WorldWideScience

Sample records for blindness prevention project

  1. Causes of blindness in rural Myanmar (Burma: Mount Popa Taung-Kalat Blindness Prevention Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Y Nemet

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Arie Y Nemet1, Pinhas Nemet2, Geoff Cohn3, Gina Sutton, Gerald Sutton4, Richard Rawson41Department of Ophthalmology, Sydney Hospital and Sydney Eye Hospital, Sydney, Australia; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel; 3Departments of Ophthalmology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; 4Department of Ophthalmology, University of Sydney, AustraliaPurpose: This study is a review of the major causes of visual impairment (VI and severe visual impairment/blindness (SVI/BL in Mount Popa Taung-Kalat, a rural region in Myanmar (Burma.Methods: A review of our clinical records of consecutive patients attending clinics was conducted. Participants of all ages (n = 650 of the population of Mount Popa Taung-Kalat and villages in its vicinity underwent ophthalmic interview and a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained Australian ophthalmologists and ophthalmic nurses. This evaluation included anterior segment examination with a slit lamp, intraocular pressure recording, and direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy. VI and SVI/BL were defined by the World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Results: Six hundred fifty subjects were screened, with a mean age of 49.0 ± 20.6 years (range, 1–99. One hundred five patients (16.2% were children (ages 1–18. Five hundred thirty-one eyes of the total 1,300 eyes (39.5% had VI/SVI/BL, and 40 eyes of the children (38.1% (average age 15.3 ± 13.3 had VI/SVI/BL. The leading causes of VI/SVI/BL were cataract with 288 cases (54.2%, glaucoma with 84 cases (15.8%, and corneal pathology with 78 cases (14.7%. Of all the VI/SVI/BL cases, 8.4% were preventable, 81.9% were treatable, and total of 90.5% were avoidable.Conclusions: In the current study, cataracts were the major cause of blindness and visual impairment, and most of the ophthalmic pathology causing blindness is avoidable. These results highlight the lack of basic ophthalmologist eye care and optician resources in rural regions in Myanmar

  2. The Prevention of Blindness-Past, Present and Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira; Nakajima

    1992-01-01

    Prevention of blindness is the most important aim of ophthalmology. Prevention of blindness is related to many factors. It is related to many factors, such as science and technology, economy and social behavior. There are worldwide activities by WHO, NGOs and other functions to promote the prevention of blindness in the world. More than 90% of blind population lives in developing world. Cataract is the top causes of blindness which is curable. Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in west Africa and cent...

  3. Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness By Sharon Reynolds Posted January 23, 2014 An ... group of conditions that can result in irreversible blindness. This vision loss can be reduced if glaucoma ...

  4. Social Sciences for the Prevention of Blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Goldschmidt, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Organizations working for the elimination of Chlamydia-triggered blindness (trachoma) follow the WHO SAFE strategy (surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, face washing and environmental changes) with the aim to achieve a minimum of 80% of children with clean faces in endemic communities, mass treatment covering the whole district with trachoma rates of 10% or more and surveillance plans. Trachoma recurrence that is common after implementing the SAFE strategy 3, 5 or even 7 times evidence that t...

  5. Preventing diabetic blindness: a priority for South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Karen Joanne; Cook, Colin; Levitt, Naomi

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of diabetes in South Africa is increasing rapidly, and diabetes is a significant cause of blindness. Diabetic complications can induce a cycle of poverty for affected families. Early detection of retinopathy and appropriate management can prevent blindness. Screening for retinopathy using a mobile retinal camera is highly cost-effective, with costs of screening and follow-up treatment being less than the expense of one year of a disability grant. Such a programme is a prime example of a 'best buy' that should be part of the national diabetes care package. PMID:25363046

  6. Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Blindness KidsHealth > For Kids > Blindness Print A A A ... help, are sometimes called "legally blind." What Causes Blindness? Vision problems can develop before a baby is ...

  7. Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind Biodiesel Project Green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmiston, Jessica L

    2012-09-28

    Through extensive collaboration, Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind (AIDB) is Alabama's first educational entity to initiate a biodiesel public education, student training and production program, Project Green. With state and national replication potential, Project Green benefits local businesses and city infrastructures within a 120-mile radius; provides alternative education to Alabama school systems and to schools for the deaf and blind in Appalachian States; trains students with sensory and/or multiple disabilities in the acquisition and production of biodiesel; and educates the external public on alternative fuels benefits.

  8. The Blinds Shop Company Limited Brand Identity Project

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The Blinds Shop offers made to measure window blinds catering to all markets across Ireland. The Blinds Shop required a clean, bold and modern logo using fresh colours and imagery. Peter Dee - Strategic Design and Marketing Consultant, was responsible for the design and development of the brand identity for the The Blinds Shop Company Limited which was used on business cards, letterhead, promotional information, uniforms, advertising and e-Commerce website. The Blinds Shop is a retailer...

  9. Situation of low vision and blindness in China and their prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Wen-bin; ZHU Rui-lin; YANG Liu

    2011-01-01

    @@ Many ocular diseases can cause the visual system damages and functional loss, which lead to blindness and low vision.That will not only affect patients' daily life and working abilities, but also have an adverse consequence to the society and economy development.Nowadays, the visual impairment has already become a public health problem worldwide.The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that there were approximately 161 million visually impaired people all over the world, and among them 37 million were blind.Over 90% blind people lived in developing countries.1 China has a large population, and the blind and low vision problem can not be ignored.In 2006, China national survey on disability showed that there were 12330000 visually disabled people in China, which accounted for 14.86% of overall disabilities.2Understanding the prevalence and main causes of blindness and low vision and looking for effective treatment methods is essential for the prevention of visual impairment.

  10. Research of the Exploitation of Human Resources in Blind Prevention and Primary Eye Care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingxianWei; YonglongZhao

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:This research studied how to establish a relatively advanced blindness prevention and eye care cause in economically underdeveloped countryside.Methods:Ophthalmic vocational schools and professional lectures were held to train“practical type”primary eye care workers for the coumtryside.Further study in high-level(above provincial)hospitals was taken to train blindness preention &eye care backbones and leaders.Results:In 1986,the ratio of the number of the eye care workers of all levels to the number of the whole population in the prefecture was1:26000.In1992,it roseto1:17000.Aneye care network of 222stations had been established in tb countryside.Ten in the 13county hospitals had a seperated ophthalmology ed- partment,in which 3were awarded“National advanced blindness prevention County”.Twenty one hospitals were appointed as the Unit of Surgical Vision-Rehabilitation of Cataract.Blindness prevention and eye care convered1000000population(eye care avaliable within 5kilometers),23.5%of the whol popula-tion.Conclusions:In a demographically large but economically underdexeloped country-side area,the key to wide-range blindness prevention and eye oare is to exploti human resources effectively.We should train“Practical type”primary eye care workers,and have a number of edpartment leaders who are authoritive,influential in this field and ready to sacrifice to this cause.

  11. Diabetic retinopathy. Screening and prevention of blindness. A doctoral thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, J K

    1997-01-01

    Diabetic eye disease is a major cause of blindness in the Western World and remains one of the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus. Retinopathy is the ocular complication of diabetes that most often leads to impaired vision. In recent years laser treatment has been introduced that can significantly decrease the likelihood of blindness in diabetic patients, if the eyes are treated at the appropriate stage of the disease. It remains a public health problem to make sure that each patient is treated at the optimal time in the development of the eye disease. Several types of screening programs have been designed throughout the world to meet this problem. We now report on our active screening program for diabetic eye disease and describe the sight and eye condition of the diabetic patients who have been involved in this program. In 1980, regular eye screening for diabetic retinopathy was initiated at Department of Ophthalmology, Landakot Hospital. The number of diabetic patients seen regularly has increased considerably since then, with 70-80% of type 1 diabetic patients in the country participating in the program in 1990, increasing to over 90% in 1994. About a fifth of type 2 diabetics in the country participated in the program in 1990. The patients have undergone annual eye examinations and fundus photography. Laser treatment is administered for proliferative retinopathy and diabetic macular edema according to the Diabetic Retinopathy Study and Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study criteria. In 1990, we embarked on a cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of retinopathy and visual impairment of the type 1 and type 2 patients participating in our program. At the time of study, 205 insulin-taking patients, with age at diagnosis of less than 30 years, participated in our screening program. Out of those, retinopathy was present in 106 (52%), patients proliferative retinopathy in 26 (13%) and macular edema in 19 (9%). Visual acuity of 196

  12. The Role of Genetic Counseling in the Prevention of Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagon, Roberta A.

    1979-01-01

    Detection and counseling of individuals with genetic eye disorders may reduce morbidity by preventing unnecessary visual loss, by reducing misunderstanding, apprehension, and fear; by facilitating early diagnosis of other medical disorders; and by referring patients for appropriate educational and vocational training. (Author/SBH)

  13. Searching for the Blind fault: Haiti Subsurface Imaging Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocel, E.; Stewart, R.; Mann, P.; Dowla, N.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake was catastrophic, causing serious damage to infrastructure and more than 200000 deaths. Initially, the Haiti earthquake was assumed to occur with the movement of Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ), but recent scientific studies have shown that the primary rupture occurred on an unmapped blind thrust fault in the Léogâne fan (associated as Léogâne fault) near the EPGFZ (Figure 1a and 1b). The main purpose of this project are: characterizing and analyzing subsurface structures and associated hazards, characterizing the physical properties of near-surface, locating and understanding the blind faults theorized to have caused the 2010 earthquake (Léogâne fault). Surveys were conducted by a research group from the University of Houston in 2013 to address some of these goals. Surveys were mainly concentrated on Léogâne fan (Figure 1c) and Lake Enriquillo (Figure 1d). For Léogâne surveys, multiple 2D Seismic lines were deployed with approximately N-S orientation. We performed both P wave and S wave refraction analyses and time-migrated the P wave data. The prominent change in both P wave and S wave velocities are interpreted as the effects of faulting. The CMP stacked section shows a multiple discontinuity profile whose location coincides with the anomalies observed at P wave and S wave refraction velocity profile. Extracted reflection coefficients also support a reflective structure at these offsets. We interpret the anomalous structure as North dipping thrust fault. The dip of the fault is estimated around 60°. Near-surface reflection seismic analysis provided deeper information indicating multiple layers with varying velocities, intersected by a number of faults. Gravity surveys were conducted along the main seismic line over Léogâne fan, with additional surveys conducted from Jacmel to Léogâne and around the Port Au Prince area. The estimated Free air gravity profile suggests that the

  14. Comparative study on preventing avoidable blindness in China and in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Yan

    2007-01-01

    Background "Vision 2020" was initiated in 1999 and many relevant activities are ongoing, but little information is available on what it has achieved and what constraints it faces. It is not yet clear if funding is the most important constraint. Nepal is one of the underdeveloped countries, but an advanced country in preventing avoidable blindness.The aim of this study was to compare the situation in China and in Nepal in prevention of avoidable blindness.Methods Data from literature review and a field visit were combined. All statistical analyses were carried out with SPSS Version 11.5. The chi-square test was used for comparisons involving categorical variables.Results The blindness rate is higher in Nepal than that in China (P<0.05). The average number of cataract operations performed by one ophthalmologist is much lower in China than in Nepal. The cataract surgical rate (CSR) is much lower in China than in Nepal (P<0.001). High cost of the surgery and inadequate qualifications of human resources were found in China. Cataract surgical outcome in China compared well with international standards.Conclusions Progress towards the "Vision 2020" target in China is much slower than that in Nepal. Further attention to address this issue is urgently needed.

  15. Xylitol chewing gum in prevention of acute otitis media: double blind randomised trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Uhari, M.; Kontiokari, T; Koskela, M.; Niemelä, M. (Mika)

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether xylitol, which reduces the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae, might have clinical importance in the prevention of acute otitis media. DESIGN: A double blind randomised trial with xylitol administered in chewing gum. SETTING: Eleven day care nurseries in the city of Oulu. Most of the children had had problems with recurrent acute otitis media. SUBJECTS: 306 day care children: 149 children in the sucrose group (76 boys; mean (SD) age 4.9 (1.5) years) and 157 in th...

  16. World Sight Day 2013 Memorandum - Farabi Statement on the Prevention of Blindness and Eye Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S-Farzad Mohammadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Sight Day (WSD is held on the 2nd Thursday of October to emphasize the importance of sight and impact of vision impairment. This observance is a joint initiative of the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB, the World Health Organization (WHO and other international non-governmental organizations.1 The celebration resonates with Vision 2020 initiative for the control of avoidable blindness by the year 2020. It can promote professional as well as public awareness about sight and vision impairment. This is wise as we know that most cases of visual impairment are preventable or treatable; nonetheless there are more than 280 million people, including 19 million children, who live with visual impairment.2 This is much more a priority for the developing countries because they inhabit 90% of the visually impaired.3 Epidemiological transition has already commenced in the developing world4-7 but they are not ready to take care of the age-related blinding conditions. Non-governmental and community organizations would probably be the ideal entities to organize and celebrate WSD on a national level. But participation from a wide range of state and humanitarian bodies and even leading figures and celebrities is conceivable and welcomed. This should culminate in community initiatives for wanting resources and fund raising, and should influence policy-makers to develop and implement blindness prevention programs. The WHO Action Plan 2013 on the prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment has suggested the theme ‘Universal Eye Health’ for WSD 2013. The plan seeks “integration of comprehensive eye care (from promotion to rehabilitation services into health systems”, and expects to address equity challenge. The theme is so ambitious and encompassing that might continue as a consistent one in the next years, focusing on a different aspect of the theme each year. The call to action in 2013 was ‘Get your Eyes

  17. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinburn, B A; Millar, L; Utter, J;

    2011-01-01

    , Tonga, New Zealand and Australia) designed to prevent adolescent obesity. This paper overviews the project and the methods common to the four countries. Each country implemented a community-based intervention programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and healthy weight in adolescents...... groups with very high obesity prevalence; costing complex, long-term community intervention programmes; systematically studying the powerful socio-cultural influences on weight gain; and undertaking a participatory, national, priority-setting process for policy interventions using simulation modelling...

  18. Cibenzoline versus flecainide in the prevention of paroxysmal atrial arrhythmias: a double-blind randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuty, D; D'Hautefeuille, B; Scheck, F; Mycinsky, C; Pruvost, P; Peraudeau, P

    1995-05-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, parallel clinical trial, the authors tested and compared flecainide and cibenzoline, a new antiarrhythmic drug, on atrial arrhythmias. Sixty-eight patients (36 men, 32 women, mean age 62.5 +/- 1.6 years) with documented symptomatic paroxysmal atrial arrhythmias (fibrillation in 56, flutter in 12) were recruited and received either cibenzoline 260 mg/day (n = 33) or flecainide 200 mg/day (n = 35). Patients were assessed with physical examination, resting ECG, 24-hour ambulatory ECG recording, two-dimensional echocardiography, and standard biologic titrations before the inclusion day, and 3 months and 6 months after the randomization day. Sixteen patients were withdrawn (7 were lost to follow-up, 7 had side effects, 2 had another medical event). Seventeen patients had documented recurrence of atrial arrhythmia (9 in the cibenzoline group, 8 in the flecainide group) during the study. The efficacy of cibenzoline and flecainide for preventing recurrence of atrial arrhythmias was not significantly different (62.5% versus 71.4%). Eleven patients complained of one or more side effects (cibenzoline, n = 6; flecainide, n = 5), justifying leaving the trial in 6 cases (cibenzoline, n = 3; flecainide, n = 3). Two ventricular proarrhythmic effects were observed. No atrial proarrhythmic effects were reported. The efficacy of cibenzoline and flecainide for preventing atrial arrhythmia is good and similar during a follow-up period of 6 months. In view of these results, cibenzoline may be administered first to prevent atrial arrhythmia. PMID:7657846

  19. Diabetes and Healthy Eyes Toolkit: a community health worker program to prevent vision loss and blindness among people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammary-Risch, Neyal J; Aguilar, Marcela; Goodman, Laura Saunders; Quiroz, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic eye disease is a leading cause of vision loss and blindness in the United States and disproportionately affects Hispanics/Latinos. This article provides an overview of the Diabetes and Healthy Eyes Toolkit, a culturally and linguistically appropriate resource designed for community health workers to educate people with diabetes about eye health complications. The toolkit provides science-based, easy-to-understand information that can be used to conduct interactive, educational sessions about diabetes and eye health, the importance of comprehensive dilated eye examinations at least once a year for people with diabetes, and other ways to prevent vision loss and blindness.

  20. A child with night blindness: preventing serious symptoms of Refsum disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlschütter, Alfried; Santer, René; Lukacs, Zoltan; Altenburg, Christiane; Kemper, Markus J; Rüther, Klaus

    2012-05-01

    Refsum disease is a genetic progressive neurological disorder caused by neurotoxic phytanic acid, a nutritional component patients are unable to metabolize. Symptoms include retinopathy, polyneuropathy, ataxia, and deafness. They are variable and rarely recognized before adulthood. The authors report the case of a 14-year-old girl diagnosed because of night blindness. They treated her with a phytanic acid-poor diet and extracorporeal lipid apheresis. They used different methods over a 30-month period. Thereafter, the patient was treated with diet only. Membrane filtration and heparin-induced extracorporeal low-density lipoprotein precipitation apheresis were well tolerated. Withdrawal of phytanic acid was studied quantitatively. During a 5-year period, blood phytanic acid levels decreased to a noncritical range. The patient remained free of ophthalmological and neurological progression for a total observation of 12 years. Early diagnosis and effective measures to keep the phytanic acid load low can probably prevent the serious sequelae of Refsum disease. Developing a method for newborn screening is desirable.

  1. Usage of Calendula officinalis in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis: a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Franciane Schneider; Mitzy Tannia Reichembach Danski; Stela Adami Vayego

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of Calendula officinalis in relation to Essential Fatty Acids for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. METHOD This is a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial with 51 patients with head and neck cancer in radiotherapy treatment divided into two groups: control (27) and experimental (24). RESULTS There is statistically significant evidence (p-value = 0.0120) that the proportion of radiodermatitis grade 2 in Essential Fatty Acids group i...

  2. Sucralfate in the treatment and prevention of gastric ulcer: multicentre double blind placebo controlled study.

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, A L; Bethge, H; Bode, J. C.; Domschke, W; Feurle, G; Hackenberg, K.; Hammer, B; Hüttemann, W; Jung, M; Kachel, G

    1990-01-01

    A randomised controlled multicentre trial was performed in 160 patients with gastric ulcer, proved by endoscopy and biopsy, to compare ulcer healing with sucralfate and ranitidine (double blind double dummy design) and to assess the effect of maintenance treatment with sucralfate on ulcer recurrence (double blind placebo controlled design). The healing rates were similar with 4 g sucralfate suspension per day and 300 mg ranitidine per day (82% and 88% after 12 weeks, respectively). Of the 109...

  3. The blind faith deep water horizontal pipeline tie-in project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charalambides, John Nicos [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    This presentation will concentrate on the design challenges, experience and learning from the SIT and offshore installation of two deepwater pipeline tie-ins using first-of-its-kind subsea technology and installation methodologies on the 'Blind Faith' project. The Blind Faith Subsea Tie-Ins join the Blind Faith oil and gas pipelines with the Canyon Chief gas pipeline and the Mountaineer oil pipeline in 5100 feet of water. Both of the Blind Faith oil and gas pipelines are terminated with conventional PLEMs providing a horizontal connector for the tie-in and a vertical connector for a future tie-in connection point. The connectors are ROV operable/installable clamp style connectors. The method of joining to the Canyon Chief oil and gas pipelines and the type of jumper employed are unique to the tie-in. An ROV operable / installable mechanical pipe end connector connects the bare ends of the Canyon Chief and Mountaineer pipelines. The mechanical pipe end connector is fitted with an integral clamp connector hub and rests on an ROV installed mud mat. After installation of the mechanical connector, metrology was performed to create a neutral state horizontal jumper for joining the mechanical connector hub and the Blind Faith PLEM. The neutral state horizontal jumper is a compliant 'Z-Bend' design. During installation the jumper was elastically pre-deformed using a bowstring system. Pre-deformation of the jumper provided installation clearances and facilitated the neutral stress state after installation. Once landed the jumper bowstring was relaxed, allowing the jumper to expand to fit between the hubs. After expansion and make-up, the clamp connectors were tightened via an ROV operated hydraulic torque wrench. A seal test verified the integrity of the connections. After installation the jumper remains in a minimal residual stress state atypical of most horizontal jumpers. The horizontal jumper was chosen over the vertical jumper because it provides a

  4. HARD CHROME POLLUTION PREVENTION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the project, five chromium emission prevention/control devices were tested tha cover the spectrum of prevention/control techniques currently in use in small- and large-size hard chromium electroplating job shops. The Project results show that some of the tested devices had ch...

  5. Planning, Funding, and Implementing a Child Abuse Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Rebekah L.; Moore, Douglas J.; Schaerfl, Caroline A.

    Preventing child abuse is an endeavor that requires equal parts of caring, optimism, and pragmatism. Drawing on the experiences of more than 100 child abuse prevention projects, this field-tested manual integrates the abstract principles of program development and prevention with the real world experiences and challenges faced by prevention…

  6. Usage of Calendula officinalis in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis: a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Franciane; Danski, Mitzy Tannia Reichembach; Vayego, Stela Adami

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of Calendula officinalis in relation to Essential Fatty Acids for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. METHOD This is a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial with 51 patients with head and neck cancer in radiotherapy treatment divided into two groups: control (27) and experimental (24). RESULTS There is statistically significant evidence (p-value = 0.0120) that the proportion of radiodermatitis grade 2 in Essential Fatty Acids group is higher than Calendula group. Through the Kaplan-Meier survival curve we observed that Essential Fatty Acids group has always remained below the Calendula group survival curve, due to the lower risk of developing radiodermatitis grade 1, which makes the usage of Calendula more effective, with statistical significance (p-value = 0.00402). CONCLUSION Calendula showed better therapeutic response than the Essential Fatty Acids in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: RBR-237v4b. PMID:25992820

  7. Usage of Calendula officinalis in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis: a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Schneider

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of Calendula officinalis in relation to Essential Fatty Acids for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. METHOD This is a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial with 51 patients with head and neck cancer in radiotherapy treatment divided into two groups: control (27 and experimental (24. RESULTS There is statistically significant evidence (p-value = 0.0120 that the proportion of radiodermatitis grade 2 in Essential Fatty Acids group is higher than Calendula group. Through the Kaplan-Meier survival curve we observed that Essential Fatty Acids group has always remained below the Calendula group survival curve, due to the lower risk of developing radiodermatitis grade 1, which makes the usage of Calendula more effective, with statistical significance (p-value = 0.00402. CONCLUSION Calendula showed better therapeutic response than the Essential Fatty Acids in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: RBR-237v4b.

  8. Dexamethasone for prevention of postoperative shivering: A randomized double-blind comparison with pethidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Entezariasl

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study showed that pethidine and dexamethasone are effective drugs for prevention of postoperative shivering in elective surgery and the effect of dexamethasone in preventing the postoperative shivering is better than pethidine.

  9. Funded Projects | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast Cancer (vaccines)Plac1 vaccine for breast cancer preventionEfficacy of a multi-antigen vaccine in the prevention of methynitrosourea-induced mammary cancers (ER+) in female Sprague-Dawley rats Breast Cancer (small molecules and biomarkers)Chemopreventive effects in both standard chow diets and high-fat diets of known positive- and negative-chemopreventive agents employing both high-risk (but histologically normal) mammary epithelium and mammary cancers including correlative biomarkers | Breast Cancer (vaccines) Cervical Cancer (small molecule) Colon Cancer (small molecules, vaccine, biomarker) Lung Cancer (small molecules, vaccine, biomarker, vaccine) Pancreatic Cancer (small molecule) Prostate Cancer (small molecule) Oral Cancer (small molecule) Skin Cancer (small molecule)

  10. [HIV prevention program for young people--the WYSH Project as a model of "combination prevention"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono-Kihara, Masako

    2010-03-01

    In face of the HIV pandemic that still grows, unsuccessful efforts of developing biomedical control measures or the failure of cognitive-behavioral approach to show sustained social level effectiveness, behavioral strategy is now expected to evolve into a structural prevention ("combination prevention") that involves multiple behavioral goals and multilevel approaches. WYSH Project is a combination prevention project for youth developed through socio-epidemiological approach that integrates epidemiology with social science such as social marketing and mixed method. WYSH Project includes mass education programs for youth in schools and programs for out-of-school youth through cyber network and peer communication. Started in 2002, it expanded nationwide with supports from related ministries and parent-teacher associations and has grown into a single largest youth prevention project in Japan. PMID:20229804

  11. Overcoming gender inequity in prevention of blindness and visual impairment in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrieth Mganga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Globally, and in Africa, after adjusting for age, women are about 1.4 times more likely to be blind than men. While women generally live longer than men, the lack of accessibility to and use of services is likely the most important reason for excess blindness in women in Africa. Aim : We sought to review the literature on vision loss in Africa and summarize the findings related to gender equity. Materials and Methods : Information from across sub-Saharan Africa was collected on the evidence of gender inequity and reasons for this inequity. Finally, the results were used to generate suggestions on how gender equity could be improved. Results : In all published surveys (except one, cataract surgical coverage among women was lower than cataract surgical coverage among men. Although data available are limited, similar findings appeared in the use of services for other disease conditions, notably, childhood cataract and glaucoma. Evidence suggests that a variety of approaches are needed to improve the use of eye care services. Three main strategies are needed to address gender inequity in vision loss in Africa. First, it is important to address transport needs. Second, counseling of patients and family members is required. Finally, programs need to put in place pricing systems that make the services affordable the population. Conclusions : VISION 2020 can be achieved in Africa, but investment is needed in a variety of strategies that will ensure that eye care services are affordable, accessible, and acceptable to women and girls.

  12. Frequency of diabetic retinopathy among dialysis patients and their awareness about the need for screening to prevent blindness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe frequency and spectrum of diabetic retinopathy among patients undergoing haemodialysis and to assess the awareness of importance of ophthalmic screening among these patients. Study Design: Observational descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Combined Military Hospital Kharian, from August 2011 to January 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 49 patients were included in the study who were under going maintenance hemodialysis during the observation period. All the patients were examined with ophthalmoscope after mydriasis. Patients who were not willing, irritable or in coma were not included in the study. Results: A total of 49 patients (n=49) were examined with 26 males and 13 females. Age of patients with diabetic retinopathy ranged from 45 years to 68 years, mean age of patients was 57.5 years. Nineteen patients (38.7%) were suffering from diabetes mellitus. Four had been operated for cataract out of which only one was advised regular follow up for effect of diabetes on vision. Only one patient who was UK national was aware of need and importance of regular eye examination to avoid preventable blindness and to monitor for end organ damage. Conclusion: These results indicate that hospital needs integrated diabetic clinics for patient awareness and management to prevent blindness due to diabetic retinopathy. In fact, Pakistan needs a national level retinopathy screening programme keeping in mind the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus. National programme for retinopathy is doable as fundus cameras are widely available and can be operated by optometrists and integrated care protocols between different departments to avoid financial burden of care for diabetic gerartric patients. (author)

  13. Prevention of post-spinal hypotension using crystalloid, colloid and ephedrine with three different combinations: A double blind randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Jabalameli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The benefit of prophylactic combination therapy using crystalloid and colloid preload with ephedrine has not been cleared to prevent maternal hypotension after spinal anesthesia at cesarean delivery. This study evaluated the efficacy of three combinational methods to prevent hypotension following spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: In this prospective double blind trial, 150 candidates of elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to three treatment groups; 1---Ringer′s Lactate (RL solution (15 ml/kg plus Hemaxel (7 ml/kg preload, 2---RL solution (15 ml/kg preload plus ephedrine (15 mg, IV, bolus, 3---Hemaxel (7 ml/kg preload plus ephedrine (15 mg, IV, bolus. Maternal hemodynamic changes during 60 min after spinal injection, nausea/vomiting, and neonatal condition were compared among the groups. Results: The cumulative incidence of hypotension was 44%, 40%, and 46% in groups 1 to 3, respectively. There were not significant differences in supplementary ephedrine requirement among groups which received or among groups which did not receive prophylactic ephedrine. Groups were not different in the incidence of hypertension and nausea or vomiting. There were no significant differences among groups in Apgar scores at 1 or 5 min and umbilical artery PH. Conclusion: Combination of preventive methods decreased the occurrence of hypotension following spinal anesthesia to an acceptable level. Overall, the most effective method was a combination of crystalloid preload with ephedrine.

  14. Effects of Combined Intralesional 5-Fluorouracil and Topical Silicone in Prevention of Keloids: A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghafarian Shirazi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Keloids are aesthetically disfiguring and severely disabling. The optimal treatment remains undefined. This clinical study, evaluate the efficacy and side effects of combined topical silicone and 5-Fluorouracil on the prevention of keloids. In this double blind randomized clinical trial, fifty patients with keloids were randomly allocated in two groups. The control group were treated by perilesional surgical excision of keloids combined with topical silicone and the trial group were treated with adjuvant treatment of intralesional 5-Fluorouracil. All patients were examined and assessment was done by an independent observer. the data collected were analyzed by SPSS statistical software with using tables and χ square tests. 75% of the cases in the trial group were keloid free 21% have keloid partially improvement and 4% have keloid recurrence, compared to patients in the control group respectively: 43%, 35% and 22%, findings suggest that efficacy of 5-Fluorouracil combined with topical silicone used for the prevention of keloid is comparable to other modality. The lack of any serious side effects and the evidence of recurrence at one year of follow-up make this an effective tool for the prevention of keloids.

  15. Exploring Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations to Participate in a Crowdsourcing Project to Support Blind and Partially Sighted Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layas, Fatma; Petrie, Helen

    2016-01-01

    There have been a number of crowdsourcing projects to support people with disabilities. However, there is little exploration of what motivates people to participate in such crowdsourcing projects. In this study we investigated how different motivational factors can affect the participation of people in a crowdsourcing project to support visually disabled students. We are developing "DescribeIT", a crowdsourcing project to support blind and partially students by having sighted people describe images in digital learning resources. We investigated participants' behavior of the DescribeIT project using three conditions: one intrinsic motivation condition and two extrinsic motivation conditions. The results showed that participants were significantly intrinsically motivated to participate in the DescribeIT project. In addition, participants' intrinsic motivation dominated the effect of the two extrinsic motivational factors in the extrinsic conditions. PMID:27534349

  16. Change to "prevention of the avoidable blindness and visual impairment" from "prevention of blindness"%从“防盲治盲”向“防治可避免盲和视觉损伤”转变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵家良

    2015-01-01

    近年来世界卫生组织(WHO)对于加强全球眼健康工作的提法出现了一些明显变化。2006年前WHO和世界卫生大会通过的有关眼健康方面的决议明确提出了“开展防盲工作”,而2006年之后的相关决议强调了“根治可避免盲和视觉损伤”。这种转变扩大了眼健康工作的重点范围,反映了全球促进眼健康工作取得了重大进展,反映了社会的进步和公众对眼健康需求的增长。这种转变也适合我国的实际情况,在制定“十三五防盲规划”时明确地将防治可避免盲和视觉损伤作为眼健康工作的重点是必要的。这种转变不仅仅是文字上的简单变动,在实际工作内容上也会有较大变化。这种变化表明我国眼健康工作在深入开展,可以惠及更多的公众,可以促进我国眼健康和眼科学事业进一步发展。(中华眼科杂志,2015,51:481-483)%The formulation on the eye health by WHO had an obvious change in recent years. Before 2006, WHO and WHA solutions clearly put forward the prevention of blindness. After 2006, WHO and WHA solutions on the eye health emphasized the elimination of the avoidable blindness and visual impairment. This change extends the scope of eye health, reflects the important progress on the global eye health, and also reflects the social progress and the increase to the need on eye health by the public. This change conforms to the actual situation in China. It is necessary to adopt elimination of the avoidable blindness and visual impairment as the priorities in eye health in making the 13th national plan of blindness prevention. This change is not merely a matter of wording, but also a great change in the working content in eye health. The change demonstrates the deep development on the eye health, and may benefit more people and promote the further development of eye health and ophthalmology in China.

  17. Blindness - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - blindness ... The following organizations are good resources for information on blindness : American Foundation for the Blind -- www.afb.org Foundation Fighting Blindness -- www.blindness.org National Eye Institute -- ...

  18. National Center On Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Profile Logout Menu NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness Help ... Collaborate Project Staff Service Provider Family Member State Deaf-Blind Projects Click on a state on the ...

  19. Randomized, double-blinded comparison of tropisetron and placebo for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after supratentorial craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenoglu, Halit; Yildiz, Karamehmet; Dogru, Kudret; Kurtsoy, Ali; Güler, Gülen; Boyaci, Adem

    2003-04-01

    This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of tropisetron in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting after elective supratentorial craniotomy in adult patients. We studied 65 ASA physical status I-III patients aged 18 to 76 years who were undergoing elective craniotomy for resection of various supratentorial tumors. Patients were divided into two groups and received either 2 mg of tropisetron (group T) or saline placebo (group P) intravenously at the time of dural closure. A standard general anesthetic technique was used. Episodes of nausea and vomiting and the need for rescue antiemetic medication were recorded during 24 hours postoperatively. Demographic data, duration of surgery and anesthesia, and sedation scores were comparable in both groups. Nausea occurred in 30% of group T patients and in 46.7% of group P patients (P >.05). The incidence of emetic episodes was 26.7% and 56.7% in the two groups (P <.05). Rescue antiemetic medication was needed in 26.7% and 60% of the patients (P <.05). Administration of a single dose of tropisetron (2 mg intravenously) given at the time of dural closure was effective in reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting after elective craniotomy for supratentorial tumor resection in adult patients. PMID:12657991

  20. A double-blind, randomized, prospective trial to evaluate topical vitamin C solution for the prevention of radiation dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this study was to ascertain the value of topical ascorbic acid in the prevention of radiation dermatitis. Patients with primary or metastatic brain tumors were eligible. Patients applied a topical solution, twice per day prior to and throughout the course of radiotherapy, to the left and right sides of the head. The radiotherapist and the patient were blinded as to the contents of the solutions. The bottle for one side of the head contained topical ascorbic acid solution. THe bottle for the other side of the head contained only vehicle. During and after the course of treatment the radiotherapist scored the skin reaction on both the left and right sides of the irradiated head using a skin reaction scale. The data were analyzed with a matched pair analysis. Since each patient received both treatments (ascorbic acid and control solutions) the statistical analysis concentrated on the paired differences in scores based on the probability of a open-quotes preferenceclose quotes for the treatment or control. Eighty-four patients entered the study. Sixty-five were suitable for analysis. In 10 patients there was a preference for ascorbic acid solution (15%), in 20 patients there was a preference for placebo (31%), and there was a preference for neither in 35 patients (54%). Ascorbic acid solution could be considered to have an effect if the percentage of preferences favoring ascorbic acid over placebo, among those subjects with a preference, significantly exceeded the 50% expected by chance. The observed percentage of preferences for ascorbic acid was only 33% (10 of 30 with a preference; p = .10, two-sided sign test). Patient age, race, sex, and total dose of irradiation had no detectable influence on the comparative skin toxicity scores. There is no discernible benefit to ascorbic acid lotion, in the manner in which it was used it in this trial, for the prevention of radiation dermatitis. 19 refs., 1 tab

  1. Genetics and prevention of blindness Genética e prevenção da cegueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Hae Hyun Rim

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify the perception of Brazilian ophthalmologists regarding the role played by Genetics in their routine medical activity and their conduct when dealing with patients, with hereditary diseases who need genetic counseling. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted by means of invitations to participate in an interview on this subject. The questionnaires were sent to 200 ophthalmologists who work in the area of Campinas, SP, Brazil. RESULTS: Among the 73 professionals who answered the questionnaire (36%, there was a high rate of positive answers (49-88% concerning their knowledge of genetics and a low rate (10-33% of use of this knowledge in their clinical practice. The frequency of genetic ophthalmopathies in clinical practice was relevant in the opinion of 68% of the interviewees; 92% indicated a relevant relationship between genetically determined ocular disorders and the prevention of blindness through detection, early treatment and genetic counseling. More extensive genetic knowledge was considered indispensable to 84% of the professionals, but 16% answered that it was irrelevant. CONCLUSIONS: Although these ophthalmologists have basic notions of genetics (88,0% and are aware of its importance in the prevention of blindness, a great majority of Brazilian ophthalmologists have not acquired adequate knowledge of genetics and, in practice, rarely use its therapeutic and preventive potential.OBJETIVO: Verificar a percepção de oftalmologistas brasileiros em relação à contribuição da Genética em sua atuação médica rotineira, bem como a sua conduta em face de portadores de doenças hereditárias que necessitem de aconselhamento genético MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, em que duzentos oftalmologistas que atuam na região de Campinas, SP, Brasil (universidades e/ou clínicas particulares foram convidados a participar de uma entrevista sobre o assunto. RESULTADOS: Aqueles que aceitaram o convite (36%, enviaram um question

  2. Blindness Prevention in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A Chinese surgical program takes off in Malawi and Zimbabwe ON November 25,2010,the joy was palpable at Chitungwiza General Hospital,a medical center 30km away from Harare,Zimbabwe. Ophthalmology patients were having their eyes examined.An elderly lady diagnosed with cataracts,now post-surgery,was effusive, "The eye with the cataract now can see even more clearly than the other one! I’m deeply thankful to the Chinese doctors."

  3. Prevent Blindness America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Series Online Training and Certification Patient Education Materials Star Pupils School Curriculum About us About us Our ... issues. Learn More Site Map Your Sight Your Child's Sight Resources for Professionals About Us Contact Follow ...

  4. Prevention of Homicidal Violence in Schools in Germany: The Berlin Leaking Project and the Networks against School Shootings Project (NETWASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Bondu, Rebecca; Schroer-Hippel, Miriam; Panno, Jennifer; Neumetzler, Katharina; Fisch, Sarah; Scholl, Johanna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Since 1999, Germany has experienced at least twelve serious cases of targeted school violence. This article describes two projects designed to fill the gap between universal prevention and emergency response in preventing severe forms of school violence in Germany. The Berlin Leaking Project examined the viability of preventive efforts based on…

  5. Bispectral index monitoring prevent awareness during total intravenous anesthesia: a prospective, randomized,double-blinded, multi-center controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chen; GUO Jian-rong; JIN Yao-jun; WU Gang; YUAN Wei; YUAN Zhi-guo; YUE Yun; XU Liang; MA Ya-qun; SUN Yan-xia; LI Yan-hong; ZHANG Liang; FENG Chun-sheng; LUO Bing; ZHAO Zhen-long

    2011-01-01

    Background Awareness is a serious complication of general anesthesia.In China,the incidence of intraoperative awareness was 1% in patients undergoing total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA).In this study,we compared the incidence of awareness between Bispectral index (BIS)-guided and routine TIVA protocol and evaluated the effect of BIS on preventing awareness.Methods A prospective,randomized,double-blinded,multicenter controlled trial was performed.Patients (≥18 years of age) undergoing TIVA were randomly divided into BIS-guided group (Group A,BIS was monitored and recommended to maintain between 40-60) and control group (Group B,BIS was monitored but the screen was covered).The intraoperative BIS values were downloaded and the BIS trends of confirmed awareness cases were analyzed to determine whether light anesthesia existed.Results Of the total 5228 patients,2919 patients were assigned to Group A and 2309 to Group B.Four cases of confirmed awareness (0.14%) were reported in the BIS-guided group and 15 (0.65%) in the control group (P=0.002,OR=0.21,95% confidence intervals:0.07-0.63).The incidence of possible awareness (0.14% vs.0.26%,P=0.485) and dreaming (3.1% vs.3.1%,P=0.986) was comparable between BIS-guided group and the control group.Among the 19 confirmed awareness cases,intraoperative BIS trends of six cases were downloaded and identified.Five of them showed signs of light anesthesia as BIS >60 and lasted 19-106 minutes,whereas one case had a stable BIS trend and the values were within 60 during the operation.Another five awareness cases were reviewed for anesthesia procedures,of which improper light anesthesia were confirmed.Conclusions BIS-guided TIVA (BIS was recommended to maintain between 40-60) decreased the risk of awareness compared with routine TIVA.The main reason for awareness was light anesthesia.

  6. Xylitol pediatric topical oral syrup to prevent dental caries: a double blind, randomized clinical trial of efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Ly, Kiet A.; Tut, Ohnmar K.; Mancl, Lloyd; Roberts, Marilyn C.; Briand, Kennar; Gancio, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a xylitol pediatric topical oral syrup to reduce the incidence of dental caries of very young children. Design Randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. Setting Communities in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Participants 108 children aged 9 to 15 months were screened and 100 were enrolled. Intervention Children were randomized and parents administered topical oral xylitol syrup two times (Xyl-2X, two xylitol 4.00 g/dose + one sorbitol dose) or three times (Xyl-3X, three xylitol 2.67 g/dose) per day (total 8 g) or control (one xylitol 2.67 g/dose + two sorbitol dose). Outcome Measures The outcome end-point of the study was the number of decayed primary teeth. Results Ninety-four of 100 children (mean±SD age, 15.0±2.7 months at randomization) with at least one follow-up exam were included in the intent-to-treat analysis. The mean±SD follow-up period was 10.5±2.2 months. Nearly 52% of children in the control condition had tooth decay compared to 40.6% among Xyl-3X and 24.2% among Xyl-2X conditions. The mean±SD number of decayed teeth was 1.9±2.4 for control, 1.0±1.4 for Xyl-3X, and 0.6±1.1 for Xyl-2X condition. Compared to controls, there was significantly fewer decayed teeth in the Xyl-2X (relative risk [RR], 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13, 0.66; P=.003) and Xyl-3X (RR, 0.50; 95% CI 0.26, 0.96; P=0.037) conditions. There was no statistical difference between the two xylitol treatment conditions (P=0.22). Conclusion Oral xylitol syrup administered topically two or three times each day at a total dose of 8 g was effective in preventing Early Childhood Caries. PMID:19581542

  7. [The Belgian project for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases: a model of multifactorial prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornitzer, M

    1989-01-01

    Résults are presented from the "belgian heart disease prevention project, part of the WHO european collaborative trial in the multifactorial prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD)". 19.409 men aged 40-59 yr took part; they were employed in thirty factories which formed the allocation units for a randomised controlled trial lasting 5-6 yr. The intervention package consisted largely of health education promoting a cholesterol-lowering diet, smoking cessation, weight control, physical activity, and treatment of arterial hypertension. A programme of information was supplemented by face-to-face counselling at the workplace by two physicians attached to the project. The coronary risk profile was reduced in the intervention group, compared with that in the control group, especially during the first 4 yr, by effects on serum cholesterol, number of cigarettes smoked daily, and arterial blood-pressure. Total mortality was 17.5% lower in the intervention group than in the control group (p = 0.038); coronary mortality was reduced by a non-significant 20.8% whereas CHD incidence (non-fatal myocardial infarction plus fatal myocardial infarction plus sudden deaths) was reduced by 24.5%, (P = 0.031). Non-fatal myocardial infarction (not a major end-point) was similarly reduced by 26.1% (p = 0.030). PMID:2679938

  8. The First Monolithic Silicon Carbide Active Pixel Sensor Array for Solar Blind UV Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will address the needs of space astronomy, military threat detection, and scientific research for image...

  9. Project UNIFY. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 22, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Special Olympics Project UNIFY (Andrea Cahn); (2) The Impact of Project UNIFY; (3) Project UNIFY Brings Youth Together to Learn and Graduate (William H. Hughes); (4) Physical…

  10. A Project to Make Apple Computers Accessible to Blind Children. August 1, 1983-July 31, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensory Aids Foundation, Palo Alto, CA.

    The report describes a project designed to test the feasibility of adapting off-the-shelf educational software to a speech synthesizer compatible with Apple personal computers for visually impaired students. Fifteen visually impaired children were administered pretests and posttests for auditory discrimination, computer literacy, keyboard…

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Pueraria lobata Extract in Gray Hair Prevention: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Na, Sun Jae; Jin, Yingji; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Su Na; Kwon, Oh Sang

    2013-01-01

    Background Graying of hair-a sign of aging-raises cosmetic concerns. Individuals with gray hair often look older than others their age; therefore, some dye their hair for aesthetic purposes. However, hair colorants can induce many problems including skin irritation, allergic reaction and hair-breakage. Objective This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed in order to examine the effects of APHG-1001, a compound including an extract from Pueraria lobata, on graying hair. Methods...

  12. 77 FR 29351 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  13. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-033, Innovative Approaches To Preventing Teen Pregnancy..., Innovative Approaches to Preventing Teen Pregnancy among Underserved Populations & SIP 10-035, Impact of...

  14. An Action Research Project to Determine the Utility of Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support for Elementary School Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Doyle, Beth; Brott, Pamelia

    2014-01-01

    A trio of researchers presents a case study from a practical, participatory action research project to demonstrate how one school district implemented a school-wide bullying prevention initiative for all elementary schools based on Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support (BP-PBS). The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the process of…

  15. 一种SQL盲注防范模块的设计%A Design of Prevention Module for SQL Blind Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王承毅

    2011-01-01

    As the Web applications become more extensive, the SQL injection attack especially blind injection come to be the most popular method for database hacking.The fundamental principles and attacking process of blind injection are analyzed, and then proposed a design of duplex prevention.The first step was using the input validation to decreasing the risk of SQL injection attack; the second step was deploying a secure gateway tofiltrate the injection sentence.Experiments show that this duplex module makes a effective prevention for injection risk in websites, and increases the security of web applications.%随着Web应用技术越来越复杂,SQL注入攻击,尤其是SQL盲注已经成为当前最流行的数据库攻击手段之一.分析了SQL盲注的原理和攻击过程,重点提出一种双重混合防御模式,即在Web服务器层使用输入验证全面减少Web站点的注入可能,随后在数据库层部署安全网关实时过滤注入攻击语句.实验表明,该混合防御模块能对Web站点的注入漏洞进行有效防护,提升了Web应用安全性能.

  16. A Model Community Skin Cancer Prevention Project in Maine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Hayden

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our program was to create and test a community skin cancer prevention project for replication throughout the state of Maine. The project was a collaborative effort of the Maine Cancer Consortium, American Cancer Society (ACS, and the City of Portland, Health and Human Services Department, Public Health Division. Portland, Me, served as the pilot site. The National Cancer Institute (NCI defines skin cancer as a disease in which abnormal cells divide uncontrollably in the outer layers of the skin (1. The American Cancer Society's Facts and Figures 2001 (the latest year for which these figures are available estimated that more than 1 million cases of highly curable basal cell or squamous cell cancers would be diagnosed in the United States that year (2. An estimated 9800 U.S. deaths from cancer were projected as well: 7800 from melanoma, the most serious form of skin cancer, and 2000 from other skin cancers. Melanoma was expected to be diagnosed in about 51,400 Americans in 2001. The incidence rate of melanoma has increased about 3% per year on average since 1981. In 2002, NCI announced that researchers showed for the first time that individual risk of melanoma is associated with the intensity of sunlight that a person receives over a lifetime (3. Target audiences for our program were newborns and their parents, children between 5 and 14 years old and their caregivers, and all people living in the Portland area. Protecting skin from excess sun exposure during childhood and adolescence is important in reducing the risk of all types of skin cancer during adulthood. From our anecdotal evidence, many parents of newborns are unaware that sunscreen is not recommended for babies under 6 months of age, and they need better information about how to protect their newborns from the sun. Teaching children and their caregivers to follow ACS guidelines will help protect their skin for years to come. It will also help children to develop healthy

  17. Willed blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. A willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness enables us...... willed blindness focusing on the development of either a new moral vision of our obligations or new visions of what a good life is....

  18. Prophylactic use of gabapentin for prevention of succinylcholine-induced fasciculation and myalgia: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Succinylcholine is used for rapid-sequence induction of anesthesia. Fasciculations and myalgia are adverse effects. The pretreatment modalities prevent or minimize its adverse effects. Aims: The present study is designed to evaluate the efficacy of gabapentin on the incidence of fasciculation and succinylcholine-induced myalgia. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled manner. Materials and Methods: Patients of both genders undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in Group I (Gabapentin group received 600 mg of gabapentin orally 2 h prior to surgery and patients in Group II (placebo group received matching placebo. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl 3 μg/kg, thiopentone 3-5 mg/kg and succinylcholine 1.5 mg/kg. All patients were observed and graded for fasciculations by a blinded observer and patients were intubated. Anesthesia was maintained with oxygen in air, sevoflurane and intermittent vecuronium bromide. After completion of surgery, neuromuscular blockade was reversed. A blinded observer recorded myalgia grade at 24 h. Patients were provided patient-controlled analgesia with fentanyl for postoperative pain relief. Statistical analysis: Demographic data, fasciculation grade, fentanyl consumption, and myalgia grade were compared using student t test and test of proportions. Results: The study included 76 American Society of Anesthesiologists′ Grade I or II patients of either gender undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. But only 70 patients completed the study. Results demonstrated that the prophylactic use of gabapentin significantly decreases the incidence and the severity of myalgia (20/35 vs. 11/35 (P<0.05 and decreases fentanyl consumption significantly in the study group (620+164 μg vs. 989+238 μg (P<0.05 without any effects on the incidence and severity of fasciculations

  19. Color blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color blindness often have problems seeing reds and greens, too. The most severe form of color blindness is achromatopsia. This is a rare condition in which a person cannot see any color, only shades of gray. Most color blindness is due to ...

  20. Color Blindness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2007-01-01

    About one in 12 boys is color-blind, and one in every 400 girls, so in each school class there are likely to be at least one or two people who are color-blind. Because they are color- blind from birth, most people do not know that they are color-

  1. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening and Monitoring of Early Stage Disease in Australian General Practice: Tackling Preventable Blindness within a Chronic Care Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Crossland

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the leading cause of preventable blindness in Australia. Up to 50% of people with proliferative DR who do not receive timely treatment will become legally blind within five years. Innovative and accessible screening, involving a variety of primary care providers, will become increasingly important if patients with diabetes are to receive optimal eye care. Method. An open controlled trial design was used. Five intervention practices in urban, regional, and rural Australia partnered with ophthalmologists via telehealth undertook DR screening and monitoring of type 2 diabetes patients and were compared with control practices undertaking usual care 2011–2014. Results. Recorded screening rates were 100% across intervention practices, compared with 22–53% in control practices. 31/577 (5% of patients in the control practices were diagnosed with mild-moderate DR, of whom 9 (29% had appropriate follow-up recorded. This was compared with 39/447 (9% of patients in the intervention group, of whom 37 (95% had appropriate follow-up recorded. Discussion and Conclusion. General practice-based DR screening via Annual Cycle of Care arrangements is effective across differing practice locations. It offers improved recording of screening outcomes for Australians with type 2 diabetes and better follow-up of those with screen abnormalities.

  2. The use of toxoid for the prevention of tetanus neonatorum. Final report of a double-blind controlled field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, K W; Dueñas Lehmann, A; LeBlanc, D R; Garces Osorio, N

    1966-01-01

    With a view to determining the effectiveness of a method for the control of tetanus neonatorum which would be independent of medical examination or care, a double-blind field trial covering 1618 women was conducted between 1961 and 1966 in a rural area of Colombia with an estimated existing tetanus neonatorum death rate of 11.6 per 100 births. The study group was given 1-3 injections of 1 ml of an aluminium-phosphate-adsorbed tetanus toxoid more than 6 weeks apart, and the control group a similar number of injections of an influenza-virus vaccine.There was no statistically significant difference between those in the two groups given one injection. Those in the control group given 2 or 3 injections had a tetanus neonatorum death rate of 7.8 deaths per 100 births, and the corresponding subjects in the study group had none. This difference is unlikely to have occurred by chance.

  3. Can Vitamin A be Improved to Prevent Blindness due to Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Stargardt Disease and Other Retinal Dystrophies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Leonide; Washington, Ilyas

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how an imperfect visual cycle results in the formation of vitamin A dimers, thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of various retinal diseases, and summarize how slowing vitamin A dimerization has been a therapeutic target of interest to prevent blindness. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of vitamin A dimerization, an alternative form of vitamin A, one that forms dimers more slowly yet maneuvers effortlessly through the visual cycle, was developed. Such a vitamin A, reinforced with deuterium (C20-D3-vitamin A), can be used as a non-disruptive tool to understand the contribution of vitamin A dimers to vision loss. Eventually, C20-D3-vitamin A could become a disease-modifying therapy to slow or stop vision loss associated with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), Stargardt disease and retinal diseases marked by such vitamin A dimers. Human clinical trials of C20-D3-vitamin A (ALK-001) are underway.

  4. From noise measurements to site effects: main learning from the SESAME project and ESG2006 blind test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation outlines the main lessons of two major recent accomplishments, the SESAME European project (2001-2004) and the ESG2006 blind test, which were both dedicated to assessing the actual capabilities of techniques using ambient vibration measurements to provide reliable and useful information on site conditions and/or site effects. Two techniques - the very simple H/V ('Nakamura's') technique, and the more advanced array technique - have been thoroughly considered under different viewpoints, in order to better understand their physical basis, assess their actual capabilities in view of site effect estimation, and, whenever possible, propose user guidelines and processing software to ensure a correct use. This broad set of investigations indicates basically that ambient noise measurements, when performed, processed and analyzed 'with caution', can provide useful, though limited, qualitative and quantitative information on site conditions and amplification effects. More specifically, results prove to be very satisfactory for estimations of the fundamental frequency, and rather satisfactory for the the band-limited estimations of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. The inversion of the shear wave velocity profiles remains however a very uneasy and non-unique task, which can be significantly improved by incorporating external information. Microtremor based methods can therefore be recommended as an inexpensive and fast tool for microzonation and/or site/specific studies, provided the ambient noise measurements are performed, processed and analyzed 'with caution', while it is also highly recommended to combine them with other survey types. The software, guidelines and recommendations available from the web sites http://sesame-fp5.obs.ujf-grenoble.fr and http://www.geopsy.org, which represent the consensus view of a large community of European scientists, are intended to explicit clearly and practically the fuzzy expression 'with caution'. (authors)

  5. Efficacy of intravenous ondansetron to prevent vomiting episodes in acute gastroenteritis: a randomized, double blind, and controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common infectious diseases of childhood. Its symptoms are vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration. In the emergency ward, intravenous rather than oral rehydration is usually preferred because of the high likelihood of emesis. Treatments to reduce emesis are of value in improving the rehydration procedure. Our study is a double-blind randomized trial and proposes the use of ondansetron as an anti-emetic drug to treat children with acute gastroenteritis. Seventy-four in-patients, aged 3 months to 15 years, were enrolled and randomly assigned to an ondansetron or placebo group. Inclusion criteria were the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis and the absence of other diseases or allergies to drugs. A single bolus (0.15 mg/kg of ondansetron was injected intravenously; normal 0.9% saline solution was used as a placebo. This treatment induced vomiting cessation in the ondansetron group significantly in comparison to the placebo group. The length of the hospital stay and the oral rehydration fluid volume were similar in the two groups and no adverse effects were noticed. Thus, safety, low cost, and overall bene­fit of ondansetron treatment suggests that this drug can be administered successfully to children with acute gastroenteritis.

  6. Environmental Friendly Coatings & Corrosion Prevention for Flight Hardware Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has undertaken a study to find environmentally friendly alternatives for the petroleum and solvent-based corrosion-preventive compounds...

  7. A Nanocomposite Approach to Microcrack Prevention in Composite Cryotanks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nanomaterials and nanocomposites offer great potential for improvement in many applications. One such NASA application is the prevention of microcracking as well as...

  8. Pulsed estrogen therapy in prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. A 2-year randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Therese F; Ravn, Pernille; Bagger, Yu Z;

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pulsed estrogen therapy (intranasal 17beta-estradiol) in the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss. A total of 386 women (40-65 years old), less than 5 years past menopause, were randomized to intranasal placebo, 17beta-estradiol 150 micro g...

  9. Vitamin C in prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass graft: double blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodreza Sarzaeem

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Vitamin C is relatively safe, inexpensive, well tolerated and has a low complication. According to the 44% reduction in the incidence of atrial fibrillation in vitamin C patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, this drug can be prescribed as a prophylaxis for prevention of post-CABG atrial fibrillation.

  10. A randomized, double-blinded comparison of ondansetron, granisetron, and placebo for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after supratentorial craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Virendra; Mitra, Jayanta K; Rath, Girija P; Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Bithal, Parmod K; Dash, Hari H

    2009-07-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are frequent and distressing complications after neurosurgical procedures. We evaluated the efficacy of ondansetron and granisetron to prevent PONV after supratentorial craniotomy. In a randomized double-blind, placebo controlled trial, 90 adult American Society of Anesthesiologists I, II patients were included in the study. A standard anesthesia technique was followed. Patients were divided into 3 groups to receive either placebo (saline), ondansetron 4 mg, or granisetron 1 mg intravenously at the time of dural closure. After extubation, episodes of nausea and vomiting were noted for 24 hours postoperatively. Statistical analysis was performed using chi2 test and 1-way analysis of variance. Demographic data, duration of surgery, intraoperative fluids and analgesic requirement, and postoperative pain (visual analog scale) scores were comparable in all 3 groups. It was observed that the incidence of vomiting in 24 hours, severe emetic episodes, and requirement of rescue antiemetics were less in ondansetron and granisetron groups as compared with placebo (P<0.001). Both the study drugs had comparable effect on vomiting. However, the incidence of nausea was comparable in all 3 groups (P=0.46). A favorable influence on the patient satisfaction scores, and number needed to prevent emesis was seen in the 2 drug groups. No significant correlation was found between neurosurgical factors (presence of midline shift, mass effect, pathologic diagnosis of tumor, site of tumor) and the occurrence of PONV. We conclude that ondansetron 4 mg and granisetron 1 mg are comparably effective at preventing emesis after supratentorial craniotomy. However, neither drugs prevented nausea effectively. PMID:19543000

  11. To promote universal eye health to push forward sustaining development of the prevention of blindness in China%促进普遍的眼健康,推动我国防盲工作持续发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵家良

    2014-01-01

    Action plan for the prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment for 2014-2019 endorsed by 66th World Health Assembly is an important document for promoting the global prevention of blindness.This action plan summarized the experiences and lessons in the global prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment from 2009 to 2013,raised the global goal for the prevention of blindness-the reduction in prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by 25 % by 2019 from the baseline of 2010,set up the monitoring indicators for realizing the global goal.This document can be served as a roadmap to consolidate joint efforts aimed at working towards universal eye health in the world.This action plan must give a deep and important impact on the prevention of blindness in China.We should implement the action plan for the prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment for 2014-2019 to push forward sustaining development of the prevention of blindness in China.%第66届世界卫生大会签署的2014-2019年防治可避免视觉损伤的全球行动计划是推动全球防盲工作的重要文件,它总结了2009-2013年全球开展防治可避免盲和视觉损伤的经验教训,提出了防盲工作的全球目标-2019年可避免视觉损伤的患病率在2010年的患病率基础上降低25%,设立了实现全球目标的监测指标.这一文件可以作为全球根治包括盲在内的可避免视觉损伤、普遍提高眼健康水平的路线图.这一全球行动必将对我国的防盲治盲工作产生深刻而又重要的影响.我们应当以实施2014-2019年全球防治可避免视觉损伤行动计划为契机,推动我国的防盲工作持续地发展.

  12. P3MC: A double blind parallel group randomised placebo controlled trial of Propranolol and Pizotifen in preventing migraine in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitham Diane

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent Cochrane Review demonstrated the remarkable lack of reliable clinical trials of migraine treatments for children, especially for the two most prescribed preventative treatments in the UK, Propranolol and Pizotifen. Migraine trials in both children and adults have high placebo responder rates, e.g. of 23%, but for a trial's results to be generalisable "placebo responders" should not be excluded and for a drug to be worthwhile it should be clearly superior, both clinically and statistically, to placebo. Methods/Design Two multicentre, two arm double blind parallel group randomised controlled trials, with allocation ratio of 2:1 for each comparison, Propranolol versus placebo and Pizotifen versus placebo. The trial is designed to test whether Propranolol is superior to placebo and whether Pizotifen is superior to placebo for the prevention of migraine attacks in children aged 5 - 16 years referred to secondary care out-patient settings with frequent migraine (2-6/4 weeks. The primary outcome measure is the number of migraine attacks during trial weeks 11 to 14. Discussion A strength of this trial is the participation of clinically well defined migraine patients who will also be approached to help with future longer-term follow-up studies. Trial Registration ISRCTN97360154

  13. A new ecamsule-containing SPF 40 sunscreen cream for the prevention of polymorphous light eruption: a double-blind, randomized, controlled study in maximized outdoor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeo, Vincent A; Clark, Scott; Fowler, Joseph; Poncet, Michel; Loesche, Christian; Soto, Pascale

    2009-02-01

    Polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) is an idiopathic photodermatosis elicited by UV radiation (UVR). The objective of this double-blind, randomized, controlled, intraindividual, bilateral comparison was to determine the efficacy of the UVA filters (ecamsule, avobenzone) present in the new sun protection factor (SPF) 40 sunscreen cream in preventing PMLE in maximized outdoor conditions (ie, exaggerated sun exposure). Safety also was assessed. Each participant was treated with SPF 40 sunscreen cream containing ecamsule 3%, octocrylene 10%, avobenzone 2%, and titanium dioxide 5% (tetrad) on one side of the body and either an ecamsule-deprived (triad-E) or avobenzone-deprived (triad-A) cream on the other side. Participants were subsequently exposed to incremental doses of sunlight for up to 6 days. The primary efficacy assessment was a composite relative success rate with 3 components. Success was defined as either a delayed time to onset of PMLE or a lower global severity of PMLE comparing one side of the body to the other side in the same participant. Safety evaluations included systemic adverse events (AEs). Of the 144 participants enrolled and randomized, 22 did not experience PMLE during the study duration under these maximized sun exposure conditions. A significantly greater number of successes were detected on the tetrad-treated side compared with either triad: 41 of 73 participants (56%) versus 8 of 73 participants (11%; Ptitanium dioxide 5% prevented PMLE flares significantly better than similar formulations with only one of the UVA filters (triad-E treatment group, Pfilter. PMID:19326695

  14. Low-dose adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone in the prevention of acute adverse reactions to antivenom following snakebite: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Asita de Silva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Envenoming from snakebites is most effectively treated by antivenom. However, the antivenom available in South Asian countries commonly causes acute allergic reactions, anaphylactic reactions being particularly serious. We investigated whether adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone prevent such reactions in secondary referral hospitals in Sri Lanka by conducting a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In total, 1,007 patients were randomized, using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of adrenaline (0.25 ml of a 1∶1,000 solution subcutaneously, promethazine (25 mg intravenously, and hydrocortisone (200 mg intravenously, each alone and in all possible combinations. The interventions, or matching placebo, were given immediately before infusion of antivenom. Patients were monitored for mild, moderate, or severe adverse reactions for at least 96 h. The prespecified primary end point was the effect of the interventions on the incidence of severe reactions up to and including 48 h after antivenom administration. In total, 752 (75% patients had acute reactions to antivenom: 9% mild, 48% moderate, and 43% severe; 89% of the reactions occurred within 1 h; and 40% of all patients were given rescue medication (adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone during the first hour. Compared with placebo, adrenaline significantly reduced severe reactions to antivenom by 43% (95% CI 25-67 at 1 h and by 38% (95% CI 26-49 up to and including 48 h after antivenom administration; hydrocortisone and promethazine did not. Adding hydrocortisone negated the benefit of adrenaline. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with low-dose adrenaline was safe and reduced the risk of acute severe reactions to snake antivenom. This may be of particular importance in countries where adverse reactions to antivenom are common, although the need to improve the quality of available antivenom cannot be

  15. Pollution prevention program for new projects -- Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lum, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to relay the experience of the Office of New Production Reactors (NP) in developing and implementing its pollution prevention program. NP was established to plan, design, and construct a new safe and environmentally acceptable nuclear reactor capacity necessary to provide an assured supply of tritium to maintain the nation`s long-term deterrent capability. The Program offered the Department of Energy an opportunity to demonstrate its commitment to environmental protection via minimization of environmental releases; new design offers the best opportunity for pollution prevention. The NP pollution prevention program was never fully implemented because NP`s tritium production design activity was recovery terminated. The information in this paper represented lessons learned from the last three years of NP operation.

  16. Upset Prevention and Recovery for Unimpaired and Impaired Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will develop and deliver a software system that integrates tools required for a complete analysis of loss-of-control incidents. The system will...

  17. Upset Prevention and Recovery for Unimpaired and Impaired Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the project is the development of an on-board envelope estimation, protection and upset recovery tool to address loss of control incidents in...

  18. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in Western Rwanda: Blindness in a Postconflict Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Wanjiku Mathenge; John Nkurikiye; Hans Limburg; Hannah Kuper

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. VISION 2020, a global initiative that aims to eliminate avoidable blindness, has estimated that 75% of blindness worldwide is treatable or preventable. The WHO estimates that in Africa, around 9% of adults aged over 50 are blind. Some data suggest that people living in regions affected by violent conflict are more likely to be blind than those living in unaffected regions. Currently no data exist on the likely prevalence of blindness in Rwanda, a central African c...

  19. Guide to Implementing TAP. Teens for AIDS Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    Teens for AIDS Prevention (TAP) is a model peer intervention program designed by the Center for Population Options to increase knowledge and change attitudes and behaviors among youth to reduce their risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. The program utilizes peer pressure in a positive sense: to encourage youth to protect…

  20. Does glyceryl nitrate prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis? A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Hornum, Mads; Elkjaer, Margarita;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Acute pancreatitis is the most dreaded complication of ERCP. Two studies have shown a significant effect of glyceryl nitrate (GN) in preventing post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). We wanted to evaluate this promising effect in a larger study with a realistically precalculated incidence of PEP...... with the PL group was not statistically significant (P = .11). Thirteen had mild pancreatitis (4 in the GN group, 9 in the PL group), 26 had moderate pancreatitis (9 in the GN group, 17 in the PL group), and 8 had severe pancreatitis (5 in the GN group, 3 in the PL group). Headache (P < .001) and...

  1. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Trial Of Pilocarpine With Head And Neck Irradiation For Prevention Of Radiation-Induced Xerostomia

    OpenAIRE

    Hadad P; Karimi M

    2002-01-01

    Xerostomia is one of the disturbing side-effects of the radiotherapy to the head and neck region. Pilocarpine has been approved for the treatment;of this condition in the chronic phase, but its use concurrent with radiation could also be beneficial for prevention or reducing the subsequent radiation-induced xerostomia. We undertook to test this hypothesis in a clinical trial."nMaterials and Methods: All 18- to 70-year old patients who were to be irradiated to the head and neck, with both...

  2. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research...

  3. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns ``Case...

  4. Projected Impact of Salt Restriction on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in China: A Modeling Study

    OpenAIRE

    Miao Wang; Moran, Andrew E.; Jing Liu; Coxson, Pamela G.; Joanne Penko; Lee Goldman; Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo; Dong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the effects of achieving China’s national goals for dietary salt (NaCl) reduction or implementing culturally-tailored dietary salt restriction strategies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Methods The CVD Policy Model was used to project blood pressure lowering and subsequent downstream prevented CVD that could be achieved by population-wide salt restriction in China. Outcomes were annual CVD events prevented, relative reductions in rates of CVD incidence and m...

  5. Coenzyme Q10 effect in prevention of atrial fibrillation after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Moludi

    2015-05-01

    Results: Thirty-eight women and forty-two men with a mean age of 58.37±7.98 years were enrolled in the study in two CoQ10 and placebo groups (each consisting of 40 patients. The incidence of postoperative AF was 45% in the control group to 20% in the intervention group decreased after supplementation (P=0.030. ICU stay and length of in-hospital stay did not significant. The incidence of arrhythmias ventricular tachycardia (VT and VF in this period was not significant (P=0.865. Conclusion: Q10 supplements have low side effects. Due to the reduction in the incidence of AF in patients after, CABG, these supplements can be recommended for the prevention of AF.

  6. Recruiting and Retaining Couples for an HIV Prevention Intervention: Lessons Learned from the PARTNERS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas-DeLuca, Katina A.; Kraft, Joan Marie; Edwards, Sherri L.; Casillas, America; Harvey, S. Marie; Huszti, Heather C.

    2006-01-01

    Intervening with both members of a couple has been recommended as an important strategy for human immunodeficiency virus prevention. Analyses of focus groups and in-depth interviews with project personnel involved in recruitment and retention for the Partners Against Risk-Taking: A Networking and Evaluation Research Study project identified, at…

  7. Preventive Effect of Liothyronine on Electroconvulsive Therapy-Induced Memory Deficit in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Double-Blind Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mohagheghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objective. Despite the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT in treating major depressive disorder (MDD, its cognitive side effects make it less popular. This study investigated the impact of liothyronine on ECT-induced memory deficit in patients with MDD. Methodology. This is a double-blind clinical trial, in which 60 patients with MDD who were referred for ECT were selected. The diagnosis was based on the criteria of DSM-IV-TR. Patients were divided randomly into two groups to receive either liothyronine (50 mcg every morning or placebo. After the assessment with Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R before first session of ECT, posttests were repeated again, two months after the completion of ECT. Findings. By controlling the pretest scores, the mean scores of the experimental group were higher than the control group in delayed recall, verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, and attention/concentration scales (P<0.05. Conclusion. Liothyronine may prevent ECT-induced memory impairment in patients with MDD. This study has been registered in IRCT under IRCT201401122660N2.

  8. A prospective randomized double-blind trial comparing ondansetron versus prochlorperazine for the prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing fractionated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priestman, T.J. (Royal Hospital, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom)); Roberts, J.T. (Newcastle General Hospital (United Kingdom)); Upadhyaya, B.K. (Glaxo Group Research Ltd., Greenford (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    In a multicentre, international double-blind trial, patients undergoing courses of five or more daily radiotherapy treatments to the upper abdomen were randomized to receive either oral ondansetron 8 mg t.d.s. or oral prochlorperazine 10 mg t.d.s. throughout their radiation course in order to try to prevent nausea and vomiting. A total of 192 patients were recruited, 135 of whom were included in the efficacy analysis; of these, 70 received ondansetron and 65 prochlorperazine. Forty-three (61%) of the patients prescribed ondansetron and 23 (35%) of those given prochlorperazine had a complete response, with no emetic episodes throughout their treatment course. There was, however, no significant difference between the two groups with respect to the incidence and severity of nausea. Seventeen (24%) of the patients on ondansetron and 19 (29%) of those given prochlorperazine were treatment failures, experiencing more than five emetic episodes on their worst day during the study. Both drugs were well tolerated, although constipation was seen more commonly with ondansetron. (author).

  9. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus (Lacidofil® cap) for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin-Yong; Jung, Sung-Ae; Kim, Seong-Eun; Park, Hye-Sook; Jeong, Yoolwon; Hong, Sung Pil; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Won Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jong; Ye, Byong Duk; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Sang-Woo; Shin, Sung-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Sung, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Eun Young

    2010-12-01

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is a common complication of antibiotic use. There is growing interest in probiotics for the treatment of AAD and Clostridium difficile infection because of the wide availability of probiotics. The aim of this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was to assess the efficacy of probiotic Lactobacillus (Lacidofil® cap) for the prevention of AAD in adults. From September 2008 to November 2009, a total of 214 patients with respiratory tract infection who had begun receiving antibiotics were randomized to receive Lactobacillus (Lacidofil® cap) or placebo for 14 days. Patients recorded bowel frequency and stool consistency daily for 14 days. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who developed AAD within 14 days of enrollment. AAD developed in 4 (3.9%) of 103 patients in the Lactobacillus group and in 8 (7.2%) of 111 patients in the placebo group (P=0.44). However, the Lactobacillus group showed lower change in bowel frequency and consistency (50/103, 48.5%) than the placebo group (35/111, 31.5%) (P=0.01). Although the Lacidofil® cap does not reduce the rate of occurrence of AAD in adult patients with respiratory tract infection who have taken antibiotics, the Lactobacillus group maintains their bowel habits to a greater extent than the placebo group.

  10. Orgaran (Org 10172) or heparin for preventing venous thrombosis after elective surgery for malignant disease? A double-blind, randomised, multicentre comparison. ANZ-Organon Investigators' Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, A; Cade, J; Ockelford, P; Hepburn, S; Maas, M; Magnani, H; Bucknall, T; Stevens, J; Porteous, F

    1993-10-18

    This double-blind, randomised, multicentre trial in 513 patients having elective surgery for intra-abdominal or intrathoracic malignancy compared the efficacy and safety of venous thrombosis (VT) prophylaxis using 750 anti-factor Xa units of Orgaran (a mixture of low molecular weight heparinoids) given subcutaneously (sc) twice-daily with that of twice-daily injections of 5,000 units standard heparin. The main study endpoints were the development of postoperative VT detected by 125I-fibrinogen leg scanning, and the onset of clinically significant venous thromboembolism or bleeding. "Intent to treat" analysis showed a statistically non-significant trend towards less VT during Orgaran prophylaxis (10.4%) than after heparin (14.9%) and there was no difference in bleeding complications between the two study groups. Results remained similar if only patients who completed the intended course of therapy ("compliant patients") were analysed. Other trials have shown that Orgaran prevents VT after hip surgery and stroke. We now show it is also safe and effective in patients having major surgery for cancer.

  11. PREVENTION OF POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING IN ELECTIVE LSCS UNDER SPINAL ANAESTHESIA BY PRE-OPERATIVE ONDANSETRON VERSUS METOCLOPRAMIDE: A PROSPECTIVE SINGLE-BLINDED RANDOMISED CONTROL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasada Rao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Obstetric anaesthesia during modern day practice has become challenge for the anaesthesiologist as the patients are generally young women and expecting a smooth outcome, not only in terms of the baby born but also herself. The problem of PONV has become challenging, though appear small problem, tough to control postoperatively. Many drugs have been on trial, but not effective completely. Of late the central 5HT3 antagonists have been promising in achieving the objectives in comparison to the ones previously used. AIMS To compare the efficacy and safety of prophylactic use of intravenous Metoclopramide (10mg and Ondansetron (4mg in preventing incidence of PONV, in patients undergoing elective LSCS under spinal anaesthesia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN A prospective randomized single blinded study conducted after obtaining written informed consent, 100 women patients aged above 18 years belonging to ASA grade I and II scheduled to undergo elective LSCS under spinal anaesthesia were enrolled in the study. METHODS AND MATERIAL Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups of 50 each. Group-M: received IV Metoclopramide 10mg. Group-O: received IV Ondansetron 4mg. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED ‘Z test’ and Student’s ‘t’ test. RESULTS Number of episodes of emesis, nausea and retching were recorded at time intervals of 1 hr, 2 hr, 6 hr and 24 hr for all the patients in both groups. Incidence of Nausea was more in Group – M than Group – O at 1 hr and 2 hr, but was statistically significant (p<0.05 at 2 hr only. Incidence of vomiting was decreased in Group – O than Group – M, but was not statistically significant. Incidence of retching was more in the 1 hr and 2 hr in Group - M. CONCLUSION Fair to conclude that IV Ondansetron has proved a better prophylactic than IV Metoclopramide in preventing PONV for elective LSCS cases under spinal anaesthesia.

  12. Student Art for Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanda, Kay

    1982-01-01

    Describes a project in which high school student volunteers designed art activities for blind children. Students incorporated the sensation of motion and texture into their designs for toys, puzzles, games, and story illustrations. (AM)

  13. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliba Debra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage patients to appropriate services. Here we report the formative evaluation of this project. Methods To evaluate the intervention we: 1 interviewed patient and employee stakeholders, 2 reviewed participating patients' electronic health record data and 3 abstracted information from meeting minutes. We describe the implementation process, including whether the project was implemented according to plan; identify barriers and facilitators to implementation; and assess the incremental benefit to the quality of health care for fall prevention received by patients in the project. We also estimate the cost of developing the pilot project. Results The project underwent multiple changes over its life span, including the addition of an option to mail patients educational materials about falls. During the project's lifespan, 113 patients were considered for inclusion and 35 participated. Patient and employee interviews suggested support for the project, but revealed that transportation to medical care was a major barrier in following up on fall risks identified by nurse telephone triage. Medical record review showed that the project enhanced usual medical care with respect to home safety counseling. We discontinued the program after 18 months due to staffing limitations and competing priorities. We estimated a cost of $9194 for meeting time to develop the project. Conclusions The project appeared feasible at its outset but could not be sustained past the first cycle of

  14. International collaboration on prevention of shaken baby syndrome - an ongoing project/intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Sue; Kovács, Zsuzsanna; Rose, Jenny; Lamb, Robyn; Tolliday, Fran; Simons-Coghill, Martine; Stephens, Amanda; Scheiber, Dóra; Toma, Andrea; Asbóth, Katalin; Kassai, Tamás; Agathonos, Helen; Lopes, Nahara R L; Williams, Lúcia C A; Sahin, Figen; Tasar, Aysin; Sarten, Terry

    2013-11-01

    Caring for young infants can be stressful. Non-accidental brain or head injury (shaken baby syndrome) is a result of parental stress, and a lack of knowledge of how to respond to a crying infant and the dangers of shaking a child. This article demonstrates the value of international collaboration in projects to prevent child maltreatment. It includes reports of prevention of shaken baby syndrome programmes in Australia, Hungary, Greece, Brazil and Turkey.

  15. Violence prevention in schools: Resilience promotion in the framework of a European practice research project

    OpenAIRE

    Katharina Rauh; Klaus Fröhlich-Gildhoff

    2014-01-01

    The following article presents the theoretical background, design and evaluation results of the international practice research project Strong implementing strategies of violence prevention in schools by means of resilience promotion. After presenting the results from the quantitative and qualitative results briefly, success factors for the implementation of a prevention strategy are highlighted. Este artigo apresenta o quadro teórico, a conceção e a avaliação dos resultados do projeto int...

  16. An Injury Prevention Strategy for Teen Restaurant Workers: Washington State's ProSafety Project

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Julie A.; de Castro, A.B.; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Linker, Darren; Hildahl, Lyle; Miller, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    High levels of youth employment, workplace hazards, and characteristics unique to adolescents contribute to a relatively high incidence of injuries among teens in the restaurant industry. This article discusses the ProSafety model of injury prevention among teen restaurant workers. Through integration with an existing career and technical education program, the ProSafety project seeks to prevent occupational injuries among the teen worker population through classroom safety education and inte...

  17. Analysis of stroke in ATHENA: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-arm trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg BID for the prevention of cardiovascular hospitalization or death from any cause in patients with atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Stuart J; Crijns, Harry J G M; Torp-Pedersen, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    , on stroke has been evaluated in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, ATHENA (A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-arm Trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg BID for the prevention of cardiovascular Hospitalization or death from any cause in patiENts with Atrial fibrillation...

  18. Blindness and cataract in children in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Gogate

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Blindness in children is considered a priority area for VISION 2020, as visually impaired children have a lifetime of blindness ahead of them. Various studies across the globe show that one-third to half of childhood blindness is either preventable or treatable1 and that cataract is the leading treatable cause of blindness in children.The 8th General Assembly of the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB provided an opportunity to be acquainted with recent research and programme development work in the prevention of childhood blindness.

  19. [Experiences from two HIV prevention projects among drug abusers in Oslo. Is methadone maintenance treatment useful?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogstad, M

    1990-06-10

    Experience from two HIV-preventive projects among drug abusers in Oslo, Norway, shows that HIV-positive drug abusers carry on their drug abuse independent of visits to residential drug-free treatment or prison. HIV-positive former drug abusers show a tendency to relapse to drug abuse. In terms of HIV-prevention among drug abusers it is important to reduce injection of drugs among HIV-positive drug abusers. Thus, methadone maintenance programmes should be considered in HIV-prevention in Norway. PMID:2363170

  20. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of the impact of malaria prevention on the educational attainment of school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Deepika; de Silva, Damani; Carter, Richard; Mendis, Kamini N; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2006-03-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nine months duration was carried out to investigate the impact of malaria and its prevention on the educational attainment of school children in a malaria-endemic area in southern Sri Lanka where both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections are prevalent. A total of 587 children attending grades 1-5 in four schools and resident in the area were randomly allocated to chloroquine (n = 295) and placebo (n = 292) arms. Language and mathematics scores of end-of-term school examinations for 1998 and 1999 and number of days absent and reasons for absenteeism during seven months pre-intervention and nine months of the intervention were recorded. The results indicate that there were no differences in language (95% confidence interval [CI] = 48.44-53.78 in chloroquine group and 50.43-55.81 in placebo group) and mathematics (95% CI = 49.24-54.38 in chloroquine group and 51.12-56.38 in placebo group) scores between the two groups prior to the intervention. During the intervention, the malaria incidence rate decreased by 55% (95% CI = 49-61%) and school absenteeism due to malaria was reduced by 62.5% (95% CI = 57-68%) in children who received chloroquine compared with the placebo group. Post-intervention, children who received chloroquine scored approximately 26% higher in both language (95% CI = 21-31%) and mathematics (95% CI = 23-33%) than children who received placebo. In a multivariate model, educational attainment was significantly associated with taking chloroquine prophylaxis and absenteeism due to malaria (P < 0.001 for both) but not due to health causes other than malaria or non-health causes. Language scores were associated with number of malaria attacks (P < 0.022). Educational attainment was significantly better among children whose compliance to chloroquine prophylaxis was higher (P < 0.001). The data suggest that malarial attacks have an adverse impact on the educational attainment of the school child and

  1. Dexamethasone for the prevention of a pain flare after palliative radiotherapy for painful bone metastases: a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy has a good effect in palliation of painful bone metastases, with a pain response rate of more than 60%. However, shortly after treatment, in approximately 40% of patients a temporary pain flare occurs, which is defined as a two-point increase of the worst pain score on an 11-point rating scale compared to baseline, without a decrease in analgesic intake, or a 25% increase in analgesic intake without a decrease in worst pain score, compared to baseline. A pain flare has a negative impact on daily functioning and mood of patients. It is thought to be caused by periostial edema after radiotherapy. Dexamethasone might diminish this edema and thereby reduce the incidence of pain flare. Two non-randomized studies suggest that dexamethasone reduces the incidence of a pain flare by 50%. The aim of this trial is to study the effectiveness of dexamethasone to prevent a pain flare after palliative radiotherapy for painful bone metastases and to determine the optimal dose schedule. This study is a three-armed, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. We aim to include 411 patients with uncomplicated painful bone metastases from any type of primary solid tumor who receive short schedule radiotherapy (all conventional treatment schedules from one to six fractions). Arm 1 consists of daily placebo for four days, arm 2 starts with 8 mg dexamethasone before the (first) radiotherapy and three days placebo thereafter. Arm 3 consists of four days 8 mg dexamethasone. The primary endpoint is the occurrence of a pain flare. Secondary endpoints are pain, quality of life and side-effects of dexamethasone versus placebo. Patients complete a questionnaire (Brief Pain Inventory with two added questions about side-effects of medication, the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL and QLQ-BM22 for quality of life) at baseline, daily for two weeks and lastly at four weeks. This study will show whether dexamethasone is effective in preventing a pain flare after palliative radiotherapy for

  2. Prevention of blindness is still an arduous task and embarks on a long road in China%我国防盲治盲工作仍然任重而道远

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵家良

    2012-01-01

    The outcomes from China Nine-Province Survey shows that the prevention of blindness in China have got some achievements,however,the status of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment is still serious.The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment in some remote areas is higher than the national average level.The major cause of blindness and visual impairment is cataract,however,retinal diseases are found to be the second major cause,which reflects both characteristics of blindness in the developed and developing countries.The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment are 1.93% and 5.31% respectively,however,the cataract surgery coverage rate is only 35.7%.These figures shows that prevention of blindness is still an arduous task and embark on a long road in China.The priority for prevention of blindness should be cataract-related blindness and visual impairment at present.Meanwhile,we should begin to conduct the prevention of the retinal diseases.%我国九省眼病调查结果显示,我国的防盲治盲工作取得了重大进展,但盲和中、重度视力损伤的情况仍很严重,一些边远省份的盲和中、重度视力损伤患病率远高于全国平均水平.我国发生盲和中、重度视力损伤的原因兼具发展中国家和发达国家特点,表现为白内障依然是盲和中、重度视力损伤的主要原因,同时视网膜疾病上升为导致盲和中、重度视力损伤的第二位原因.盲和中、重度视力损伤的患病率分别为1.95%和5.31%,白内障手术覆盖率仅为35.7%,表明我国防盲治盲仍然任重而道远.当前,我国防盲治盲工作的首要问题仍然是解决白内障导致的盲和重度视力损伤,同时应组织力量开展视网膜疾病防治的研究.

  3. Corneal blindness and xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Vladimir; Hara, Hidetaka; Mammen, Alex; Dhaliwal, Deepinder; Cooper, David K C

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 39 million people are blind worldwide, with an estimated 285 million visually impaired. The developing world shoulders 90% of the world's blindness, with 80% of causative diseases being preventable or treatable. Blindness has a major detrimental impact on the patient, community, and healthcare spending. Corneal diseases are significant causes of blindness, affecting at least 4 million people worldwide. The prevalence of corneal disease varies between parts of the world. Trachoma, for instance, is the second leading cause of blindness in Africa, after cataracts, but is rarely found today in developed nations. When preventive strategies have failed, corneal transplantation is the most effective treatment for advanced corneal disease. The major surgical techniques for corneal transplantation include penetrating keratoplasty (PK), anterior lamellar keratoplasty, and endothelial keratoplasty (EK). Indications for corneal transplantation vary between countries, with Fuchs' dystrophy being the leading indication in the USA and keratoconus in Australia. With the exception of the USA, where EK will soon overtake PK as the most common surgical procedure, PK is the overwhelming procedure of choice. Success using corneal grafts in developing nations, such as Nepal, demonstrates the feasibility of corneal transplantation on a global scale. The number of suitable corneas from deceased human donors that becomes available will never be sufficient, and so research into various alternatives, for example stem cells, amniotic membrane transplantation, synthetic and biosynthetic corneas, and xenotransplantation, is progressing. While each of these has potential, we suggest that xenotransplantation holds the greatest potential for a corneal replacement. With the increasing availability of genetically engineered pigs, pig corneas may alleviate the global shortage of corneas in the near future.

  4. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns ``Systematic... Sustainability and Scalability, SIP 11-046, Panel D,'' initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the...- Component Interventions to Prevent Older Adult Falls and Assessing Sustainability and Scalability, SIP...

  5. Development of a Student Engagement Approach to Alcohol Prevention: The Pragmatics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Cynthia K.; Andrews, David W.; Glassman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Significant involvement of students in the development and implementation of college alcohol prevention strategies is largely untested, despite recommendations by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and others. Objective: The purpose of the Pragmatics Project was to test a student engagement model for developing and implementing…

  6. Teens for AIDS Prevention. Washington, D.C. Demonstration Project: Program Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The nation's attention must be focused on the growing risk to its teenagers of contracting AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). As part of this effort, the Center for Population Options (CPO) organized a teen AIDS prevention project in Washington, D.C., based on information obtained from four focus groups comprised of 8-12 teens each. The…

  7. Sublingual misoprostol versus intramuscular oxytocin for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in Uganda: a double-blind randomized non-inferiority trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther C Atukunda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH is a leading cause of maternal death in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the World Health Organization recommends use of oxytocin for prevention of PPH, misoprostol use is increasingly common owing to advantages in shelf life and potential for sublingual administration. There is a lack of data about the comparative efficacy of oxytocin and sublingual misoprostol, particularly at the recommended dose of 600 µg, for prevention of PPH during active management of labor. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a double-blind, double-dummy randomized controlled non-inferiority trial between 23 September 2012 and 9 September 2013 at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda. We randomized 1,140 women to receive 600 µg of misoprostol sublingually or 10 IU of oxytocin intramuscularly, along with matching placebos for the treatment they did not receive. Our primary outcome of interest was PPH, defined as measured blood loss ≥ 500 ml within 24 h of delivery. Secondary outcomes included measured blood loss ≥ 1,000 ml; mean measured blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 h after delivery; death; requirement for blood transfusion; hemoglobin changes; and use of additional uterotonics. At 24 h postpartum, primary PPH occurred in 163 (28.6% participants in the misoprostol group and 99 (17.4% participants in the oxytocin group (relative risk [RR] 1.64, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.05, p<0.001; absolute risk difference 11.2%, 95% CI 6.44 to 16.1. Severe PPH occurred in 20 (3.6% and 15 (2.7% participants in the misoprostol and oxytocin groups, respectively (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.58, p = 0.391; absolute risk difference 0.9%, 95% CI -1.12 to 2.88. Mean measured blood loss was 341.5 ml (standard deviation [SD] 206.2 and 304.2 ml (SD 190.8, p = 0.002 at 2 h and 484.7 ml (SD 213.3 and 432.8 ml (SD 203.5, p<0.001 at 24 h in the misoprostol and oxytocin groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups in any other

  8. Mentoring Transition-Age Youth with Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a mentoring project designed for transition-age youth (ages 16-26) who are persons with legal blindness. Youth were matched with adult mentors who were also persons with blindness but who have achieved academic and career success. Results demonstrate that youth who participated in the project for 2 years had significant…

  9. Topical Hyaluronic Acid vs. Standard of Care for the Prevention of Radiation Dermatitis After Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Single-Blind Randomized Phase III Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnix, Chelsea; Perkins, George H.; Strom, Eric A.; Tereffe, Welela; Woodward, Wendy; Oh, Julia L.; Arriaga, Lisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kelly, Patrick; Hoffman, Karen E.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yu, T. Kuan, E-mail: tkyu@houstonprecisioncc.com [Houston Precision Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of an emulsion containing hyaluronic acid to reduce the development of {>=}Grade 2 radiation dermatitis after adjuvant breast radiation compared with best supportive care. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer who had undergone lumpectomy and were to receive whole-breast radiotherapy to 50 Gy with a 10- to 16-Gy surgical bed boost were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of a hyaluronic acid-based gel (RadiaPlex) and a petrolatum-based gel (Aquaphor) for preventing the development of dermatitis. Each patient was randomly assigned to use hyaluronic acid gel on the medial half or the lateral half of the irradiated breast and to use the control gel on the other half. Dermatitis was graded weekly according to the Common Terminology Criteria v3.0 by the treating physician, who was blinded as to which gel was used on which area of the breast. The primary endpoint was development of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis. Results: The study closed early on the basis of a recommendation from the Data and Safety Monitoring Board after 74 of the planned 92 patients were enrolled. Breast skin treated with the hyaluronic acid gel developed a significantly higher rate of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis than did skin treated with petrolatum gel: 61.5% (40/65) vs. 47.7% (31/65) (p = 0.027). Only 1ne patient developed Grade 3 dermatitis using either gel. A higher proportion of patients had worse dermatitis in the breast segment treated with hyaluronic acid gel than in that treated with petrolatum gel at the end of radiotherapy (42% vs. 14%, p = 0.003). Conclusion: We found no benefit from the use of a topical hyaluronic acid-based gel for reducing the development of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis after adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of hyaluronic acid-based gel in controlling radiation dermatitis symptoms after they develop.

  10. Topical Hyaluronic Acid vs. Standard of Care for the Prevention of Radiation Dermatitis After Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Single-Blind Randomized Phase III Clinical Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of an emulsion containing hyaluronic acid to reduce the development of ≥Grade 2 radiation dermatitis after adjuvant breast radiation compared with best supportive care. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer who had undergone lumpectomy and were to receive whole-breast radiotherapy to 50 Gy with a 10- to 16-Gy surgical bed boost were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of a hyaluronic acid–based gel (RadiaPlex) and a petrolatum-based gel (Aquaphor) for preventing the development of dermatitis. Each patient was randomly assigned to use hyaluronic acid gel on the medial half or the lateral half of the irradiated breast and to use the control gel on the other half. Dermatitis was graded weekly according to the Common Terminology Criteria v3.0 by the treating physician, who was blinded as to which gel was used on which area of the breast. The primary endpoint was development of ≥Grade 2 dermatitis. Results: The study closed early on the basis of a recommendation from the Data and Safety Monitoring Board after 74 of the planned 92 patients were enrolled. Breast skin treated with the hyaluronic acid gel developed a significantly higher rate of ≥Grade 2 dermatitis than did skin treated with petrolatum gel: 61.5% (40/65) vs. 47.7% (31/65) (p = 0.027). Only 1ne patient developed Grade 3 dermatitis using either gel. A higher proportion of patients had worse dermatitis in the breast segment treated with hyaluronic acid gel than in that treated with petrolatum gel at the end of radiotherapy (42% vs. 14%, p = 0.003). Conclusion: We found no benefit from the use of a topical hyaluronic acid–based gel for reducing the development of ≥Grade 2 dermatitis after adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of hyaluronic acid–based gel in controlling radiation dermatitis symptoms after they develop

  11. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Project peer review. Report of the Peer Review Committee of the Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project at the Yorktown, Virginia refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project involved a number of representatives from federal and Virginia regulatory agencies, and Amoco's refining business. Participants believed that the Project could benefit from a broader perspective than these organizations along might provide. The Project Work Group selected an independent Peer Review Process which was conducted by Resource for the Future (RFF), a Washington DC think tank. A group of technical, policy and environmental experts from diverse backgrounds served as Peer Review members. The Peer Review Committee met on three occasions to discuss (1) the Project Work Plan (2) sampling data and interpretation and (3) project conclusions and recommendations. The focus of the meeting was on the general scope and content of the project

  12. Evaluation of DELTA PREP: A Project Aimed at Integrating Primary Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence within State Domestic Violence Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states.…

  13. Estimating unbiased economies of scale of HIV prevention projects: a case study of Avahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Aurélia; Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Blanc, Elodie; Le Nestour, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Governments and donors are investing considerable resources on HIV prevention in order to scale up these services rapidly. Given the current economic climate, providers of HIV prevention services increasingly need to demonstrate that these investments offer good 'value for money'. One of the primary routes to achieve efficiency is to take advantage of economies of scale (a reduction in the average cost of a health service as provision scales-up), yet empirical evidence on economies of scale is scarce. Methodologically, the estimation of economies of scale is hampered by several statistical issues preventing causal inference and thus making the estimation of economies of scale complex. In order to estimate unbiased economies of scale when scaling up HIV prevention services, we apply our analysis to one of the few HIV prevention programmes globally delivered at a large scale: the Indian Avahan initiative. We costed the project by collecting data from the 138 Avahan NGOs and the supporting partners in the first four years of its scale-up, between 2004 and 2007. We develop a parsimonious empirical model and apply a system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and fixed-effects Instrumental Variable (IV) estimators to estimate unbiased economies of scale. At the programme level, we find that, after controlling for the endogeneity of scale, the scale-up of Avahan has generated high economies of scale. Our findings suggest that average cost reductions per person reached are achievable when scaling-up HIV prevention in low and middle income countries.

  14. Estimating unbiased economies of scale of HIV prevention projects: a case study of Avahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Aurélia; Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Blanc, Elodie; Le Nestour, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Governments and donors are investing considerable resources on HIV prevention in order to scale up these services rapidly. Given the current economic climate, providers of HIV prevention services increasingly need to demonstrate that these investments offer good 'value for money'. One of the primary routes to achieve efficiency is to take advantage of economies of scale (a reduction in the average cost of a health service as provision scales-up), yet empirical evidence on economies of scale is scarce. Methodologically, the estimation of economies of scale is hampered by several statistical issues preventing causal inference and thus making the estimation of economies of scale complex. In order to estimate unbiased economies of scale when scaling up HIV prevention services, we apply our analysis to one of the few HIV prevention programmes globally delivered at a large scale: the Indian Avahan initiative. We costed the project by collecting data from the 138 Avahan NGOs and the supporting partners in the first four years of its scale-up, between 2004 and 2007. We develop a parsimonious empirical model and apply a system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and fixed-effects Instrumental Variable (IV) estimators to estimate unbiased economies of scale. At the programme level, we find that, after controlling for the endogeneity of scale, the scale-up of Avahan has generated high economies of scale. Our findings suggest that average cost reductions per person reached are achievable when scaling-up HIV prevention in low and middle income countries. PMID:25779621

  15. Project EX-India: A classroom-based tobacco use prevention and cessation intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Anupreet Kaur; Sussman, Steve; Tewari, Abha; Bassi, Shalini; Arora, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco use experimentation is most frequent between the ages of 15–24 in India. Therefore, programming to counteract tobacco use among adolescents is needed. There is a lack of evidence-based teen tobacco use prevention and cessation programs. The current study provides an outcome evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use prevention and cessation program among Indian adolescents (16–18 years). An eight-session classroom-based curriculum was adapted to the Indian context and translated from English to Hindi (local language). Next, it was tested using a quasi-experimental design with 624 Indian students at baseline, involving two program and two control schools, with a three-month post-program follow-up. Project EX involves motivation enhancement (e.g., talk shows and games) and coping skills (e.g., complementary and alternative medicine) components. Program participants rated complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) activities like meditation, yoga and healthy breathing higher than talk shows and games. Compared to the standard care control condition, the program condition revealed a prevention effect, but not a cessation effect. Implications for prevention/cessation programming among Indian teens are discussed. This study was approved by the Independent Ethics Committee, Mumbai. PMID:26454232

  16. Vesicouterine fistula and blind vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of vesicouterine fistula with blind vagina following cesarean section for obstructed labor is presented. It was surgically treated by fistulectomy, cervicoplasty and maintenance of bladder and cervical potency by catheterization. Intrauterine synechiae formation was prevented by copper T insertion and oral contraceptive pills. The patient is making uneventful a symptomatic progress planning to conceive. (author)

  17. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents’ obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data. The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have. This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries’ needs and priorities. The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries’ Health Services for monitoring adolescents’ obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  18. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  19. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles.

  20. Provably secure robust threshold partial blind signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhenfu; ZHU Haojin; LU Rongxing

    2006-01-01

    Threshold digital signature and blind signature are playing important roles in cryptography as well as in practical applications such as e-cash and e-voting systems.Over the past few years, many cryptographic researchers have made considerable headway in this field. However, to our knowledge, most of existing threshold blind signature schemes are based on the discrete logarithm problem. In this paper, we propose a new robust threshold partial blind signature scheme based on improved RSA cryptosystem.This scheme is the first threshold partial blind signature scheme based on factoring, and the robustness of threshold partial blind signature is also introduced. Moreover, in practical application, the proposed scheme will be especially suitable for blind signature-based voting systems with multiple administrators and secure electronic cash systems to prevent their abuse.

  1. An injury prevention strategy for teen restaurant workers. Washington State's ProSafety project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Julie A; de Castro, A B; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Linker, Darren; Hildahl, Lyle; Miller, Mary E

    2010-02-01

    High levels of youth employment, workplace hazards, and characteristics unique to adolescents contribute to a relatively high incidence of injuries among teens in the restaurant industry. This article discusses the ProSafety model of injury prevention among teen restaurant workers. Through integration with an existing career and technical education program, the ProSafety project seeks to prevent occupational injuries among the teen worker population through classroom safety education and internship skills reinforcement. ProSafety is the product of an innovative collaboration with occupational health nurses, business professionals, educators, and government. Its approach is derived from Social Cognitive Theory, is consistent with key values and strategies of occupational health nurses, and provides lessons for practitioners seeking to reduce occupational injuries in food service or among other populations of adolescent workers.

  2. An injury prevention strategy for teen restaurant workers. Washington State's ProSafety project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Julie A; de Castro, A B; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Linker, Darren; Hildahl, Lyle; Miller, Mary E

    2010-02-01

    High levels of youth employment, workplace hazards, and characteristics unique to adolescents contribute to a relatively high incidence of injuries among teens in the restaurant industry. This article discusses the ProSafety model of injury prevention among teen restaurant workers. Through integration with an existing career and technical education program, the ProSafety project seeks to prevent occupational injuries among the teen worker population through classroom safety education and internship skills reinforcement. ProSafety is the product of an innovative collaboration with occupational health nurses, business professionals, educators, and government. Its approach is derived from Social Cognitive Theory, is consistent with key values and strategies of occupational health nurses, and provides lessons for practitioners seeking to reduce occupational injuries in food service or among other populations of adolescent workers. PMID:20180503

  3. A new approach to prevent HIV transmission: Project Protect intervention for recently infected individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasylyeva, T.I.; Friedman, S.R.; Smyrnov, P.; Bondarenko, K.

    2015-01-01

    Past research suggests that as many as 50% of onward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmissions occur during acute and recent HIV infection. It is clearly important to develop interventions which focus on this highly infectious stage of HIV infection to prevent further transmission in the risk networks of acutely and recently infected individuals. Project Protect tries to find recently and acutely infected individuals and prevents HIV transmission in their risk networks. Participants are recruited by community health outreach workers at community-based HIV testing sites and drug users’ community venues, by coupon referrals and through referrals from AIDS clinics. When a network with acute/recent infection is identified, network members are interviewed about their risky behaviors, network information is collected, and blood is drawn for HIV testing. Participants are also educated and given prevention materials (condoms, syringes, educational materials); HIV-infected participants are referred to AIDS clinics and are assisted with access to care. Community alerts about elevated risk of HIV transmission are distributed within the risk networks of recently infected. Overall, 342 people were recruited to the project and screened for acute/recent HIV infection. Only six index cases of recent infection (2.3% of all people screened) were found through primary screening at voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) sites, but six cases of recent infection were found through contact tracing of these recently infected participants (7% of network members who came to the interview). Combining screening at VCT sites and contact tracing the number of recently infected people we located as compared to VCT screening alone. No adverse events were encountered. These first results provide evidence for the theory behind the intervention, i.e., in the risk networks of recently infected people there are other people with recent HIV infection and they can be successfully located

  4. 78 FR 11803 - Proposed Waiver and Extension of the Project Period for the National Dropout Prevention Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... Prevention Center for Students With Disabilities AGENCY: Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), Office... project period would enable the currently funded National Dropout Prevention Center for Students with... (73 FR 35376) inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year (FY) 2008 for a National...

  5. Projected Impact of Salt Restriction on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in China: A Modeling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Wang

    Full Text Available To estimate the effects of achieving China's national goals for dietary salt (NaCl reduction or implementing culturally-tailored dietary salt restriction strategies on cardiovascular disease (CVD prevention.The CVD Policy Model was used to project blood pressure lowering and subsequent downstream prevented CVD that could be achieved by population-wide salt restriction in China. Outcomes were annual CVD events prevented, relative reductions in rates of CVD incidence and mortality, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs gained, and CVD treatment costs saved.Reducing mean dietary salt intake to 9.0 g/day gradually over 10 years could prevent approximately 197 000 incident annual CVD events [95% uncertainty interval (UI: 173 000-219 000], reduce annual CVD mortality by approximately 2.5% (2.2-2.8%, gain 303 000 annual QALYs (278 000-329 000, and save approximately 1.4 billion international dollars (Int$ in annual CVD costs (Int$; 1.2-1.6 billion. Reducing mean salt intake to 6.0 g/day could approximately double these benefits. Implementing cooking salt-restriction spoons could prevent 183 000 fewer incident CVD cases (153 000-215 000 and avoid Int$1.4 billion in CVD treatment costs annually (1.2-1.7 billion. Implementing a cooking salt substitute strategy could lead to approximately three times the health benefits of the salt-restriction spoon program. More than three-quarters of benefits from any dietary salt reduction strategy would be realized in hypertensive adults.China could derive substantial health gains from implementation of population-wide dietary salt reduction policies. Most health benefits from any dietary salt reduction program would be realized in adults with hypertension.

  6. Implementation of mass media community health education: the Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignan, M; Bahnson, J; Sharp, P; Beal, P; Smith, M; Michielutte, R

    1991-09-01

    The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project (FCP) is a community-based health education project funded by the National Cancer Institute. The target population includes around 25 000 black women age 18 and older who reside in Forsyth County, North Carolina. The overall goal of the program is to prevent mortality from cervical cancer by promoting Pap smears and return for follow-up care when needed. Based on the principles of social marketing, a plan to reach the target population with mass media educational messages through electronic and print channels was developed. Guided by marketing objectives, the target population was divided into relatively discrete segments. The segments included church attenders, patients in waiting rooms of public and selected health providers, female students at local colleges, shoppers, viewers of radio and television, newspaper readers, and business owners and managers. Introduction of the program was based on strategies developed for reaching the target population in each segment with television, radio and print mass media messages. Qualitative assessment of the mass media developed by the program indicated that all forms of communication helped to increase awareness of the program. PMID:10148691

  7. A randomised, controlled, double-blind trial of ultrasound-guided phrenic nerve block to prevent shoulder pain after thoracic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, M R; Laursen, C B; Berg, H;

    2016-01-01

    Moderate to severe ipsilateral shoulder pain is a common complaint following thoracic surgery. In this prospective, parallel-group study at Odense University Hospital, 76 patients (aged > 18 years) scheduled for lobectomy or pneumonectomy were randomised 1:1 using a computer-generated list...... vials assuring that all participants, healthcare providers and data collectors were blinded. The primary outcome was the incidence of unilateral shoulder pain within the first 6 h after surgery. Pain was evaluated using a numeric rating scale. Nine of 38 patients in the ropivacaine group and 26 of 38...... patients in the placebo group experienced shoulder pain during the first 6 h after surgery (absolute risk reduction 44% (95% CI 22-67%), relative risk reduction 65% (95% CI 41-80%); p = 0.00009). No major complications, including respiratory compromise or nerve injury, were observed. We conclude...

  8. Allowing for MSD prevention during facilities planning for a public service: an a posteriori analysis of 10 library design projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellemare, Marie; Trudel, Louis; Ledoux, Elise; Montreuil, Sylvie; Marier, Micheline; Laberge, Marie; Vincent, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Research was conducted to identify an ergonomics-based intervention model designed to factor in musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) prevention when library projects are being designed. The first stage of the research involved an a posteriori analysis of 10 recent redesign projects. The purpose of the analysis was to document perceptions about the attention given to MSD prevention measures over the course of a project on the part of 2 categories of employees: librarians responsible for such projects and personnel working in the libraries before and after changes. Subjects were interviewed in focus groups. Outcomes of the analysis can guide our ergonomic assessment of current situations and contribute to a better understanding of the way inclusion or improvement of prevention measures can support the workplace design process.

  9. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants......, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...

  10. Project Protect” intervention. Testing a new approach for HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasylyeva, Tetyana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. “Project Protect” aims to find highly infectious individuals through screening for acute/recent infection cases and prevent HIV transmission in the risk networks of these cases through contact tracing of these networks` participants, distributing community alerts about risk of acute infection among them and accurate post-test counseling.METHODS. An ongoing pilot phase of the intervention began in Kriviy Rig and Lviv, Ukraine in November, 2011. Participants are recruited through: 1 screening for cases of acute/recent infection at voluntary counseling and testing (VCT sites and in partner organizations (including AIDS-Centers which conduct VCT; 2 visits to drug use venues, chain-referral and contact tracing. Genscreen ultra HIV Ag-Ab “special-tests” are used to detect cases of acute infection. Recent infection is defined as positive test result and preceding negative result within 6 months and/or age younger than 21 years old.RESULTS. In the two cities 173 respondents were recruited to the project, 118 special tests were done. No cases of acute infection and eleven cases of recent infection were found (8 injection drug users (IDUs with preceding negative result within 6 months, 2 IDUs younger than 21 recruited by project team; one non-IDU with preceding negative result within 6 months referred from AIDS-Center. Six recent cases were recruited through screening at VCT sites, 5 others through contact tracing. Psychologists conducted 41 interviews with recent infection cases and their risk networks` members; 176 community alert flyers were distributed to members of risk networks during the interview by psychologist, at the venue by social worker and by participants themselves; 3 drug use venues were visited by project team with concomitant HIV-testing of people present at the venue. CONCLUSIONS. Network tracing seems to be feasible and to help find recently infected people. Further research is needed to tell whether this

  11. The process evaluation of It's Your Move!, an Australian adolescent community-based obesity prevention project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Annie M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on interventions for preventing unhealthy weight gain in adolescents is urgently needed. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation for a three-year (2005-2008 project conducted in five secondary schools in the East Geelong/Bellarine region of Victoria, Australia. The project, 'It's Your Move!' aimed to reduce unhealthy weight gain by promoting healthy eating patterns, regular physical activity, healthy body weight, and body size perception amongst youth; and improve the capacity of families, schools, and community organisations to sustain the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in the region. Methods The project was supported by Deakin University (training and evaluation, a Reference Committee (strategic direction, budgetary approval and monitoring and a Project Management Committee (project delivery. A workshop of students, teachers and other stakeholders formulated a 10-point action plan, which was then translated into strategies and initiatives specific to each school by the School Project Officers (staff members released from teaching duties one day per week and trained Student Ambassadors. Baseline surveys informed intervention development. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and these were collated and enumerated, where possible, into a set of mutually exclusive tables to demonstrate the types of strategies and the dose, frequency and reach of intervention activities. Results The action plan included three guiding objectives, four on nutrition, two on physical activity and one on body image. The process evaluation data showed that a mix of intervention strategies were implemented, including social marketing, one-off events, lunch time and curriculum programs, improvements in infrastructure, and healthy school food policies. The majority of the interventions were implemented in schools and focused on capacity building and healthy eating strategies as

  12. Effect of ondansetron on prevention of post-induction hypotension in elderly patients undergoing general anesthesia: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golparvar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elderly patients are susceptible to post-induction hypotension. Volume loading and vasopressors for prevention of hypotension in elderly patients may increase perioperative cardiovascular risks. Ondansetron by blocking Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR through inhibition of serotonin receptors has been effective in the prevention of post-spinal hypotension, and bradycardia. Bradycardia frequently accompanies post-induction hypotension in elderly patients, which signifies a possible preventing role for ondansetron. No previous study has evaluated the prophylactic effects of ondansetron for the prevention of post-induction hypotension. Materials and Methods: In this randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, ondansetron 4 mg was given intravenously to 65 elderly patients, 20 min before induction of general anesthesia, and the rate of post-induction hypotension defined as 25% or more reduction in mean arterial blood pressure, compared with a placebo groups. Results: A total of 114 patients completed the study (58 in ondansetron and 56 in the placebo group. Proportions of post-induction hypotension were 9 (16% and 25 (45% in ondansetron and placebo groups, respectively, (P = 0.001. Forty-five patients (40% developed bradycardia. Rates of bradycardia were not significantly different between two groups. Conclusions: The results of this study show the effectiveness of intravenous ondansetron for prevention of post-induction hypotension in elderly patients. The mechanism of this effect largely is unknown. Role of ondansetron for prevention of post-induction hypotension may not fully understandable by its interaction with BJR, as has been shown in post-spinal hypotension.

  13. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded single-site control study comparing blood loss prevention of tranexamic acid (TXA to epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA for corrective spinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Kenneth M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multilevel spinal fusion surgery has typically been associated with significant blood loss. To limit both the need for transfusions and co-morbidities associated with blood loss, the use of anti-fibrinolytic agents has been proposed. While there is some literature comparing the effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA to epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA in cardiac procedures, there is currently no literature directly comparing TXA to EACA in orthopedic surgery. Methods/Design Here we propose a prospective, randomized, double-blinded control study evaluating the effects of TXA, EACA, and placebo for treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS, and adult deformity (AD via corrective spinal surgery. Efficacy will be determined by intraoperative and postoperative blood loss. Other clinical outcomes that will be compared include transfusion rates, preoperative and postoperative hemodynamic values, and length of hospital stay after the procedure. Discussion The primary goal of the study is to determine perioperative blood loss as a measure of the efficacy of TXA, EACA, and placebo. Based on current literature and the mechanism by which the medications act, we hypothesize that TXA will be more effective at reducing blood loss than EACA or placebo and result in improved patient outcomes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00958581

  14. Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Historical and Projected Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James E.

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the March 2011 accident at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the future contribution of nuclear power to the global energy supply has become somewhat uncertain. Because nuclear power is an abundant, low-carbon source of base-load power, it could make a large contribution to mitigation of global climate change and air pollution. Using historical production data, we calculate that global nuclear power has prevented an average of 1.84 million air pollution-related deaths and 64 gigatonnes of CO2-equivalent (GtCO2-eq) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that would have resulted from fossil fuel burning. On the basis of global projection data that take into account the effects of the Fukushima accident, we find that nuclear power could additionally prevent an average of 420 000-7.04 million deaths and 80-240 GtCO2-eq emissions due to fossil fuels by midcentury, depending on which fuel it replaces. By contrast, we assess that large-scale expansion of unconstrained natural gas use would not mitigate the climate problem and would cause far more deaths than expansion of nuclear power.

  15. Single-dose fosaprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting associated with cisplatin therapy: randomized, double-blind study protocol--EASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunberg, Steven; Chua, Daniel; Maru, Anish;

    2011-01-01

    Addition of aprepitant, a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK1RA), to an ondansetron and dexamethasone regimen improves prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting (CINV), particularly during the delayed phase (DP; 25 to 120 hours). Therefore, recommended antiemetic regimens include...

  16. Rationale, design and methodology of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of escitalopram in prevention of Depression in Acute Coronary Syndrome (DECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Jørgen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome, i.e. myocardial infarction and unstable angina, is higher than in the general population. The prevalence of anxiety is higher as well. Both depression and anxiety are associated with poor cardiac outcomes and higher mortality. Comorbid depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome often goes undiagnosed, and it is therefore a challenging task to prevent this risk factor. The study of DEpression in Coronary ARtery Disease (DECARD is designed to examine if it is possible to prevent depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Methods Two hundred forty non-depressed patients with acute coronary syndrome are randomized to treatment with either escitalopram or placebo for 1 year. Psychiatric and cardiac assessment of patients is performed to evaluate the possibility of preventing depression. Diagnosis of depression and Hamilton Depression Scale are the primary outcome measures. Discussion This is the first study of prevention of depression in patients after acute coronary syndrome with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Trial Registration http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00140257

  17. Rationale, design and methodology of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of escitalopram in prevention of Depression in Acute Coronary Syndrome (DECARD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Baiba Hedegaard; Hanash, Jamal Abed; Rasmussen, Alice;

    2009-01-01

    with acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: Two hundred forty non-depressed patients with acute coronary syndrome are randomized to treatment with either escitalopram or placebo for 1 year. Psychiatric and cardiac assessment of patients is performed to evaluate the possibility of preventing depression. Diagnosis...

  18. [The human genome project as a scientific background of preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, V S

    2000-01-01

    Conspicuous achievements in the Human Genome Project have already found spectacular implementation in both basic research and practice. The Human Genome Diversity, Functional Genomics, and numerous Social Programmes are under way and they are rapidly expanding the scientific area induced by the Human Genome Project. Its practical implication is mainly confined to molecular medicine and to its quickly growing area Predictive (Preventive) Medicine. The paper briefly considers the existing concepts of molecular genetic tests of "predisposition" genes, including such groups as "environmental" genes and "trigger"-genes to detect subjects highly susceptible to different common multifactorial diseases and the expediency for testing the genes whose mutations cause diseases showing their manifestations at the late stage. Evidence is provided for that there is a progressive increase in population, family, and personal predisposition gene DNA databanks. There is need for close interaction between researchers and all strata of society, including the clergy, governments, political parties, etc. in order to optimize perception of scientific achievements of modern genetics and their effective used for the welfare of mankind. PMID:11247123

  19. Treatment And Prevention for female Sex workers in South Africa: protocol for the TAPS Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Gabriela B; Eakle, Robyn; Mbogua, Judie; Akpomiemie, Godspower; Venter, W D Francois; Rees, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Updated guidelines from the WHO recommend antiretroviral treatment for adults with HIV at any CD4 count and daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for people at substantial risk of HIV infection. However, implementation challenges may hinder the ability of programmes to translate these recommendations into successful practice. This demonstration project is the first to integrate PrEP and immediate treatment (ITx) for female sex workers (FSWs) in South Africa to answer operational research questions. Methods and analysis This is a prospective cohort study where the main outcome is retention at 12 months. The study population is recruited into two arms across two urban sites: (1) PrEP for HIV-negative FSWs (n=400) and (2) ITx for HIV-positive FSWs with CD4 greater than national guidelines (n=300). We investigate process and other health indicators, uptake and use of PrEP and ITx through qualitative research, and evaluate cost-effectiveness analysis combined with estimates of impact through epidemiological modelling. Ethics and dissemination The Treatment And Prevention for female Sex workers in South Africa (TAPS) Project was designed as an implementation study before emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was licenced as an indication for PrEP in South Africa. Therefore, clinical trial requirements for ethical and South African Medicines Control Council approvals were followed. Results will be disseminated to participants, local health officials and other stakeholders, as well as in peer-reviewed journals and at conferences. PMID:27678533

  20. Knowledge exchange in the Pacific: The TROPIC (Translational Research into Obesity Prevention Policies for Communities project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavoa Helen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policies targeting obesogenic environments and behaviours are critical to counter rising obesity rates and lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Policies are likely to be most effective and enduring when they are based on the best available evidence. Evidence-informed policy making is especially challenging in countries with limited resources. The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities project aims to implement and evaluate a tailored knowledge-brokering approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji, a Pacific nation challenged by increasingly high rates of obesity and concomitant NCDs. Methods The TROPIC project draws on the concept of ‘knowledge exchange’ between policy developers (individuals; organisations and researchers to deliver a knowledge broking programme that maps policy environments, conducts workshops on evidence-informed policy making, supports the development of evidence-informed policy briefs, and embeds evidence-informed policy making into organisational culture. Recruitment of government and nongovernment organisational representatives will be based on potential to: develop policies relevant to obesity, reach broad audiences, and commit to resourcing staff and building a culture that supports evidence-informed policy development. Workshops will increase awareness of both obesity and policy cycles, as well as develop participants’ skills in accessing, assessing and applying relevant evidence to policy briefs. The knowledge-broking team will then support participants to: 1 develop evidence-informed policy briefs that are both commensurate with national and organisational plans and also informed by evidence from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project and elsewhere; and 2 collaborate with participating organisations to embed evidence-informed policy making structures and processes. This knowledge broking initiative

  1. Economic burden of blindness in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamanna B

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis is one way to determine the allocation of scarce resources for health-care programs. The initial step in this process is to estimate in economic terms the burden of diseases and the benefit from interventions for prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this paper, the direct and indirect economic loss due to blindness in India is calculated on the basis of certain assumptions. The cost of treating cataract blindness in India is estimated at current prices. The economic burden of blindness in India for the year 1997 based on our assumptions is Rs. 159 billion (US$ 4.4 billion, and the cumulative loss over lifetime of the blind is Rs. 2,787 billion (US$ 77.4 billion. Childhood blindness accounts for 28.7% of this lifetime loss. The cost of treating all cases of cataract blindness in India is Rs. 5.3 billion (US$ 0.15 billion. Similar estimates for causes of blindness other than cataract have to be made in order to develop a comprehensive approach to deal with blindness in India.

  2. A New ID-Based Proxy Blind Signature Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Wei-min; YANG Zong-kai; CHENG Wen-qing; TAN Yun-meng

    2005-01-01

    An identity-based proxy blind signature scheme from bilinear pairings is introduced, which combines the advantages of proxy signature and blind signature. Furthermore, our scheme can prevent the original signer from generating the proxy blind signature, thus the profits of the proxy signer are guaranteed. We introduce bilinear pairings to minimize computational overhead and to improve the related performance of our scheme. In addition, the proxy blind signature presented is non-repudiable and it fulfills perfectly the security requirements of a proxy blind signature.

  3. The Effect of Vitamin B12 Infusion on Prevention of Nitrous Oxide-induced Homocysteine Increase: A Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieh Zamani Kiasari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nitrous oxide is a common inhalation anesthetic agent in general anesthesia. While it is widely accepted as a safe anesthetic agent, evidence suggests exposure to this gas, leads to hyperhomocysteinemia. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of single-dose intravenous infusions of vitamin B12, before and after the induction of nitrous oxide anesthesia on homocysteine levels after the surgery. Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 60 patients who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia, presumably lasting for more than two hours. The subjects were randomly allocated to three groups of 20. For the first group, vitamin B12 solution (1 mg/100 ml normal saline and 100 ml of normal saline (placebo, were infused before and after the induction of anesthesia, respectively. The second group received placebo and vitamin B12 infusion before and after the induction of anesthesia, respectively. The third group received placebo infusions at both times. Homocysteine levels were measured before and 24 hours after the surgery. Results: The mean homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels were significantly different within the three groups (p<0.001. In patients who had been infused with vitamin B12 before the surgery, homocysteine levels were significantly lower than the other two groups. In the placebo group, homocysteine levels significantly increased after the surgery. Conclusion: Nitrous oxide causes hyperhomocysteinemia after general anesthesia. Since vitamin B12 infusion is a safe and inexpensive method to decrease homocysteine levels in these patients, it may be recommended for patients undergoing nitrous oxide anesthesia to be used before induction of anesthesia.

  4. Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study of Processed Ultra Emu Oil Versus Placebo in the Prevention of Radiation Dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollmann, Denise C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Novotny, Paul J. [Division of Biomedical Informatics and Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Petersen, Ivy A.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Bauer, Heather J.; Yan, Elizabeth S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind; Vincent, Ann [Department of General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Sloan, Jeff A. [Division of Biomedical Informatics and Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Issa Laack, Nadia N., E-mail: laack.nadia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this single-institution pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of an oil-based skin agent, Ultra Emu Oil, on skin-related toxicity in patients undergoing radiation therapy to the breast or chest wall. Methods and Materials: Patients were randomized 2:1 in a double-blind fashion and were instructed to apply processed Ultra Emu Oil or placebo (cottonseed oil) twice daily during the course of radiation therapy. The oils were applied before the third fraction and continued for 6 weeks after completion of treatment. The primary endpoint was the area under the curve (AUC) of Skindex-16 scale scores over time. Secondary outcomes included maximum grade of radiation dermatitis using the Common Terminology Criteria (CTC) for Adverse Events (CTCAE 3.0), the Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool, quality of life (QOL) measured by Linear Analogue Self-Assessment, and a symptom experience diary (SED). Results: In all, 42 of 45 patients completed the study and were evaluable. The median times to peak rash, skin redness, peeling, and skin swelling were weeks 6, 6, 7, and 7, respectively as measured by the SED. The Skindex AUC scores tended to be lower in emu oil patients than in placebo patients (mean total AUC 7.2 vs 10.4, respectively). This trend was also seen in all the Skindex subdomains. The overall QOL was slightly better in the emu oil group but remained stable throughout the study for both arms. Peak CTC toxicity occurred at week 6. Patients using emu oil appeared slightly worse on maximum CTC grade, but the difference was not significant. Conclusions: This pilot study confirmed the safety of oil-based skin treatments during radiation therapy and suggests a trend for reduced skin toxicity for patients receiving emu oil. A larger study is needed to evaluate the efficacy of emu oil in reducing radiation dermatitis in patients receiving breast radiation.

  5. Prevention of cardiac dysfunction during adjuvant breast cancer therapy (PRADA): a 2 × 2 factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of candesartan and metoprolol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Geeta; Heck, Siri Lagethon; Ree, Anne Hansen; Hoffmann, Pavel; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Fagerland, Morten W.; Gravdehaug, Berit; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Bratland, Åse; Storås, Tryggve H.; Hagve, Tor-Arne; Røsjø, Helge; Steine, Kjetil; Geisler, Jürgen; Omland, Torbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Aims Contemporary adjuvant treatment for early breast cancer is associated with improved survival but at the cost of increased risk of cardiotoxicity and cardiac dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that concomitant therapy with the angiotensin receptor blocker candesartan or the β-blocker metoprolol will alleviate the decline in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) associated with adjuvant, anthracycline-containing regimens with or without trastuzumab and radiation. Methods and results In a 2 × 2 factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, we assigned 130 adult women with early breast cancer and no serious co-morbidity to the angiotensin receptor blocker candesartan cilexetil, the β-blocker metoprolol succinate, or matching placebos in parallel with adjuvant anticancer therapy. The primary outcome measure was change in LVEF by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A priori, a change of 5 percentage points was considered clinically important. There was no interaction between candesartan and metoprolol treatments (P = 0.530). The overall decline in LVEF was 2.6 (95% CI 1.5, 3.8) percentage points in the placebo group and 0.8 (95% CI −0.4, 1.9) in the candesartan group in the intention-to-treat analysis (P-value for between-group difference: 0.026). No effect of metoprolol on the overall decline in LVEF was observed. Conclusion In patients treated for early breast cancer with adjuvant anthracycline-containing regimens with or without trastuzumab and radiation, concomitant treatment with candesartan provides protection against early decline in global left ventricular function. PMID:26903532

  6. Lamivudine in late pregnancy to prevent perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W-M; Cui, Y-T; Wang, L; Yang, H; Liang, Z-Q; Li, X-M; Zhang, S-L; Qiao, F-Y; Campbell, F; Chang, C-N; Gardner, S; Atkins, M

    2009-02-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated whether lamivudine given during late pregnancy can reduce hepatitis B virus (HBV) perinatal transmission in highly viraemic mothers. Mothers were randomized to either lamivudine 100 mg or placebo from week 32 of gestation to week 4 postpartum. At birth, infants received recombinant HBV vaccine with or without HBIg and were followed until week 52. One hundred and fifty mothers, with a gestational age of 26-30 weeks and serum HBV DNA >1000 MEq/mL (bDNA assay), were treated. A total of 141 infants received immunoprophylaxis at birth. In lamivudine-treated mothers, 56 infants received vaccine + HBIg (lamivudine + vaccine + HBIg) and 26 infants received vaccine (lamivudine + vaccine). In placebo-treated mothers, 59 infants received vaccine + HBIg (placebo + vaccine + HBIg). At week 52, in the primary analyses where missing data was counted as failures, infants in the lamivudine + vaccine + HBIg group had a significant decrease in incidence of HBsAg seropositivity (10/56, 18%vs 23/59, 39%; P = 0.014) and in detectable HBV DNA (11/56, 20%vs 27/59, 46%; P = 0.003) compared to infants in the placebo + vaccine + HBIg group. Sensitivity analyses to evaluate the impact of missing data at week 52 resulting from a high dropout rate (13% in the lamivudine + vaccine + HBIg group and 31% in the placebo + vaccine + HBIg group) remained consistent with the primary analysis in that lower transmission rates were still observed in the infants of lamivudine-treated mothers, but the differences were not statistically significant. No safety concerns were noted in the lamivudine-treated mothers or their infants. Results of this study suggest that lamivudine reduced HBV transmission from highly viraemic mothers to their infants who received passive/active immunization. PMID:19175878

  7. COMPARISON OF TWO DOSES OF OXYTOCIN FOR THE PREVENTION OF POSTPARTUM UTERINE ATONY IN PARTURIENTS UNDERGOING EMERGENCY CAESAREAN DELIVERY: A RANDOMIZED DOUBLE BLIND STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayaz Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The optimal dose of oxytocin at Caesarean section is unclear. Oxytocin may cause adverse cardiovascular effects including tachycardia and hypotension, whereas an inadequate dose can result in increased uterine bleeding. We compared the effects of two doses of oxytocin in a randomized double-blind trial. METHODS 80 patients undergoing emergency Caesarean section received an IV bolus of either 2 or 5 units (u of oxytocin after delivery, followed by an oxytocin infusion of 10 uh-1 . All patients received spinal anaesthesia with mean arterial pressure maintained by injection ephedrine. We compared changes in Heart Rate (HR, Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP, blood loss, uterine tone, the need for additional uterotonic drugs and antiemetics. RESULTS There was a greater increase in mean (SD HR in patients who received 5u of oxytocin [32 (17 beats min-1 ] than in those who received 2 u [24 (13 beats min-1 ] (P=0.015. There was a larger decrease in MAP in patients who received 5 u [13 (15 mmHg] than in those who received 2 u [6 (10 mmHg] (P=0.030. The frequency of nausea and antiemetic use was higher after 5 u (32.5% than 2 u (5% (P=0.003. There were no differences in blood loss, uterine tone or requests for additional uterotonic drugs (17.5% in both groups. CONCLUSIONS In emergency Caesarean section, a 2 u bolus of oxytocin results in less haemodynamic change than 5 u with less nausea and no difference in the need for additional uterotonics.

  8. Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study of Processed Ultra Emu Oil Versus Placebo in the Prevention of Radiation Dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this single-institution pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of an oil-based skin agent, Ultra Emu Oil, on skin-related toxicity in patients undergoing radiation therapy to the breast or chest wall. Methods and Materials: Patients were randomized 2:1 in a double-blind fashion and were instructed to apply processed Ultra Emu Oil or placebo (cottonseed oil) twice daily during the course of radiation therapy. The oils were applied before the third fraction and continued for 6 weeks after completion of treatment. The primary endpoint was the area under the curve (AUC) of Skindex-16 scale scores over time. Secondary outcomes included maximum grade of radiation dermatitis using the Common Terminology Criteria (CTC) for Adverse Events (CTCAE 3.0), the Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool, quality of life (QOL) measured by Linear Analogue Self-Assessment, and a symptom experience diary (SED). Results: In all, 42 of 45 patients completed the study and were evaluable. The median times to peak rash, skin redness, peeling, and skin swelling were weeks 6, 6, 7, and 7, respectively as measured by the SED. The Skindex AUC scores tended to be lower in emu oil patients than in placebo patients (mean total AUC 7.2 vs 10.4, respectively). This trend was also seen in all the Skindex subdomains. The overall QOL was slightly better in the emu oil group but remained stable throughout the study for both arms. Peak CTC toxicity occurred at week 6. Patients using emu oil appeared slightly worse on maximum CTC grade, but the difference was not significant. Conclusions: This pilot study confirmed the safety of oil-based skin treatments during radiation therapy and suggests a trend for reduced skin toxicity for patients receiving emu oil. A larger study is needed to evaluate the efficacy of emu oil in reducing radiation dermatitis in patients receiving breast radiation

  9. Prophylactic gabapentin for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Chandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gabapentin is an antiepileptic drug. Its antiemetic effect is demonstrated in chemotherapy-induced acute and delayed onset of nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients. Aim: To evaluate the antiemetic effect of gabapentin on incidence and severity of postoperative nausea and vomiting in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Settings and Design: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty patients of ASA physical status I and II, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned into two equal groups to receive 600 mg gabapentin or matching placebo two hours before surgery. Standard anaesthesia technique was used. Fentanyl was used as rescue postoperative analgesic. Ondansetron 4 mg was used intravenously as rescue medication for emesis. The total number of patients who had nausea or vomiting, and its severity and total fentanyl consumption in the first 24 hours were recorded. Statistical Analysis: "Z test" was used to test the significance of severity of post-operative nausea and vomiting between groups. Fentanyl consumed in each group (Mean±SD within 24 hrs was compared using student t test. P value< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There were no demographic difference between the two groups. Incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting within 24 hrs after laparoscopic cholecystectomy was significantly lower in gabapentin group (46/125 than in the placebo group (75/125 (37.8% vs 60%; P =0.04. There was a significantly decreased fentanyl consumption in gabapentin group (221.2±92.4 µg as compared to placebo group (505.9±82.0 µg; P =0.01. Conclusion: Gabapentin effectively suppresses nausea and vomiting in laparoscopic cholecystectomy and post-operative rescue analgesic requirement.

  10. Vision - night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003039.htm Vision - night blindness To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Night blindness is poor vision at night or in dim light. Considerations Night ...

  11. Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Parasites - Onchocerciasis (also known as River Blindness) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... infected Simulium blackfly. It is also called River Blindness because the fly that transmits infection breeds in ...

  12. Development of a standardized low-dose double-blind placebo-controlled challenge vehicle for the EuroPrevall project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cochrane, S. A.; Salt, L. J.; Wantling, E.; Rogers, A.; Coutts, J.; Ballmer-Weber, B. K.; Fritsche, P.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Reig, I.; Knulst, A.; Le, T. -M.; Asero, R.; Beyer, K.; Golding, M.; Crevel, R.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Mackie, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy. Standardized materials and protocols are essential for comparing DBPCFC results for multicentre studies such as EuroPrevall. This required the development and piloting of a standardi

  13. Development of a standardized low-dose double-blind placebo-controlled challenge vehicle for the EuroPrevall project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cochrane, S.A.; Salt, L.J.; Wantling, E.; Rogers, A.; Coutts, J.; Ballmer-Weber, B.K.; Fritsche, P.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Reig, I.; Knulst, A.; Le, T.M.; Asero, R.; Beyer, K.; Golding, M.; Crevel, R. van; Mills, E.N.; Mackie, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy. Standardized materials and protocols are essential for comparing DBPCFC results for multicentre studies such as EuroPrevall. This required the development and piloting of a standardi

  14. Sublingual misoprostol versus intramuscular oxytocin for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in Uganda: a double-blind randomized non-inferiority trial

    OpenAIRE

    Atukunda, Esther C.; Mark J. Siedner; Celestino Obua; Mugyenyi, Godfrey R; Marc Twagirumukiza; Amon G Agaba

    2014-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Every year, worldwide nearly 290,000 women die during pregnancy or labor or during the first six weeks after giving birth (the postpartum period). Almost all of these “maternal” deaths occur in low- or middle-income countries, and most are caused by a handful of preventable or treatable conditions—postpartum hemorrhage (severe bleeding from the uterus [womb] within 24 hours of childbirth), post-delivery infections, unsafe abortion, obstructive (difficult) labor, an...

  15. Preventive effect of Malva on urinary toxicity after radiation therapy in prostate cancer patients: A multi-centric, double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mofid, Bahram; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Jaladat, Amir Mohammad; Atarzadeh, Fatemeh; Moeini, Reihane; Motevalian, Abbas; Mosalaie, Ahmad; Farhan, Farshid; Rakhsha, Afshin; Kashi, Amir Shahram Yousefi

    2015-01-01

    Background: For patients receiving external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant treatment or patients receiving EBRT as definitive treatment, partial irradiation of the urinary bladder is common. Many of such patients experience some degree of radiation-induced cystitis during or after EBRT. There is currently no efficient treatment for preventing radiation cystitis. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of one of the safe mucilag...

  16. Safety and Efficacy Profile of Echinacea purpurea to Prevent Common Cold Episodes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jawad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the safety (risk and efficacy (benefit of Echinacea purpurea extract in the prevention of common cold episodes in a large population over a 4-month period. Methods. 755 healthy subjects were allocated to receive either an alcohol extract from freshly harvested E. purpurea (95% herba and 5% root or placebo. Participants were required to record adverse events and to rate cold-related issues in a diary throughout the investigation period. Nasal secretions were sampled at acute colds and screened for viruses. Results. A total of 293 adverse events occurred with Echinacea and 306 with placebo treatment. Nine and 10% of participants experienced adverse events, which were at least possibly related to the study drug (adverse drug reactions. Thus, the safety of Echinacea was noninferior to placebo. Echinacea reduced the total number of cold episodes, cumulated episode days within the group, and pain-killer medicated episodes. Echinacea inhibited virally confirmed colds and especially prevented enveloped virus infections (P<0.05. Echinacea showed maximal effects on recurrent infections, and preventive effects increased with therapy compliance and adherence to the protocol. Conclusions. Compliant prophylactic intake of E. purpurea over a 4-month period appeared to provide a positive risk to benefit ratio.

  17. Assessing Odor Level when Using PrePex for HIV Prevention: A Prospective, Randomized, Open Label, Blinded Assessor Trial to Improve Uptake of Male Circumcision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Mutabazi

    Full Text Available The PrePex is a WHO--prequalified medical device for adult male circumcision for HIV prevention. The Government of Rwanda was the first country to implement the PrePex device and acts as the leading center of excellence providing training and formal guidelines. As part of the Government's efforts to improve PrePex implementation, it made efforts to improve the psychological acceptability of device by men, thus increasing uptake with VMMC in sub-Saharan Africa. Some men who underwent the PrePex procedure complained of foreskin odor while wearing the PrePex 3-7 days after it was placed. This complaint was identified as potential risk for uptake of the device. Researchers from Rwanda assumed there is a possible relation between the level of foreskin odor and patient foreskin hygiene technique. The Government of Rwanda decided to investigate those assumptions in a scientific way and conduct a trial to test different hygiene-cleaning methods in order to increase the acceptability of PrePex and mitigate the odor concern. The main objective of the trial was to compare odor levels between three arms, having identical personal hygiene but different foreskin hygiene techniques using either clear water with soap during a daily shower, soapy water using a syringe, or chlorhexidine using a syringe. One hundred and one subjects were enrolled to the trial and randomly allocated into three trial arms. Using chlorhexidine solution daily almost completely eliminated odor, and was statistically significant more effective that the other two arms. The trial results suggest that odor from the foreskin, while wearing the PrePex device, could be related to the growth of anaerobic bacteria, which can be prevented by a chlorhexidine cleaning method. This finding can be used to increase acceptability by men when considering PrePex as one of the leading methods for HIV prevention in VMMC programs.

  18. Assessing Odor Level when Using PrePex for HIV Prevention: A Prospective, Randomized, Open Label, Blinded Assessor Trial to Improve Uptake of Male Circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutabazi, Vincent; Bitega, Jean Paul; Ngeruka, Leon Muyenzi; Karema, Corine; Binagwaho, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    The PrePex is a WHO--prequalified medical device for adult male circumcision for HIV prevention. The Government of Rwanda was the first country to implement the PrePex device and acts as the leading center of excellence providing training and formal guidelines. As part of the Government's efforts to improve PrePex implementation, it made efforts to improve the psychological acceptability of device by men, thus increasing uptake with VMMC in sub-Saharan Africa. Some men who underwent the PrePex procedure complained of foreskin odor while wearing the PrePex 3-7 days after it was placed. This complaint was identified as potential risk for uptake of the device. Researchers from Rwanda assumed there is a possible relation between the level of foreskin odor and patient foreskin hygiene technique. The Government of Rwanda decided to investigate those assumptions in a scientific way and conduct a trial to test different hygiene-cleaning methods in order to increase the acceptability of PrePex and mitigate the odor concern. The main objective of the trial was to compare odor levels between three arms, having identical personal hygiene but different foreskin hygiene techniques using either clear water with soap during a daily shower, soapy water using a syringe, or chlorhexidine using a syringe. One hundred and one subjects were enrolled to the trial and randomly allocated into three trial arms. Using chlorhexidine solution daily almost completely eliminated odor, and was statistically significant more effective that the other two arms. The trial results suggest that odor from the foreskin, while wearing the PrePex device, could be related to the growth of anaerobic bacteria, which can be prevented by a chlorhexidine cleaning method. This finding can be used to increase acceptability by men when considering PrePex as one of the leading methods for HIV prevention in VMMC programs.

  19. The Multisite Violence Prevention Project: Impact of a Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program on Social-Cognitive Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Thomas R.; Ikeda, Robin M.; Smith, Emilie Phillips; Reese, Le'Roy E.; Rabiner, David L.; Miller-Johnson, Shari; Winn, Donna-Marie; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Asher, Steven R.; Home, Arthur M.; Orpinas, Pamela; Martin, Roy; Quinn, William H.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a universal school-based violence prevention program on social-cognitive factors associated with aggression and nonviolent behavior in early adolescence. The effects of the universal intervention were evaluated within the context of a design in which two cohorts of students at 37 schools from four sites (N=5,581) were randomized to four conditions: (a) a universal intervention that involved implementing a student curriculum and teacher training with sixth gr...

  20. Granisetron versus Granisetron-Dexamethasone for Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Pediatric Strabismus Surgery: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Efficacy of granisetron and combination of granisetron and dexamethasone was evaluated for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV in children undergoing elective strabismus surgery. Methods. A total of 136 children (1–15 years were included. Children received either granisetron (40 mcg/kg [group G] or combination of granisetron (40 mcg/kg and dexamethasone (150 mcg/kg [group GD]. Intraoperative fentanyl requirement and incidence and severity of oculocardiac reflex were assessed. PONV severity was assessed for first 24 hours and if score was >2, it was treated with metoclopramide. Postoperative analgesia was administered with intravenous fentanyl and ibuprofen. Results. The demographic profile, muscles operated, and fentanyl requirement were comparable. Complete response to PONV in first 24 hours was observed in 75% (51/68 of children in group G and 76.9% (50/65 of children in group GD, which was comparable statistically (p=0.96, Fisher exact test; OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.50, 2.46. Incidence of PONV between 0 and 24 hours was comparable. One child in group G required rescue antiemetic in first 24 hours and none of the children had severe PONV in group GD. There was no significant difference in incidence or severity of oculocardiac reflex. Conclusion. Dexamethasone did not increase efficacy of granisetron for prevention of PONV in elective pediatric strabismus surgery. Registration number of clinical trial was CTRI/2009/091/001000.

  1. Project Energize: intervention development and 10 years of progress in preventing childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Elaine; Cairncross, Carolyn; Williams, Margaret Hinepo; Tseng, Marilyn; Coppinger, Tara; McLennan, Steph; Latimer, Kasha

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of childhood obesity is a global priority. The school setting offers access to large numbers of children and the ability to provide supportive environments for quality physical activity and nutrition. This article describes Project Energize, a through-school physical activity and nutrition programme that celebrated its 10-year anniversary in 2015 so that it might serve as a model for similar practices, initiatives and policies elsewhere. The programme was envisaged and financed by the Waikato District Health Board of New Zealand in 2004 and delivered by Sport Waikato to 124 primary schools as a randomised controlled trial from 2005 to 2006. The programme has since expanded to include all 242 primary schools in the Waikato region and 70 schools in other regions, including 53,000 children. Ongoing evaluation and development of Project Energize has shown it to be sustainable (ongoing for >10 years), both effective (lower obesity, higher physical fitness) and cost effective (one health related cost quality adjusted life year between $18,000 and $30,000) and efficient ($45/child/year) as a childhood 'health' programme. The programme's unique community-based approach is inclusive of all children, serving a population that is 42% Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. While the original nine healthy eating and seven quality physical activity goals have not changed, the delivery and assessment processes has been refined and the health service adapted over the 10 years of the programme existence, as well as adapted over time to other settings including early childhood education and schools in Cork in Ireland. Evaluation and research associated with the programme delivery and outcomes are ongoing. The dissemination of findings to politicians and collaboration with other service providers are both regarded as priorities. PMID:26809555

  2. A Mediation Analysis of a Tobacco Prevention Program for Adolescents in India: How Did Project MYTRI Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, Melissa Harrell; Perry, Cheryl L.; Smolenski, Derek; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of a mediation analysis of Project MYTRI (Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives in India), a randomized, controlled trial of a multiple-component, school-based tobacco prevention program for sixth- to ninth-graders (n = 14,085) in Delhi and Chennai, India. A mediation analysis identifies "how" an…

  3. Are Substance Use Prevention Programs More Effective in Schools Making Adequate Yearly Progress? A Study of Project ALERT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Hanley, Sean M.; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to determine if a popular school-based drug prevention program might be effective in schools that are making adequate yearly progress (AYP). Thirty-four schools with grades 6 through 8 in 11 states were randomly assigned either to receive Project ALERT (n = 17) or to a control group (n = 17); of these, 10 intervention…

  4. In Alzheimer’s Disease, 6-Month Treatment with GLP-1 Analog Prevents Decline of Brain Glucose Metabolism: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejl, Michael; Gjedde, Albert; Egefjord, Lærke; Møller, Arne; Hansen, Søren B.; Vang, Kim; Rodell, Anders; Brændgaard, Hans; Gottrup, Hanne; Schacht, Anna; Møller, Niels; Brock, Birgitte; Rungby, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    In animal models, the incretin hormone GLP-1 affects Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We hypothesized that treatment with GLP-1 or an analog of GLP-1 would prevent accumulation of Aβ and raise, or prevent decline of, glucose metabolism (CMRglc) in AD. In this 26-week trial, we randomized 38 patients with AD to treatment with the GLP-1 analog liraglutide (n = 18), or placebo (n = 20). We measured Aβ load in brain with tracer [11C]PIB (PIB), CMRglc with [18F]FDG (FDG), and cognition with the WMS-IV scale (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01469351). The PIB binding increased significantly in temporal lobe in placebo and treatment patients (both P = 0.04), and in occipital lobe in treatment patients (P = 0.04). Regional and global increases of PIB retention did not differ between the groups (P ≥ 0.38). In placebo treated patients CMRglc declined in all regions, significantly so by the following means in precuneus (P = 0.009, 3.2 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 5.45; 0.92), and in parietal (P = 0.04, 2.1 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 4.21; 0.081), temporal (P = 0.046, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.05; 0.030), and occipital (P = 0.009, 2.10 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.61; 0.59) lobes, and in cerebellum (P = 0.04, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.01; 0.064). In contrast, the GLP-1 analog treatment caused a numerical but insignificant increase of CMRglc after 6 months. Cognitive scores did not change. We conclude that the GLP-1 analog treatment prevented the decline of CMRglc that signifies cognitive impairment, synaptic dysfunction, and disease evolution. We draw no firm conclusions from the Aβ load or cognition measures, for which the study was underpowered. PMID:27252647

  5. The efficacy and safety of enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin for prevention of deep vein thrombosis in elective cancer surgery. A double blind randomized multicentre trail with venographic assesment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergkvist, A; Eldor, A; Thorlacius-Ussing, O.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgery for malignant disease carries a high risk of deep vein thrombosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic effect of a low molecular weight heparin, enoxaparin, 40 mg once daily, beginning 2 h before surgery, compared with that of unfractionated low-dose heparin...... was venous thromboembolism as detected by mandatory bilateral venography or pulmonary scintigraphy. Follow-up was at 3 months. RESULTS: Some 1115 patients were randomized into the study but venograms were inadequate in 460 (41.3 per cent). Of 631 evaluable patients, a total of 104 (16.5 per cent) developed...... severe thrombocytopenia. There were no differences in mortality at either 30 days or 3 months. CONCLUSION: Enoxaparin, 40 mg once daily, is as safe and effective as unfractionated heparin three times daily in preventing venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing major elective surgery for abdominal...

  6. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Center for the Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Prevention Research Centers Network, SIP12-056, and Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Collaborating Center for Epilepsy Self-Management Intervention Research,...

  7. 76 FR 27649 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times And Dates: 8:30 a.m.-5:30....P.H., Director, Extramural Research Program Office, National Center for Chronic Disease...

  8. A New Technique in Primary Repair of Congenital Esophageal Atresia Preventing Anastomotic Stricture Formation and Describing the Opening Condition of Blind Pouch: Plus (“+” Incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Melek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anastomotic strictures are common and important problems following repair procedures of esophageal atresia. We hereby defined an anastomosis technique that could efficiently prevent this complication in 11 patients with esophageal atresia (EA and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF. The proximal end of the atretic esophagus was opened with a plus (“+”-shaped incision providing sufficient anastomosis width. Longitudinal incisions of 2 mm length were made on the anterior and posterior parts of the distal end according to the patients. The two ends were anastomosed with a primary suture at a single plain. We performed this technique on 11 patients, and in the 4-year follow-up period no dilatation proved necessary in any of our patients due to anastomotic strictures or symptomatic dysphagia. This technique that we have described provides a large zigzag anastomosis line and in this way minimizes the incidence of stricture formation. Furthermore, this technique, which we believe to have provided a new opinion on the topic of how to open the proximal end of an atretic esophagus, is quite easy and effective.

  9. The Effects of Intravenous Fosaprepitant and Ondansetron for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Neurosurgery Patients: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blinded Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Yasuo M.; Soga, Tomohiro; Hamaguchi, Eisuke; Tanaka, Katsuya

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is 30–50% after surgery. PONV occurs frequently, especially after craniotomy. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects on PONV in a randomized study by comparing patients who had been administered fosaprepitant, a neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist, or ondansetron intravenously. Sixty-four patients undergoing craniotomy were randomly allocated to receive fosaprepitant 150 mg i.v. (NK1 group, n = 32) or ondansetron 4 mg i.v. (ONS group, n = 32) before anesthesia. The incidence of vomiting was significantly less in the NK1 group, where 2 of 32 (6%) patients experienced vomiting compared to 16 of 32 (50%) patients in the ONS group during the first 24 and 48 hours following surgery. Additionally, the incidence of complete response (no vomiting and no rescue antiemetic use) was significantly higher in the NK1 group than in the ONS group, and was 66% versus 41%, respectively, during the first 24 hours, and 63% versus 38%, respectively, during the first 48 hours. In patients undergoing craniotomy, fosaprepitant is more effective than ondansetron in increasing the rate of complete response and decreasing the incidence of vomiting at 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. PMID:25050340

  10. The Effects of Intravenous Fosaprepitant and Ondansetron for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Neurosurgery Patients: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blinded Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo M. Tsutsumi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV is 30–50% after surgery. PONV occurs frequently, especially after craniotomy. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects on PONV in a randomized study by comparing patients who had been administered fosaprepitant, a neurokinin-1 (NK1 receptor antagonist, or ondansetron intravenously. Sixty-four patients undergoing craniotomy were randomly allocated to receive fosaprepitant 150 mg i.v. (NK1 group, n = 32 or ondansetron 4 mg i.v. (ONS group, n = 32 before anesthesia. The incidence of vomiting was significantly less in the NK1 group, where 2 of 32 (6% patients experienced vomiting compared to 16 of 32 (50% patients in the ONS group during the first 24 and 48 hours following surgery. Additionally, the incidence of complete response (no vomiting and no rescue antiemetic use was significantly higher in the NK1 group than in the ONS group, and was 66% versus 41%, respectively, during the first 24 hours, and 63% versus 38%, respectively, during the first 48 hours. In patients undergoing craniotomy, fosaprepitant is more effective than ondansetron in increasing the rate of complete response and decreasing the incidence of vomiting at 24 and 48 hours postoperatively.

  11. Violence prevention in schools: Resilience promotion in the framework of a European practice research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Rauh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents the theoretical background, design and evaluation results of the international practice research project Strong implementing strategies of violence prevention in schools by means of resilience promotion. After presenting the results from the quantitative and qualitative results briefly, success factors for the implementation of a prevention strategy are highlighted. Este artigo apresenta o quadro teórico, a conceção e a avaliação dos resultados do projeto internacional Strong de investigação prática no que à implementação de estratégias de prevenção da violência nas escolas diz respeito através da promoção da resiliência. Após a apresentação breve dos resultados quantitativos e qualitativos, serão realçados os fatores de sucesso de uma estratégia de prevenção. En este artículo se presenta el marco teórico, el diseño y la evaluación de los resultados del proyecto internacional de investigación práctica Strong de la implementación de estrategias para prevenir la violencia en las escuelas mediante la promoción de la resiliencia. Después de la breve presentación de los resultados cuantitativos y cualitativos se destacarán los factores de éxito de una estrategia de prevención. Cet article présente le cadre théorique, la conception et l'évaluation des résultats du projet international de recherche pratique Strong dans la mise en œuvre de stratégies visant à prévenir la violence dans les écoles préoccupations en favorisant la résilience. Après la brève présentation des résultats quantitatifs et qualitatifs seront mis en évidence les facteurs de réussite d'une stratégie de prévention

  12. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Lukka, Himu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Cheung, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Corbett, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Briones-Urbina, Rosario [Department of Medicine, Women' s College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Vieth, Reinhold [Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Ehrlich, Lisa [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto (Canada); Kiss, Alex [Department of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Danjoux, Cyril, E-mail: Cyril.danjoux@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment to radiation therapy (RT) for the management of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Long-term ADT decreases bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate for the prevention of BMD loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. Methods and Materials: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. All had T scores > −2.5 on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Patients were randomized 1:1 between risedronate and placebo for 2 years. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in the BMD of the lumbar spine at 1 and 2 years from baseline, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses of the changes in BMD and bone turnover biomarkers were carried out by comparing mean values of the intrapatient changes between the 2 arms, using standard t tests. Results: One hundred four patients were accrued between 2004 and 2007, with 52 in each arm. Mean age was 66.8 and 67.5 years for the placebo and risedronate, respectively. At 1 and 2 years, mean (±SE) BMD of the lumbar spine decreased by 5.77% ± 4.66% and 13.55% ± 6.33%, respectively, in the placebo, compared with 0.12% ± 1.29% at 1 year (P=.2485) and 0.85% ± 1.56% (P=.0583) at 2 years in the risedronate. The placebo had a significant increase in serum bone turnover biomarkers compared with the risedronate. Conclusions: Weekly oral risedronate prevented BMD loss at 2 years and resulted in significant suppression of bone turnover biomarkers for 24 months for patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT.

  13. Process evaluation of a community-based adolescent obesity prevention project in Tonga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomana Siosifa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising burden of obesity in Tonga is alarming. The promotion of healthy behaviours and environments requires immediate urgent action and a multi-sectoral approach. A three-year community based study titled the Ma'alahi Youth Project (MYP conducted in Tonga from 2005-2008 aimed to increase the capacity of the whole community (schools, churches, parents and adolescents to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity and to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst youth and their families. This paper reflects on the process evaluation for MYP, against a set of Best Practice Principles for community-based obesity prevention. Methods MYP was managed by the Fiji School of Medicine. A team of five staff in Tonga were committed to planning, implementation and evaluation of a strategic plan, the key planks of which were developed during a two day community workshop. Intervention activities were delivered in villages, churches and schools, on the main island of Tongatapu. Process evaluation data covering the resource utilisation associated with all intervention activities were collected, and analysed by dose, frequency and reach for specific strategies. The action plan included three standard objectives around capacity building, social marketing and evaluation; four nutrition; two physical activity objectives; and one around championing key people as role models. Results While the interventions included a wide mix of activities straddling across all of these objectives and in both school and village settings, there was a major focus on the social marketing and physical activity objectives. The intervention reach, frequency and dose varied widely across all activities, and showed no consistent patterns. Conclusions The adolescent obesity interventions implemented as part of the MYP program comprised a wide range of activities conducted in multiple settings, touched a broad spectrum of the population (wider

  14. Blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils at schools for the blind in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ruhagaze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils attending schools for the blind in Burundi in order to assist planning for services in the country. Materials and Methods: All pupils attending three schools for the blind in Burundi were examined. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision was used to record the findings. Data was analyzed for those who became blind or severely visually impaired before the age of 16 years. Results: Overall, 117 pupils who became visually impaired before 16 years of age were examined. Of these, 109 (93.2% were blind or severely visually impaired. The major anatomical cause of blindness or severe visual impairment was cornea pathology/phthisis (23.9%, followed by lens pathology (18.3%, uveal lesions (14.7% and optic nerve lesions (11.9%. In the majority of pupils with blindness or severe visual impairment, the underlying etiology of visual loss was unknown (74.3%. More than half of the pupils with lens related blindness had not had surgery; among those who had surgery, outcomes were generally poor. Conclusion: The causes identified indicate the importance of continuing preventive public health strategies, as well as the development of specialist pediatric ophthalmic services in the management of childhood blindness in Burundi. The geographic distribution of pupils at the schools for the blind indicates a need for community-based programs to identify and refer children in need of services.

  15. The study of KBP of road construction workers of highway AIDS prevention project before and after intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Liu; Si-Ping Dong; Guang-Ming Gao; Ming-Yu Fan; Zong-Jiu Zhang; Peng-Qian Fang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To get scientific basis for further health education through the research of the road construction workers’KBP before and after the interventions of highwayAIDS prevention project. Methods:Multi-stage random sampling method was employeed to select workers of8 sites from14 sites along highway to investigate theirAIDS knowledge, belief and performance(KBP) before and after highwayAIDS prevention project.Results:Over90% of the investigated workers had ever heard aboutAIDS, and the non-skilled workers of lower educational level improved more after intervention.The correct answer rate of the three transmitting ways ofAIDS of drivers which is the focused group of highway before and after intervention had the obvious statistical significance(P<0.05), and the other group’s correct answer rates also had improved after intervention.Most people’s understanding of preventingAIDS through correct use of condoms when having sex had a statistically significant difference(P<0.05) after prevention.The rates of using condoms of foremen and skilled workers when having sex with commercial sex worker/casual partner increased after intervention.Conclusions:The health education ofHIV among the road construction workers is effective and further health education ofHIV prevention should be carried out among the road construction workers to improve their knowledge and awareness of avoiding the high-risk behaviors.

  16. HIV prevention costs and program scale: data from the PANCEA project in five low and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Nicci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic theory and limited empirical data suggest that costs per unit of HIV prevention program output (unit costs will initially decrease as small programs expand. Unit costs may then reach a nadir and start to increase if expansion continues beyond the economically optimal size. Information on the relationship between scale and unit costs is critical to project the cost of global HIV prevention efforts and to allocate prevention resources efficiently. Methods The "Prevent AIDS: Network for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis" (PANCEA project collected 2003 and 2004 cost and output data from 206 HIV prevention programs of six types in five countries. The association between scale and efficiency for each intervention type was examined for each country. Our team characterized the direction, shape, and strength of this association by fitting bivariate regression lines to scatter plots of output levels and unit costs. We chose the regression forms with the highest explanatory power (R2. Results Efficiency increased with scale, across all countries and interventions. This association varied within intervention and within country, in terms of the range in scale and efficiency, the best fitting regression form, and the slope of the regression. The fraction of variation in efficiency explained by scale ranged from 26% – 96%. Doubling in scale resulted in reductions in unit costs averaging 34.2% (ranging from 2.4% to 58.0%. Two regression trends, in India, suggested an inflection point beyond which unit costs increased. Conclusion Unit costs decrease with scale across a wide range of service types and volumes. These country and intervention-specific findings can inform projections of the global cost of scaling up HIV prevention efforts.

  17. Low energy helium-neon laser in the prevention of oral mucositis in patients undergoing bone marrow transplant: results of a double blind randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser in the prevention of oral mucositis induced by high dose chemoradiotherapy before autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 1995, 30 consecutive patients receiving an autologous peripheral stem-cell or bone marrow transplant (BMT) after high dose chemoradiotherapy were randomized to possibly receive prophylactic laser to the oral mucosa after giving informed consent. Chemotherapy consisted of cyclophosphamide, 60 mg/kg intravenously (IV) on day (d)-5 and d-4 in 27 cases, or melphalan 140 mg/kg IV on d-4 in three cases. Total body irradiation (TBI) consisted of 12 Gy midplane dose in six fractions (4 Gy/day for three days). He-Ne laser (632.8 nm wavelength, power 60 mW) applications were performed daily from d-5 to d-1 on five anatomic sites of the oral mucosa. Oral examination was performed daily from d0 to d + 20. Mucositis was scored according to an oral exam guide with a 16 item scale of which four were assessed by the patients themselves. Mean daily self assessment scores for oral pain, ability to swallow and oral dryness were measured. A daily mucositis index (DMI) and a cumulative oral mucositis score (COMS) were established. Requirement for narcotics and parenteral nutrition was recorded. Results: The COMS was significantly reduced among laser treated (L+) patients (p = 0.04). The improvement of DMI in L+ patients was also statistically significant (p < 0.05) from d + 2 to d + 7. Occurrence and duration of grade III oral mucositis were reduced in L+ patients (p = 0.01). Laser applications reduced oral pain as assessed by patients (p = 0.05) and L+ patients required less morphine (p = 0.05). Xerostomia and ability to swallow were improved among the L+ patients (p = 0.005 and p = 0.01, respectively). Requirement for parenteral nutrition was not reduced (p = NS). Conclusion: Helium-Neon laser treatment was well tolerated, feasible in all cases, and

  18. A Spur Valve to Prevent Blind Loop Syndrome in Bypass Anastomosis: An Animal Experiment%矩形瓣短路吻合预防盲袢综合征动物实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王义; 张金哲; 陈晋杰

    1984-01-01

    @@ 严重广泛粘连、肿瘤或炎症引起的单纯性完全性肠梗阻,如果术中不能解除梗阻病变,常将梗阻上、下端肠袢作侧侧吻合,以恢复肠道的连续性.但是,由于梗阻近端旷置一段盲袢,术后可能引起肠内容物淤积,细菌过度繁殖,出现不全梗阻、腹泻、营养吸收障碍等症状,统称为盲袢综合征.%In a group of 14 dogs,7 for experiment and 7 for control, intestinal obstruction was made at the ileum 100 cm proximal to the cecum by ligating the bowel. In the experimental group the ilium was severed at the point 50 cm proximal to the obstruction and then the two stumps were sutured side by side with two rows of stitches along their mesenteric and antimesenteric borders for 5 cm long. Before the suture, a piece of seromusculature was excised from the wall of the distal stump so that the suture would involve the whole area facing the corresponding part of the proximal stump. Now, an anastomosis was performed with the conjoined stumps to be sutured to the side of the ileum 50 cm distal to the obstruction to form a spur valve in the conjoined stump which could effectively prevent intestinal contents from entering the blind loop. In the control group, a conventional sideto-side anastomosis was made at the place 50 cm away from the obstruction both proximally and distally.One of the experimental dogs and 3 of the controls died shortly after the operation. The survivors were re-explored 8 weeks later, which showed that blind loop dilatation was found only in one experimental dog but it was found in all the 4 survived controls accompanied by diarrhea, weight loss and lower serum albumin.

  19. Cross-sectional investigation of visual impairing diseases in Shanghai blind children school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jian-feng; ZOU Hai-dong; HE Xian-gui; LU Li-na; ZHAO Rong; XU Hong-mei; LIANG Qing-feng

    2012-01-01

    Background The control of blindness in children is a high priority within the VISION 2020 initiative.To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children from Shanghai Blind Children School (SBCS) can provide useful information on childhood blindness in Shanghai.Methods A cross-sectional investigation of students in SBCS was conducted in May 2010.The World Health Organization/Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) eye examination record system for children with low vision and blindness was used.The results were further compared with the findings of two previous investigation studies conducted in 1986 and 2004,respectively in SBCS.Results Of the 146 children observed,80 children (54.8%) were blind (best corrected best visual acuity less than 0.05),27 children (18.5%) had severe visual impairment (best corrected visual acuity less than 0.1 but better than or equal to 0.05),and 34 children (23.3%) had moderate visual impairment (best corrected visual acuity less than 0.3 but better than or equal to 0.1).The major affected anatomic sites in the 107 children with severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL) were retina (47.7%),whole globe (16.8%),optic nerve (13.1%) and lens (9.3%).The leading causes of SVI/BL were retinopathy of prematurity (ROP,25.2%),followed by retinal dystrophy (15.9%),optic nerve atrophy (9.3%) and microphthalmos (9.3%).The two leading etiologic categories of SVI/BL were perinatal/neonatal (36.4%) and congenital/hereditary groups (29.0%).The leading cause of moderate visual impairment was aphakia after cataract surgery (congenital cataract,44.1%).Compared with the findings in two previous investigations in SBCS,the proportion of ROP in visual impairing diseases increased,while the proportion of disorders of the lens (cataract and aphakia)significantly decreased.Conclusions The leading cause of childhood blindness in SBCS nowadays is ROP.It is projected that without improvement in perinatal medical

  20. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Chronic Conditions SIP 10-037 and Epidemiologic Follow- Up Study of Newly Diagnosed Epilepsy SIP 10-039... Epidemiologic Follow-up Study of Newly Diagnosed Epilepsy SIP 10-039.'' Contact Person for More...

  1. "Just dreaming of them": The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Klaus M; Oezdemir, Umut C; Schlinzig, Eliza; Groll, Anna; Hupp, Elena; Hellenschmidt, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ) offers diagnostic and therapeutic help to 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for the prepubescent and/or early pubescent body of children and who apply for treatment on a voluntary basis. The project goal is to prevent primary or recurrent child sexual abuse as well as primary or recurrent use of child abuse images. Treatment aims to enable affected juveniles to obtain control over their conflictual sexual behaviors. In the present article, the origin of the PPJ; its main approach, including the conception of a media campaign; as well as results from the first year of a three-year study are presented. Further, initial characterizations of juveniles taking part in the project for the first 12 months are provided. The results confirmed that the group of 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors exists as a target group for primary preventive measures and that they can be assessed for their sexual preferences.

  2. Facts About Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly diagnose specific types of color blindness. The Ishihara Color Test is the most common test for red-green ... red-green color blindness. The newer Cambridge Color Test uses a visual array similar to the Ishihara plates, except displayed on a computer monitor. The ...

  3. Blindness%失明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同良

    2009-01-01

    @@ There was a blind girl who hated herself because she was blind. She hated everyone,except her loving boyfriend who was always there for her. She told her boyfriend, "If I could only see the World, I will marry you."

  4. Blindness and Yoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Anthony David

    1974-01-01

    Evidence is presented to support the claims that, among many blind persons, physical inactivity leads to poor physical fitness; that a state of anxiety is often a concomitant of unguided blind mobility; and that Yogic practices offer a solution to both difficulties. (GW)

  5. Changes in Food Choices of Participants in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians–Diabetes Prevention Demonstration Project, 2006–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Jiang, Luohua; Beals, Janette; Henderson, William G.; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette; Manson, Spero M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) have a disproportionately high rate of type 2 diabetes. Changing food choices plays a key role in preventing diabetes. This study documented changes in the food choices of AI/ANs with diagnosed prediabetes who participated in a diabetes prevention program. Methods The Special Diabetes Program for Indians–Diabetes Prevention Demonstration Project implemented the evidence-based Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention in 36 h...

  6. Models for the blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Jan-Eric

    2014-01-01

    background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material......When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind...... person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical...

  7. Change blindness images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Qian; Xu, Kun; Wong, Tien-Tsin; Jiang, Bi-Ye; Hu, Shi-Min

    2013-11-01

    Change blindness refers to human inability to recognize large visual changes between images. In this paper, we present the first computational model of change blindness to quantify the degree of blindness between an image pair. It comprises a novel context-dependent saliency model and a measure of change, the former dependent on the site of the change, and the latter describing the amount of change. This saliency model in particular addresses the influence of background complexity, which plays an important role in the phenomenon of change blindness. Using the proposed computational model, we are able to synthesize changed images with desired degrees of blindness. User studies and comparisons to state-of-the-art saliency models demonstrate the effectiveness of our model. PMID:24029902

  8. The National Cancer Institute's PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program: overview, current projects, animal models, agent development strategies, and molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Robert H; Suen, Chen S; Holmes, Cathy A; Fay, Judith R; Steele, Vernon E

    2016-02-01

    The PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) is a National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention (NCI, DCP)-supported program whose primary goal is to bring new cancer preventive interventions (small molecules and vaccines) and biomarkers through preclinical development towards clinical trials by creating partnerships between the public sector (eg, academia, industry) and DCP. PREVENT has a formalized structure for moving interventions forward in the prevention pipeline using a stage-gate process with go/no go decision points along the critical path for development. This review describes the structure of the program, its focus areas, and provides examples of projects currently in the pipeline.

  9. The National Cancer Institute's PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program: overview, current projects, animal models, agent development strategies, and molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Robert H; Suen, Chen S; Holmes, Cathy A; Fay, Judith R; Steele, Vernon E

    2016-02-01

    The PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) is a National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention (NCI, DCP)-supported program whose primary goal is to bring new cancer preventive interventions (small molecules and vaccines) and biomarkers through preclinical development towards clinical trials by creating partnerships between the public sector (eg, academia, industry) and DCP. PREVENT has a formalized structure for moving interventions forward in the prevention pipeline using a stage-gate process with go/no go decision points along the critical path for development. This review describes the structure of the program, its focus areas, and provides examples of projects currently in the pipeline. PMID:26970137

  10. The efficacy of hypotonic and near-isotonic saline for parenteral fluid therapy given at low maintenance rate in preventing significant change in plasma sodium in post-operative pediatric patients: protocol for a prospective randomized non-blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stigzelius Shayarina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte abnormality observed in post-operative pediatric patients receiving intravenous maintenance fluid therapy. If plasma sodium concentration (p-Na+ declines to levels below 125 mmol/L in vs. restricted rate of infusion and the composition of solutions used for parenteral maintenance fluid therapy (hypotonic vs. isotonic solutions contribute to the development of hyponatremia. So far, there is no definitive pediatric data to support a particular choice of parenteral fluid for maintenance therapy in post-surgical patients. Methods/Design Our prospective randomized non-blinded study will be conducted in healthy children and adolescents aged 1 to 14 years who have been operated for acute appendicitis. Patients will be randomized either to intravenous hypotonic (0.23% or 0.40% sodium chloride in glucose, respectively or near-isotonic (0.81% sodium chloride in glucose solution given at approximately three-fourths of the average maintenance rate. The main outcome of interest from this study is to evaluate 24 h post-operatively whether differences in p-Na+ between treatment groups are large enough to be of clinical relevance. In addition, water and electrolyte balance as well as regulatory hormones will be measured. Discussion This study will provide valuable information on the efficacy of hypotonic and near-isotonic fluid therapy in preventing a significant decrease in p-Na+. Finally, by means of careful electrolyte and water balance and by measuring regulatory hormones our results will also contribute to a better understanding of the physiopathology of post-operative changes in p-Na+ in a population at risk for hyponatremia. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the current controlled trials registry; registry number: ISRCTN43896775.

  11. Effect of a prostaglandin - given rectally for prevention of radiation-induced acute proctitis - on late rectal toxicity. Results of phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Tereza; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F.; Hille, Andrea [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Zapf, Antonia [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Pradier, Olivier [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Brest (France); Schmidberger, Heinz [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Mainz (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Background and purpose: to assess the late effect of a prostaglandin, given rectally during irradiation, on late rectal toxicity. In the acute treatment setting no significant differences in reducing the incidence of acute proctitis symptoms in patients receiving misoprostol, however, significantly more rectal bleeding had been reported. Patients and methods: a total of 100 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for prostate cancer had been entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. The toxicity was evaluated yearly after cessation of irradiation by the RTOG/LENT-SOMA scale. Results: the median follow-up was 50 months. 20 patients suffered from grade 1, four patients from grade 2 as well, and three patients only from grade 2 toxicity. Frequency, bleeding and urgency were the most commonly reported symptoms. In keeping with other studies and clinical experience, the symptoms peaked within the first 2 years with a median for grade 1 of 13 months and for grade 2 of 15 months. The presence of acute toxicity grade 2 showed a correlation with the development of any late toxicity (p = 0.03). Any acute rectal bleeding was significant correlated with any late rectal bleeding (p = 0.017). Conclusion: misoprostol given as once-daily suppository for prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis does neither influence the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute nor late rectal toxicity. Misoprostol has no negative impact on the incidence and severity of late rectal bleeding, in contrast to acute rectal bleeding. The routine clinical use of misoprostol suppositories cannot be recommended. (orig.)

  12. Does Zinc Sulfate Prevent Therapy-Induced Taste Alterations in Head and Neck Cancer Patients? Results of Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N01C4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Taste alterations (dysgeusia) are well described in head and neck cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy (RT). Anecdotal observations and pilot studies have suggested zinc may mitigate these symptoms. This multi-institutional, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to provide definitive evidence of this mineral's palliative efficacy. Methods and Materials: A total of 169 evaluable patients were randomly assigned to zinc sulfate 45 mg orally three times daily vs. placebo. Treatment was to be given throughout RT and for 1 month after. All patients were scheduled to receive ≥2,000 cGy of external beam RT to ≥30% of the oral cavity, were able to take oral medication, and had no oral thrush at study entry. Changes in taste were assessed using the previously validated Wickham questionnaire. Results: At baseline, the groups were comparable in age, gender, and planned radiation dose (<6,000 vs. ≥6,000 cGy). Overall, 61 zinc-treated (73%) and 71 placebo-exposed (84%) patients described taste alterations during the first 2 months (p = 0.16). The median interval to taste alterations was 2.3 vs. 1.6 weeks in the zinc-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 0.09). The reported taste alterations included the absence of any taste (16%), bitter taste (8%), salty taste (5%), sour taste (4%), sweet taste (5%), and the presence of a metallic taste (10%), as well as other descriptions provided by a write in response (81%). Zinc sulfate did not favorably affect the interval to taste recovery. Conclusion: Zinc sulfate, as prescribed in this trial, did not prevent taste alterations in cancer patients who were undergoing RT to the oral pharynx

  13. Blinded by Irrelevance: Pure Irrelevance Induced "Blindness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitam, Baruch; Yeshurun, Yaffa; Hassan, Kinneret

    2013-01-01

    To what degree does our representation of the immediate world depend solely on its relevance to what we are currently doing? We examined whether relevance per se can cause "blindness," even when there is no resource limitation. In a novel paradigm, people looked at a colored circle surrounded by a differently colored ring--the task relevance of…

  14. The first results of pilot project on combined preventive suplementation of iodine- and iron deficiency conditions in Tyumen region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Sharuho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008–2010 pilot project were realized in Tyumen region on combined preventive maintenance iodine deficiency and iron deficiency conditions, within the framework of which children from pilot of the territory got feeding, enriched premixes of the iodine and ferric while checking group has formed the children, getting monoprevention iodized salt. In study were examined 467 children. Frequency of the goiter on ultrasonography in pilot territory fell from 19.8 to 6.4%, in checking from 12.5 to 10.1%. In group teenager on background combined micronutrient preventive maintenance frequency tests ferritin less 15 mcg/l fell for 76 weeks in four times (p = 0.000, herewith average factors in 2010 above, than in 2008 (p = 0.114. In group teenager checking territory on background monoprevention frequency of the lowered tests ferritin more, than in group on background of the combined preventive maintenance in 2 times (p = 0.004, improvements for period of the study is not revealed.Dynamics indices of iodine deficiency conditions on background of the combined preventive maintenance and monoprevention confirms greater efficiency of the simultaneous using the products fortifications iodine and iron. Shown efficiency micronutrient preventive maintenances of the latent deficit ferric fortifications bread.

  15. AAV Gene Therapy for MPS1-associated Corneal Blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Melisa Vance; Telmo Llanga; Will Bennett; Kenton Woodard; Giridhar Murlidharan; Neil Chungfat; Aravind Asokan; Brian Gilger; Joanne Kurtzberg; Jude Samulski, R.; Hirsch, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Although cord blood transplantation has significantly extended the lifespan of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) patients, over 95% manifest cornea clouding with about 50% progressing to blindness. As corneal transplants are met with high rejection rates in MPS1 children, there remains no treatment to prevent blindness or restore vision in MPS1 children. Since MPS1 is caused by mutations in idua, which encodes alpha-L-iduronidase, a gene addition strategy to prevent, and potentially reverse...

  16. Perioperative infusion of low- dose of vasopressin for prevention and management of vasodilatory vasoplegic syndrome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting-A double-blind randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baikoussis Nikolaos G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Preoperative medication by inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE in coronary artery patients predisposes to vasoplegic shock early after coronary artery bypass grafting. Although in the majority of the cases this shock is mild, in some of them it appears as a situation, "intractable" to high-catecholamine dose medication. In this study we examined the possible role of prophylactic infusion of low-dose vasopressin, during and for the four hours post-bypass after cardiopulmonary bypass, in an effort to prevent this syndrome. In addition, we studied the influence of infused vasopressin on the hemodynamics of the patients, as well as on the postoperative urine-output and blood-loss. In our study 50 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were included in a blind-randomized basis. Two main criteria were used for the eligibility of patients for coronary artery bypass grafting: ejection fraction between 30-40%, and patients receiving ACE inhibitors, at least for four weeks preoperatively. The patients were randomly divided in two groups, the group A who were infused with 0.03 IU/min vasopressin and the group B who were infused with normal saline intraoperativelly and for the 4 postoperative hours. Measurements of mean artery pressure (MAP, central venous pressure (CVP, systemic vascular resistance (SVR, ejection fracture (EF, heart rate (HR, mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP, cardiac index (CI and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR were performed before, during, and after the operation. The requirements of catecholamine support, the urine-output, the blood-loss, and the requirements in blood, plasma and platelets for the first 24 hours were included in the data collected. The incidence of vasodilatory shock was significantly lower (8% vs 20% in group A and B respectively (p = 0,042. Generally, the mortality was 12%, exclusively deriving from group B. Postoperatively, significant higher values of MAP, CVP, SVR and EF

  17. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Resident Knowledge and Practice in Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Counseling for Primary... Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Counseling for Primary Prevention of Cancer, SIP12-053, Panel C,...

  18. Preventing Stalled Quality Improvement Teams: A Written Test of Project Selectionability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacdayan, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Discusses organizations' use of quality improvement teams in total quality management and how they can benefit from training team personnel in how to select projects with a low risk of stalling. Describes an efficient written assessment test of project selection ability designed for those who conduct evaluations of training sessions. (Author/LRW)

  19. Balancing between feasibility and relationship. Interventions to prevent dysfunctionality of conflict in public private partnership projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousberg, L.H.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that there are many bottle-necks in Public Private Partnership (PPP) Projects in Dutch spatial development. Due to the specific properties of Public Private Partnerships, these bottle-necks can lead to dysfunctional conflicts which are damaging the project. Hence the question is: how

  20. Balancing between feasibility and relationship : interventions to prevent dysfunctionality of conflict in public private partnership projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousberg, L.H.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that there are many bottle-necks in Public Private Partnership (PPP) Projects in Dutch spatial development. Due to the specific properties of Public Private Partnerships, these bottle-necks can lead to dysfunctional conflicts which are damaging the project. Hence the question is: how

  1. The blind hens’ challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Hocking, Paul M.; Forkman, Björn;

    2014-01-01

    about breeding blind hens. But we also argue that alternative views, which (for example) claim that it is important to respect the telos or rights of an animal, do not offer a more convincing solution to questions raised by the possibility of disenhancing animals for their own benefit.......Animal ethicists have recently debated the ethical questions raised by disenhancing animals to improve their welfare. Here, we focus on the particular case of breeding blind hens for commercial egg-laying systems, in order to benefit their welfare. Many people find breeding blind hens intuitively...

  2. Static analysis for blinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    operation blinding. In this paper we study the theoretical foundations for one of the successful approaches to validating cryptographic protocols and we extend it to handle the blinding primitive. Our static analysis approach is based on Flow Logic; this gives us a clean separation between the specification...... of the analysis and its realisation in an automatic tool. We concentrate on the former in the present paper and provide the semantic foundation for our analysis of protocols using blinding - also in the presence of malicious attackers....

  3. Blind Collective Signature Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Moldovyan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the digital signature (DS scheme specified by Belarusian DS standard there are designed the collective and blind collective DS protocols. Signature formation is performed simultaneously by all of the assigned signers, therefore the proposed protocols can be used also as protocols for simultaneous signing a contract. The proposed blind collective DS protocol represents a particular implementation of the blind multisignature schemes that is a novel type of the signature schemes. The proposed protocols are the first implementations of the multisignature schemes based on Belarusian signature standard.

  4. Community-based HIV prevention research among substance-using women in survival sex work: The Maka Project Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allinott Shari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Substance-using women who exchange sex for money, drugs or shelter as a means of basic subsistence (ie. survival sex have remained largely at the periphery of HIV and harm reduction policies and services across Canadian cities. This is notwithstanding global evidence of the multiple harms faced by this population, including high rates of violence and poverty, and enhanced vulnerabilities to HIV transmission among women who smoke or inject drugs. In response, a participatory-action research project was developed in partnership with a local sex work agency to examine the HIV-related vulnerabilities, barriers to accessing care, and impact of current prevention and harm reduction strategies among women in survival sex work. This paper provides a brief background of the health and drug-related harms among substance-using women in survival sex work, and outlines the development and methodology of a community-based HIV prevention research project partnership. In doing so, we discuss some of the strengths and challenges of community-based HIV prevention research, as well as some key ethical considerations, in the context of street-level sex work in an urban setting.

  5. Evaluation of Project Students are Sun Safe (SASS): A University Student-Delivered Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Raeann; Loescher, Lois J; Rogers, Jillian; Spartonos, Denise; Snyder, Aimee; Koch, Stephanie; Harris, Robin B

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the USA and is increasing in children and young adults. Adolescents are an important target population for sun-safety interventions with ultraviolet radiation as the strongest risk factor for developing skin cancer. Schools are an ideal setting to intervene with adolescents. A novel Arizona skin cancer prevention in-class education-activity program, Project 'Students are Sun Safe' (SASS), was designed to be delivered by university students for middle school and high school students. Participant students completed the pre- and post-program tests and a satisfaction questionnaire; teachers completed reviews. The evaluation examined the program's influence on participants' sun-safety knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors; satisfaction with the program; and intent to change. After exposure to Project SASS, participants were more likely to perceive a high risk of skin cancer, report negative attitudes toward tanned skin, and answer knowledge-based questions correctly. There were minimal differences in self-reported sun-safety behaviors, though participants did report intent to change. Both participants and teachers were satisfied with the program. Project SASS appears to be an effective sun-safety program for middle school and high school students for knowledge and perceptions, and the results confirm that appropriately tailoring program components to the target population has strong potential to impact adolescent perceived susceptibility, knowledge, and behavioral intent. The strengths and weaknesses of Project SASS have many implications for public health practice, and Project SASS may hold promise to be a model for skin cancer prevention in adolescents. PMID:25417824

  6. Evaluation of Project Students are Sun Safe (SASS): A University Student-Delivered Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Raeann; Loescher, Lois J; Rogers, Jillian; Spartonos, Denise; Snyder, Aimee; Koch, Stephanie; Harris, Robin B

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the USA and is increasing in children and young adults. Adolescents are an important target population for sun-safety interventions with ultraviolet radiation as the strongest risk factor for developing skin cancer. Schools are an ideal setting to intervene with adolescents. A novel Arizona skin cancer prevention in-class education-activity program, Project 'Students are Sun Safe' (SASS), was designed to be delivered by university students for middle school and high school students. Participant students completed the pre- and post-program tests and a satisfaction questionnaire; teachers completed reviews. The evaluation examined the program's influence on participants' sun-safety knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors; satisfaction with the program; and intent to change. After exposure to Project SASS, participants were more likely to perceive a high risk of skin cancer, report negative attitudes toward tanned skin, and answer knowledge-based questions correctly. There were minimal differences in self-reported sun-safety behaviors, though participants did report intent to change. Both participants and teachers were satisfied with the program. Project SASS appears to be an effective sun-safety program for middle school and high school students for knowledge and perceptions, and the results confirm that appropriately tailoring program components to the target population has strong potential to impact adolescent perceived susceptibility, knowledge, and behavioral intent. The strengths and weaknesses of Project SASS have many implications for public health practice, and Project SASS may hold promise to be a model for skin cancer prevention in adolescents.

  7. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider and Public Health Input for Vaccine Policy Decisions SIP... Vaccine Policy Decisions, SIP 10-036.'' Contact Person for More Information: Michelle Mathieson,...

  8. Blind loop syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... operations for extreme obesity As a complication of inflammatory bowel disease Diseases such as diabetes or scleroderma may slow down movement in a segment of the intestine, leading to blind loop syndrome.

  9. Community and team member factors that influence the operations phase of local prevention teams: the PROSPER Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Chilenski, Sarah M; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L; Redmond, Cleve

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the longitudinal predictors of quality of functioning of community prevention teams during the "operations" phase of team development. The 14 community teams were involved in a randomized-trial of a university-community partnership project, PROSPER (Spoth et al., Prevention Science, 5(1): 31-39, 2004b), that implements evidence-based interventions intended to support positive youth development and reduce early substance use, as well as other problem behaviors. The study included a multi-informant approach to measurement of constructs, and included data from 137 team members, 59 human service agency directors and school administrators, 16 school principals, and 8 Prevention Coordinators (i.e. technical assistance providers). We examined how community demographics and social capital, team level characteristics, and team member attributes and attitudes are related to local team functioning across an 18-month period. Findings indicate that community demographics (poverty), social capital, team member attitudes towards prevention, and team members' views of the acceptability of teen alcohol use played a substantial role in predicting various indicators of the quality of team functioning 18 months later. PMID:17602297

  10. A Blind Date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话:A: Talking about girls, I still remember my first time to meet my girlfriend. Iwas so clumsy and very nervous.B: That’s the same case with me. I had the jitters at my blind date, too.A: Did you also meet your girlfriend at a blind date?B: Yeah. I was actually very shy of speaking to girls, you know?

  11. The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Prevention Instrument Project: Longitudinal Outcome of Behavioral Measures as Predictors of Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jane Banks

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Methods: The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Prevention Instrument Project is a longitudinal study that recruited 644 cognitively healthy older subjects (aged between 75 and 93 years, 58% women at baseline and evaluated their cognitive change over 4 years. The study was structured like a clinical trial to anticipate a prevention trial and to determine the performance of novel trial instruments in a longitudinal non-interventional trial framework. Behavioral symptoms were assessed at baseline. Results: The existence of participant-reported behavioral symptoms at baseline predicted conversion to Clinical Dementia Rating scale score ≥0.5 over the 4-year period. Conclusions: The results imply that early anxiety and depression may be harbingers of future cognitive decline, and that patients exhibiting such symptoms, even in the absence of co-occurring cognitive symptoms, should be closely followed over time.

  12. Models for the Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Eric Olsén

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material objects are rarely used as historical testimonies for the simple reason that they, unlike archival material, do not present historians with written documents that can be held as evidence of the past. However, as I point out, certain historical questions of which archives remain silent could be approached by other means such as the use of material objects. Rather than delivering concrete methodological suggestions, this second part reflects upon the historical use of material objects - both their possibilities and their limits - within the context of blindness.

  13. 75 FR 51083 - Office of Clinical and Preventive Services Maternal and Child Health Program: Project Choices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Office of Clinical and Preventive Services Maternal and Child...) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) dated May 2009 cites studies showing that 0.2 to 1.5 cases of... programmatic involvement will be provided under this CA. The IHS Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Coordinator...

  14. Cardiovascular disease and obesity prevention in Germany: an investigation into a heterogeneous engineering project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Niewöhner; M. Döring; M. Kontopodis; J. Madarász; C. Heintze

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases present the leading cause of death worldwide. Over the last decade, their preventio has become not only a central medical and public health issue but also a matter of political concern as well as a major market for pharma, nutrition, and exercise. A preventive assemblage has

  15. Preventing socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviour in adolescents in Europe: Background, design and methods of project TEENAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faggiano Fabrizio

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher prevalence rates of unhealthy behaviours among lower socioeconomic groups contribute substantially to socioeconomic inequalities in health in adults. Preventing the development of these inequalities in unhealthy behaviours early in life is an important strategy to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in health. Little is known however, about health promotion strategies particularly effective in lower socioeconomic groups in youth. It is the purpose of project TEENAGE to improve knowledge on the prevention of socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents in Europe. This paper describes the background, design and methods to be used in the project. Methods/design Through a systematic literature search, existing interventions aimed at promoting physical activity, a healthy diet, preventing the uptake of smoking or alcohol, and evaluated in the general adolescent population in Europe will be identified. Studies in which indicators of socioeconomic position are included will be reanalysed by socioeconomic position. Results of such stratified analyses will be summarised by type of behaviour, across behaviours by type of intervention (health education, environmental interventions and policies and by setting (individual, household, school, and neighbourhood. In addition, the degree to which effective interventions can be transferred to other European countries will be assessed. Discussion Although it is sometimes assumed that some health promotion strategies may be particularly effective in higher socioeconomic groups, thereby increasing socioeconomic inequalities in health-related behaviour, there is little knowledge about differential effects of health promotion across socioeconomic groups. Synthesizing stratified analyses of a number of interventions conducted in the general adolescent population may offer an efficient guidance for the development of strategies and

  16. Psychosocial mediators of a school-based tobacco prevention program in India: Results from the first year of Project MYTRI

    OpenAIRE

    Bate, Sheri Lewis; Stigler, Melissa H.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Arora, Monika; Perry, Cheryl L.; Reddy, K Srinath; MacKinnon, David P.

    2009-01-01

    Each day in India, an estimated 5,500 youth initiate tobacco use, contributing to predictions that by 2020, tobacco will account for 13% of all deaths in India. Project MYTRI (Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco-Related Initiatives in India) is a multi-component school-based intervention designed to prevent and reduce tobacco use among adolescents in Delhi and Chennai, India. The intervention was implemented over the 2004-2006 school years and involved 6th and 8th grade students in 32 classrooms. St...

  17. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewuyi Alfred

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1 discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2 awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3 condom use at last intercourse. Results Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01–2.16 times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49–3.25 as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. Conclusion The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and

  18. Blind Analysis in Particle Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Roodman, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of "experimenter's bias" and the advantages of a blind analysis are described. Three distinct kinds of blind analysis in particle physics are presented in detail. Finally, the BABAR collaboration's experience with the blind analysis technique is discussed.

  19. Integrating ergonomic aspects into research and development projects as a preventive strategy in the food industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Iben Posniak; Broberg, Ole

    1997-01-01

    As part of a national research and development programme for food technology it was formulated as a demand to applicants to describe the potential ergonomics impact of the research and development (R&D) projects. As the primary purpose of the research programme was to strengthen the Danish food...... are the potentials and limitations for integrating ergonomics into joint R&D projects involving companies within the food industry and the university research? The objectives were (i) to identify the R&D peoples viewpoints on potentials and limitations for integrating ergonomics into R&D projects and (ii) to study...... the R&D processes in such networks in order to obtain a better understanding of the conditions for integrating ergonomics....

  20. The PARAChute Project: Remote Monitoring of Posture and Gait for Fall Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charpillet François

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Falls in the elderly are a major public health problem due to both their frequency and their medical and social consequences. In France alone, more than two million people aged over 65 years old fall each year, leading to more than 9 000 deaths, in particular in those over 75 years old (more than 8 000 deaths. This paper describes the PARAChute project, which aims to develop a methodology that will enable the detection of an increased risk of falling in community-dwelling elderly. The methods used for a remote noninvasive assessment for static and dynamic balance assessments and gait analysis are described. The final result of the project has been the development of an algorithm for movement detection during gait and a balance signature extracted from a force plate. A multicentre longitudinal evaluation of balance has commenced in order to validate the methodologies and technologies developed in the project.

  1. Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe, the PHEWE project: background, objectives, design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Hugh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe" (PHEWE had the aim of assessing the association between weather conditions and acute health effects, during both warm and cold seasons in 16 European cities with widely differing climatic conditions and to provide information for public health policies. Methods The PHEWE project was a three-year pan-European collaboration between epidemiologists, meteorologists and experts in public health. Meteorological, air pollution and mortality data from 16 cities and hospital admission data from 12 cities were available from 1990 to 2000. The short-term effect on mortality/morbidity was evaluated through city-specific and pooled time series analysis. The interaction between weather and air pollutants was evaluated and health impact assessments were performed to quantify the effect on the different populations. A heat/health watch warning system to predict oppressive weather conditions and alert the population was developed in a subgroup of cities and information on existing prevention policies and of adaptive strategies was gathered. Results Main results were presented in a symposium at the conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology in Paris on September 6th 2006 and will be published as scientific articles. The present article introduces the project and includes a description of the database and the framework of the applied methodology. Conclusion The PHEWE project offers the opportunity to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in 16 European cities, representing a wide range of climatic, socio-demographic and cultural characteristics; the use of a standardized methodology allows for direct comparison between cities.

  2. 基于投影寻踪学习网络的盲水印方法%The Blind-Watermarking Method of Color Image Based on Projection Pursuit Learning Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何帆; 丁卫平; 胡琳

    2011-01-01

    Based on projection pursuit learning network, a color image blind watermarking method was presented. And we compared the effect for watermark extracted that using PPLN, BP neural network and RBF neural network to embedding watermark with same number of hidden node. The experiments show that using projection pursuit learning network in watermarking technology has better practicability than other neural network.%给出了基于投影寻踪学习网络的数字图像盲水印嵌入和提取的方法.通过实验比较了相同隐节点下使用投影寻踪学习网络、BP神经网络和RBF神经网络进行训练嵌入水印的效果,结果表明使用投影寻踪学习网络实现水印技术具有有更强的实用性.

  3. A Smart Infrared Microcontroller-Based Blind Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjed S. Al-Fahoum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness is a state of lacking the visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors. The partial blindness represents the lack of integration in the growth of the optic nerve or visual centre of the eye, and total blindness is the full absence of the visual light perception. In this work, a simple, cheap, friendly user, smart blind guidance system is designed and implemented to improve the mobility of both blind and visually impaired people in a specific area. The proposed work includes a wearable equipment consists of head hat and mini hand stick to help the blind person to navigate alone safely and to avoid any obstacles that may be encountered, whether fixed or mobile, to prevent any possible accident. The main component of this system is the infrared sensor which is used to scan a predetermined area around blind by emitting-reflecting waves. The reflected signals received from the barrier objects are used as inputs to PIC microcontroller. The microcontroller is then used to determine the direction and distance of the objects around the blind. It also controls the peripheral components that alert the user about obstacle's shape, material, and direction. The implemented system is cheap, fast, and easy to use and an innovative affordable solution to blind and visually impaired people in third world countries.

  4. Turning the tide of corneal blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Oliva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world′s largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind.

  5. Turning the tide of corneal blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Matthew S; Schottman, Tim; Gulati, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world's largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind.

  6. The impact of a prevention delivery system on perceived social capital: the PROSPER project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilenski, Sarah M; Ang, Patricia M; Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Spoth, Richard

    2014-04-01

    The current study examined the impact of the PROSPER delivery system for evidence-based prevention programs on multiple indicators of social capital in a rural and semi-rural community sample. Utilizing a randomized blocked design, 317 individuals in 28 communities across two states were interviewed at three time points over the course of 2.5 years. Bridging, linking, and the public life skills forms of social capital were assessed via community members' and leaders' reports on the perceptions of school functioning and the Cooperative Extension System, collaboration among organizations, communication and collaboration around youth problems, and other measures. Longitudinal mixed model results indicate significant improvements in some aspects of bridging and linking social capital in PROSPER intervention communities. Given the strength of the longitudinal and randomized research design, results advance prevention science by suggesting that community collaborative prevention initiatives can significantly impact community social capital in a rural and semi-rural sample. Future research should further investigate changes in social capital in different contexts and how changes in social capital relate to other intervention effects. PMID:23404665

  7. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes of Screening American Indian/Alaska Native Women of... Evaluations Within Africa and Asia under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) SIP 10-034 and SIP 10-038, Initial Review In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory...

  8. 75 FR 28626 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-029, Pilot Study--Cancer Survivorship Care Planning & SIP... include the initial review, discussion, and evaluation of applications received in response to ``SIP 10-029, Pilot Study--Cancer Survivorship Care Planning & SIP 10- 030, Evaluating Special Events as...

  9. Assessment and Evaluation Report on a Pilot Project on Preventive School Maintenance in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    In 2002, efforts started on formulating a maintenance policy for schools and other social service facilities in Eritrea. Since then, an appropriate policy and related implementation strategies have been further developed. In 2003, a specific pilot project was designed covering a number of schools...... of a school based approach to school maintenance are presented in the report....

  10. Change blindness in pigeons (Columba livia): the effects of change salience and timing

    OpenAIRE

    Herbranson, Walter T

    2015-01-01

    Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with ...

  11. Change Blindness in Pigeons (Columba livia): the Effects of Change Salience and Timing

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Troy Herbranson

    2015-01-01

    Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, wi...

  12. Efficacy and safety of casopitant mesylate, a neurokinin 1 (NK1)-receptor antagonist, in prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients receiving cisplatin-based highly emetogenic chemotherapy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunberg, Steven M; Rolski, Janusz; Strausz, Janos;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remains a clinical management problem after treatment with highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). We therefore designed and carried out a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess whether a three-drug antie......BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remains a clinical management problem after treatment with highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). We therefore designed and carried out a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess whether a three...

  13. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of a two-day regimen of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for malaria prevention halted for concern over prolonged corrected QT interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Jessica; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Lon, Chanthap; Spring, Michele; So, Mary; Sea, Darapiseth; Se, Youry; Somethy, Sok; Phann, Sut-Thang; Chann, Soklyda; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Buathong, Nillawan; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Mitprasat, Mashamon; Siripokasupkul, Raveewan; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Soh, Eugene; Timmermans, Ans; Lanteri, Charlotte; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Auayporn, Montida; Tang, Douglas; Chour, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Haigney, Mark; Cantilena, Louis; Saunders, David

    2014-10-01

    Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, the current first-line drug for uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Cambodia, was previously shown to be of benefit as malaria chemoprophylaxis when administered as a monthly 3-day regimen. We sought to evaluate the protective efficacy of a compressed monthly 2-day treatment course in the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces. The safety and efficacy of a monthly 2-day dosing regimen of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine were evaluated in a two-arm, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cohort study with 2:1 treatment allocation. Healthy military volunteers in areas along the Thai-Cambodian border where there is a high risk of malaria were administered two consecutive daily doses of 180 mg dihydroartemisinin and 1,440 mg piperaquine within 30 min to 3 h of a meal once per month for a planned 4-month period with periodic electrocardiographic and pharmacokinetic assessment. The study was halted after only 6 weeks (69 of 231 projected volunteers enrolled) when four volunteers met a prespecified cardiac safety endpoint of QTcF (Fridericia's formula for correct QT interval) prolongation of >500 ms. The pharmacodynamic effect on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) peaked approximately 4 h after piperaquine dosing and lasted 4 to 8 h. Unblinded review by the data safety monitoring board revealed mean QTcF prolongation of 46 ms over placebo at the maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) on day 2. Given that dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is one of the few remaining effective antimalarial agents in Cambodia, compressed 2-day treatment courses of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine are best avoided until the clinical significance of these findings are more thoroughly evaluated. Because ECG monitoring is often unavailable in areas where malaria is endemic, repolarization risk could be mitigated by using conventional 3-day regimens, fasting, and avoidance of repeated dosing or coadministration with other QT

  14. Causes of childhood blindness in the People's Republic of China: results from 1131 blind school students in 18 provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Hornby, S; Xiao, Y; Gilbert, C.; Foster, A.; Wang, X.; Liang, X; Jing, H.; Wang, L.; Min, W; Y. Shi; Li, Y.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the anatomical site and underlying causes of blindness and severe visual impairment in children under 16 years of age in special education in the People's Republic of China with a view to determining potentially preventable and treatable causes.
METHODS—A national study of children attending schools for the blind in China was conducted between April and June 1998 using the WHO Prevention of Blindness Programme (WHO/PBL) eye examination record for children with blindness and ...

  15. Neurological basis for eye movements of the blind.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalyn M Schneider

    Full Text Available When normal subjects fix their eyes upon a stationary target, their gaze is not perfectly still, due to small movements that prevent visual fading. Visual loss is known to cause greater instability of gaze, but reported comparisons with normal subjects using reliable measurement techniques are few. We measured binocular gaze using the magnetic search coil technique during attempted fixation (monocular or binocular viewing of 4 individuals with childhood-onset of monocular visual loss, 2 individuals with late-onset monocular visual loss due to age-related macular degeneration, 2 individuals with bilateral visual loss, and 20 healthy control subjects. We also measured saccades to visual or somatosensory cues. We tested the hypothesis that gaze instability following visual impairment is caused by loss of inputs that normally optimize the performance of the neural network (integrator, which ensures both monocular and conjugate gaze stability. During binocular viewing, patients with early-onset monocular loss of vision showed greater instability of vertical gaze in the eye with visual loss and, to a lesser extent, in the normal eye, compared with control subjects. These vertical eye drifts were much more disjunctive than upward saccades. In individuals with late monocular visual loss, gaze stability was more similar to control subjects. Bilateral visual loss caused eye drifts that were larger than following monocular visual loss or in control subjects. Accurate saccades could be made to somatosensory cues by an individual with acquired blindness, but voluntary saccades were absent in an individual with congenital blindness. We conclude that the neural gaze-stabilizing network, which contains neurons with both binocular and monocular discharge preferences, is under adaptive visual control. Whereas monocular visual loss causes disjunctive gaze instability, binocular blindness causes both disjunctive and conjugate gaze instability (drifts and nystagmus

  16. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Dill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n=3,135 were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components.

  17. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Edward J; Manson, Spero M; Jiang, Luohua; Pratte, Katherine A; Gutilla, Margaret J; Knepper, Stephanie L; Beals, Janette; Roubideaux, Yvette; Special Diabetes Program For Indians Diabetes Prevention Demonstration Project

    2016-01-01

    The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality) with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n = 3,135) were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP) demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components. PMID:26649314

  18. Suicide and attempted suicide: epidemiological surveillance as a crucial means of a local suicide prevention project in Trento's Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Wilma Angela; Della Rosa, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization identifies suicide among the top 10 causes of death in many countries with an overall mortality rate of 16 per 100,000 inhabitants. Furthermore suicide attempts present a frequency 4-10 times greater than the suicidal events, representing also one of the main risk factors to lead to recurrent attempts of suicide. In 2008 the Autonomous Province of Trento launched a suicide prevention pogram called "Invitation to Life" which includes various interventions intended to counter the phenomenon of suicide in the region. Actually the epidemiological research upon the phenomenon of suicide in Trentino region is one of the main pillars of the project: it represents a fundamental requirement to identify risk and protective factors in the population in order to adopt more specific and effective preventive strategies. This article aims to present methods and instruments for epidemiological monitoring of suicide and attempted suicide which are applied in Trentino and to describe results after seven years from the beginning of the local prevention program "Invitation to life".

  19. Prevention of Adolescent Problem Behavior: Longitudinal Impact of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the longitudinal impact of a curriculum-based positive youth development program, entitled the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes, on adolescent problem behavior in Hong Kong. Using a longitudinal randomized group design, six waves of data were collected from 19 experimental schools (n = 3,797 at Wave 1 in which students participated in the Project P.A.T.H.S. and 24 control schools (n = 4,049 at Wave 1. At each wave, students responded to questions asking about their current problem behaviors, including delinquency and use of different types of drugs, and their intentions of engaging in such behaviors in the future. Results based on individual growth curve modeling generally showed that the participants displayed lower levels of substance abuse and delinquent behavior than did the control students. Participants who regarded the program to be helpful also showed lower levels of problem behavior than did the control students. The present findings suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is effective in preventing adolescent problem behavior in the junior secondary school years.

  20. Rationale and design of ATHENA: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel arm trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg bid for the prevention of cardiovascular hospitalization or death from any cause in PatiENts with atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnloser, S.H.; Connolly, S.J.; Crijns, H.J.G.M.;

    2008-01-01

    . Dronedarone is a new antiarrhythmic compound currently being developed for treatment of AF. Methods: The ATHENA trial (A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel arm Trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg bid for the prevention of cardiovascular Hospitalization or death from any cause in pati...... hospitalization or death from any cause. The study has completed patient enrollment in December 2006 and is expected to end follow-up 1 year later. Conclusion: ATHENA will be the largest efficacy and safety trial of dronedarone, a multichannel blocker compound with properties from class I, II, III, and IV...

  1. Blind Friendly Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Červenka, Petr; Břinda, Karel; Seifert, Radek; Hofman, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Space concept of the surrounding area is one of the most important preconditions of the independent mobility and orientation of the blind people. Tactile maps are considered to be the most appropriate source of spatial information. One of the main problems of the tactile maps usage is their problematic accessibility for the blind users since they are not available in time and with up-to-date content. The map production is a matter of tedious manual work and a result of expensive and time-cons...

  2. Models for the Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Eric Olsén

    2014-01-01

    When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in n...

  3. Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project: HIV prevention education for runaway and homeless youth.

    OpenAIRE

    Podschun, G D

    1993-01-01

    Each year, there are approximately 2 million homeless and runaway youths in the United States. On any given night, there are 1,000 homeless youngsters living on the streets of San Diego, CA. Homeless young people are commonly involved in one or more of the following activities that place them at risk for HIV infection--unprotected sexual intercourse, needle-sharing in the use of injectable drugs, sex with someone who injects drugs. The Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project trains teen peer e...

  4. [Enlightenment and thinking of blinding trachoma elimination in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningli; Hu, Ailian

    2015-07-01

    Trachoma had been the leading infectious cause of blindness. After years of hard work and unremitting efforts, blinding trachoma would never been a public health problem in China by 2015. Discovery and research of Chlamydia trachoma provide a scientific way for the prevention and control of trachoma. The achievement of eliminating blinding trachoma in China pertained to the highly concerned about government and succeed spreading of SAFE strategies. It is still required to strengthen the diagnostic criteria and knowledge training of public health disease. Epidemiological investigation should follow the international criteria. Though blinding trachoma would never been a public health problem in China, comprehensive prevention and control of trachoma should be emphasized in case of being epidemic again. PMID:26310249

  5. Research on Management Method of Geological Disaster Prevention and Cure Project in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Su-ming

    2014-01-01

    As everyone knows, China has come to being one of the countries deserved paying attention to it‘s geological disaster which become seriously. Not only protect people’s lives, property and foundation against destroyed but also ensure the continu⁃able development of country’s economy and society, some must be taken. Therefore efficiency and equitableness system should be set up. According to the peculiarity of prevention measure against geological disaster, the emphases of the system were inten⁃sively studied. Beside this, the paper focused more attention on the methods of enhanced financing and analyzed keystones of some financing different finance channel. Integrating the peculiar of the Chongqing city and referencing some other engineering items, some means were summarized such as reinforcing essential investigation and confirming danger point of geological disaster. Based on this, forecast should be intensified and the procedure of disposal must be developed.

  6. Pilot project for control and prevention of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croatia has a very long and complex border (2.373 km on land, 972 km on sea) with more than 170 land border crossings. Illicit trafficking in people and drugs is very probably occurring daily. Number of international airports and sea ports, intensive nautical tourism, volume of goods in transit between Greece and the rest of EU, great number of border crossings on east south borders (Serbia and Montenegro, and Bosnia and Herzegovina) are just the most obvious reasons adding to complexity and expensiveness of full and reliable detection system. Croatia signed several international instruments calling for comprehensive national system of control of nuclear material as well as special equipment and non-nuclear materials. Project for control of nuclear and radioactive materials on Croatian borders was initiated at the beginning of 2002 based on IAEA standards and recommendations. The objective of the project is development and implementation of nuclear and other radioactive material control system on the borders of the Republic of Croatia. The scope is to build up capacity for automatic control of border crossings and efficient response to detected nuclear and radioactive materials. the goals accomplished up to now are: Established coordination of all the issues related to control of nuclear and other radioactive materials through national coordination body (customs, police, nuclear safety and security, radiation protection, consultants from university and consulting firms, etc.) and national program setting up general strategy, responsibilities, procedures etc. and education of border crossing officers through seminars and hand on training

  7. E-learning as a complement to presential teaching of blindness prevention: a randomized clinical trial 'E-learning' como um complemento do ensino presencial de prevenção da cegueira: ensaio clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti Lira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate if E-learning material improves the basal student knowledge level before attending the presential class of blindness prevention (BP and if helps to fix this information one-month after the class. METHODS: Fourth-year medical students were randomly assigned to have a presential class of BP (Traditional group = TG or to have a presential class of BP plus an additional E-learning material (E-learning group = ELG. This material was e-mailed one week before the presential class. The students were submitted to a multiple-choice test (with three options each with seven questions immediately before the presential class, immediately after the class, and one-month later. The three tests had the same questions; however, the answers options were distributed in different sequences. The primary outcome was immediate pretest score. The secondary outcomes were immediate posttest score and one-month posttest score. RESULTS: Among the 120 fourth-year medical students, a random sample of 34 students was assigned to the TG and 34 students was assigned to the ELG. The two groups showed similar immediate posttest score (TG=6.8 and ELG=6.9; POBJETIVO: Avaliar se um material disponibilizado através de E-learning antes de aulas presenciais de prevenção da cegueira (PC melhora o nível de conhecimento basal dos estudantes, e ajuda a manter esse conteúdo um mês após a aula. MÉTODOS: Estudantes do quarto ano do curso médico foram aleatoriamente sorteados para ter aulas presenciais de PC (grupo tradicional = GT ou ter aulas presenciais precedidas de material adicional por E-learning (grupo E-learning = GEL. Este material foi enviado por correio eletrônico uma semana antes da aula presencial. Os estudantes foram submetidos a testes de múltipla escolha com sete questões (com três alternativas cada imediatamente antes da aula presencial, imediatamente após a aula, e um mês após a aula. Os três testes tiveram as mesmas quest

  8. Blindness as A Challenging Medical and Social Problem in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixing Hu

    2002-01-01

    China, a country with about one fifth of the world' s population, has been gaining a rapideconomic growth since 1980s. This country has around 5 million blind people, accountingfor 18% of the blind in the world. The major causes of blindness include cataract,corneal diseases, trachoma, glaucoma, vitreoretinopathy and a number of factorscontributing to blindness in children. The principal cause of blindness in China was nolonger trachoma but cataracts. Vitamin A deficiency remains a public health problem inthe under-developed areas.Age-related conditions in China, such as vision loss due tocataract and retinal disorders, will increase accordingly if no preventive meaunes aretaken. Glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy appear to be predominant induction of thedevastating blind. In this fast developing country blindness is not only a medical orhealth, but also a social problem. Developed strategies have been adopted simultaneouslyby national efforts under the leadership of the government, international agencies,nongovernmental organizations, as well as private sectors in their every-day work toprevent and treat blindness.

  9. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Written by: Shirley Dang Apr. 03, 2014 New ... shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  10. Oplysningens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  11. Oplysnigens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  12. Marketing the 'Sex Check': evaluating recruitment strategies for a telephone-based HIV prevention project for gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Michael B; Picciano, Joseph F; Roffman, Roger A; Swanson, Fred; Kalichman, Seth C

    2006-04-01

    Designing effective marketing and recruitment strategies for HIV prevention research requires attention to cultural relevance, logistical barriers, and perceived psychosocial barriers to accessing services. McGuire's communication/persuasion matrix (1985) guided our evaluation, with particular attention to success of each marketing "channel" (i.e., strategy) vis-à-vis the number of all callers, eligible callers, and enrolled callers, as well as reaching so-called "hard-to-serve" individuals. Nearly all channels offered success in reaching specific subgroups. Latinos responded favorably to posters, bisexuals responded favorably to paid media in an alternative (non-gay) publication, and precontemplators responded to referrals by family and friends. Although multiple recruitment strategies were used, three were crucial to the success of the project: (a) recruiters' presence in gay venues, (b) referrals by family and friends (snowball technique), and (c) paid advertisements in alternative (non-gay) local newspapers. Resource allocation and costs are also presented for each channel. PMID:16649957

  13. Health Promotion and Diabetes Prevention in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities--Traditional Foods Project, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Dawn; DeBruyn, Lemyra; Santos, Marjorie; Alonso, Larry; Frank, Melinda

    2016-02-12

    Type 2 diabetes was probably uncommon in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations before the 1940s. During 2010-2012, AI/AN adults were approximately 2.1 times as likely to have diabetes diagnosed as non-Hispanic white adults. Although type 2 diabetes in youth is still uncommon, AI/AN youth (aged 15-19 years) experienced a 68% increase in diagnosed diabetes from 1994 to 2004. Health disparities are related to biological, environmental, sociological, and historical factors. This report highlights observations from the Traditional Foods Project (2008-2014) that illustrate tribally driven solutions, built on traditional ecological knowledge, to reclaim foods systems for health promotion and prevention of chronic illnesses, including diabetes. PMID:26916637

  14. Ion Exchange Technology Development in Support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Julie L.; Broyan, James L.; Pickering, Karen D.; Adam, Niklas; Casteel, Michael; Callahan, Michael; Carrier, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project (UPA PPP), multiple technologies were explored to prevent CaSO4 2H2O (gypsum) precipitation during the on-orbit distillation process. Gypsum precipitation currently limits the water recovery rate onboard the International Space Station (ISS) to 70% versus the planned 85% target water recovery rate. Due to its ability to remove calcium cations in pretreated augmented urine (PTAU), ion exchange was selected as one of the technologies for further development by the PPP team. A total of 13 ion exchange resins were evaluated in various equilibrium and dynamic column tests with solutions of dissolved gypsum, urine ersatz, PTAU, and PTAU brine at 85% water recovery. While initial evaluations indicated that the Purolite SST60 resin had the highest calcium capacity in PTAU (0.30 meq/mL average), later tests showed that the Dowex G26 and Amberlite FPC12H resins had the highest capacity (0.5 meq/mL average). Testing at the Marshall Spaceflight Center (MSFC) integrates the ion exchange technology with a UPA ground article under flight-like pulsed flow conditions with PTAU. To date, no gypsum precipitation has taken place in any of the initial evaluations.

  15. Project Salud: Efficacy of a community-based HIV prevention intervention for Hispanic migrant workers in south Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús; De La Rosa, Mario; Serna, Claudia A

    2013-10-01

    Project Salud evaluates the efficacy of a community-based intervention to reduce risk behaviors and enhance factors for HIV-preventative behaviors. A randomized controlled trial of 278 high risk Latino migrant workers was conducted between 2008 and 2010. Participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview questionnaire at baseline and 3- and 9-month post-intervention follow-ups. Participants were randomly assigned to the community-based intervention (A-SEMI) or the health promotion condition (HPC). Both interventions consisted of four 2.5-hour interactive sessions and were structurally equivalent in administration and format. Relative to the comparison condition, A-SEMI participants reported more consistent condom use, were less likely to report never having used condoms, and were more likely to have used condoms at last sexual encounter during the past 90 and 30 days. A-SEMI participants also experienced a positive change in regard to factors for HIV-preventive behaviors over the entire 9-month period. Our results support the implementation of community-based, culturally tailored interventions among Latino migrant workers.

  16. Prevention of blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil: incidence, risk factors, laser treatment and outcomes from 2002 to 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Filho, Joao Borges Fortes; Barros, Cristiano Koch; Lermann, Viviane Levy; Eckert, Gabriela Unchalo; Coelho da Costa, Marlene; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a multifactorial disease and a leading cause of blindness in children. Purposes: The objectives of this paper are to evaluate in a prospective study the incidence, risk factors, the rate of diode laser treatment and main outcomes, in all very low birth weight and extremely premature infants from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil, between October 2002 and May 2006, in a screening program according to the Brazilian recommendat...

  17. Universal Prevention Exposure as a Moderator of the Community Context: Findings from the PROSPER Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilenski, Sarah M; Welsh, Janet A; Perkins, Daniel F; Feinberg, Mark E; Greenberg, Mark T

    2016-03-01

    This study examined how participation in a universal family skills-building program may interact with community risks and resources to produce youth outcomes. Prior research has noted community-level variability in risk and protective factors, but thus far no study has examined the role that participation on a community-wide intervention may play in moderating the effects of community risks or resources. The study included 14 communities (seven in Iowa, seven in Pennsylvania) that implemented a family focused evidence-based program as part of the PROSPER project. Community level variables included both risk factors (percent of low income families, the availability of alcohol and tobacco, norms regarding adolescent substance use, incidence of drug-related crimes) and community resources (proactive school leadership, availability of youth-serving organizations, and student involvement in youth activities). The proximal youth and family outcomes included youth perceptions of their parents' management skills, parent-child activities, and family cohesion. Results indicated that the Strengthening Families Program:10-14 may have moderated the impact of the community risks and resources on community-level youth outcomes; risk levels meaningfully associated with community-level change in program participants, though these results varied somewhat by outcome. Generally, higher levels of resources also meaningfully associated with more positive change after participating in the family-focused intervention. These results suggest that the effect of some evidence-based programs may be even stronger in some communities than others; more research in this area is needed. PMID:27217308

  18. Universal Prevention Exposure as a Moderator of the Community Context: Findings from the PROSPER Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilenski, Sarah M; Welsh, Janet A; Perkins, Daniel F; Feinberg, Mark E; Greenberg, Mark T

    2016-03-01

    This study examined how participation in a universal family skills-building program may interact with community risks and resources to produce youth outcomes. Prior research has noted community-level variability in risk and protective factors, but thus far no study has examined the role that participation on a community-wide intervention may play in moderating the effects of community risks or resources. The study included 14 communities (seven in Iowa, seven in Pennsylvania) that implemented a family focused evidence-based program as part of the PROSPER project. Community level variables included both risk factors (percent of low income families, the availability of alcohol and tobacco, norms regarding adolescent substance use, incidence of drug-related crimes) and community resources (proactive school leadership, availability of youth-serving organizations, and student involvement in youth activities). The proximal youth and family outcomes included youth perceptions of their parents' management skills, parent-child activities, and family cohesion. Results indicated that the Strengthening Families Program:10-14 may have moderated the impact of the community risks and resources on community-level youth outcomes; risk levels meaningfully associated with community-level change in program participants, though these results varied somewhat by outcome. Generally, higher levels of resources also meaningfully associated with more positive change after participating in the family-focused intervention. These results suggest that the effect of some evidence-based programs may be even stronger in some communities than others; more research in this area is needed.

  19. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saichin Isipradit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB study in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA <20/400, severe visual impairment (VA <20/200 but ≥20/400, and moderate visual impairment (VA <20/70 but ≥20/200 were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8, 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.6, 12.6% (95% CI: 10.8-14.5. There was no significant difference among the four regions of Thailand. Cataract was the main cause of vision loss accounted for 69.7% of blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. CONCLUSION: Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  20. Psychosocial characteristics of totally blind people in a Nigerian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola-Popoola Dupe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To characterize the demographic and psychosocial problems of a group of blind people as a way of attracting more attention to and providing data that can improve the psychosocial care of the visually impaired. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study of a population of totally blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria using a self-report questionnaire (SRQ. The questionnaire was verbally administered by the study personnel in the local language. Simple frequency tables were obtained and the Chi-square test was performed to determine significant differences between variables. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Sixty one blind patients consented to participate. Most participants were engaged in street begging for their livelihood. Most subjects desired a job change, signifying dissatisfaction with the present occupation. Up to 80% of the cohort was married and had spouses who were also blind in at least one eye. Approximately two-thirds had five or more children and majority lived with family members who were responsible for taking care of their personal hygiene, cooking and mobility. The majority developed blindness in childhood and 16% had a family history of blindness and 77% had never used conventional eye care, with corneal disease being the most frequent cause of blindness. Many feared that their children may also become blind. Thirty-one (51% scored ≥5 on SRQ and were classified as probable cases of psychological disorder. Conclusion: Blindness in a majority of cases that started in childhood was probably preventable. Inaccessibility to or failure of the formal rehabilitation and social welfare systems may have caused this psychosocial dilemma. The high level of social and family interaction provides opportunity for organized preventive ophthalmology, community health care services and psychosocial care.

  1. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in a multi-centre European project: the IDEFICS intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Verbestel Vera; De Henauw Stefaan; Maes Lea; Haerens Leen; Mårild Staffan; Eiben Gabriele; Lissner Lauren; Moreno Luis A; Frauca Natalia; Barba Gianvincenzo; Kovács Éva; Konstabel Kenn; Tornaritis Michael; Gallois Katharina; Hassel Holger

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesi...

  2. Efficacy of a group-based multimedia HIV prevention intervention for drug-involved women under community supervision: project WORTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila El-Bassel

    Full Text Available IMPORTANCE: This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. OBJECTIVE: We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health among drug-involved women under community supervision. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTION: We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1 a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH; (2 a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3 a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237 and 63% (n = 194 had multiple sex partners. RESULTS: Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.18 and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57-0.90. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest

  3. Prevention and cure project of postpartum eclampsia%产后子痫的特点及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素娟

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨产后子痫的发生率、诱发因素及防治方案.方法 对20例产后子痫患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 产后子痫的发生率为0.20%.产后宫缩痛、术后伤口疼痛、产妇高度兴奋、医务人员未重视胎儿娩出后的血压变化及忽略了中度妊娠高血压综合征(妊高征)是产后子痫的诱发因素.防治方案以镇静为主,预防产后出血,及时调整降压解痉药及对症治疗.结论 产后子痫对孕妇构成极大的危害,应引起医务人员的重视.产后子痫的防治方案能有效的防治产后子痫的发生.%Objective To discuss the incidence,provocable factors and the prevention of postpartum eclampsia. Methods To retrospectively analyse 22 postpartum eclampsia patients during the last 10 years. Results The incidence of postpartum ec-lampsia was 0. 20%. The provocable factors included the postpartum contraction pain, wound pain, extreme excited, the understi-mation of the blood pressure change of the fetal and the neglect of moderate PLH. The main treatment was calmness and taking measure to prevent postpartum hemorrhage and adjust the hypotensive and antispasmodic to control the blood pressure in time and prescribe medicine according to the disease. Conclusion Postpartum ecJampsia can do great harm to the pregnant women, so the medical staff should pay attention to the prevention project and cure of postpartum eclampsia can prevent the occurenee effectively.

  4. Peer-led Stress Prevention Seminars in the First Year of Medical School – A Project Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugaj, Till Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From the beginning of the first year of medical studies, increased psychological stress and elevated burnout prevalence rates can be registered compared to sample populations. Characterized by learning “on an equal footing”, the principle of peer-assisted learning (PAL is widely used in medical education. This report aims to showcase the development and evaluation of peer-led stress prevention seminars for first year medical students after one year of implementation.Project description: With each of the three sessions lasting 90 min., the stress prevention seminars took place in small groups (6-10 students in the period from November 2013 to January 2014 and from November 2014 to December 2014 at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg. Led by trained peers, the seminar content ranged from psycho-educational elements, i.e. time management strategy development and test anxiety assistance, to relaxation techniques. All seminar sessions were evaluated via questionnaire. All questions were answered on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7 (1=strongly agree; 7=strongly disagree.Results: 75 students consented to participate in seminars (65% female; aged 20.5±3.3 years. The series of seminars was averagely given the school grade of 1.2±0.4 (1=very good to 6=unsatisfactory in WS 2013/14 and 1.5±0.5 in the following year and the peer tutors’ competence was evaluated as very high (1.4 to 1.5 approval rate on the Likert scale.Discussion: The seminar sessions’ importance to the students is underlined by their very positive evaluations. This offer seems to have benefited students especially during the demanding transitional phase at the start of their studies. Both the implementation of the preventive measure at an early stage as well as the use of PAL seem to have proven effective.Conclusion: PAL seems to be effective in the field of stress prevention. However, specific efficacy studies are still lacking.

  5. Analysis of projects developed by teachers: the challenge of preventing psychoactive drug use and violence among young people in Medellín

    OpenAIRE

    Ana C. Jaramillo M; Ornella Moreno M; sabel C. Posada Z

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the development of projects formulated by professional teachers who are students of the certified course named “Red Formemos Educadores 2008-2010”. The projects were formulated in order to prevent violence and psychoactive drug use among the young students of Medellín, Colombia. Methodology: the Methodological elements proposed by grounded theory were used. Data collection was carried out in three stages: 1) one group interview, 2) four individual in-depth interviews, a...

  6. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  7. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    comprehensive expression analyses or imaging data. This is an important area of research, since it promises to enable the exploration of targets for drug discovery and the identification of new biomarkers to efficiently detect glaucoma progression by applying new analysis strategies to the complex mass data. The project not only depends on the collaborative efforts of various types of clinical settings including private practices, medical centers and university hospitals, but also contributions of the pharmaceutical and the medical device industries. Thus, uniting a wide range of Japanese interests and resources is the key for success. In summary, in order to aim for ZERO BLINDNESS, a drastic improvement in the quality of our patient care, drug development research for unmet medical demands, and a strategic collaboration of various professionals in the ophthalmic industry are essential. With the deep appreciation we fell towards the selfless support extended during the earthquake disaster, we wish to translate our "gratitude" into "power" from Tohoku. In doing so, we as academicians are determined to keep on contributing to the society by making progress in the medicine. PMID:25854109

  8. Project Self-Esteem: A Parent Involvement Program for Improving Self-Esteem and Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse, K-6. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sandy; Bielen, Peggy

    This guide presents Project Self-Esteem, a program for improving self-esteem and preventing drug and alcohol abuse in kindergarten through grade 6. Chapter I presents the team leader's guide and discusses introducing the program to the principal, school staff, and parents. Chapter II focuses on kindergarten and includes lessons on being a friend…

  9. An Evaluation of Immediate Outcomes and Fidelity of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program in Continuation High Schools: Project towards No Drug Abuse (TND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…

  10. FRESH AIR : an implementation research project funded through Horizon 2020 exploring the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of chronic respiratory diseases in low-resource settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cragg, Liza; Williams, Siân; Chavannes, Niels H; Postma, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes FRESH AIR, an implementation science project exploring how to improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of chronic lung diseases in contexts with limited healthcare resources. It consists of inter-related studies that take place in four countries that are part of the In

  11. Noise blind test

    OpenAIRE

    H. Cadet

    2006-01-01

    In the aim of characterizing site condition for seismic risk, the microtremor or ambient noise studies have been developed. The main objective of this blind test is to check of the reliability of results, to observe the user subjectivity (array choice, parameters that are user depend) in the noise recordings analyze. Noise records were analysed on single-station with H/V method and with several sensors for array method to determine the dispersion characteristics of the surface-wave part of th...

  12. FLIPPS for the Blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothe, Hans-Heinrich; Al-Hamdani, Sermed

    2010-01-01

    The idea of FLIPPS is to design, implement, and evaluate a vibro-tactile device that is composed of a photo diode, vibro-tactile stimulator, microcontroller and power supply. The stimulator is attached to the finger tip and activated when light illumination exceeds a defined threshold. The subject...... (blind person) receives the reflected light from the objects and, based on brain plasticity principles, can interactively learn to construct a mental image of the objects and of the scenery. The FLIPPS idea is based on sensory substitution theory; here, substituting visual inputs by haptic vibrations....

  13. The whole story behind blind adaptive equalizers/blind deconvolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pinchas, Monika

    2012-01-01

    This e-book covers a variety of blind deconvolution/equalization methods based on both cost functions and Bayes rules where simulation results are supplied to support the theory - including Maximum Entropy density approximation technique and the Edgeworth Expansion approach used in various blind equalizers.

  14. POSTERIOR SEGMENT CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN IN BLIND SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is estimated that there are 1.4 million irreversibly blind children in the world out of which 1 million are in Asia alone. India has the highest number of blind children than any other country. Nearly 70% of the childhood blindness is avoidable. There i s paucity of data available on the causes of childhood blindness. This study focuses on the posterior segment causes of blindness among children attending blind schools in 3 adjacent districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a cross sectiona l study conducted among 204 blind children aged 6 - 16 years age. Detailed eye examination was done by the same investigator to avoid bias. Posterior segment examination was done using a direct and/or indirect ophthalmoscope after dilating pupil wherever nec essary. The standard WHO/PBL for blindness and low vision examination protocol was used to categorize the causes of blindness. A major anatomical site and underlying cause was selected for each child. The study was carried out during July 2014 to June 2015 . The results were analyzed using MS excel software and Epi - info 7 software version statistical software. RESULTS: Majority of the children was found to be aged 13 - 16 years (45.1% and males (63.7%. Family history of blindness was noted in 26.0% and consa nguinity was reported in 29.9% cases. A majority of them were belonged to fulfill WHO grade of blindness (73.0% and in majority of the cases, the onset of blindness was since birth (83.7%. The etiology of blindness was unknown in majority of cases (57.4% while hereditary causes constituted 25.4% cases. Posterior segment causes were responsible in 33.3% cases with retina being the most commonly involved anatomical site (19.1% followed by optic nerve (14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for mandatory oph thalmic evaluation, refraction and assessment of low vision prior to admission into blind schools with periodic evaluation every 2 - 3 years

  15. Efficient blind search: Optimal power of detection under computational cost constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Meinshausen, Nicolai; Bickel, Peter; Rice, John

    2009-01-01

    Some astronomy projects require a blind search through a vast number of hypotheses to detect objects of interest. The number of hypotheses to test can be in the billions. A naive blind search over every single hypothesis would be far too costly computationally. We propose a hierarchical scheme for blind search, using various "resolution" levels. At lower resolution levels, "regions" of interest in the search space are singled out with a low computational cost. These regions are refined at int...

  16. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of intracoronary application of a novel bioabsorbable cardiac matrix for the prevention of ventricular remodeling after large ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: Rationale and design of the PRESERVATION I trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sunil V; Zeymer, Uwe; Douglas, Pamela S; Al-Khalidi, Hussein; Liu, Jingyu; Gibson, C Michael; Harrison, Robert W; Joseph, Diane S; Heyrman, Reinilde; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2015-11-01

    Postinfarction left ventricular (LV) remodeling can result in chronic heart failure and functional impairment. Although pharmacological strategies for established heart failure can be beneficial, preventing remodeling remains a challenge. Injectable bioabsorbable alginate or "bioabsorbable cardiac matrix" (BCM), composed of an aqueous mixture of sodium alginate and calcium gluconate, is a sterile colorless liquid that is a polysaccharide polymer produced from brown seaweed. When exposed to excess ionized calcium present in infarcted myocardium, BCM assembles to form a flexible gel, structurally resembling extracellular matrix, which provides temporary structural support to the infarct zone through and beyond the time needed for mature fibrotic tissue to develop. The PRESERVATION I trial is an early phase randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing intracoronary application of 4 mL of BCM with saline control in patients who develop large infarctions after successful reperfusion of large ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI). Subjects will be randomized 2:1 to either BCM or saline control and will have the study device deployed through an intracoronary microcatheter in the infarct-related artery 2 to 5 days after index ST-segment elevation MI treated with successful primary or rescue percutaneous coronary intervention. The primary effectiveness end point is the absolute change in LV diastolic volume index as measured by 3-dimensional echocardiography from baseline to 6 months after BCM deployment. Secondary effectiveness end points include clinical outcomes, patient-reported quality of life, additional echocardiographic measures, and functional status measures. In summary, the PRESERVATION I trial is a randomized double-blind trial evaluating the effectiveness and safety of the novel device BCM in preventing LV remodeling patients who have large MIs despite undergoing successful primary or rescue percutaneous coronary intervention.

  17. Local tsunami early warning: the case of Rhodes island, Greece, and the NEARTOWARN (EU-DG ECHO) prevention project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Argyris, Ilias; Fokaefs, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Local, that is near-field, tsunamis occur in the global ocean including the Mediterranean Sea and its connected seas. For such tsunamis the first wave has very short travel time of arrival (less than 30 min.) to the closest coastal zone thus making the early warning a very difficult task. An efficient, end-to-end early tsunami warning system in local conditions should fulfill the condition that the time needed for the earthquake detection, plus the time needed for the warning message transmission to the authorities and afterwards to the general public and/or other task groups, plus the time needed for response and real evacuation is less than the travel time of the first wave. In the physiographic conditions of the Mediterranean Sea it is extremely hard to satisfy such a condition unless the total time needed to response in early warning is drastically minimized. The project Near-Field Tsunami Warning and Emergency Planning (NEARTOWARN, which is supported by the EU DG-ECHO prevention programme, aims, among others, to establish a system in Rhodes island, Greece, with the purpose to meet needs for local early tsunami warning. To minimize the time for emergency in less than 30 sec, seismic alert devices (SED's) make the core component of the system. SED's are activated and send alerting signals as soon as a P-phase of seismic wave is detected in the near-field but for a predetermined threshold of ground motion. Then, emergency starts while SED's activate remotely other devices, such as computers with data bases of pre-calculated tsunami simulations, surveillance cameras etc. The system is completed with tide-gauges, simulated tsunami scenarios and emergency planning supported by a Geographical Management System. Rhodes island in Dodecanese, South Aegean Sea, Greece, has been selected as a test-area for the development of the prototype system given that it was hit by large tsunamigenic earthquakes several times in the past.

  18. Advancing a smart air cushion system for preventing pressure ulcers using projection Moiré for large deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Lee, Carina Jean-Tien; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    A pressure ulcer is one of the most important concerns for wheelchair bound patients with spinal cord injuries. A pressure ulcer is a localized injury near the buttocks that bear ischial tuberosity oppression over a long period of time. Due to elevated compression to blood vessels, the surrounding tissues suffer from a lack of oxygen and nutrition. The ulcers eventually lead to skin damage followed by tissue necrosis. The current medical strategy is to minimize the occurrence of pressure ulcers by regularly helping patients change their posture. However, these methods do not always work effectively or well. As a solution to fundamentally prevent pressure ulcers, a smart air cushion system was developed to detect and control pressure actively. The air cushion works by automatically adjusting a patient's sitting posture to effectively relieve the buttock pressure. To analyze the correlation between the dynamic pressure profiles of an air cell with a patient's weight, a projection Moiré system was adopted to measure the deformation of an air cell and its associated stress distribution. Combining a full-field deformation imaging with air pressure measured within an air cell, the patient's weight and the stress distribution can be simultaneously obtained. By integrating a full-field optical metrology with a time varying pressure sensor output coupled with different active air control algorithms for various designs, we can tailor the ratio of the air cells. Our preliminary data suggests that this newly developed smart air cushion has the potential to selectively reduce localized compression on the tissues at the buttocks. Furthermore, it can take a patient's weight which is an additional benefit so that medical personnel can reference it to prescribe the correct drug dosages.

  19. The opportunity for international ophthalmology in treating blindness.

    OpenAIRE

    Spivey, B

    2001-01-01

    As our worldview has become more pervasive, there has been a maturation of various international ophthalmological organizations. They have created several new initiatives that have the potential to dramatically affect preventable and treatable blindness, worldwide. The first international ophthalmological organization (the International Council of Ophthalmology, established in 1927) evolved from the longest continuously held medical meeting in the world (the International Congress of Ophthalm...

  20. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    It may seem that deaf-blindness refers to a total inability to see or hear. However, in reality deaf-blindness is a condition in which the combination of hearing and visual losses in children cause "such severe communication and other develop mental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for…

  1. Blind Known Interference Cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates interference-cancellation schemes at the receiver, in which the original data of the interference is known a priori. Such a priori knowledge is common in wireless relay networks. For example, a transmitting relay could be relaying data that was previously transmitted by a node, in which case the interference received by the node now is actually self information. Besides the case of self information, the node could also have overheard or received the interference data in a prior transmission by another node. Directly removing the known interference requires accurate estimate of the interference channel, which may be difficult in many situations. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme, Blind Known Interference Cancellation (BKIC), to cancel known interference without interference channel information. BKIC consists of two steps. The first step combines adjacent symbols to cancel the interference, exploiting the fact that the channel coefficients are almost the same between successive sy...

  2. Analysis of projects developed by teachers: the challenge of preventing psychoactive drug use and violence among young people in Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Jaramillo M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the development of projects formulated by professional teachers who are students of the certified course named “Red Formemos Educadores 2008-2010”. The projects were formulated in order to prevent violence and psychoactive drug use among the young students of Medellín, Colombia. Methodology: the Methodological elements proposed by grounded theory were used. Data collection was carried out in three stages: 1 one group interview, 2 four individual in-depth interviews, and 3 two individual in-depth interviews with two teachers and two interviews of the same nature with two members from the SURGIR NGO. No theories were formulated. Results: an important reason to develop prevention projects is the well-being of the young individuals living in communities where violence and drug use are common. Teacher motivation allowed for the successful development of the projects. Conversely, a lack of motivation led to withdrawal from the certified course. Discussion: the various problems of the teachers’ social environment have a direct effect on their motivations. For some teachers, the lack of time is an obstacle to carry out the academic activities proposed during the certified course. A motivated teacher can successfully face the difficulties encountered during the project development process

  3. A Resource Guide for Signs of Sexual Assault. A Supplement to: Preventing Sexual Abuse of Persons with Disabilities: A Curriculum for Hearing Impaired, Physically Disabled, Blind and Mentally Retarded Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Bonnie

    Part of a curriculum unit on preventing sexual abuse of persons with disabilities, the manual is intended to help instructors present the material to hearing impaired students. Illustrations of sign language are presented for such terms as sexual contact, sexual assault, incest, same sex assault (man/woman), rape (acquaintance/marital), exposer,…

  4. Crossmodal Recruitment of the Ventral Visual Stream in Congenital Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ptito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used functional MRI (fMRI to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform a tactile-form recognition task with the tongue display unit (TDU. Both groups learned the task at the same rate. In line with our hypothesis, the fMRI data showed that during nonhaptic shape recognition, blind subjects activated large portions of the ventral visual stream, including the cuneus, precuneus, inferotemporal (IT, cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv, and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic tactile shape discrimination. The activation of LOtv by nonhaptic tactile shape processing in blind and sighted subjects adds further support to the notion that this area subserves an abstract or supramodal representation of shape. Together with our previous findings, our data suggest that the segregation of the efferent projections of the primary visual cortex into a dorsal and ventral visual stream is preserved in individuals blind from birth.

  5. Project Roadmap: Reeducating Older Adults in Maintaining AIDS Prevention--A Secondary Intervention for Older HIV-Positive Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Saint Jean, Gilbert; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Metsch, Lisa; Mendez-Mulet, Luis; Eisdorfer, Carl; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The number of older adults living with HIV/AIDS is larger than ever. Little is known about their sexual behaviors, although contrary to stereotypes, older adults desire and engage in sexual activity. Despite increased recognition of the need for prevention interventions targeting HIV-positive individuals, no secondary HIV prevention interventions…

  6. The willed blindness of humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. It is a willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness...... enables us to see ourselves as moral beings although our lack of reaction to the effects of our actions tells another story. The consequences, especially to animal welfare are outlined and it is briefly discussed whether a solution lies in a new moral vision of our obligations or a new vision of what...

  7. AAV Gene Therapy for MPS1-associated Corneal Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Melisa; Llanga, Telmo; Bennett, Will; Woodard, Kenton; Murlidharan, Giridhar; Chungfat, Neil; Asokan, Aravind; Gilger, Brian; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Samulski, R Jude; Hirsch, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Although cord blood transplantation has significantly extended the lifespan of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) patients, over 95% manifest cornea clouding with about 50% progressing to blindness. As corneal transplants are met with high rejection rates in MPS1 children, there remains no treatment to prevent blindness or restore vision in MPS1 children. Since MPS1 is caused by mutations in idua, which encodes alpha-L-iduronidase, a gene addition strategy to prevent, and potentially reverse, MPS1-associated corneal blindness was investigated. Initially, a codon optimized idua cDNA expression cassette (opt-IDUA) was validated for IDUA production and function following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector transduction of MPS1 patient fibroblasts. Then, an AAV serotype evaluation in human cornea explants identified an AAV8 and 9 chimeric capsid (8G9) as most efficient for transduction. AAV8G9-opt-IDUA administered to human corneas via intrastromal injection demonstrated widespread transduction, which included cells that naturally produce IDUA, and resulted in a >10-fold supraphysiological increase in IDUA activity. No significant apoptosis related to AAV vectors or IDUA was observed under any conditions in both human corneas and MPS1 patient fibroblasts. The collective preclinical data demonstrate safe and efficient IDUA delivery to human corneas, which may prevent and potentially reverse MPS1-associated cornea blindness. PMID:26899286

  8. AAV Gene Therapy for MPS1-associated Corneal Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Melisa; Llanga, Telmo; Bennett, Will; Woodard, Kenton; Murlidharan, Giridhar; Chungfat, Neil; Asokan, Aravind; Gilger, Brian; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Samulski, R. Jude; Hirsch, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Although cord blood transplantation has significantly extended the lifespan of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) patients, over 95% manifest cornea clouding with about 50% progressing to blindness. As corneal transplants are met with high rejection rates in MPS1 children, there remains no treatment to prevent blindness or restore vision in MPS1 children. Since MPS1 is caused by mutations in idua, which encodes alpha-L-iduronidase, a gene addition strategy to prevent, and potentially reverse, MPS1-associated corneal blindness was investigated. Initially, a codon optimized idua cDNA expression cassette (opt-IDUA) was validated for IDUA production and function following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector transduction of MPS1 patient fibroblasts. Then, an AAV serotype evaluation in human cornea explants identified an AAV8 and 9 chimeric capsid (8G9) as most efficient for transduction. AAV8G9-opt-IDUA administered to human corneas via intrastromal injection demonstrated widespread transduction, which included cells that naturally produce IDUA, and resulted in a >10-fold supraphysiological increase in IDUA activity. No significant apoptosis related to AAV vectors or IDUA was observed under any conditions in both human corneas and MPS1 patient fibroblasts. The collective preclinical data demonstrate safe and efficient IDUA delivery to human corneas, which may prevent and potentially reverse MPS1-associated cornea blindness. PMID:26899286

  9. Exploring Gender Norms through the "Colour Blind" Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niblett, Blair; Potvin, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the authors have been collecting data for a research project that explores secondary school boys' perceptions of masculinity. They spent a week in Leigh's grade 11 philosophy class discussing gender while observing and video recording students' perception for analysis. In their research, they used Colour Blind as a vehicle for unearthing…

  10. An Approach for Object and Scene Detection for Blind Peoples Using Vocal Vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha A. Kamble

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This system help the blind peoples for the navigation without the help of third person so blind person can perform its work independently. This system implemented on android device in which object detection and scene detection implemented, so after detection there will be text to speech conversion so user or blind person can get message from that android device with the help of headphone connected to that device. Our project will help blind people to understand the images which will be converted to sound with the help of webcam. We shall capture images in front of blind peoples .The captured image will be processed through our algorithms which will enhances the image data. The hardware component will have its own database. The processed image is compare with the database in the hardware component .The result after processing and comparing will be converted into speech signals. The headphones guide the blind peoples.

  11. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial of the Efficacy and Safety of Levomilnacipran ER 40-120mg/day for Prevention of Relapse in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shiovitz, Thomas; Greenberg, William M; Chen, ChangZheng; Forero, Giovanna; Gommoll, Carl P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Major depressive disorder is often chronic, with relapse and recurrence common. Levomilnacipran extended-release is a potent and selective serotonin and reuptake inhibitor approved in the United States for treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. The objective of this study (NCT01085812) was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of levomilnacipran extended-release in the prevention of relapse in patients with major depressive disorder.

  12. LOVE IS COLOR BLIND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦扬

    2013-01-01

    <正>看完这部电影,突然想起小时候看完《辛德勒的名单》后,问过母亲一个问题:"为什么有些人要嘲笑和歧视那些与众不同的人?"母亲告诉我:"我们都是一样的,没有人应当受到责备,每个人都应当为自己而活,要始终坚信‘Love is color blind(爱无定界)’。"爱究竟有无定界?有太多故事让我们相信这句话并非纸上谈兵。《汤姆叔叔的小屋》、《美国往事》、《为黛西小姐开车》……是的,"Love"是"Listen(倾听)",是无条件无偏见地倾听对方的需求,并予以协助;是"Obligate(感恩)",需要不断地感恩,付出爱来灌

  13. Laboratory Techniques for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombaugh, Dorothy

    1972-01-01

    Describes modifications of laboratory procedures for the BSCS Green Version biology, including dissection, microbiology, animal behavior, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics that make the methods suitable for direct experimentation by blind students. Discusses models as substitutes for microscopy. (AL)

  14. American Foundation for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... celebrate and support a workforce that is fully inclusive of people who are blind or visually impaired. 5 great ways to celebrate National Disability Employment Awareness Month College Bound? Transitioning to college and ...

  15. A Multi-Layer Intelligent Loss-of-Control Prevention System (LPS) for Flight Control Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of the proposed work is to design and develop a multi-layer intelligent Loss-of-control Prevention System (LPS) for flight control applications....

  16. Blind Quantum Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvail, Louis; Arrighi, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of "having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input". Say Alice wants Bob to compute some known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x. The situa...

  17. Blinded trials taken to the test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Forfang, E; Haahr, M T;

    2007-01-01

    Blinding can reduce bias in randomized clinical trials, but blinding procedures may be unsuccessful. Our aim was to assess how often randomized clinical trials test the success of blinding, the methods involved and how often blinding is reported as being successful....

  18. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What It's Like to Be Color Blind KidsHealth > For Kids > What It's Like to Be Color Blind Print A A ... blind. But some people really are color blind. It doesn't mean they can't see any ...

  19. Countermeasures Against Blinding Attack on Superconducting Nanowire Detectors for QKD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elezov M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs are used in Quantum Key Distribution (QKD instead of single-photon avalanche photodiodes. Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a “backdoor” in the detector biasing technique. We developed the autoreset system which returns the SSPD to superconducting state when it is latched. We investigate latched state of the SSPD and define limit conditions for effective blinding attack. Peculiarity of the blinding attack is a long nonsingle photon response of the SSPD. It is much longer than usual single photon response. Besides, we need follow up response duration of the SSPD. These countermeasures allow us to prevent blind attack on SSPDs for Quantum Key Distribution.

  20. Tecnologia assistiva em saúde para cegos: enfoque na prevenção de drogas Tecnología asistiva en salud para ciegos: enfoque en la prevención de drogas Assistive health technology for the blind people: a focus on drugs prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kariane Gomes Cezario

    2007-12-01

    noxiousness of drugs to individuals and blind people's vulnerability to them, due to favorable conditions, this study aimed to develop and assess Assistive Health Technology accessible to these clients. Development and assessment study of Assistive Health Technology, about the prevention of drugs use among blind people, carried out at an association of blind people in Fortaleza, Brazil, in April 2007. Participants were five men who assessed the technological resource, which consisted of the educational text Drugs: Reflection for prevention, used in a voice synthesis computer program (Dosvox. Its content addressed the main kinds of drugs; physical, psychological and social effects; besides prevention means. Assessments were made through testimonies. The Assistive Technology was considered informative, satisfactory and reached its objective. In this type of resource, health education was seen as valid.

  1. Causes of childhood blindness in the northeastern states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharjee Harsha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The northeastern region (NER of India is geographically isolated and ethno-culturally different from the rest of the country. There is lacuna regarding the data on causes of blindness and severe visual impairment in children from this region. Aim: To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness amongst children from schools for the blind in the four states of NER of India. Design and Setting: Survey of children attending special education schools for the blind in the NER. Materials and Methods: Blind and severely visually impaired children (best corrected visual acuity < 20/200 in the better eye, aged up to 16 years underwent visual acuity estimation, external ocular examination, retinoscopy and fundoscopy. Refraction and low vision workup was done where indicated. World Health Organization′s reporting form was used to code anatomical and etiological causes of visual loss. Statistical Analysis: Microsoft Excel Windows software with SPSS. Results: A total of 376 students were examined of whom 258 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The major anatomical causes of visual loss amongst the 258 were congenital anomalies (anophthalmos, microphthalmos 93 (36.1%; corneal conditions (scarring, vitamin A deficiency 94 (36.7%; cataract or aphakia 28 (10.9%, retinal disorders 15 (5.8% and optic atrophy 14 (5.3%. Nearly half of the children were blind from conditions which were either preventable or treatable (48.5%. Conclusion: Nearly half the childhood blindness in the NER states of India is avoidable and Vitamin A deficiency forms an important component unlike other Indian states. More research and multisectorial effort is needed to tackle congenital anomalies.

  2. Blinding trachoma among refugees:complicating social disaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeshigeta; Gelaw; Aemero; Abateneh

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of blinding trachoma among refugees in South Western Ethiopia.Methods:A cross-sectional outreach clinic based descriptive study was conducted on 1054 refugees in Southwest Ethiopia.A basic eyelid and cornea examination for signs of trachoma was done by using 2.5× binocular magnifying loupe.The findings were classified by using the World Health Digitization simplified trachoma grading system and data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16.0.Results:A total of 1054 refugee patients were examined for trachoma.179(16.98%) of them had clinical signs of trachoma.About 6(3.35%) patients had active trachoma with trachomatous trichiasis(TT),47(26.26%) patients had TT only and the rest 126(70.39%)patients had TT with trachomatous corneal opacity.All of the trachoma patients had blinding trachoma(TT with or without trachomatous corneal opacity),and about 60.89% of them had visual impairment.Blinding trachoma was significantly more common among females.patients in age group of 16-59 years,married patients,illiterates and Fugnido camp settlers(P<0.05).Conclusions:There is a very high burden of blinding trachoma among refugees.Urgent surgical intervention is needed to prevent blindness and low vision in the study subjects,and targeted regular outreach-based eye care service should be commenced.

  3. 预防腐败:财产申报与强制性盲目信托制度相结合--以美国和台湾地区的实践为借鉴%Prevention of Corruption:Integration of Asset Declaration and Compulsive Blind Trusts Systems---A Case Study of the Practices Adopted in the United States and in Taiwan District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凌云

    2015-01-01

    Corruption and abuse of power for obtaining personal gains by government officials and public servants have become a universal problem which cannot be completely resolved within a considerable length of time. The United States has estab-lished a system integrating public servants’asset reporting and blind trusts through its 1978 Ethics in Government Act, in line with some other laws, to prevent public servants’corruption. In Taiwan district, a compulsory trusts system has been imple-mented among public servants to achieve the same goal. This article examines the practices of the United States and Taiwan District and finds that both the US non-compulsory blind trusts system and Taiwan’s compulsory non-blind trusts system have both advantages and disadvantages. It’s suggested in the paper that we should adopt a system combining public servants’asset reporting and compulsory blind trusts in order to avoid conflict of interests, or other corruptions. It is perfectly feasible to do so in the mainland because there is no legal barrier against blind trusts in the Property Law, Tort Law, or Trust Law. Furthermore, the blind trusts system serves as ex ante and preventive mechanism. Although it may increase some supervision cost in the be-ginning phase, once institutionalized, the total cost shall be below the cost of ex post facto control of corruption. The article sug-gests that the government may establish a specialized institution to make implementing rules, clarify the scope of public servants who will be required to establish blind trusts, and determine the qualification of the trustees who will manage the public ser-vants’assets. In addition, stronger supervision is needed to correct the drawback of the US blind trust system.%政府公职人员以权谋私、贪污腐败是长期以来难以彻底解决的世界性难题。美国主要通过《政府行为准则法》建立了政府公职人员财产申报与盲目信托相结合的制度

  4. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  5. Multiframe Blind Super Resolution Imaging Based on Blind Deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元伟; 张立毅

    2016-01-01

    As an ill-posed problem, multiframe blind super resolution imaging recovers a high resolution image from a group of low resolution images with some degradations when the information of blur kernel is limited. Note that the quality of the recovered image is influenced more by the accuracy of blur estimation than an advanced regularization. We study the traditional model of the multiframe super resolution and modify it for blind deblurring. Based on the analysis, we proposed two algorithms. The first one is based on the total variation blind deconvolution algorithm and formulated as a functional for optimization with the regularization of blur. Based on the alternating minimization and the gradient descent algorithm, the high resolution image and the unknown blur kernel are esti-mated iteratively. By using the median shift and add operator, the second algorithm is more robust to the outlier influence. The MSAA initialization simplifies the interpolation process to reconstruct the blurred high resolution image for blind deblurring and improves the accuracy of blind super resolution imaging. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority and accuracy of our novel algorithms.

  6. Good practices for the prevention of alcohol harmful use amongst the elderly in Europe, the VINTAGE project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Palacio-Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a lack of information about initiatives aimed at preventing the harmful effects of alcohol amongst the elderly. OBJECTIVES: One of the objectives of the VINTAGE study was to collect the initiatives carried out in Europe and review the published grey literature about this topic. METHODS: Email-based survey addressed to researchers, professionals and policymakers, and internet search of grey literature. RESULTS: Three hundred nine contacts were finally made, and 21 of the 36 collected initiatives were considered as useful in preventing the harmful use of alcohol amongst the elderly. Out of the about 2900 references identified 96 were classified as relevant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a growing interest, alcohol use in the elderly is not yet perceived as a major issue for prevention.

  7. An experimental double-blind irradiation study of a novel topical product (TPF 50) compared to other topical products with DNA repair enzymes, antioxidants, and growth factors with sunscreens: implications for preventing skin aging and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Spencer, James M; Braun, Martin

    2014-03-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a major risk factor for skin aging and the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Although traditional sunscreens remain the mainstay for the prevention of UVR-induced skin damage, they cannot ensure a complete protection against the whole spectrum of molecular lesions associated with UVR exposure. The formation of helix-distorting photoproducts such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), as well as oxidative damage to DNA bases, including the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) are among the key DNA lesions associated with photoaging and tumorigenesis. Besides DNA lesions, UVR-induced formation of free radicals can result in protein carbonylation (PC), a major form of irreversible protein damage that inactivates their biological function. This study compares a complex novel topical product (TPF50) consisting of three actives, ie, 1) traditional physical sunscreens (SPF 50), 2) a liposome-encapsulated DNA repair enzymes complex (photolyase, endonuclease, and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase [OGG1]), and 3) a potent antioxidant complex (carnosine, arazine, ergothionine) to existing products. Specifically, we assessed the ability of TFP50 vs those of DNA repair and antioxidant and growth factor topical products used with SPF 50 sunscreens in preventing CPD, 8OHdG, and PC formation in human skin biopsies after experimental irradiations. In head-to-head comparison studies, TPF50 showed the best efficacy in reducing all of the three molecular markers. The results indicated that the three TPF50 components had a synergistic effect in reducing CPD and PC, but not 8OHdG. Taken together, our results indicate that TPF50 improves the genomic and proteomic integrity of skin cells after repeated exposure to UVR, ultimately reducing the risk of skin aging and NMSC.

  8. Evidence-based development of school-based and family-involved prevention of overweight across Europe: The ENERGY-project's design and conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klepp Knut

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need for more carefully developed public health measures in order to curb the obesity epidemic among youth. The overall aim of the "EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth" (ENERGY-project is the development and formative evaluation of a theory-informed and evidence-based multi-component school-based and family-involved intervention program ready to be implemented and evaluated for effectiveness across Europe. This program aims at promoting the adoption or continuation of health behaviors that contribute to a healthy energy balance among school-aged children. Earlier studies have indicated that school and family environments are key determinants of energy-balance behaviors in schoolchildren. Schools are an important setting for health promotion in this age group, but school-based interventions mostly fail to target and involve the family environment. Methods Led by a multidisciplinary team of researchers from eleven European countries and supported by a team of Australian experts, the ENERGY-project is informed by the Environmental Research Framework for Weight gain Prevention, and comprises a comprehensive epidemiological analysis including 1 systematic reviews of the literature, 2 secondary analyses of existing data, 3 focus group research, and 4 a cross European school-based survey. Results and discussion The theoretical framework and the epidemiological analysis will subsequently inform stepwise intervention development targeting the most relevant energy balance-related behaviors and their personal, family-environmental and school-environmental determinants applying the Intervention Mapping protocol. The intervention scheme will undergo formative and pilot evaluation in five countries. The results of ENERGY will be disseminated among key stakeholders including researchers, policy makers and the general population. Conclusions The ENERGY-project is an international

  9. Marketing the "Sex Check": Evaluating Recruitment Strategies for a Telephone-Based HIV Prevention Project for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Michael B.; Picciano, Joseph F.; Roffman, Roger A.; Swanson, Fred; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2006-01-01

    Designing effective marketing and recruitment strategies for HIV prevention research requires attention to cultural relevance, logistical barriers, and perceived psychosocial barriers to accessing services. McGuire's communication/persuasion matrix (1985) guided our evaluation, with particular attention to success of each marketing "channel"…

  10. Effectiveness of Non-Pharmacological Interventions to Prevent Falls in Older People: A Systematic Overview. The SENATOR Project ONTOP Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Joseph M.; Abraha, Iosief; Dell’Aquila, Giuseppina; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso; Soiza, Roy; Gudmusson, Adalsteinn; Petrovic, Mirko; O’Mahony, Denis; Todd, Chris; Cherubini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Falls are common events in older people, which cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Non-pharmacological interventions are an important approach to prevent falls. There are a large number of systematic reviews of non-pharmacological interventions, whose evidence needs to be synthesized in order to facilitate evidence-based clinical decision making. Objectives To systematically examine reviews and meta-analyses that evaluated non-pharmacological interventions to prevent falls in older adults in the community, care facilities and hospitals. Methods We searched the electronic databases Pubmed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDRO and TRIP from January 2009 to March 2015, for systematic reviews that included at least one comparative study, evaluating any non-pharmacological intervention, to prevent falls amongst older adults. The quality of the reviews was assessed using AMSTAR and ProFaNE taxonomy was used to organize the interventions. Results Fifty-nine systematic reviews were identified which consisted of single, multiple and multifactorial non-pharmacological interventions to prevent falls in older people. The most frequent ProFaNE defined interventions were exercises either alone or combined with other interventions, followed by environment/assistive technology interventions comprising environmental modifications, assistive and protective aids, staff education and vision assessment/correction. Knowledge was the third principle class of interventions as patient education. Exercise and multifactorial interventions were the most effective treatments to reduce falls in older adults, although not all types of exercise were equally effective in all subjects and in all settings. Effective exercise programs combined balance and strength training. Reviews with a higher AMSTAR score were more likely to contain more primary studies, to be updated and to perform meta-analysis. Conclusions The aim of this overview of

  11. 20 CFR 416.983 - How we evaluate statutory blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we evaluate statutory blindness. 416.983... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.983 How we evaluate statutory blindness. We will find that you are blind if you are statutorily blind within the meaning...

  12. 20 CFR 416.982 - Blindness under a State plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blindness under a State plan. 416.982 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.982 Blindness under a State... plan because of your blindness for the month of December 1973; and (c) You continue to be blind...

  13. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of acquired blindness in Japan. One reason that it often leads to blindness is that it can continue to worsen even after effective medical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only evidence-based treatment. The limitations of current treatments make it critical to identify IOP-independent factors that can cause glaucoma and develop new drugs to target these factors. This is a challenging task, as the pathology of glaucoma is thought to be very complex, with different combinations of factors underlying its development and progression in different patients. Additionally, there is a deficiency in methods to efficiently perform clinical evaluations and reliably probe the state of the disease over relatively short periods. In addition, newly developed drugs need to be evaluated with clinical trials, for which human and financial resources are limited, before they can be widely used for treatment. Taking all these issues into consideration, it is evident that there are two urgent issues to consider: the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on its pathology, and the improvement of clinical evaluation methods. In this review, we discuss some of our efforts to develop new neuroprotective agents for glaucoma, with a focus on the following three areas: 1. Clinical research and development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP-independent factors, and the exploration of possibilities for the improvement of clinical evaluation of glaucoma. 2. Pathology-based research and development of new drugs for glaucoma, focusing on comprehensive gene expression analysis and the development of molecule-targeting drugs, using murine optic nerve crush as a disease model. 3. Development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities and the establishment of infrastructure enabling "big-data" analysis. First, we discuss our clinical research and the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP

  14. Access to Mathematics by Blind Students: A Global Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur I. Karshmer; Daryoush D. Farsi

    2007-01-01

    The issue of blindness and legally blind is becoming a global issue. Based on the last statistics from American Foundation for the blind, there are approximately 10 million blind and visually impaired people in the United States alone. Over 45 million people around the world are completely blind. 180 million more people are legally blind, and approximately 7 million people are diagnosed as blind or legally blind every year. One of the greatest stumbling blocks in the ability of the blind to e...

  15. Automating Preventive Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshier, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the following aspects of the State University of New York-Brockport's preventive maintenance computerization project: (1) software selection, (2) project implementation; and (3) problems and benefits of the system. (MCG)

  16. New treatments of hereditary blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Rosenberg, Thomas; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life and a structura......Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life and a...... structurally intact retinal tissue to adult life with a complete loss of photoreceptors. It must be assumed that some of the trials will succeed in producing new therapies and action must be taken to refine and accelerate diagnostics and to preserve therapeutic potential in blind people....

  17. 甘特图在疾病预防控制项目中的应用%Gantt Chart in Project of Disease Prevention and Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璐; 左桐; 郑钟洁

    2013-01-01

    目的 加强疾病预防控制管理,提高过程管理和进度控制水平,确保预期目标.方法 分别采用传统表格式和甘特图方法对疾病控制项目的计划和过程进行记录,比较两者的差别.结果 对项目进度进行管理,甘特图不仅能够反映每个时间段的工作计划,也能反映项目执行的实际进度.这利于项目执行人及时调整,也利于项目监管人员对项目实施有效监管.结论 使用甘特图有利于对项目过程管理,较传统方法更简洁、直观,值得推广.%Objective To further strengthen the management of the disease control, to improve the level of process management and schedule control to ensure the intended target. Method The traditional table format and Gantt chart was used to record plan and process of disease prevention and control project, and to compare the difference and practicality. Result During the management of the project schedule, Gantt chart can reflect not only the job content and schedule of the plan in each time period, but also the actual progress of the project implementation. This makes project executor easy to adjust timely the status of his work, and to carry out effective supervision of the implementation of various stages of the project by supervisory staff. Conclusion The use of Gantt chart can make better management on the course of the project implementation, which is simple and intuitive than the traditional method, and worthy of promotion.

  18. PROXY BLIND SIGNATURE BASED ON ECDLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATARUPA PRADHAN,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Proxy blind signature combines the properties of both proxy signature and blind signature. In a proxy signature scheme, a signer delegates his signing power to a proxy, who signs a message on behalf of the original signer. In a blind signature scheme, the signer cannot link the relationship between the blind message and the signature of the chosen message. Therefore, it is very suitable for electronic commerceapplication. In this paper, a proxy blind signature scheme based on ECDLP (Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem has been proposed, which satisfy the security properties of both the blind signature and the proxy signature. Analysis shows that our scheme is secure and efficient.

  19. EU FUNDED PROJECTS: MANAGEMENT TOOLS FOR PREVENTING FRAUD. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ADMINISTRATIVE MEASURES IN THE MEMBER STATES

    OpenAIRE

    VIRGINIA CAMPEANU

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of our analysis is to contribute to fighting fraud detrimental to the European Union's financial interests by the dissemination of the knowledge in the field of administrative measures for preventing fraud and irregularities related to the EU Structural funds. In this study we present some theoretical issues as well as the results of a comparative analysis between member states which offer some answers to the question about how much fraud is committed in the EU Structu...

  20. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  1. [The punishment of blinding and the life of the blind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Jan Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with a group of people who were deprived of their eyesight by private acts of force or by executions of lawful sentences. In early medieval texts blinding is frequently mentioned in connection with popes, kings, princes or bishops. However, since the High Middle Ages these dignitaries were increasingly spared the loss of their eyes. It may be said that on the whole, from the eighth to the twelfth century, blinding was overwhelmingly used to dispose of political adversaries, but did then rapidly turn into a criminal punishment. In the earliest 'Landfriedensordnungen' of the late eleventh century, the loss of the perpetrator's eyes crops up as punishment for breach of the peace, while later it was applied to a variety of more or less serious offences. The destiny of the blinded in the early Middle Ages is only highlighted by sketches of a few individual cases; for the High and late Middle Ages--apart from a few notable exceptions--it is only possible to reflect on the general situation of blind people in society, since the sources usually do not differentiate between those having lost their sight through human violence or due to other causes. PMID:20506724

  2. The Path of the Blind Watchmaker: A Model of Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Poggio, Andrew Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Evolution has been described by Richard Dawkins as a blind watchmaker due to its being unconscious and random but selective and able to produce complex forms. Evolution from an early, primitive organism (the Last Universal Common Ancestor of all life, LUCA) to Homo sapiens is the most dramatic biological process that has taken place on Earth and knowledge of it is important to understanding many aspects of biology including disease prevention and treatment.We claim that computational biology ...

  3. 地质灾害防治工程效益分析%Analysis of Benefit from Prevention Project of Geological Disaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬; 李丽华; 王盼

    2014-01-01

    Based on experience with the project ,by studying on the characteristics of geological disaster body ,the authors analyze the benefit of project .From the angle of controlling geological disaster ,the authors approach how to control engi-neering is combined with the economy ,society ,population ,and environments .They consider that in the process of trans-forming from the simple prevention and control engineering for geological disaster into the solution of the problems on the social economy and environmental protection ,people must maintain laying equal stress on the benefits of prevention and control and ecological benefits ,the economic benefits and social benefits .People must combine the control and protection with the interests of development .%在研究灾害体特征的基础上,探讨合理的方案设计,并对防治工程效益进行分析评价。从防治地质灾害的角度,阐述防治工程如何与地方经济、资源、人口、环境等全面协调发展,从单纯的地质灾害工程防治向解决社会经济和环境保护问题转变,坚持防治效益与生态效益并重,将治理保护与开发利用相结合。

  4. PROSPECTIVE, RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE BLIND STUDY TO COMPARE THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF GRANISETRON VERSUS ONDANSETRON IN PREVENTION OF POST OPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING ELECTIVE LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY UNDER GENERAL ANAESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To compare the efficacy and safety of Granisetron versus Ondansetron in prevention of post - operative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing elective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After the approval from IEC, the study was started and conducted over a period of two years i.e., from 2010 - 2012. Data was c ollected from 100 ASA I and II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy aged between 20 - 60 years at Government General Hospital, Kakinada. Both the study groups were selected from these patients. Written informed consent was taken from all patie nts . Preanesthetic medication was given with Ranitidine 150mg and Lorazepam 1mg, the night before and morning of surgery. Patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups. Group A - R eceived Inj. Ondansetron 8mg diluted in 5ml of normal saline . Group B - R ec eived Inj. Granisetron 1mg diluted in 5ml of normal saline . INJ. Glycopyrolate 0.01mg/kg & INJ. Fentanyl (1 - 2μ/Kg given intravenously 5min prior to induction of anaesthesia. All the vital data values recorded before & throughout surgery at 15 min interval for 2 hours. Patients were observed at 0 - 2hrs, 2 - 6hrs, 6 - 12hrs post operatively for episodes of PONV. RESULTS: At the end of the study , a complete response i.e., no PONV and no need for another rescue antiemetic was attained in 92 % of patients who received Granisetron and 68% of patients who received Ondansetron. No differences in adverse events were observed in the two groups. CONCLUSION: The incidence of PONV after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is large. In view of the proven advan tage of serotonin antagonists, we decided to study the antiemetic efficacy of Granisetron. After premedication, patients were administered the study drugs intravenously prior to the induction and balanced general anaesthesia was administered. Patients were observed for nausea and vomiting after the procedure at 0 - 2hrs, 2 - 6

  5. Shifting Resources and Focus to Meet the Goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy: The Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning Project, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Stephen A; Purcell, David W; Fisher, Holly H; Belcher, Lisa; Carey, James W; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Dunbar, Erica; Eke, Agatha N; Galindo, Carla A; Glassman, Marlene; Margolis, Andrew D; Neumann, Mary Spink; Prather, Cynthia; Stratford, Dale; Taylor, Raekiela D; Mermin, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In September 2010, CDC launched the Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning (ECHPP) project to shift HIV-related activities to meet goals of the 2010 National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). Twelve health departments in cities with high AIDS burden participated. These 12 grantees submitted plans detailing jurisdiction-level goals, strategies, and objectives for HIV prevention and care activities. We reviewed plans to identify themes in the planning process and initial implementation. Planning themes included data integration, broad engagement of partners, and resource allocation modeling. Implementation themes included organizational change, building partnerships, enhancing data use, developing protocols and policies, and providing training and technical assistance for new and expanded activities. Pilot programs also allowed grantees to assess the feasibility of large-scale implementation. These findings indicate that health departments in areas hardest hit by HIV are shifting their HIV prevention and care programs to increase local impact. Examples from ECHPP will be of interest to other health departments as they work toward meeting the NHAS goals.

  6. Considerations in developing lipid-based nutrient supplements for prevention of undernutrition: experience from the International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (iLiNS) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimond, Mary; Zeilani, Mamane; Jungjohann, Svenja; Brown, Kenneth H; Ashorn, Per; Allen, Lindsay H; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2015-12-01

    The International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (iLiNS) Project began in 2009 with the goal of contributing to the evidence base regarding the potential of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) to prevent undernutrition in vulnerable populations. The first project objective was the development of acceptable LNS products for infants 6-24 months and for pregnant and lactating women, for use in studies in three countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana and Malawi). This paper shares the rationale for a series of decisions in supplement formulation and design, including those related to ration size, ingredients, nutrient content, safety and quality, and packaging. Most iLiNS supplements have a daily ration size of 20 g and are intended for home fortification of local diets. For infants, this ration size is designed to avoid displacement of breast milk and to allow for dietary diversity including any locally available and accessible nutrient-dense foods. Selection of ingredients depends on acceptability of flavour, micronutrient, anti-nutrient and essential fatty acid contents. The nutrient content of LNS designed to prevent undernutrition reflects the likelihood that in many resource-poor settings, diets of the most nutritionally vulnerable individuals (infants, young children, and pregnant and lactating women) are likely to be deficient in multiple micronutrients and, possibly, in essential fatty acids. During ingredient procurement and LNS production, safety and quality control procedures are required to prevent contamination with toxins or pathogens and to ensure that the product remains stable and palatable over time. Packaging design decisions must include consideration of product protection, stability, convenience and portion control. PMID:23647784

  7. Considerations in developing lipid-based nutrient supplements for prevention of undernutrition: experience from the International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (iLiNS) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimond, Mary; Zeilani, Mamane; Jungjohann, Svenja; Brown, Kenneth H; Ashorn, Per; Allen, Lindsay H; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2015-12-01

    The International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (iLiNS) Project began in 2009 with the goal of contributing to the evidence base regarding the potential of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) to prevent undernutrition in vulnerable populations. The first project objective was the development of acceptable LNS products for infants 6-24 months and for pregnant and lactating women, for use in studies in three countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana and Malawi). This paper shares the rationale for a series of decisions in supplement formulation and design, including those related to ration size, ingredients, nutrient content, safety and quality, and packaging. Most iLiNS supplements have a daily ration size of 20 g and are intended for home fortification of local diets. For infants, this ration size is designed to avoid displacement of breast milk and to allow for dietary diversity including any locally available and accessible nutrient-dense foods. Selection of ingredients depends on acceptability of flavour, micronutrient, anti-nutrient and essential fatty acid contents. The nutrient content of LNS designed to prevent undernutrition reflects the likelihood that in many resource-poor settings, diets of the most nutritionally vulnerable individuals (infants, young children, and pregnant and lactating women) are likely to be deficient in multiple micronutrients and, possibly, in essential fatty acids. During ingredient procurement and LNS production, safety and quality control procedures are required to prevent contamination with toxins or pathogens and to ensure that the product remains stable and palatable over time. Packaging design decisions must include consideration of product protection, stability, convenience and portion control.

  8. Community and Team Member Factors that Influence the Early Phase Functioning of Community Prevention Teams: The PROSPER Project

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Mark T.; Feinberg, Mark E; Meyer-Chilenski, Sarah; Spoth, Richard L.; Redmond, Cleve

    2007-01-01

    This research examines the early development of community teams in a specific university-community partnership project called PROSPER (Spoth et al., Prev Sci 5:31-39, 2004). PROSPER supports local community teams in rural areas and small towns to implement evidence-based programs intended to support positive youth development and reduce early substance use. The study evaluated 14 community teams and included longitudinal data from 108 team members. Specifically, it examined how community demo...

  9. Design of An Electronic Narrator on Assistant Robot for Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiansyah Rizqi Andry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many personal service robot is developed to help blind people in daily life, such as room cleaning, for navigating, object finding, reading and other activities. In this context, the present work focuses the development of an image-to-speech application for the blind. The project is called Design of An Electronic Narrator on Assistant Robot for Blind People, and the final purpose is the design of an electronic narrator application on personal service robot that helps to narrate a text on a book, magazine, a sheet of paper etc to a blind person. To achieve that, a Raspberry pi board, a light sensor, OpenCV computer vision library, Tesseract OCR (Optical Character Recognition library, eSpeak Text-to-Speech Synthesizer (TTS library are integrated, which is enables the blind person to hear a narration from text on a book, magazine, a sheet etc.

  10. Blinding in randomized clinical trials: imposed impartiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I

    2011-01-01

    Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations...

  11. The Concept and Operations of Blind Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Yan-jun; LIU Kai-di; ZHANG Bo-wen

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the definition and operations of blind number, and discusses its operationproperties. Blind number is a mathematical tool to express and deal with complex information with severalkinds of uncertainty.

  12. Elliptic Curve Blind Digital Signature Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOULin; YANGYixian; WENQiaoyan

    2003-01-01

    Blind signature schemes are important cryptographic protocols in guaranteeing the privacy or anonymity of the users.Three new blind signature schemes and their corresponding generalizations are pro-posed. Moreover, their securities are simply analyzed.

  13. Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160254.html Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans Losing vision would ... 4, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Blindness is what many Americans fear most, a new ...

  14. Blinding in randomized clinical trials: imposed impartiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I

    2011-01-01

    Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations and...

  15. Convolutive Blind Source Separation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Larsen, Jan; Kjems, Ulrik;

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, much attention has been given to the separation of mixed sources, in particular for the blind case where both the sources and the mixing process are unknown and only recordings of the mixtures are available. In several situations it is desirable to recover all sources fro...

  16. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reading lip-reading speech Along with nonverbal and verbal conversations, a child who is deaf-blind needs a reliable routine of meaningful activities, and some way or ways that this routine can be communicated to her or him. Touch cues, gestures, and use of object symbols are some ...

  17. Lessons from the 'Humanitarian Golden Rice' project: regulation prevents development of public good genetically engineered crop products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2010-11-30

    Compared to a non-Genetically Engineered (GE) variety, the deployment of Golden Rice has suffered from a delay of at least ten years. The cause of this delay is exclusively GE-regulation. Considering the potential impact of Golden Rice on the reduction in vitamin A-malnutrition, this delay is responsible for an unjustifiable loss of millions of lives, mostly children and women. GE-regulation is also responsible for the fact that no public institution can deliver a public good GE-product and that thus we have a de facto monopoly in favour of a few potent industries. Considering the forgone benefits from prevented public good GE-products, GE-regulation is responsible for hundreds of millions of lives, all of them, of course, in developing countries. As there is no scientific justification for present GE-regulation, and as it has, so far, not prevented any harm, our society has the urgent responsibility to reconsider present regulation, which is based on an extreme interpretation of the precautionary principle, and change it to science-based regulation on the basis of traits instead of technology. GE-technology has an unprecedented safety record and is far more precise and predictable than any other 'traditional' and unregulated breeding technology. Not to change GE-regulation to a scientific basis is considered by the author 'a crime against humanity'. PMID:20650337

  18. Response to Comment by Rabilloud on 'prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Historical and Projected Nuclear Power'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James

    2013-01-01

    The critique by Rabilloud-whose only listed professional affiliation is an antinuclear activist group?is grossly biased and contains numerous misleading, hyperbolic, and erroneous claims about our paper2 and about nuclear energy in general. The nature of his comments bears a striking resemblance to the fallacious reasoning commonly employed by climate change deniers to try to undermine public concern about the climate crisis. Specifically, he resorts to cherry-picking of information and diversionary (red herring) arguments, demands unrealistic exactness, and cites untrustworthy sources. None of his claims undermine any of the key results of our paper, most notably our conclusion that nuclear energy has prevented, and can continue to prevent, a very high number of fatalities and very large greenhouse gas emissions due to fossil fuel burning. It follows that, as uncomfortable as it is for many well-intentioned environmentalists to admit, efforts to undermine nuclear energy also undermine mitigation of climate change and air pollution, with a heavy cost in human lives and potentially disastrous future climate change.

  19. Tactile maze solving in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C;

    2010-01-01

    Vision is undoubtedly important for navigation although not essential as blind individuals outperform their blindfolded seeing counterparts in a variety of navigational tasks. It is believed that the blind's superior performance is because of their efficient use of proprioceptive signals and envi......Vision is undoubtedly important for navigation although not essential as blind individuals outperform their blindfolded seeing counterparts in a variety of navigational tasks. It is believed that the blind's superior performance is because of their efficient use of proprioceptive signals...

  20. Resources for Visually Impaired or Blind Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Suggests resources for school librarians who need materials for visually impaired or blind students. Highlights include the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped; Louis Database of Accessible Materials for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired; Braille books; large print books, audio books; assistive technology; and…

  1. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  2. 45 CFR 233.70 - Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blindness. 233.70 Section 233.70 Public Welfare... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.70 Blindness. (a) State plan requirements. A State plan under title X or XVI of the Social Security Act must: (1) Contain a definition of blindness in terms of...

  3. BLIND ADAPTIVE XPIC BASED ON HOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Haiyang; Yang Longxiang; Peng Jianglong

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new blind XPIC and a new adaptive blind deconvolutional algorithm based on HOS processing, which separates and equalizes the signals in real time. The simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed adaptive blind algorithm,compared with the conventional algorithms, is outstanding with the feature of feasibility, stability and fast convergence rate.

  4. Causes of childhood blindness at ECWA Eye Hospital, Kano, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, F O; Kirupananthan, S; Ayanniyi, A A; Abuh, S

    2009-03-01

    The study aimed at identifying the causes of childhood blindness at ECWA Eye Hospital, Kano. The causes of visual loss in 31 consecutive patients aged flashlight a loupe, and an ophthalmoscope. The intraocular pressure was taken with either a Schiotz or an applanation tonometer. There were 14 males (45.0%), the mean age was 6 years; range: 1 to 15 years. Corneal causes were responsible for blindness in 54.8%. Measles was responsible for 10 cases; neonatal infection was responsible in 2 cases. Four cases were due to lens lesions. By aetiologic category, childhood factors accounted for (32.3%). The causes in 51.7% were not known. Hereditary factors and perinatal factor accounted for 6.4% cases each. Intrauterine factors were responsible for 1 case. Eighteen (58.6%) of the cases were due to avoidable causes; 12(38.4%) being preventable and 6(19.2%) treatable. The causes of childhood blindness in this study are consistent with those of low economic region with high prevalence of avoidable blindness. PMID:19722425

  5. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in a multi-centre European project: the IDEFICS intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbestel Vera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. Methods The intervention mapping protocol (IMP was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. Results The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. Conclusions The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of

  6. From" Televised Blind Date” to" Televised Half-blind Wedding”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates” , arranged by a television station. It is interesting to see how a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding” to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that 1 think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out.

  7. From "Televised Blind Date" to "Televised Half-blind Wedding"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates", arranged by a television station, It is interesting to see bow a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding" to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that I think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out. In the beginning, the directors of FOX put ads in newspapers, openly asking the public: "Who wants to marry a multi-millionaire?" It did not cost much time or

  8. AN IMPROVED SUBSPACE TRACKING ALGORITHM FOR BLIND ADAPTIVE MULTIUSER DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Changqing; Wang Hongyang; Song Wentao

    2004-01-01

    As the Projection Approximation Subspace Tracking with deflation(PASTd) algorithm is sensitive to impulsive noise, an improved subspace tracking algorithm is proposed and applied to blind adaptive multi-user detection. Simulation results show that the improved PASTd algorithm not only remains the properties of the conventional PASTdalgorithm, but also has good Bit Error Rate(BER) performance in impulsive noise environment, thus it can effectively improve the system performance.

  9. Blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils at schools for the blind in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Ruhagaze; Kahaki Kimani Margaret Njuguna; Lévi Kandeke; Paul Courtright

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils attending schools for the blind in Burundi in order to assist planning for services in the country. Materials and Methods: All pupils attending three schools for the blind in Burundi were examined. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision was used to record the findings. Data was analyzed for those who became blind or severely visually impaired be...

  10. Design of An Electronic Narrator on Assistant Robot for Blind People

    OpenAIRE

    Ardiansyah Rizqi Andry

    2016-01-01

    Many personal service robot is developed to help blind people in daily life, such as room cleaning, for navigating, object finding, reading and other activities. In this context, the present work focuses the development of an image-to-speech application for the blind. The project is called Design of An Electronic Narrator on Assistant Robot for Blind People, and the final purpose is the design of an electronic narrator application on personal service robot that helps to narrate a text on a bo...

  11. Prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment among school children in south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaiyeoba, A I; Isawumi, M A; Adeoye, A O; Oluleye, T S

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and identify the causes of blindness and visual impairment in school children of Ilesa-East Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. A total of 1144 school children in primary and secondary schools were selected using a 2-stage random sampling method and examined to determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment. A total of 17 (1.48%) children were blind or visually impaired. These comprised of 11 (0.96%) children who were visually impaired and 4 (0.3%) who were severely visually impaired. Only 2 (0.15%) school children were blind. The causes of visual impairment were refractive error 10 (0.87%) and immature cataract 1 (0.08%), causes of severe visual impairment included corneal opacities 2 (0.2%), amblyopia leading to squint 1 (0.08%) and 1 cataract 1 (0.08%). The causes of blindness in school children were corneal scars presumed to be due to vitamin A deficiency 1 (0.08%) and keratoconus 1 (0.08%). Causes of blindness and visual impairment in children attending regular schools in Nigeria were treatable. Prevention, early recognition and prompt treatment of these diseases by regular screening of school children would definitely reduce unnecessary visual handicap in Nigerian school children so that they can attain their full potential in the course of their education. Also, information from this study is relevant for the purpose of planning eye care programmes for the prevention of blindness in Nigerian school children. This will go a long way in the prevention of unnecessary blindness and visual impairment in school children. PMID:17200795

  12. The Healthy Start project: a randomized, controlled intervention to prevent overweight among normal weight, preschool children at high risk of future overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Nanna

    2012-08-01

    activity, sleep habits, and overall stress level was obtained by 4–7 day questionnaire diaries and objective measurements. Discussion If the Healthy Start project is effective in preventing excessive weight gain, it will provide valuable information on new determinants of obesity which should be considered in future interventions, and on new strategies to prevent development of overweight and obesity at an early age. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, ID NCT01583335.

  13. Soil intervention as a strategy for lead exposure prevention: the New Orleans lead-safe childcare playground project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Howard W; Covington, Tina P; Mielke, Paul W; Wolman, Fredericka J; Powell, Eric T; Gonzales, Chris R

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of reducing children's exposure to lead (Pb) polluted soil in New Orleans is tested. Childcare centers (median = 48 children) are often located in former residences. The extent of soil Pb was determined by selecting centers in both the core and outlying areas. The initial 558 mg/kg median soil Pb (range 14-3692 mg/kg) decreased to median 4.1 mg/kg (range 2.2-26.1 mg/kg) after intervention with geotextile covered by 15 cm of river alluvium. Pb loading decreased from a median of 4887 μg/m(2) (454 μg/ft(2)) range 603-56650 μg/m(2) (56-5263 μg/ft(2)) to a median of 398 μg/m(2) (37 μg/ft(2)) range 86-980 μg/m(2) (8-91 μg/ft(2)). Multi-Response Permutation Procedures indicate similar (P-values = 0.160-0.231) soil Pb at childcare centers compared to soil Pb of nearby residential communities. At ∼$100 per child, soil Pb and surface loading were reduced within hours, advancing an upstream intervention conceptualization about Pb exposure prevention.

  14. Methodology of a diabetes prevention translational research project utilizing a community-academic partnership for implementation in an underserved Latino community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yunsheng

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latinos comprise the largest racial/ethnic group in the United States and have 2–3 times the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus as Caucasians. Methods and design The Lawrence Latino Diabetes Prevention Project (LLDPP is a community-based translational research study which aims to reduce the risk of diabetes among Latinos who have a ≥ 30% probability of developing diabetes in the next 7.5 years per a predictive equation. The project was conducted in Lawrence, Massachusetts, a predominantly Caribbean-origin urban Latino community. Individuals were identified primarily from a community health center's patient panel, screened for study eligibility, randomized to either a usual care or a lifestyle intervention condition, and followed for one year. Like the efficacious Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP, the LLDPP intervention targeted weight loss through dietary change and increased physical activity. However, unlike the DPP, the LLDPP intervention was less intensive, tailored to literacy needs and cultural preferences, and delivered in Spanish. The group format of the intervention (13 group sessions over 1 year was complemented by 3 individual home visits and was implemented by individuals from the community with training and supervision by a clinical research nutritionist and a behavioral psychologist. Study measures included demographics, Stern predictive equation components (age, gender, ethnicity, fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, body mass index, and family history of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin, dietary intake, physical activity, depressive symptoms, social support, quality of life, and medication use. Body weight was measured at baseline, 6-months, and one-year; all other measures were assessed at baseline and one-year. All surveys were orally administered in Spanish. Results A community-academic partnership enabled the successful recruitment, intervention, and assessment of Latinos at

  15. Variation in infection prevention practices in dialysis facilities: results from the national opportunity to improve infection control in ESRD (End-Stage Renal Disease) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, Carol E; Hines, Stephen C; Hall, Kendall K; Saran, Rajiv; Kalbfleisch, John D; Spencer, Teri; Frank, Kelly M; Carlson, Diane; Deane, Jan; Roys, Erik; Scholz, Natalie; Parrotte, Casey; Messana, Joseph M

    2015-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe patient care across hemodialysis facilities enrolled in the National Opportunity to Improve Infection Control in ESRD (end-stage renal disease) (NOTICE) project in order to evaluate adherence to evidence-based practices aimed at prevention of infection. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Thirty-four hemodialysis facilities were randomly selected from among 772 facilities in 4 end-stage renal disease participating networks. Facility selection was stratified on dialysis organization affiliation, size, socioeconomic status, and urban/rural status. MEASUREMENTS Trained infection control evaluators used an infection control worksheet to observe 73 distinct infection control practices at the hemodialysis facilities, from October 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012. RESULTS There was considerable variation in infection control practices across enrolled facilities. Overall adherence to recommended practices was 68% (range, 45%-92%) across all facilities. Overall adherence to expected hand hygiene practice was 72% (range, 10%-100%). Compliance to hand hygiene before and after procedures was high; however, during procedures hand hygiene compliance averaged 58%. Use of chlorhexidine as the specific agent for exit site care was 19% overall but varied from 0% to 35% by facility type. The 8 checklists varied in the frequency of perfect performance from 0% for meeting every item on the checklist for disinfection practices to 22% on the arteriovenous access practices at initiation. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that there are many areas for improvement in hand hygiene and other infection prevention practices in end-stage renal disease. These NOTICE project findings will help inform the development of a larger quality improvement initiative at dialysis facilities.

  16. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  17. Design of the Balance@Work project: systematic development, evaluation and implementation of an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weel Andre NH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational health professionals may play an important role in preventive health promotion activities for employees. However, due to a lack of knowledge and evidence- and practice based methods and strategies, interventions are hardly being implemented by occupational physicians to date. The aim of the Balance@Work project is to develop, evaluate, and implement an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees. Methods Following the guideline development protocol of the Netherlands Society of Occupational Medicine and the Intervention Mapping protocol, the guideline was developed based on literature, interviews with relevant stakeholders, and consensus among an expert group. The guideline consists of an individual and an environmental component. The individual component includes recommendations for occupational physicians on how to promote physical activity and healthy dietary behavior based on principles of motivational interviewing. The environmental component contains an obesogenic environment assessment tool. The guideline is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial among 20 occupational physicians. Occupational physicians in the intervention group apply the guideline to eligible workers during 6 months. Occupational physicians in the control group provide care as usual. Measurements take place at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months thereafter. Primary outcome measures include waist circumference, daily physical activity and dietary behavior. Secondary outcome measures include sedentary behavior, determinants of behavior change, body weight and body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk profile, and quality of life. Additionally, productivity, absenteeism, and cost-effectiveness are assessed. Discussion Improving workers' daily physical activity and dietary behavior may prevent weight gain and subsequently improve workers' health, increase productivity, and reduce absenteeism

  18. Soil intervention as a strategy for lead exposure prevention: The New Orleans lead-safe childcare playground project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of reducing children's exposure to lead (Pb) polluted soil in New Orleans is tested. Childcare centers (median = 48 children) are often located in former residences. The extent of soil Pb was determined by selecting centers in both the core and outlying areas. The initial 558 mg/kg median soil Pb (range 14-3692 mg/kg) decreased to median 4.1 mg/kg (range 2.2-26.1 mg/kg) after intervention with geotextile covered by 15 cm of river alluvium. Pb loading decreased from a median of 4887 μg/m2 (454 μg/ft2) range 603-56650 μg/m2 (56-5263 μg/ft2) to a median of 398 μg/m2 (37 μg/ft2) range 86-980 μg/m2 (8-91 μg/ft2). Multi-Response Permutation Procedures indicate similar (P-values = 0.160-0.231) soil Pb at childcare centers compared to soil Pb of nearby residential communities. At ∼$100 per child, soil Pb and surface loading were reduced within hours, advancing an upstream intervention conceptualization about Pb exposure prevention. - Highlights: → Upstream thinking refers to attending to causative agents that affect outcomes. → New Orleans has a high density soil Pb map of all residential communities. → Many childcare centers are located in Pb polluted residential communities. → Evaluation of childcare center playground soils substantiated severe Pb pollution. → Pursuing upstream thinking, low Pb soil was put on playgrounds to protect children. - Within hours, at a cost of about U.S. $100 (2010) per child, it is feasible to transform exterior play areas at childcare centers from Pb contaminated to Pb-safe with a large margin of safety.

  19. Soil intervention as a strategy for lead exposure prevention: The New Orleans lead-safe childcare playground project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, Howard W., E-mail: howard.mielke@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities, 1430 Tulane Avenue SL-3, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Covington, Tina P. [Charity School of Nursing, Delgado Community College, New Orleans, LA 70112-1397 (United States); College of Nursing, University of South Alabama, Doctor of Nursing Practice Program (student), Mobile AL 36688-0002 (United States); Mielke, Paul W. [Department of Statistics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1877 (United States); Wolman, Fredericka J. [Director of Pediatrics, Department of Children and Families, State of Connecticut, Hartford, CT 06473 (United States); Powell, Eric T.; Gonzales, Chris R. [Lead Lab, Inc., New Orleans, LA 70179-1125 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The feasibility of reducing children's exposure to lead (Pb) polluted soil in New Orleans is tested. Childcare centers (median = 48 children) are often located in former residences. The extent of soil Pb was determined by selecting centers in both the core and outlying areas. The initial 558 mg/kg median soil Pb (range 14-3692 mg/kg) decreased to median 4.1 mg/kg (range 2.2-26.1 mg/kg) after intervention with geotextile covered by 15 cm of river alluvium. Pb loading decreased from a median of 4887 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (454 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 603-56650 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (56-5263 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) to a median of 398 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (37 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 86-980 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (8-91 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}). Multi-Response Permutation Procedures indicate similar (P-values = 0.160-0.231) soil Pb at childcare centers compared to soil Pb of nearby residential communities. At {approx}$100 per child, soil Pb and surface loading were reduced within hours, advancing an upstream intervention conceptualization about Pb exposure prevention. - Highlights: > Upstream thinking refers to attending to causative agents that affect outcomes. > New Orleans has a high density soil Pb map of all residential communities. > Many childcare centers are located in Pb polluted residential communities. > Evaluation of childcare center playground soils substantiated severe Pb pollution. > Pursuing upstream thinking, low Pb soil was put on playgrounds to protect children. - Within hours, at a cost of about U.S. $100 (2010) per child, it is feasible to transform exterior play areas at childcare centers from Pb contaminated to Pb-safe with a large margin of safety.

  20. Videophone Technology and Students with Deaf-Blindness: A Method for Increasing Access and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Judith; Bishop, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Seeing the Possibilities with Videophone Technology began as research project funded by the National Center for Technology Innovation. The project implemented a face-to-face social networking program for students with deaf-blindness to investigate the potential for increasing access and communication using videophone technology.…

  1. Student public commitment in a school-based diabetes prevention project: impact on physical health and health behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Sara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As concern about youth obesity continues to mount, there is increasing consideration of widespread policy changes to support improved nutritional and enhanced physical activity offerings in schools. A critical element in the success of such programs may be to involve students as spokespeople for the program. Making such a public commitment to healthy lifestyle program targets (improved nutrition and enhanced physical activity may potentiate healthy behavior changes among such students and provide a model for their peers. This paper examines whether student's "public commitment"--voluntary participation as a peer communicator or in student-generated media opportunities--in a school-based intervention to prevent diabetes and reduce obesity predicted improved study outcomes including reduced obesity and improved health behaviors. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a 3-year randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 middle schools examining the impact of a multi-component school-based program on body mass index (BMI and student health behaviors. A total of 4603 students were assessed at the beginning of sixth grade and the end of eighth grade. Process evaluation data were collected throughout the course of the intervention. All analyses were adjusted for students' baseline values. For this paper, the students in the schools randomized to receive the intervention were further divided into two groups: those who participated in public commitment activities and those who did not. Students from comparable schools randomized to the assessment condition constituted the control group. Results We found a lower percentage of obesity (greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for BMI at the end of the study among the group participating in public commitment activities compared to the control group (21.5% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.02. The difference in obesity rates at the end of the study was even greater among the subgroup of students who

  2. Orthostatic Hypotension and Elevated Resting Heart Rate Predict Low-Energy Fractures in the Population: The Malmo Preventive Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Hamrefors

    in advance, even if symptoms may not be detectable. Although the effect sizes are moderate, the easily accessible clinical parameters of orthostatic blood pressure response and resting heart rate deserve consideration as new risk predictors to yield more accurate decisions on primary prevention of low-energy fractures.

  3. Developing community-based preventive interventions in Hong Kong: a description of the first phase of the family project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Sunita M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the development of culturally-appropriate family-based interventions and their relevant measures, to promote family health, happiness and harmony in Hong Kong. Programs were developed in the community, using a collaborative approach with community partners. The development process, challenges, and the lessons learned are described. This experience may be of interest to the scientific community as there is little information currently available about community-based development of brief interventions with local validity in cultures outside the West. Methods The academic-community collaborative team each brought strengths to the development process and determined the targets for intervention (parent-child relationships. Information from expert advisors and stakeholder discussion groups was collected and utilized to define the sources of stress in parent-child relationships. Results Themes emerged from the literature and discussion groups that guided the content of the intervention. Projects emphasized features that were appropriate for this cultural group and promoted potential for sustainability, so that the programs might eventually be implemented at a population-wide level. Challenges included ensuring local direction, relevance and acceptability for the intervention content, engaging participants and enhancing motivation to make behavior changes after a brief program, measurement of behavior changes, and developing an equal partner relationship between academic and community staff. Conclusions This work has public health significance because of the global importance of parent-child relationships as a risk-factor for many outcomes in adulthood, the need to develop interventions with strong evidence of effectiveness to populations outside the West, the potential application of our interventions to universal populations, and characteristics of the interventions that promote dissemination, including minimal

  4. Night blindness in a teenager with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roddy, Marie Frances

    2011-12-01

    This article describes the case of a 16-year-old boy with cystic fibrosis who presented with difficulty seeing in the dark. He had a history of bowel surgery at birth, and he developed cystic fibrosis liver disease and osteopenia during his teenage years. He always had good lung function. When his serum vitamin A level was checked, it was undetectable in sample. He was diagnosed with night blindness and commenced on high-dose vitamin A. His symptoms resolved within 3 days. However, it took over 1 year for his vitamin A level to return to normal. This case emphasizes the importance of monitoring vitamin levels in cystic fibrosis to detect deficiency and prevent long-term consequences, and it highlights the challenges encountered during the course of night blindness treatment.

  5. DimeRisk Project: Development of an educational and training program for the prevention and mitigation of seismic risk in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Fidel; Martín-Velazquez, Silvia; Giner-Robles, Jorge; Martínez-Díaz, Jose Jesus; Rodríguez-Pascua, Miguel Angel; Béjar, Marta; Pérez-López, Raul; López, Jose Antonio; Morales, Javier; Barranco, Ana; Palomo, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    In Spain, due to the low recurrence of earthquakes in the last century, there is no awareness of seismic risk and prevention plans. For this reason, moderate magnitude earthquakes have generated significant damage and casualties. However, the risk is evident, in Spain during the nineteenth century there were more than five destructive earthquakes with intensities greater than VIII (e.g. Arenas del Rey IX-X, Torrevieja IX-X). A recent example was the 2011 Lorca earthquake, that with moderate magnitudes and intensities (magnitude Mw 5.2, intensity VI) it struck a populated area with old historic buildings and a population unprepared (9 victims, 324 injured, 1,200 million in reparations). In this earthquake many errors were found in the behavior of the population and in the basic self-protection measures. Many countries have educational programs that significantly reduce the damage and losses caused by earthquakes. The objective of this project (Dimerisk project) is to generate training and educational materials that help mitigate the damage and losses caused by earthquakes. This project is based on plans of experienced countries (e.g. U.S.A., Italy, Mexico, New Zealand) but having into account the mistakes made in the last earthquake in Spain, and also the characteristics of the Spanish educational system and building characteristics. This project has been founded by FUNDACION MAPFRE. The team is formed by geologist, earthquake researchers and teachers at secondary schools and universities. The ultimate goal is to generate material that can inform about the seismic and geological processes that participate in an earthquake and the basics of self-protection against earthquakes. This project has focused on scenarios (offices, factories, homes, education centers) and educational levels (schools, colleges and universities). Educational materials have been also developed for different educational levels with basic concepts related to seismicity, how to behave during an

  6. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in Baotou: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guisen; Li, Yan; Teng, Xuelong; Wu, Qiang; Gong, Hui; Ren, Fengmei; Guo, Yuxia; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Han

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in Baotou, Inner Mongolia.A cross-sectional study was carried out. Multistage sampling was used to select samples. The visual acuity was estimated using LogMAR and corrected by pinhole as best-corrected visual acuity.There were 7000 samples selected and 5770 subjects included in this investigation. The overall bilateral prevalence rates of low vision and blindness were 3.66% (95% CI: 3.17-4.14) and 0.99% (95% CI: 0.73-1.24), respectively. The prevalence of bilateral low vision, blindness, and visual impairment increased with age and decreased with education level. The main leading cause of low vision and blindness was cataract. Diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration were found to be the second leading causes of blindness in Baotou.The low vision and blindness were more prevalent in elderly people and subjects with low education level in Baotou. Cataract was the main cause for visual impairment and more attention should be paid to fundus diseases. In order to prevent blindness, much more eye care programs should be established. PMID:27631267

  7. Unilateral childhood blindness: a hospital-based study in Yaoundé, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André; Omgbwa Eballe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballe1, Emilienne Epée2, Godefroy Koki2, Lucienne Bella2, Côme Ebana Mvogo21Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, CameroonIntroduction: We performed an analytic and prospective study over a period of 12 months from January 2nd to December 31st, 2008, at the Gynaeco-Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital of Yaoundé, Cameroon. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and causes of unilateral blindness in school children aged 6 to 15 years.Results: Among the 1,266 children aged 6 to 15 years who were recruited, 60 presented with unilateral blindness (4.7%: 42 boys (6.96% and 18 girls (2.71%. The mean age was 10.15 ± 3.4 years. In patients with unilateral blindness, 65% was due to ocular trauma.Discussion: The hospital-based prevalence of unilateral blindness in children is relatively high and ocular trauma is the leading etiology.Conclusion: Unilateral blindness in school children is avoidable and its incidence could be markedly reduced by emphasizing an information strategy and education based on prevention of ocular trauma. Early management of nontraumatic diseases such as infantile glaucoma and some tumors could improve outcome and avoid blindness.Keywords: unilateral blindness, ocular trauma, prevalence, education

  8. Blind Image Blur Estimation via Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruomei Yan; Ling Shao

    2016-04-01

    Image blur kernel estimation is critical to blind image deblurring. Most existing approaches exploit handcrafted blur features that are optimized for a certain uniform blur across the image, which is unrealistic in a real blind deconvolution setting, where the blur type is often unknown. To deal with this issue, we aim at identifying the blur type for each input image patch, and then estimating the kernel parameter in this paper. A learning-based method using a pre-trained deep neural network (DNN) and a general regression neural network (GRNN) is proposed to first classify the blur type and then estimate its parameters, taking advantages of both the classification ability of DNN and the regression ability of GRNN. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that pre-trained DNN and GRNN have been applied to the problem of blur analysis. First, our method identifies the blur type from a mixed input of image patches corrupted by various blurs with different parameters. To this aim, a supervised DNN is trained to project the input samples into a discriminative feature space, in which the blur type can be easily classified. Then, for each blur type, the proposed GRNN estimates the blur parameters with very high accuracy. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in several tasks with better or competitive results compared with the state of the art on two standard image data sets, i.e., the Berkeley segmentation data set and the Pascal VOC 2007 data set. In addition, blur region segmentation and deblurring on a number of real photographs show that our method outperforms the previous techniques even for non-uniformly blurred images. PMID:26930680

  9. [THE RESULTS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT LOAN PROJECT "PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS AND AIDS", A "TUBERCULOSIS" COMPONENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Due to the implementation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loan project "Prevention, diagnosis, treatment of tuberculosis and AIDS", a "Tuberculosis" component that is an addition to the national tuberculosis control program in 15 subjects of the Russian Federation, followed up by the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the 2005-2008 measures stipulated by the Project have caused substantial changes in the organization of tuberculosis control: implementation of Orders Nos. 109, 50, and 690 and supervision of their implementation; modernization of the laboratories of the general medical network and antituberbulosis service (404 kits have been delivered for clinical diagnostic laboratories and 12 for bacteriological laboratories, including BACTEC 960 that has been provided in 6 areas); 91 training seminars have been held at the federal and regional levels; 1492 medical workers have been trained in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with tuberculosis; 8 manuals and guidelines have been prepared and sent to all areas. In the period 2005-2008, the tuberculosis morbidity and mortality rates in the followed-up areas reduced by 1.2 and 18.6%, respectively. The analysis of patient cohorts in 2007 and 2005 revealed that the therapeutic efficiency evaluated from sputum smear microscopy increased by 16.3%; there were reductions in the proportion of patients having ineffective chemotherapy (from 16.1 to 11.1%), patients who died from tuberculosis (from 11.6 to 9.9%), and those who interrupted therapy ahead of time (from 11.8 to 7.8%). Implementation of the IBR project has contributed to the improvement of the national strategy and the enhancement of the efficiency of tuberculosis control.

  10. MAGNITUDE AND CAUSES OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AND BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN ATTENDING PAEDIATRIC EYE CLINIC AT SANTHIRAM MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeeva Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The number of blind years resulting from blindness in children is alarmingly high. Blindness in children can have a significant impact on their performance at school as well as their social interaction and future employment as visually impaired children have a long lifetime of blindness ahead of them. The consequences of visual impairment and blindness in children are an important public health issues with greater impact in developing countries, where 80% of the blindness in children occurs. The control of blindness in children is considered a high priority area within the World Health Organization’s VISION 2020 initiative. However many developing countries do not have the accurate information about the magnitude and causes of visual impairment and blindness in children, from which the scope and priorities for prevention and treatment can be identified. To date the established Pediatric Eye Clinic, which works as a Tertiary Eye Centre does not have baseline data on the magnitude and causes of visual impairment and blindness in children.

  11. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  12. Blindness. [prosthetic devices and sensory aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudenz, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    The possibilities are considered that modern electronics and engineering have to offer the individual with a damaged or disordered nervous system, especially the blind person. Discussed are the incidence and principal causes of blindness, past research activities, and a capsule review of some of the more interesting programs designed to provide the blind with the ability to be mobile in their environment and to read printed matter.

  13. CERTIFICATELESS SIGNATURE AND BLIND SIGNATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lei; Zhang Futai

    2008-01-01

    Certificateless public key cryptography is a new paradigm introduced by AI-Riyami and Paterson. It eliminates the need of the certificates in traditional public key cryptosystems and the key escrow problem in IDentity-based Public Key Cryptography (ID-PKC). Due to the advantages of the certificateless public key cryptography,a new efficient certificateless pairing-based signature scheme is presented,which has some advantages over previous constructions in computational cost. Based on this new signature scheme,a certificateless blind signature scheme is proposed. The security of our schemes is proven based on the hardness of computational Diffie-Hellman problem.

  14. Preventing stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... A stroke occurs when the blood supply is cut off to any part of the brain. A stroke is ...

  15. Application of Behavior Modification to Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Charles S.; Weinhouse, Ellen

    1978-01-01

    Research and application of principles of behavior modification with visually impaired and blind children are reviewed with particular attention to lower functioning multiply impaired children. (Author)

  16. Enhanced heat discrimination in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, Hocine; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2015-01-01

    of the stimulated skin surface or magnitude of the temperature shift. Increasing the size of the stimulated skin area increased the response criterion in the blind (p=0.022) but not in the sighted. Together, these findings show that congenitally blind individuals have enhanced temperature discrimination accuracy...... trials (ΔT = 0°C) were also included to test for false positive responses. We used signal detection theory model to analyze the data. Our data revealed that blind participants have a higher accuracy than the sighted (d': Blind=2.4 ± 1.0, Sighted=1.8 ± 0.7, p=0.025), regardless of the size...

  17. Blindness and Insight in King Lear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳元玉

    2008-01-01

    This paper intends to explore how William Shakespeare illustrates the theme of blindness and insight in his great tragedy "King Lear".Four characters’ deeds and their fate are used as a case study to examine what blindness is,what insight is,and the relationship between the two.The writer finds that by depicting the characters’ deeds and their fate in a double plot,Shakespeare renders the folly of blindness,the transition from blindness to insight,and the use of reason and thought to understand the truth.

  18. Analysis on Pollution Source and Pollution Prevention of Trichlorosilane Project%三氯氢硅建设项目污染源分析与控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红娜; 王晓娟; 武征; 孙愿

    2012-01-01

    三氯氢硅是制备多晶硅的重要原料,三氯氢硅极易挥发,在空气中易燃,并能与空气形成爆炸混合物,其化学性质很不稳定,遇水或水蒸气发生剧烈的放热反应,形成有毒的腐蚀性氯化氢烟雾;通过对三氯氢硅建设项目工艺流程及产污环节分析,探讨了该类项目生产过程废气、废水、噪声、固体废物等污染物的种类、成分及产生量,在此基础上提出了相应的污染控制措施,对该类项目环境影响评价工作有一定的指导作用。%As an important raw material for polycrystalline silicon, trichlorosilane is highly volatile, extremely flammable in air, even explosive when mixed with air. The chemical properties of trichlorosilane are unstable, having exothermic reaction withwater or vapor and forming poisonous and corrosive fog. Through analysis on technological process and pollution generation links of trichlorosilane project, this paper discusses the pollution categories, components and amounts of waste gas, waste water, noise,solid waste etc. in a bid to put forward corresponding measures for pollution prevention and provide reference to environmental im- pact assessment of trichlorosilane projects.

  19. A multimodal approach to investigate biomarkers for psychosis in a clinical setting: the integrative neuroimaging studies in schizophrenia targeting for early intervention and prevention (IN-STEP) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Shinsuke; Takano, Yosuke; Iwashiro, Norichika; Satomura, Yoshihiro; Suga, Motomu; Nagai, Tatsuya; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Tada, Mariko; Nishimura, Yukika; Yamasaki, Syudo; Takizawa, Ryu; Yahata, Noriaki; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal clinical investigations and biological measurements have determined not only progressive brain volumetric and functional changes especially around the onset of psychosis but also the abnormality of developmental pathways based on gene-environment interaction model. However, these studies have contributed little to clinical decisions on their diagnosis and therapeutic choices because of subtle differences between patients and healthy controls. A multi-modal approach may resolve this limitation and is favorable to explore the pathophysiology of psychosis. The integrative neuroimaging studies for schizophrenia targeting early intervention and prevention (IN-STEP) is a research project aimed at exploring the pathophysiological features of the onset of psychosis and investigating possible predictive biomarkers for the clinical treatment of psychosis. Since 2008, we have adopted blood sampling, neurocognitive batteries, neurophysiological assessment, structural imaging, and functional imaging longitudinally for help-seeking ultra-high-risk (UHR) individuals and patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Here, we intend to introduce the IN-STEP research study protocol and present preliminary clinical findings. Thirty-seven UHR individuals and 30 patients with FEP participated in this study. Six months later, there was no difference in objective and subjective scores between the groups, which suggests that young people having symptoms and functional deficits should be cared for regardless of their history of psychosis according to their clinical stages. The rate of transition to psychosis was 7.1%, 8.0%, and 35.3% (at 6, 12, and 24months, respectively). Through this research project, we expect to clarify the pathophysiological features around the onset of psychosis and improve the prognosis of psychosis through clinical application. PMID:23219075

  20. 42 CFR 436.531 - Determination of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of blindness. 436.531 Section 436.531... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.531 Determination of blindness. In determining blindness... determine on behalf of the agency— (1) Whether the individual meets the definition of blindness; and...

  1. Mercury Deposition Network Site Operator Training for the System Blank and Blind Audit Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operates the external quality assurance project for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network. The project includes the system blank and blind audit programs for assessment of total mercury concentration data quality for wet-deposition samples. This presentation was prepared to train new site operators and to refresh experienced site operators to successfully process and submit system blank and blind audit samples for chemical analysis. Analytical results are used to estimate chemical stability and contamination levels of National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network samples and to evaluate laboratory variability and bias.

  2. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting. Report on the 1. research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept for the Co-ordinated Research Programme on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child nutrition to help prevent stunting was a consequence of discussions held between IAEA staff and participants in a regional training course on 'Isotope Techniques in Human Nutrition' held in Lima, Peru in June 1996. The intention then was to develop research on factors influencing the success of lactation and the consequent effects on the breast-fed child. The project would have Latin American participants to promote regional exchange of expertise and ideas. Initial participation was from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Brazil and Pakistan have now been added to these. There are three Specific Research Objectives: (1) To develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast-milk intake using regionally available equipment. (2) To apply the methodology in the assessment of milk intake in infants in relation to maternal nutrition, socio-economic status and education, and infant nutrition and intake of macro- and micro-nutrients. (3) To use information gathered at 2) to determine the need for supplementation programmes for mothers and/or infants, and educational programmes for the mothers

  3. 75 FR 47304 - Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who Are Blind, Deaf-Blind, or Have Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... COMMISSION Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who Are Blind, Deaf- Blind, or Have Low Vision AGENCY... accessible for people who are blind, have vision loss, or are deaf-blind and the extent to which gaps in...--that are accessible to people who are blind or have vision loss; technical obstacles, if any, to...

  4. Blavigator: a navigation aid for blind persons

    OpenAIRE

    José, João; MORENO, M; Pinilla-Dutoit, J.; Rodrigues, J. M. F.; du Buf, J. M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Blavigator (blind navigator) is a vision aid for blind and visuaIIy impaired persons. It supports local navigation by detecting waIkable paths in the immediate vicinity of the user. It guides the user for centering on the path.

  5. Front blind spot crashes in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuk Ki; Wong, Koon Hung; Tao, Chi Hang; Tam, Cheok Ning; Tam, Yiu Yan; Tsang, Cheuk Nam

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014, our laboratory had investigated a total of 9 suspected front blind spot crashes, in which the medium and heavy goods vehicles pulled away from rest and rolled over the pedestrians, who were crossing immediately in front of the vehicles. The drivers alleged that they did not see any pedestrians through the windscreens or the front blind spot mirrors. Forensic assessment of the goods vehicles revealed the existence of front blind spot zones in 3 out of these 9 accident vehicles, which were attributed to the poor mirror adjustments or even the absence of a front blind spot mirror altogether. In view of this, a small survey was devised involving 20 randomly selected volunteers and their goods vehicles and 5 out of these vehicles had blind spots at the front. Additionally, a short questionnaire was conducted on these 20 professional lorry drivers and it was shown that most of them were not aware of the hazards of blind spots immediately in front of their vehicles, and many did not use the front blind spot mirrors properly. A simple procedure for quick measurements of the coverage of front blind spot mirrors using a coloured plastic mat with dimensional grids was also introduced and described in this paper.

  6. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  7. Blind Equalization Based on Evolution Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongYu; ZhangXianda; 等

    1997-01-01

    Conventional blind equalization algorithms suffer from ill convergence to local minima and slow convergence speed.This paper proposes a novel blind equalization algorithm.using random search methods-evolution strategies and existing cost functions,Simulation results verify the fast and global convergence of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Spatial Explorations and Digital Traces: Experiences of Legal Blindness through Filmmaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions of legal blindness, as lived experience—involving continual movement between the world of sightedness and blindness—are largely absent within medical models of disability. In an effort to challenge depictions of blindness as pathology, researchers in this project worked with participants who are legally blind, in a co-designed exploration of built spaces in the city of Edmonton, Canada. In this article we describe a collaborative research method through which participants shared stories while recording their movement through a shopping mall, an art gallery, and a gym. Through this project, participants often took the lead, determining the content and context of urban journeys. Stories and images shared through this collaboration suggest that legal blindness is an alternative way of knowing the world, with unique perceptual experiences, navigational strategies, and complexity that is often unacknowledged within a medically constructed blindness/sightedness binary. In describing the complex relationship between participants, researchers, architecture, and technology we will combine narrative forms of writing with actor-network theory. The sharing of stories, along with lived experiences has led to a project that revolves around ability, as opposed to disability. A link to the film is provided at the end of this article.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stationary night blindness autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked congenital stationary night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stationary night blindness X-linked congenital stationary night blindness Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description X-linked congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  11. User-centered Technologies For Blind Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review, summarize, and illustrate research work involving four audio-based games created within a user-centered design methodology through successive usability tasks and evaluations. These games were designed by considering the mental model of blind children and their styles of interaction to perceive and process data and information. The goal of these games was to enhance the cognitive development of spatial structures, memory, haptic perception, mathematical skills, navigation and orientation, and problem solving of blind children. Findings indicate significant improvements in learning and cognition from using audio-based tools specially tailored for the blind. That is, technologies for blind children, carefully tailored through user-centered design approaches, can make a significant contribution to cognitive development of these children. This paper contributes new insight into the design and implementation of audio-based virtual environments to facilitate learning and cognition in blind children.

  12. An ECC-Based Blind Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuh-Gwo Jeng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is increasingly applied to the E-commerce world, especially to the untraceable payment system and the electronic voting system. Protocols for these systems strongly require the anonymous digital signature property, and thus a blind signature strategy is the answer to it. Chaum stated that every blind signature protocol should hold two fundamental properties, blindness and intractableness. All blind signature schemes proposed previously almost are based on the integer factorization problems, discrete logarithm problems, or the quadratic residues, which are shown by Lee et al. that none of the schemes is able to meet the two fundamental properties above. Therefore, an ECC-based blind signature scheme that possesses both the above properties is proposed in this paper.

  13. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  14. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Dockter, B.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    Large-scale hot-gas filter testing over the past 10 years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that has been difficult, if not impossible, to remove. At times, the cake can blind or bridge between candle filters, leading to filter failure. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature, contribute to the difficulty in removing the cake, but chemical factors such as surface composition and gas-solid reactions also play roles in helping to bond the ash to the filters or to itself. This project is designed to perform the research necessary to determine the fuel-, sorbent-, and operations-related conditions that lead to blinding or bridging of hot-gas particle filters. The objectives of the project are threefold: (1) Determine the mechanisms by which a difficult-to-clean ash is formed and how it bridges hot-gas filters (2) Develop a method to determine the rate of bridging based on analyses of the feed coal and sorbent, filter properties, and system operating conditions and (3) Suggest and test ways to prevent filter bridging.

  15. Blind reconstruction of linear scrambler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xie; Fenghua Wang; Zhitao Huang

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm based on eigenanalysis technique and Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT) is proposed. The algorithm contains two steps. Firstly, the received sequence is divided into temporal windows, and a covariance matrix is computed. The li-near feedback shift register (LFSR) sequence is reconstructed from the first eigenvector of this matrix. Secondly, equations ac-cording to the recovered LFSR sequence are constructed, and the Walsh spectrum corresponding to the equations is computed. The feedback polynomial of LFSR is estimated from the Walsh spec-trum. The validity of the algorithm is verified by the simulation result. Final y, case studies are presented to il ustrate the perfor-mance of the blind reconstruction method.

  16. Blindness in designing intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    New investigations of the foundations of artificial intelligence are challenging the hypothesis that problem solving is the cornerstone of intelligence. New distinctions among three domains of concern for humans--description, action, and commitment--have revealed that the design process for programmable machines, such as expert systems, is based on descriptions of actions and induces blindness to nonanalytic action and commitment. Design processes focusing in the domain of description are likely to yield programs like burearcracies: rigid, obtuse, impersonal, and unable to adapt to changing circumstances. Systems that learn from their past actions, and systems that organize information for interpretation by human experts, are more likely to be successful in areas where expert systems have failed.

  17. BLIND DIFFERENTIAL ADAPTIVE MULTIUSER DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a new blind equalization cost function, termed differential mean output energy (DMOE), was presented, and a new multiuser detection algorithm with variable step size was designed. It is shown through simulation results for a co-channel system involving severe MAI that the DMOE algorithm gives significantly enhanced signal to interference ratio (SIR) performance and converges rapidly to the optimum MMSE detector, together with a low computational complexity requirement relative to the recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. Thus, it is not necessary to switch to the decision-directed mode. Moreover, it also exhibits global convergence, and can be used in different interference environment without the requirement of estimating and restricting the surplus energy.

  18. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  19. Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed-Meraim Karim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance matrix, the proposed algorithm achieves blindly a direct estimation of the zero-delay MMSE equalizer parameters. We develop a two-step procedure to further improve the performance gain and control the equalization delay. An efficient fast adaptive implementation of our equalizer, based on the projection approximation and the shift invariance property of temporal data covariance matrix, is proposed for reducing the computational complexity from to , where is the number of emitted signals, the data vector length, and the dimension of the signal subspace. We then derive a statistical performance analysis to compare the equalization performance with that of the optimal MMSE equalizer. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed blind equalization algorithm.

  20. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dockter, B.A.; Hurley, J.P.; Watne, T.A.; Katrinak, K.A.; O`Keefe, C.A. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Minerals Research Center

    1996-12-31

    Large-scale hot-gas testing over the past several years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that have been difficult, if not impossible to remove. At times, the cake can bridge between candle filters, leading to high filter failure rates. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature contribute to difficulty in removing the cake. It is speculated that chemical as well as physical effects are playing a role in leading the ash to bond to the filter or to itself. The Energy and Environmental research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota is working with Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and a consortium of companies in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform the research necessary to determine the factors that cause hot-gas cleanup filters to be blinded by ash or to develop deposits that can bridge the filters and cause them to fail. The objectives of this overall project are threefold: first, to determine the mechanisms by which difficult-to-clean ash is formed; second, to develop a method to determine the rate of blinding/bridging based on fuel and sorbent properties and operating conditions; finally, to provide suggestions fro ways to prevent filter blinding by the troublesome ash. The projects consists of four tasks: field sampling and archive sample analyses, laboratory-scale testing, bench-scale testing, and model and database development testing. This paper present preliminary data from Task 2 on determining the tensile strengths of coal ash particles at elevated temperatures and simulated combustor gas conditions.

  1. The effect of preventing awareness during total intravenous anesthesia by bispectral index monitoring:a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, multicentre controlled trial%BIS监测预防全凭静脉麻醉下术中知晓的多中心研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴奇伟; 张忱; 胥亮; 吴安石; 岳云; 柳娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of bispectral index (BIS) monitoring on preventing awareness in pa-tients undergoing total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), and determine the reasons for awareness by analyzing the intra-oper-ative BIS values of awareness cases. Methods This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, multicentre controlled trial. Patients (≥16 years old) undergoing TIVA were randomly assigned to BIS-guided group (Group A, monitored and maintained BIS between 40~60 intra-operatively) and the control group (Group B, monitored BIS but the screen was covered). Blinded observer interviewed the patients for awareness at the 1st and 4th day after surgery. An inde-pendent evaluating committee assessed the results and identified the confirmed or possible awareness cases. The intraoper-ative BIS values were downloaded and the BIS trends of confirmed awareness cases were analyzed to determine whether in-adequate anesthesia existed. The primary outcome of the study was the incidence of confirmed awareness. Results Of the total 5 228 cases, 2 919 patients in the BIS group and 2 309 in the control group were included in the statistical analysis. Four confirmed awareness (0.14%) were reported in the BIS group and 15 confirmed awareness (0.65%) in the control group (P=0.002, OR=0.21, 95%CI:0.07~0.63), BIS-guided TIVA reduced the incidence of awareness by 78%. The inci-dences of possible awareness (0.14% vs. 0.26%, P= 0.485) and dreaming (3.1% vs. 3.1%, P= 0.986) were comparable between the BIS-guided group and the control group. Among the total 19 confirmed awareness patients, BIS trend of 8 cases (3 cases in Group A and 5 cases in Group B) was unavailable. Apart from these cases, 6 cases were identified to have intra-operative BIS trends, 5 of whom (4 cases in Group B, 1 case in Group A) showed BIS>60 and lasted for 19~106 min, whereas BIS trend in the other 1 case (Group B) was stable and BIS values were within 60 during the operation. Another 5

  2. Blind image deconvolution methods and convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Rameshan, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Blind deconvolution is a classical image processing problem which has been investigated by a large number of researchers over the last four decades. The purpose of this monograph is not to propose yet another method for blind image restoration. Rather the basic issue of deconvolvability has been explored from a theoretical view point. Some authors claim very good results while quite a few claim that blind restoration does not work. The authors clearly detail when such methods are expected to work and when they will not. In order to avoid the assumptions needed for convergence analysis in the

  3. Ten years left to eliminate blinding trachoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad D.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available n 1997, the World Health Organization formed the Global Alliance to Eliminate Blinding Trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020, a coalition of governmental, non-governmental, research, and pharmaceutical partners. In 1998, the World Health Assembly urged member states to map blinding trachoma in endemic areas, implement the SAFE strategy (which stands for surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, facial-cleanliness and environmental change, such as clean water and latrines and collaborate with the global alliance in its work to eliminate blinding trachoma.

  4. Blind extraction of exoplanetary spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giuseppe; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade, remote sensing spectroscopy enabled characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Transmission and emission spectra of tens of transiting exoplanets have been measured with multiple instruments aboard Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes as well as ground-based facilities, revealing the presence of atomic, ionic and molecular species in their atmospheres, and constraining their temperature and pressure profiles.Early analyses were somehow heuristic both in measuring the spectra and in their interpretation, leading to some controversies in the literature.A photometric precision of 0.01% is necessary to detect the atmospheric spectral modulations. Current observatories, except Kepler, were not designed to achieve this precision. Data reduction is necessary to minimize the effect of instrument systematics in order to achieve the target precision. In the past, parametric models have extensively been used by most teams to remove correlated noise with the aid of auxiliary information of the instrument, the so-called optical state vectors (OSVs). Such OSVs can include inter- and intra-pixel position of the star or its spectrum, instrument temperatures and inclinations, and/or other parameters. In some cases, different parameterizations led to discrepant results.We recommend the use of blind non-parametric data detrending techniques to overcome those issues. In particular, we adopt Independent Component Analysis (ICA), i.e. a blind source separation (BSS) technique to disentangle the multiple instrument systematics and astrophysical signals in transit/eclipse light curves. ICA does not require a model for the systematics, and for this reason, it can be applied to any instrument with little changes, if any. ICA-based algorithms have been applied to Spitzer/IRAC and synthetic observations in photometry (Morello et al. 2014, 2015, 2016; Morello 2015) and to Hubble/NICMOS and Spitzer/IRS in spectroscopy (Waldmann 2012, 2014, Waldmann et al. 2013

  5. European recommendations for primary prevention of congenital anomalies: A joined effort of EUROCAT and EUROPLAN projects to facilitate inclusion of this topic in the National Rare Disease Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taruscio, Domenica; Arriola, Larraitz; Baldi, Francesca;

    2014-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are the paradigm example of rare diseases liable to primary prevention actions due to the multifactorial etiology of many of them, involving a number of environmental factors together with genetic predispositions. Yet despite the preventive potential, lack of attention....... The resulting EUROCAT-EUROPLAN 'Recommendations on Policies to Be Considered for the Primary Prevention of Congenital Anomalies in National Plans and Strategies on Rare Diseases' were issued in 2012 and endorsed by EUCERD (European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases) in 2013. The recommendations......, are a comprehensive tool to implement primary prevention into national policies on rare diseases in Europe....

  6. Compressed Blind De-convolution

    CERN Document Server

    Saligrama, V

    2009-01-01

    Suppose the signal x is realized by driving a k-sparse signal u through an arbitrary unknown stable discrete-linear time invariant system H. These types of processes arise naturally in Reflection Seismology. In this paper we are interested in several problems: (a) Blind-Deconvolution: Can we recover both the filter $H$ and the sparse signal $u$ from noisy measurements? (b) Compressive Sensing: Is x compressible in the conventional sense of compressed sensing? Namely, can x, u and H be reconstructed from a sparse set of measurements. We develop novel L1 minimization methods to solve both cases and establish sufficient conditions for exact recovery for the case when the unknown system H is auto-regressive (i.e. all pole) of a known order. In the compressed sensing/sampling setting it turns out that both H and x can be reconstructed from O(k log(n)) measurements under certain technical conditions on the support structure of u. Our main idea is to pass x through a linear time invariant system G and collect O(k lo...

  7. Iterated Gate Teleportation and Blind Quantum Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Delgado, Carlos A; Fitzsimons, Joseph F

    2015-06-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a user to delegate a computation to an untrusted server while keeping the computation hidden. A number of recent works have sought to establish bounds on the communication requirements necessary to implement blind computation, and a bound based on the no-programming theorem of Nielsen and Chuang has emerged as a natural limiting factor. Here we show that this constraint only holds in limited scenarios, and show how to overcome it using a novel method of iterated gate teleportations. This technique enables drastic reductions in the communication required for distributed quantum protocols, extending beyond the blind computation setting. Applied to blind quantum computation, this technique offers significant efficiency improvements, and in some scenarios offers an exponential reduction in communication requirements. PMID:26196609

  8. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? Do fish have eyelids? ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how ...

  9. Assertive Skills Training for the Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Gary; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The article describes how a rehabilitation center for the blind, aware that many clients were inept in dealing with society at large, instituted an assertive skills training program to improve client skills in this area. (Author/SBH)

  10. From Perception to Metacognition: Auditory and Olfactory Functions in Early Blind, Late Blind, and Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina; Arshamian, Artin; Nilsson, Mats E.; Larsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15), late blind (n = 15), and sighted (n = 30) participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity. PMID:27729884

  11. Blind Signature Scheme Based on Chebyshev Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswara Rao Valluri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A blind signature scheme is a cryptographic protocol to obtain a valid signature for a message from a signer such that signer’s view of the protocol can’t be linked to the resulting message signature pair. This paper presents blind signature scheme using Chebyshev polynomials. The security of the given scheme depends upon the intractability of the integer factorization problem and discrete logarithms ofChebyshev polynomials.

  12. Haptic graphs for blind computer users

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, W; Ramloll, R.; Brewster, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the design of computer-based haptic graphs for blind and visually impaired people with the support of our preliminary experimental results. Since visual impairment makes data visualisation techniques inappropriate for blind people, we are developing a system that can make graphs accessible through haptic and audio media. The disparity between human haptic perception and the sensation simulated by force feedback devices is discussed. Our strategies to tackle technical ...

  13. New Certificateless Blind Ring Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Sun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new certificateless blind ring signature scheme was proposed in this paper. The scheme could not only avoid the problem of certificate management of public key certificate cryptography, but also overcome the inherent key-escrow problem of identity-based public key cryptography. In the last, by using bilinear pairing technique, it was proved that this scheme satisfied the security of existential unforgeability, blindness and unconditional anonymity.

  14. Blind source separation dependent component analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yang, Zuyuan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers a complete and self-contained set of knowledge about dependent source separation, including the latest development in this field. The book gives an overview on blind source separation where three promising blind separation techniques that can tackle mutually correlated sources are presented. The book further focuses on the non-negativity based methods, the time-frequency analysis based methods, and the pre-coding based methods, respectively.

  15. Can acupuncture treatment be double-blinded?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari;

    2015-01-01

    and acupuncturists were asked about perceived treatment allocation at the end of the study. To test if there were clues which led to identification of the treatment, deep dull pain associated with needle application and rotation (termed "de qi" in East Asian medicine), and patients' pain levels were assessed...... is the only needle that allows some degree of practitioner blinding. The study raises questions about alternatives to double-blind randomized clinical trials in the assessment of acupuncture treatment....

  16. Blind Alley Aware ACO Routing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masaya; Otani, Kazuo

    2010-10-01

    The routing problem is applied to various engineering fields. Many researchers study this problem. In this paper, we propose a new routing algorithm which is based on Ant Colony Optimization. The proposed algorithm introduces the tabu search mechanism to escape the blind alley. Thus, the proposed algorithm enables to find the shortest route, even if the map data contains the blind alley. Experiments using map data prove the effectiveness in comparison with Dijkstra algorithm which is the most popular conventional routing algorithm.

  17. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data......-related obstacles when shopping for food, cooking and eating out, all of which contribute to underexpose the gustatory system to a larger variety of taste stimuli....

  18. 42 CFR 435.530 - Definition of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of blindness. 435.530 Section 435.530... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Blindness § 435.530 Definition of blindness. (a) Definition. The agency must use the same definition of blindness as used under SSI,...

  19. 42 CFR 436.530 - Definition of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of blindness. 436.530 Section 436.530... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.530 Definition of blindness. (a) Definition. The agency must use the definition of blindness that is used in the State plan for AB or AABD. (b) State...

  20. The NHF-NRG In Balance-project: the application of Intervention Mapping in the development, implementation and evaluation of weight gain prevention at the worksite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, L.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Werkman, A.M.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Baak, van M.A.; Brug, J.

    2007-01-01

    Very few examples of theory-driven and systematically developed weight gain prevention interventions for adults have been described in the literature. The present paper systematically describes the development, implementation and evaluation framework of a weight gain prevention programme directed at

  1. REVERSIBLE CORTICAL BLINDNESS FOLLOWING SUCCESSFUL SURGICAL REPAIR OF TWO STAB WOUNDS IN THE HEART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiton A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of cortical blindness that followed successful surgical repair of two stab wounds in the heart in a 29-year old Libyan man. The patient presented in a state of pre cardiac arrest (shock and low cardiac output status, following multiple chest stab wounds. Chest tube was immediately inserted. Surgery was urgently performed suturing the two wounds; in the root of the aorta and in the left ventricle, and haemostasis was secured. Cardiac arrest was successfully prevented. The patient recovered smoothly, but 24 hours later he declared total blindness. Ophtalmic and neurological examinations and investigations that included fundoscopy, Electroencephalograms (EEGs and Computed Tomography Scans revealed no abnormalities, apart from absence of alpha waves in the EEGs. We diagnosed the case as cortical blindness and continued caring for the patient conservatively. Three days later, the patient regained his vision gradually and was discharged on the 7th postoperative day without any remarks.

  2. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied.On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up,and the calculation boundary conditions were analyzed.According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics software.The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained.The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimization.The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were obtained.The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed,which provided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer,the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency,provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  3. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied. On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up, and the calculation boundary condi-tions were analyzed. According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics soft-ware. The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained. The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimiza-tion. The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were ob-tained. The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed, which pro-vided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer, the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency, provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  4. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. Updated June 4, 2015. www.cdc.gov/ ...

  5. Biorepositories- | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  6. Employing the church as a marketer of cancer prevention: a look at a health promotion project aimed to reduce colorectal cancer among African Americans in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Coffey, Candice R; Daley, Christine M; Greiner, K Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church. PMID:23718957

  7. Tactile Sensitivity and Braille Reading in People with Early Blindness and Late Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Kensuke; Arai, Tetsuya; Ichihara, Shigeru; Nakano, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The inability to read quickly can be a disadvantage throughout life. This study focused on the associations of braille reading fluency and individual factors, such as the age at onset of blindness and number of years reading braille, and the tactile sensitivity of people with early and late blindness. The relationship between reading…

  8. Blind Cooperative Routing for Scalable and Energy-Efficient Internet of Things

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2016-02-26

    Multihop networking is promoted in this paper for energy-efficient and highly-scalable Internet of Things (IoT). Recognizing concerns related to the scalability of classical multihop routing and medium access techniques, the use of blind cooperation in conjunction with multihop communications is advocated herewith. Blind cooperation however is actually shown to be inefficient unless power control is applied. Inefficiency in this paper is projected in terms of the transport rate normalized to energy consumption. To that end, an uncoordinated power control mechanism is proposed whereby each device in a blind cooperative cluster randomly adjusts its transmit power level. An upper bound is derived for the mean transmit power that must be observed at each device. Finally, the uncoordinated power control mechanism is demonstrated to consistently outperform the simple point-to-point routing case. © 2015 IEEE.

  9. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Neena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness provides valid estimates in a short period of time to assess the magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness. The study determined magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness in India in 2007 among the 50+ population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixteen randomly selected districts where blindness surveys were undertaken 7 to 10 years earlier were identified for a follow up survey. Stratified cluster sampling was used and 25 clusters (20 rural and 5 urban were randomly picked in each district.. After a random start, 100 individuals aged 50+ were enumerated and examined sequentially in each cluster. All those with presenting vision = 50 years were enumerated, and 94.7% examined. Based on presenting vision,, 4.4% (95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 4.1,4.8 were severely visually impaired (vision<6/60 to 3/60 in the better eye and 3.6% (95% CI: 3.3,3.9 were blind (vision<3/60 in the better eye. Prevalence of low vision (<6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye was 16.8% (95% CI: 16.0,17.5. Prevalence of blindness and severe visual impairment (<6/60 in the better eye was higher among rural residents (8.2%; 95% CI: 7.9,8.6 compared to urban (7.1%; 95% CI: 5.0, 9.2, among females (9.2%; 95% CI: 8.6,9.8 compared to males (6.5%; 95% CI: 6.0,7.1 and people above 70 years (20.6%; 95% CI: 19.1,22.0 compared to people aged 50-54 years (1.3%; 95% CI: 1.1,1.6. Of all blindness, 88.2% was avoidable. of which 81.9% was due to cataract and 7.1% to uncorrected refractive errors/uncorrected aphakia. CONCLUSIONS: Cataract and refractive errors are major causes of blindness and low vision and control strategies should prioritize them. Most blindness and low vision burden is avoidable.

  10. Change Blindness in Pigeons (Columba livia: the Effects of Change Salience and Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Troy Herbranson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with one or more line features on a single key differing between consecutive displays. Change salience was manipulated by varying the number of line features that changed on the critical response key. Results indicated that change blindness is reduced if a change is made more salient, and this matches previous human results. Furthermore, accuracy patterns indicate that pigeons’ effective search area expanded over the course of a trial to encompass a larger portion of the stimulus environment. Thus, the data indicate two important aspects of temporal cognition. First, the timing of a change has a profound influence on whether or not that change will be perceived. Second, pigeons appear to engage in a serial search for changes, in which additional time is required to search additional locations.

  11. Change blindness in pigeons (Columba livia): the effects of change salience and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbranson, Walter T

    2015-01-01

    Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with one or more line features on a single key differing between consecutive displays. Change salience was manipulated by varying the number of line features that changed on the critical response key. Results indicated that change blindness is reduced if a change is made more salient, and this matches previous human results. Furthermore, accuracy patterns indicate that pigeons' effective search area expanded over the course of a trial to encompass a larger portion of the stimulus environment. Thus, the data indicate two important aspects of temporal cognition. First, the timing of a change has a profound influence on whether or not that change will be perceived. Second, pigeons appear to engage in a serial search for changes, in which additional time is required to search additional locations.

  12. Change blindness in pigeons (Columba livia): the effects of change salience and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbranson, Walter T

    2015-01-01

    Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with one or more line features on a single key differing between consecutive displays. Change salience was manipulated by varying the number of line features that changed on the critical response key. Results indicated that change blindness is reduced if a change is made more salient, and this matches previous human results. Furthermore, accuracy patterns indicate that pigeons' effective search area expanded over the course of a trial to encompass a larger portion of the stimulus environment. Thus, the data indicate two important aspects of temporal cognition. First, the timing of a change has a profound influence on whether or not that change will be perceived. Second, pigeons appear to engage in a serial search for changes, in which additional time is required to search additional locations. PMID:26284021

  13. Rationale and design of the PREDICE project: cost-effectiveness of type 2 diabetes prevention among high-risk Spanish individuals following lifestyle intervention in real-life primary care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolíbar Bonaventura

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes is an important preventable disease and a growing public health problem. Based on information provided by clinical trials, we know that Type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed by lifestyle intervention. In view of translating the findings of diabetes prevention research into real-life it is necessary to carry out community-based evaluations so as to learn about the feasibility and effectiveness of locally designed and implemented programmes. The aim of this project was to assess the effectiveness of an active real-life primary care strategy in high-risk individuals for developing diabetes, and then evaluate its efficiency. Methods/Design Cost-Effectiveness analysis of the DE-PLAN (Diabetes in Europe - Prevention using Lifestyle, physical Activity and Nutritional intervention project when applied to a Mediterranean population in Catalonia (DE-PLAN-CAT. Multicenter, longitudinal cohort assessment (4 years conducted in 18 primary health-care centres (Catalan Health Institute. Individuals without diabetes aged 45-75 years were screened using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score - FINDRISC - questionnaire and a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. All high risk tested individuals were invited to participate in either a usual care intervention (information on diet and cardiovascular health without individualized programme, or the intensive DE-PLAN educational program (individualized or group periodically reinforced. Oral glucose tolerance test was repeated yearly to determine diabetes incidence. Besides measuring the accumulated incidence of diabetes, information was collected on economic impact of the interventions in both cohorts (using direct and indirect cost questionnaires and information on utility measures (Quality Adjusted Life Years. A cost-utility and a cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed and data will be modelled to predict long-term cost-effectiveness. Discussion The project was intended to evidence

  14. The impact of venetian blind geometry and tilt angle on view, direct light transmission and interior illuminance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzempelikos, Athanassios [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. W., EV. 6-139, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Venetian blinds are a common type of shading. They can reflect and transmit light efficiently into buildings by adjusting the louver angle and at the same time allow some view to the outdoors. This paper presents a systematic method for calculating projected view (or shaded) fractions for venetian blinds of any shape (flat and curved) as a function of rotation angle, taking into account edge effects and slat thickness. General analytical direct transmittance equations and charts - derived from pure geometrical characteristics - were also developed for flat slats (including thickness and edge effects) and curved slats (circle arcs) as a function of blind tilt angle and profile angle. The last part of the paper investigates the impact of slat shape and reflectance on window-blind system effective reflectance and the associated contribution to the inter-reflected component for different window areas. (author)

  15. Beyond the “Handicapped” Label: Narrating Options to Teach Foreign Languages to Blind and Visually Impaired Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imperio Arenas González

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the research project carried out with a blind student, who studied French at a public university. The pedagogical experience over three years began in a classroom when a foreign language teacher and educator felt herself “handicapped,” as she had not been prepared for working with blind people. In order to put her student on the same level of other students in terms of study possibilities, the teacher entered the blind and visually impaired students’ world through Braille. She designed methodologies in order to encourage the autonomous learning of the foreign language as well as tried to motivate other blind or visually impaired people to acquire the same knowledge.

  16. Brief mindfulness induction reduces inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Creswell, J David; Denson, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Prior research has linked mindfulness to improvements in attention, and suggested that the effects of mindfulness are particularly pronounced when individuals are cognitively depleted or stressed. Yet, no studies have tested whether mindfulness improves declarative awareness of unexpected stimuli in goal-directed tasks. Participants (N=794) were either depleted (or not) and subsequently underwent a brief mindfulness induction (or not). They then completed an inattentional blindness task during which an unexpected distractor appeared on the computer monitor. This task was used to assess declarative conscious awareness of the unexpected distractor's presence and the extent to which its perceptual properties were encoded. Mindfulness increased awareness of the unexpected distractor (i.e., reduced rates of inattentional blindness). Contrary to predictions, no mindfulness×depletion interaction emerged. Depletion however, increased perceptual encoding of the distractor. These results suggest that mindfulness may foster awareness of unexpected stimuli (i.e., reduce inattentional blindness).

  17. Non-blind watermarking of network flows

    CERN Document Server

    Houmansadr, Amir; Borisov, Nikita

    2012-01-01

    Linking network flows is an important problem in intrusion detection as well as anonymity. Passive traffic analysis can link flows but requires long periods of observation to reduce errors. Active traffic analysis, also known as flow watermarking, allows for better precision and is more scalable. Previous flow watermarks introduce significant delays to the traffic flow as a side effect of using a blind detection scheme; this enables attacks that detect and remove the watermark, while at the same time slowing down legitimate traffic. We propose the first non-blind approach for flow watermarking, called RAINBOW, that improves watermark invisibility by inserting delays hundreds of times smaller than previous blind watermarks, hence reduces the watermark interference on network flows. We derive and analyze the optimum detectors for RAINBOW as well as the passive traffic analysis under different traffic models by using hypothesis testing. Comparing the detection performance of RAINBOW and the passive approach we o...

  18. Blindness resulting from orbital complications of ophthalmic zoster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowska, Magdalena; Zajkowska, Agata; Garkowski, Adam; Czupryna, Piotr; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when the latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivates in the trigeminal ganglion and ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. In the elderly, there is a sharp increase in the tendency of secondary skin bacterial infections occurrence due to the deterioration of capabilities of self-care and changed sanitation. We present a case of patient who developed phlegmon of the orbit, which resulted with complete unilateral blindness. Varicella zoster virus infection in the elderly may have a severe course due to the progressive weakening of the immune system related to the age. Moreover, skin lesions around the eye socket require special care in prevention of bacterial superinfections due to the extremely high risk of life-threatening complications or disability. Neuralgia resistant to pharmacological treatment present in the course of ophthalmic zoster and difficulty in caring about skin lesions predispose to the occurrence of complications. PMID:26759550

  19. Blindness resulting from orbital complications of ophthalmic zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniuszko, Anna; Sosnowska, Magdalena; Zajkowska, Agata; Garkowski, Adam; Czupryna, Piotr; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2015-10-01

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when the latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivates in the trigeminal ganglion and ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. In the elderly, there is a sharp increase in the tendency of secondary skin bacterial infections occurrence due to the deterioration of capabilities of self-care and changed sanitation. We present a case of patient who developed phlegmon of the orbit, which resulted with complete unilateral blindness. Varicella zoster virus infection in the elderly may have a severe course due to the progressive weakening of the immune system related to the age. Moreover, skin lesions around the eye socket require special care in prevention of bacterial superinfections due to the extremely high risk of life-threatening complications or disability. Neuralgia resistant to pharmacological treatment present in the course of ophthalmic zoster and difficulty in caring about skin lesions predispose to the occurrence of complications. PMID:26759550

  20. Transform domain steganography with blind source separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouny, Ismail

    2015-05-01

    This paper applies blind source separation or independent component analysis for images that may contain mixtures of text, audio, or other images for steganography purposes. The paper focuses on separating mixtures in the transform domain such as Fourier domain or the Wavelet domain. The study addresses the effectiveness of steganography when using linear mixtures of multimedia components and the ability of standard blind sources separation techniques to discern hidden multimedia messages. Mixing in the space, frequency, and wavelet (scale) domains is compared. Effectiveness is measured using mean square error rate between original and recovered images.

  1. Blind source separation theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xianchuan; Xu, Jindong

    2013-01-01

    A systematic exploration of both classic and contemporary algorithms in blind source separation with practical case studies    The book presents an overview of Blind Source Separation, a relatively new signal processing method.  Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the subject, the book has been written so as to appeal to an audience from very different backgrounds. Basic mathematical skills (e.g. on matrix algebra and foundations of probability theory) are essential in order to understand the algorithms, although the book is written in an introductory, accessible style. This book offers

  2. Measures to prevent global warming, and NEDO's energy-saving model projects; Chikyu ondanka boshi taisaku to NEDO sho energy model jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Described herein are United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the world AIJ (Activities Implemented Jointly) projects, and the Japan's measures and NEDO's energy-saving model projects therefor. NEDO has been inviting the public to join the contests for the projects to be implemented as part of the AIJ Japan program for the first time since April 1996. A total of 11 projects were adopted in July, including the model project for recovering heat from red-hot coke with inert gas, to be implemented by NEDO in China. After the first invitation, an individual proposal will be accepted and examined for which no time limit is set. The NEDO's model projects approved so far include demonstration studies on facilities for effective utilization of paper-making sludge, waste heat recovery at steel furnaces, energy-saving at electric furnaces for alloys, effective utilization of waste heat at garbage incinerators, and power saving at cement kilns. (NEDO)

  3. Enhancing Community Knowledge and Health Behaviors to Eliminate Blinding Trachoma in Mali Using Radio Messaging as a Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamani, Sanoussi; Toubali, Emily; Diarra, Sadio; Goita, Seydou; Berte, Zana; Coulibaly, Famolo; Sangare, Hama; Tuinsma, Marjon; Zhang, Yaobi; Dembele, Benoit; Melvin, Palesa; MacArthur, Chad

    2013-01-01

    The National Blindness Prevention Program in Mali has broadcast messages on the radio about trachoma as part of the country's trachoma elimination strategy since 2008. In 2011, a radio impact survey using multi-stage cluster sampling was conducted in the regions of Kayes and Segou to assess radio listening habits, coverage of the broadcasts,…

  4. Reductions in Transmission Risk Behaviors in HIV-Positive Clients Receiving Prevention Case Management Services: Findings from a Community Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiorowicz, Mari; Llanas, Michelle R.; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Benotsch, Eric G.; Brondino, Michael J.; Catz, Sheryl L.; Hoxie, Neil J.; Reiser, William J.; Vergeront, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Prevention case management (PCM) for HIV-infected persons is an HIV risk reduction intervention designed to assist clients who are aware of their HIV infection and who continue to engage in risk transmission behaviors. PCM combines individual risk reduction counseling with case management to address the psychosocial factors affecting HIV…

  5. An Evaluation of a Social Norms Marketing Project for Tobacco Prevention with Middle, High, and College Students; Use of Funds from the Tobacco Master Settlement (Virginia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino-Mcallister, Jeanne; Wessel, Maria Theresa

    2005-01-01

    The "Anti-Tobacco Media Blitz" (ATMB), a social-norms marketing program, was utilized for tobacco prevention with middle and high school students. University students assisted middle and high school students with the implementation of this campaign, which included a variety of media. Students worked in teams to design, develop, and evaluate…

  6. Effects of a community intervention on HIV prevention behaviors among men who experienced childhood sexual or physical abuse in four African settings: findings from NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Daniels

    Full Text Available There is increased focus on HIV prevention with African men who report experiencing childhood sexual (CSA or physical abuse (CPA.To better understand the effects of a community-based intervention (Project Accept HPTN 043 on HIV prevention behaviors among men who report CSA or CPA experiences.Project Accept compared a community-based voluntary mobile counseling and testing (CBVCT intervention with standard VCT. The intervention employed individual HIV risk reduction planning with motivational interviewing in 34 African communities (16 communities at 2 sites in South Africa, 10 in Tanzania, and 8 in Zimbabwe. Communities were randomized unblinded in matched pairs to CBVCT or SVCT, delivered over 36 months. The post-intervention assessment was conducted using a single, cross-sectional random survey of 18-32 year-old community members (total N = 43,292. We analyzed the effect of the intervention on men with reported CSA or CPA across the African sites. Men were identified with a survey question asking about having experienced CSA or CPA across the lifespan. The effect of intervention on considered outcomes of the preventive behavior was statistically evaluated using the logistic regression models.Across the sites, the rates of CSA or CPA among men indicated that African men reflected the global prevalence (20% with a range of 13-24%. The statistically significant effect of the intervention among these men was seen in their increased effort to receive their HIV test results (OR 2.71; CI: (1.08, 6.82; P: 0.034. The intervention effect on the other designated HIV prevention behaviors was less pronounced.The effect of the intervention on these men showed increased motivation to receive their HIV test results. However, more research is needed to understand the effects of community-based interventions on this group, and such interventions need to integrate other keys predictors of HIV including trauma, coping strategies, and intimate partner violence.

  7. Update of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 Trial: Preventing breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Victor G; Costantino, Joseph P; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Cronin, Walter M; Cecchini, Reena S; Atkins, James N; Bevers, Therese B; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Pajon, Eduardo R; Wade, James L; Robidoux, André; Margolese, Richard G; James, Joan; Runowicz, Carolyn D; Ganz, Patricia A; Reis, Steven E; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Ford, Leslie G; Jordan, V Craig; Wolmark, Norman

    2010-06-01

    The selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen became the first U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agent for reducing breast cancer risk but did not gain wide acceptance for prevention, largely because it increased endometrial cancer and thromboembolic events. The FDA approved the SERM raloxifene for breast cancer risk reduction following its demonstrated effectiveness in preventing invasive breast cancer in the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR). Raloxifene caused less toxicity (versus tamoxifen), including reduced thromboembolic events and endometrial cancer. In this report, we present an updated analysis with an 81-month median follow-up. STAR women were randomly assigned to receive either tamoxifen (20 mg/d) or raloxifene (60 mg/d) for 5 years. The risk ratio (RR; raloxifene:tamoxifen) for invasive breast cancer was 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.47) and for noninvasive disease, 1.22 (95% CI, 0.95-1.59). Compared with initial results, the RRs widened for invasive and narrowed for noninvasive breast cancer. Toxicity RRs (raloxifene:tamoxifen) were 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36-0.83; P = 0.003) for endometrial cancer (this difference was not significant in the initial results), 0.19 (95% CI, 0.12-0.29) for uterine hyperplasia, and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.60-0.93) for thromboembolic events. There were no significant mortality differences. Long-term raloxifene retained 76% of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in preventing invasive disease and grew closer over time to tamoxifen in preventing noninvasive disease, with far less toxicity (e.g., highly significantly less endometrial cancer). These results have important public health implications and clarify that both raloxifene and tamoxifen are good preventive choices for postmenopausal women with elevated risk for breast cancer.

  8. Prevention and Treatment of Reproductive Tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangLifang

    2005-01-01

    Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) prevention and treatment is one of the three major projects organized by the National Population and Family Planning Commission. The author, based on the practice of this project and the China/UNFPA reproductive health and family planning project, made some suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of the efforts made to prevent and treat RTIs.

  9. 澄江县重点街道艾滋病综合防治项目实施效果分析%Effect of HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Project in key Streets of Chengjiang Count

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚菊梅; 刘彩琼

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of interventions on the HIV/AIDS comprehensive prevention project of commu-nity streets, providing guidance for the county community AIDS prevention and treatment. Methods Through lecture, door-to-door campaigns, approved, radio and other forms, carring on the full cover AIDS knowledge publicity in the community, factories, schools, units and so on. 15% of local population were detected HIV antibody and intervention for patients with HIV and at the same time. Results Through the implementation of the project, the dragon street district residents were aware of knowledge about HIV/AIDS, awareness and prevention has obviously improved, detection rate of patients and peo-ple infected with HIV significantly decreased compared with the previous year. Conclusion Comprehensive AIDS commu-nities will help improve the government's Comprehensive AIDS prevention and treatment as well as residents of the AIDS prevention awareness, to prevent the spread of the disease is important.%目的:探讨社区街道艾滋病综合防治干预实施的效果,为全县社区艾滋病防治工作提供指导。方法通过讲座、入户宣传、板报、广播等形式,进社区、厂矿、学校、单位等进行全覆盖防艾知识宣传,对15%当地人口开展HIV抗体检测,同时对既往艾滋病感染者及患者实施干预。结果通过项目的实施,龙街辖区居民对艾滋病的认识和预防知识知晓率有明显提高,艾滋病(病毒)感染者及病人检出率与上1年相比明显下降。结论社区开展艾滋病综合防治有利于提高政府对艾滋病综合防治水平以及居民对艾滋病预防的知晓率,对防止病情传播具有重要意义。

  10. Warming Endotracheal Tube in Blind Nasotracheal Intubation throughout Maxillofacial Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Hosseinzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, our study showed that using an endotracheal tube softened by warm water could reduce the incidence and severity of epistaxis during blind nasotracheal intubation; however it could not facilitate blind nasotracheal intubation.

  11. Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Category All Advocacy Assessment/Evaluation Audio, Braille or ... Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Browse All Search Categories About the Directory Request ...

  12. If I am Blind or Deaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新颖

    2005-01-01

    For some time,l wished to be blind or deaf so that I could avoid the sight or the sound from having driven me mad.The majority of people must object the idea that the dark life maybe more beautiful than the life full of limitations and unhappiness.

  13. Vision after 53 Years of Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Šikl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that visual recovery after blindness that occurs early in life is never complete. The current study investigated whether an extremely long period of blindness might also cause a permanent impairment of visual performance, even in a case of adult-onset blindness. We examined KP, a 71-year-old man who underwent a successful sight-restoring operation after 53 years of blindness. A set of psychophysical tests designed to assess KP's face perception, object recognition, and visual space perception abilities were conducted six months and eight months after the surgery. The results demonstrate that regardless of a lengthy period of normal vision and rich pre-accident perceptual experience, KP did not fully integrate this experience, and his visual performance remained greatly compromised. This was particularly evident when the tasks targeted finer levels of perceptual processing. In addition to the decreased robustness of his memory representations, which was hypothesized as the main factor determining visual impairment, other factors that may have affected KP's performance were considered, including compromised visual functions, problems with perceptual organization, deficits in the simultaneous processing of visual information, and reduced cognitive abilities.

  14. Potentials of Rubella Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin F.

    Potentials of three classifications of rubella deaf blind children are discussed. Potentials for children at the middle trainable level and below are discussed for the areas of communication skills, daily living skills, mobility and orientation, vocational effort, and self-control and social interaction. For children in the upper trainable through…

  15. Usage of Blinds Software in Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Fatema El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2006-01-01

    The research reviews some of blinds software used in libraries, it reviews the following software : JAWS, Zoomtext, Kurzuail. Then deals the services offered by the software in libraries, these services are : pronouncing the written texts, printing in Brail method, educational software for computer, browsing the internet, and enlarging texts on the screen.

  16. Cognitive Development in Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Robert K.

    The paper reviews the literature and proposes a study on how nonlanguage deaf/blind children (ages 2 to 14) match and classify, the age at which the skills are reached, and the role of language in the process. The theories of J. Piaget and J. Bruner on the importance of language in stage development are explored. The Ss would be matched for age…

  17. CI-TAB: View for the Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Ken

    1979-01-01

    The article describes the development and content of a comprehensive career education program for blind elementary and secondary students. Eight areas are explored in the program: job search skills, job behavior, hygiene and grooming, purchase habits, budgeting, banking, home management, and health care. (CL)

  18. Blind quantum computing with weak coherent pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-18

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ϵ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ϵ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ϵ-blind UBQC for any ϵ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  19. Wavelet coherence analysis of change blindness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change blindness is the incapability of the brain to detect substantial visual changes in the presence of other visual interruption. The objectives of this study are to examine the EEG (Electroencephalographic) based changes in functional connectivity of the brain due to the change blindness. The functional connectivity was estimated using the wavelet-based MSC (Magnitude Square Coherence) function of ERPs (Event Related Potentials). The ERPs of 30 subjects were used and were recorded using the visual attention experiment in which subjects were instructed to detect changes in visual stimulus presented before them through the computer monitor. The two-way ANOVA statistical test revealed significant increase in both gamma and theta band MSCs, and significant decrease in beta band MSC for change detection trials. These findings imply that change blindness might be associated to the lack of functional connectivity in gamma and theta bands and increase of functional connectivity in beta band. Since gamma, theta, and beta frequency bands reflect different functions of cognitive process such as maintenance, encoding, retrieval, and matching and work load of VSTM (Visual Short Term Memory), the change in functional connectivity might be correlated to these cognitive processes during change blindness. (author)

  20. “Facoltà d’Amarsi”: when young people try to change the situation. Youth project as a tool for health communication and STD prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Massini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Since its discovery, AIDS has been a major pandemic infection. Nowadays, despite high levels of awareness, HIV infection is still one of the most complex phenomenon in our society and people, especially young people, don’t apply changes to reduce sexual risk behaviour to bring about prevention of HIV and AIDS. Condom use, particularly consistent use, is suboptimal in our communities. In our country, for Family Planning Worldwide 2008, just 38,3% of young people reported to use condoms. Monogamy and harmonious relationships play a positive role in young people and reduce their risk of HIV infection and such aspects of relationship contexts could form a significant part of the progressive strategies required for HIV-prevention interventions to be successful. Many prevention campaigns have been realized and in particular they try to explain the risk connected to HIV and give information about how to prevent infection and the infection’s course. The next generation of HIV prevention and risk reduction interventions should move beyond basic sex education and condom use / availability. Successful interventions must optimize strategies that support HIV risk reduction behaviours. Despite extensive behavioural research, current strategies have not resulted.

    Methods: In this article we explain why the old campaign didn’t work and why youth initiatives could be a possible answer to a prevention needs. We choose the method of peer education and scientific contents using transverse knowledge from expert of medicine, psychology and media science to face off at the needs of efficacy and reliability. 

    Results: The final sample is made by 271 students, 102 males, 164 females. 91,5% declare that had already sexual relations, instead 5,19% never had one. 38,% of sample affirm to use habitually condoms, 20,3% sometimes, 18,8% never used condoms

  1. Ferric carboxymaltose with or without erythropoietin for the prevention of red-cell transfusions in the perioperative period of osteoporotic hip fractures: a randomized contolled trial. The PAHFRAC-01 project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabeu-Wittel Máximo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around one third to one half of patients with hip fractures require red-cell pack transfusion. The increasing incidence of hip fracture has also raised the need for this scarce resource. Additionally, red-cell pack transfusions are not without complications which may involve excessive morbidity and mortality. This makes it necessary to develop blood-saving strategies. Our objective was to assess safety, efficacy, and cost-effictveness of combined treatment of i.v. ferric carboxymaltose and erythropoietin (EPOFE arm versus i.v. ferric carboxymaltose (FE arm versus a placebo (PLACEBO arm in reducing the percentage of patients who receive blood transfusions, as well as mortality in the perioperative period of hip fracture intervention. Methods/Design Multicentric, phase III, randomized, controlled, double blinded, parallel groups clinical trial. Patients > 65 years admitted to hospital with a hip fracture will be eligible to participate. Patients will be treated with either a single dosage of i.v. ferric carboxymaltose of 1 g and subcutaneous erythropoietin (40.000 IU, or i.v. ferric carboxymaltose and subcutaneous placebo, or i.v. placebo and subcutaneous placebo. Follow-up will be performed until 60 days after discharge, assessing transfusion needs, morbidity, mortality, safety, costs, and health-related quality of life. Intention to treat, as well as per protocol, and incremental cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed. The number of recruited patients per arm is set at 102, a total of 306 patients. Discussion We think that this trial will contribute to the knowledge about the safety and efficacy of ferric carboxymaltose with/without erythropoietin in preventing red-cell pack transfusions in patients with hip fracture. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01154491.

  2. 浅议水利工程投标阶段的风险管理与预控%On Risk Management and Prevention of Water Conservancy Project Tender Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建

    2014-01-01

    水利工程投标阶段主要风险包括经济风险、设备和材料采购风险、合同风险、自然与环境风险等,在工程投标过程中要有针对性地依据本企业自身情况及所投标项目的特点进行风险分析,采取相应的预控措施,为工程中标后的经营管理奠定良好的基础。本文对此加以介绍。%Main risks of water conservancy project tender stage include economic risk, equipment and material procurement risk,contract risk,natural and environmental risk,etc.Risks are analyzed in the project tender process in a targeted mode according to own enterprise condition and features of bidding project.Corresponding prevention measures are adopted,thereby laying good foundation for operation management after project bid winning.The condition is introduced in the paper.

  3. The sensory construction of dreams and nightmare frequency in congenitally blind and late blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaidi, Amani; Jennum, Poul; Ptito, Maurice;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess dream content in groups of congenitally blind (CB), late blind (LB), and age- and sex-matched sighted control (SC) participants. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of 11 CB, 14 LB, and 25 SC participants and collected dream reports over a 4-week period....... Every morning participants filled in a questionnaire related to the sensory construction of the dream, its emotional and thematic content, and the possible occurrence of nightmares. We also assessed participants' ability of visual imagery during waking cognition, sleep quality, and depression...... and anxiety levels. RESULTS: All blind participants had fewer visual dream impressions compared to SC participants. In LB participants, duration of blindness was negatively correlated with duration, clarity, and color content of visual dream impressions. CB participants reported more auditory, tactile...

  4. Need for optical and low vision services for children in schools for the blind in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Nikhil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Children admitted in blind schools need low vision assessment for improving functional vision (useful residual vision. Aim: To ascertain the need for spectacles and magnifiers as low vision devices (LVD in children with useful residual vision, attending blind schools. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study conducted in 13 blind schools in Delhi, North India. Materials and Methods: Of a total of 703 children (less than 16 years of age examined, 133 (18.91% with useful residual vision were refracted and analyzed. High addition plus lenses (range 5-30 diopters were used as spectacle magnifiers for near LVD assessment. "World health organization (WHO/ prevention of blindness (PBL eye examination record for children with blindness and low vision", was used to collect data. SPSS (statistical package for the social science, version 10.0 was used for analysis. Results: Based on the vision of 133 children at initial examination, 70.7% children were blind and 12.0% were severely visually impaired (SVI. 20.3% children improved by at least one WHO category of blindness after refraction. With best correction, 50.4% children were still blind and 13.5% were SVI. Visual acuity in the better eye after refraction in 47 children (35.3%, improved with spectacles. Children with aphakia (17, coloboma (5, refractive error (5 and microphthalmos (4 benefited from spectacles. Of 124 children with low vision but having useful residual vision, 51 (41.1% were able to read N-10 unaided or with distance spectacles and 30 children (22.6% improved to N-10 with spectacle magnifiers and were prescribed the same. Conclusion: Visually impaired children with aphakia and congenital anomalies of the eye benefit from refraction and low vision services.

  5. Employing the Church as a Marketer of Cancer Prevention: A Look at a Health Promotion Project Aimed to Reduce Colorectal Cancer Among African Americans in the Midwest

    OpenAIRE

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Coffey, Candice R.; Daley, Christine M; Greiner, K. Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show...

  6. The GENACIS project: a review of findings and some implications for global needs in women-focused substance abuse prevention and intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilsnack SC

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sharon C WilsnackDepartment of Clinical Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USAAbstract: Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS is a collaborative study of gender-related and cultural influences on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems of women and men. Members conduct comparative analyses of data from comparable general population surveys in 38 countries on five continents. This paper presents GENACIS findings that (1 age-related declines in drinking are uncommon outside North America and Europe; (2 groups of women at increased risk for hazardous drinking include women who cohabit, women with fewer social roles, more highly educated women in lower-income countries, and sexual minority women in North America; (3 heavier alcohol use shows strong and cross-culturally consistent associations with increased likelihood and severity of intimate partner violence; and (4 one effect or accompaniment of rapid social, economic, and gender-role change in traditional societies may be increased drinking among formerly abstinent women. These findings have potentially important implications for women-focused intervention and policy. Substance abuse services should include attention to middle-aged and older women, who may have different risk factors, symptoms, and treatment issues than their younger counterparts. Creative, targeted prevention is needed for high-risk groups of women. Programs to reduce violence between intimate partners must include attention to the pervasive role of alcohol use in intimate partner aggression. Social and economic empowerment of women, together with social marketing of norms of abstention or low-risk drinking, may help prevent increased hazardous alcohol use among women in countries undergoing rapid social change. Greater attention to effects of gender, culture, and their interactions can inform the design of more effective prevention

  7. Perbandingan Efektivitas Ishihara Colour Blind Test dan Farnsworth Munsell Colour Blind Test di Fakuktas di Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Sumatera Utara Tahun 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Indriati, Dwi Meutia

    2015-01-01

    Colour blindness is a disease caused by the inability of cone cells to capture a certain colour spectrum. Colour blindness is generally more contained on the male than the females with a 20:1 ratio. Colour blindness can be diagnosed with several test which Ishihar Colour Blind Test and Farnworth Munsell Colour Blind Test. The purpose of this research was to see a comparison the effectiveness between Ishihara Colour Blind Test with Farmsworth Munsell Colour Blind Test at the Faculty Dentist...

  8. Ya "See" What We Mean: Teaching the Blind to Ski.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Doug; Winthers, Jim

    The illustrated manual contains instructions for teaching blind and partially sighted students to ski. It is noted that blind students should be coached, instructed, and encouraged in the same manner as sighted students although additional safety precautions should be employed. Psychological implications for the blind student learning to ski are…

  9. Restrictive partially blind signature for resource-constrained information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Weidong; Gong, Zheng; Liu, Bozhong; Long, Yu; Chen, Kefei

    2010-01-01

    Restrictive partially blind signature, which is designed for privacy oriented information systems, allows a user to obtain a blind signature from a signer whilst the blind message must obey some certain rules. In order to reduce storage and communication costs, several public-key cryptosystems are c

  10. What do colour-blind people really see?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Problem: colour perception of dichromats (colour-blind persons) Background: Various models have been proposed (e. g. Walraven & Alferdinck, 1997; Brettel et al. , 1997) to model reduced colour vision of colour-blind people. It is clear that colour-blind people cannot distinguish certain object colou

  11. Characteristics of Individuals with Congenital and Acquired Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Dawn M.; Hirdes, John P.; Stolee, Paul; Strong, J. Graham; Poss, Jeff; Tjam, Erin Y.; Bowman, Lindsay; Ashworth, Melody

    2009-01-01

    Using a standardized assessment instrument, the authors compared 182 adults with congenital deaf-blindness and those with acquired deaf-blindness. They found that those with congenital deaf-blindness were more likely to have impairments in cognition, activities of daily living, and social interactions and were less likely to use speech for…

  12. 42 CFR 435.531 - Determinations of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determinations of blindness. 435.531 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Blindness § 435.531 Determinations of blindness. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, in determining blindness— (1)...

  13. OUR BLIND CHILDREN, GROWING AND LEARNING WITH THEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOWENFELD, BERTHOLD

    WRITTEN AS AN AID TO PARENTS, THIS BOOK PRESENTS FACTS ON BLINDNESS AND PRACTICAL INFORMATION ON THE REARING OF BLIND CHILDREN FROM INFANCY THROUGH ADOLESCENCE. INFORMATION IS GIVEN ABOUT TEACHING BLIND CHILDREN SKILLS AND HABITS RELATED TO EATING, TOILET TRAINING, SLEEPING, DRESSING, WALKING, TALKING, AND PLAYING. SCHOOLING AND RELATED QUESTIONS…

  14. Efficacy of Non-Pharmacological Interventions to Prevent and Treat Delirium in Older Patients: A Systematic Overview. The SENATOR project ONTOP Series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosief Abraha

    Full Text Available Non-pharmacological intervention (e.g. multidisciplinary interventions, music therapy, bright light therapy, educational interventions etc. are alternative interventions that can be used in older subjects. There are plenty reviews of non-pharmacological interventions for the prevention and treatment of delirium in older patients and clinicians need a synthesized, methodologically sound document for their decision making.We performed a systematic overview of systematic reviews (SRs of comparative studies concerning non-pharmacological intervention to treat or prevent delirium in older patients. The PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, CINHAL, and PsychINFO (April 28th, 2014 were searched for relevant articles. AMSTAR was used to assess the quality of the SRs. The GRADE approach was used to assess the quality of primary studies. The elements of the multicomponent interventions were identified and compared among different studies to explore the possibility of performing a meta-analysis. Risk ratios were estimated using a random-effects model. Twenty-four SRs with 31 primary studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Based on the AMSTAR criteria twelve reviews resulted of moderate quality and three resulted of high quality. Overall, multicomponent non-pharmacological interventions significantly reduced the incidence of delirium in surgical wards [2 randomized trials (RCTs: relative risk (RR 0.71, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.59 to 0.86, I2=0%; (GRADE evidence: moderate] and in medical wards [2 CCTs: RR 0.65, 95%CI 0.49 to 0.86, I2=0%; (GRADE evidence: moderate]. There is no evidence supporting the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions to prevent delirium in low risk populations (i.e. low rate of delirium in the control group[1 RCT: RR 1.75, 95%CI 0.50 to 6.10 (GRADE evidence: very low]. For patients who have developed delirium, the available evidence does not support the efficacy of multicomponent non

  15. News | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    News about scientific advances in cancer prevention, program activities, and new projects are included here in NCI press releases and fact sheets, articles from the NCI Cancer Bulletin, and Clinical Trial News from the NCI website.

  16. Comparison of Quality of Life and Social Skills between Students with Visual Problems (Blind and Partially Blind) and Normal Students

    OpenAIRE

    Fereshteh Kordestani; Azam Daneshfar; Davood Roustaee

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the quality of life and social skills between students who are visually impaired (blind and partially blind) and normal students. The population consisted of all students with visual problems (blind and partially blind) and normal students in secondary schools in Tehran in the academic year 2013-2014. Using a multi-stage random sampling method, 40 students were selected from each group. The SF-36s quality of life questionnaire and Foster and Inderbitzen social skil...

  17. The HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project. Using a web-based medium to influence attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention for obesity and type 2 diabetes prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Henna; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Castelli, Darla M; Scherer, Jane A

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs (behavioral belief, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, knowledge and behavioral intention) regarding preventive behaviors for obesity and type 2 diabetes will change favorably after completing the web-based intervention, HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project, grounded in the TPB; and that passive online learning (POL) group will improve more than the active online learning (AOL) group. The secondary hypothesis was to determine to what extent constructs of the TPB predict intentions. 216 adolescents were recruited, 127 randomly allocated to the treatment group (AOL) and 89 to the control group (POL). The subjects completed a TPB questionnaire pre and post intervention. Both POL and AOL groups showed significant improvements from pretest to posttest survey. However, the results indicated no significant difference between POL and AOL for all constructs except behavioral belief. Correlational analysis indicated that all TPB constructs were significantly correlated with intentions for pretest and posttest for both groups. Attitude and behavioral control showed strongest correlations. Regression analysis indicated that TPB constructs were predictive of intentions and the predictive power improved post intervention. Behavioral control consistently predicted intentions for all categories and was the strongest predictor for pretest scores. For posttest scores, knowledge and attitude were the strongest predictors for POL and AOL groups respectively. Thus, HOT project improved knowledge and the TPB constructs scores for targeted behaviors, healthy eating and physical activity, for prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24099704

  18. Audio-Haptic Internet Browser and Associated Tools for Blind Users and Visually Impaired Computer Users

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Patrick; Petrucci, Lori Stefano; Assimacopoulos, André; Pun, Thierry

    2000-01-01

    In the Internet world, the widespread use of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) increasingly bars visually handicapped people from accessing digital information. In this context our project aims at providing sight handicapped people with alternative access modalities to various types of GUIs and graphic intensive programs, in order for instance to facilitate usage of Web services. We describe in this paper AB-Web, a 3D-audio Web browser that allows blind computer users to explore Web pages, fil...

  19. 20 CFR 416.981 - Meaning of blindness as defined in the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of blindness as defined in the law... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.981 Meaning of blindness as defined in the law. We will consider you blind under the law for payment...

  20. Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson

    2008-03-14

    The Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe is a federally recognized Tribe residing on the Pyramid Lake Reservation in western Nevada. The funding for this project was used to identify blind geothermal systems disconnected from geothermal sacred sites and develop a Tribal energy corporation for evaluating potential economic development for profit.

  1. Prevention of hypertension in patients with pre-hypertension: protocol for the PREVER-prevention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto José

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood pressure (BP within pre-hypertensive levels confers higher cardiovascular risk and is an intermediate stage for full hypertension, which develops in an annual rate of 7 out of 100 individuals with 40 to 50 years of age. Non-drug interventions to prevent hypertension have had low effectiveness. In individuals with previous cardiovascular disease or diabetes, the use of BP-lowering agents reduces the incidence of major cardiovascular events. In the absence of higher baseline risk, the use of BP agents reduces the incidence of hypertension. The PREVER-prevention trial aims to investigate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of a population-based intervention to prevent the incidence of hypertension and the development of target-organ damage. Methods This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, with participants aged 30 to 70 years, with pre-hypertension. The trial arms will be chlorthalidone 12.5 mg plus amiloride 2.5 mg or identical placebo. The primary outcomes will be the incidence of hypertension, adverse events and development or worsening of microalbuminuria and of left ventricular hypertrophy in the EKG. The secondary outcomes will be fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular events: myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, evidence of new sub-clinical atherosclerosis, and sudden death. The study will last 18 months. The sample size was calculated on the basis of an incidence of hypertension of 14% in the control group, a size effect of 40%, power of 85% and P alpha of 5%, resulting in 625 participants per group. The project was approved by the Ethics committee of each participating institution. Discussion The early use of blood pressure-lowering drugs, particularly diuretics, which act on the main mechanism of blood pressure rising with age, may prevent cardiovascular events and the incidence of hypertension in individuals with hypertension. If this intervention shows to be effective and safe

  2. Sensing Structures Inspired by Blind Cave Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Michael E.; Chen, Nannan; Lu, David; Anderson, Kyle D.; Hu, Huan; Liu, Chang; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-03-01

    Blind cave fish, with degenerated non-functioning eyes, have evolved to ``see'' their hydrodynamic environment by using the flow receptors of the lateral line system. The hair-cell receptors are encapsulated in a hydrogel-like material, called a cupula, which increases the sensitivity of the hair-cell receptors by coupling their motion to the surrounding flowing media. We characterized the viscoelastic properties and of blind cave fish cupulae by using colloidal-probe spectroscopy in fluid. A photo-patternable hydrogel with similar properties was developed to mimic the fish receptor coupling structure. Flow-based measurements indicated that the hydrogels enhance drag through increased surface area, but also inherent material properties. These bio-inspired structures endowed micro-fabricated flow sensors with sensitivities rivaling that of fish.

  3. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  4. Blind Stereoscopy of the Coronal Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Aschwanden, Markus J; Malanushenko, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We test the feasibility of 3D coronal-loop tracing in stereoscopic EUV image pairs, with the ultimate goal of enabling efficient 3D reconstruction of the coronal magnetic field that drives flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We developed an automated code designed to perform triangulation of coronal loops in pairs (or triplets) of EUV images recorded from different perspectives. The automated (or blind) stereoscopy code includes three major tasks: (i) automated pattern recognition of coronal loops in EUV images, (ii) automated pairing of corresponding loop patterns from two different aspect angles, and (iii) stereoscopic triangulation of 3D loop coordinates. We perform tests with simulated stereoscopic EUV images and quantify the accuracy of all three procedures. In addition we test the performance of the blind stereoscopy code as a function of the spacecraft-separation angle and as a function of the spatial resolution. We also test the sensitivity to magnetic non-potentiality. The automated code develo...

  5. Autobiographic narratives of congenital blind people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out in Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, intended at investigating, together with men and women who suffer from congenital visual impairment, how they felt about diversity, body image, self-esteem and vanity. The investigation of autobiographical accounts was the option for this study. Initially, 20 (twenty interviews were analyzed and 6 (six autobiographical accounts, selected from the peculiarities of each single interviewee – each one containing his/her single life lessons - followed suit. The conclusion reached is that the subjects had undergone an exhausting process of acceptance of their own impairment. If, on the one hand, the blindness comes with angst, uncertainties, and many difficulties, on the other hand, these circumstances lead the blind to face the ups and downs of life with courage, determination and will to live. Surprisingly, in the study the body was not approached at a source of concern or are which should be emphasized.

  6. Blind Estimation of Multiple Carrier Frequency Offsets

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yuanning; Poor, H Vincent; Koivunen, Visa

    2007-01-01

    Multiple carrier-frequency offsets (CFO) arise in a distributed antenna system, where data are transmitted simultaneously from multiple antennas. In such systems the received signal contains multiple CFOs due to mismatch between the local oscillators of transmitters and receiver. This results in a time-varying rotation of the data constellation, which needs to be compensated for at the receiver before symbol recovery. This paper proposes a new approach for blind CFO estimation and symbol recovery. The received base-band signal is over-sampled, and its polyphase components are used to formulate a virtual Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) problem. By applying blind MIMO system estimation techniques, the system response is estimated and used to subsequently transform the multiple CFOs estimation problem into many independent single CFO estimation problems. Furthermore, an initial estimate of the CFO is obtained from the phase of the MIMO system response. The Cramer-Rao Lower bound is also derived, and the la...

  7. Experimental Demonstration of Blind Quantum Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Barz, Stefanie; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to provide the possibility of preserving the privacy of a computation. Here we show the first such experimental demonstration of blind quantum computation where the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. We demonstrate various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover algorithms. Remarkably, the client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for future unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  8. Sociocultural theory and blind taste-tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Paul Gee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his entertaining 1986 book, The Real Coke, the Real Story, Thomas Oliver tells the story of the now infamous “New Coke”, a story retold in Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005 best-seller Blink. In the early 1980s, Pepsi began running commercials in which people took a sip from two glasses, not knowing which was Coke and which Pepsi. The majority preferred Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company replicated these blind taste-tests and found the same result. Losing market share, Coke—long the dominant brand—changed its old formula and came out with “New Coke”, a soda made to a new formula, one that in a new round of blind taste-tests came out above Pepsi. But New Coke was a disaster.Consumers hated it. Coke not only returned to its old formula, but Pepsi never did overtake Coke, which remains today the dominant brand world-wide.

  9. The blind loop syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, B A; Karrer, F M; Hall, R J; Lilly, J R

    1990-08-01

    Anatomical abnormalities of the small bowel that cause intestinal stagnation result in bacterial overgrowth and a blind loop syndrome (BLS). Bacterial breakdown of bile salts and deamination of protein lead to malabsorption, steatorrhea, and fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies. Four children developed BLS as a complication of necrotizing enterocolitis, jejunal atresia, gastroschisis, and biliary atresia. BLS was suggested by abdominal pain, feculent vomiting, steatorrhea, and hypoalbuminemia. Dilated, stagnant bowel loops were demonstrated in each instance by upper gastrointestinal contrast study. Positive intestinal bacterial aspirates were confirmatory. Antibiotic treatment in two patients improved symptomatology but all children ultimately required surgery. Surgical procedures consisted of blind loop resection, intestinal plication, and catheterization of the bilioenteric conduit. All patients are now asymptomatic but one child suffers from parenteral nutrition-related cirrhosis and another requires chronic antibiotic therapy.

  10. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent

  11. BLIND NASAL INTUBATION IN CRANIOROFACIAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R.DavidThakaran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Restricted mouth opening presents one of the greatest challenges to the anesthetist for endotracheal intubation and ventilation. Awake blind nasal intubation has been one of the finest and favored techniques for intubation in previous decades for restricted mouth opening patients. A coordinated team approach, monitoring and adequate counseling of the patient is mandatory for the airway management to carry out a safe surgical procedure

  12. Making Visual Maps Accessible to the Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Buzzi, Maria Claudia; Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara; Martusciello, Loredana

    2011-01-01

    Visual maps deliver content in a simple and effective way. They can be useful for various purposes in areas such as street guidance, surrounding information, and education. However, sightless persons are unable to explore visual maps and risk being cut off from several multimedia Web applications. In this paper, starting from accessibility issues of map-based applications, we discuss possible interaction modalities and devices to use for truly achieving usage perspectives desired by blind peo...

  13. Blind recognition of punctured convolutional codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Peizhong; LI Shen; ZOU Yan; LUO Xiangyang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for blind recognition of punctured convolutional codes which is an important problem in adaptive modulation and coding. For a given finite sequence of convolutional code, the parity check matrix of the convolutional code is first computed by solving a linear system with adequate error tolerance. Then a minimal basic encoding matrix of the original convolutional code and its puncturing pattern are determined according to the known parity check matrix of the punctured convolutional code.

  14. Blind surveys for radio pulsars and transients

    OpenAIRE

    Lorimer, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    The main reasons for searching for pulsars are to: (i) get an accurate census of the neutron star population and its origin and evolution; (ii) connect neutron stars to other stellar populations in the Galaxy and globular clusters; (iii) study Galactic astronomy (the interstellar medium and magnetic field); (iv) find and study new interesting individual objects; (v) study pulsar phenomenology; (vi) find pulsars to add to the sensitivity of pulsar timing arrays. This review focuses on blind (i...

  15. Broadband Venetian Blind polarizer with dual vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Bruce L.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Imbriale, William A.

    1993-05-01

    During development of a Venetian Blind polarizer, high reflections and substantial pattern deformation were noted. Analysis showed that when the polarizer was illuminated slightly off axis, a degenerate mode was excited. This mode is resonant at the design center frequency, and was the cause of the problems. A design developed using dual vanes has been shown to be free of the problem. It also has greater bandwidth.

  16. Blind Source Separation: the Sparsity Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bobin, J.; Starck, Jean-Luc; Moudden, Y.; Fadili, Jalal M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few years, the development of multi-channel sensors motivated interest in methods for the coherent processing of multivariate data. Some specific issues have already been addressed as testified by the wide literature on the so-called blind source separation (BSS) problem. In this context, as clearly emphasized by previous work, it is fundamental that the sources to be retrieved present some quantitatively measurable diversity. Recently, sparsity and morphological diversity have ...

  17. Application of Array Measurement in Blind Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 孙连明; 刘文江

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with blind identification and deconvolution algorithm for an arbitrary, possibly white or colored, stationary or nonstationary signal, which is observed through array sensors. By using multiple sensors with their individual outputs sampled at a rate 1/T, one can obtain cyclostationary signals. They can be considered as a single-input multiple-output model with an identical but unknown input signal. With the array measurement, an algorithm for estimating the system transfer function model and its parameters is presented.

  18. Change blindness: eradication of gestalt strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Steve; Goddard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Arrays of eight, texture-defined rectangles were used as stimuli in a one-shot change blindness (CB) task where there was a 50% chance that one rectangle would change orientation between two successive presentations separated by an interval. CB was eliminated by cueing the target rectangle in the first stimulus, reduced by cueing in the interval and unaffected by cueing in the second presentation. This supports the idea that a representation was formed that persisted through the interval befo...

  19. Development and Two-Year Follow-Up Evaluation of a Training Workshop for the Large Preventive Positive Psychology Happy Family Kitchen Project in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Agnes Y; Mui, Moses W; Wan, Alice; Stewart, Sunita M; Yew, Carol; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based practice and capacity-building approaches are essential for large-scale health promotion interventions. However, there are few models in the literature to guide and evaluate training of social service workers in community settings. This paper presents the development and evaluation of the "train-the-trainer" workshop (TTT) for the first large scale, community-based, family intervention projects, entitled "Happy Family Kitchen Project" (HFK) under the FAMILY project, a Hong Kong Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society. The workshop aimed to enhance social workers' competence and performance in applying positive psychology constructs in their family interventions under HFK to improve family well-being of the community they served. The two-day TTT was developed and implemented by a multidisciplinary team in partnership with community agencies to 50 social workers (64% women). It focused on the enhancement of knowledge, attitude, and practice of five specific positive psychology themes, which were the basis for the subsequent development of the 23 family interventions for 1419 participants. Acceptability and applicability were enhanced by completing a needs assessment prior to the training. The TTT was evaluated by trainees' reactions to the training content and design, changes in learners (trainees) and benefits to the service organizations. Focus group interviews to evaluate the workshop at three months after the training, and questionnaire survey at pre-training, immediately after, six months, one year and two years after training were conducted. There were statistically significant increases with large to moderate effect size in perceived knowledge, self-efficacy and practice after training, which sustained to 2-year follow-up. Furthermore, there were statistically significant improvements in family communication and well-being of the participants in the HFK interventions they implemented after training. This paper offers a practical example

  20. Development and Two-Year Follow-Up Evaluation of a Training Workshop for the Large Preventive Positive Psychology Happy Family Kitchen Project in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Y Lai

    Full Text Available Evidence-based practice and capacity-building approaches are essential for large-scale health promotion interventions. However, there are few models in the literature to guide and evaluate training of social service workers in community settings. This paper presents the development and evaluation of the "train-the-trainer" workshop (TTT for the first large scale, community-based, family intervention projects, entitled "Happy Family Kitchen Project" (HFK under the FAMILY project, a Hong Kong Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society. The workshop aimed to enhance social workers' competence and performance in applying positive psychology constructs in their family interventions under HFK to improve family well-being of the community they served. The two-day TTT was developed and implemented by a multidisciplinary team in partnership with community agencies to 50 social workers (64% women. It focused on the enhancement of knowledge, attitude, and practice of five specific positive psychology themes, which were the basis for the subsequent development of the 23 family interventions for 1419 participants. Acceptability and applicability were enhanced by completing a needs assessment prior to the training. The TTT was evaluated by trainees' reactions to the training content and design, changes in learners (trainees and benefits to the service organizations. Focus group interviews to evaluate the workshop at three months after the training, and questionnaire survey at pre-training, immediately after, six months, one year and two years after training were conducted. There were statistically significant increases with large to moderate effect size in perceived knowledge, self-efficacy and practice after training, which sustained to 2-year follow-up. Furthermore, there were statistically significant improvements in family communication and well-being of the participants in the HFK interventions they implemented after training. This paper offers a