic megadomains, namely the circum-Pacific, the paleo-Asian and the Tethys-Himalayan.

  7. IMMUNOGLOBULIN DEPOSITIONS IN PERIPHERAL NERVES IN POLYMYOSITIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李越星; 陈清棠; 吴丽娟; 贾钟; 张秋荣; 左越焕

    1995-01-01

    An immunocytochemical study was performed in 6 peripheral nerve specimens from 6 cases of polymyositis.The results revealed that depositions of IgG,IgM,IgA and C3 were found in the epineurium,perineurium and the walls of capillaries.These findings demonstrated that depositions of immonoglobulins and the complement-mediated immunoreaction may play an important role in pathogenesis of polymyositis with peripheral nerfve involvements.

  8. Major Brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorman, Charles H.; DeWitt, Ed; Maron, Marcos A.; Ladeira, Eduardo A.

    2001-07-01

    Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (>20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Carajás Mineral Province.

  9. Removal of External Deposits on Boiler Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. De

    1970-07-01

    Full Text Available The superheater tubes in Port and Starboard boilers were found to have completely clogged by heavy deposits, which on analysis mainly vanadium pentoxide and sodium sulphmatter. The cleaning of the deposits was accomplished by alternate spraying with 15-20 per cent hydrogen peroxide and washing with hot water jets. Over the past two years, since the date of cleaning, the IN ship is operating without any trouble in the boilers.

  10. Fabrication of Micro Components by Electrochemical Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben

    The main issue of this thesis is the combination of electrochemical deposition of metals and micro machining. Processes for electroplating and electroless plating of nickel and nickel alloys have been developed and optimised for compatibility with microelectronics and silicon based micromechanics...... of electrochemical machining and traditional machining is compared to micro machining techniques as performed in the field of microelectronics. Various practical solutions and equipment for electrochemical deposition of micro components are demonstrated, as well as the use and experience obtained utilising...

  11. Study on pulsed excimer laser deposited films

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Jing Ru; Li Tie Jun; Yao Dong Sheng; Wang Li Ge; Yuan Xiao; Wang Sheng; Ye Xi Sheng

    2002-01-01

    Pulsed lasers of two different durations (30 ns, 500 fs) are used to deposit Hydrogen-free Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) films over large areas. Analysis of DLC films shows remarkable mechanical, optical, electrical, and chemical properties that are close to those of diamond. By optical emission spectroscopy and ion probe, the effects of plasma characteristic on DLC film are on experimentally studied. Amorphous silicon films deposited by PLD are also experimentally studied

  12. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajh, Tijana; Meshkov, Natalia; Nedelijkovic, Jovan M.; Skubal, Laura R.; Tiede, David M.; Thurnauer, Marion

    2001-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  13. Selective Electroless Silver Deposition on Graphene Edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, D.; Larsen, M. V.; Andryieuski, Andrei;

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a method of electroless selective silver deposition on graphene edges or between graphene islands without covering the surface of graphene. Modifications of the deposition recipe allow for decoration of graphene edges with silver nanoparticles or filling holes in damaged graphene...... on silica substrate and thus potentially restoring electric connectivity with minimal influence on the overall graphene electrical and optical properties. The presented technique could find applications in graphene based transparent conductors as well as selective edge functionalization and can be extended...

  14. Perovskite thin films via atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Brandon R; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adachi, Michael M; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Wong, Chris T O; McDowell, Jeffrey J; Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Ning, Zhijun; Houtepen, Arjan J; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm(-1) .

  15. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.

    2014-10-30

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  16. Sediment-Hosted Copper Deposits of the World: Deposit Models and Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Lindsey, David A.; Singer, Donald A.; Diggles, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction This publication contains four descriptive models and four grade-tonnage models for sediment hosted copper deposits. Descriptive models are useful in exploration planning and resource assessment because they enable the user to identify deposits in the field and to identify areas on geologic and geophysical maps where deposits could occur. Grade and tonnage models are used in resource assessment to predict the likelihood of different combinations of grades and tonnages that could occur in undiscovered deposits in a specific area. They are also useful in exploration in deciding what deposit types meet the economic objectives of the exploration company. The models in this report supersede the sediment-hosted copper models in USGS Bulletin 1693 (Cox, 1986, and Mosier and others, 1986) and are subdivided into a general type and three subtypes. The general model is useful in classifying deposits whose features are obscured by metamorphism or are otherwise poorly described, and for assessing regions in which the geologic environments are poorly understood. The three subtypes are based on differences in deposit form and environments of deposition. These differences are described under subtypes in the general model. Deposit models are based on the descriptions of geologic environments and physical characteristics, and on metal grades and tonnages of many individual deposits. Data used in this study are presented in a database representing 785 deposits in nine continents. This database was derived partly from data published by Kirkham and others (1994) and from new information in recent publications. To facilitate the construction of grade and tonnage models, the information, presented by Kirkham in disaggregated form, was brought together to provide a single grade and a single tonnage for each deposit. Throughout the report individual deposits are defined as being more than 2,000 meters from the nearest adjacent deposit. The deposit models are presented here as

  17. Quantitative analysis of diamond deposition reactor efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Surface H atom densities in a diamond deposition plasma reactor and the highest predicted value (black line). A 350 μm diamond crystal grown at 70 μm/h. Highlights: ► Electron temperature measurement at high pressure in diamond deposition reactor. ► H-atom density measurements at high pressure and high power in diamond deposition reactor. ► Surface H-atom density measurements at high pressure and high power in diamond deposition reactor. ► Microwave cavity based reactor efficiency compared to others reactors. - Abstract: Optical emission spectroscopy has been used to characterize diamond deposition microwave chemical vapour deposition (MWCVD) plasmas operating at high power density. Electron temperature has been deduced from H atom emission lines while H-atom mole fraction variations have been estimated using actinometry technique, for a wide range of working conditions: pressure 25–400 hPa and MW power 600–4000 W. An increase of the pressure from 14 hPa to 400 hPa with a simultaneous increase in power causes an electron temperature decrease from 17,000 K to 10,000 K and a H atom mole fraction increase from 0.1 to up to 0.6. This last value however must be considered as an upper estimate due to some assumptions made as well as experimental uncertainties.

  18. Modeling sediment deposition from marine outfall jets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terfous, Abdelali; Chiban, Samia; Ghenaim, Abdellah

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional model to study the sediment deposition from marine outfall jets. The introduced unidirectional coupling (fluid-sediment) is an appropriate choice in the case of low-concentrated particle-laden jets such as municipal wastewater discharge, where the concentration of particles is small enough and does not affect the hydrodynamic development of the jet in the nearfield. The sedimentation model takes advantage of the preferential concentration phenomenon. The deposition criterion states that the deposition of sediments begins when the vertical component of the entrainment velocity becomes smaller than the settling velocity. Once the deposition process begins, it is controlled by the settling velocity, entrainment velocity, volume flux, and sediment concentration. The deposition along the jet trajectory is expressed by an ordinary differential equation coupled with the liquid phase equations. Experiments of Lane-Serff and Moran [Sedimentation from Buoyant jets. J Hyd Eng. 2005;131(3):166-174], Cuthbertson and Davies [Deposition from particle-laden, round, turbulent, horizontal, buoyant jets in stationary and coflowing receiving fluids. J Hydr Eng. 2008;134(4):390-402], and Lee [Mixing of horizontal sediment laden jets [dissertation]. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong; 2010], chosen from bibliography, are used to validate the model. These experiments cover the cases of horizontal and inclined buoyant jets in stationary ambient, horizontal buoyant jets in co-flow current and nonbuoyant horizontal jets in stationary ambient. Good agreement between the experiments and the obtained simulations is revealed. PMID:26732467

  19. MICRO ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING DEPOSITION IN AIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Baidong; ZHAO Wansheng; WANG Zhenlong; CAO Guohui

    2006-01-01

    A new deposition method is described using micro electrical discharge machining (EDM)to deposit tool electrode material on workpiece in air. The basic principles of micro electrical discharge deposition (EDD) are analyzed and the realized conditions are predicted. With an ordinary EDM shaping machine, brass as the electrode, high-speed steel as the workpiece, a lot of experiments are carried out on micro EDD systematically and thoroughly. The effects of major processing parameters, such as the discharge current, discharge duration, pulse interval and working medium, are obtained. As a result, a micro cylinder with 0.19 mm in diameter and 7.35 mm in height is deposited.By exchanging the polarities of the electrode and workpiece the micro cylinder can be removed selectively. So the reversible machining of deposition and removal is achieved, which breaks through the constraint of traditional EDM. Measurements show that the deposited material is compact and close to workpiece base, whose components depend on the tool electrode material.

  20. Deposition uniformity inspection in IC wafer surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. C.; Lin, Y. T.; Jeng, J. J.; Chang, C. L.

    2014-03-01

    This paper focuses on the task of automatic visual inspection of color uniformity on the surface of integrated circuits (IC) wafers arising from the layering process. The oxide thickness uniformity within a given wafer with a desired target thickness is of great importance for modern semiconductor circuits with small oxide thickness. The non-uniform chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a wafer surface will proceed to fail testing in Wafer Acceptance Test (WAT). Early detection of non-uniform deposition in a wafer surface can reduce material waste and improve production yields. The fastest and most low-priced inspection method is a machine vision-based inspection system. In this paper, the proposed visual inspection system is based on the color representations which were reflected from wafer surface. The regions of non-uniform deposition present different colors from the uniform background in a wafer surface. The proposed inspection technique first learns the color data via color space transformation from uniform deposition of normal wafer surfaces. The individual small region statistical comparison scheme then proceeds to the testing wafers. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively detect the non-uniform deposition regions on the wafer surface. The inspection time of the deposited wafers is quite compatible with the atmospheric pressure CVD time.

  1. Atmospheric deposition fluxes to Monetary Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, E.; Paytan, A.; Ryan, J.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition has been widely recognized as a source of pollutants and nutrients to coastal ecosystems. Specifically, deposition includes nitrogen compounds, sulfur compounds, mercury, pesticides, phosphate, trace metals and other toxic compounds that can travel great distances. Sources of these components include both natural (volcanoes, mineral dust, forest fires) and anthropogenic (fossil fuels, chemical byproducts, incineration of waste) sources, which may contribute to harmful health and environmental impacts such as eutrophication, contaminated fish and harmful algal blooms. This study looks at the flux of aerosol deposition (TSP - total suspended particle load) to Monterey Bay, California. Samples are collected on a cascade impactor aerosol sampler (size fractions PM 2.5 and PM 10) every 48 hours continuously. Preliminary results indicate that the TSP for PM 10 ranged from 0.026 to 0.104 mg m-3 of air and for PM 2.5 from 0.014 to 0.046 mg m-3 of air. Using a deposition velocity of 2 cm s-1 for the large fraction (PM10 - PM 2.5) and a deposition velocity of 0.7 cm s-1 for the fine fraction (PM 2.5) deposition rates are 13 and 86 mg m-2 d-1 respectively.

  2. Stratiform chromite deposit model: Chapter E in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    A new descriptive stratiform chromite deposit model was prepared which will provide a framework for understanding the characteristics of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. Previous stratiform chromite deposit models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been referred to as Bushveld chromium, because the Bushveld Complex in South Africa is the only stratified, mafic-ultramafic intrusion presently mined for chromite and is the most intensely researched. As part of the on-going effort by the USGS Mineral Resources Program to update existing deposit models for the upcoming national mineral resource assessment, this revised stratiform chromite deposit model includes new data on the geological, mineralogical, geophysical, and geochemical attributes of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. This model will be a valuable tool in future chromite resource and environmental assessments and supplement previously published models used for mineral resource evaluation.

  3. Deposition of electrochromic tungsten oxide thin films by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henley, W.B.; Sacks, G.J. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Center of Microelectronics

    1997-03-01

    Use of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for electrochromic WO{sub 3} film deposition is investigated. Oxygen, hydrogen, and tungsten hexafluoride were used as source gases. Reactant gas flow was investigated to determine the effect on film characteristics. High quality optical films were obtained at deposition rates on the order of 100 {angstrom}/s. Higher deposition rates were attainable but film quality and optical coherence degraded. Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), was used to provide an in situ assessment of the plasma deposition chemistry. Through AES, it is shown that the hydrogen gas flow is essential to the deposition of the WO{sub 3} film. Oxygen gas flow and tungsten hexafluoride gas flow must be approximately equal for high quality films.

  4. As-grown magnesium diboride superconducting thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassano, G.; Ramadan, W.; Ferrando, V.; Bellingeri, E.; Marre, D.; Ferdeghini, C.; Grasso, G.; Putti, M.; Chincarini, A. [INFM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); Manfrinetti, P.; Palenzona, A. [INFM, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Genoa (Italy)

    2001-09-01

    As-grown superconducting MgB{sub 2} thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on magnesium oxide and sapphire substrates. Starting from a non-stoichiometric, Mg and B mixed-powder target, we were able to grow the superconducting phase during the film deposition, without any further annealing process. So far, samples grown in the temperature range of 400-450 deg. C, and at an argon buffer pressure of the order of 10{sup -2} mbar turned out to be superconducting with an onset temperature of the resistive transition at about 25 K. Even if the deposition process still needs to be fully optimized, we have demonstrated that this method allows us to achieve in situ deposition of as-grown superconducting thin films. This procedure could therefore be promising for the deposition of high-quality epitaxial MgB{sub 2} thin films. (author)

  5. Phanerozoic Rifting Phases And Mineral Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaan, Mahmoud

    2016-04-01

    In North Africa occur Mediterranean and Red Sea metallogenic provinces. In each province distribute 47 iron- manganese- barite and lead-zinc deposits with tectonic-structural control. The author presents in this paper aspects of position of these deposits in the two provinces with Phanerozoic rifting . The Mediterranean Province belongs to two epochs, Hercynian and Alpine. The Hercynian Epoch manganese deposits in only Moroccoa- Algeria belong to Paleozoic tectonic zones and Proterozoic volcanics. The Alpine Epoch iron-manganese deposits are of post-orogenic exhalative-sedimentary origin. Manganese deposits in southern Morocco occur in Kabil-Rief quartz-chalcedony veins controlled by faults in andesitic sheets and in bedded pelitic tuffs, strata-form lenses and ore veins, in Precambrian schist and in Triassic and Cretaceous dolomites. Disseminated manganese with quartz and barite and effusive hydrothermal veins are hosted in Paleocene volcanics. Manganese deposits in Algeria are limited and unrecorded in Tunisia. Strata-form iron deposits in Atlas Heights are widespread in sub-rift zone among Jurassic sediments inter-bedding volcanic rocks. In Algeria, Group Beni-Saf iron deposits are localized along the Mediterranean coast in terrigenous and carbonate rocks of Jurassic, Cretaceous and Eocene age within faults and bedding planes. In Morocco strata-form hydrothermal lead-zinc deposits occur in contact zone of Tertiary andesite inter-bedding Cambrian shale, Lias dolomites and Eocene andesite. In both Algeria and Tunisia metasomatic Pb-Zn veins occur in Campanian - Maastrichtian carbonates, Triassic breccia, Jurassic limestone, Paleocene sandstones and limestone and Neogene conglomerates and sandstones. The Red Sea metallogenic province belongs to the Late Tertiary-Miocene times. In Wadi Araba hydrothermal iron-manganese deposits occur in Cretaceous sediments within 320°and 310 NW faults related to Tertiary basalt. Um-Bogma iron-manganese deposits are closely

  6. [Monitoring nitrogen deposition on temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju; Kang, Rong-hua; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Yong-mei; Ye, Zhi-xiang; Duan, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Nitrogen deposition on temperate steppe was monitored from November 2011 to October 2012 in Taipusi County, Inner Mongolia. The dry deposition of gaseous nitrogen compounds was calculated based on online-monitored atmospheric concentrations of NH3 and NO2 and dry deposition velocity simulated by CMAQ model. The wet deposition, dry deposition of particle, and throughfall deposition were also estimated by collecting rainfall, dust fall, and throughfall samples and the chemical analysis of NH4+ and NO3-concentrations. Results showed that the total deposition of nitrogen was up to 3.43 g x (m2 x a)(-1), which might be harmful to the ecosystem. The wet deposition accounted for about 44% of the total deposition, while dry deposition of gases and particle accounted for 38% and 18%, respectively. Since the deposition contributed more than wet deposition, a great attention should be paid on dry deposition monitoring. However, the very simple method for total deposition monitoring based on throughfall seemed not suitable for grassland because the monitored throughfall deposition was much lower than the total deposition. In addition, reduced nitrogen (NH4+ and NH3) contributed to 71% of the total deposition, while oxidation nitrogen (NO3- and NO2) was only 29%. Therefore, NH3 emission reduction should be considered as important as nitrogen oxides (NO3x) for controlling nitrogen deposition.

  7. Electrophoretic deposition of titania nanoparticles: Wet density of deposits during EPD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Morteza Farrokhi-Rad; Taghi Shahrabi; Shirin Khanmohammadi

    2014-08-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of titania nanoparticles was performed at different voltages and times. The wet density of deposits was calculated according to the Archimedes’ principle. The wet density as well as the electric field over the deposits increased with time and attained the plateau at longer times. The velocity at which particles attach to the deposit, strongly influences its wet density at initial times. However, the effect of electro-osmotic flow is dominant at longer times. The coating with higher wet density had the higher corrosion resistance in Ringer’s solution at 37.5 °C due to its closely packed and crack free microstructure.

  8. Novel photochemical vapor deposition reactor for amorphous silicon solar cell deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Richard E.; Hegedus, Steven S.; Buchanan, Wayne A.; Jackson, Scott C.

    1987-07-01

    A novel photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) reactor having a flexible ultraviolet-transparent Teflon curtain and a secondary gas flow to eliminate deposition on the window has been used to deposit amorphous silicon films and p-i-n solar cells. The background levels of atmospheric contaminants (H2O, CO2, N2) depend strongly on the vacuum procedures but not on the presence of a Teflon curtain in the reactor. Intrinsic films with a midgap density of states of 3×1015 eV-1 cm-3 and all-photo-CVD pin solar cells with efficiencies of 8.5% have been deposited.

  9. Uranium deposits in magmatic and metamorphic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of uranium with certain types of magmatic and metamorphic rocks is well known. They have consequently been explored and studied quite extensively. In recent years interest in them has been eclipsed by the discovery of larger, lower cost deposits in other geological environments. Nonetheless, magmatic and metamorphic rocks continue to be important sources of uranium and large areas of the Earth's crust with such rocks are prospective locations for additional discoveries. As future exploration and development could be more difficult the full importance of individual deposits may not be recognized until after many years of investigation and experience. In addition to being important host rocks, magmatic and metamorphic rocks have been of considerable interest to uranium geologists as they are considered to be important source rocks for uranium and thus can lead to deposits nearby in other environments. Furthermore, these rocks provide important information on the geochemical cycle of uranium in the Earth's crust and mantle. Such information can lead to identification of uranium provinces and districts and to a basic understanding of processes of formation of uranium deposits. The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a Technical Committee Meeting on Uranium Deposits in Magmatic and Metamorphic Rocks. The meeting was held in Salamanca, Spain, from 29 September to 3 October 1986. It was followed by a two day field trip to uranium deposits in the Ciudad Rodrigo and Don Benito areas. The meeting was attended by 48 participants from 22 countries. Two panels were organized for discussion of the following topics: (1) ore deposit genesis and characterization and (2) exploration and resource assessment. The technical papers together with the panel reports form this publication. The scope and variety of the papers included and the panel reports provide a good coverage of current knowledge and thinking on uranium in magmatic and metamorphic rocks

  10. Aerosol Deposition and Solar Panel Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, W. P.; Rollings, A.; Taylor, S. J.; Parks, J.; Barnard, J.; Holmes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Passive and active solar collector farms are often located in relatively dry desert regions where cloudiness impacts are minimized. These farms may be susceptible to reduced performance due to routine or episodic aerosol deposition on collector surfaces. Intense episodes of wind blown dust deposition may negatively impact farm performance, and trigger need to clean collector surfaces. Aerosol deposition rate depends on size, morphology, and local meteorological conditions. We have developed a system for solar panel performance testing under real world conditions. Two identical 0.74 square meter solar panels are deployed, with one kept clean while the other receives various doses of aerosol deposition or other treatments. A variable load is used with automation to record solar panel maximum output power every 10 minutes. A collocated sonic anemometer measures wind at 10 Hz, allowing for both steady and turbulent characterization to establish a link between wind patterns and particle distribution on the cells. Multispectral photoacoustic instruments measure aerosol light scattering and absorption. An MFRSR quantifies incoming solar radiation. Solar panel albedo is measured along with the transmission spectra of particles collected on the panel surface. Key questions are: At what concentration does aerosol deposition become a problem for solar panel performance? What are the meteorological conditions that most strongly favor aerosol deposition, and are these predictable from current models? Is it feasible to use the outflow from an unmanned aerial vehicle hovering over solar panels to adequately clean their surface? Does aerosol deposition from episodes of nearby forest fires impact performance? The outlook of this research is to build a model that describes environmental effects on solar panel performance. Measurements from summer and fall 2015 will be presented along with insights gleaned from them.

  11. Dispersion, deposition and resuspension of atmospheric contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are discussed: dry deposition, oil shale fugitive air emissions, particle resuspension and translocation, theoretical studies and applications, and processing of emissions by clouds and precipitation. The concentration of contaminant species in air is governed by the rate of input from sources, the rate of dilution or dispersion as a result of air turbulence, and the rate of removal to the surface by wet and dry deposition processes. Once on the surface, contaminants also may be resuspended, depending on meteorological and surface conditions. An understanding of these processes is necessary for accurate prediction of exposures of hazardous or harmful contaminants to humans, animals, and crops. In the field, plume dispersion and plume depletion by dry deposition were studied by the use of tracers. Dry deposition was investigated for particles of both respiration and inhalation interest. Complementary dry deposition studies of particles to rock canopies were conducted under controlled conditions in a wind tunnel. Because of increasing concern about hazardous, organic gases in the atmosphere some limited investigations of the dry deposition of nitrobenzene to a lichen mat were conducted in a stirred chamber. Resuspension was also studied using tracers and contaminated surfaces and in the wind tunnel. The objective of the resuspension studies was to develop and verify models for predicting the airborne concentrations of contaminants over areas with surface contamination, develop resuspension rate predictors for downwind transport, and develop predictors for resuspension input to the food chain. These models will be of particular relevance to the evaluation of deposition and resuspension of both radionuclides and chemical contaminants

  12. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and

  13. Palladium clusters deposited on the heterogeneous substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Liu, Juanfang; Chen, Qinghua

    2016-07-01

    To improve the performance of the Pd composite membrane prepared by the cold spraying technology, it is extremely essential to give insights into the deposition process of the cluster and the heterogeneous deposition of the big Pd cluster at the different incident velocities on the atomic level. The deposition behavior, morphologies, energetic and interfacial configuration were examined by the molecular dynamic simulation and characterized by the cluster flattening ratio, the substrate maximum local temperature, the atom-embedded layer number and the surface-alloy formation. According to the morphology evolution, three deposition stages and the corresponding structural and energy evolution were clearly identified. The cluster deformation and penetrating depth increased with the enhancement of the incident velocity, but the increase degree also depended on the substrate hardness. The interfacial interaction between the cluster and the substrate can be improved by the higher substrate local temperature. Furthermore, it is found that the surface alloys were formed by exchanging sites between the cluster and substrate atoms, and the cluster atoms rearranged following as the substrate lattice arrangement from bottom to up in the deposition course. The ability and scope of the structural reconstruction are largely determined by both the size and incident energy of the impacted cluster.

  14. Definition and classification of surficial uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uraniferous surficial deposits may be broadly defined as uraniferous sediments or soils, usually of Tertiary to Recent age, that have not been subjected to deep burial and may or may not have been cemented to some degree. Evaluation of the available literature shows that confusion has arisen as to the use of the term ''calcrete'' when describing fluviatile sediments that have been calcified to a greater or lesser degree. It is felt that a useful purpose would be served by proposing a classification system which may go some way towards a redefinition of the applicable terminology. Unfortunately the terms ''calcrete'' or ''valley calcrete'' have been used to define Tertiary to Recent sediments ranging from boulder beds to silts which, in some Namibian examples, contain between 5 and 50% CaCO3 and as much as 90% total carbonate in some Australian surficial uranium deposits. It is proposed that the detrital material constituting the sediments be prefixed with the terms calcareous, dolomitic, gypsiferous, halitiferous or ferruginous (e.g. calcareous grit) rather than the terms calcrete, dolocrete, gypcrete, and ferricrete, all of which have genetic connotations. The latter group of terms are preferably used for the pedogenic uranium deposits only. This will have the effect of placing these deposits in categories of their own and not confusing the issue with the overprint of pedogenic calcrete or duricrustal deposits which may or may not be present. This view is not shared by some authorities notably Butt and Carlisle (see this volume). (author)

  15. Deposition of carbonyl sulphide to soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczewski, S. M.; Brown, K. A.; Bel, J. N. B.

    Carbonyl sulphide (COS) is a trace constituent of the atmosphere and is also the main form in which 35S is released from CO 2-cooled nuclear reactors. Measurements of its deposition velocity ( Vg) are therefore important for validating radiological dose models and for interpreting the role of COS in the global S cycle. The Vg of [ 35S]COS to thin layers of several contrasting soils was measured in a through-flow fumigation system. Deposition velocity was not significantly affected by soil type, although deposition to moist soil was significantly greater ( P dried soils, mean values being 5.71 × 10 -6 ms -1 and 3.06 × 10 -6 ms -1, respectively. The results obtained are about three orders of magnitude smaller than published Vg values for SO 2 to similar soils, which suggests that uptake by soils is not a major sink for atmospheric COS. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that deposition to soil of [ 35S]COS from nuclear reactors is unlikely to contribute significantly to radiation dose from the food chain pathway. The reduction in Vg observed in heat-treated soils indicates a microbial involvement in uptake. However, it seems unlikely that microbial metabolism is the rate-controlling step, since stimulation of the microflora by the addition of nutrients did not increase COS deposition.

  16. Pulsed laser deposition of pepsin thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecskemeti, G. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary)]. E-mail: kega@physx.u-szeged.hu; Kresz, N. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Smausz, T. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Hopp, B. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Nogradi, A. [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Szeged, H-6720, Szeged, Koranyi fasor 10-11 (Hungary)

    2005-07-15

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of organic and biological thin films has been extensively studied due to its importance in medical applications among others. Our investigations and results on PLD of a digestion catalyzing enzyme, pepsin, are presented. Targets pressed from pepsin powder were ablated with pulses of an ArF excimer laser ({lambda} = 193 nm, FWHM = 30 ns), the applied fluence was varied between 0.24 and 5.1 J/cm{sup 2}. The pressure in the PLD chamber was 2.7 x 10{sup -3} Pa. The thin layers were deposited onto glass and KBr substrates. Our IR spectroscopic measurements proved that the chemical composition of deposited thin films is similar to that of the target material deposited at 0.5 and 1.3 J/cm{sup 2}. The protein digesting capacity of the transferred pepsin was tested by adapting a modified 'protein cube' method. Dissolution of the ovalbumin sections proved that the deposited layers consisted of catalytically active pepsin.

  17. Pharmacological approach to evaluate aerosol pulmonary deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girodet, Pierre-Olivier; Molimard, Mathieu

    2005-01-01

    Drug delivery to the lung in vivo may be assessed using pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic techniques. The choice of method depends on drug class specificities. Pharmacokinetic determination of deposition to the lung for drugs without hepatic first-pass effect, such as short acting beta2-agonists, has to be done shortly after inhalation to minimize the effect of gastrointestinal absorption. For medication undergoing important hepatic first-pass metabolisation, such as inhaled corticosteroid, plasma concentration indirectly reflects bronchial deposition. The pharmacodynamic profile should be assessed through clinical effects and adverse events induced by inhaled drugs. Dose ranking of lung deposition for bronchodilators requires patient selection with sufficient bronchial obstruction to maintain room for improvement after the first dose. To assess dose effect relationship between inhaled corticosteroid, the Finney parallel line bioassay is the reference method with a study period of at least 6 weeks. Analysis of side effects with high doses of beta2-agonists or inhaled corticosteroids may also be used to compare lung deposition. Finally, pharmacological evaluation of lung deposition provides complementary information to scintigraphic studies, based on their clinical relevance. PMID:15966772

  18. Model boiler studies on deposition and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposit formation was studied in a model boiler, with sea-water injections to simulate the in-leakage which could occur from sea-water cooled condensers. When All Volatile Treatment (AVT) was used for chemistry control the deposits consisted of the sea-water salts and corrosion products. With sodium phosphate added to the boiler water, the deposits also contained the phosphates derived from the sea-water salts. The deposits were formed in layers of differing compositions. There was no significant corrosion of the Fe-Ni-Cr alloy boiler tube under deposits, either on the open area of the tube or in crevices. However, carbon steel that formed a crevice around the tube was corroded severely when the boiler water did not contain phosphate. The observed corrosion of carbon steel was caused by the presence of acidic, highly concentrated chloride solution produced from the sea-water within the crevice. Results of theoretical calculations of the composition of the concentrated solution are presented. (author)

  19. Dry deposition to vegetated surfaces: parametric dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dry deposition velocity of airborne pollutants to vegetated surfaces depends on the physico-chemical form of the pollutant, on meteorological conditions (windspeed, atmospheric stability) and on characteristics of the surface cover. This report examines these dependencies, drawing on experimental data and on information from theoretical analyses. A canopy model is outlined which uses first-order closure of the equations for turbulent transport of momentum (or matter), with losses of momentum (or matter) to individual canopy elements parameterised in terms of the mean windspeed: the model has previously been tested against experimental data on an artificial 'grass' canopy. The model is used to elucidate the features of the dependence of deposition velocity on windspeed and on whether the pollutant is in gaseous or particulate form: in the former case, the dependence on the molecular diffusivity of the gas is shown; in the latter case, dependencies on particle diameter and density are deduced. The predictions are related to available measurements. Additional hypotheses are introduced to treat the influence of atmospheric stability on deposition, and the analysis is used to shed light on the somewhat confusing picture that has emerged from past experimental studies. In considering the dependence of deposition velocity on the structural properties of the vegetation, it is established that more parameters than the single one conventionally used -aerodynamic roughness length - are needed to characterise the surface cover. Some indications of the extent of variation in deposition velocity from one type of vegetation to another are elicited from the model. (author)

  20. THE WATERSHED DEPOSITION TOOL: A MEANS TO LINK ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION TO WATERSHEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for atmospheric deposition reductions to contribute to water quality management is not being included in many planning exercises. This is because often the water quality scientists do not know where to get and how to use projections of atmospheric deposition reducti...

  1. Alternate slicing and deposition strategies for fused deposition modelling of light curved parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fused deposition modeling (FDM, as one of the additive manufacturing (AM techniques, has been widely used in the manufacturing industry from the 1990s. It is relatively cheaper than other AM methods and there are other advantages such as being able to process a variety of other polymers. Currently, FDM is more likely to be suitable for direct production of the terminal-use parts, in some cases challenging traditional process such as injection molding. Research evidences indicate that change of road and layer structure would have significant influence on the meso-structure and thus impact the mechanical properties of the resulting polymer parts. Adaptive flat layer deposition and curved layer deposition have been introduced to improve the mechanical properties of terminal-use product. It is necessary that an appropriate deposition scheme is essential to ensure the best interroad and inter-layer connectivity. Uninterrupted connections are likely to result in a continuous network of polymer chains, as in the case of the conventional processes. The current research proposes conventional flat layer deposition, adaptive flat layer deposition and curved layer deposition for FDM. In particular for curved parts, curved layer deposition in expected to ensure fiber continuity and better meso-structure. Mathematical models are developed for curved slicing, practically implemented to print physical parts and test results suggest marked improvement in the mechanical characteristics of curved parts.

  2. Interplay between the deposition mode and microstructure in electrochemically deposited Cu thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremmer, K. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Yezerska, O. [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Applied Materials Research, Wiener Str. 12, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Schreiber, G. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Masimov, M. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Klemm, V. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Schneider, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Applied Materials Research, Wiener Str. 12, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Rafaja, D. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany)]. E-mail: rafaja@ww.tu-freiberg.de

    2007-06-13

    The influence of the electrochemical potential and the deposition mode on the preferred orientation and morphology of crystallites and on the microstrain in electrochemically deposited copper thin films was investigated using a combination of cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, X-ray diffraction, SEM and the diffraction of backscattered electrons. With increasing negative electrochemical potential, the deposition mode changed from the charge transfer controlled one to the diffusion controlled one. At the highest electrochemical potentials, copper deposition was accompanied by hydrogen reduction. In potentiostatically deposited thin films, the preferred orientation of crystallites changed from {l_brace}111{r_brace} in the charge transfer controlled deposition mode to {l_brace}110{r_brace} in the diffusion controlled one. The increase of the electrochemical potential in the charge transport controlled deposition mode caused an increase of the dislocation density. The increasing electrochemical potential in the diffusion controlled mode led to a decrease of the dislocation density. The copper deposition, which was accompanied by the hydrogen reduction, produced needle-like crystallites with the {l_brace}100{r_brace} texture and with the lowest dislocation density.

  3. The uranium ore deposits in Ciudad Rodrigo Phyllites. about the possibility of new deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main features of the genesis of uranium deposits of the Fe mine type, are discussed in this paper. Pitchblende ore is related with phyllites bearing organic material and with geomorphological level, fossilized by eocene sediments. As a result, new uranium ore deposits are possible under Ciudad Rodrigo tertiary basin, tertiary cover depth being little more than three hundred feet. (Author)

  4. Deposition of Thin Film Electrolyte by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for micro-SOFC Development

    OpenAIRE

    Krogstad, Hedda Nordby

    2012-01-01

    Optimalization of PLD deposition of YSZ for micr-SOFC electrolyte applications by varying deposition pressure and target-substrate distance.Substrate used was Si-based chips and wafers (large area PLD), and the substrate temperature was held at 600. Dense films were obtained at 20 mTorr.

  5. 76 FR 7740 - Amendments to Deposit Insurance Regulations: Deposit Insurance Coverage Training; SMDIA Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    .... Becker, Senior Consumer Affairs Specialist, Deposit Insurance Section, Division of Supervision and Consumer Protection, (202) 898-6644, mbecker@fdic.gov ; or Catherine A. ] Ribnick, Counsel, Legal Division... insurance training requirement on third parties (e.g., deposit brokers or affinity groups) that directly...

  6. Spatial atomic layer deposition: a route towards further industrialization of atomic layer deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poodt, P.W.G.; Cameron, D.C.; Dickey, E.; George, S.M.; Kuznetsov, V.; Parsons, G.N.; Roozeboom, F.; Sundaram, G.; Vermeer, A.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a technique capable of producing ultrathin conformal films with atomic level control over thickness. A major drawback of ALD is its low deposition rate, making ALD less attractive for applications that require high throughput processing. An approach to overcome this

  7. The Effect of Deposition Time on Textured Magnesium Diboride Thick Films Fabricated by Electrophoretic Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Mutia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available MgB2 powders suspended in ethanol were electrophoretically deposited on high-purity molybdenum substrates having dimensions of 1 x 0.3 x 0.01 cm. The said substrate was set as the cathode and was placed 0.5 cm away from a graphite rod anode. A current density of ~0.02 mA/cm2 and a voltage of 600 V were applied. The effect of deposition time was studied by varying it as follows: 15 s, 30 s, 1 min, and 2 min. Heat treatment at 950 oC for 3 h was done after deposition. MgB2 thick films were successfully fabricated for the deposition carried out for 2 min. Deposition times less than 2 min resulted in insufficient deposited powder; hence formation of MgB2 was not facilitated. Films deposited at 15 and 30 s have good surface characteristics, wherein no microcracks were present. X-ray diffraction and surface image analysis reveal that the deposited films have a preferred orientation along the (10l direction.

  8. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  9. 24 CFR 882.414 - Security and utility deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security and utility deposits. 882... Moderate Rehabilitation-Basic Policies § 882.414 Security and utility deposits. (a) If at the time of the... security deposits and utility deposits from its resources and/or other public or private sources. (b) If...

  10. 24 CFR 884.115 - Security and utility deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security and utility deposits. 884... Security and utility deposits. (a) An Owner may require Families to pay a security deposit in an amount... security and utility deposits, if required, from their own resources and/or other private or public sources....

  11. 24 CFR 886.116 - Security and utility deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security and utility deposits. 886... utility deposits. (a) An Owner may require Families to pay a security deposit in an amount up to, but not... utility deposits, if required, from their own resources and/or other private or public sources....

  12. Electroless Deposition of Fe-Mo-W-B Amorphous Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The preparation, formation mechanism, surface appearance and structure of electroless plating Fe-Mo-W-B amorphous alloys were systematically studied. The deposition rates of the deposits in different bath composition as plated were measured. The formation mechanism of the deposits was discussed. The parameter for amorphous structures formation was suggested for the deposits.

  13. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807... Biological Material § 1.807 Viability of deposit. (a) A deposit of biological material that is capable of... term of deposit. Viability may be tested by the depository. The test must conclude only that...

  14. 7 CFR 27.92 - Method of payment; advance deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of payment; advance deposit. 27.92 Section 27... Micronaire § 27.92 Method of payment; advance deposit. Any payment or advance deposit under this subpart...,” and may not be made in cash except in cases where the total payment or deposit does not exceed...

  15. Influence of deposition time on the properties of chemical bath deposited manganese sulfide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Kassim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Manganese sulfide thin films were chemically deposited from an aqueous solution containing manganese sulfate, sodium thiosulfate and sodium tartrate. The influence of deposition time (2, 3, 6 and 8 days on the properties of thin films was investigated. The structure and surface morphology of the thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, respectively. In addition, in order to investigate the optical properties of the thin films, the UV-visible spectrophotometry was used. The XRD results indicated that the deposited MnS2 thin films exhibited a polycrystalline cubic structure. The number of MnS2 peaks on the XRD patterns initially increased from three to six peaks and then decreased to five peaks, as the deposition time was increased from 2 to 8 days. From the AFM measurements, the film thickness and surface roughness were found to be dependent on the deposition time.

  16. Structural and Optical Properties of Chemical Bath Deposited Silver Oxide Thin Films: Role of Deposition Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Nwanya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver oxide thin films were deposited on glass substrates at a temperature of 50°C by chemical bath deposition technique under different deposition times using pure AgNO3 precursor and triethanolamine as the complexing agent. The chemical analysis based on EDX technique shows the presence of Ag and O at the appropriate energy levels. The morphological features obtained from SEM showed that the AgxO structures varied as the deposition time changes. The X-ray diffraction showed the peaks of Ag2O and AgO in the structure. The direct band gap and the refractive index increased as the deposition time increased and was in the range of 1.64–1.95 eV and 1.02–2.07, respectively. The values of the band gap and refractive index obtained indicate possible applications in photovoltaic and photothermal systems.

  17. Effect of deposition pressure and post deposition annealing on SmCo thin film properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we report on the effect of the deposition pressure and the post deposition annealing conditions on the structural and magnetic properties of SmCo thin films deposited on Si(100) wafers employing Ta buffer and capping layers. The films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering and annealed in vacuum at various temperatures. The films under investigation were isotropic with high remanence magnetization, maximum coercive field of 8 kOe and a squareness ratio of coercivity higher than 0.9. It was found that the Ar pressure during the deposition is a key factor in controlling the stoichiometry and the structural and magnetic properties of the SmCo films, while the effect of the annealing temperature is crucial in optimizing the magnetic properties of the films. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Atomic-layer deposition of silicon nitride

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoyama, S; Ooba, K

    1999-01-01

    Atomic-layer deposition (ALD) of silicon nitride has been investigated by means of plasma ALD in which a NH sub 3 plasma is used, catalytic ALD in which NH sub 3 is dissociated by thermal catalytic reaction on a W filament, and temperature-controlled ALD in which only a thermal reaction on the substrate is employed. The NH sub 3 and the silicon source gases (SiH sub 2 Cl sub 2 or SiCl sub 4) were alternately supplied. For all these methods, the film thickness per cycle was saturated at a certain value for a wide range of deposition conditions. In the catalytic ALD, the selective deposition of silicon nitride on hydrogen-terminated Si was achieved, but, it was limited to only a thin (2SiO (evaporative).

  19. Uranium and thorium deposits of Northern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This, the second edition of the uranium-thorium deposit inventory, describes briefly the deposits of uranium and/or thorium in northern Ontario, which for the purposes of this circular is defined as that part of Ontario lying north and west of the Grenville Front. The most significant of the deposits described are fossil placers lying at or near the base of the Middle Precambrian Huronian Supergroup. These include the producing and past-producing mines of the Elliot Lake - Agnew Lake area. Also included are the pitchblende veins spatially associated with Late Precambrian (Keweenawan) diabase dikes of the Theano Point - Montreal River area. Miscellaneous Early Precambrian pegmatite, pitchblende-coffinite-sulphide occurrences near the Middle-Early Precambrian unconformity fringing the Lake Superior basin, and disseminations in diabase, granitic rocks, alkalic complexes and breccias scattered throughout northern Ontario make up the rest of the occurrences

  20. Worldwide deposition of strontium-90 through 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 results from the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's (EML) Global Fallout Program (GFP) are presented for the years 1987 through 1990. Quarterly 90Sr deposition results for the 66 sampling locations of EML's GFP were generally low, indicating that there was no significant release of fission products into the atmosphere during this period. The global 90Sr deposition during these 4 years was lower than it has been for any similar period since this program began in 1958. Since there was no major atmospheric source of 90Sr during this period, the global cumulative deposit of 90Sr continued to decrease by radioactive decay to a 27 year low of 311.4 Pbq

  1. Model calculations to formation of salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is a contribution from the geophysical side and its target is to explain the formation of long stretched salt deposits - salt walls - in a better manner than has been done sofar using model calculations. A few works have already been dedicated to this subject (they are treated in chapter 5). They all have the disadvantage however in not being able to represent the time sequence of the salt deposit generations. Precisely the latter is achieved in this work by including assumed initial interference. The values for the salt wall distance and its growth rate are improved upon. The Schleswig-Holstein salt deposit is taken as example. The model calculations are supported by model experiments. (orig.)

  2. Washout and dry deposition of atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition velocities onto different rough surfaces and the washout coefficients of simulated rain droplets for submicron aerosols were studied in a wind channel. The influence of particle size and electric charge upon the collection efficiencies of simulated rain droplets was measured. The deposition velocity of the particles was determined as a function of aerosol size, wind velocity and roughness of the surface. The experiments were carried out with monodisperse, radioactive particles with sizes which were varied from 0.03 and 5 μm. Using the measured values, the activity flux of the long lived radon decay product (RaD), the mass flux of the atmospheric aerosol and the activity flux near a stack of a nuclear power plant onto the ground surface were calculated considering washout, rainout and dry deposition in the atmosphere. (author)

  3. Crud deposition modeling on BWR fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposition of boiling water reactor (BWR) system corrosion products (crud) on operating fuel rods has resulted in performance-limiting conditions in a number of plants. The operational impact of performance-limiting conditions involving crud deposition can be detrimental to a BWR operator, resulting in unplanned or increased frequency of fuel inspections, fuel failure and associated radiological consequences, operational restrictions including core power derate and/or forced shutdowns to remove failed fuel, premature discharge of individual bundles or entire reloads, and/or undesirable core design restrictions. To facilitate improved management of crud-related fuel performance risks, EPRI has developed the CORAL (Crud DepOsition Risk Assessment ModeL) tool. This paper presents a summary of the CORAL elements and benchmarking results. Applications of CORAL as a tool for fuel performance risk assessment are also discussed. (author)

  4. Deposit control in process cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to achieve efficient heat transfer in cooling water systems, it is essential to control the fouling of heat exchanger surfaces. Solubilities of scale forming salts, their growth into crystals, and the nature of the surfaces play important roles in the deposition phenomenon. Condensed phosphates, organic polymers and compounds like phosphates are effective in controlling deposition of scale forming salts. The surface active agents inhibit crystal growth and modify the crystals of the scale forming salts, and thus prevent deposition of dense, uniformly structured crystalline mass on the heat transfer surface. Understanding the mechanism of biofouling is essential to control it by surface active agents. Certain measures taken in the plant, such as back flushing, to control scaling, sometimes may not be effective and can be detrimental to the system itself. (author)

  5. Deposition of nitrogen into the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeuw, G. de; Skjøth, C.A.; Hertel, O.;

    2003-01-01

    , NO3-, NH3 and NH4+) into the North Sea and the processes governing this deposition. The Southern North Sea was studied as a prototype. Because the physical and chemical processes are described, as opposed to empirical relations, the results can potentially be transferred to other regional seas like...... and Harwich/Newcastle. These measurements provided data for sensitivity studies of a variety of problems associated with the coastal region that are not easily evaluated with larger scale models, to constrain models and to test model results. Concentrations of nitrogen compounds over the North Sea...... and the resulting deposition presented in this paper were obtained with the Lagrangian transport-chemistry model ACDEP. The average annual deposition in 1999 was 906 kg N km(-2). The results are compared with experimental data from the ferry. Effects of temporal and spatial variations are evaluated based...

  6. Sputtering. [as deposition technique in mechanical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1976-01-01

    This paper primarily reviews the potential of using the sputtering process as a deposition technique; however, the manufacturing and sputter etching aspects are also discussed. Since sputtering is not regulated by classical thermodynamics, new multicomponent materials can be developed in any possible chemical composition. The basic mechanism for dc and rf sputtering is described. Sputter-deposition is described in terms of the unique advantageous features it offers such as versatility, momentum transfer, stoichiometry, sputter-etching, target geometry (coating complex surfaces), precise controls, flexibility, ecology, and sputtering rates. Sputtered film characteristics, such as strong adherence and coherence and film morphology, are briefly evaluated in terms of varying the sputtering parameters. Also described are some of the specific industrial areas which are turning to sputter-deposition techniques.

  7. Patterned deposition at moving contact lines

    CERN Document Server

    Thiele, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    When a simple or complex liquid recedes from a smooth solid substrate it often leaves a homogeneous or structured deposit behind. In the case of a receding non-volatile pure liquid the deposit might be a liquid film or an arrangement of droplets depending on the receding speed of the meniscus and the wetting properties of the system. For complex liquids with volatile components as, e.g., polymer solutions and particle or surfactant suspensions, the deposit might be a homogeneous or structured layer of solute - with structures ranging from line patterns that can be orthogonal or parallel to the receding contact line via hexagonal or square arrangements of drops to complicated hierarchical structures. We review a number of recent experiments and modelling approaches with a particular focus on mesoscopic hydrodynamic long-wave models. The conclusion highlights open question and speculates about future developments.

  8. Multi-Constituent Simulation of Thrombus Deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wagner, William R; Antaki, James F

    2016-01-01

    Based on the transport model of Sorensen et al. (1999), an improved mathematical model describing the process of thrombus deposition and growth was developed. Blood is treated as a multi-constituent mixture comprised of a linear fluid phase and a thrombus phase. The transport and reactions of 10 chemical and biological species are modeled using a system of coupled convection-reaction-diffusion (CRD) equations. These represent three main processes: initiation, propagation and stabilization. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using the libraries of OpenFOAM were performed for two illustrative benchmark problems: mural thrombus growth in an injured blood vessel and thrombus deposition in a small (125 x 95 micros) crevice observed in vitro. For both problems, the simulated thrombus deposition agreed very well with experimental observations, both spatially and temporally. These promising results encourage further simulations to investigate clinical conditions and design factors that affect the risk of t...

  9. MOCVD deposition of YSZ on stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, S.; Kilo, M.; Borchardt, G.; Larpin, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia was deposited on stainless steel using the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, from β-diketonate precursors. The variation of the evaporation temperatures of yttrium and zirconium precursor allowed to control the level of Y within the film. Over the temperature range 125-150 °C, the Y content increased from 2.5 to 17.6 at.%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses evidenced tetragonal phase of zirconia when the Y content was below 8 at.%, and cubic phase for higher concentration. Sputtered neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) profiles confirmed that the control and stability of Y precursor temperature were of major importance to guarantee the homogeneity of the deposited films.

  10. Simulation of Indoor Fine Suspension Particle Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K. Q.; Gong, G. C.; Zou, S. H.

    In this paper, the migration and deposition of particles are simulated using the Moment Dynamic Equation (MDE). Indoor fine suspension particle depositions and particle distribution function are obtained. Gas phase flow is simulated by v 2 - f model. The simulated results of particle concentration profiles show that a uniform concentration exists in the middle region of the room with a low supplying speed. At the same time, the total number of partciels deposited is also obtained using Gradient diffusion model. Through the comparison of velocity predictions among several CFD k-ɛ models and v 2 -f model and experimental data, it is concluded that the results obtained by v 2 -f model more accurately approximate the experimental data. So that the MDE combined v 2 -f model will gain in popularity amongst building engineers and it will gradually be adopted as an attractive alternative tool to predict contaminant particle dispersion and distribution.

  11. Texture of atomic layer deposited ruthenium

    OpenAIRE

    Musschoot, J.; Xie, Q; Deduytsche, D.; De Keyser, K; Longrie, D.; Haemers, J.; Van den Berghe, S.; Van Meirhaeghe, R. L.; D'Haen, Jan; Detavernier, C

    2010-01-01

    Ruthenium films were grown by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Si(1 0 0) and ALD TiN. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the as-deposited films on Si(1 0 0) were polycrystalline, on TiN they were (0 0 2) oriented. After annealing at 800 degrees C for 60 s, all Ru films were strongly (0 0 2) textured and very smooth. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the lateral grain size of the annealed films was several 100 ...

  12. Tax evasion and Swiss bank deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Bank deposits in offshore financial centers may be used to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform limits the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a withholding tax on interest income earned by EU households in Switzerland and several other offshore centers. This paper...... quarters immediately before and after the tax was introduced. We also present evidence suggesting that the drop in Swiss bank deposits was driven by behavioral responses aiming to escape the tax - such as the transfer of funds to bank accounts in other offshore centers and the transfer of formal ownership...... of Swiss bank accounts to offshore holding companies - rather than repatriation of funds...

  13. Treating paraffin deposits in producing oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, L.

    1992-01-01

    Paraffin deposition has been a problem for operators in many areas since the beginning of petroleum production from wells. An extensive literature search on paraffin problems and methods of control has been carried out, and contact was made with companies which provide chemicals to aid in the treatment of paraffin problems. A discussion of the nature of paraffins and the mechanisms of this deposition is presented. The methods of prevention and treatment of paraffin problems are summarized. Suggested procedures for handling paraffin problems are provided. Suggestions for areas of further research testing are given.

  14. Shanxi Finding Another Large Bauxite Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>According to Department of Resources of Shanxi,a new breakthrough has been made on the prospecting in the province.The preliminary result shows that another large bauxite mine has been found in Shiqie River in Baode County with a deposit height of 0.81- 8.01m and an estimate reserve of 140 million tons.Meanwhile 3 large-and 3 medium-size bauxite deposits have also been found in the northwest part of Shanxi including Hejiaqianhe of Xin County with an estimate reserve of 37.1 million tons and Beiguli of Jiaokou County.

  15. Bioactive surfaces with atomic layer deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Kvalvik, Julie Nitsche

    2015-01-01

    The overall goal of this work has been to make bioactive surfaces with atomic layer deposition (ALD). To do this, a new ALD system with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and lysine as precursors was developed with emphasis on studying the effects of pulsing times and deposition temperatures. TTIP was chosen as titanium is regarded to be biocompatible and lysine was chosen as poly-L-lysine is a part of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) and hence affects cell adhesion. The effect of a water pulse...

  16. Risk Adjusted Deposit Insurance for Japanese Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Ryuzo Sato; Rama V. Ramachandran; Bohyong Kang

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the Japanese deposit insurance scheme by contrasting the flat insurance rate with a market-determined risk-adjusted rate. The model used to calculate the risk-adjusted rate is that of Ronn and Verrna (1986) . It utilizes the notion of Merton(1977) that the deposit insurance can be based on a one-to-one relation between it and the put option; this permits the application of Black and Scholes(1973) model for the calculation of the insurance rate. The ris...

  17. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey,Thomas M.; Burrell,Anthony K.; Jia,Quanxi; Lin,Yuan

    2012-02-28

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal nitride films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures under a suitable atmosphere to yield metal nitride films and the like. Such films can be conformal on a variety of substrates including non-planar substrates. In some instances, the films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  18. XRF analysis of depth profiled thin depositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main information about atmospheric and water pollutants is obtained from analysis of thin depositions on filters. Due its high sensitivity for a large number of elements, the XRF analysis based on X-ray tube as source of excitation, is a very advantageous method to measure samples of this kind. However, due to very large absorption photon cross sections in this energy range, the deposition profile can play an important role in analysis. Neglecting it might lead in some cases to wrong results. Assuming a normalized exponentially decaying profile as a realistic approximation of the deposition profile of a given element as ρ(x) = mkme-kmx/(1- e-kmD), where ρ(x) is element density at depth x, m - its surface density, km - deposition parameter and D - sample thickness, the yield, Y(km), of a characteristic X-line measured on a side of the sample is given as a function of Φ(E) - incident X-ray flux at energy E, σf(E) - photoelectric absorption cross section of the element, χ(E) - total X-ray absorption coefficient in sample considering both incidence and emergence path. Measuring the sample on the opposite side, the yield will be Y(-km), while from the ratio Y(-km)/Y(km) can be determined numerically. Since y(km) = Y(km)/m is independent of m, the deposition superficial mass is calculated using a thick standard as m = Y(s)S(x)/y(km)S(s), where S(x) (S(s)) is the X-line intensity measured in sample (standard) and theoretical yield in standard Y(s) is calculated using the formulas of Shiraiwa and Fujino. A computer code based on this formalism was written. Many samples of wet soil and aerosols deposition on filters, previously measured by other methods, were used to check the correctness of the present analysis procedure and a very good agreement is found between our results and the measurements taken as reference. A table is given with the results of the IAEA soil standard SOIL-7, deposited wet on a thin filter and measured after drying. The soil deposition was 3

  19. Skin deposits in hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Blöndal, H; Gudmundsson, G

    1990-01-01

    Clinically normal skin from 47 individuals aged 9-70 years was investigated. Cystatin C amyloid deposits were found in various locations of the skin by light and/or electron microscopy, in all 12 patients with a clinical history of hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis (HCCA). Six asymptomatic...... individuals, who had the Alu 1 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker reported to cosegregate with the disease, also had cystatin C amyloid deposits in the skin. Three asymptomatic individuals (age 17-46) belonging to the HCCA families were without amyloid in the skin but had Alu 1 RFLP marker...

  20. Diamond deposition on siliconized stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon diffusion layers in AISI 304 and AISI 316 type stainless steels were investigated as an alternative to surface barrier coatings for diamond film growth. Uniform 2 μm thick silicon rich interlayers were obtained by coating the surface of the steels with silicon and performing diffusion treatments at 800 deg. C. Adherent diamond films with low sp2 carbon content were deposited on the diffused silicon layers by a modified hot filament assisted chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. Characterization of as-siliconized layers and diamond coatings was performed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.

  1. Electrochemical Deposition Of Thiolate Monolayers On Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Marc D.; Weissharr, Duane E.

    1995-01-01

    Electrochemical method devised for coating metal (usually, gold) surfaces with adherent thiolate monolayers. Affords greater control over location and amount of material deposited and makes it easier to control chemical composition of deposits. One important potential use for this method lies in fabrication of chemically selective thin-film resonators for microwave oscillators used to detect pollutants: monolayer formulated to bind selectively pollutant chemical species of interest, causing increase in mass of monolayer and corresponding decrease in frequency of resonance. Another important potential use lies in selective chemical derivatization for purposes of improving adhesion, lubrication, protection against corrosion, electrocatalysis, and electroanalysis.

  2. Atomic Layer Deposition from Dissolved Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanlin; Döhler, Dirk; Barr, Maïssa; Oks, Elina; Wolf, Marc; Santinacci, Lionel; Bachmann, Julien

    2015-10-14

    We establish a novel thin film deposition technique by transferring the principles of atomic layer deposition (ALD) known with gaseous precursors toward precursors dissolved in a liquid. An established ALD reaction behaves similarly when performed from solutions. "Solution ALD" (sALD) can coat deep pores in a conformal manner. sALD offers novel opportunities by overcoming the need for volatile and thermally robust precursors. We establish a MgO sALD procedure based on the hydrolysis of a Grignard reagent.

  3. Distribution And Mineralogy Of The Clay Deposits In Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Mohandis, Ahmed A. [احمد عبد القادر المهندس

    1993-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to characterize the mineral clay deposits in Saudi Arabia; especially their mineral composition, deposit size, geological setting and possible uses. Different published reports and papers on clay deposits of Saudi Arabia have been reviewed. Three major clay deposits have been studied by XRD, DTA and chemical analyses. Saudi clay deposits consist generally of kaolinite as a major mineral, and small amounts other clay minerals, such as montmorillonite and illite. ...

  4. Dual ion beam assisted deposition of biaxially textured template layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groves, James R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Hammond, Robert H.

    2005-05-31

    The present invention is directed towards a process and apparatus for epitaxial deposition of a material, e.g., a layer of MgO, onto a substrate such as a flexible metal substrate, using dual ion beams for the ion beam assisted deposition whereby thick layers can be deposited without degradation of the desired properties by the material. The ability to deposit thicker layers without loss of properties provides a significantly broader deposition window for the process.

  5. 12 CFR 347.203 - Deposit insurance required for all branches of foreign banks engaged in domestic retail deposit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign banks engaged in domestic retail deposit activity in the same State. 347.203 Section 347.203 Banks... engaged in domestic retail deposit activity in the same State. The FDIC will not insure deposits in any... foreign bank in the same state that engages in domestic retail deposit activity will be an insured branch....

  6. A literature review on wet deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on wet deposition or precipitation scavenging have been reviewed with special reference to predicting the radiological consequences of accidental contamination. The work was part of the EEC Radiation Protection Programme and done under a subcontract with Association Euratom-C.E.A. No. SC-014-BIAF-423-DK(SD). (author)

  7. 78 FR 13212 - Investment and Deposit Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... valuable portfolio management tool when there are inflationary risks in the economy. \\4\\ 77 FR 59144 (Sept... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 703 RIN 3133-AE06 Investment and Deposit Activities AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The NCUA Board (Board) is amending its investment...

  8. Deposition of biopolymer films on micromechanical sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Gammelgaard, Lene; Jensen, Marie P.;

    2011-01-01

    The influence of various parameters on the spray-coating of thin films of poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) was investigated. The optimized processing conditions were used for deposition of the biodegradable polymer on arrays of SU-8 microcantilevers. The resonance frequency of the cantilevers before and af...

  9. Lifetime obtained by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have fabricated green organic light-emitting diodes based on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3) thin films. In order to favor the charge carriers transport from the anode, we have deposited a N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis (3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) layer (hole transport layer) on a ITO anode. Cathode is obtained with a calcium layer covered with a silver layer. This silver layer is used to protect the other layers against oxygen during the OLED use. All the depositions are performed under vacuum and the devices are not exposed to air during their realisation. In order to improve the silver layer characteristics, we have realized this layer with the ion beam assisted deposition process. The aim of this process is to densify the layer and then reduce the permeation of H2O and O2. We have used argon ions to assist the silver deposition. All the OLEDs optoelectronic characterizations (I = f(V), L = f(V)) are performed in the ambient air. We compare the results obtained with the assisted layer with those obtained with a classical cathode realized by thermal unassisted evaporation. We have realized lifetime measurements in the ambient air and we discuss about the assisted layer influence on the OLEDs performances

  10. New Mexico Known Mineral Deposit Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains all Known Mineral Deposit Areas in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  11. Low-pressure, chemical vapor deposition polysilicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, B. D.; Crotty, G. C.

    1986-01-01

    The low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of polycrystalline silicon was investigted. The physical system was described, as was the controlling process parameters and requirements for producing films for use as an integral portion of the solar cell contact system.

  12. Contaminant transport at a waste residue deposit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Traberg, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Contaminant transport in an aquifer at an incinerator waste residue deposit in Denmark is simulated. A two-dimensional, geochemical transport code is developed for this purpose and tested by comparison to results from another code, The code is applied to a column experiment and to the field site...

  13. Atmosfærisk deposition 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermann, T.; Hertel, O.; Hovmand, M. F.;

    Denne rapport sammenfatter de vigtigste konklusioner fra dette års rapportering af atmosfæredelen af NOVA 2003 og opsummerer ovedresultaterne vedrørende måling og beregning af koncentrationer af atmosfæriske kvælstof-, fosfor-, svovlforbindelser og tungmetaller samt deposition til danske hav- og...... den største kvælstofdeposition, som hidtil er blevet rapporteret og ca. 20% højere end rapporteret for 1999 (Ellermann et al. 2000). For begge år viser de nyeste beregninger en tydeligt højere deposition til de danske farvande end hidtil rapporteret. Opdatering af model Det er vigtigt at bemærke, at...... den samlede deposition til de danske farvande, og dels højere kvælstofkoncentrationer i nedbøren. Denne forklaring underbygges af målingerne, som viser en svag stigning i våddepositionen fra 1999 til 2000 på trods af, at nedbørsmængden er lidt mindre i 2000 end 1999. Deposition opdelt på de...

  14. DRY DEPOSITION OF POLLUTANTS TO FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on the results of an extensive field campaign to measure dry deposition of ozone and sulfur dioxide to a sample of forest types in the United States. Measurements were made for full growing seasons over a deciduous forest in Pennsylvania and a mixed deciduous-conifer...

  15. Modeling of dust deposition in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The deposition of dust particles has a significant influence on the global bio-geochemical cycle. Currently, the lack of spatiotemporal data creates great uncertainty in estimating the global dust budget. To improve our understanding of the fate, transport and cycling of airborne dust, there is a ne...

  16. 28 CFR 68.22 - Depositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.22 Depositions. (a) Notice. Any party... taken elsewhere, unless otherwise permitted by the Administrative Law Judge or agreed to by the...

  17. 37 CFR 1.25 - Deposit accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions Fees and Payment of Money § 1.25... account may be submitted by electronic funds transfer through the Federal Reserve Fedwire System, which... account number. (2) A payment to replenish a deposit account may be submitted by electronic funds...

  18. Panel 1 - comparative evaluation of deposition technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R.; Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Benson, D.K.; Pitts, R.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bhat, D.G. [GTE Valenite Corp., Troy, MI (United States); Yulin Chen [Allison Gas Turbine Division, GM, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Gat, R.; Sunkara, M.K. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Kelly, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Lawler, J.E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States); Nagle, D.C. [Martin Marietta Labs., Baltimore, MD (United States); Outka, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Revankar, G.S. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Subramaniam, V.V. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Wilbur, P.J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States); Mingshow Wong [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Woolam, W.E. [Southwest Research Inst., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This working group attempted to evaluate/compare the different types of deposition techniques currently under investigation for depositing diamond and diamond-like carbon films. A table lists the broad types of techniques that were considered for depositing diamond and diamond-like carbon films. After some discussion, it was agreed that any evaluation of the various techniques would be dependent on the end application. Thus the next action was to list the different areas where diamond and DLC films could find applications in transportation. These application areas are listed in a table. The table intentionally does not go into great detail on applications because that subject is dealt with specifically by Panel No. 4 - Applications To Transportation. The next action concentrated on identifying critical issues or limitations that need to be considered in evaluating the different processes. An attempt was then made to rank different broad categories of deposition techniques currently available or under development based on the four application areas and the limitations. These rankings/evaluations are given for diamond and DLC techniques. Finally, the working group tried to identify critical development and research issues that need to be incorporated into developing a long-term program that focuses on diamond/DLC coatings for transportation needs. 5 tabs.

  19. Stabilization of gravel deposits using microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Star, W.R.L.; Van Wijngaarden, W.K.; Van Paassen, L.A.; Van Baalen, L.R.; Zwieten, G.

    2011-01-01

    One of the techniques used for the construction of underground infrastructure is horizontal directional drilling (HDD). This trenchless method is complicated when crossing gravel deposits as a borehole in coarse gravel tends to collapse, causing the drill pipe to get stuck or the failure of installa

  20. Deposition Diagnostics for Next-step Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.H. Skinner; A.L. Roquemore; the NSTX team; A. Bader; W.R. Wampler

    2004-06-15

    The scale-up of deposition in next-step devices such as ITER will pose new diagnostic challenges. Codeposition of hydrogen with carbon needs to be characterized and understood in the initial hydrogen phase in order to mitigate tritium retention and qualify carbon plasma facing components for DT operations. Plasma facing diagnostic mirrors will experience deposition that is expected to rapidly degrade their reflectivity, posing a new challenge to diagnostic design. Some eroded particles will collect as dust on interior surfaces and the quantity of dust will be strictly regulated for safety reasons - however diagnostics of in-vessel dust are lacking. We report results from two diagnostics that relate to these issues. Measurements of deposition on NSTX with 4 Hz time resolution have been made using a quartz microbalance in a configuration that mimics that of a typical diagnostic mirror. Often deposition was observed immediately following the discharge suggesting that diagnostic shutters should be closed as soon as possible after the time period of interest. Material loss was observed following a few discharges. A novel diagnostic to detect surface particles on remote surfaces was commissioned on NSTX.

  1. 31 CFR 223.4 - Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deposits. 223.4 Section 223.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE SURETY COMPANIES DOING BUSINESS WITH THE UNITED...

  2. Iron and manganese deposits in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the results of the study carried out for the United Nations expert which the main object was: the study of the information available about iron and manganese formation in Uruguay, as well as the main researching deposit to determinate economical possibilities in the exportation.

  3. Local plasma deposition on polymer components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, P.J.; Theelen, M.J.; Habets, D.; Winands, G.J.J.; Staemmler, L.

    2011-01-01

    For the modification of the surface energy of polymers, organosilicon coatings provide good optical and mechanical properties and are excellent candidates for the modification of the surface energy of polymers. These coatings can be deposited by plasma polymerization of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO)

  4. Atomic layer deposition of nanoporous biomaterials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, R. J.; Adiga, S. P.; Pellin, M. J.; Curtiss, L. A.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N. A.; Brigmon, R. L.; Elam, J. W.; Univ. of North Carolina; North Carolina State Univ.; Eastman Kodak Co.; North Dakota State Univ.; SRL

    2010-03-01

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials. Nanoporous alumina, also known as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), is a nanomaterial that exhibits several unusual properties, including high pore densities, straight pores, small pore sizes, and uniform pore sizes. In 1953, Keller et al. showed that anodizing aluminum in acid electrolytes results in a thick layer of nearly cylindrical pores, which are arranged in a close-packed hexagonal cell structure. More recently, Matsuda & Fukuda demonstrated preparation of highly ordered platinum and gold nanohole arrays using a replication process. In this study, a negative structure of nanoporous alumina was initially fabricated and a positive structure of a nanoporous metal was subsequently fabricated. Over the past fifteen years, nanoporous alumina membranes have been used as templates for growth of a variety of nanostructured materials, including nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, and nanoporous membranes.

  5. Deposition of nitrogen into the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G.de; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Hertel, O.; Jickells, T.; Spokes, L.; Vignati, E.; Frohn, L.; Frydendall, J.; Schulz, M.; Tamm, S.; Sørensen, L.L.; Kunz, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The flux of nitrogen species from the atmosphere into the ocean, with emphasis on coastal waters, was addressed during the ANICE project (Atmospheric Nitrogen Inputs into the Coastal Ecosystem). ANICE focused on quantifying the deposition of atmospheric inputs of inorganic nitrogen compounds (HNO3,

  6. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Barry Maynard, J

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn(3+) and Mn(4+)) and hollandite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality.

  7. World Distribution of Uranium Deposits (UDEPO) with uranium deposit classification. 2009 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Distribution of Uranium Deposits (UDEPO) database provides general, technical and geological information, including references, about the worldwide uranium deposits. UDEPO has been published on the internet which allows the users to register freely and to work with datasets (http://www-nfcis.iaea.org). The UDEPO web site is designed to allow users to retrieve data sets on a variety of deposit related topics ranging from specific information on individual uranium deposits to statistical information on uranium deposits worldwide. The basic building blocks for the UDEPO database are the more than 900 individual deposits for which information is available in the database. The database is arranged in a relational database format which has one main table and a number of associated tables. Structured nature of the database allows filtering and querying the database in more systematic way. The web site provides filtering and navigation to the data from the database. It has also a statistical tool which provides summary information on number of deposits and uranium resources by type and status, and by country and status. In this respect and with regard to the data presented, the UDEPO database is a unique database which provides freely accessible information on worldwide uranium deposits. Although a great effort is spent to have complete and accurate database, the users should take into consideration that there still might be missing or outdated data for individual deposits due to the rapid changes in the uranium industry due to the new exploration works which are ongoing everyday. This document and its supplementary CD-ROM represent a snapshot of the status of the database as of the end of 2008. However, the database is being continuously updated and the latest updates and additions can be accessed from the database web site (http://wwwnfcis.iaea.org)

  8. Atmospheric Deposition of Phosphorus to the Everglades: Concepts, Constraints, and Published Deposition Rates for Ecosystem Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth W. Redfield

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes concepts underlying the atmospheric input of phosphorus (P to ecosystems, published rates of P deposition, measurement methods, and approaches to future monitoring and research. P conveyed through the atmosphere can be a significant nutrient source for some freshwater and marine ecosystems. Particle sources and sinks at the land-air interface produce variation in P deposition from the atmosphere across temporal and spatial scales. Natural plant canopies can affect deposition rates by changing the physical environment and surface area for particle deposition. Land-use patterns can alter P deposition rates by changing particle concentrations in the atmosphere. The vast majority of P in dry atmospheric deposition is conveyed by coarse (2.5 to 10 μm and giant (10 to 100 μm particles, and yet these size fractions represent a challenge for long-term atmospheric monitoring in the absence of accepted methods for routine sampling. Most information on P deposition is from bulk precipitation collectors and wet/dry bucket sampling, both with questionable precision and accuracy. Most published annual rates of P deposition are gross estimates derived from bulk precipitation sampling in locations around the globe and range from about 5 to well over 100 mg P m–2 year–1, although most inland ecosystems receive between 20 and 80 mg P m–2 year–1. Rates below 30 mg P m–2 year–1 are found in remote areas and near coastlines. Intermediate rates of 30 to 50 mg P m–2 year–1 are associated with forests or mixed land use, and rates of 50 to 100 mg P m–2 year–1 or more are often recorded from urban or agricultural settings. Comparison with other methods suggests that these bulk precipitation estimates provide crude boundaries around actual P deposition rates for various land uses. However, data screening cannot remove all positive bias caused by contamination of bucket or bulk collectors. As a consequence, continued sampling

  9. Deposition of diamond and boron nitride films by plasma chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albella, J.M. [Universidad Autonoma, CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. of Mater. Sci.; Gomez-Aleixandre, C. [Universidad Autonoma, CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. of Mater. Sci.; Sanchez-Garrido, O. [Universidad Autonoma, CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. of Mater. Sci.; Vazquez, L. [Universidad Autonoma, CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. of Mater. Sci.; Martinez-Duart, J.M. [Universidad Autonoma, CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. of Mater. Sci.

    1995-01-01

    The deposition problems of diamond and cubic boron nitride (c-BN) by chemical vapour deposition techniques are reviewed, with major emphasis on the nucleation and reaction mechanisms. A discussion is made of the main deposition parameters (i.e. gas mixture, substrate conditioning, plasma discharges etc.) which favour the formation of the cubic phase. Most of the work is devoted to diamond owing to the large progress attained in this material. In fact, the use of diamond as a hard protective coating is now on a commercial scale. By contrast, the preparation of c-BN layers with good characteristics still needs of further research. ((orig.))

  10. The Nopal 1 Uranium Deposit: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, G.; Allard, T.; Galoisy, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal 1 natural analogue is located in the Pena Blanca uranium district, about 50 kms north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit is hosted in tertiary ignimbritic ash-flow tuffs, dated at 44 Ma (Nopal and Colorados formations), and overlying the Pozos conglomerate formation and a sequence of Cretaceous carbonate rocks. The deposit is exposed at the ground surface and consists of a near vertical zone extending over about 100 m with a diameter of 40 m. An interesting characteristic is that the primary mineralization has been exposed above the water table, as a result of the uplift of the Sierra Pena Blanca, and subsequently oxidized with a remobilization of hexavalent uranium. The primary mineralization has been explained by various genetic models. It is associated to an extensive hydrothermal alteration of the volcanic tuffs, locally associated to pyrite and preserved by an intense silicification. Several kaolinite parageneses occur in fissure fillings and feldspar pseudomorphs, within the mineralized breccia pipe and the barren surrounding rhyolitic tuffs. Smectites are mainly developed in the underlying weakly welded tuffs. Several radiation-induced defect centers have been found in these kaolinites providing a unique picture of the dynamics of uranium mobilization (see Allard et al., this session). Another evidence of this mobilization is given by the spectroscopy of uranium-bearing opals, which show characteristic fluorescence spectra of uranyl groups sorbed at the surface of silica. By comparison with the other uranium deposits of the Sierra Pena Blanca and the nearby Sierra de Gomez, the Nopal 1 deposit is original, as it is one of the few deposits hving retained a reduced uranium mineralization.

  11. Mississippi Valley-Type Lead-Zinc Deposit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, David L.; Taylor, Ryan D.

    2009-01-01

    Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc (Pb+Zn) deposits are found throughout the world, and these deposits are characteristically distributed over hundreds of square kilometers that define individual ore districts. The median size of individual MVT deposits is 7.0 million tonnes with grades of about 7.9 percent Pb+Zn metal. However, MVT deposits usually occur in extensive districts consisting of several to as many as 400 deposits. Nearly one-quarter of the world's sedimentary and volcanic rock-hosted Pb+Zn resources are found in these deposits, with by-product commodities including silver (Ag), copper (Cu), and indium (In) for some deposits. Environmentally, MVT deposits are less of a concern than other types of mineral deposits since the carbonate-host rocks mitigate many environmental concerns.

  12. Aerosol deposition in the human respiratory system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    Attempts were made to develop mathematical models for the deposition of aerosols in the human respiratory system. Expressions were obtained for the mean deposition efficiency for nasal inspiration, nasal expiration, and mouth inspiration. A determination was made of statistical properties associated with each deposition efficiency due to intersubject and intrasubject variabilities. Expressions were then derived for head deposition with combined nose and mouth breathing. In the lung, deposition is a result primarily of impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. While there was no adequate model for impaction, several deposition formulae for sedimentation were derived as well as ones for diffusion. Studies were also made of the particle charge effect, as the electrostatic image force on a particle contributes to its deposition. There is, however, a threshold charge per particle below which the particle charge has no effect on deposition. Deposition data on ultrafine particles is scarce due to the difficulties in conducting proper experiments.

  13. Properties of electrodeposited amorphous Fe-Ni-W alloy deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Feng-jiao; WANG Miao; LU Xin

    2006-01-01

    A new technique of electroplating amorphous Fe-Ni-W alloy deposits was proposed. The structure and morphology of Fe-Ni-W alloy deposit were detected by XRD and SEM. The friction and wear behavior of Fe-Ni-W alloy deposit were studied and compared with that of chromium deposit. The corrosion properties against 5% sodium chloride, 5% sulfuric acid and 5% sodium hydroxide were also discussed. The experimental results indicate that Fe-Ni-W alloy deposits have superior properties against wear than hard chromium deposits under dry sliding condition. Under oil sliding condition, except their better wear resistance, the deposits can protect their counterparts against wear. The deposits plated on brass and AISI 1045 steel show good behavior against corrosion of 5% sodium chloride, 5% sulfuric acid and 5% sodium hydroxide. The bath of electroplating amorphous Fe-Ni-W alloy deposits is environmentally friendly and would find widely use in industry.

  14. Cobalt cluster-assembled thin films deposited by low energy cluster beam deposition: Structural and magnetic investigations of deposited layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobalt cluster-assembled thin films were deposited on amorphous-carbon-coated copper grids and on silicon substrates at room temperature by low energy cluster beam deposition. Characterizations using high-resolution transmission electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy reveal randomly stacked agglomerates of 9-11 nm diameter, which are themselves composed of small 3.6 nm diameter fcc cobalt clusters. The films are ferromagnetic up to room temperature and above, which implies that the clusters are exchange coupled. The approach to saturation is analyzed within the random anisotropy model. The values of the exchange coefficient A and the anisotropy constant K then derived are discussed. The temperature dependence of the coercivity below 100 K is discussed in terms of thermal activation effects. All results indicate that the fundamental entity governing the magnetic behaviors is constituted by the 9-11 nm diameter agglomerates rather than by the clusters themselves

  15. Electrochemical deposition and characterization of zinc–nickel alloys deposited by direct and reverse current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA B. BAJAT

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Zn–Ni alloys electrochemically deposited on steel under various deposition conditions were investigated. The alloys were deposited on a rotating disc electrode and on a steel panel from chloride solutions by direct and reverse current. The influence of reverse plating variables (cathodic and anodic current densities and their time duration on the composition, phase structure and corrosion properties were investigated. The chemical content and phase composition affect the anticorrosive properties of Zn–Ni alloys during exposure to a corrosive agent (3 % NaCl solution. It was shown that the Zn–Ni alloy electrodeposited by reverse current with a full period T = 1 s and r = 0.2 exhibits the best corrosion properties of all the investigated alloys deposited by reverse current.

  16. Gigantic landslides versus glacial deposits: on origin of large hummock deposits in Alai Valley, Northern Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznichenko, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    As glaciers are sensitive to local climate, their moraines position and ages are used to infer past climates and glacier dynamics. These chronologies are only valid if all dated moraines are formed as the result of climatically driven advance and subsequent retreat. Hence, any accurate palaeoenvironmental reconstruction requires thorough identification of the landform genesis by complex approach including geomorphological, sedimentological and structural landform investigation. Here are presented the implication of such approach for the reconstruction of the mega-hummocky deposits formation both of glacial and landslide origin in the glaciated Alai Valley of the Northern Pamir with further discussion on these and similar deposits validity for palaeoclimatic reconstructions. The Tibetan Plateau valleys are the largest glaciated regions beyond the ice sheets with high potential to provide the best geological record of glacial chronologies and, however, with higher probabilities of the numerous rock avalanche deposits including those that were initially considered of glacial origin (Hewitt, 1999). The Alai Valley is the largest intermountain depression in the upper reaches of the Amudarja River basin that has captured numerous unidentified extensive hummocky deposits descending from the Zaalai Range of Northern Pamir, covering area in more than 800 km2. Such vast hummocky deposits are usually could be formed either: 1) glacially by rapid glacial retreat due to the climate signal or triggered a-climatically glacial changes, such as glacial surge or landslide impact, or 2) during the landslide emplacement. Combination of sediment tests on agglomerates forming only in rock avalanche material (Reznichenko et al., 2012) and detailed geomorphological and sedimentological descriptions of these deposits allowed reconstructing the glacial deposition in the Koman and Lenin glacial catchments with identification of two gigantic rock avalanches and their relation to this glacial

  17. Heavy metal deposition mapping: concentrations and deposition of heavy metals in rural areas of the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Heath; Fowler, David; Crossley, Alan; Kentisbeer, John; Hallsworth, Steve; Lawlor, Alan; Rowland, Phil; Guyatt, Hayley; Beith, Sarah; Thacker, Sarah; Halford, Alan; ROGERS Stuart; Cape, J. Neil; Leeson, Sarah; Harmens, Harry

    2012-01-01

    CEH has been monitoring the concentrations of a range of heavy metals in rural locations across the UK since 2004. This report presents the annual average concentrations and deposition of heavy metals in air and rainfall samples collected from rural locations during 2011 and it reviews the temporal and spatial trends in heavy metal concentrations and deposition between 2004 and 2011. The monitoring network was established to measure the background concentration of a range of heavy meta...

  18. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many coastal areas of Australia, may have perturbed catchment chloride balance conditions for appropriate use in CMB applications. In order to deal with these issues, a high resolution chloride deposition map in the coastal region is needed. In this study, we examined geographic, orographic, and atmospheric factors influencing chloride deposition in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, and terrain aspect and slope are two most significant factors controlling chloride deposition. Coastal distance accounts for 65% spatial variability in chloride deposition, with terrain aspect and slope for 8%. The deposition gradient is about 0.08 gm-2 year-1 km-1 as one progresses inland. The results are incorporated into a published de-trended residual kriging approach (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution annual chloride deposition map and a bulk precipitation chloride concentration map. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 30% in the western MLR, and over 50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a very useful basis for examining catchment chloride balances for use in the CMB application in the study area.

  19. Iridium thin films deposited via pulsed laser deposition for future applications as transition-edge sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeazzi, M. E-mail: galeazzi@physics.miami.edu; Chen, C.; Cohn, J.L.; Gundersen, J.O

    2004-03-11

    The University of Miami has recently started developing and studying high-resolution microcalorimeters operating near 100 mK for X-ray and particle physics and astrophysics. These detectors will be based on Transition Edge Sensors technology fabricated using iridium thin films deposited via the Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. We report here the preliminary result of the room temperature characterization of the Ir thin films, and an overview of future plans to use the films as transition edge sensors.

  20. Atmospheric Deposition of Phosphorus to the Everglades: Concepts, Constraints, and Published Deposition Rates for Ecosystem Management

    OpenAIRE

    Redfield, Garth W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes concepts underlying the atmospheric input of phosphorus (P) to ecosystems, published rates of P deposition, measurement methods, and approaches to future monitoring and research. P conveyed through the atmosphere can be a significant nutrient source for some freshwater and marine ecosystems. Particle sources and sinks at the land-air interface produce variation in P deposition from the atmosphere across temporal and spatial scales. Natural plant canopies can affect depos...

  1. Oxygen Barrier Coating Deposited by Novel Plasma-enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Juan; Benter, M.; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef;

    2010-01-01

    We report the use of a novel plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition chamber with coaxial electrode geometry for the SiOx deposition. This novel plasma setup exploits the diffusion of electrons through the inner most electrode to the interior samples space as the major energy source. This confi...... increased the barrier property of the modified low-density polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polylactide by 96.48%, 99.69%, and 99.25%, respectively....

  2. Uranium deposits of Gabon and Oklo reactors. Metallogenic model for rich deposits of the lower proterozoic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geology of the Franceville basin (Gabon) is examined: stratigraphy, tectonics and geodynamics. The mobile zone of the Ogooue is specially studied: lithology, metamorphism and tectonics, isotopic geochronologic data are given. The different uranium deposits are described. A whole chapter is devoted to the study of Oklo natural nuclear reactor. A metallogenic model is proposed evidencing conditions required for deposit genesis. Tectonics, microstructures sedimentology, organic matter, diagenesis and uraniferous mineralizations are examined

  3. Deposition of metal oxide films and nanostructures by methods derived from photochemical metal organic deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Xin ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    In this research, methods for the deposition of patterned films and nanostructures were developed from photochemical metal organic deposition (PMOD). Positive lithographic PMOD was demonstrated with films of titanium (IV) di-n-butoxide bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (Ti(OBun)2(eh)2), titanium (IV) diisopropoxide bis(2,4-pentanedionate), and zirconium (IV) di-n-butoxide bis(2,4-pentanedionate). The photochemistry of these complexes in films was studied by FTIR, AES, and XRD. Photo-induced reactivity an...

  4. Seismic stratigraphy and depositional history of late Quaternary deposits in the Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gwang-Soo; Yoo, Dong Geun; Bae, Sungho; Choul Kim, Dae; Yi, Hi-Il

    2016-04-01

    To identify the seismic stratigraphy and depositional history of late Quaternary deposits in the Yellow Sea, approximately 52,600 line-km of Chirp seismic profiles and 5,060 line-km of Sparker seismic profiles were analyzed. The Yellow Sea are correspond to three sedimentary environments: (1) a various scale sand ridges/waves and mud belt (the western inner-shelf of the Korean Peninsula), (2) recent- and paleo-channels, erosional and broad surface (the center of the Yellow Sea), and (3) prodelta mud patch (the eastern offshore of China). Based on the seismic stratigraphic analysis of seismic profiles, the late Quaternary deposits in the Yellow Sea are divided into five distinctive seismic units (units CY1~5), consisting of two depositional sequences that can be defined as erosional and disconformable strata. Each unit show different seismic facies and geometry, and is clearly separated by each bounding surface. The major depositional processes and sediment dispersal systems during the late Quaternary in the Yellow Sea are: (1) regressive estuarine/deltaic deposits (unit CY1), (2) transgressive incised channel fill (unit CY2), (3) transgressive sand sheet (unit CY3), (4) transgressive sand ridges (unit CY4), and (5) prodelta/recent mud (unit CY5). The depositional sequences follow the general concepts of sequence stratigraphy very well. Lower sequence (DI) correspond to the falling stage systems tract regarded as regressive estuarine or deltaic deposits (unit CY1), whereas upper sequence (DII) consists of a set of the transgressive (units CY2, CY3, and CY4) and highstand systems tract (unit CY5) formed since the last-glacial period.

  5. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construc...

  6. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this st...

  7. Advance in research on aerosol deposition simulation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive analysis of the health effects of inhaled toxic aerosols requires exact data on airway deposition. A knowledge of the effect of inhaled drugs is essential to the optimization of aerosol drug delivery. Sophisticated analytical deposition models can be used for the computation of total, regional and generation specific deposition efficiencies. The continuously enhancing computer seem to allow us to study the particle transport and deposition in more and more realistic airway geometries with the help of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation method. In this article, the trends in aerosol deposition models and lung models, and the methods for achievement of deposition simulations are also reviewed. (authors)

  8. A Pyroclastic Flow Deposit on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghail, R.; Wilson, L.

    2013-12-01

    Explosive volcanism on Venus is severely inhibited by its high atmospheric pressure and lack of water. This paper shows that a deposit located near 16°S, 144°E, here referred to as Scathach Fluctus, displays a number of morphological characteristics consistent with a pyroclastic flow deposit. These characteristics, particularly its lack of channelisation and evidence for momentum rather than cooling limited flow length, contrast with fissure-fed lava flow deposits. The total erupted volume is estimated to have been between 225 km3 and 875 km3 but this may have been emplaced in more than one event. Interaction between Scathach Fluctus and a small volcanic cone constrain the flow velocity to 48 m s-1 and plausible volatile concentrations to at least 1.8 wt% H2O, 4.3 wt% CO2 or 6.1 wt% SO2, the latter two implying magma sourced directly from the mantle. The deposit has radar characteristics, particularly an exponential backscatter function, that are similar to those of nearly half the planetary surface, implying that pyroclastic deposits may be much more common on Venus than has been recognised to date, and suggesting both a relatively volatile-rich mantle and a volcanic source for atmospheric SO2. Unfortunately, because the plains usually lack clear flow boundaries and structures, the features diagnostic of a high momentum flow - linear undulating deposits that lack channel morphology, cross narrow graben without deviation, climb obstacles and show evidence for parabolic flow out from steep drops - may not be identifiable. Thus, while pyroclastic flows may be common on Venus, Scathach Fluctus may, indeed, become the only proven example from Magellan data. False colour image of Scathach Fluctus using data from Cycle 1 (left-looking), Cycle 2 (right-looking) and passive emissivity combined to enhance the impression of relief in the grey scale image, overlain with colour-coded derived asperity height, defined as surface roughness at the scale-length of the Magellan

  9. Experimental measurements of the thermal conductivity of ash deposits: Part 2. Effects of sintering and deposit microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. L. Robinson; S. G. Buckley; N. Yang; L. L. Baxter

    2000-04-01

    The authors report results from an experimental study that examines the influence of sintering and microstructure on ash deposit thermal conductivity. The measurements are made using a technique developed to make in situ, time-resolved measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of ash deposits formed under conditions that closely replicate those found in the convective pass of a commercial boiler. The technique is designed to minimize the disturbance of the natural deposit microstructure. The initial stages of sintering and densification are accompanied by an increase in deposit thermal conductivity. Subsequent sintering continues to densify the deposit, but has little effect on deposit thermal conductivity. SEM analyses indicates that sintering creates a layered deposit structure with a relatively unsintered innermost layer. They hypothesize that this unsintered layer largely determines the overall deposit thermal conductivity. A theoretical model that treats a deposit as a two-layered material predicts the observed trends in thermal conductivity.

  10. Vacuum deposition of stoichiometric crystalline PbS films: The effect of sulfurizing environment during deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, A.; Tyagi, R. C.

    2015-10-01

    Thin film of lead sulfide (PbS) was deposited onto highly cleaned glass and quartz substrates using a vacuum thermal evaporation technique. The effect of the sulfurizing environment on the growth and properties of vacuum-deposited PbS thin film was studied. The ambient sulfurizing environment was created by thermal decomposition of thiourea inside the vacuum chamber during deposition to maintain the stoichiometry and quality of the PbS film. The sulfurizing gas H2S, produced in the thermal decomposition of the solid sulfur containing thiourea readily combines with the cations (Pb2+) without leaving any anions (S2-) at the substrates and also has not produced any excess of sulfur at the substrates. The deposited film was characterized by optical spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron micrographs with energy dispersive analysis of x-rays, and atomic force micrographs. The physical characterization of the deposited PbS film revealed that the surface of film grown in the sulfurizing environment improved and contained more stoichiometric sulfur in comparison to film deposited without the sulfurizing environment.

  11. Deposition of Cu seed layer film by supercritical fluid deposition for advanced interconnects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Bin; Zhao Ming-Tao; Zhang Yan-Fei; Yang Jun-He

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of a Cu seed layer film is investigated by supercritical fluid deposition (SCFD) using H2 as a reducing agent for Bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato) copper in supercritical CO2 (scCO2).The effects of deposition temperature,precursor,and H2 concentration are investigated to optimize Cu deposition.Continuous metallic Cu films are deposited on Ru substrates at 190 ℃ when a 0.002 mol/L Cu precursor is introduced with 0.75 mol/L H2.A Cu precursor concentration higher than 0.002 mol/L is found to have negative effects on the surface qualities of Cu films.For a H2concentration above 0.56 mol/L,the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of a Cu film decreases as the H2 concentration increases.Finally,a 20-nm thick Cu film with a smooth surface,which is required as a seed layer in advanced interconnects,is successfully deposited at a high H2 concentration (0.75 mol/L).

  12. Metallogenic evolution of uranium deposits in the Middle East and North Africa deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howari, Fares; Goodell, Philip; Salman, Abdulaty

    2016-02-01

    This paper is briefly involved in classification and distributions of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) uranium deposits. The study of these mineral systems can significantly contribute to our further understanding of the metallogeny of known and poorly explored deposits. This provides contribution to, and further enhancement of, current classifications and metallogenic models of uranium systems, allowing researchers to emphasize on unknown or poorly studied mineral systems found in MENA. The present study identified eight metallogenic types of uranium associated with: 1) the Archean rocks and intra-cratonic basins, 2) the Pan-African granites and rhyolites which are characterized by igneous activity, 3) Phanerozoic (Paleozoic) clastics, these deposits are the sedimentological response to Pan African magmatism, 4) Mesozoic (basal) clastics type e.g. Nubia sandstones which are characterized by uranium minerals, 5) regional sedimentary phosphate deposits which are categorized as geosynclinal, or continental margin deposits, on the shelf of the Tethys Ocean, 6) Cenozoic Intracratonic Felsic Magmatism of the Tibesti and Hoggar, and the sandstone U deposits of adjoining Niger. These are similar to the Pan-African magmatism metallogenic, 7) Calcretes, and 8) Resistate minerals which are often enriched in rare earth elements, sometimes including uranium. They are thus sometimes considered as U resources but poorly explored in the MENA region. These metallogenic types are described and discussed in the current paper.

  13. Deposition from wax-solvent mixtures under turbulent flow : effects of shear rate and time on deposit properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwary, R.; Mehrotra, A.K. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The effects of deposition time and shear rate on the deposition of solids was investigated under turbulent flow, for solutions of a multi-component wax in a paraffinic solvent. The deposition experiments were performed in a bench-scale flow-loop apparatus, incorporating a co-current double-pipe heat exchanger. The experiment involved 2 mixture compositions (10 and 15 mass per cent wax) at Reynolds numbers between 9000 and 27000 over a range of deposition times from 30 min to 24 h. The study showed that the deposit mass decreased with an increase in the Reynolds number, but it increased asymptotically with the deposition time. The deposit mass and density data were analyzed using a pseudo-steady-state heat transfer model to study the variation in the deposit-layer thickness and thermal conductivity with shear rate and deposition time. According to the GC analysis of deposit samples, there were noticeable changes in the carbon-number-distribution with shear rate and time. The variations in deposit properties were also assessed using a recently proposed model involving one-dimensional cubical-cage deformation. These study results provide evidence that deposition from waxy crude oils is mainly a thermally-driven process, in which the shear stress and the deposition time play significant roles by influencing the deposit properties. 4 refs.

  14. Paraffin wax deposits and chemical inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, J.L.

    1970-01-01

    Solutions to this problem becomes necessary with the advent of extremely deep production, offshore production, and the probability of ocean-floor completions. The reasons for paraffin-wax accumulations are many and difficult to pinpoint. Inhibition of these paraffin deposits appears to be the best solution. Paraffin solvents and inhibitors are as follows: solvents, wetting agents, dispersants, and crystal modifiers. Solvents are effective, but can harm a refinery catalyst and create health hazards. Wetting agents and dispersants comprise the majority of chemicals used as paraffin wax inhibitors. Crystal modifiers are relatively new and may provide the most efficient means of reducing deposition. Evaluations of chemical paraffin inhibitors are outlined. Field test results which consider the various chemicals tested may give satisfactory results in determining which particular chemical can solve the problem of the particular situation. (38 refs.)

  15. Strategic metal deposits of the Arctic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnikov, N. S.; Lobanov, K. V.; Volkov, A. V.; Galyamov, A. L.; Vikent'ev, I. V.; Tarasov, N. N.; Distler, V. V.; Lalomov, A. V.; Aristov, V. V.; Murashov, K. Yu.; Chizhova, I. A.; Chefranov, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    Mineral commodities rank high in the economies of Arctic countries, and the status of mineral resources and the dynamics of their development are of great importance. The growing tendency to develop strategic metal resources in the Circumarctic Zone is outlined in a global perspective. The Russian Arctic Zone is the leading purveyor of these metals to domestic and foreign markets. The comparative analysis of tendencies in development of strategic metal resources of the Arctic Zone in Russia and other countries is crucial for the elaboration of trends of geological exploration and research engineering. This paper provides insight into the development of Arctic strategic metal resources in global perspective. It is shown that the mineral resource potential of the Arctic circumpolar metallogenic belt is primarily controlled by large and unique deposits of nonferrous, noble, and rare metals. The prospective types of economic strategic metal deposits in the Russian Arctic Zone are shown.

  16. Deposited low temperature silicon GHz modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Yoon Ho Daniel; Lipson, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The majority of silicon photonics is built on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers while the majority of electronics, including CPUs and memory, are built on bulk silicon wafers, limiting broader acceptance of silicon photonics. This discrepancy is a result of silicon photonics's requirement for a single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) layer and a thick undercladding for optical guiding that bulk silicon wafers to not provide. While the undercladding problem can be partially addressed by substrate removal techniques, the complexity of co-integrating photonics with state-of-the-art transistors and real estate competition between electronics and photonics remain problematic. We show here a platform for deposited GHz silicon photonics based on polycrystalline silicon with high optical quality suitable for high performance electro-optic devices. We demonstrate 3 Gbps polysilicon electro-optic modulator fabricated on a deposited polysilicon layer fully compatible with CMOS backend integration. These results open up an arr...

  17. Electrophoretically-deposited solid film lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugger, M.T.; Panitz, J.K.J.; Vanecek, C.W.

    1995-04-01

    An aqueous-based process that uses electrophoresis to attract powdered lubricant in suspension to a charged target was developed. The deposition process yields coatings with low friction, complies with environmental safety regulations, requires minimal equipment, and has several advantages over processes involving organic binders or vacuum techniques. This work focuses on development of the deposition process, includes an analysis of the friction coefficient of the material in sliding contact with stainless steel under a range of conditions, and a functional evaluation of coating performance in a precision mechanical device application. Results show that solid lubricant films with friction coefficients as low as 0.03 can be produced. A 0.03 friction coefficient is superior to solid lubricants with binder systems and is comparable to friction coefficients generated with more costly vacuum techniques.

  18. Initial Stable State of Ocean Floor Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪振舜; 石名磊

    2004-01-01

    Extensive oedometer tests and physical tests have been conducted on remolded and reconstituted marine soils with different initial water contents and liquid limits. The oedometer test data can be well fitted with a straight line in the bilogarithmio ln(1 + e) ~ lg p plot. The initial effective stress corresponding to the initial void ratilo is determined by extrapolation of the bilogarithmic compression line. This new way of extrapolating oedometer test data to the initial void ratio overcomes the difficulty of measuring the residual effective stress of soils in the remolded state. The initial stable compression line of ocean floor deposits under different deposition environments corresponds to the compression line at the sensitivity equal to one. This initial stable compression line obtained in this study is consistent with the available compression line at the sensitivity equal to one which is proposed based on the experimental data of remolded undrained strengtl and the theoretical concept of Cam-clay critical state line.

  19. Nanosecond laser ablation and deposition of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siew, Wee Ong; Tou, Teck Yong [Multimedia University, Faculty of Engineering, Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Seong Shan; Reenaas, Turid Worren [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Trondheim (Norway); Ladam, Cecile; Dahl, Oeystein [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway)

    2011-09-15

    Nanosecond-pulsed KrF (248 nm, 25 ns) and Nd:YAG (1064 nm, 532 nm, 355 nm, 5 ns) lasers were used to ablate a polycrystalline Si target in a background pressure of <10{sup -4} Pa. Si films were deposited on Si and GaAs substrates at room temperature. The surface morphology of the films was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Round droplets from 20 nm to 5 {mu}m were detected on the deposited films. Raman Spectroscopy indicated that the micron-sized droplets were crystalline and the films were amorphous. The dependence of the properties of the films on laser wavelengths and fluence is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Protein Data Bank Depositions from Synchrotron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey and analysis of Protein Data Bank (PDB) depositions from international synchrotron radiation facilities, based on the latest released PDB entries, are reported. The results () show that worldwide, every year since 1999, more than 50% of the deposited X-ray structures have used synchrotron facilities, reaching 75% by 2003. In this web-based database, all PDB entries among individual synchrotron beamlines are archived, synchronized with the weekly PDB release. Statistics regarding the quality of experimental data and the refined model for all structures are presented, and these are analysed to reflect the impact of synchrotron sources. The results confirm the common impression that synchrotron sources extend the size of structures that can be solved with equivalent or better quality than home sources

  1. Electrochemical Behaviour of Sputtering Deposited DLC Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUErjia; ZENGA; LIULX

    2003-01-01

    Diamondlike carbon (DLC) films were deposited via magnetron sputtering process. The energetic ion hombardment on the surface of growing film is one of the major parameters that control the atom mobility on the flirt1 surface and further the physical and chemical characteristics of the films. In this study, the energy of carbon ions was monitored by changing sputtering powerdensity, and its effect on the electrochemical performance of the films was investigated. For the deposition at a higher sputtering power density, a higher sp3 content in the DLC films was achieved with denser structure and increased film-substrate adhesion. The impedance at the interface of Si substrate/sulfufic acid solution was significantly enhanced, and at the same time higher film resistance, lower capacitance, higher breakdown potential and longer breakdown time were observed, which were related to the significant sp3 content of the DLC films.

  2. Electrochemical Behaviour of Sputtering Deposited DLC Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Erjia; ZENG A,LIU L X

    2003-01-01

    Diamondlike carbon (DLC) films were deposited via magnetron sputtering process. The energetic ion bombardment on the surface of growing film is one of the major parameters that control the atom mobility on the film surface and further the physical and chemical characteristics of the films. In this study, the energy of carbon ions was monitored by changing sputtering power density, and its effect on the electrochemical performance of the films was investigated. For the deposition at a higher sputtering power density, a higher sp3 content in the DLC films was achieved with denser structure and increased film-substrate adhesion. The impedance at the interface of Si substrate/sulfuric acid solution was significantly enhanced, and at the same time higher film resistance, lower capacitance, higher breakdown potential and longer breakdown time were observed, which were related to the significant sp3 content of the DLC films.

  3. Post deposition purification of PTCDA thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decomposition of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules during evaporation of unpurified raw material in ultra high vacuum was studied. The fragments were identified by mass spectrometry and the influence of these fragments and further contaminations of the raw material on the electronic structure of PTCDA thin films was measured by photoemission spectroscopy. Annealing of contaminated PTCDA films was tested as cheap and easy to perform method for (partial) post deposition purification of the contaminated films

  4. Chemical Vapour Deposition of Large Area Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Martin Benjamin Barbour Spanget; Bøggild, Peter; Booth, Tim; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2015-01-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) is a viable technique for fabrication of large areas of graphene. CVD fabrication is the most prominent and common way of fabricating graphene in industry. In this thesis I have attempted to optimize a growth recipe and catalyst layer for CVD fabrication of uniform, single layer, and high carrier mobility large area graphene. The main goals of this work are; (1) explore the graphene growth mechanics in a low pressure cold-wall CVD system on a copper substrate, ...

  5. Flowslide Early Warning System in pyroclastic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Lucio; Damiano, Emila; De Cristofaro, Martina; Roberto, Greco; Mollo, Luigi; Netti, Nadia; Capparelli, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Most of the mountains of Campania are covered by airfall pyroclastic deposits in primary deposition generally in unsaturated conditions. These deposits are periodically subjected to rainfall induced landslides that may evolve into catastrophic flowslides. To protect towns EWS can be implemented in order to correctly and promptly predict the trigger. In the paper we detect some 'essential ingredients' for effective EWSs which are new with respect to those already employed and essentially based on pluviometric thresholds (Greco et. Al., 2013) and extremely simplified models not able to correctly follow the physical phenomena which are responsible of flowslides generation (Olivares et Al. 2009). Complex models, able to correctly simulate those physical phenomena such as infiltration processes and the effects of partial saturated conditions on shear strength contain the 'essential ingredients' that we discuss in the paper. A particular attention is devoted to define the relation between suction and shear strength and the water retention curve obtained from different techniques to assess a reliable hydro-geotechnical model to analyze the slope response of loose unsaturated pyroclastic deposits. An EWS that contains these elements can provide many advantages. In fact, catastrophic flowslides but even false alarms about such events, produce negative technological and productive shocks that strongly reduce the actual and prospective value added of investment in the areas at risk suggesting the opportunity of their shrinking and postponement. Of course this severely compromises the economic development of those areas. In the paper we propose to examine this subject in the Dixit e Pindyck framework of the Real Option Valuation Approach in order to explain the socio-economic value of effective EWS. In fact, such EWSs will embed valuable new real options in the investment opportunities in the areas at risk increasing their actual and prospective values. Keywords: slope

  6. Mixing from below in hydrothermal ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, Paul D.; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Markl, Gregor; Walter, Bejamin

    2014-05-01

    Unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits typically show indications of mixing of two end-member fluids: (a) hot, deep, rock-buffered basement brines and (b) colder fluids derived from the surface or overlying sediments. The hydromechanics of bringing these fluids together from above and below remain unclear. Classical percolative Darcy-flow models are inconsistent with (1) fluid overpressure indicated by fracturing and brecciation, (2) fast fluid flow indicated by thermal disequilibrium, and (3) strong fluid composition variations on the mm-scale, indicated by fluid inclusion analyses (Bons et al. 2012; Fusswinkel et al. 2013). We propose that fluids first descend, sucked down by desiccation reactions in exhumed basement. Oldest fluids reach greatest depths, where long residence times and elevated temperatures allow them the extensively equilibrate with their host rock, reach high salinity and scavenge metals, if present. Youngest fluids can only penetrate to shallower depths and can (partially) retain signatures from their origin, for example high Cl/Br ratios from the dissolution of evaporitic halite horizons. When fluids are released from all levels of the crustal column, these fluids mix during rapid ascent to form hydrothermal ore deposits. Mixing from below provides a viable hydromechanical mechanism to explain the common phenomenon of mixed shallow and deep fluids in hydrothermal ore deposits. Bons, P.D., Elburg, M.A., Gomez-Rivas, E. 2012. A review of the formation of tectonic veins and their microstructures. J. Struct. Geol. doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2012.07.005 Fusswinkel, T., Wagner, T., Wälle, M., Wenzel, T., Heinrich, C.A., Markl, M. 2013. Fluid mixing forms basement-hosted Pb-Zn deposits: Insight from metal and halogen geochemistry of individual fluid inclusions. Geology. doi:10.1130/G34092.1

  7. Niobium sputter deposition on quarter wave resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Viswanadham, C; Jayaprakash, D; Mishra, R L

    2003-01-01

    Niobium sputter deposition on quarter wave copper R.F resonators, have been taken up in our laboratory, An ultra high vacuum system was made for this purpose. Niobium exhibits superconducting properties at liquid Helium temperature. A uniform coating of about 1.5 mu m of niobium on the internal surfaces of the copper resonant cavities is desired. Power dissipation in the resonators can be greatly reduced by making the internal surfaces of the R.F cavity super conducting. (author)

  8. Determination of electroless deposition by chemical nickeling

    OpenAIRE

    Badida, M.; M. Gombár; L. Sobotová; J. Kmec

    2013-01-01

    Increasing of technical level and reliability of machine products in compliance with the economical and ecological terms belongs to the main trends of the industrial development. During the utilisation of these products there arise their each other contacts and the interaction with the environment. That is the reason for their surface degradation by wear effect, corrosion and other influences. The chemical nickel-plating allows autocatalytic deposition of nickel from water solutions in the fo...

  9. Australia's experience with the variable deposit requirement

    OpenAIRE

    Australian Treasury

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the implementation of the Variable Deposit Requirement (VDR) capital control scheme in Australia in the 1970s. It notes that while capital controls can play a role in certain circumstances, they should not be used as a substitute for addressing underlying policy needs or financial sector reforms of an economy. The scheme was short-term in nature, and depended on subjective judgements about what level of capital inflow was appropriate at the time, and was unrelated to lon...

  10. Controlled Deposition and Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Patry, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) attraction material is deposited on a substrate in the gap region between two electrodes on the substrate. An electric potential is applied to the two electrodes. The CNT attraction material is wetted with a solution defined by a carrier liquid having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suspended therein. A portion of the CNTs align with the electric field and adhere to the CNT attraction material. The carrier liquid and any CNTs not adhered to the CNT attraction material are then removed.

  11. Trail formation based on directed pheromone deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Boissard, Emmanuel; Degond, Pierre; Motsch, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    We propose an Individual-Based Model of ant-trail formation. The ants are modeled as self-propelled particles which deposit directed pheromones and interact with them through alignment interaction. The directed pheromones intend to model pieces of trails, while the alignment interaction translates the tendency for an ant to follow a trail when it meets it. Thanks to adequate quantitative descriptors of the trail patterns, the existence of a phase transition as the ant-pheromone interaction fr...

  12. Quality study of a fedspar deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Taboada, J.; Vaamonde, A.; Saavedra, A.; Argüelles, A.

    2000-01-01

    This work describes a pegmatite mineral deposit composed by some veins of a length between 50 and 800 meters and a width of almost 15 meters. With the purpose to evaluate the potential exploitation, we have characterized the quality of the selling product, through a sampling procedure, granulometric classification, magnetic separation, flotation process and mineralogical analysis. In order to establish the more able flotation process, we have tested different methods, that we also include her...

  13. Deposition and Coating Properties on CVD Tungsten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ji-hong; LI Zheng-xiang; LIU Gao-jian; ZHOU Hui-Huang; CHUN liang

    2004-01-01

    Surface characterization and microstructure studies are performed on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) tungsten coating. There is about 2 μm thickness diffusion layer of tungsten in the molybdenum substrate. The thermal shock test shows tungsten coating has good adhesion with molybdenum substrate, but the elements of oxygen and carbon in the tungsten coating have the bad affection to the adhesion. The result of high-temperature diffusion experiment is the diffusion rate from molybdenum substrate to tungsten coating is faster.

  14. Electrostatic force assisted deposition of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaogan

    2011-11-15

    An embodiment of a method of depositing graphene includes bringing a stamp into contact with a substrate over a contact area. The stamp has at least a few layers of the graphene covering the contact area. An electric field is developed over the contact area. The stamp is removed from the vicinity of the substrate which leaves at least a layer of the graphene substantially covering the contact area.

  15. Complex Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzberg, Adam M; Olynick, Deirdre

    2015-10-14

    Complex materials are defined as nanostructured materials with combinations of structure and/or composition that lead to performance surpassing the sum of their individual components. There are many methods that can create complex materials; however, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is uniquely suited to control composition and structural parameters at the atomic level. The use of ALD for creating complex insulators, semiconductors, and conductors is discussed, along with its use in novel structural applications.

  16. Particle size-density relationships in pyroclastic deposits: using component subpopulations to elucidate depositional conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackaman-Lofland, C. A.; Brand, B. D.; Taddeucci, J.

    2012-12-01

    Pyroclastic Density Currents (PDCs) are ground-hugging currents of hot gas, ash, and rock that travel at velocities up to 150 m/s down the flanks of volcanoes. PDCs are the most dangerous hazard associated with explosive volcanic eruptions, but because of current opacity and the risk inherent to observing PDCs in real time, their processes are poorly understood. Geologists rely on depositional relationships to lend insight into PDC transport and depositional processes. Outcrop exposure is typically incomplete, however, and the extent to which outcrop-scale depositional characteristics are representative of the parent current is still uncertain. The May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens (MSH) produced multiple PDCs, burying the area north of the crater under 10s of meters of PDC deposits. Deep drainage erosion over the past 30 years has exposed these deposits in three dimensions, allowing a detailed study of deposit structures to be conducted for a variety of locations and depositional regimes with distance from source. We examine the grain size distribution and density characteristics of the discrete component subpopulations that make up the solids fraction of PDC deposits, focusing on changes associated with lateral facies variation, distance from source, and degree of topographic roughness. We analyze the grain size and density relationships of the component subpopulations using sequential fragmentation / transport theory (SFT), and use crystal morphoscopy to determine how different regional transport systems effect feldspar and hornblende crystal shape following the methods of Taddeucci and Palladino ((2002) Particle size-density relationships in pyroclastic deposits: inferences for emplacement processes. Bull Volcanol 64:273-284). Calculations of representative proximal and distal samples indicate juvenile pumice densities of ~1.3g/mL, accidental lithic densities of ~2.7g/mL, and crystal densities of ~2.6g/mL. We observe a general decrease in grain size and

  17. GYPSUM DEPOSITS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Gabrić

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurences and deposits of gypsum can be found in big karst poljes (Sinjsko, Vrličko, Petrovo, Kosovo and Kninsko as well as in tectonnically predestined river valleys of Zrmanja, Butišnica and Una. There also appear spatially localized occurences on the island of Vis and in the vicinity of Samobor. Evaporites (gypsum and anhydrite with adjoining overlying clastic rocks (red sandstones, siltites and pelites, carbonate rocks (dolomites and limestones and porous carbonate breccias (Rauhwackes were deposited during the period of Upper Permian. The recent position of the Upper Permian beds is a result of complex tectonic, particularly neotectonic, movements and diapiric displacements. Evaporites were deposited in marginal areas of the epicontinental marine basin, in a period of favourable conditions for the sabkha and playa sedimentation due to the continuous shoreline progradation. The Upper Permian age of these sediments in Dalmatio is proved by the characteristic mineral paragenesis and palinological determinations in elastics rocks, as well as by isotope analyses of sulphure in gypsum. Gypsum is a significant ore mineral resource in building, cement production, as well as in a number of tehnological processes used in chemical industry and elsewhere. According to the recent investigations gypsum is predestined to serve as an ore mineral resource of significant perspectives (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. Pulsed laser deposition of rare earth compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, L A

    2001-01-01

    Magnetostrictive thin films have been deposited using various techniques such as sputtering and evaporation but the use of laser deposition has been limited. This research presents the results from pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of TbFe sub 2 , DyFe sub 2 and Terfenol-D thin films using an infra red Transversely Excited Atmospheric (TEA) CO sub 2 laser at lambda approx 10.6 mu m and an ultra violet Argon-Fluoride (ArF) excimer laser at lambda approx 193 nm. Results have showed that the TEA CO sub 2 laser under the range of conditions studied is not suitable for the production of magnetostrictive films. The problems experienced are a mixture of mostly fracture debris at low fluences (F approx 20 Jcm sup - sup 2) and melt droplets at high fluences (F approx 60 Jcm sup - sup 2). In all cases the destruction of the target is a major problem, with the Terfenol-D targets being the worst affected. Thin films produced were all iron rich. The use of an excimer laser has proved more successful in providing stoichiometri...

  19. Deposited sediment settlement and consolidation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai-jie Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study deposited sediment settlement and consolidation mechanisms, sediment settlement experiments were conducted using a settlement column. Based on the experimental results, sediment settlement stage definition, excessive pore pressure (EPP dissipation, and consolidation constitutive equations are discussed. Three stages, including the free settlement, hindered settlement, and self-weight consolidation settlement stages, are defined. The results of this study show that sediment settlement is mainly affected by the initial sediment concentration and initial settlement height, and the interface settlement rate is attenuated linearly with time on bilogarithmic scales during the hindered settlement and self-weight consolidation settlement stages. Moreover, the deposited sediment layer in the self-weight consolidation settlement stage experiences large strains, and the settlement amount in this stage is about 32% to 59% of the initial height of deposited sediment. EPP is nonlinearly distributed in the settlement direction, and consolidation settlement is faster than EPP dissipation in the self-weight consolidation settlement stage. Consolidation constitutive equations for the hydraulic conductivity and effective stress, applicable to large-strain consolidation calculation, were also determined and fitted in the power function form.

  20. Alkylphenols in atmospheric depositions and urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressy, A; Gromaire, M-C; Lorgeoux, C; Chebbo, G

    2011-01-01

    A sampling campaign was conducted in order to determine alkylphenol (AP) concentrations in stormwater as well as potential AP sources in suburban environments. An analytical procedure was developed to quantify APs in bulk atmospheric deposition, building runoff, road runoff and stormwater. Both nonylphenols and octylphenols could be quantified in each sample. Median stormwater concentrations amounted to: 470 ng/l for nonylphenols, and 36 ng/l for octylphenols. These concentrations are 3 times higher than those found in atmospheric deposition, thus proving that local human activity constitutes a significant source of contamination. The contributions of the various sources to stormwater have been assessed from mass balances at the catchment scale. 70% of AP mass in stormwater originates from building and road emissions. Annual AP fluxes have been extrapolated from the total AP mass measured over our sampling periods for atmospheric depositions (44 to 84 µgNP/m(2)/yr) and stormwater (100 to 190 µgNP/m(2)/yr). Moreover, since APs were mainly found in the dissolved fraction, runoff treatment devices based on settling are unlikely to be very efficient. PMID:21330713

  1. Na Deposition on MnO(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xu; Cox, David F.

    2016-03-01

    Na deposition on the MnO(100) surface was investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Na TPD and XPS results indicate that adsorbed Na interacts strongly with the MnO substrate to form an irreversibly-adsorbed, oxidic Na compound on the surface for coverages up to 1 monolayer (ML). This strongly-bound Na diffuses into the MnO subsurface and bulk at elevated temperatures above 500 K. For Na coverages above 1 ML, metallic Na is present and desorbs from the surface below 500 K. The deposition of Na on MnO(100) follows a Stranski-Krastanov (SK) growth mode, with the formation of metallic Na islands following completion of the first Na monolayer. After Na deposition, the surface exhibits a diffuse (1 × 1) LEED pattern, suggesting the formation of disordered Na overlayers. After heating to 1000 K, the surface presents a (2 × 2) LEED pattern indicating that a surface reconstruction is induced by the diffusion of Na into the near surface region. CO2 can be used as a probe molecule in TPD to distinguish between metallic Na islands and oxidic Na in the first ML, and to indicate when Na that is still observable by XPS goes subsurface.

  2. High-deposition-rate ceramics synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, M.D.; Osterheld, T.H.; Outka, D.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Parallel experimental and computational investigations are conducted in this project to develop validated numerical models of ceramic synthesis processes. Experiments are conducted in the High-Temperature Materials Synthesis Laboratory in Sandia`s Combustion Research Facility. A high-temperature flow reactor that can accommodate small preforms (1-3 cm diameter) generates conditions under which deposition can be observed, with flexibility to vary both deposition temperature (up to 1500 K) and pressure (as low as 10 torr). Both mass spectrometric and laser diagnostic probes are available to provide measurements of gas-phase compositions. Experiments using surface analytical techniques are also applied to characterize important processes occuring on the deposit surface. Computational tools developed through extensive research in the combustion field are employed to simulate the chemically reacting flows present in typical industrial reactors. These include the CHEMKIN and Surface-CHEMKIN suites of codes, which permit facile development of complex reaction mechanisms and vastly simplify the implementation of multi-component transport and thermodynamics. Quantum chemistry codes are also used to estimate thermodynamic and kinetic data for species and reactions for which this information is unavailable.

  3. Characterization of radioactive deposits in primary circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduction of the dose rate that results from crud deposits in various systems of nuclear power plants, seems to be one of the most efficient steps to reduce collective operations doses recived by personnel working in these plants. At present, various processes are being applied tending to minimize those phonemena that lead to the generation of these radiation fields. For this reason, a great emphasis is attached to providing a procedure to follow-up the evolution of contamination levels produced in each system, and to asses the effects achieved by aplying corrective measures. At the Santa Maria de Garona nuclear plant, a device has been designed together with a procedure, to allow for gamma spectrometry tests to be performed on lines and other components as well as to quantify the specific activity of each of the isotopes presents in crud deposits. This method has been applied to measure the isotopes deposited in the Reactor Recirculation System lines, resulting that 76,8% of the total dose rate is due to Co''60 and 83.6% comes from both C0''60 and C0''58 put together. Smaller shares are attributable to Mn''54(10,6%), Fe(2,9%), Zn''65(1,4%) and Sb''124(1,4%)

  4. Supersonic Flow Control Using Combined Energy Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Azarova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drag force control via energy deposition in an oncoming flow is a wide area of interest in aerospace sciences. Recently, investigations on the effect of combining energy sources have been conducted. The possibility of coupling microwave (MW discharges or MW and laser energy deposition is discussed. In the present work, the flow details accompanying the interaction of a combined energy release and an aerodynamic body in a supersonic flow are considered numerically on the base of the Euler equations. Comparison with non-combined energy deposition is analyzed. The effect of introducing the internal part to the energy release on the drag force reduction is examined. The flows for blunt cylinder, hemisphere-cylinder and pointed body are considered for a wide class of the combined energy source characteristics. Freestream Mach number is varied from 1.89 to 3.45. Complicated unsteady vortex structures caused by the Richtmyer–Meshkov instabilities are shown to be the reason for the reduction in drag. The unsteady double vortex mechanism of the frontal drag force reduction and mechanism of the constantly acting vortices at the steady flow are described. Suppression of shear layer instability and large scaled flow pulsations as the result of the combined energy release effect is established. Complex conservative difference schemes are used in the simulations.

  5. Source Molecular Effect on Amorphous Carbon Film Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Kawazoe, Hiroki; Inayoshi, Takanori; Shinohara, Masanori; Matsuda, Yoshinobu; Fujiyama, Hiroshi; Nitta, Yuki; Nakatani, Tatsuyuki

    2009-01-01

    We investigated deposition process of amorphous carbon films using acetylene and methane as a source molecule, by using infrared spectroscopy in multiple internal reflection geometry (MIR-IRAS). We found that deposited film structures were different due to source molecules.

  6. Mineral deposits research in Uruguay. Technical economic part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical researches, mineralogical and chemical analysis were carried out in Zapucay and Iman deposit located in Uruguay south America, as a result of that, researchers was described the mineral adherences of the deposits.

  7. Ash Deposition Trials at Three Power Stations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming; Larsen, Ole Hede

    1998-01-01

    Six full-scale trials were conducted at three power stations in Denmark: Ensted, Funen, and Vendsyssel power stations. During these trials, pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash, and deposits from cooled probes were sampled and analyzed with various techniques. On the basis of SEM analyses......, the deposits can be grouped into five textural types, which all possess distinct textural and chemical characteristics. Likewise, the deposition mechanisms for these five types are characteristic and they may be used for constructing a model for the buildup and maturation of an ash deposit. The deposits...... collected on the probes were thin (maximum 2 mm after 9 h) and the influence of operational parameters and probe temperatures on the magnitude of the deposits were minor. The probe temperatures had no influence on the composition of the ash deposits for coals with low ash deposition propensities, whereas...

  8. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Deposition on Model Environmental Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deposition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on model environmental surfaces was investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Deposition behaviors of MWNTs on positively and negatively charged surfaces were in good agreement with Der...

  9. Point locations and characteristics of evaporite-related potash deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial database of evaporite-related potash deposits and occurrences provides location and descriptive information for 981 deposits and occurrences that are...

  10. Influence of deposit architecture on intrastratal deformation, slope deposits of the Tres Pasos Formation, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchter, Neal C.; Romans, Brian W.; Hubbard, Stephen M.

    2016-07-01

    Slope sediments on passive and active margins deform and fail across a broad range of scales ranging from loading and sediment remobilization near the sediment-water interface to submarine landslides and mass movements that incorporate significant volumes of slope deposits. Deformational styles are characterized by updip extension and downdip compressional features that occur above a detachment surface. Conditions for failure and deformation include the presence of weak layer(s) that serve as a detachment surface, competency contrasts that allow for detachment and downslope movement, deformation above a detachment surface, and a triggering mechanism(s) that initiates failure. Slope failure processes and products are well documented at scales resolvable by seismic-reflection surveys and in instances of extensive downslope failure, but the processes and products associated with intermediate-scale slope deformation are poorly understood. Intrastratal deformation is defined as stratigraphically isolated zones of deformation bounded above and below by concordant and undeformed strata. In this study, outcrop examples of intrastratal deformation from the Upper Cretaceous Tres Pasos Formation are used to elucidate the influence of depositional architecture on slope deformation. The facies distribution associated with compensational stacking of lobe deposits is shown to have a first-order control on the location and style of deformation. Detachment planes that form in mudstone deposits associated with lobe fringe and interlobe deposits are spatially limited and deformation is restricted to interbedded sandstone and mudstone associated with off-axial lobe positions. Downslope translation was arrested by stratigraphic buttresses associated with more sandstone-prone axial deposits. Emplacement of a regionally extensive mass transport deposit is interpreted as the triggering mechanism for contemporaneous intrastratal deformation of > 60 m of underlying stratigraphy. A vertical

  11. In Situ Electrochemical Deposition of Microscopic Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minhee; Myung, Nosang; Vasquez, Richard

    2005-01-01

    A method of fabrication of wires having micron and submicron dimensions is built around electrochemical deposition of the wires in their final positions between electrodes in integrated circuits or other devices in which the wires are to be used. Heretofore, nanowires have been fabricated by a variety of techniques characterized by low degrees of controllability and low throughput rates, and it has been necessary to align and electrically connect the wires in their final positions by use of sophisticated equipment in expensive and tedious post-growth assembly processes. The present method is more economical, offers higher yields, enables control of wire widths, and eliminates the need for post-growth assembly. The wires fabricated by this method could be used as simple electrical conductors or as transducers in sensors. Depending upon electrodeposition conditions and the compositions of the electroplating solutions in specific applications, the wires could be made of metals, alloys, metal oxides, semiconductors, or electrically conductive polymers. In this method, one uses fabrication processes that are standard in the semiconductor industry. These include cleaning, dry etching, low-pressure chemical vapor deposition, lithography, dielectric deposition, electron-beam lithography, and metallization processes as well as the electrochemical deposition process used to form the wires. In a typical case of fabrication of a circuit that includes electrodes between which microscopic wires are to be formed on a silicon substrate, the fabrication processes follow a standard sequence until just before the fabrication of the microscopic wires. Then, by use of a thermal SiO-deposition technique, the electrodes and the substrate surface areas in the gaps between them are covered with SiO. Next, the SiO is electron-beam patterned, then reactive-ion etched to form channels having specified widths (typically about 1 m or less) that define the widths of the wires to be formed. Drops

  12. Imbalanced phosphorus and nitrogen deposition in China's forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Enzai; de Vries, Wim; Han, Wenxuan; Liu, Xuejun; Yan, Zhengbing; Jiang, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Acceleration of anthropogenic emissions in China has substantially increased nitrogen (N) deposition during the last 3 decades and may result in an imbalance of atmospheric N and phosphorus (P) inputs in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the status of P deposition in China is poorly understood. This study synthesized data on total P and total N concentrations in bulk precipitation and throughfall from published literature to assess the characteristics of P deposition, N deposition and N : P deposition ratio in China's forests. Our results show relatively high mean rates of bulk P deposition (0.38 kg P ha-1 yr-1) and total P deposition (0.69 kg P ha-1 yr-1), but they were accompanied by even more elevated N inputs via bulk deposition (16.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and total deposition (21.6 kg N ha-1 yr-1), resulting in high N : P ratios in bulk deposition (44.4) and total deposition (32.8). Based on the difference between total deposition and bulk deposition, canopy-captured dry P and N deposition was estimated to be 0.31 kg P ha-1 yr-1 and 5.1 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. We found significantly higher P deposition and lower N : P ratios at sites nearby than those far from semiarid regions. The estimated bulk and total deposition of P and N both showed a significant power-law increase with decreasing distance to the nearest large cities either in the areas nearby or far from semiarid regions. Our results suggest an anthropogenic alternation of regional P and N cycling, which may shift large areas of China's forests towards human-induced P limitation especially in southern China.

  13. Deposition of Aluminium Oxide Films by Pulsed Reactive Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhui MAO; Bingchu CAI; Maosong WU; Guoping CHEN

    2003-01-01

    Pulsed reactive sputtering is a novel process used to deposit some compound films, which are not deposited by traditional D.C. reactive sputtering easily. In this paper some experimental results about the deposition of Al oxide films by pulsed reactive sputtering are presented. The hysteresis phenomenon of the sputtering voltage and deposition rate with the change of oxygen flow during sputtering process are discussed.

  14. Imparting passivity to vapor deposited magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Ryan C.

    Magnesium has the lowest density of all structural metals. Utilization of low density materials is advantageous from a design standpoint, because lower weight translates into improved performance of engineered products (i.e., notebook computers are more portable, vehicles achieve better gas mileage, and aircraft can carry more payload). Despite their low density and high strength to weight ratio, however, the widespread implementation of magnesium alloys is currently hindered by their relatively poor corrosion resistance. The objective of this research dissertation is to develop a scientific basis for the creation of a corrosion resistant magnesium alloy. The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is affected by several interrelated factors. Among these are alloying, microstructure, impurities, galvanic corrosion effects, and service conditions, among others. Alloying and modification of the microstructure are primary approaches to controlling corrosion. Furthermore, nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium via physical vapor deposition allows for the formation of single-phase magnesium alloys with supersaturated concentrations of passivity-enhancing elements. The microstructure and surface morphology is also modifiable during physical vapor deposition through the variation of evaporation power, pressure, temperature, ion bombardment, and the source-to-substrate distance. Aluminum, titanium, yttrium, and zirconium were initially chosen as candidates likely to impart passivity on vapor deposited magnesium alloys. Prior to this research, alloys of this type have never before been produced, much less studied. All of these metals were observed to afford some degree of corrosion resistance to magnesium. Due to the especially promising results from nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium with yttrium and titanium, the ternary magnesium-yttrium-titanium system was investigated in depth. While all of the alloys are lustrous, surface morphology is observed under the scanning

  15. Simulated dry deposition of nitric acid near forest edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeJong, JJM; Klaassen, W; Jong, J.J.M. de

    1997-01-01

    Dry deposition is simulated to understand and generalize observations of enhanced deposition of air pollution near forest edges. Nitric acid is taken as an example as its deposition velocity is often assumed to be determined by turbulent transport only. The simulations are based on the micro-meteoro

  16. Acid deposition and its implications for nature conservation in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, G.L.A.; Cooke, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    A general consideration of acid deposition is given, in terms of the origins and fate of acid deposition and its effects on terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. Acid deposition in wetland sites in Britain is discussed, and conclusions are drawn for nature conservation in Britain. (177 refs.)

  17. Human respiratory deposition of particles during oronasal breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, David L.; Proctor, Donald F.

    Deposition of particles in the tracheobronchial and pulmonary airways is computed as a function of particle size, correcting for deposition in the parallel nasal and oral airways with oronasal breathing. Thoracic deposition is lower at all sizes for oronasal breathing than for mouth breathing via tube, and is negligible for aerodynamic equivalent diameters of 10 μm or larger.

  18. Grade-Tonnage Model of Porphyry Copper Deposits of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xueping; Wei Min; Yang Lipei; Zhao Jingman

    2003-01-01

    A grade-tonnage model is established according to the analysis of 72 porphyry copper deposits recorded in "The Mineral Resources Data Base of China". Based on the analysis of frequency histogram, the cumulative frequency distributing graph and the theoretical model with double logarithmic coordinates of copper deposits, the typical mathematical characteristics of grade-tonnage model of porphyry copper deposits are clarified.

  19. Particle deposition in low-speed, high-turbulence flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Mads; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Ullum, U.

    2002-01-01

    field measurements. Particle deposition is shown to be associated with near-wall coherent structures. Flow reversal, simulated by impulsive start, is shown to give higher deposition rates than steady mean flows. Key word index: Spoilage fungi; spores; food processing plant; deposition flux; large eddy...

  20. Resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition of thin biodegradable polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubb, D.M.; Toftmann, B.; Haglund Jr., R.F.;

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of the biodegradable polymer poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) were deposited using resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition (RIR-PLD). The output of a free-electron laser was focused onto a solid target of the polymer, and the films were deposited using 2.90 (resonant with O...

  1. 24 CFR 291.535 - Earnest money deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnest money deposit. 291.535... Next Door Sales Program § 291.535 Earnest money deposit. (a) General. The earnest money deposit is the sum of money that must be paid by the law enforcement officer, teacher, or...

  2. Nickel-cobalt laterites: a deposit model: Chapter H in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Erin; Anderson, Eric J.; Gray, Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) laterite deposits are supergene enrichments of Ni±Co that form from intense chemical and mechanical weathering of ultramafic parent rocks. These regolith deposits typically form within 26 degrees of the equator, although there are a few exceptions. They form in active continental margins and stable cratonic settings. It takes as little as one million years for a laterite profile to develop. Three subtypes of Ni-Co laterite deposits are classified according to the dominant Ni-bearing mineralogy, which include hydrous magnesium (Mg)-silicate, smectite, and oxide. These minerals form in weathering horizons that begin with the unweathered protolith at the base, saprolite next, a smectite transition zone only in profiles where drainage is very poor, followed by limonite, and then capped with ferricrete at the top. The saprolite contains Ni-rich hydrous Mg-silicates, the Ni-rich clays occur in the transition horizon, and Ni-rich goethite occurs in the limonite. Although these subtypes of deposits are the more widely used terms for classification of Ni-Co laterite deposits, most deposits have economic concentrations of Ni in more than one horizon. Because of their complex mineralogy and heterogeneous concentrations, mining of these metallurgically complex deposits can be challenging. Deposits range in size from 2.5 to about 400 million tonnes, with Ni and Co grades of 0.66–2.4 percent (median 1.3) and 0.01–0.15 percent (median 0.08), respectively. Modern techniques of ore delineation and mineralogical identification are being developed to aid in streamlining the Ni-Co laterite mining process, and low-temperature and low-pressure ore processing techniques are being tested that will treat the entire weathered profile. There is evidence that the production of Ni and Co from laterites is more energy intensive than that of sulfide ores, reflecting the environmental impact of producing a Ni-Co laterite deposit. Tailings may include high levels of

  3. Prediction of wall deposition behaviour in a pilot-scale spray dryer using deposition correlations for pipe flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOTA K.; LANGRISH T.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The particle deposition behaviour of skim milk, water and maltodextrin in the conical section of a pilot-scale spray dryer was predicted using simple correlations for particle depositions in pipes. The predicted particle deposition fluxes of these materials were then compared with the measured deposition fluxes. The predicted particle deposition regimes of the spray dryer were expected to be in the diffusional and mixed (diffusional and inertial) regimes, but the experimental results suggested that the particle deposition was mainly in the inertial regime. Therefore, using the pipe correlations for predicting deposition in a pilot-scale spray dryer suggests that they do not sufficiently represent the actual deposition behaviour. This outcome indicates that a further study of particle flow patterns needs to be carried out using numerical simulations (computational fluid dynamics,CFD) in view of the additional geometrical complexity of the spray dryer.

  4. In-situ CdS/CdTe Heterojuntions Deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Avila-Avendano, Jesus

    2016-04-09

    In this paper pulsed laser deposition (PLD) methods are used to study p-n CdTe/CdS heterojunctions fabricated in-situ. In-situ film deposition allows higher quality p-n interfaces by minimizing spurious contamination from the atmosphere. Morphologic and structural analyses were carried for CdTe films deposited on various substrates and different deposition conditions. The electrical characteristics and performance of the resulting p-n heterojunctions were studied as function of substrate and post-deposition anneal temperature. In-situ growth results on diodes with a rectification factor of ~ 105, an ideality factor < 2, and a reverse saturation current ~ 10-8 A. The carrier concentration in the CdTe film was in the range of ~ 1015 cm-3, as measured by C-V methods. The possible impact of sulfur diffusion from the CdS into the CdTe film is also investigated using High Resolution Rutherford Back-Scattering.

  5. Experimental study of porosity reduction in high deposition-rate Laser Material Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chongliang; Gasser, Andres; Schopphoven, Thomas; Poprawe, Reinhart

    2015-12-01

    For several years, the interest in Additive Manufacturing (AM) is continuously expanding, owing to the paradigm shift that new production processes, such as Laser Material Deposition (LMD), provide over conventional manufacturing technologies. With LMD, three-dimensional, complex components out of a wide range of materials can be manufactured consecutively layer-by-layer. Despite the technological advantages of the LMD process, currently achieved deposition-rates of approx. 0.5 kg/h for Inconel 718 (IN 718) remain a major concern in regards to processing times and economic feasibility. Moreover, processing conditions need to be chosen carefully or else material defects can be systematically formed either at the interface separating two adjacent clad layers, at the bonding zone or within the bulk of the layer. In this respect, the effects of powder humidity, laser power, nominal powder particle size, powder morphology and shielding gas flow rate on the porosity in laser deposited single tracks at an increased deposition-rate of approx. 2 kg/h was investigated through experiments. Based on experimental results, several approaches of reducing porosity in high deposition-rate LMD are proposed in this paper.

  6. A new pulsed laser deposition technique: scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D; de la Fuente, G F; Jansen, M

    2012-04-01

    The scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method realizes uniform depositions of desired coatings by a modified pulsed laser deposition process, preferably with a femto-second laser-system. Multi-component coatings (single or multilayered) are thus deposited onto substrates via laser induced ablation of segmented targets. This is achieved via horizontal line-scanning of a focused laser beam over a uniformly moving target's surface. This process allows to deposit the desired composition of the coating simultaneously, starting from the different segments of the target and adjusting the scan line as a function of target geometry. The sequence and thickness of multilayers can easily be adjusted by target architecture and motion, enabling inter/intra layer concentration gradients and thus functional gradient coatings. This new, simple PLD method enables the achievement of uniform, large-area coatings. Case studies were performed with segmented targets containing aluminum, titanium, and niobium. Under the laser irradiation conditions applied, all three metals were uniformly ablated. The elemental composition within the rough coatings obtained was fixed by the scanned area to Ti-Al-Nb = 1:1:1. Crystalline aluminum, titanium, and niobium were found to coexist side by side at room temperature within the substrate, without alloy formation up to 600 °C. PMID:22559543

  7. Characterisation of TiO 2 deposited by photo-induced chemical vapour deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliwoh, Never; Zhang, Jun-Ying; Boyd, Ian W.

    2002-01-01

    We report the deposition of thin TiO 2 films on crystalline Si and quartz by photo-induced chemical vapour deposition (CVD) using UV excimer lamps employing a dielectric barrier discharge in krypton chloride (KrCl ∗) to provide intense narrow band radiation at λ=222 nm. The precursor used was titanium isopropoxide (TTIP). Films from around 20-510 nm in thickness with refractive indices from 2.20 to 2.54 were grown at temperatures between 50 and 350 °C. The higher refractive index values compare favourably with the value of 2.58 recorded for the bulk material. The measured deposition rate was around 50 nm/min at 350 °C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the presence of TiO 2 through the observation of a Ti-O absorption peak and the absence of OH in films deposited at 250-350 °C indicated relatively good quality films. The phase of films deposited at 200-350 °C was anatase as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  8. Effects of Ar plasma treatment for deposition of ruthenium film by remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruthenium thin films were deposited on argon plasma-treated SiO2 and untreated SiO2 substrates by remote plasma atomic layer deposition using bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium [Ru(EtCp)2] as a Ru precursor and ammonia plasma as a reactant. The results of in situ Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis indicate that the initial transient region of Ru deposition was decreased by Ar plasma treatment at 400 deg. C, but did not change significantly at 300 deg. C The deposition rate exhibited linearity after continuous film formation and the deposition rates were about 1.7 A/cycle and 0.4 A/cycle at 400 deg. C and 300 deg. C, respectively. Changes of surface energy and polar and dispersive components were measured by the sessile drop test. The quantity of surface amine groups was measured from the surface nitrogen concentration with AES. Furthermore, the Ar plasma-treated SiO2 contained more amine groups and less hydroxyl groups on the surface than on untreated SiO2. Auger spectra exhibited chemical shifts by Ru-O bonding, and larger shifts were observed on untreated substrates due to the strong adhesion of Ru films.

  9. Selective deposition contact patterning using atomic layer deposition for the fabrication of crystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective deposition contact (SDC) patterning was applied to fabricate the rear side passivation of crystalline silicon (Si) solar cells. By this method, using screen printing for contact patterning and atomic layer deposition for the passivation of Si solar cells with Al2O3, we produced local contacts without photolithography or any laser-based processes. Passivated emitter and rear-contact solar cells passivated with ozone-based Al2O3 showed, for the SDC process, an up-to-0.7% absolute conversion-efficiency improvement. The results of this experiment indicate that the proposed method is feasible for conversion-efficiency improvement of industrial crystalline Si solar cells. - Highlights: • We propose a local contact formation process. • Local contact forms a screen print and an atomic layer deposited-Al2O3 film. • Ozone-based Al2O3 thin film was selectively deposited onto patterned silicon. • Selective deposition contact patterning method can increase cell-efficiency by 0.7%

  10. Estimated variability of National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network measurements using collocated samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, G.A.; Gay, D.A.; Brunette, R.C.; Sweet, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) provides long-term, quality-assured records of mercury in wet deposition in the USA and Canada. Interpretation of spatial and temporal trends in the MDN data requires quantification of the variability of the MDN measurements. Variability is quantified for MDN data from collocated samplers at MDN sites in two states, one in Illinois and one in Washington. Median absolute differences in the collocated sampler data for total mercury concentration are approximately 11% of the median mercury concentration for all valid 1999-2004 MDN data. Median absolute differences are between 3.0% and 14% of the median MDN value for collector catch (sample volume) and between 6.0% and 15% of the median MDN value for mercury wet deposition. The overall measurement errors are sufficiently low to resolve between NADP/MDN measurements by ??2 ng??l-1 and ??2 ????m-2?? year-1, which are the contour intervals used to display the data on NADP isopleths maps for concentration and deposition, respectively. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  11. Atmospheric Sulfur Deposition on Farmland in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ti-Jian; YANG Hao-Ming; GAO Li-Jie; ZHANG Yan; HU Zheng-Yi; XU Cheng-Kai

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric sulfur deposition onto typical farmland in East China was investigated using both field measurements and numerical modeling. The field measurements were conducted at the Experiment Station of Red Soil Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 10 km from Yingtan, Jiangxi Province, East China, between November 1998 and October 1999, and at the Changshu Ecological Experiment Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, in a rapidly developing region of Jiangsu Province, East China, between April 2001 and March 2002. The regional acid deposition model system (RegADMS), in which the dry deposition velocities of SO2 and sulfate aerosols (SO42-) were estimated using a big-leaf resistance analogy model, was applied to simulate air sulfur deposition over East China and sulfur deposition onto lands of different use types in East China. The wet scavenging coefficients were parameterized in terms of precipitation rate, and the effect of sub-grid processes due to inhomogeneous land use on dry deposition velocity was also included. Results of the field measurements showed that over 83% of the total sulfur deposition at the Yingtan site was dry deposition, while at the Changshu site42% was dry deposition. The total sulfur deposition was much larger at the Yingtan site than at the Changshu site, which suggested contrasting air pollution and meteorological situations. The modeling results revealed that the total annual sulfur deposition over East China was 1.88 Mt, of which 72.8% was deposited onto farmland, and dry deposition accounted for 43% of the total sulfur deposited. The modeling results were generally in agreement with those from the observations.Overall, this study suggested that atmospheric sulfur deposition played an important role in the soil sulfur balance, which could have a significant effect on agricultural ecosystems in the study region.

  12. The power source effect on SiOx coating deposition by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SiOx coatings were prepared by capacitively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on polyethyleneterephtalate substrates in 23 kHz middle-frequency and radio frequency power supplies, respectively, where hexamethyldisiloxane was used as gas source. The influences of discharge conditions on gas phase intermediate species and active radicals for SiOx formation was investigated by mass spectrometry as real-time in-situ diagnosis. The deposited SiOx coating chemical structures were also analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Meanwhile, the film barrier property, oxygen transmission rate, was measured at 23 oC and 50% humidity circumstance. The better barrier property was obtained in the MF power source depositing SiOx coated PET.

  13. Gas permeation barriers deposited by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin film gas permeation barriers fabricated by atmospheric pressure atomic layer deposition (APPALD) using trimethylaluminum and an Ar/O2 plasma at moderate temperatures of 80 °C in a flow reactor. The authors demonstrate the ALD growth characteristics of Al2O3 films on silicon and indium tin oxide coated polyethylene terephthalate. The properties of the APPALD-grown layers (refractive index, density, etc.) are compared to that deposited by conventional thermal ALD at low pressures. The films films deposited at atmospheric pressure show water vapor transmission rates as low as 5 × 10−5 gm−2d−1

  14. Characterization of nanocarbon deposited on insulator substrate by alcohol chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Marina; Murata, Hidenobu; Tachibana, Masaru

    2016-10-01

    Single-layer-graphene-like nanocarbon materials were directly deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates by thermal chemical vapor deposition with ethanol as a carbon source. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that the deposited materials have sheetlike grains of around 100 nm diameter. Most of them have “hills” with 32 nm diameter on the grains. According to atomic force microscopy (AFM) observation, the height of the sheetlike grains is below 1 nm, which is comparable to that of single-layer graphene, while the hills have a height of several nm. Raman spectra show that the material is similar to graphitic nanocarbon, which has a strong D band. This result implies that there are a number of defects in the nanocarbon materials.

  15. Similarities and Differences between the Sandstone-Hosted Jinding Zn-Pb Deposit and MVT Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, G.; Xue, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Jinding Zn-Pb deposit (Lanping basin, Yunnan, China) is the largest sandstone-hosted Zn-Pb deposit in the world, having a total reserve of approximately 220 Mt of ore grading 6.1% Zn and 1.3 Pb%. The sedimentary rocks in the Lanping basin were formed in continental environments and were subject to strong deformation during the Himalayan orogeny. The orebodies are hosted in Cretaceous and Paleocene sandstones and pebbly sandstones which formed a structural dome (the Jinding dome) near a regional, high- angle normal fault (the Pijiang fault). The ores can be divided into two types, the sandstone-type and breccia- type. The former consists of fine-grained sphalerite-galena-pyrite-marcasite disseminations in sandstones, and the latter includes sphalerite-galena-pyrite-marcasite disseminations in the matrix and celestite-pyrite- marcasite-sphalerite-galena-calcite filling fractures and cavities. Colloform textures are common in the breccia-type ores, which are associated with sand veins or dykes cemented by sulfides. Breccia-type ores commonly contain solid bitumen, and freshly opened sandstone-type ores have an oily smell. Oil inclusions are common in both types of ores. CO2-CH4-light hydrocarbon inclusions were found in celestite, sphalerite, authigenic quartz, and calcite. Homogenization temperatures of aqueous inclusions range from about 60 to 300 degree C, and salinities range from 1 to 25 wt.% NaCl equivalent. There is a trend of decreasing temperature and increasing salinities away from the Pijiang fault. Delta 34S (CDT) of sulfides range from -32 to 0 per mil. Noble gas isotopes of fluid inclusions and Pb isotopes of sulfides indicate both mantle and crustal sources. It is proposed that the mineralization resulted from mixing between a high-temperature, low-salinity, deep-seated fluid and a relatively high-salinity, low-temperature, basinal fluid. The former ascended along the Pijiang fault and spread westward, and the latter migrated before and during

  16. ZnS thin film deposited with chemical bath deposition process directed by different stirring speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this combined film thickness, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and optical properties study, we explore the effects of different stirring speeds on the growth and optical properties of ZnS film deposited by CBD method. From the disclosed changes of thickness of ZnS film, we conclude that film thickness is independent of the stirring speeds in the heterogeneous process (deposition time less than 40 min), but increases with the stirring speeds and/or deposition time increasing in the homogeneous process. Grazing incident X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and the study of optical properties disclosed that the ZnS films grown with different stirring speeds show partially crystallized film and exhibit good transmittance (70-88% in the visible region), but the stirring speeds cannot give much effects on the structure and optical properties in the homogeneous process.

  17. Deposition and characterization of Ru thin films prepared by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, S Y; Lee, S K; Hwang, C S; Kim, H J

    2000-01-01

    Ru thin films were deposited at 300 approx 400 .deg. C by using Ru(C sub 5 H sub 4 C sub 2 H sub 5) sub 2 (Ru(EtCp) sub 2) as a precursor and low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The addition of O sub 2 gas was essential to form Ru thin films. The deposition rates of the films were about 200 A/min. For low oxygen addition and high substrate temperature, RuO sub 2 phases were formed. Also, thermodynamic calculations showed that all the supplied oxygen was consumed to oxidize carbon and hydrogen, cracked from the precursor ligand, rather than Ru. Thus, metal films could be obtained There was an optimum oxygen to precursor ratio at which the pure Ru phase could be obtained with minimum generation of carbon and RuO sub 2

  18. Hardness and stress of amorphous carbon film deposited by glow discharge and ion beam assisting deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, F C

    2000-01-01

    The hardness and stress of amorphous carbon films prepared by glow discharge and by ion beam assisting deposition are investigated. Relatively hard and almost stress free amorphous carbon films were deposited by the glow discharge technique. On the other hand, by using the ion beam assisting deposition, hard films were also obtained with a stress of the same order of those found in tetrahedral amorphous carbon films. A structural analysis indicates that all films are composed of a sp sup 2 -rich network. These results contradict the currently accepted concept that both stress and hardness are only related to the concentration of sp sup 3 sites. Furthermore, the same results also indicate that the sp sup 2 sites may also contribute to the hardness of the films.

  19. Gas permeation barriers deposited by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Lukas, E-mail: lhoffmann@uni-wuppertal.de; Theirich, Detlef; Hasselmann, Tim; Räupke, André; Schlamm, Daniel; Riedl, Thomas, E-mail: t.riedl@uni-wuppertal.de [Institute of Electronic Devices, University of Wuppertal, Rainer-Gruenter-Str. 21, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    This paper reports on aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin film gas permeation barriers fabricated by atmospheric pressure atomic layer deposition (APPALD) using trimethylaluminum and an Ar/O{sub 2} plasma at moderate temperatures of 80 °C in a flow reactor. The authors demonstrate the ALD growth characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on silicon and indium tin oxide coated polyethylene terephthalate. The properties of the APPALD-grown layers (refractive index, density, etc.) are compared to that deposited by conventional thermal ALD at low pressures. The films films deposited at atmospheric pressure show water vapor transmission rates as low as 5 × 10{sup −5} gm{sup −2}d{sup −1}.

  20. MEAD Marine Effects of Atmospheric Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jickells, T.; Spokes, L.

    2003-04-01

    The coastal seas are one of the most valuable resources on the planet but they are threatened by human activity. We rely on the coastal area for mineral resources, waste disposal, fisheries and recreation. In Europe, high population densities and high levels of industrial activity mean that the pressures arising from these activities are particularly acute. One of the main problems concerning coastal seas is the rapid increase in the amounts of nitrogen-based pollutants entering the water. They come from many sources, the most important ones being traffic, industry and agriculture. These pollutants can be used by algae as nutrients. The increasing concentrations of these nutrients have led to excessive growth of algae, some of which are harmful. When algae die and decay, oxygen in the water is used up and the resulting lower levels of oxygen may lead to fish kills. Human activity has probably doubled the amount of chemically and biologically reactive nitrogen present globally. In Europe the increases have been greater than this, leading to real concern over the health of coastal waters. Rivers have, until recently, been thought to be the most important source of reactive nitrogen to the coastal seas but we now know that inputs from the atmosphere are large and can equal, or exceed, those from the rivers. Our initial hypothesis was that atmospheric inputs are important and potentially different in their effect on coastal ecosystems to riverine inputs and hence require different management strategies. However, we had almost no information on the direct effects of atmospheric deposition on marine ecosystems, though clearly such a large external nitrogen input should lead to enhanced phytoplankton growth The aim of this European Union funded MEAD project has been to determine how inputs of nitrogen from the atmosphere affect the chemistry and biology of coastal waters. To try to answer this, we have conducted field experiments in the Kattegat, an area where we know

  1. Ecological effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on soil enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cong-yan; Lv Yan-na; LIU Xue-yan Liu; WANG Lei

    2013-01-01

    The continuing increase in human activities is causing global changes such as increased deposition of atmospheric nitrogen.There is considerable interest in understanding the effects of increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition on soil enzyme activities,specifically in terms of global nitrogen cycling and its potential future contribution to global climate change.This paper summarizes the ecological effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on soil enzyme activities,including size-effects,stage-effects,site-effects,and the effects of different levels and forms of atmospheric nitrogen deposition.We discuss needs for further research on the relationship between atmospheric nitrogen deposition and soil enzymes.

  2. Thallium in Low Temperature Ore Deposits,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠; 张宝跺

    1996-01-01

    is paper deals with thallium in typical low-temperature deposits of Au,Tl,As,Sb and Hg in South China with respect to its mode of occurrence,minerals and geochemical correlations with many other coexisting major and trace elements,Criteria are proposed for identifying independent thallium deposits and thallium-bearing deposits and the Nanhnu realgar deposit is classified for the first time as an independent thallium deposit,Tl,F.Cl.I and B are suggested as indicators for low-temperature mineralization with examples furnished for their applications.

  3. Deposit Insurance and Bank Liquidity: Does Ownership Structure Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Trinugroho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine how the level deposit insurance coverage affects bank liquidity. We also test the role of ownership in the relationship between deposit insurance coverage and bank liquidity. This study uses quarterly data of Indonesian banks from Q1:2002 - Q2:2008. We argue that the presence of explicit deposit insurance changes a bank‘s behavior in liquidity management in the form of decreasing asset liquidity. We find some evidence on the negative impact of deposit insurance coverage on bank liquidity. However, little is found on the role of ownership structure. The credibility of deposit insurance system and implicit guarantee are the main policy implications.

  4. Cigar Lake, an original method for an exceptional deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1976, the discovery of the high grade Deposit at Cluff Lake in the north of the province of Saskatchewan (Canada) opened new prospects in uranium deposits, which in turn quickly led to the discovery of exceptional deposits both in terms of grade (up 10 % in metal uranium) and tonnage (150, 000 tons of metal per deposit and more). Among these deposits are Key Lake, Cigar Lake, Midwest, MacClean, and more recently, Mac Arthur. These discoveries as well as future ones make the north of Saskatchewan the world's greatest and most interesting uranium-producing province. (authors)

  5. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, Aa. (ed.)

    1994-03-01

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored by the moss technique. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicat the location of important heavy metal pollution sources. Samples of mainly the moss species Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens and Hypnum cupresiforme were collected during the summertime 1990. The total concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, nickel, vanadium and zinc were determined and the results presented in the form of coloured contour maps of Europe. In the Nordic countries and adjacent areas the regional deposition pattern of all the metals shows a decreasing gradient from relatively high values in the southern parts of Scandinavia to low values towards the North. A significant decreas. in the concentrations of most elements was found in this area during the last 10-20 years. Important local enhancements of the concentrations in moss were found superimposed on the regional background pattern, especially at the great smelting combinates in Nikel, Zapolyarnyj and Monchegorsk in Russia in the western part of the Kola Peninsula. Higher levels of metals are found at Mazeikiai (oil refinery) in Lithuania, close to Liepaja (steel mill) and Riga in Latvia and in the industrial north-eastern area of Estonia and adjacent area of Russia. Higher levels of metals were found in the metropolitan area of St. Petersburg. In Central Europe, Poland, and the Czech Republic have numerous sources of air pollution, as well as area in Germany. The Netherlands is particularly affected by pollution from Belgium and western Germany. The Environmental Monitoring and Data Group in the Nordic Countries would like the next survey of heavy metals, including mercury, in moss to take place in 1995. (EG) (45 refs.)

  6. Ash deposition impacts in the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been great strides in understanding the fundamental underpinnings of the slagging and fouling phenomena. Unfortunately as fuel quality changes due to coal pricing, mine closures, government regulations, market forces, etc., boilers and boiler operators continue to be plagued by poorer operating performance than desired. While improvements have been made, the need to address fundamental coal quality issues and how they affect deposition, emissions, handling, and combustion continues to be relevant. This paper presents the results of a study to assess how prevalent coal quality issues are to the power generation industry. A survey of selected EPRI members was made to determine the major areas where coal quality effects power generation and a reliability and availability assessment of the NERC GADS database for the years 1995 to 2004 was completed. This database was used to determine the lost generation through either forced outages, forced derates or planned outages and derates due to coal quality or slagging and fouling issues. The results clearly demonstrated that slagging, fouling, corrosion and fuel blending continue to be the leading coal quality concerns of utility personnel. Ash chemistry resulting from fuel blending and new coals being utilized continue to be the main area for needed utility support. A minimum estimated annual economic impact of over $1.2 billion was calculated for all coal- and lignite-fired boilers in the US based on coal quality and deposition occurrences. While this annual economic loss is huge, these outages and derates account for only about 1.6% of the total number of outages and derate occurrences and 2.5% of the total lost MW-hour generation. An annual evaluation of the coal quality and deposition-based outages and derates did not show a clear trend. In fact, the coal quality-based outages and derates generally increased over the ten-year period. (author)

  7. Bulk sulfur (S) deposition in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Shanqian; Zhang, Wuting; Lu, Xuehe

    2016-06-01

    A systematic dataset of an observation network on a national scale has been organized to investigate the spatial distribution of bulk sulfur (S) deposition (Sdep) throughout China during 2000-2013, representing by far the most detailed data set to track the bulk sulfur deposition throughout China since 2000. Such a dataset is needed for ecosystem studies and for developing emission control policies. Bulk Sdep values showed great variations, ranging from 2.17 to 70.55 kg ha-1 y-1, with an average of 22.99 kg ha-1 y-1. The average rate of bulk Sdep located in East Coastal region (35.97 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yangtze region (57.90 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yellow River region (23.42 kg ha-1 y-1), North Coastal region (42.19 kg ha-1 y-1), Northeast region (34.28 kg ha-1 y-1), South Coastal region (36.97 kg S ha-1 y-1), Southwest region (33.85 kg ha-1 y-1) was 4.50, 7.24, 2.93, 5.28, 4.29, 4.63 and 4.24 times than that in Northwest region (7.99 kg ha-1 y-1). Bulk Sdep over China was mainly from fossil fuel combustion (76.96%), biomass burning (7.64%), crust (6.22%), aged sea salt (5.48%) and agriculture (3.68%). A systematic observation network on a national scale should be established to conduct a long-term monitoring atmospheric Sdep (including wet and dry deposition), based on exiting ecological stations administrated by different departments in China.

  8. Quality study of a fedspar deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taboada, J.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a pegmatite mineral deposit composed by some veins of a length between 50 and 800 meters and a width of almost 15 meters. With the purpose to evaluate the potential exploitation, we have characterized the quality of the selling product, through a sampling procedure, granulometric classification, magnetic separation, flotation process and mineralogical analysis. In order to establish the more able flotation process, we have tested different methods, that we also include here. Later on, and with the finality to establish the selling feldspar percentage in the deposit, we realized a geostatic study in order to identify, not only the different qualities but also its distribution in the deposit.

    Este trabajo describe un yacimiento de pegmatita compuesto por varios filones, que varían entre 50 y 800 metros de longitud y casi 15 metros de ancho. Con el fin de evaluar el potencial de explotación, se caracteriza la calidad del producto vendible. Esto se lleva a cabo mediante un procedimiento de muestreo, clasificación granulométrica, separación magnética, proceso de flotación y análisis mineralógico. Para establecer el proceso de flotación más eficaz, se ha experimentado con varios procedimientos, cuya breve descripción se incluye. Posteriormente, y con el fin de establecer el porcentaje de feldespato vendible en el yacimiento, se realizó un estudio geoestadístico para identificar tanto las categorías de calidad como su distribución en el yacimiento.

  9. Comparison of lanthanum substituted bismuth titanate (BLT) thin films deposited by sputtering and pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besland, M.P. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, B.P. 32229, 44322, Nantes cedex 3 (France)]. E-mail: Marie-Paule.Besland@cnrs-imn.fr; Djani-ait Aissa, H. [Division milieux Ionises et lasers, Centre de Developpement des Technologies Avancees CDTA, Baba Hassen Alger, Algerie (Algeria); Barroy, P.R.J. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, B.P. 32229, 44322, Nantes cedex 3 (France); Lafane, S. [Division milieux Ionises et lasers, Centre de Developpement des Technologies Avancees CDTA, Baba Hassen Alger, Algerie (Algeria); Tessier, P.Y. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, B.P. 32229, 44322, Nantes cedex 3 (France); Angleraud, B. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, B.P. 32229, 44322, Nantes cedex 3 (France); Richard-Plouet, M. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, B.P. 32229, 44322, Nantes cedex 3 (France); Brohan, L. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, B.P. 32229, 44322, Nantes cedex 3 (France); Djouadi, M.A. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, B.P. 32229, 44322, Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2006-01-20

    Bi{sub 4-x}La {sub x}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BLT {sub x}) (x = 0 to 1) thin films were grown on silicon (100) and platinized substrates Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si using RF diode sputtering, magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Stoichiometric home-synthesized targets were used. Reactive sputtering was investigated in argon/oxygen gas mixture, with a pressure ranging from 0.33 to 10 Pa without heating the substrate. PLD was investigated in pure oxygen, at a chamber pressure of 20 Pa for a substrate temperature of 400-440 deg. C. Comparative structural, chemical, optical and morphological characterizations of BLT thin films have been performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Spectro-ellipsometric measurements (SE) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Both sputtering techniques allow to obtain uniform films with thickness ranging from 200 to 1000 nm and chemical composition varying from (Bi,La){sub 2} Ti{sub 3} O{sub 12} to (Bi,La){sub 4.5}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}, depending on deposition pressure and RF power. In addition, BLT films deposited by magnetron sputtering, at a pressure deposition ranging from 1.1 to 5 Pa, were well-crystallized after a post-deposition annealing at 650 deg. C in oxygen. They exhibit a refractive index and optical band gap of 2.7 and 3.15 eV, respectively. Regarding PLD, single phase and well-crystallized, 100-200 nm thick BLT films with a stoichiometric (Bi,La){sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} chemical composition were obtained, exhibiting in addition a preferential orientation along (200). It is worth noting that BLT films deposited by magnetron sputtering are as well-crystallized than PLD ones.

  10. Characterization of titanium oxynitride films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using amide Ti precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Xuemei; Gopireddy, Deepthi [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Takoudis, Christos G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)], E-mail: takoudis@uic.edu

    2008-07-31

    In this study, we investigate the use of an amide-based Ti-containing precursor, namely tetrakis(diethylamido)titanium (TDEAT), for TiN{sub x}O{sub y} film deposition at low temperature. Traditionally, alkoxide-based Ti-containing precursor, such as titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP), along with NH{sub 3} is used for titanium oxynitride (TiN{sub x}O{sub y}) film deposition. When TTIP is used, at low temperatures it is difficult to form TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films with high N/O ratios. In this study, by using TDEAT, TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films are deposited on H-passivated Si (100) substrates in a cold wall reactor at 300 {sup o}C and 106 Pa. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy analysis shows nitrogen incorporation in the TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films to be as high as 28 at.%. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of as-deposited films confirms the formation of{sub .} TiN{sub x}O{sub y}, while Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra indicate that the films have amorphous structure. Moreover, there is no detectable bulk carbon impurity and no SiO{sub 2} formation at the TiN{sub x}O{sub y}/Si interface. Upon annealing the as-deposited films in air at 750 deg. C for 30 min, they oxidize to TiO{sub 2} and crystallize to form a rutile structure with a small amount of anatase phase. Based on these results, TDEAT appears to be a promising precursor for both TiN{sub x}O{sub y} and TiO{sub 2} film deposition.

  11. Comparison of lanthanum substituted bismuth titanate (BLT) thin films deposited by sputtering and pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi4-xLa xTi3O12 (BLT x) (x = 0 to 1) thin films were grown on silicon (100) and platinized substrates Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si using RF diode sputtering, magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Stoichiometric home-synthesized targets were used. Reactive sputtering was investigated in argon/oxygen gas mixture, with a pressure ranging from 0.33 to 10 Pa without heating the substrate. PLD was investigated in pure oxygen, at a chamber pressure of 20 Pa for a substrate temperature of 400-440 deg. C. Comparative structural, chemical, optical and morphological characterizations of BLT thin films have been performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Spectro-ellipsometric measurements (SE) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Both sputtering techniques allow to obtain uniform films with thickness ranging from 200 to 1000 nm and chemical composition varying from (Bi,La)2 Ti3 O12 to (Bi,La)4.5Ti3O12, depending on deposition pressure and RF power. In addition, BLT films deposited by magnetron sputtering, at a pressure deposition ranging from 1.1 to 5 Pa, were well-crystallized after a post-deposition annealing at 650 deg. C in oxygen. They exhibit a refractive index and optical band gap of 2.7 and 3.15 eV, respectively. Regarding PLD, single phase and well-crystallized, 100-200 nm thick BLT films with a stoichiometric (Bi,La)4Ti3O12 chemical composition were obtained, exhibiting in addition a preferential orientation along (200). It is worth noting that BLT films deposited by magnetron sputtering are as well-crystallized than PLD ones

  12. Correction of deposition predictions with data assimilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model predictions for rapid assessment and prognosis of possible radiological consequences after an accidental release of radionuclides play an important role in nuclear emergency management. Radiological measurements (e. g., dose rate measurements) can be used to improve such model predictions. This paper describes a method for combining model predictions and measurements (data assimilation) in the deposition model of the European radiological decision support system RODOS. The data assimilation approach is based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter, a Monte Carlo variant of the Kalman filter. (orig.)

  13. Iron-sulfide crystals in probe deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming

    1998-01-01

    Iron-sulfides were observed in deposits collected on a probe inserted at the top of the furnace of a coal-fired power station in Denmark. The chemical composition of the iron-sulfides is equivalent to pyrrhotite (FeS). The pyrrhotites are present as crystals and, based on the shape of the crystals......: (1) impact of low viscous droplets of iron sulfide; and (2) sulfur diffusion. Previous research on the influence of pyrite on slagging focused on the decomposition of pyrite into pyrrhotite and especially on the oxidation stage of this product during impact on the heat transfer surfaces...

  14. DEPOSITION CARBON NANOSTRUCTURES BY SURFATRON GENERATED DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Davydova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanostructures were deposited by surface wave discharge using various Ar/CH4/ CO2 gas mixture ratios. The morphology was controlled by adjusting of gas concentration and was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Also, the influence of the low temperature plasma treatment and process time on the wettability of the diamond films has been studied. The results indicate that for hydrogen termination of diamond surface indicate that the temperature as low as 400°C and treatment time of 15 min is sufficient to attain the p-type surface conductivity of diamond.

  15. Orientation specific deposition of mesoporous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kjellman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a protocol for a facile orientation specific deposition of plate-like mesoporous SBA-15 silica particles onto a surface (mesopores oriented normal to surface. A drop of an aqueous dispersion of particles is placed on the surface and water vaporizes under controlled relative humidity. Three requirements are essential for uniform coverage: particle dispersion should not contain aggregates, a weak attraction between particles and surface is needed, and evaporation rate should be low. Aggregates are removed by stirring/sonication. Weak attraction is realized by introducing cationic groups to the surface. Insight into the mechanisms of the so-called coffee stain effect is also provided.

  16. Mixture for removing tar and paraffin deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    kamenshchikov, F.A.; Frolov, M.A.; Golovin, I.N.; Khusainov, Z.M.; Smirnov, Ya.L.; Suchkov, B.M.

    1981-05-23

    Mixture is claimed for removing tar and paraffin deposits (TPD) on the basis of the butyl-benzene fraction (BBF), which is intended to more efficiently remove TPD from the surface of refinery equipment, additionally has piperylene, isoprene and isoamine with the following ratio of the components: piperylene, 19-31%; isoprene, 8-12%; isoamines, 8-12%, while BBF, the rest. The efficiency of the given compositions was assessed by the rate at which the plates were cleaned of TPD and pure commercial paraffin. It has been shown that BBF dissolves 4-6 times faster in the given mixture than in BBF and pyperylene.

  17. Pulsed laser deposition of liquid crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo de los Reyes, José; Dyer, P. E.; Hird, M.

    1997-01-01

    Thin films of 4-cyano-4’-pentylbiphenyl ~5CB! liquid crystal have been fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. The suitability of different lasers ~ArF, KrF and CO2) has been investigated over a range of fluence using visible-UV and infrared absorption and optical microscopy to characterise the films. High performance liquid chromatography ~HPLC! and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy ~MALDI-MS! were used to assess the extent of decomposition of the films. The result...

  18. Stability of nanocrystalline electrochemically deposited layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2009-01-01

    of electrodeposited components, which can be beneficial, as for the electrical conductivity of copper interconnect lines, or detrimental, as for reduced strength of nickel in MEMS applications. The present work reports on in-situ studies of the microstructure stability of as-deposited nanocrystalline Cu-, Ag- and Ni...... found to occur for Ag-layers as well. Contrary to Cu and Ag, electrodeposited Ni-layers can be stable up to about 450 K. Similarities and characteristic differences of the mechanisms and kinetics of microstructure evolution in the various electrodeposits are discussed....

  19. Determination of electroless deposition by chemical nickeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Badida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of technical level and reliability of machine products in compliance with the economical and ecological terms belongs to the main trends of the industrial development. During the utilisation of these products there arise their each other contacts and the interaction with the environment. That is the reason for their surface degradation by wear effect, corrosion and other influences. The chemical nickel-plating allows autocatalytic deposition of nickel from water solutions in the form of coherent, technically very profitable coating without usage of external source of electric current. The research was aimed at evaluating the surface changes after chemical nickel-plating at various changes of technological parameters.

  20. Plasma distribution of cathodic ARC deposition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, S.; Raoux, S.; Krishnan, K.; MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The plasma distribution using a cathodic arc plasma source with and without magnetic macroparticle filter has been determined by depositing on a transparent plastic substrate and measuring the film absorption. It was found that the width of the distribution depends on the arc current, and it also depends on the cathode material which leads to a spatial separation of the elements when an alloy cathode is used. By applying a magnetic multicusp field near the exit of the magnetic filter, it was possible to modify the plasma distribution and obtain a flat plasma profile with a constant and homogeneous elemental distribution.

  1. Biocompatibility of chemical-vapour-deposited diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L; Tsai, C; Gerberich, W W; Kruckeberg, L; Kania, D R

    1995-04-01

    The biocompatibility of chemical-vapour-deposited (CVD) diamond surfaces has been assessed. Our results indicate that CVD diamond is as biocompatible as titanium (Ti) and 316 stainless steel (SS). First, the amount of adsorbed and 'denatured' fibrinogen on CVD diamond was very close to that of Ti and SS. Second, both in vitro and in vivo there appears to be less cellular adhesion and activation on the surface of CVD diamond surfaces compared to Ti and SS. This evident biocompatibility, coupled with the corrosion resistance and notable mechanical integrity of CVD diamond, suggests that diamond-coated surfaces may be highly desirable in a number of biomedical applications. PMID:7654876

  2. Classification of uraniferous vein deposits (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of a study of French uraniferous seams and of information found in the literature from all parts of the world, especially since the first Geneva Conference (1955), the authors class these deposits according to two broad categories: - the first type, bound up with the differentiation of an acid rock, fall naturally into the conventional hydrothermal category; - the others come right outside it and seem to be connected to some age modifications, originally of tectonic origin, of the uranium dispersed amongst the rocks on a regional scale. (author)

  3. Physical-chemical conditions of ore deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Paul B.

    Ore deposits form under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions, but those precipitating from hot, aqueous fluids-i.e. the hydrothermal deposits-form generally below 700°C and at pressures of only 1 or 2 kbar or less. Natural aqueous fluids in rocks may extract metal and sulfur from a variety of rock types or may acquire them as a residual heritage from a crystallizing silicate magma. Ore-forming hydrothermal fluids never appear as hot springs (except in deep, submarine situations) because they boil, mix with surface waters, and cool, thereby losing their ore-bearing ability before reaching the surface. Mineral systems function as chemical buffers and indicators just as buffers and indicators function in a chemical laboratory. By reading the record written in the buffer/indicator assemblages of minerals one can reconstruct many aspects of the former chemical environment. By studying the record of changing conditions one may deduce information regarding the processes functioning to create the succession of chemical environments and the ore deposits they represent. The example of the OH vein at Creede, Colorado, shows a pH buffered by the K-feldspar + muscovite + quartz assemblage and the covariation of S 2 and O 2 buffered by the assemblage chlorite + pyrite + quartz. Boiling of the ore fluid led to its oxidation to hematite-bearing assemblages and simultaneously produced an intensely altered, sericitic capping over the vein in response to the condensation of vapors bearing acidic components. The solubility of metals as calculated from experimental and theoretical studies of mineral solubility appears too low by at least one or two powers of ten to explain the mineralization at Creede. In contrast to Creede where the mineral stabilities all point to a relatively consistent chemistry, the Mississippi Valley type deposits present a puzzle of conflicting chemical clues that are impossible to reconcile with any single equilibrium situation. Thus we must

  4. Characterization of CdTe Films Deposited at Various Bath Temperatures and Concentrations Using Electrophoretic Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkarnain Zainal; Mohd Norizam Md Daud; Azmi Zakaria; Mohd Sabri Mohd Ghazali; Atefeh Jafari; Wan Rafizah Wan Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    CdTe film was deposited using the electrophoretic deposition technique onto an ITO glass at various bath temperatures. Four batch film compositions were used by mixing 1 to 4 wt% concentration of CdTe powder with 10 mL of a solution of methanol and toluene. X-ray Diffraction analysis showed that the films exhibited polycrystalline nature of zinc-blende structure with the (111) orientation as the most prominent peak. From the Atomic Force Microscopy, the thickness and surface roughness of the ...

  5. High Quality SiGe Layer Deposited by a New Ultrahigh Vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD) system is developed and the details of its construction and operation are reported. Using high purity SiH4 and GeH4 reactant gases,the Si0.82Ge0.18 layer is deposited at 550℃. With the measurements by double crystal X-ray diffraction (DCXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) techniques, it is shown that the crystalline quality of the SiGe layer is good,and the underlying SiGe/Si heterointerface is sharply defined.

  6. Properties of Ultra-Thin Hafnium Oxide and Interfacial Layer Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taeho Lee; Young-Bae Kim; Kyung-Il Hong; Duck-Kyun Choi; Jinho Ahn

    2004-01-01

    Ultra-thin hafnium-oxide gate dielectric films deposited by atomic layer deposition technique using HfCl4 and H2O precursor on a hydrogen-terminated Si substrate were investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the interface layer is Hf-silicate rather than phase separated Hf-silicide and silicon oxide structure. The Hf-silicate interfacial layer partially changes into SiOx after high temperature annealing, resulting in a complex HfO2-silicate-SiOx dielectric structure. Electrical measurements confirms that HfO2 on Si is stable up to 700 ℃ for 30 s under N2 ambient.

  7. Nitrogen deposition threatens species richness of grasslands across Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, C.J. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Gowing, D.J.G. [Department of Life Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Dupre, C.; Diekmann, M. [Institute of Ecology, FB 2, University of Bremen, Leobener Str., DE-28359 Bremen (Germany); Dorland, E. [Section of Landscape Ecology, Department of Geobiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80084, 3508 TB Utrecht (Netherlands); Gaudnik, C.; Alard, D.; Corcket, E. [University of Bordeaux 1. UMR INRA 1202 Biodiversity, Genes and Communities, Equipe Ecologie des Communautes, Batiment B8 - Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Bleeker, A. [Department of Air Quality and Climate Change, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bobbink, R. [B-WARE Research Centre, Radboud University, P.O. Box 9010, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Fowler, D. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Mountford, J.O. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, MacLean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Vandvik, V. [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Box 7800, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Aarrestad, P.A. [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, NO-7485 Trondheim (Norway); Muller, S. [Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite et Ecosystemes LIEBE, UMR CNRS 7146, U.F.R. Sci. F.A., Campus Bridoux, Universite Paul Verlaine, Avenue du General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France); Dise, N.B. [Department of Environmental and Geographical Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    Evidence from an international survey in the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe indicates that chronic nitrogen deposition is reducing plant species richness in acid grasslands. Across the deposition gradient in this region (2-44 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) species richness showed a curvilinear response, with greatest reductions in species richness when deposition increased from low levels. This has important implications for conservation policies, suggesting that to protect the most sensitive grasslands resources should be focussed where deposition is currently low. Soil pH is also an important driver of species richness indicating that the acidifying effect of nitrogen deposition may be contributing to species richness reductions. The results of this survey suggest that the impacts of nitrogen deposition can be observed over a large geographical range. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is reducing biodiversity in grasslands across Europe.

  8. Nitrogen deposition threatens species richness of grasslands across Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence from an international survey in the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe indicates that chronic nitrogen deposition is reducing plant species richness in acid grasslands. Across the deposition gradient in this region (2-44 kg N ha-1 yr-1) species richness showed a curvilinear response, with greatest reductions in species richness when deposition increased from low levels. This has important implications for conservation policies, suggesting that to protect the most sensitive grasslands resources should be focussed where deposition is currently low. Soil pH is also an important driver of species richness indicating that the acidifying effect of nitrogen deposition may be contributing to species richness reductions. The results of this survey suggest that the impacts of nitrogen deposition can be observed over a large geographical range. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is reducing biodiversity in grasslands across Europe.

  9. Pb Isotope Study of Some Nonferrous Metallic Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on Pb-Pb isochron data of more than 40 Precambrian polymetallic deposits, the authors consider that there are four mineralization periods for the Precambrian copper deposits in China, and the major copper deposits were formed at about 1800 Ma; there are three mineralization periods for gold deposits formed from Archaean to Proterozoic. By studying hundreds of lead isotope data from some Mesozoic continental subvolcanic Cu and Ag polymetallic deposits and fine-disseminated gold deposits, the authors found that the calculation based on the lead single-stage evolution model or two-stage evolution model cannot give the true ore-forming ages but can provide more information about mineralization and material sources of the deposits.

  10. Some Viewpoints of Islamic Banking Retail Deposit Products in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANUDIN AMIN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide an understanding with respect to Islamicdeposit facilities in Malaysia. Our illuminations are centeredon current accounts, savings accounts and investment accounts. A brief note onnegotiable Islamic certificatesof deposit(NICDis also provided. These deposit products are explainedin terms of their definitions, features and return calculations. On the same note, some discrepancies between deposit facilities offered by Islamic and conventional banks are exposed. The purpose of such expositionsis to provide novice readers a basic but profound explanation concerning the differencesbetween the two categoriesof deposit facilities. A note on Malaysia Deposit Insurance Corporation (MDICis also offered.Importantly, this paper at least provides useful information to create positive understanding amongst novice readers relatingto the distinctconcepts of Islamic and conventional deposit facilities. Thispaper is of importance to exemplifywhy the two deposit facilities are distinct. Limitations and future works in this area are provided.

  11. A 20-year simulated climatology of global dust aerosol deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Zhao, Tianliang; Che, Huizheng; Liu, Yu; Han, Yongxiang; Liu, Chong; Xiong, Jie; Liu, Jianhui; Zhou, Yike

    2016-07-01

    Based on a 20-year (1991-2010) simulation of dust aerosol deposition with the global climate model CAM5.1 (Community Atmosphere Model, version 5.1), the spatial and temporal variations of dust aerosol deposition were analyzed using climate statistical methods. The results indicated that the annual amount of global dust aerosol deposition was approximately 1161±31Mt, with a decreasing trend, and its interannual variation range of 2.70% over 1991-2010. The 20-year average ratio of global dust dry to wet depositions was 1.12, with interannual variation of 2.24%, showing the quantity of dry deposition of dust aerosol was greater than dust wet deposition. High dry deposition was centered over continental deserts and surrounding regions, while wet deposition was a dominant deposition process over the North Atlantic, North Pacific and northern Indian Ocean. Furthermore, both dry and wet deposition presented a zonal distribution. To examine the regional changes of dust aerosol deposition on land and sea areas, we chose the North Atlantic, Eurasia, northern Indian Ocean, North Pacific and Australia to analyze the interannual and seasonal variations of dust deposition and dry-to-wet deposition ratio. The deposition amounts of each region showed interannual fluctuations with the largest variation range at around 26.96% in the northern Indian Ocean area, followed by the North Pacific (16.47%), Australia (9.76%), North Atlantic (9.43%) and Eurasia (6.03%). The northern Indian Ocean also had the greatest amplitude of interannual variation in dry-to-wet deposition ratio, at 22.41%, followed by the North Atlantic (9.69%), Australia (6.82%), North Pacific (6.31%) and Eurasia (4.36%). Dust aerosol presented a seasonal cycle, with typically strong deposition in spring and summer and weak deposition in autumn and winter. The dust deposition over the northern Indian Ocean exhibited the greatest seasonal change range at about 118.00%, while the North Atlantic showed the lowest seasonal

  12. Genetic Analogy Between Sediment—Hosted Gold Deposits and Sediment—Hosted Copper Deposits in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖荣阁; 陈卉泉; 等

    1996-01-01

    The sediment-hosted copper deposits according to the authors' study were formed from connate formation water during the post-sedimentary or diagenetic stage while the sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits are unanimously considered to be of post-sedimentary hydrothermal origin.Therefore,apart from their own individulities.These two types of deposits must share some characters in common.Comparisons are attempted,in this paper,between the sediment-hosted copper deposits in southwest China and the Triassic sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi Triangle in terms of geological and geochemical features.

  13. Study of nozzle deposit formation mechanism for direct injection gasoline engines; Chokufun gasoline engine yo nozzle no deposit seisei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, M.; Saito, A. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan); Matsushita, S. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Shibata, H. [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Niwa, Y. [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Nozzles in fuel injectors for direct injection gasoline engines are exposed to high temperature combustion gases and soot. In such a rigorous environment, it is a fear that fuel flow rate changes in injectors by deposit formation on nozzles. Fundamental factors of nozzle deposit formation were investigated through injector bench tests and engine dynamometer tests. Deposit formation processes were observed by SEM through engine dynamometer tests. The investigation results reveal nozzle deposit formation mechanism and how to suppress the deposit. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Swimming Motility Reduces Deposition to Silica Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Nanxi [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Massoudieh, Arash [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Liang, Xiaomeng [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Hu, Dehong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kamai, Tamir [Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan (Israel); Ginn, Timothy R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Zilles, Julie L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Nguyen, Thanh H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The role of swimming motility on bacterial transport and fate in porous media was evaluated. We present microscopic evidence showing that strong swimming motility reduces attachment of Azotobacter vinelandii cells to silica surfaces. Applying global and cluster statistical analyses to microscopic videos taken under non-flow conditions, wild type, flagellated A. vinelandii strain DJ showed strong swimming ability with an average speed of 13.1 μm/s, DJ77 showed impaired swimming averaged at 8.7 μm/s, and both the non-flagellated JZ52 and chemically treated DJ cells were non-motile. Quantitative analyses of trajectories observed at different distances above the collector of a radial stagnation point flow cell (RSPF) revealed that both swimming and non-swimming cells moved with the flow when at a distance of at least 20 μm from the collector surface. Near the surface, DJ cells showed both horizontal and vertical movement diverging them from reaching surfaces, while chemically treated DJ cells moved with the flow to reach surfaces, suggesting that strong swimming reduced attachment. In agreement with the RSPF results, the deposition rates obtained for two-dimensional multiple-collector micromodels were also lowest for DJ, while DJ77 and JZ52 showed similar values. Strong swimming specifically reduced deposition on the upstream surfaces of the micromodel collectors.

  15. Litter mercury deposition in the Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostier, Anne Hélène; Melendez-Perez, José Javier; Richter, Larissa

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the flux of atmospheric mercury transferred to the soil of the Amazonian rainforest by litterfall. Calculations were based on a large survey of published and unpublished data on litterfall and Hg concentrations in litterfall samples from the Amazonian region. Litterfall based on 65 sites located in the Amazon rainforest averaged 8.15 ± 2.25 Mg ha(-1) y(-1). Average Hg concentrations were calculated from nine datasets for fresh tree leaves and ten datasets for litter, and a median concentration of 60.5 ng Hg g(-1) was considered for Hg deposition in litterfall, which averaged 49 ± 14 μg m(-2) yr(-1). This value was used to estimate that in the Amazonian rainforest, litterfall would be responsible for the annual removing of 268 ± 77 Mg of Hg, approximately 8% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition to land. The impact of the Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle is also discussed. PMID:26312742

  16. Vacuum deposition onto webs, films and foils

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    Roll-to-roll vacuum deposition is the technology that applies an even coating to a flexible material that can be held on a roll and provides a much faster and cheaper method of bulk coating than deposition onto single pieces or non-flexible surfaces, such as glass. This technology has been used in industrial-scale applications for some time, including a wide range of metalized packaging (e.g. snack packets). Its potential as a high-speed, scalable process has seen an increasing range of new products emerging that employ this cost-effective technology: solar energy products are moving from rigid panels onto flexible substrates, which are cheaper and more versatile; in a similar way, electronic circuit 'boards' can be produced on a flexible polymer, creating a new range of 'flexible electronics' products; and, flexible displays are another area of new technology in vacuum coating, with flexible display panels and light sources emerging. Charles Bishop has written this book to meet the need he identified, as a t...

  17. Atmospheric mass deposition by captured planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaroslavitz, Eyal; Podolak, Morris

    2007-04-01

    We examine the deposition of heavy elements in the envelope of a protoplanet growing according to the core accretion scenario of Pollack et al. [Pollack, J.B., Hubickyj, O., Bodenheimer, P., Lissauer, J.J., Podolak, M., Greenzweig, Y., 1996. Icarus 124, 62-85]. We use their atmospheric models and the deposition rates that they computed, and we calculate the amount of heavy elements that can be dissolved in the envelope. For planetesimals composed of a mixture of water, CHON, and rock, we find that almost all of the water is dissolved in the atmosphere. A substantial amount of CHON is also dissolved but it remains sequestered at high temperatures near the core. Some fraction of the rock is also dissolved in the very high temperature region near the core envelope boundary. If this dissolved material can be mixed upward later in the planet's evolution, the resulting structure would be much closer to that determined by matching the moments of Jupiter's gravitational field.

  18. Radiative transfer modeling of surface chemical deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Kulp, Thomas J.

    2016-05-01

    Remote detection of a surface-bound chemical relies on the recognition of a pattern, or "signature," that is distinct from the background. Such signatures are a function of a chemical's fundamental optical properties, but also depend upon its specific morphology. Importantly, the same chemical can exhibit vastly different signatures depending on the size of particles composing the deposit. We present a parameterized model to account for such morphological effects on surface-deposited chemical signatures. This model leverages computational tools developed within the planetary and atmospheric science communities, beginning with T-matrix and ray-tracing approaches for evaluating the scattering and extinction properties of individual particles based on their size and shape, and the complex refractive index of the material itself. These individual-particle properties then serve as input to the Ambartsumian invariant imbedding solution for the reflectance of a particulate surface composed of these particles. The inputs to the model include parameters associated with a functionalized form of the particle size distribution (PSD) as well as parameters associated with the particle packing density and surface roughness. The model is numerically inverted via Sandia's Dakota package, optimizing agreement between modeled and measured reflectance spectra, which we demonstrate on data acquired on five size-selected silica powders over the 4-16 μm wavelength range. Agreements between modeled and measured reflectance spectra are assessed, while the optimized PSDs resulting from the spectral fitting are then compared to PSD data acquired from independent particle size measurements.

  19. Controlled Deposition of HAp Mimicking Tooth Enamel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chemical compositions and microsturcture of mature human tooth enamel were investigated by XRD , FTIR and SEM to further understand the characteristics of tooth enamel. In order to obtain apatite crystals chemically and structurally similar to those in tooth enamel, biomimetic way was employed. Selfassembled monolyers terminated with-SO3 H groups were used as deposition substrates and 1.5 SBF ( the concentrations of Ca2+ and PO43- ions 1.5 times than those in simulated body fluid ) with and without 5 ppm F- were used as soaking medium. The XRD and FTIR results showed that both the deposited fluoride-substituted hydroxyapatite( F-HAp ) crystals in 1.5 SBF with F- and hydroxyapatite ( HAp ) crystals in 1.5 SBF were carbonate-containing, mimicking human tooth enamel in chemical compositions. The SEM photos showed that needle-like F-HAp crystals bad large aspect ratios and grew in bundles, which were similar to the crystals in human tooth enamel.The results provide available information on dental restoration.

  20. Acid deposition study in the Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Ting-Kueh [Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lau, Wai-Yoo [Malaysian Scientific Association, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    The Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN is a regional association of seven countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei and Vietnam, located at the south eastern part of the Asian continent. Together with the East Asian States of Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan, this part of the world is experiencing rapid economic growth, especially in the last decade. Rapid industrialization has resulted in an increased demand for energy in the manufacturing and transport sectors, and also for infrastructure development. This has led to a significant increase in gaseous emissions and a corresponding increase in atmospheric acidity. Acid deposition study in the ASEAN countries began in the mid-70s when Malaysia first started her acid rain monitoring network in 1976. This was followed closely by Singapore and the other ASEAN countries in the 80s. By now all ASEAN countries have their own acid rain monitoring networks with a number of these countries extending the monitoring to dry deposition as well.

  1. Electrochemical vapor deposition of SOFC components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical vapor deposition (EVD) is a technique for producing thin (10-15 μm) gas tight layers of metal oxides upon porous substrates. The first step in film formation proceeds by a normal CVD type reaction: step 1, pore closure; MeCl4 + 2 H2O → MeO2 + 4 HCl. Deposits of the metal oxide form on the porous substrate which separates the reactant metal chlorides from a mixture of H2O (steam) and H2. Once pore closure is complete the reactants are no longer in direct contact and film growth proceeds by the following reactions: step 2, scale growth: MeCl4 + 2 O= → MeO2 + 2 Cl2 + 4e- and 2 H2O + 4e- → 2 H2 + 2 O =. In this paper the dynamics of the second step, scale growth, are examined as function of the reaction temperature, yttria content in the film, and oxygen partial pressure gradient across the film

  2. Aerosol deposition in bends with turbulent flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, A.R.; Gong, H.; Wente, W.B. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The losses of aerosol particles in bends were determined numerically for a broad range of design and operational conditions. Experimental data were used to check the validity of the numerical model, where the latter employs a commercially available computational fluid dynamics code for characterizing the fluid flow field and Lagrangian particle tracking technique for characterizing aerosol losses. Physical experiments have been conducted to examine the effect of curvature ratio and distortion of the cross section of bends. If it curvature ratio ({delta} = R/a) is greater than about 4, it has little effect on deposition, which is in contrast with the recommendation given in ANSI N13.1-1969 for a minimum curvature ratio of 10. Also, experimental results show that if the tube cross section is flattened by 25% or less, the flattening also has little effect on deposition. Results of numerical tests have been used to develop a correlation of aerosol penetration through a bend as a function of Stokes number (Stk), curvature ratio ({delta}) and the bend angle ({theta}). 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Atomic mobility in energetic cluster deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Zheng-Ying; WANG Yue-Xia; WEI Qi; LI Zhi-Jie; ZHOU Liang; ZHANG Liang-Kun

    2004-01-01

    This paper tries to outline the influence of atomic mobility on the initial fabrication of thin films formed by LECBD. Based on our recent studies on low-energy cluster beam deposition (LECBD) by molecular dynamics simulation, two examples, the deposition of small carbon clusters on Si and diamond surfaces and Al clusters on Ni substrate, were mainly discussed. The impact energy of the cluster ranges from 0.1 eV to 100 eV. In the former case,the mobility and the lateral migration of surface atoms, especially the recoil atoms, are enhanced with increasing the impact energy, which promote the film to be smoother and denser. For the latter case, the transverse kinetic energy of cluster atoms, caused mainly by the collision between moving cluster atoms, dominates the lateral spread of cluster atoms on the surface, which is contributive to layer-by-layer growth of thin films. Our result is consistent with the experimental observations that the film structure is strongly dependent on the impact energy. In addition, it elucidates that the atomic mobility takes a leading role in the structure characteristic of films formed by LECBD.

  4. Designing polymer surfaces via vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Asatekin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD methods significantly augment the capabilities of traditional surface modification techniques for designing polymeric surfaces. In CVD polymerization, the monomer(s are delivered to the surface through the vapor phase and then undergo simultaneous polymerization and thin film formation. By eliminating the need to dissolve macromolecules, CVD enables insoluble polymers to be coated and prevents solvent damage to the substrate. Since de-wetting and surface tension effects are absent, CVD coatings conform to the geometry of the underlying substrate. Hence, CVD polymers can be readily applied to virtually any substrate: organic, inorganic, rigid, flexible, planar, three-dimensional, dense, or porous. CVD methods integrate readily with other vacuum processes used to fabricate patterned surfaces and devices. CVD film growth proceeds from the substrate up, allowing for interfacial engineering, real-time monitoring, thickness control, and the synthesis of films with graded composition. This article focuses on two CVD polymerization methods that closely translate solution chemistry to vapor deposition; initiated CVD and oxidative CVD. The basic concepts underlying these methods and the resultant advantages over other thin film coating techniques are described, along with selected applications where CVD polymers are an enabling technology.

  5. The Meteoritic Component in Impact Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2003-01-01

    This proposal requested support for a broad-based research program designed to understand the chemical and mineralogical record of accretion of extraterrestrial matter to the Earth. The primary goal of this research is to study the accretion history of the Earth, to understand how this accretion history reflects the long-term flux of comets, asteroids, and dust in the inner solar system and how this flux is related to the geological and biological history of the Earth. This goal is approached by seeking out the most significant projects that can be attacked utilizing the expertise of the PI and potential collaborators. The greatest expertise of the PI is the analysis of meteoritic components in terrestrial sediments. This proposal identifies three primary areas of research, involving impact events in the early Archean (3.2 Ga), the late Eocene (35 Ma) and the late Pliocene (2 Ma). In the early Archean we investigate sediments that contain the oldest recorded impacts on Earth. These are thick spherule beds, three of which were deposited within 20 m.y. If these are impact deposits the flux of objects to Earth at this time was much greater than predicted by current models. Earlier work used Cr isotopes to prove that one of these contain extraterrestrial matter, from a projectile with Cr isotopes similar to CV chondrites. We planned to expand this work to other spherule beds and to search for additional evidence of other impact events. With samples from D. Lowe (Stanford Univ.) the PI proposed to screen samples for high Ir and Cr so that appropriate samples can be provided to A. Shukolyukov for Cr-isotopic analyses. This work was expected to provide evidence that at least one interval in the early Archean was a period of intense bombardment and to characterize the composition of objects accreted. The late Eocene is also a period of intense bombardment with multiple spherule deposits and two large craters. Farley et al. (1998) demonstrated an increased (3)He flux to

  6. Hydroquinone-ZnO nano-laminate deposited by molecular-atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we have deposited organic-inorganic hybrid semiconducting hydroquinone (HQ)/zinc oxide (ZnO) superlattices using molecular-atomic layer deposition, which enables accurate control of film thickness, excellent uniformity, and sharp interfaces at a low deposition temperature (150 °C). Self-limiting growth of organic layers is observed for the HQ precursor on ZnO surface. Nano-laminates were prepared by varying the number of HQ to ZnO cycles in order to investigate the physical and electrical effects of different HQ to ZnO ratios. It is indicated that the addition of HQ layer results in enhanced mobility and reduced carrier concentration. The highest Hall mobility of approximately 2.3 cm2/V·s and the lowest n-type carrier concentration of approximately 1.0 × 1018/cm3 were achieved with the organic-inorganic superlattice deposited with a ratio of 10 ZnO cycles to 1 HQ cycle. This study offers an approach to tune the electrical transport characteristics of ALD ZnO matrix thin films using an organic dopant. Moreover, with organic embedment, this nano-laminate material may be useful for flexible electronics

  7. Effects of debris flow composition on runout, depositional mechanisms, and deposit morphology in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Tjalling; Braat, Lisanne; Leuven, Jasper R. F. W.; Lokhorst, Ivar R.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.

    2015-09-01

    Predicting debris flow runout is of major importance for hazard mitigation. Apart from topography and volume, runout distance and area depends on debris flow composition and rheology, but how is poorly understood. We experimentally investigated effects of composition on debris flow runout, depositional mechanisms, and deposit geometry. The small-scale experimental debris flows were largely similar to natural debris flows in terms of flow behavior, deposit morphology, grain size sorting, channel width-depth ratio, and runout. Deposit geometry (lobe thickness and width) in our experimental debris flows is largely determined by composition, while the effects of initial conditions of topography (i.e., outflow plain slope and channel slope and width) and volume are negligible. We find a clear optimum in the relations of runout with coarse-material fraction and clay fraction. Increasing coarse-material concentration leads to larger runout. However, excess coarse material results in a large accumulation of coarse debris at the flow front and enhances diffusivity, increasing frontal friction and decreasing runout. Increasing clay content initially enhances runout, but too much clay leads to very viscous flows, reducing runout. Runout increases with channel slope and width, outflow plain slope, debris flow volume, and water fraction. These results imply that debris flow runout depends at least as much on composition as on topography. This study improves understanding of the effects of debris flow composition on runout and may aid future debris flow hazard assessments.

  8. Structural and optical properties of tellurite thin film glasses deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellurite (TeO2-TiO2-Nb2O5) thin film glasses have been produced by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature at laser energy densities in the range of 0.8-1.5 J/cm2 and oxygen pressures in the range of 3-11 Pa. The oxygen concentration in the films increases with laser energy density to reach values very close to that of the bulk glass at 1.5 J/cm2, while films prepared at 1.5 J/cm2 and pressures above 5 Pa show oxygen concentration in excess of 10% comparing to the glass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the presence of elementary Te in films deposited at O2 pressures ≤ 5 Pa that is not detected at higher pressures, while analysis of Raman spectra of the samples suggests a progressive substitution of TeO3 trigonal pyramids by TeO4 trigonal bipyramids in the films when increasing their oxygen content. Spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis combined with Cauchy and effective medium modeling demonstrates the influence of these compositional and structural modifications on the optical response of the films. Since the oxygen content determines their optical response through the structural modifications induced in the films, those can be effectively controlled by tuning the deposition conditions, and films having large n (2.08) and reduced k (-4) at 1.5 μm have been produced using the optimum deposition conditions.

  9. Numerical Modelling of Suspended Transport and Deposition of Highway Deposited Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Bach, Christine;

    Good data for calibration and validation of numerical models are of high importance. In the natural environment data can be hard to archive and the stochastic nature have governing influence on the data archived. Hence for modelling of suspended transport and deposition of particles, originating...

  10. Ultraviolet optical properties of aluminum fluoride thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, John, E-mail: john.j.hennessy@jpl.nasa.gov; Jewell, April D.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Nikzad, Shouleh [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Aluminum fluoride (AlF{sub 3}) is a low refractive index material with promising optical applications for ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. An atomic layer deposition process using trimethylaluminum and anhydrous hydrogen fluoride has been developed for the deposition of AlF{sub 3} at substrate temperatures between 100 and 200 °C. This low temperature process has resulted in thin films with UV-optical properties that have been characterized by ellipsometric and reflection/transmission measurements at wavelengths down to 200 nm. The optical loss for 93 nm thick films deposited at 100 °C was measured to be less than 0.2% from visible wavelengths down to 200 nm, and additional microstructural characterization demonstrates that the films are amorphous with moderate tensile stress of 42–105 MPa as deposited on silicon substrates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows no signature of residual aluminum oxide components making these films good candidates for a variety of applications at even shorter UV wavelengths.

  11. Variation in chemical wet deposition with meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Gilbert S.; Hayes, Janet V.

    Analysis of hourly sequential precipitation samples collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory over a 4-y period shows systematic relationships between amounts of chemicals deposited in precipitation and meteorological conditions. Samples were taken by an automatic, sequential sampler and measured for pH, conductivity and the concentrations of major ions. Concurrent measurements and observations were made of the synoptic situation, precipitation type and rate, wind speed and direction, and temperature. Deposition per unit area was computed for subsets of the data classified by meteorological and time parameters. Results demonstrate that precipitation amount alone is not an adequate predictor of chemical wet deposition because of the variability of concentration in precipitation which is a complex function of emission rates and atmospheric processes. Results, however, document those conditions under which most material is deposited and those circumstances in which deposition occurs at the greatest rate. When classified by season, hydrogen and sulfate ion deposition are greatest in the summer when precipitation is lowest and least in the winter when precipitation is greatest. Nitrogen in both nitrate and ammonium has a similar but less extreme pattern. By synoptic type, all chemicals are deposited most heavily in warm front precipitation but the fraction of hydrogen and sulfate deposited in cold front and squall line hours is greater than the fraction of precipitation. All chemicals are deposited most heavily in steady rain when examined by precipitation type but thundershowers deposit chemicals of anthropogenic origin in amounts disproportionate to precipitation amounts. Results are also presented from data classified by other parameters.

  12. Magmatism, Deep Processes and Gold Deposits in Eastern Hebei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The eastern Hebei Province of China is one of the major concentrating areas of gold mineralization in eastern China, which is an important part of the circum-Pacific magmatic-tectonic-metallogenic belt. There are three types of gold deposits in terms of the characteristics of host rocks. Jinchangyu-type gold deposit is situated in the Archean metamorphic basement. Yuerya-type gold deposit occurs within the Yanshanian granite. Lengkou- (or Wanzhuang-) type gold deposit is located within the covering strata of the Mesoproterozoic dolomitite. These 3 types of gold deposits are very similar in many respects. These deposits formed at Mesozoic and their spatial distribution is closely related to Yanshanian granite. The mineralization characteristics of these gold deposits are very similar. The characteristics of sulfur isotopic and lead isotopic compositions show that the gold deposits in this area are derived from the mantle and deep crust, and are related to Mesozoic magmatism. The gold deposits in this area are believed to be the products of crust-mantle exchange and resulted from multistage gold mineralization. Finally a mineralization model of gold deposit in eastern Hebei of China is proposed.

  13. Antireflection coatings on plastics deposited by plasma polymerization process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K M K Srivatsa; M Bera; A Basu; T K Bhattacharya

    2008-08-01

    Antireflection coatings (ARCs) are deposited on the surfaces of optical elements like spectacle lenses to increase light transmission and improve their performance. In the ophthalmic industry, plastic lenses are rapidly displacing glass lenses due to several advantageous features. However, the deposition of ARCs on plastic lenses is a challenging task, because the plastic surface needs treatment for adhesion improvement and surface hardening before depositing the ARC. This surface treatment is usually done in a multi-stage process—exposure to energetic radiations, followed by deposition of a carbonyl hard coating by spin or dip coating processes, UV curing, etc. However, this treatment can also be done by plasma processes. Moreover, the plasma polymerization process allows deposition of optical films at room temperature, essential for plastics. The energetic ions in plasma processes provide similar effects as in ion assisted physical deposition processes to produce hard coatings, without requiring sophisticated ion sources. The plasma polymerization process is more economical than ion-assisted physical vapour deposition processes as regards equipment and source materials and is more cost-effective, enabling the surface treatment and deposition of the ARC in the same deposition system in a single run by varying the system parameters at each step. Since published results of the plasma polymerization processes developed abroad are rather sketchy and the techniques are mostly veiled in commercial secrecy, innovative and indigenous plasma-based techniques have been developed in this work for depositing the complete ARCs on plastic substrates.

  14. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques

  15. 12 CFR 347.206 - Domestic retail deposit activity requiring deposit insurance by U.S. branch of a foreign bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic retail deposit activity requiring... Banks § 347.206 Domestic retail deposit activity requiring deposit insurance by U.S. branch of a foreign bank. (a) Domestic retail deposit activity. To initiate or conduct domestic retail deposit...

  16. Calcium sulphate deposition on heated metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of undesired matter at heat transfer surfaces (fouling) is a severe problem to industry. The growth of calcium sulphate dihydrate an heated metal surfaces has been examined and a mechanism for the effect of surface roughness on the amount of deposition has been proposed. A novel piece of equipment was designed and constructed in which the growth of crystals on heat transfer surfaces with different surface roughnesses could be observed under controlled solution conditions. The test section was a transparent rectangular channel into which three 25 mm diameter test pieces could be inserted such that the polished faces were planar with the rear face of the channel. The back faces of these test pieces were heated by contact with hot water. Using Reynolds numbers of 300 to 13,500 and calcium sulphate solutions with bulk concentrations from 20 to 50 mM Ca2+, no gross effect due to surface roughness was seen. However a limited effect, which distinguished grit-blasted surfaces from polished surfaces, was found in experiments with a bulk concentration from 28 to 33 mM Ca2+. In all of the experiments it was observed that the presence of bubbles enhanced crystal growth. It was also found that the amount of deposition formed on any surface decreased with decreasing dissolved oxygen content of the bulk solution. It is suggested that a bulk concentration of approximately 33 mM Ca2+ is a critical level of supersaturation, which corresponds with the so-called metastable limit of supersaturation. The surface roughness effect may be associated with two factors. Firstly, as the critical supersaturation is approached crystal growth is enhanced at certain sites, in particular the edges of bubbles. Secondly, very rough surfaces, such as grit-blasted surfaces, more readily support and initiate bubble formation and consequently the grit-blasted surface shows greater growth. Additional work with a different test rig, using a stagnant solution, indicated that suppression of

  17. Model for erosion-deposition patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Maionchi, D O; Filho, R N Costa; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2007-01-01

    We investigate through computational simulations with a pore network model the formation of patterns caused by erosion-deposition mechanisms. In this model, the geometry of the pore space changes dynamically as a consequence of the coupling between the fluid flow and the movement of particles due to local drag forces. Our results for this irreversible process show that the model is capable to reproduce typical natural patterns caused by well known erosion processes. Moreover, we observe that, within a certain range of porosity values, the grains form clusters that are tilted with respect to the horizontal with a characteristic angle. We compare our results to recent experiments for granular material in flowing water and show that they present a satisfactory agreement.

  18. Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. Anthony; Larkin, David J.; Matus, Lawrence G.; Petit, Jeremy B.

    1993-01-01

    Large single-crystal SiC boules from which wafers of large area cut now being produced commerically. Availability of wafers opens door for development of SiC semiconductor devices. Recently developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process produces thin single-crystal SiC films on SiC wafers. Essential step in sequence of steps used to fabricate semiconductor devices. Further development required for specific devices. Some potential high-temperature applications include sensors and control electronics for advanced turbine engines and automobile engines, power electronics for electromechanical actuators for advanced aircraft and for space power systems, and equipment used in drilling of deep wells. High-frequency applications include communication systems, high-speed computers, and microwave power transistors. High-radiation applications include sensors and controls for nuclear reactors.

  19. Deposition of aerosols and bronchial clearance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special inhalative device is described for reproducible deposition patterns of radioactive aerosols to measure mucociliary and tussive clearance and to evaluate the effect of drugs on the bronchial tree is described. Additive actions on mucus transport exist between β2-agonists and theophylline, but not incombination with inhalative quarternary ammonium compounds (ipatropium and oxitropium bromide). Mucolytics are generally less effective on mucociliary clearance than β2-agonists and theophylline, positive, negative and nonresponders are ofter seen due to the different viscoelastic properties of the mucus. Mucus transport is more than mucociliary clearance. Two-phase gas/liquid movement and coughing are also important transport mechanisms for bronchial mucus. Therefore, bronchodilators enhance mucus transport by increasing airway patency, which increases total and regional air flow and improves cough clearance. (orig.)

  20. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.-M.M., E-mail: AnneMarie.Williams@utas.edu.au [School of Medicine, Private Bag 34, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7001 (Australia); Siegele, R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.

  1. Understanding error generation in fused deposition modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additive manufacturing offers completely new possibilities for the manufacturing of parts. The advantages of flexibility and convenience of additive manufacturing have had a significant impact on many industries, and optimizing part quality is crucial for expanding its utilization. This research aims to determine the sources of imprecision in fused deposition modeling (FDM). Process errors in terms of surface quality, accuracy and precision are identified and quantified, and an error-budget approach is used to characterize errors of the machine tool. It was determined that accuracy and precision in the y direction (0.08–0.30 mm) are generally greater than in the x direction (0.12–0.62 mm) and the z direction (0.21–0.57 mm). Furthermore, accuracy and precision tend to decrease at increasing axis positions. The results of this work can be used to identify possible process improvements in the design and control of FDM technology. (paper)

  2. OSTEOPOROSIS IN CALCIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CRYSTAL DEPOSITION DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Vladimirov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of osteoporosis (OP in patients with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease (CPCDD. Subjects and methods. Eighty patients with CPCDD were examined. Bone mineral density (BMD of the forearm, lumbar spine, and femoral neck was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Laboratory diagnosis involved determination of the blood levels of C-reactive protein, parathyroid hormone, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus and the daily urinary excretion of calcium and phosphates. Results. The patients with OP were significantly older than those with normal BMD and osteopenia. Forearm bones were the most common isolated location of OP and osteopenia. Injuries in the history, traumatic fractures, and the intake of diuretics were somewhat more common in the patients diagnosed with OP. The incidence of hyperparathyroidism did not differ significantly in the groups.

  3. Magnetic properties of LCMO deposited films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Iel; Jeong, Kwang Ho; Cho, Young Suk; Kim, Chul Sung

    2002-04-01

    La-Ca-Mn-O films were deposited with various thickness (500, 1000 and 1500°C) by RF-magnetron sputtering at 700°C and by the spin coating of sol-gel method at 400°C on LaAlO 3(1 0 0) and Si(1 0 0) single-crystal substrates. The crystal structure and chemical composition of the film grown by RF sputtering method were orthorhombic and La 0.89Ca 0.11MnO 3, respectively, while the film prepared by sol-gel spin coating was cubic with La 0.7Ca 0.3MnO 3. The temperature dependence of the resistance for the film grown by RF sputtering method with the thickness of 1000°C shows that a semiconductor-metal transition occurs at 242 K. The relative maximum magnetoresistance is about 273% at 226 K.

  4. Understanding error generation in fused deposition modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochmann, Lennart; Bayley, Cindy; Helu, Moneer; Transchel, Robert; Wegener, Konrad; Dornfeld, David

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing offers completely new possibilities for the manufacturing of parts. The advantages of flexibility and convenience of additive manufacturing have had a significant impact on many industries, and optimizing part quality is crucial for expanding its utilization. This research aims to determine the sources of imprecision in fused deposition modeling (FDM). Process errors in terms of surface quality, accuracy and precision are identified and quantified, and an error-budget approach is used to characterize errors of the machine tool. It was determined that accuracy and precision in the y direction (0.08-0.30 mm) are generally greater than in the x direction (0.12-0.62 mm) and the z direction (0.21-0.57 mm). Furthermore, accuracy and precision tend to decrease at increasing axis positions. The results of this work can be used to identify possible process improvements in the design and control of FDM technology.

  5. Occurrence model for volcanogenic beryllium deposits: Chapter F in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Lindsey, David A.; Seal, Robert R., II; Jaskula, Brian W.; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2012-01-01

    Current global and domestic mineral resources of beryllium (Be) for industrial uses are dominated by ores produced from deposits of the volcanogenic Be type. Beryllium deposits of this type can form where hydrothermal fluids interact with fluorine and lithophile-element (uranium, thorium, rubidium, lithium, beryllium, cesium, tantalum, rare earth elements, and tin) enriched volcanic rocks that contain a highly reactive lithic component, such as carbonate clasts. Volcanic and hypabyssal high-silica biotite-bearing topaz rhyolite constitutes the most well-recognized igneous suite associated with such Be deposits. The exemplar setting is an extensional tectonic environment, such as that characterized by the Basin and Range Province, where younger topaz-bearing igneous rock sequences overlie older dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone sequences. Mined deposits and related mineralized rocks at Spor Mountain, Utah, make up a unique economic deposit of volcanogenic Be having extensive production and proven and probable reserves. Proven reserves in Utah, as reported by the U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Information Center, total about 15,900 tons of Be that are present in the mineral bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2). At the type locality for volcanogenic Be, Spor Mountain, the tuffaceous breccias and stratified tuffs that host the Be ore formed as a result of explosive volcanism that brought carbonate and other lithic fragments to the surface through vent structures that cut the underlying dolomitic Paleozoic sedimentary rock sequences. The tuffaceous sediments and lithic clasts are thought to make up phreatomagmatic base surge deposits. Hydrothermal fluids leached Be from volcanic glass in the tuff and redeposited the Be as bertrandite upon reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with carbonate clasts in lithic-rich sections of tuff. The localization of the deposits in tuff above fluorite-mineralized faults in carbonate rocks, together with isotopic evidence for the

  6. Fractal and Multifractal Modeling of Hydrothermal Mineral Deposit Spectrum: Application to Gold Deposits in Abitibi Area, Ontario,Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Qiuming

    2003-01-01

    A number of fractal/muitifractal methods are introduced for quantifying the mineral deposit spectrum which include a number-size model, grade-tonnage model, power spectrum model, multifractal model and an eigenvalue spectrum model. The first two models characterize mineral deposits spectra based on relationships among the measures of mineral deposits. These include the number of depesits,size of deposits, concentration and volume of mineral deposits. The last three methods that deal with the spatial-temporal spectra of mineral deposit studies are all expected to be popularized in near future. A case study of hydrothermal gold deposits from the Abitibi area, a world-class mineral district, is used to demonstrate the principle as well as the applications of methods proposed in this paper. It has been shown that fractal and multifractal models are generally applicable to modeling of mineral deposits and occurrences. Clusters of mineral deposits were identified by several methods including the power spectral analysis, singularity analysis and the eigenvalue analysis. These clusters contain most of the known mineral deposits in the Timmins and Kirkland Lake camps.

  7. The physical hydrogeology of ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Appold, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal ore deposits represent a convergence of fluid flow, thermal energy, and solute flux that is hydrogeologically unusual. From the hydrogeologic perspective, hydrothermal ore deposition represents a complex coupled-flow problem—sufficiently complex that physically rigorous description of the coupled thermal (T), hydraulic (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes (THMC modeling) continues to challenge our computational ability. Though research into these coupled behaviors has found only a limited subset to be quantitatively tractable, it has yielded valuable insights into the workings of hydrothermal systems in a wide range of geologic environments including sedimentary, metamorphic, and magmatic. Examples of these insights include the quantification of likely driving mechanisms, rates and paths of fluid flow, ore-mineral precipitation mechanisms, longevity of hydrothermal systems, mechanisms by which hydrothermal fluids acquire their temperature and composition, and the controlling influence of permeability and other rock properties on hydrothermal fluid behavior. In this communication we review some of the fundamental theory needed to characterize the physical hydrogeology of hydrothermal systems and discuss how this theory has been applied in studies of Mississippi Valley-type, tabular uranium, porphyry, epithermal, and mid-ocean ridge ore-forming systems. A key limitation in the computational state-of-the-art is the inability to describe fluid flow and transport fully in the many ore systems that show evidence of repeated shear or tensional failure with associated dynamic variations in permeability. However, we discuss global-scale compilations that suggest some numerical constraints on both mean and dynamically enhanced crustal permeability. Principles of physical hydrogeology can be powerful tools for investigating hydrothermal ore formation and are becoming increasingly accessible with ongoing advances in modeling software.

  8. Effects of acid deposition on tree roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, H. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    1995-12-31

    Large forest regions in SW Sweden have been exposed to high levels of acid deposition for many decades, causing soil acidification in forest soils. Historically, SO{sub 2} has been the major acidification agent, but lately nitrogen compounds increasingly have become important. The amount and chemical form of nitrogen strongly affects the pH in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane. Many forest stands show a positive growth response to increased nitrogen input, even in heavily N-loaded areas. Nitrogen fertilization experiments suggest that part of the increased forest production is caused by a translocation of biomass production from below-ground to above-ground parts. At the same time fine-root growth dynamics are strongly affected by the high N supply. Deficiencies of various nutrients (Mg,Ca,K,Mn and Zn) obtained from needle analyses have been reported from different Picea abies stands. In areas with more extensive acidification and nutrient leaching, a decline in tree vitality has been observed. Although deficiency symptoms in forest trees may be reflected in nitrogen/cation ratios in fine roots, few attempts have been made to explain forest damage symptoms from fine-root chemistry. Root damage is often described as a decline in the amount of living fine roots, an increase in the amount of dead versus live fine roots (a lower live/dead ratio) and an increasing amount of dead medium and coarse roots. The primary objectives of the present presentation were to analyse available data on the effects of high nitrogen and sulphur deposition on mineral nutrient balance in tree fine roots and to evaluate the risk of Al interference with cation uptake by roots

  9. Activator-assisted electroless deposition of copper nanostructured films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Varsha R. Mehto; R. K. Pandey

    2014-01-01

    This paper showed simple and effective synthesis of copper nanoparticles within controlled diameter using direct electroless deposition on glass substrates, following the sensitization and activation steps. Electroless-deposited metals, such as Cu, Co, Ni, and Ag, and their alloys had many advantages in micro- and nanotechnologies. The structural, morphological, and optical properties of copper deposits were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The structural data was further analyzed using the Rietveld refinement program. Structural studies reveal that the deposited copper prefers a (111) orientation. AFM studies suggest the deposited materials form compact, uniform, and nanocrystalline phases with a high tendency to self-organize. The data show that the particle size can be controlled by controlling the activator concentration. The absorption spectra of the as-deposited copper nanoparticles reveal that the plasmonic peak broadens and exhibits a blue shift with decreasing particle size.

  10. Carbon deposition on nickel ferrites and nickel-magnetite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon deposition on Commercial Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (CAGR) fuel cladding and heat exchanger surfaces lowers heat transfer efficiency and increases fuel pin temperatures. Several types of deposit have been identified including both thin dense layers and also low density columnar deposits with filamentary or convoluted laminar structure. The low-density types are often associated with particles containing iron, nickel or manganese. To identify the role of nickel in the deposition process surfaces composed of nickel-iron spinels or metallic nickel/magnetite mixtures have been exposed to γ radiation in a gas environment simulating that in the reactor. Examination of these surfaces by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) have shown that while metallic nickel (Ni(O)) catalyses the formation of filamentary low density carbon deposits, the presence of divalent nickel (Ni(II)) sites in spinel type oxides is associated only with dense deposits. (author)

  11. Nanostructure templating using low temperature atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Robert K.; Bogart, Gregory R.; Rogers, John A.

    2011-12-20

    Methods are described for making nanostructures that are mechanically, chemically and thermally stable at desired elevated temperatures, from nanostructure templates having a stability temperature that is less than the desired elevated temperature. The methods comprise depositing by atomic layer deposition (ALD) structural layers that are stable at the desired elevated temperatures, onto a template employing a graded temperature deposition scheme. At least one structural layer is deposited at an initial temperature that is less than or equal to the stability temperature of the template, and subsequent depositions made at incrementally increased deposition temperatures until the desired elevated temperature stability is achieved. Nanostructure templates include three dimensional (3D) polymeric templates having features on the order of 100 nm fabricated by proximity field nanopatterning (PnP) methods.

  12. RANGE SURVEY OF DEPOSITION IN THE LOWER YELLOW RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Yuqian; LIANG Guoting; ZHANG Yuanfeng; SHEN Guanqing; ZHANG Liuzhu; CHENG Longyuan

    2002-01-01

    A range survey database is established and used to study the deposition or erosion processes in the Lower Yellow River (LYR). The huge amount of data obtained through range surveys over nearly 50 years is managed by software (RGTOOLS) developed for this study. RGTOOLS is also used to evaluate the amount and distribution of deposition or erosion in LYR. Volumetric method is used for computation of the amount of deposition. Spatial and temporal variations of the deposition are studied and illustrated with drawings. It is found that a total of 6.44 billion m3 of sediment were deposited in the lower Yellow River over approximately 50 years. The pattern of deposition varies in response to the variation of oncoming flow, which is influenced by natural climatic variations and also by reservoir operation.

  13. Nanodot deposition and its application with atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zenglei, E-mail: liuzenglei@sia.cn; Jiao Niandong, E-mail: ndjiao@sia.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation (China); Xu Ke [Shenyang Jianzhu University (China); Wang, Zhidong [Chiba Institute of Technology (Japan); Dong Zaili; Liu Lianqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation (China)

    2013-06-15

    Nanodot deposition using atomic force microscope (AFM) is investigated. To realize repeatable and precise deposition of nanodots, the detailed control method is discussed. The electric field between AFM tip and substrate is analyzed, and a convenient method to control tip-substrate separation is proposed. In experiments, two nanodot matrixes are fabricated and the heights of the nanodots are analyzed. Experimental results testify that the control method can lead to repeatable and precise fabrication of deposited nanodots. As an application of deposited nanodots, a carbon nanotube (CNT) is soldered on gold electrodes with deposited Au nanodots. After soldering, the contact resistances between the CNT and the electrodes decrease greatly. AFM-based nanodot deposition can be used to fabricate special nanopatterns; also it can be used to solder nanomaterials on substrates to improve the electrical connection, which has a promising future for nanodevice fabrication.

  14. Liquid-phase-deposited barium titanate thin films on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a mixture of hexafluorotitanic acid, barium nitrate and boric acid, high refractive index (1.54) barium titanate films can be deposited on silicon substrates. The deposited barium titanate films have featureless surfaces. The deposition temperature is near room temperature (800C). However, there are many fluorine and silicon incorporations in the films. The refractive index of the as-deposited film is 1.54. By current-voltage measurement, the leakage current of the as-deposited film with a thickness of 1000 A is about 9.48x10-7 A cm-2 at the electrical field intensity of 0.3 MV cm-1. By capacitance-voltage measurement, the effective oxide charge of the liquid-phase-deposited barium titanate film is 3.06x1011 cm-2 and the static dielectric constant is about 22. (author)

  15. Light-induced chemical vapour deposition painting with titanium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halary-Wagner, E.; Bret, T.; Hoffmann, P.

    2003-03-01

    Light-induced chemical vapour deposits of titanium dioxide are obtained from titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) in an oxygen and nitrogen atmosphere with a long pulse (250 ns) 308 nm XeCl excimer laser using a mask projection set-up. The demonstrated advantages of this technique are: (i) selective area deposition, (ii) precise control of the deposited thickness and (iii) low temperature deposition, enabling to use a wide range of substrates. A revolving mask system enables, in a single reactor load, to deposit shapes of controlled heights, which overlap to build up a complex pattern. Interferential multi-coloured deposits are achieved, and the process limitations (available colours and resolution) are discussed.

  16. Selective Metal-vapor Deposition on Organic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujioka, Tsuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Selective metal-vapor deposition signifies that metal-vapor atoms are deposited on a hard organic surface, but not on a soft (low glass transition temperature, low Tg ) surface. In this paper, we introduce the origin, extension, and applications of selective metal-vapor deposition. An amorphous photochromic diarylethene film shows light-controlled selective metal-vapor deposition, which is caused by a large Tg change based on photoisomerization, but various organic surfaces, including organic crystal and polymers, can be utilized for achieving selective metal-vapor deposition. Various applications of selective metal-vapor deposition, including cathode patterning of organic light-emitting devices, micro-thin-film fuses, multifunctional diffraction gratings, in-plane electrical bistability for memory devices, and metal-vapor integration, have been demonstrated. PMID:26663735

  17. 25 years of pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Michael; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    It is our pleasure to introduce this special issue appearing on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of pulsed laser deposition (PLD), which is today one of the most versatile growth techniques for oxide thin films and nanostructures. Ever since its invention, PLD has revolutionized the research on advanced functional oxides due to its ability to yield high-quality thin films, multilayers and heterostructures of a variety of multi-element material systems with rather simple technical means. We appreciate that the use of lasers to deposit films via ablation (now termed PLD) has been known since the 1960s after the invention of the first ruby laser. However, in the first two decades, PLD was something of a 'sleeping beauty' with only a few publications per year, as shown below. This state of hibernation ended abruptly with the advent of high T c superconductor research when scientists needed to grow high-quality thin films of multi-component high T c oxide systems. When most of the conventional growth techniques failed, the invention of PLD by T (Venky) Venkatesan clearly demonstrated that the newly discovered high-T c superconductor, YBa2Cu3O7-δ , could be stoichiometrically deposited as a high-quality nm-thin film with PLD [1]. As a remarkable highlight of this special issue, Venkatesan gives us his very personal reminiscence on these particularly innovative years of PLD beginning in 1986 [2]. After Venky's first paper [1], the importance of this invention was realized worldwide and the number of publications on PLD increased exponentially, as shown in figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1. Published items per year with title or topic PLD. Data from Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge in September 2013. After publication of Venky's famous paper in 1987 [1], the story of PLD's success began with a sudden jump in the number of publications, about 25 years ago. A first PLD textbook covering its basic understanding was soon published, in 1994, by Chrisey and Hubler [3]. Within a

  18. Deposition of copper coatings in a magnetron with liquid target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumarkin, A. V., E-mail: sanyahrustal@mail.ru; Kaziev, A. V.; Kolodko, D. V.; Pisarev, A. A.; Kharkov, M. M.; Khodachenko, G. V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Copper coatings were deposited on monocrystalline Si substrates using a magnetron discharge with a liquid cathode in the metal vapour plasma. During the deposition, the bias voltage in the range from 0 V to–400 V was applied to the substrate. The prepared films were investigated by a scanning electron microscope, and their adhesive properties were studied using a scratch tester. It was demonstrated that the adhesion of the deposited films strongly depends on the bias voltage and varies in a wide range.

  19. Preparation of tube blanks by atomization deposition process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    By using the method of mathematical calculation combined with experiment, the technological conditions of atomization deposition process for making tube blanks with even thickness were studied. The results show that in the case of the substrate rotating and translating simultaneously, when the ratio of the rotation frequency to the translational velocity is very large, and the other deposition conditions are suitable, tube blanks with even thickness and high density can be produced, and the actual deposition efficiency will be highest.

  20. Deposition and evolution of the Sivas basin evaporites (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichat, Alexandre; Hoareau, Guilhem; Rouchy, Jean-Marie; Ribes, Charlotte; Kergaravat, Charlie; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2015-04-01

    The Oligo-Miocene Sivas basin (Turkey) is strongly affected by salt tectonics, best expressed in its central part. Halokinesis initiated from the Upper Eocene Hafik formation, composed of thick evaporite layers. Salt tectonics induced the formation of numerous mini basins filled with continental to marine deposits, and nowadays separated by diapiric gypsum walls or welds. Continental deposits filling minibasins developed in arid conditions. Minibasin sandstones are frequently interlayered with evaporitic deposits (gypsum and anhydrite). Two types of depositional evaporites can be distinguished: (i) evaporites precipitated in lacustrine to sebkhaic environment, (ii) gypsarenites resulting from clastic gypsum remobilization. Field observations suggest that both types of depositional evaporites were likely sourced from the recycling of adjacent salt structures. Precipitation of lacustro-sebkhaic evaporites may have been triggered by meteoric waters enriched in dissolved sulfate after the chemical dissolution of outcropping evaporites. Gypsarenite deposits can be explained by mechanical dismantling of nearby evaporite structures. Evaporitic deposits were subsequently involved in active salt tectonics. During periods of quiescent diapirism, thick sebkhaic deposits were also deposited in secondary minibasins located on former salt domes. During periods of diapiric growth, linked to regional compressive tectonics, these deposits were then locally deformed and can show strong flowage textures. When rising diapiric evaporites reached the surface, it was also able to mechanically spread out within the minibasins, forming salt glaciers. In this case, if depositional evaporites were overlying the extruded diapir, both diapiric and depositional evaporites were incorporated in salt tectonic structures. Ongoing chemical analysis should help us to precise more accurately the different sources and the dynamics of these multigeneration evaporites.

  1. An earth system model for evaluation of dry deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arritt, R.W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A coupled model of atmosphere, soil, and vegetation showed that interactions among the various components can have important effects on dry deposition of SO{sub 2}. In particular, dry soil (near or below the wilting point) leads to an increase of stomatal resistance and a decrease in deposition. Once the soil moisture is at least twice the wilting point, the model results indicate that additional moisture has little effect on the accumulated daytime dry deposition.

  2. Experimental Research and Modeling of Particle Deposition in Ventilation Ducts

    OpenAIRE

    Hongming Fan; Jing Hua

    2013-01-01

    The model to predict particle deposition velocity on rough walls in fully developed turbulent duct flows has been developed in previous studies. For particle deposition model boundary conditions, it is assumed that the concentration of the particle is zero on the surface and the resuspension velocity is constant. However, the resuspension velocity may not be constant with the increase in mass of the deposited dust. To analyze the behavior of resuspension in air flow, a set of experiments were...

  3. Plasma deposition of thiophene derivatives under atmospheric pressure

    OpenAIRE

    DAMS, Roel; VANGENEUGDEN, Dirk; Vanderzande, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    Plasma deposition of conjugated polymer films under atmospheric pressure is described. Three thiophene derivatives (thiophene, 3-methylthiophene, and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) are used as monomers. The plasma depositions with the various precursors are compared using analytical techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and resistance measurements. Good results are obtained with pulsed plasma depositions of...

  4. Operational mapping of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Hertel, O.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Brandt, J.; J.H. Christensen; Frohn, L. M.; J. Frydendall

    2003-01-01

    A new model system for mapping and forecasting nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea has been developed. The system is based on the Lagrangian variable scale transport-chemistry model ACDEP (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition model), and aims at delivering deposition estimates to be used as input to marine ecosystem models. The system is tested by comparison of model results to measurements from monitoring stations around the Baltic Sea. The comp...

  5. Operational mapping of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hertel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new model system for mapping and forecasting nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea has been developed. The system is based on the Lagrangian variable scale transport-chemistry model ACDEP (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition model, and aims at delivering deposition estimates to be used as input to marine ecosystem models. The system is tested by comparison of model results to measurements from monitoring stations around the Baltic Sea. The comparison shows that observed annual mean ambient air concentrations and wet depositions are well reproduced by the model. Diurnal mean concentrations of NHx (sum of NH3 and NH4+ and NO2 are fairly well reproduced, whereas concentrations of total nitrate (sum of HNO3 and NO3- are somewhat overestimated. Wet depositions of nitrate and ammonia are fairly well described for annual mean values, whereas the discrepancy is high for the monthly mean values and the wet depositions are rather poorly described concerning the diurnal mean values. The model calculations show that the annual atmospheric nitrogen deposition has a pronounced south--north gradient with depositions in the range about 1.0 T N km-2 in the south and 0.2 T N km-2 in the north. The results show that in 1999 the maximum diurnal mean deposition to the Danish waters appeared during the summer in the algae growth season. For the northern parts of the Baltic the highest depositions were distributed over most of the year. Total deposition to the Baltic Sea was for the year 1999 estimated to 318 kT N for an area of 464 406 km2 equivalent to an average deposition of 684 kg N/km2.

  6. Reactive magnetron sputtering : from fundamentals to high deposition rate processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kubart, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Reactive magnetron sputtering is widely used for synthesis of various compound thin films. The technique is very versatile and scalable. Especially in industry, high productivity is essential and there is a need for processes with high deposition rates. Achieving high deposition rate and true compound stoichiometry of the deposited film is, however, challenging in reactive sputtering. As a consequence of complex interaction between the reactive gas and the sputtered metal, the relation betwee...

  7. Chemical vapour deposition of metal oxides and phosphides.

    OpenAIRE

    Binions, R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis investigates the deposition of thin films of main group metal phosphide and main group metal oxide compounds on glass substrates by the use of dual source atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition. Binary phosphide systems with tin, germanium, silicon, antimony, copper or boron have been examined. Binary oxide systems of gallium, antimony, tin or niobium have also been investigated. Additionally these systems were deposited on gas sensor substrates and evaluated as metal oxi...

  8. Thermal modelling of orogenic mesothermal deposits : application to Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Harcouët, Virginie

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with thermal processes and fluid flow regimes leading to the genesis of mesothermal gold deposits.Two numerical modelling approaches have been used, a regional one, characterising the conductive thermal regime before mineralisation and a local one adding hydrothermal convection contemporaneous to mineralisation. Models are applied to the Palaeoproterozoic ore deposits of the Ashanti belt in Ghana which are representative of giant mesothermal gold deposits. From the results, ...

  9. Paleoecology of Early Jurassic Navajo Sandstone Interdune Deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkens, Nathan Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The Lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone represents a desert that covered more than 366,000 square kilometers. Localized interdune deposits commonly occur along the eastern edge of this desert that include carbonates, bioturbated layers, and plant fossils. Previous studies of these deposits focused on specific fossil types or isolated sites. This study involved a comprehensive analysis of the paleoecology of interdune deposits with an integrated approach combining paleontology, sedimentology and g...

  10. Map of critical raw material deposits in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume, Bertrand; Cassard, Daniel; Arvanitidis, Nikolaos; Stanley, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    International audience The Critical Raw Material (CRM) Deposit Map of Europe, prepared by EuroGeoSurvey's Mineral Resources Expert Group (MREG), shows European mineral deposits from the ProMine Mineral Deposit database containing critical commodities, according to the 2014 list of critical raw materials of the European Commission. EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), The Geological Surveys of Europe, is a not-for-profit organization representing 37 National Geological Surveys and some regional Geological...

  11. Predictions for particle deposition from LES of ribbed channel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predictions for the deposition of spherical and cylindrical particles from a ribbed channel flow onto adjacent flow boundaries are obtained using large eddy simulation (LES) under the assumption of one-way coupling. Results indicate that spherical particles tend to accumulate on the vertical rib wall facing the mean-flow direction with little particle deposition onto surfaces immediately downstream of the rib. This preferential deposition is not predicted for cylindrical particles

  12. Numerical Simulation of Particle Deposition in the Human Lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Gengenbach, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We model, simulate and calculate breathing and particle depositions in the human lungs. We review the theory and discretization of fluid mechanics, the anatomy, physiology and measuring methods of lungs. A new model is introduced and investigated with a sensitivity analysis using the singular value decomposition. Particle depositions are simulated in patient-specific and schematized human lungs and compared to the particle deposition in a multiplicative model of subsequent bifurcations.

  13. Optical characterization of directly deposited graphene on a dielectric substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplas, Tommi; Karvonen, Lasse; Ahmadi, Sepehr; Amirsolaimani, Babak; Mehravar, Soroush; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Kieu, Khanh; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Svirko, Yuri

    2016-02-01

    By using scanning multiphoton microscopy we compare the nonlinear optical properties of the directly deposited and transferred to the dielectric substrate graphene. The direct deposition of graphene on oxidized silicon wafer was done by utilizing sacrificial copper catalyst film. We demonstrate that the directly deposited graphene and bi-layered transferred graphene produce comparable third harmonic signals and have almost the same damage thresholds. Therefore, we believe directly deposited graphene is suitable for the use of e.g. nanofabricated optical setups. PMID:26906863

  14. Method of depositing a high-emissivity layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickersham, Charles E.; Foster, Ellis L.

    1983-01-01

    A method of depositing a high-emissivity layer on a substrate comprising RF sputter deposition of a carbide-containing target in an atmosphere of a hydrocarbon gas and a noble gas. As the carbide is deposited on the substrate the hydrocarbon gas decomposes to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon deposits on the target and substrate causing a carbide/carbon composition gradient to form on the substrate. At a sufficiently high partial pressure of hydrocarbon gas, a film of high-emissivity pure carbon will eventually form over the substrate.

  15. Microreactor-Assisted Solution Deposition for Compound Semiconductor Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ho Choi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art techniques for the fabrication of compound semiconductors are mostly vacuum-based physical vapor or chemical vapor deposition processes. These vacuum-based techniques typically operate at high temperatures and normally require higher capital costs. Solution-based techniques offer opportunities to fabricate compound semiconductors at lower temperatures and lower capital costs. Among many solution-based deposition processes, chemical bath deposition is an attractive technique for depositing semiconductor films, owing to its low temperature, low cost and large area deposition capability. Chemical bath deposition processes are mainly performed using batch reactors, where all reactants are fed into the reactor simultaneously and products are removed after the processing is finished. Consequently, reaction selectivity is difficult, which can lead to unwanted secondary reactions. Microreactor-assisted solution deposition processes can overcome this limitation by producing short-life molecular intermediates used for heterogeneous thin film synthesis and quenching the reaction prior to homogeneous reactions. In this paper, we present progress in the synthesis and deposition of semiconductor thin films with a focus on CdS using microreactor-assisted solution deposition and provide an overview of its prospect for scale-up.

  16. Review:Resuspension of wall deposits in spray dryers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Wall deposition occurs in spray dryers when dried or partially dried particles contact and adhere to the walls during operation, thus reducing the yield of product collected. Wall deposits also present a product contamination risk and a fire or explosion risk when spray drying products that oxidize exothermically, such as milk powder. Re-entrainment is the resuspension of spray dryer wall deposits into the main gas stream for collection as product. Literature suggests that the process for re-entrainment of particles from spray dryer wall deposits is strongly dependent on particle size and gas velocity.

  17. Market discipline: A review of the Mexican deposit market

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar-García, Edgar Demetrio

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the mechanisms of market discipline in the Mexican deposit market. It tests the hypothesis that low-quality banks pay higher interest rates on deposits, receive fewer deposits, and shift their deposit agreements from long to short term. This hypothesis was assessed with positive evidence in Mexico during the period 1991 - 1996, but was not checked again. This research uses a dynamic panel model and a sample of 37 banks from December 2008 to September 2012 to re-evaluate the...

  18. Texture control during laser deposition of nickel-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nickel-based superalloy was deposited on a nickel-based superalloy substrate by a laser-aided direct metal deposition process. The age-hardening behavior of the as-deposited clad was studied. The effect of laser beam scanning pattern on dendrite growth morphology was investigated using electron backscatter diffraction. Unidirectional laser beam scanning pattern developed a fiber texture; conversely, a backward and forward scanning pattern developed a rotated cube texture in the deposit. This paper reports a route to produce texture-controlled laser clad on a polycrystalline substrate.

  19. Plasma sputtering system for deposition of thin film combinatorial libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James S.; Zhang, Guanghai; McGinn, Paul J.

    2005-06-01

    The design of a plasma sputtering system for the deposition of combinatorial libraries is described. A rotating carousel is used to position shadow masks between the targets and the substrate. Multilayer films are built up by depositing sequentially through various masks. Postdeposition annealing is used to promote interdiffusion of the layered structures. Either discrete or compositional gradient libraries can be deposited in this system. Samples appropriate for characterization with a scanning electrochemical microscope or a multichannel microelectrode array system can be produced. The properties of some deposited Pt-Ru films for fuel cell applications are described.

  20. Duobaoshan Porphyry Copper Deposit and Its Associated Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Duobaoshan porphyry copper deposit, situated in Nenjiang County of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, lies tectonically in the Mongolian-Okhotsk geosyncline.Duobaoshan porphyry copper ore field consisting of Duobaoshan copper deposit and Tongshan copper deposit contains rich copper associated with molybdenum, gold, silver and osmium (OsX87). In this sense, this porphyry copper ore field will turn into a large industrial base of copper, gold, silver and osmium. At present, in Duobaoshan porphyry copper deposit occurs a usable B+C+-D grade reserve of 3 276 630ton Cu, 122 920 ton Mo, 87 ton gold and 1 417 ton Ag.

  1. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.L.

    1997-11-01

    During the award period, a number of studies have been carried out related to the overall objective of the project which is to elucidate important factors which influence the upper airway deposition and dose of particles in the size range 0.5 nm - 10 {mu}m, such as particle size, breathing conditions, age, airway geometry, and mode of breathing. These studies are listed below. (1) A high voltage electrospray system was constructed to generate polydispersed 1-10 {mu}m diameter di-ethylhexyl sebacate aerosol for particle deposition studies in nasal casts and in human subjects. (2) The effect of nostril dimensions, nasal passage geometry, and nasal resistance on particle deposition efficiency in forty healthy, nonsmoking adults at a constant flowrate were studied. (3) The effect of nostril dimensions, nasal passage dimensions and nasal resistance on the percentage of particle deposition in the anterior 3 cm of the nasal passage of spontaneously breathing humans were studied. (4) The region of deposition of monodispersed aerosols were studied using replicate casts. (5) Ultrafine aerosol deposition using simulated breath holding path and natural path was compared. (6) An experimental technique was proposed and tested to measure the oral deposition of inhaled ultrafine particles. (7) We have calculated the total deposition fraction of ultrafine aerosols from 5 to 200 n in the extrathoracic airways and in the lung. (8) The deposition fraction of radon progeny in the head airways was studied using several head airway models.

  2. Comparison of different experimental techniques used for wax deposition testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenson, Stephen; Johnston, Angela [Nalco Energy Services, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Crude oils consist of various fractions of hydrocarbons, including n-paraffins. The paraffins precipitate out of oil below the temperature called WAT (wax appearance temperature) and accumulate in flow lines and pipelines causing major transport problems. Prediction of paraffin deposition is, therefore, a key element of flow assurance programs. The purpose of this study was to develop a general and reliable approach to prediction of wax deposition based on a critical comparison of several practical lab techniques. Wax deposition study was conducted on five separate crude oils by using a varying protocols and equipment. One experimental technique was a cold stress test of wax deposition combined with ketone precipitation of waxy paraffin crystals. Another set of experiments were carried out for wax deposits formed on the surface of U-tubes and cold fingers of different designs. A comparison of the effectiveness of several wax inhibitors was conducted for these crude oils by using the selected deposition techniques. In each test method the amount of precipitated wax was recorded and compared. The deposits were characterized by melting point, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the wax components using DSC, SARA and HTGC analyses. Efficiency of paraffin inhibitors was correlated with a profile of n-paraffins distribution in the deposits. The limitations and advantages of different deposition techniques were analyzed and discussed. (author)

  3. Characterization of wax deposition by different experimental techniques - a comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeman, Olga; Allenson, Steve

    2006-03-15

    Crude oils consist of various fractions of hydrocarbons, including n-paraffins. The paraffins precipitate out of oil below the temperature called WAT (wax appearance temperature) and accumulate in flow lines causing major transport problems. Prediction of paraffin deposition is, therefore, a key element of flow assurance programs. The purpose of this study was to develop a general and reliable approach to prediction of wax deposition based on a critical comparison of several practical lab techniques. Wax deposition study was conducted on multiple crude oils using various testing protocols and equipment. One experimental technique was a cold stress test of wax deposition combined with ketone precipitation of waxy paraffin crystals. Another set of experiments was carried out for wax deposits formed on the surface of U-tubes and cold fingers of different designs. A comparison of the effectiveness of several wax inhibitors was conducted for these crude oils by using the selected deposition techniques. In each test method the amount of precipitated wax was recorded and compared. The deposits were characterized by melting point, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the wax components using DSC, SARA and HTGC analyses. Efficiency of paraffin inhibitors was correlated with a profile of n-paraffins distribution in the deposits. The limitations and advantages of different deposition techniques were analyzed and discussed. A new test design designated ''cold tube'' is proposed. (Author) (tk)

  4. Pulsed laser deposition and characterization of Alnico5 magnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnico5 films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on glass substrate at room temperature under a vacuum ∼10−3 Torr in the absence and in the presence of 500 Oe external transverse magnetic field applied on the plasma plume during film deposition. For this purpose, Nd:YAG laser was employed to ablate the Alnico5 target. The ablated material was deposited on glass substrate placed at a distance of 2 cm from the target. The structural and magnetic properties of the film were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, and vibrating sample magnetometer. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the Alnico5 films were amorphous in nature. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the Alnico5 film deposited in absence of external magnetic field has larger root-mean-square roughness value (60.2 nm) than the magnetically deposited film (42.9 nm). Vibrating sample magnetometer measurements showed that the in-plane saturation magnetization of Alnico5 film deposited in the presence of external magnetic field increases by 32% as compared to that for the film deposited in the absence of external magnetic field. However, the out-of-plane saturation magnetization was almost independent of the external magnetic field. In magnetically deposited film, there is in-plane anisotropy parallel to the applied external magnetic field.

  5. Assessment of the effectiveness of uranium deposit searching methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following groups of uranium deposit searching methods are described: radiometric review of foreign work; aerial radiometric survey; automobile radiometric survey; emanation survey up to 1 m; emanation survey up to 2 m; ground radiometric survey; radiometric survey in pits; deep radiometric survey; combination of the above methods; and other methods (drilling survey). For vein-type deposits, the majority of Czech deposits were discovered in 1945-1965 by radiometric review of foreign work, automobile radiometric survey, and emanation survey up to 1 m. The first significant indications of sandstone type uranium deposits were observed in the mid-1960 by aerial radiometric survey and confirmed later by drilling. (P.A.)

  6. Mo SILICIDE SYNTHISIS BY DUAL ION BEAM DEPOSITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.H. Zhang; Z.Z. Yi; X.Y. Wu; S.J. Zhang; Y.G. Wu; X. Zhang; H.X. Zhang; A.D. Liu; X.J. Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Mo silicides MosSi3 with high quality were prepared using ion beam deposition equip-ment with two Filter Metal Vacuum Arc Deposition (FMEVAD). When the numberof alternant deposition times was 198, total thickness of the coating is 40nm. Thecoatings with droplet free can be readily obtained, so the surface is smooth. TEMobservation shows that Mo and Si alternant deposition coating is conpact structure.The fine Mo silicide grains densely distributed in the coating. The coating adherenceon silicon is excellent.

  7. Fog deposition to a Tillandsia carpet in the Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Osses

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. In this exploratory study we estimate the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determine the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of water. Between 31 July and 19 August 2008 approximately 2.5 L m−2 of water were made available through deposition. Whole-year deposition was estimated as 25 L m−2. Turbulent upward fluxes occurred several times during the evenings and are explained by the formation of radiation fog. In connection with that, underestimates of the deposition are assumed. More detailed studies covering various seasons and all parameters and fluxes contributing to the local energy balance are suggested. This will help to further develop understanding about the processes of (i deposition of water to the desert, and (ii intensification of advection fog through additional formation of radiation fog.

  8. A Review of Variable Slicing in Fused Deposition Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiyapara, Hitesh Hirjibhai; Pande, Sarang

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a literature survey in the field of fused deposition of plastic wires especially in the field of slicing and deposition using extrusion of thermoplastic wires. Various researchers working in the field of computation of deposition path have used their algorithms for variable slicing. In the study, a flowchart has also been proposed for the slicing and deposition process. The algorithm already been developed by previous researcher will be used to be implemented on the fused deposition modelling machine. To demonstrate the capabilities of the fused deposition modeling machine a case study has been taken. It uses a manipulated G-code to be fed to the fused deposition modeling machine. Two types of slicing strategies, namely uniform slicing and variable slicing have been evaluated. In the uniform slicing, the slice thickness has been used for deposition is varying from 0.1 to 0.4 mm. In the variable slicing, thickness has been varied from 0.1 in the polar region to 0.4 in the equatorial region Time required and the number of slices required to deposit a hemisphere of 20 mm diameter have been compared with that using the variable slicing.

  9. USE OF ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF NANOPOROUS BIOMATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.; Narayan, R.; Adiga, S.; Pellin, M.; Curtiss, L.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Elam, J.

    2010-02-08

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

  10. A Review of Atomic Layer Deposition for Nanoscale Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Riyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposition (ALD is a thin film growth technique that utilizes alternating, self-saturation chemical reactions between gaseous precursors to achieve a deposited nanoscale layers. It has recently become a subject of great interest for ultrathin film deposition in many various applications such as microelectronics, photovoltaic, dynamic random access memory (DRAM, and microelectromechanic system (MEMS. By using ALD, the conformability and extreme uniformity of layers can be achieved in low temperature process. It facilitates to be deposited onto the surface in many variety substrates that have low melting temperature. Eventually it has advantages on the contribution to the wider nanodevices.

  11. Optical characterization of directly deposited graphene on a dielectric substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplas, Tommi; Karvonen, Lasse; Ahmadi, Sepehr;

    2016-01-01

    By using scanning multiphoton microscopy we compare the nonlinear optical properties of the directly deposited and transferred to the dielectric substrate graphene. The direct deposition of graphene on oxidized silicon wafer was done by utilizing sacrificial copper catalyst film. We demonstrate...... that the directly deposited graphene and bi-layered transferred graphene produce comparable third harmonic signals and have almost the same damage thresholds. Therefore, we believe directly deposited graphene is suitable for the use of e.g. nanofabricated optical setups. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  12. Characterization of Thin Films Deposited with Precursor Ferrocene by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Kailun; ZHENG Jianwan; LIU Zuli; JIA Lihui

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the characterization of thin films,deposited with the precursor ferrocene(FcH)by the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition(PECVD)technique,was investigated.The films were measured by Scanning Electronic Microscopy(SEM),Atomic Force Microscopy(AFM),Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis(ESCA),and superconducting Quantum Interference Device(SQUID).It was observed that the film's layer is homogeneous in thickness and has a dense morphology without cracks.The surface roughness is about 36 nm.From the results of ESCA,it can be inferred that the film mainly contains the compound FeOOH,and carbon is combined with oxygen in different forms under different supply-powers.The hysteresis loops indicate that the film is of soft magnetism.

  13. Deposition and characterization of vacuum deposited aluminum films on Kapton laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, D.M.

    1978-07-01

    A process has been developed for the vacuum deposition by electron beam evaporation of high quality aluminum films 10 ..mu..m thick on domed three-layer laminated substrates consisting of Kapton/Pyralux/Kapton/Pyralux/Aluminum (Du Pont Corporation). Thermogravimetric analysis and mass spectrometry of the substrate materials and in-process residual gas analysis were used to determine the outgassing characteristics of the substrate laminate and to aid in the development of suitable thermal processing. The laminated substrates required bakeouts both at atmosphere and in high vacuum prior to deposition to permit evaporation at a pressure of 0.1 mPa (1 x 10/sup -6/ torr). Film properties that were obtained were a thickness uniformity across a 200 mm diameter part in the 1 percent range, a resistivity near that of bulk pure aluminum, a smooth and shiny film surface, and adequate film adhesion.

  14. Thin films of barium fluoride scintillator deposited by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technology to coat optical substrates with thin (≅ 1-10 μm thick) films of inorganic BaF2 scintillator. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs indicate that high-quality epitaxial crystalline film growth was achieved, with surface defects typically smaller than optical wavelengths. The scintillation light created by the deposition of ionizing radiation in the scintillating films was measured with a photomultiplier and shown to be similar to bulk melt-grown crystals. The results demonstrate the potential of these composite optical materials for planar and fiber scintillation radiation detectors in high energy and nuclear physics, synchrotron radiation research, and in radiation and X-ray imaging and monitoring. (orig.)

  15. Characterization of CdTe Films Deposited at Various Bath Temperatures and Concentrations Using Electrophoretic Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Zainal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available CdTe film was deposited using the electrophoretic deposition technique onto an ITO glass at various bath temperatures. Four batch film compositions were used by mixing 1 to 4 wt% concentration of CdTe powder with 10 mL of a solution of methanol and toluene. X-ray Diffraction analysis showed that the films exhibited polycrystalline nature of zinc-blende structure with the (111 orientation as the most prominent peak. From the Atomic Force Microscopy, the thickness and surface roughness of the CdTe film increased with the increase of CdTe concentration. The optical energy band gap of film decreased with the increase of CdTe concentration, and with the increase of isothermal bath temperature. The film thickness increased with respect to the increase of CdTe concentration and bath temperature, and following, the numerical expression for the film thickness with respect to these two variables has been established.

  16. Electrochemical deposition and characterization of zinc-nickel alloys deposited by direct and pulse current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORAN R. RADOVIC

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and phase structure of Zn-Ni alloys obtained by electrochemical deposition under various conditions were investigated. The alloys were deposited on a rotating disc electrode and steel panel from chloride solutions by direct and pulse current. The influence of the pulse plating variables (on-time, off-time, relation of off- and on-time on the composition, phase structure and corrosion properties were investigated. The phase composition affects the anticorrosive properties of Zn-Ni alloys during exposure to a corrosive agent (3 % NaCl solution. It was shown that a Zn-Ni alloy electrodeposited by pulse current with a pulse time of 1 ms and an off- and on-time ratio of 1 exhibits the best corrosion properties.

  17. Low resistance polycrystalline diamond thin films deposited by hot filament chemical vapour deposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahtab Ullah; Ejaz Ahmed; Abdelbary Elhissi; Waqar Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Polycrystalline diamond thin films with outgrowing diamond (OGD) grains were deposited onto silicon wafers using a hydrocarbon gas (CH4) highly diluted with H2 at low pressure in a hot filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) reactor with a range of gas flow rates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM showed polycrystalline diamond structure with a random orientation. Polycrystalline diamond films with various textures were grown and (111) facets were dominant with sharp grain boundaries. Outgrowth was observed in flowerish character at high gas flow rates. Isolated single crystals with little openings appeared at various stages at low gas flow rates. Thus, changing gas flow rates had a beneficial influence on the grain size, growth rate and electrical resistivity. CVD diamond films gave an excellent performance for medium film thickness with relatively low electrical resistivity and making them potentially useful in many industrial applications.

  18. Porphyry copper deposit model: Chapter B in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Barton, Mark D.; Blakely, Richard J.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Dilles, John H.; Gray, Floyd; Graybeal, Fred T.; Mars, John L.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Seal, Robert R., II; Taylor, Ryan D.; Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains a revised descriptive model of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs), the world's largest source (about 60 percent) and resource (about 65 percent) of copper and a major source of molybdenum, gold and silver. Despite relatively low grades (average 0.44 percent copper in 2008), PCDs have significant economic and societal impacts due to their large size (commonly hundreds of millions to billions of metric tons), long mine lives (decades), and high production rates (billions of kilograms of copper per year). The revised model describes the geotectonic setting of PCDs, and provides extensive regional- to deposit-scale descriptions and illustrations of geological, geochemical, geophysical, and geoenvironmental characteristics. Current genetic theories are reviewed and evaluated, knowledge gaps are identified, and a variety of exploration and assessment guides are presented. A summary is included for users seeking overviews of specific topics.

  19. Microwave annealing effects on ZnO films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Shirui; Dong Yabin; Yu Mingyan; Guo Xiaolong; Xu Xinwei; Jing Yupeng; Xia Yang

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide thin films deposited on glass substrate at 150 ℃ by atomic layer deposition were annealed by the microwave method at temperatures below 500 ℃.The microwave annealing effects on the structural and luminescent properties of ZnO films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence.The results show that the MWA process can increase the crystal quality of ZnO thin films with a lower annealing temperature than RTA and relatively decrease the green luminescence of ZnO films.The observed changes have demonstrated that MWA is a viable technique for improving the crystalline quality of ZnO thin film on glass.

  20. Deposition of silicon oxide like films from HMDSO by means of atmospheric pressure microplasma jets: Study of deposition mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, R; Ellerweg, D; Arcos, T de los; von Keudell, A; Benedikt, J

    2011-01-01

    The deposition of thin SiOxCyH or SiOxHy films by means of atmospheric pressure microplasma jets with Helium / Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO / O2) mixtures and the role of surface reactions for the film growth have been investigated. The growth rate and the carbon-content in the film are measured as a function of the O2 and HMDSO mixture in the gas flow. Two types of microplasma jets, one with a planar and one with a coaxial geometry, are used to study the deposition process. The very localised deposition on and treatment of the surface gives the opportunity to separate deposition and treatment processes by applying two jets on a rotating substrate. The etching of carbon at the surface and the increasing HMDSO depletion leading to an increasing deposition rate are both induced by admixing oxygen. Carbon free films can be deposited, even without addition of oxygen, and the main loss channels for carbon are surface reactions.