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Sample records for blinded reference arm

  1. Reference trajectory tracking for a multi-DOF robot arm

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    Krasňanský Róbert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of tracking the generated reference trajectory by the simulation model of a multi-DOF robot arm. The kinematic transformation between task space and joint configuration coordinates is nonlinear and configuration dependent. To obtain the solution of the forward kinematics problem, the homogeneous transformation matrix is used. A solution to the inverse kinematics is a vector of joint configuration coordinates calculated using of pseudoinverse Jacobian technique. These coordinates correspond to a set of task space coordinates. The algorithm is presented which uses iterative solution and is simplified by considering stepper motors in robot arm joints. The reference trajectory in Cartesian coordinate system is generated on-line by the signal generator previously developed in MS Excel. Dynamic Data Exchange communication protocol allows sharing data with Matlab-Simulink. These data represent the reference tracking trajectory of the end effector. Matlab-Simulink software is used to calculate the representative joint rotations. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated experimentally on the model of 7-DOF robot arm system.

  2. Lexical references to sensory modalities in verbal descriptions of people and objects by congenitally blind, late blind and sighted adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvey, Valérie; Hatwell, Yvette; Verine, Bertrand; Kaminski, Gwenael; Gentaz, Edouard

    2012-01-01

    Some previous studies have revealed that while congenitally blind people have a tendency to refer to visual attributes ('verbalism'), references to auditory and tactile attributes are scarcer. However, this statement may be challenged by current theories claiming that cognition is linked to the perceptions and actions from which it derives. Verbal productions by the blind could therefore differ from those of the sighted because of their specific perceptual experience. The relative weight of each sense in oral descriptions was compared in three groups with different visual experience Congenitally blind (CB), late blind (LB) and blindfolded sighted (BS) adults. Participants were asked to give an oral description of their mother and their father, and of four familiar manually-explored objects. The number of visual references obtained when describing people was relatively high, and was the same in the CB and BS groups ("verbalism" in the CB). While references to touch were scarce in all groups, the CB referred to audition more frequently than the LB and the BS groups. There were, by contrast, no differences between groups in descriptions of objects, and references to touch dominated the other modalities. The relative weight of each modality varies according to the cognitive processes involved in each task. Long term memory, internal representations and information acquired through social communication, are at work in the People task, seem to favour visual references in both the blind and the sighted, whereas the congenitally blind also refer often to audition. By contrast, the perceptual encoding and working memory at work in the Objects task enhance sensory references to touch in a similar way in all groups. These results attenuate the impact of verbalism in blindness, and support (albeit moderately) the idea that the perceptual experience of the congenitally blind is to some extent reflected in their cognition.

  3. Lexical references to sensory modalities in verbal descriptions of people and objects by congenitally blind, late blind and sighted adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Chauvey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some previous studies have revealed that while congenitally blind people have a tendency to refer to visual attributes ('verbalism', references to auditory and tactile attributes are scarcer. However, this statement may be challenged by current theories claiming that cognition is linked to the perceptions and actions from which it derives. Verbal productions by the blind could therefore differ from those of the sighted because of their specific perceptual experience. The relative weight of each sense in oral descriptions was compared in three groups with different visual experience Congenitally blind (CB, late blind (LB and blindfolded sighted (BS adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants were asked to give an oral description of their mother and their father, and of four familiar manually-explored objects. The number of visual references obtained when describing people was relatively high, and was the same in the CB and BS groups ("verbalism" in the CB. While references to touch were scarce in all groups, the CB referred to audition more frequently than the LB and the BS groups. There were, by contrast, no differences between groups in descriptions of objects, and references to touch dominated the other modalities. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The relative weight of each modality varies according to the cognitive processes involved in each task. Long term memory, internal representations and information acquired through social communication, are at work in the People task, seem to favour visual references in both the blind and the sighted, whereas the congenitally blind also refer often to audition. By contrast, the perceptual encoding and working memory at work in the Objects task enhance sensory references to touch in a similar way in all groups. These results attenuate the impact of verbalism in blindness, and support (albeit moderately the idea that the perceptual experience of the congenitally blind is to some extent

  4. Lexical References to Sensory Modalities in Verbal Descriptions of People and Objects by Congenitally Blind, Late Blind and Sighted Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chauvey, Valérie; Hatwell, Yvette; Verine, Bertrand; Kaminski, Gwenael; Gentaz, Edouard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some previous studies have revealed that while congenitally blind people have a tendency to refer to visual attributes (‘verbalism'), references to auditory and tactile attributes are scarcer. However, this statement may be challenged by current theories claiming that cognition is linked to the perceptions and actions from which it derives. Verbal productions by the blind could therefore differ from those of the sighted because of their specific perceptual experience. The relative...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... collapse boxes. Description Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this condition typically have difficulty seeing ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked congenital stationary night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... collapse boxes. Description X-linked congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this condition typically have difficulty seeing ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... collapse boxes. Description Autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this condition typically have difficulty seeing ...

  8. Use of an Eight-arm Radial Water Maze to Assess Working and Reference Memory Following Neonatal Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Penley, Stephanie C.; Gaudet, Cynthia M.; Threlkeld, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Working and reference memory are commonly assessed using the land based radial arm maze. However, this paradigm requires pretraining, food deprivation, and may introduce scent cue confounds. The eight-arm radial water maze is designed to evaluate reference and working memory performance simultaneously by requiring subjects to use extra-maze cues to locate escape platforms and remedies the limitations observed in land based radial arm maze designs. Specifically, subjects are required to avoid ...

  9. Use of an eight-arm radial water maze to assess working and reference memory following neonatal brain injury.

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    Penley, Stephanie C; Gaudet, Cynthia M; Threlkeld, Steven W

    2013-12-04

    Working and reference memory are commonly assessed using the land based radial arm maze. However, this paradigm requires pretraining, food deprivation, and may introduce scent cue confounds. The eight-arm radial water maze is designed to evaluate reference and working memory performance simultaneously by requiring subjects to use extra-maze cues to locate escape platforms and remedies the limitations observed in land based radial arm maze designs. Specifically, subjects are required to avoid the arms previously used for escape during each testing day (working memory) as well as avoid the fixed arms, which never contain escape platforms (reference memory). Re-entries into arms that have already been used for escape during a testing session (and thus the escape platform has been removed) and re-entries into reference memory arms are indicative of working memory deficits. Alternatively, first entries into reference memory arms are indicative of reference memory deficits. We used this maze to compare performance of rats with neonatal brain injury and sham controls following induction of hypoxia-ischemia and show significant deficits in both working and reference memory after eleven days of testing. This protocol could be easily modified to examine many other models of learning impairment.

  10. Forming positive-negative images using conditioned partial measurements from reference arm in ghost imaging.

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    Wen, Jianming

    2012-09-01

    A recent thermal ghost imaging experiment implemented in Wu's group [Chin. Phys. Lett. 279, 074216 (2012)] showed that both positive and negative images can be constructed by applying a novel algorithm. This algorithm allows us to form the images with the use of partial measurements from the reference arm (even which never passes through the object), conditioned on the object arm. In this paper, we present a simple theory that explains the experimental observation and provides an in-depth understanding of conventional ghost imaging. In particular, we theoretically show that the visibility of formed images through such an algorithm is not bounded by the standard value 1/3. In fact, it can ideally grow up to unity (with reduced imaging quality). Thus, the algorithm described here not only offers an alternative way to decode spatial correlation of thermal light, but also mimics a "bandpass filter" to remove the constant background such that the visibility or imaging contrast is improved. We further show that conditioned on one still object present in the test arm, it is possible to construct the object's image by sampling the available reference data.

  11. Use of the mini C-arm for wrist fractures - Establishing a diagnostic reference level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, G. J.; Pillai, A.; Gibson, S.

    2008-01-01

    The establishment of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for all typical radiological examinations became mandatory following the implementation of the Ionising Radiations (Medical Exposure) Regulations Act 2000. At present, there are no national dosage guidelines in the UK regarding use of fluoroscopy in orthopaedic trauma. The increasing popularity of the mini C-arm image intensifier amongst surgeons has led to concerns regarding use of ionizing radiation by personnel who have not been trained in radiation protection. It is therefore essential to have formal protocols for use of the mini C-arm to comply with the law and to maintain safe clinical practice. It is attempted to provide dose data for wrist fracture manipulations that may be used as a basis for setting a DRL for this procedure. Screening times were recorded for 80 wrist manipulations in a fracture clinic setting using a mini C-arm image intensifier. A DRL was set using the third quartile value for screening time. The median screening time for wrist fractures was 20 s with a range from 1 to 177 s. The third quartile value for screening time was 34 s. This value can be used as a provisional DRL for wrist fracture manipulations. The DRL is a quantitative guide for the optimisation of radiological protection. IR(ME)R 2000 states that if it is consistently exceeded by an individual operator or a piece of equipment, investigation and remedial action must be taken. We recommend that trauma units establish their own local DRLs for common procedures as made mandatory by legislation. (authors)

  12. Impairment-oriented training or Bobath therapy for severe arm paresis after stroke: a single-blind, multicentre randomized controlled trial.

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    Platz, T; Eickhof, C; van Kaick, S; Engel, U; Pinkowski, C; Kalok, S; Pause, M

    2005-10-01

    To study the effects of augmented exercise therapy time for arm rehabilitation as either Bobath therapy or the impairment-oriented training (Arm BASIS training) in stroke patients with arm severe paresis. Single blind, multicentre randomized control trial. Three inpatient neurorehabilitation centres. Sixty-two anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients. Random assignment to three group: (A) no augmented exercise therapy time, (B) augmented exercise therapy time as Bobath therapy and (C) augmented exercise therapy time as Arm BASIS training. Fugl-Meyer arm motor score. Secondary measure: Action Research Arm Test (ARA). Ancillary measures: Fugl-Meyer arm sensation and joint motion/pain scores and the Ashworth Scale (elbow flexors). An overall effect of augmented exercise therapy time on Fugl-Meyer scores after four weeks was not corroborated (mean and 95% confidence interval (CI) of change scores: no augmented exercise therapy time (n=20) 8.8, 5.2-12.3; augmented exercise therapy time (n=40) 9.9, 6.8-13.9; p = 0.2657). The group who received the augmented exercise therapy time as Arm BASIS training (n=20) had, however, higher gains than the group receiving the augmented exercise therapy time as Bobath therapy (n=20) (mean and 95% CI of change scores: Bobath 7.2, 2.6-11.8; BASIS 12.6, 8.4-16.8; p = 0.0432). Passive joint motion/pain deteriorated less in the group who received BASIS training (mean and 95% CI of change scores: Bobath -3.2, -5.2 to -1.1; BASIS 0.1, -1.8-2.0; p = 0.0090). ARA, Fugl-Meyer arm sensation, and Ashworth Scale scores were not differentially affected. The augmented exercise therapy time as Arm BASIS training enhanced selective motor control. Type of training was more relevant for recovery of motor control than therapeutic time spent.

  13. Blind Synchronization in Asynchronous UWB Networks Based on the Transmit-Reference Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leus Geert

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-wideband (UWB wireless communication systems are based on the transmission of extremely narrow pulses, with a duration inferior to a nanosecond. The application of transmit reference (TR to UWB systems allows to side-step channel estimation at the receiver, with a tradeoff of the effective transmission bandwidth, which is reduced by the usage of a reference pulse. Similar to CDMA systems, different users can share the same available bandwidth by means of different spreading codes. This allows the receiver to separate users, and to recover the timing information of the transmitted data packets. The nature of UWB transmissions—short, burst-like packets—requires a fast synchronization algorithm, that can accommodate several asynchronous users. Exploiting the fact that a shift in time corresponds to a phase rotation in the frequency domain, a blind and computationally effcient synchronization algorithm that takes advantage of the shift invariance structure in the frequency domain is proposed in this paper. Integer and fractional delay estimations are considered, along with a subsequent symbol estimation step. This results in a collision-avoiding multiuser algorithm, readily applicable to a fast acquisition procedure in a UWB ad hoc network.

  14. Digital holography based on multiwavelength spatial-bandwidth-extended capturing-technique using a reference arm (Multi-SPECTRA).

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    Tahara, Tatsuki; Kaku, Toru; Arai, Yasuhiko

    2014-12-01

    Single-shot digital holography based on multiwavelength spatial-bandwidth-extended capturing-technique using a reference arm (Multi-SPECTRA) is proposed. Both amplitude and quantitative phase distributions of waves containing multiple wavelengths are simultaneously recorded with a single reference arm in a single monochromatic image. Then, multiple wavelength information is separately extracted in the spatial frequency domain. The crosstalk between the object waves with different wavelengths is avoided and the number of wavelengths recorded with both a single-shot exposure and no crosstalk can be increased, by a large spatial carrier that causes the aliasing, and/or by use of a grating. The validity of Multi-SPECTRA is quantitatively, numerically, and experimentally confirmed.

  15. A four arm, double blind, randomized and placebo controlled study of pregabalin in the management of post-burn pruritus.

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    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Gupta, Gaurav K

    2013-02-01

    Post-burn itch is a distressing symptom in burns rehabilitation and its treatment often proves frustrating for the patient and the multidisciplinary burns team. Traditionally, the mainstay of antipruritic therapy for decades has been antihistamines and massage with emollients. With a better understanding of the neurophysiology of itch emerged a new dimension in the treatment of post-burn pruritus. Gabapentin, a centrally modulating anti-epileptic agent and α2δ ligand, proved in clinical trials to be immensely better in the treatment of post-burn pruritus. Pregabalin is a newer structural analog of gabapentin. It has a much better anxiolytic effect and pharmacokinetic profile as compared to gabapentin. The current study was initiated to specifically study the role of pregabalin in relieving post-burn itch as this has never been investigated before. This double blind, randomized and placebo controlled study had four arms and was carried out on 80 adult patients (20 each). The four arms were: pregabalin, cetirizine with pheniramine maleate, combination of pregabalin, cetirizine and pheniramine maleate, and placebo (vit. B comp.). Massage with coconut oil was integral to all groups. Drug dosage was determined by initial VAS (visual analog scale) scores. All groups matched in demographic data and initial VAS scores. VAS scores were evaluated over next 28 days (days 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28). In patients with mild itch (VAS scores 2-5) or moderate itch (VAS scores 6-8) near complete remission of itch was seen in combination group and pregabalin group where the response was comparable and close to 95%. This was significantly better response than antihistaminic combination or massage alone. However, massage alone was sufficient in decreasing mean scores in mild itch, in a large percentage of patients. Amongst the patients with severe itch (VAS scores 9-10), 3/6 and 6/7 patients dropped out of trial in the antihistaminic and placebo groups, respectively. Combination therapy

  16. Robust training attenuates TBI-induced deficits in reference and working memory on the radial 8-arm maze

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    Veronica eSebastian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Globally, it is estimated that nearly 10 million people sustain severe brain injuries leading to hospitalization and/or death every year. Amongst survivors, traumatic brain injury (TBI results in a wide variety of physical, emotional and cognitive deficits. The most common cognitive deficit associated with TBI is memory loss, involving impairments in spatial reference and working memory. However, the majority of research thus far has characterized the deficits associated with TBI on either reference or working memory systems separately, without investigating how they interact within in a single task. Thus we examined the effects of TBI on short-term working and long-term reference memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM with a sequence of 4 baited and 4 unbaited arms. Subjects were given 10 daily trials for 6 days followed by a memory retrieval test two weeks after training. Multiple training trials not only provide robust training, but also test the subjects’ ability to frequently update short-term memory while learning the reference rules of the task. Our results show that TBI significantly impaired short-term working memory function on previously acquired spatial information but has little effect on long-term reference memory. Additionally, TBI significantly increased working memory errors during acquisition and reference memory errors during retention testing two weeks later. With a longer recovery period after TBI, the robust RAM training mitigated the reference memory deficit in retention but not the short-term working memory deficit during acquisition. These results identify the resiliency and vulnerabilities of short-term working and long-term reference memory to TBI in the context of robust training. The data highlight the role of cognitive training and other behavioral remediation strategies implicated in attenuating deficits associated with TBI.

  17. Robust training attenuates TBI-induced deficits in reference and working memory on the radial 8-arm maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Veronica; Diallo, Aissatou; Ling, Douglas S F; Serrano, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Globally, it is estimated that nearly 10 million people sustain severe brain injuries leading to hospitalization and/or death every year. Amongst survivors, traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in a wide variety of physical, emotional and cognitive deficits. The most common cognitive deficit associated with TBI is memory loss, involving impairments in spatial reference and working memory. However, the majority of research thus far has characterized the deficits associated with TBI on either reference or working memory systems separately, without investigating how they interact within a single task. Thus, we examined the effects of TBI on short-term working and long-term reference memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM) with a sequence of four baited and four unbaited arms. Subjects were given 10 daily trials for 6 days followed by a memory retrieval test 2 weeks after training. Multiple training trials not only provide robust training, but also test the subjects' ability to frequently update short-term memory while learning the reference rules of the task. Our results show that TBI significantly impaired short-term working memory function on previously acquired spatial information but has little effect on long-term reference memory. Additionally, TBI significantly increased working memory errors during acquisition and reference memory errors during retention testing 2 weeks later. With a longer recovery period after TBI, the robust RAM training mitigated the reference memory deficit in retention but not the short-term working memory deficit during acquisition. These results identify the resiliency and vulnerabilities of short-term working and long-term reference memory to TBI in the context of robust training. The data highlight the role of cognitive training and other behavioral remediation strategies implicated in attenuating deficits associated with TBI.

  18. Homeopathy for Depression - DEP-HOM: study protocol for a randomized, partially double-blind, placebo controlled, four armed study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Homeopathy is often sought by patients with depression. In classical homeopathy, the treatment consists of two main elements: the case history and the prescription of an individually selected homeopathic remedy. Previous data suggest that individualized homeopathic Q-potencies were not inferior to the antidepressant fluoxetine in a sample of patients with moderate to severe depression. However, the question remains whether individualized homeopathic Q-potencies and/or the type of the homeopathic case history have a specific therapeutical effect in acute depression as this has not yet been investigated. The study aims to assess the two components of individualized homeopathic treatment for acute depression, i.e., to investigate the specific effect of individualized Q-potencies versus placebo and to investigate the effect of different approaches to the homeopathic case history. Methods/Design A randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-armed trial using a 2 × 2 factorial design with a six-week study duration per patient will be performed. 228 patients diagnosed with major depression (moderate episode) by a psychiatrist will be included. The primary endpoint is the total score on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale after six weeks. Secondary end points are: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale total score after two and four weeks; response and remission rates, Beck Depression inventory total score, quality of life and safety at two, four and six weeks. Statistical analyses will be by intention-to-treat. The main endpoint will be analysed by a two-factorial analysis of covariance. Within this model generalized estimation equations will be used to estimate differences between verum and placebo, and between both types of case history. Discussion For the first time this study evaluates both the specific effect of homeopathic medicines and of a homeopathic case taking in patients with depression. It is an attempt to deal with the

  19. A pilot single-blind multicentre randomized controlled trial to evaluate the potential benefits of computer-assisted arm rehabilitation gaming technology on the arm function of children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Nick; Weightman, Andrew; Gallagher, Justin; Levesley, Martin; Mon-Williams, Mark; Clarke, Mike; O'Connor, Rory J

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the potential benefits of computer-assisted arm rehabilitation gaming technology on arm function of children with spastic cerebral palsy. A single-blind randomized controlled trial design. Power calculations indicated that 58 children would be required to demonstrate a clinically important difference. Intervention was home-based; recruitment took place in regional spasticity clinics. A total of 15 children with cerebral palsy aged five to 12 years were recruited; eight to the device group. Both study groups received 'usual follow-up treatment' following spasticity treatment with botulinum toxin; the intervention group also received a rehabilitation gaming device. ABILHAND-kids and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure were performed by blinded assessors at baseline, six and 12 weeks. An analysis of covariance showed no group differences in mean ABILHAND-kids scores between time points. A non-parametric analysis of variance on Canadian Occupational Performance Measure scores showed a statistically significant improvement across time points (χ 2 (2,15) = 6.778, p = 0.031), but this improvement did not reach minimal clinically important difference. Mean daily device use was seven minutes. Recruitment did not reach target owing to unanticipated staff shortages in clinical services. Feedback from children and their families indicated that the games were not sufficiently engaging to promote sufficient use that was likely to result in functional benefits. This study suggests that computer-assisted arm rehabilitation gaming does not benefit arm function, but a Type II error cannot be ruled out. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Pathogenic and clinical aspects of polyneuropathies, with reference to the hand-arm vibration syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, J; Taskinen, H

    1987-08-01

    Along with attacks of white finger, symptoms suggesting peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, ie, polyneuropathy or entrapment neuropathy, are very important in the hand-arm vibration syndrome. Peripheral neuropathies are probably associated with the occurrence of the syndrome because of a selection mechanism. Polyneuropathy may be a contributing factor in the development of entrapment neuropathies in the upper extremities. It has multiple pathogenic mechanisms and numerous causative factors. However, peripheral nerves can react to pathological stimuli in a limited number of ways. Wallerian degeneration, segmental demyelination, and axonal degeneration are the classical neuropathological types of peripheral neuropathies, of which the first two are possible direct consequences of vibration exposure. The clinical manifestations of polyneuropathy range from sensory to motor types, sometimes with autonomic involvement. Whenever polyneuropathy is encountered in the hand-arm vibration syndrome, its etiologic possibilities should be considered. Regardless of the variable criteria used by different authors, individual diagnosis of the syndrome is always a probability diagnosis, and adequate neurological differential diagnostics have to be employed.

  1. Task demands affect spatial reference frame weighting during tactile localization in sighted and congenitally blind adults

    OpenAIRE

    Heed, Tobias; Roeder, Brigitte; Badde, Stephanie; Schubert, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Task demands modulate tactile localization in sighted humans, presumably through weight adjustments in the spatial integration of anatomical, skin-based, and external, posture-based information. In contrast, previous studies have suggested that congenitally blind humans, by default, refrain from automatic spatial integration and localize touch using only skin-based information. Here, sighted and congenitally blind participants localized tactile targets on the palm or back of one hand, while i...

  2. A randomised, single-blind, single-dose, three-arm, parallel-group study in healthy subjects to demonstrate pharmacokinetic equivalence of ABP 501 and adalimumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Primal; Chow, Vincent; Zhang, Nan; Moxness, Michael; Kaliyaperumal, Arunan; Markus, Richard

    2017-03-01

    To demonstrate pharmacokinetic (PK) similarity of biosimilar candidate ABP 501 relative to adalimumab reference product from the USA and European Union (EU) and evaluate safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of ABP 501. Randomised, single-blind, single-dose, three-arm, parallel-group study; healthy subjects were randomised to receive ABP 501 (n=67), adalimumab (USA) (n=69) or adalimumab (EU) (n=67) 40 mg subcutaneously. Primary end points were area under the serum concentration-time curve from time 0 extrapolated to infinity (AUC inf ) and the maximum observed concentration (C max ). Secondary end points included safety and immunogenicity. AUC inf and C max were similar across the three groups. Geometrical mean ratio (GMR) of AUC inf was 1.11 between ABP 501 and adalimumab (USA), and 1.04 between ABP 501 and adalimumab (EU). GMR of C max was 1.04 between ABP 501 and adalimumab (USA) and 0.96 between ABP 501 and adalimumab (EU). The 90% CIs for the GMRs of AUC inf and C max were within the prespecified standard PK equivalence criteria of 0.80 to 1.25. Treatment-related adverse events were mild to moderate and were reported for 35.8%, 24.6% and 41.8% of subjects in the ABP 501, adalimumab (USA) and adalimumab (EU) groups; incidence of antidrug antibodies (ADAbs) was similar among the study groups. Results of this study demonstrated PK similarity of ABP 501 with adalimumab (USA) and adalimumab (EU) after a single 40-mg subcutaneous injection. No new safety signals with ABP 501 were identified. The safety and tolerability of ABP 501 was similar to the reference products, and similar ADAb rates were observed across the three groups. EudraCT number 2012-000785-37; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. ICT in Portuguese Reference Schools for the Education of Blind and Partially Sighted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sara Isabel Moca; de Andrade, António Manuel Valente

    2016-01-01

    Technology has become an essential component in our society and considering its impact in the educational system, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) cannot be dissociated from the educational process and, in particular, from pedagogical practices adopted for students who are blind or partially sighted. This study focuses on…

  4. Deaf-Blindness: National Organizations and Resources. Reference Circular No. 93-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This circular lists national organizations and print and audiovisual resources on areas of service to persons with deaf blindness, including rehabilitation, education, information and referral, recreation, and sources for adaptive devices and products. Section I is an alphabetical list of 40 national organizations and resources, including…

  5. Task demands affect spatial reference frame weighting during tactile localization in sighted and congenitally blind adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan T W Schubert

    Full Text Available Task demands modulate tactile localization in sighted humans, presumably through weight adjustments in the spatial integration of anatomical, skin-based, and external, posture-based information. In contrast, previous studies have suggested that congenitally blind humans, by default, refrain from automatic spatial integration and localize touch using only skin-based information. Here, sighted and congenitally blind participants localized tactile targets on the palm or back of one hand, while ignoring simultaneous tactile distractors at congruent or incongruent locations on the other hand. We probed the interplay of anatomical and external location codes for spatial congruency effects by varying hand posture: the palms either both faced down, or one faced down and one up. In the latter posture, externally congruent target and distractor locations were anatomically incongruent and vice versa. Target locations had to be reported either anatomically ("palm" or "back" of the hand, or externally ("up" or "down" in space. Under anatomical instructions, performance was more accurate for anatomically congruent than incongruent target-distractor pairs. In contrast, under external instructions, performance was more accurate for externally congruent than incongruent pairs. These modulations were evident in sighted and blind individuals. Notably, distractor effects were overall far smaller in blind than in sighted participants, despite comparable target-distractor identification performance. Thus, the absence of developmental vision seems to be associated with an increased ability to focus tactile attention towards a non-spatially defined target. Nevertheless, that blind individuals exhibited effects of hand posture and task instructions in their congruency effects suggests that, like the sighted, they automatically integrate anatomical and external information during tactile localization. Moreover, spatial integration in tactile processing is, thus, flexibly

  6. Task demands affect spatial reference frame weighting during tactile localization in sighted and congenitally blind adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Jonathan T W; Badde, Stephanie; Röder, Brigitte; Heed, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Task demands modulate tactile localization in sighted humans, presumably through weight adjustments in the spatial integration of anatomical, skin-based, and external, posture-based information. In contrast, previous studies have suggested that congenitally blind humans, by default, refrain from automatic spatial integration and localize touch using only skin-based information. Here, sighted and congenitally blind participants localized tactile targets on the palm or back of one hand, while ignoring simultaneous tactile distractors at congruent or incongruent locations on the other hand. We probed the interplay of anatomical and external location codes for spatial congruency effects by varying hand posture: the palms either both faced down, or one faced down and one up. In the latter posture, externally congruent target and distractor locations were anatomically incongruent and vice versa. Target locations had to be reported either anatomically ("palm" or "back" of the hand), or externally ("up" or "down" in space). Under anatomical instructions, performance was more accurate for anatomically congruent than incongruent target-distractor pairs. In contrast, under external instructions, performance was more accurate for externally congruent than incongruent pairs. These modulations were evident in sighted and blind individuals. Notably, distractor effects were overall far smaller in blind than in sighted participants, despite comparable target-distractor identification performance. Thus, the absence of developmental vision seems to be associated with an increased ability to focus tactile attention towards a non-spatially defined target. Nevertheless, that blind individuals exhibited effects of hand posture and task instructions in their congruency effects suggests that, like the sighted, they automatically integrate anatomical and external information during tactile localization. Moreover, spatial integration in tactile processing is, thus, flexibly adapted by top

  7. Oscillatory activity reflects differential use of spatial reference frames by sighted and blind individuals in tactile attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Jonathan T W; Buchholz, Verena N; Föcker, Julia; Engel, Andreas K; Röder, Brigitte; Heed, Tobias

    2015-08-15

    Touch can be localized either on the skin in anatomical coordinates, or, after integration with posture, in external space. Sighted individuals are thought to encode touch in both coordinate systems concurrently, whereas congenitally blind individuals exhibit a strong bias for using anatomical coordinates. We investigated the neural correlates of this differential dominance in the use of anatomical and external reference frames by assessing oscillatory brain activity during a tactile spatial attention task. The EEG was recorded while sighted and congenitally blind adults received tactile stimulation to uncrossed and crossed hands while detecting rare tactile targets at one cued hand only. In the sighted group, oscillatory alpha-band activity (8-12Hz) in the cue-target interval was reduced contralaterally and enhanced ipsilaterally with uncrossed hands. Hand crossing attenuated the degree of posterior parietal alpha-band lateralization, indicating that attention deployment was affected by external spatial coordinates. Beamforming suggested that this posture effect originated in the posterior parietal cortex. In contrast, cue-related lateralization of central alpha-band as well as of beta-band activity (16-24Hz) were unaffected by hand crossing, suggesting that these oscillations exclusively encode anatomical coordinates. In the blind group, central alpha-band activity was lateralized, but did not change across postures. The pattern of beta-band activity was indistinguishable between groups. Because the neural mechanisms for posterior alpha-band generation seem to be linked to developmental vision, we speculate that the lack of this neural mechanism in blind individuals is related to their preferred use of anatomical over external spatial codes in sensory processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Photonic integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer with an on-chip reference arm for optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Günay; Považay, Boris; Alex, Aneesh; Zabihian, Behrooz; Drexler, Wolfgang; Baets, Roel

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, three-dimensional imaging modality with several medical and industrial applications. Integrated photonics has the potential to enable mass production of OCT devices to significantly reduce size and cost, which can increase its use in established fields as well as enable new applications. Using silicon nitride (Si3N4) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) waveguides, we fabricated an integrated interferometer for spectrometer-based OCT. The integrated photonic circuit consists of four splitters and a 190 mm long reference arm with a foot-print of only 10 × 33 mm2. It is used as the core of a spectral domain OCT system consisting of a superluminescent diode centered at 1320 nm with 100 nm bandwidth, a spectrometer with 1024 channels, and an x-y scanner. The sensitivity of the system was measured at 0.25 mm depth to be 65 dB with 0.1 mW on the sample. Using the system, we imaged human skin in vivo. With further optimization in design and fabrication technology, Si3N4/SiO2 waveguides have a potential to serve as a platform for passive photonic integrated circuits for OCT. PMID:24761288

  9. Blind synchronization in asynchronous UWB networks based on the transmit-reference scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djapic, R.; Leus, G.; Veen, A.-J. van der; Trindade, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless communication systems are based on the transmission of extremely narrow pulses, with a duration inferior to a nanosecond. The application of transmit reference(TR) to UWB systems allows to side-step channel estimation at the receiver, with a tradeoff of the effective

  10. Blind Synchronization in Asynchronous UWB Networks Based on the Transmit-Reference Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djapic, R.; Leus, G.; Van Der Veen, A.J.; Trinda, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless communication systems are based on the transmission of extremely narrow pulses, with a duration inferior to a nanosecond. The application of transmit reference (TR) to UWB systems allows to side-step channel estimation at the receiver, with a tradeoff of the effective

  11. Bilateral and unilateral arm training improve motor function through differing neuroplastic mechanisms: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitall, Jill; Waller, Sandy McCombe; Sorkin, John D; Forrester, Larry W; Macko, Richard F; Hanley, Daniel F; Goldberg, Andrew P; Luft, Andreas

    2011-02-01

    This randomized controlled trial tests the efficacy of bilateral arm training with rhythmic auditory cueing (BATRAC) versus dose-matched therapeutic exercises (DMTEs) on upper-extremity (UE) function in stroke survivors and uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine effects on cortical reorganization. A total of 111 adults with chronic UE paresis were randomized to 6 weeks (3×/week) of BATRAC or DMTE. Primary end points of UE assessments of Fugl-Meyer UE Test (FM) and modified Wolf Motor Function Test Time (WT) were performed 6 weeks prior to and at baseline, after training, and 4 months later. Pretraining and posttraining, fMRI for UE movement was evaluated in 17 BATRAC and 21 DMTE participants. The improvements in UE function (BATRAC: FM Δ = 1.1 + 0.5, P = .03; WT Δ = -2.6 + 0.8, P frontal gyrus (P < .05). Activation change in the latter was correlated with improvement in the WMFT (P = .01). BATRAC is not superior to DMTE, but both rehabilitation programs durably improve motor function for individuals with chronic UE hemiparesis and with varied deficit severity. Adaptations in brain activation are greater after BATRAC than DMTE, suggesting that given similar benefits to motor function, these therapies operate through different mechanisms.

  12. [Effects of a voice metronome on compression rate and depth in telephone assisted, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation: an investigator-blinded, 3-armed, randomized, simulation trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tulder, Raphael; Roth, Dominik; Krammel, Mario; Laggner, Roberta; Schriefl, Christoph; Kienbacher, Calvin; Lorenzo Hartmann, Alexander; Novosad, Heinz; Constantin Chwojka, Christof; Havel, Christoph; Schreiber, Wolfgang; Herkner, Harald

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect on compression rate and depth of a conventional metronome and a voice metronome in simulated telephone-assisted, protocol-driven bystander Cardiopulmonary resucitation (CPR) compared to standard instruction. Thirty-six lay volunteers performed 10 minutes of compression-only CPR in a prospective, investigator-blinded, 3-arm study on a manikin. Participants were randomized either to standard instruction ("push down firmly, 5 cm"), a regular metronome pacing 110 beats per minute (bpm), or a voice metronome continuously prompting "deep-deepdeep- deeper" at 110 bpm. The primary outcome was deviation from the ideal chest compression target range (50 mm compression depth x 100 compressions per minute x 10 minutes = 50 m). Secondary outcomes were CPR quality measures (compression and leaning depth, rate, no-flow times) and participants' related physiological response (heart rate, blood pressure and nine hole peg test and borg scales score). We used a linear regression model to calculate effects. The mean (SD) deviation from the ideal target range (50 m) was -11 (9) m in the standard group, -20 (11) m in the conventional metronome group (adjusted difference [95%, CI], 9.0 [1.2-17.5 m], P=.03), and -18 (9) m in the voice metronome group (adjusted difference, 7.2 [-0.9-15.3] m, P=.08). Secondary outcomes (CPR quality measures and physiological response of participants to CPR performance) showed no significant differences. Compared to standard instruction, the conventional metronome showed a significant negative effect on the chest compression target range. The voice metronome showed a non-significant negative effect and therefore cannot be recommended for regular use in telephone-assisted CPR.

  13. Effects of repetitive or intensified instructions in telephone assisted, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation: an investigator-blinded, 4-armed, randomized, factorial simulation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tulder, R; Roth, D; Krammel, M; Laggner, R; Heidinger, B; Kienbacher, C; Novosad, H; Chwojka, C; Havel, C; Sterz, F; Schreiber, W; Herkner, H

    2014-01-01

    Compression depth is frequently suboptimal in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We investigated effects of intensified wording and/or repetitive target depth instructions on compression depth in telephone-assisted, protocol driven, bystander CPR on a simulation manikin. Thirty-two volunteers performed 10 min of compression only-CPR in a prospective, investigator-blinded, 4-armed, factorial setting. Participants were randomized either to standard wording ("push down firmly 5 cm"), intensified wording ("it is very important to push down 5 cm every time") or standard or intensified wording repeated every 20s. Three dispatchers were randomized to give these instructions. Primary outcome was relative compression depth (absolute compression depth minus leaning depth). Secondary outcomes were absolute distance, hands-off times as well as BORG-scale and nine-hole peg test (NHPT), pulse rate and blood pressure to reflect physical exertion. We applied a random effects linear regression model. Relative compression depth was 35 ± 10 mm (standard) versus 31 ± 11 mm (intensified wording) versus 25 ± 8 mm (repeated standard) and 31 ± 14 mm (repeated intensified wording). Adjusted for design, body mass index and female sex, intensified wording and repetition led to decreased compression depth of 13 (95%CI -25 to -1) mm (p=0.04) and 9 (95%CI -21 to 3) mm (p=0.13), respectively. Secondary outcomes regarding intensified wording showed significant differences for absolute distance (43 ± 2 versus 20 (95%CI 3-37) mm; p=0.01) and hands-off times (60 ± 40 versus 157 (95%CI 63-251) s; p=0.04). In protocol driven, telephone-assisted, bystander CPR, intensified wording and/or repetitive target depth instruction will not improve compression depth compared to the standard instruction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centric parallel arm trial to assess the effects of homoeopathic medicines on chronic rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K Manchanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is one of the most common illnesses interfering with patient′s quality of life and work. Observational studies conducted by the Council indicate positive outcome. This protocol has been developed to ascertain the usefulness of homoeopathic intervention in comparison with control group in a randomised control setting. Objectives: Primary objective is to evaluate the changes in TSS (Total Symptoms Score and SNOT-22 (Sino-nasal Outcome Test-22 within the two groups of the study (Homoeopathy + Placebo. Secondary objective is to evaluate changes in SNOT-22 at end of the trial, changes in Lund and Mackay staging of CT scan, rhinoscopy grading, absolute eosinophil count, global assessment by investigator and patient, and number of acute exacerbations of CRS (for frequency, duration and intensity as per TSS scale compared to placebo. Methods/Design: This is a randomised double blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centric parallel arm trial of 6 months (three months treatment and three months observation period with 14 days run-in period. The primary outcome is a composite of the changes in the TSS and SNOT-22 over 3 months from baseline with area under the curve and changes over 3 months in the Sinus Nasal Outcome Test 22 (SNOT-22 from baseline. Prescription shall be made as per the homoeopathic principles. Efficacy data will be analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Discussion: This trial will help to evaluate the efficacy of homoeopathic individualised treatment using LM-potencies versus placebo in patients suffering from CRS as per the homoeopathic dictum.

  15. Lactic-fermented egg white reduced serum cholesterol concentrations in mildly hypercholesterolemic Japanese men: a double-blind, parallel-arm design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Usuda, Mika; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kunou, Masaaki; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

    2017-05-30

    Lactic-fermented egg white (LE), produced by lactic acid fermentation of egg white, is an easy-to-consume form of egg white. Here we assessed the effect of daily consumption of LE for 8 weeks on serum total cholesterol (TC) levels. The study followed a double-blind, parallel-arm design and included 88 adult men with mild hypercholesterolemia (mean ± standard error) serum TC levels, 229 ± 1.6 mg/dL; range, 204-259 mg/dL). The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, which consumed LE containing 4, 6, or 8 g of protein daily for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected before starting LE consumption (baseline) and at 4 and 8 weeks to measure serum TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. After 8 weeks of consumption, serum TC levels in the 8 g group decreased by 11.0 ± 3.7 mg/dL, a significant decrease compared to baseline (p < 0.05) and a significantly greater decrease than for the 4 g group (3.1 ± 3.4 mg/dL; p < 0.05). Serum LDL-C levels in the 8 g group decreased by 13.7 ± 3.1 mg/dL, again a significant decrease compared with baseline (p < 0.05) and a significantly greater decrease than that for the 4 g group (2.1 ± 2.9 mg/dL; p < 0.05). Consumption of LE for 8 weeks at a daily dose of 8 g of proteins reduced serum TC and LDL-C levels in men with mild hypercholesterolemia, suggesting this may be effective in helping to prevent arteriosclerotic diseases. This clinical trial was retrospectively registered with the Japan Medical Association Center for Clinical Trials, (JMA-IIA00279; registered on 13/03/2017; https://dbcentre3.jmacct.med.or.jp/JMACTR/App/JMACTRE02_04/JMACTRE02_04.aspx?kbn=3&seqno=6530 ).

  16. Robust training attenuates TBI-induced deficits in reference and working memory on the radial 8-arm maze

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian, Veronica; Diallo, Aissatou; Ling, Douglas S. F.; Serrano, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, it is estimated that nearly 10 million people sustain severe brain injuries leading to hospitalization and/or death every year. Amongst survivors, traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in a wide variety of physical, emotional and cognitive deficits. The most common cognitive deficit associated with TBI is memory loss, involving impairments in spatial reference and working memory. However, the majority of research thus far has characterized the deficits associated with TBI on either r...

  17. Morphine- and buprenorphine-induced analgesia and antihyperalgesia in a human inflammatory pain model: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, five-arm crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravn P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pernille Ravn,1 Erik L Secher,2 Ulrik Skram,3 Trine Therkildsen,1 Lona L Christrup,1 Mads U Werner41Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Juliane Marie Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospitals, 3Department of Intensive Care, Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospitals, 4Multidisciplinary Pain Center, Neuroscience Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospitals, Copenhagen, DenmarkPurpose: Opioid therapy is associated with the development of tolerance and paradoxically increased sensitivity to pain. It has been suggested that buprenorphine is associated with a higher antihyperalgesia/analgesia ratio than µ-opioid receptor agonists. The primary outcome of this study was therefore to investigate relative differences in antihyperalgesia and analgesia effects between morphine and buprenorphine in an inflammatory pain model in volunteers. The secondary outcome was to examine the relationship between pain sensitivity and opioid-induced effects on analgesia, antihyperalgesia, and descending pain modulation.Subjects and methods: Twenty-eight healthy subjects were included. The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, five-arm crossover study with a multimodal (electrical, mechanical, and thermal stimuli testing technique. After baseline assessments, intravenous infusions of morphine (10/20 mg, buprenorphine (0.3/0.6 mg, or placebo (normal saline were administered over a 210-minute period, during which a cold pressor test, heat injury (47°C, 7 minutes, 12.5 cm2, and the first postburn assessment were done. After completion of the drug infusions, two additional postburn assessments were done. The subjects were monitored during each 8-hour session by an anesthesiologist.Results: For nearly all tested variables, significant dose-dependent analgesic effects were demonstrated. The median antihyperalgesia/analgesia ratio (secondary hyperalgesia

  18. Accuracy and Coordination of Spatial Frames of Reference during the Exploration of Virtual Maps: Interest for Orientation and Mobility of Blind People?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Simonnet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Even if their spatial reasoning capabilities remain quite similar to those of sighted people, blind people encounter difficulties in getting distant information from their surroundings. Thus, whole body displacements, tactile map consultations, or auditory solutions are needed to establish physical contacts with their environment. Therefore, the accuracy of nonvisual spatial representations heavily relies upon the efficiency of exploration strategies and the ability to coordinate egocentric and allocentric spatial frames of reference. This study aims to better understand the mechanisms of this coordination without vision by analyzing cartographic exploration strategies and assessing their influence on mental spatial representations. Six blind sailors were immersed within a virtual haptic and auditory maritime environment. They were required to learn the layout of the map. Their movements were recorded and we identified some exploration strategies. Then they had to estimate the directions of six particular seamarks in aligned and misaligned situations. Better accuracy and coordination were obtained when participants used the “central point of reference” strategy. Our discussion relative to the articulation between geometric enduring representations and salient transient perceptions provides implications on map reading techniques and on mobility and orientation programs for blind people.

  19. Blind rats are not profoundly impaired in the reference memory Morris water maze and cannot be clearly discriminated from rats with cognitive deficits in the cued platform task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, M D; Plone, M A; Schallert, T; Emerich, D F

    1997-06-01

    The Morris water maze is commonly used to test cognitive function in rodent models of neurological disorders including age-related cognitive deficits. It is often assumed that the most profoundly impaired aged rats may be blind due to retinal degeneration, and it has been reported that animals with visual sensory deficits can be identified based on their performance in a cued platform task. The results of the present study demonstrate that blind rats can perform surprisingly well in the reference memory version of the Morris water maze, and that blind rats cannot be selectively excluded based on performance in the cued platform task since atropine-treated rats also perform poorly in the cued platform task. Future studies may be able to develop screening procedures that help to eliminate subjects with non-cognitive deficits, but the present results do not support the use of the cued platform or straight swim task as screening procedures. Experimenters must be careful to consider the role that visual sensory function and other non-cognitive factors may have in performance of the spatial learning Morris water maze, and also the role that severe cognitive deficits may have in performance of the cued platform task.

  20. A high-dose preparation of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in older people admitted to hospital: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm trial (PLACIDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S J; Wareham, K; Wang, D; Bradley, C; Sewell, B; Hutchings, H; Harris, W; Dhar, A; Brown, H; Foden, A; Gravenor, M B; Mack, D; Phillips, C J

    2013-12-01

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) occurs most commonly in older people admitted to hospital and within 12 weeks of exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics. Although usually a mild and self-limiting illness, the 15-39% of cases caused by Clostridium difficile infection [C. difficile diarrhoea (CDD)] may result in severe diarrhoea and death. Previous research has shown that probiotics, live microbial organisms that, when administered in adequate numbers, are beneficial to health, may be effective in preventing AAD and CDD. To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a high-dose, multistrain probiotic in the prevention of AAD and CDD in older people admitted to hospital. A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm trial. Medical, surgical and elderly care inpatient wards in five NHS hospitals in the UK. Eligible patients were aged ≥ 65 years, were exposed to one or more oral or parenteral antibiotics and were without pre-existing diarrhoeal disorders, recent CDD or at risk of probiotic adverse effects. Out of 17,420 patients screened, 2981 (17.1%) were recruited. Participants were allocated sequentially according to a computer-generated random allocation sequence; 1493 (50.1%) were allocated to the probiotic and 1488 (49.9%) to the placebo arm. Vegetarian capsules containing two strains of lactobacilli and two strains of bifidobacteria (a total of 6 × 10(10) organisms per day) were taken daily for 21 days. The placebo was inert maltodextrin powder in identical capsules. The occurrence of AAD within 8 weeks and CDD within 12 weeks of recruitment was determined by participant follow-up and checking hospital laboratory records by research nurses who were blind to arm allocation. Analysis based on the treatment allocated included 2941 (98.7%) participants. Potential risk factors for AAD at baseline were similar in the two study arms. Frequency of AAD (including CDD) was similar in the probiotic (159/1470, 10

  1. Low-Volume Brachial Plexus Block Providing Surgical Anesthesia for Distal Arm Surgery Comparing Supraclavicular, Infraclavicular, and Axillary Approach. A Randomized Observer Blind Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazin, Mojgan; Jensen, Kenneth; Hjort, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Background. Distal arm surgery is widely performed under regional anesthesia with brachial plexus block. The preponderance of evidence for the efficacy relies upon injection of local anesthetic in excess of 30 mL. We aimed to compare three different ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block techniq...

  2. Arms Trafficking and Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cragin, Kim; Hoffman, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    ... to traditional definitions of a security threat. For this analysis, the term "small arms" refers to man-portable personal and military weapons, ranging from handguns to assault rifles to surface-to-air missiles (SAMs...

  3. Can validated wrist devices with position sensors replace arm devices for self-home blood pressure monitoring? A randomized crossover trial using ambulatory monitoring as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Christodoulakis, George R; Nasothimiou, Efthimia G; Giovas, Periklis P; Kalogeropoulos, Petros G

    2008-07-01

    Electronic devices that measure blood pressure (BP) at the arm level are regarded as more accurate than wrist devices and are preferred for home BP (HBP) monitoring. Recently, wrist devices with position sensors have been successfully validated using established protocols. This study assessed whether HBP values measured with validated wrist devices are sufficiently reliable to be used for making patient-related decisions in clinical practice. This randomized crossover study compared HBP measurements taken using validated wrist devices (wrist-HBP, Omron R7 with position sensor) with those taken using arm devices (arm-HBP, Omron 705IT), and also with measurements of awake ambulatory BP (ABP, SpaceLabs), in 79 subjects (36 men and 43 women) with hypertension. The mean age of the study population was 56.7 +/- 11.8 years, and 33 of the subjects were not under treatment for hypertension. The average arm-HBP was higher than the average wrist-HBP (mean difference, systolic 5.2 +/- 9.1 mm Hg, P or =10 mm Hg difference between systolic wrist-HBP and arm-HBP and twelve subjects (15%) showed similar levels of disparity in diastolic HBP readings. Strong correlations were found between arm-HBP and wrist-HBP (r 0.74/0.74, systolic/diastolic, P arm-HBP (r 0.73/0.76) than with wrist-HBP (0.55/0.69). The wrist-arm HBP difference was associated with systolic ABP (r 0.34) and pulse pressure (r 0.29), but not with diastolic ABP, sex, age, arm circumference, and wrist circumference. There might be important differences in HBP measured using validated wrist devices with position sensor vs. arm devices, and these could impact decisions relating to the patient in clinical practice. Measurements taken using arm devices are more closely related to ABP values than those recorded by wrist devices. More research is needed before recommending the widespread use of wrist monitors in clinical practice. American Journal of Hypertension doi:10.1038/ajh.2008.176American Journal of Hypertension (2008

  4. Low-Volume Brachial Plexus Block Providing Surgical Anesthesia for Distal Arm Surgery Comparing Supraclavicular, Infraclavicular, and Axillary Approach: A Randomized Observer Blind Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Vazin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Distal arm surgery is widely performed under regional anesthesia with brachial plexus block. The preponderance of evidence for the efficacy relies upon injection of local anesthetic in excess of 30 mL. We aimed to compare three different ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block techniques restricting the total volume to 20 mL. Methods. 120 patients were prospectively randomized to ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block with 20 mL ropivacaine 0.75% at either the supraclavicular, infraclavicular, or axillary level. Multiinjection technique was performed with all three approaches. Primary outcome measure was performance time. Results. Performance time and procedural pain were similar between groups. Needle passes and injection numbers were significantly reduced in the infraclavicular group (P<0.01. Nerve visibility was significantly reduced in the axillary group (P=0.01. Success-rate was significantly increased in the supraclavicular versus the axillary group (P<0.025. Total anesthesia-related time was significantly reduced in the supraclavicular compared to the infraclavicular group (P<0.01. Block duration was significantly increased in the infraclavicular group (P<0.05. No early adverse effects occurred. Conclusion. Supraclavicular and infraclavicular blocks exhibited favorable characteristics compared to the axillary block. Supraclavicular brachial plexus block with the multiinjection intracluster technique exhibited significantly reduced total anesthesia-related time and higher success rate without any early adverse events.

  5. Arm Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a sign of a heart attack. Seek emergency treatment if you have: Arm, shoulder or back ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/arm-pain/basics/definition/SYM-20050870 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  6. Comparison of haloperidol and midazolam in restless management of patients referred to the Emergency Department: A double-blinded, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Esmailian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restless and violent behaviors are common in Emergency Departments (EDs, which need therapeutic interventions in most of the times. The first-generation anti-psychotic drugs are one of the most applicable therapeutic agents in the management of such patients, but their use has some limitations. Some studies suggest midazolam as an alternative medicine. Therefore, this study was performed with the aim of comparison of the efficacy and safety of haloperidol and midazolam in the restless management of referring patients to EDs. Materials and Methods: The present double-blinded trial was done on patients needed sedation and referred to the ED of Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2014. The patients were categorized into two random groups of haloperidol (5 mg and midazolam receivers (2.5 mg for those weighing 50 kg, as intramuscular administration. The time to achieve sedation, need for rescue dose, need to resedation within the first 60 min, and adverse effects of drugs were compared among the groups. Results: Forty-eight patients were entered to the study. The mean age in the haloperidol and midazolam groups was 44.8 ± 4.1 years and 45.5 ± 4.7 years, respectively (P = 0.91. The mean time of sedation in the haloperidol and midazolam groups was 5.6 ± 0.3 min and 5.2 ± 0.1 min, respectively (P = 0.31. The mean time of full consciousness after sedation was 36.2 ± 4.5 min and 38.2 ± 3.4 min in the haloperidol and midazolam groups, respectively (P = 0.72. On average, time to arousal in the midazolam group was 10.33 min more than the haloperidol group, but it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that administration of midazolam and haloperidol have similar efficacy in the treatment of restless symptoms with the same recovery time from drug effects for referring patients to the ED. In addition, none of the adverse effects were observed in this study.

  7. Robotic arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwech, H.

    1989-01-01

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs

  8. Robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  9. Influence of arm positioning on tomographic thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging and the effect of attenuation correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prvulovich, E.M.; Jarritt, P.H.; Vorontsova, E.; Bomanji, J.B.; Ell, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    Lateral attenuation in single-photon emission tomography (SPET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has been attributed to the left arm if it is held by the patient's side during data acquisition. As a result MPI data are conventionally acquired with the arms held above the head. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of imaging arms down on reconstructed tomographic images depicting regional myocardial thallium-201 distribution and to assess whether attenuation-corrected (AC) myocardial perfusion images acquired arms down could replace uncorrected (NC) images acquired arms up for routine clinical service. Twenty-eight patients referred for routine MPI underwent sequential 180 emission/transmission imaging for attenuation correction using an L-shaped dual-headed gamma camera (GE Optima) fitted with two gadolinium-153 scanning line sources. Delay data were acquired twice: once supine with the arms up and then supine with the arms down. Detector radius of rotation (ROR) for arms up and arms-down studies was recorded. For each data set, count density was measured in 17 segments of a polar plot and segmental uptake expressed relative to study maximum. Oblique images were assessed qualitatively by two observers blinded to study type for tracer distribution and overall quality. Transmission maps were assessed for truncation. Mean detector ROR was 190 mm for arms-up studies and 232 mm for arms-down studies (P 201 Tl distribution, particularly anterolaterally. There is lateral undercorrection in approximately 10% of AC arms-down studies, possibly because of attenuation map truncation. Image quality is reduced in about one-third of AC arms-down studies compared with NC arms-up studies. These data suggest that this attenuation correction method is not sufficiently robust to allow routine acquisition of MPI data with the arms down. (orig.)

  10. A Novel Highly Bioavailable Curcumin Formulation Improves Symptoms and Diagnostic Indicators in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Dose, Three-Arm, and Parallel-Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalraj, Augustine; Varma, Karthik; Jacob, Joby; Divya, Chandradhara; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B; Stohs, Sidney J; Gopi, Sreeraj

    2017-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune, chronic systemic inflammatory disorder. The long-term use of currently available drugs for the treatment of RA has many potential side effects. Natural phytonutrients may serve as alternative strategies for the safe and effective treatment of RA, and curcuminoids have been used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions for centuries. In this study, a novel, highly bioavailable form of curcumin in a completely natural turmeric matrix was evaluated for its ability to improve the clinical symptoms of RA. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm, parallel-group study was conducted to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two different doses of curcumin with that of a placebo in active RA patients. Twelve patients in each group received placebo, 250 or 500 mg of the curcumin product twice daily for 90 days. The responses of the patients were assessed using the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) response, visual analog scale (VAS), C-reactive protein (CRP), Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and rheumatoid factor (RF) values. RA patients who received the curcumin product at both low and high doses reported statistically significant changes in their clinical symptoms at the end of the study. These observations were confirmed by significant changes in ESR, CPR, and RF values in patients receiving the study product compared to baseline and placebo. The results indicate that this novel curcumin in a turmeric matrix acts as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent for the management of RA at a dose as low as 250 mg twice daily as evidenced by significant improvement in the ESR, CRP, VAS, RF, DAS28, and ACR responses compared to placebo. Both doses of the study product were well tolerated and without side effects.

  11. Proprioceptive Interaction between the Two Arms in a Single-Arm Pointing Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Kigawa

    Full Text Available Proprioceptive signals coming from both arms are used to determine the perceived position of one arm in a two-arm matching task. Here, we examined whether the perceived position of one arm is affected by proprioceptive signals from the other arm in a one-arm pointing task in which participants specified the perceived position of an unseen reference arm with an indicator paddle. Both arms were hidden from the participant's view throughout the study. In Experiment 1, with both arms placed in front of the body, the participants received 70-80 Hz vibration to the elbow flexors of the reference arm (= right arm to induce the illusion of elbow extension. This extension illusion was compared with that when the left arm elbow flexors were vibrated or not. The degree of the vibration-induced extension illusion of the right arm was reduced in the presence of left arm vibration. In Experiment 2, we found that this kinesthetic interaction between the two arms did not occur when the left arm was vibrated in an abducted position. In Experiment 3, the vibration-induced extension illusion of one arm was fully developed when this arm was placed at an abducted position, indicating that the brain receives increased proprioceptive input from a vibrated arm even if the arm was abducted. Our results suggest that proprioceptive interaction between the two arms occurs in a one-arm pointing task when the two arms are aligned with one another. The position sense of one arm measured using a pointer appears to include the influences of incoming information from the other arm when both arms were placed in front of the body and parallel to one another.

  12. Broken Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of falling — including football, soccer, gymnastics, skiing and skateboarding — also increases the risk of a broken arm. ... for high-risk activities, such as in-line skating, snowboarding, rugby and football. Don't smoke. Smoking ...

  13. Movement Induces the Use of External Spatial Coordinates for Tactile Localization in Congenitally Blind Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heed, Tobias; Möller, Johanna; Röder, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    To localize touch, the brain integrates spatial information coded in anatomically based and external spatial reference frames. Sighted humans, by default, use both reference frames in tactile localization. In contrast, congenitally blind individuals have been reported to rely exclusively on anatomical coordinates, suggesting a crucial role of the visual system for tactile spatial processing. We tested whether the use of external spatial information in touch can, alternatively, be induced by a movement context. Sighted and congenitally blind humans performed a tactile temporal order judgment task that indexes the use of external coordinates for tactile localization, while they executed bimanual arm movements with uncrossed and crossed start and end postures. In the sighted, start posture and planned end posture of the arm movement modulated tactile localization for stimuli presented before and during movement, indicating automatic, external recoding of touch. Contrary to previous findings, tactile localization of congenitally blind participants, too, was affected by external coordinates, though only for stimuli presented before movement start. Furthermore, only the movement's start posture, but not the planned end posture affected blind individuals' tactile performance. Thus, integration of external coordinates in touch is established without vision, though more selectively than when vision has developed normally, and possibly restricted to movement contexts. The lack of modulation by the planned posture in congenitally blind participants suggests that external coordinates in this group are not mediated by motor efference copy. Instead the task-related frequent posture changes, that is, movement consequences rather than planning, appear to have induced their use of external coordinates.

  14. A two-site, two-arm, 34-week, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of reduced nicotine cigarettes in smokers with mood and/or anxiety disorders: trial design and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia I. Allen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The U.S. Food and Drug Administration can set standards for cigarettes that could include reducing their nicotine content. Such a standard should improve public health without causing unintended serious consequences for sub-populations. This study evaluates the effect of progressive nicotine reduction in cigarettes on smoking behavior, toxicant exposure, and psychiatric symptoms in smokers with comorbid mood and/or anxiety disorders using a two-site, two-arm, double-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT in four phases over 34 weeks. Methods Adult smokers (N = 200 of 5 or more cigarettes per day will be randomized across two sites (Penn State and Massachusetts General. Participants must have not had a quit attempt in the prior month, nor be planning to quit in the next 6 months, meet criteria for a current or lifetime unipolar mood and/or anxiety disorder based on the structured Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and must not have an unstable medical or psychiatric condition. After a week of smoking their own cigarettes, participants receive two weeks of Spectrum research cigarettes with usual nicotine content (11.6 mg. After this baseline period, participants will be randomly assigned to continue smoking Spectrum research cigarettes that contain either (a Usual Nicotine Content (11.6 mg; or (b Reduced Nicotine Content: the nicotine content per cigarette is progressively reduced from approximately 11.6 mg to 0.2 mg in five steps over 18 weeks. At the end of the randomization phase, participants will be offered the choice to either (a quit smoking with assistance, (b continue smoking free research cigarettes, or (c return to purchasing their own cigarettes, for the final 12 weeks of the study. The primary outcome measure is blood cotinine; key secondary outcomes are: exhaled carbon monoxide, urinary total NNAL- 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanol and 1-hydroxypyrene, oxidative

  15. Rationale and design of ATHENA: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel arm trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg bid for the prevention of cardiovascular hospitalization or death from any cause in PatiENts with atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnloser, S.H.; Connolly, S.J.; Crijns, H.J.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    hospitalization or death from any cause. The study has completed patient enrollment in December 2006 and is expected to end follow-up 1 year later. Conclusion: ATHENA will be the largest efficacy and safety trial of dronedarone, a multichannel blocker compound with properties from class I, II, III, and IV....... Dronedarone is a new antiarrhythmic compound currently being developed for treatment of AF. Methods: The ATHENA trial (A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel arm Trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg bid for the prevention of cardiovascular Hospitalization or death from any cause in pati...

  16. CArbon dioxide surgical field flooding and aortic NO-touch off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting to reduce Neurological injuries after surgical coronary revascularisation (CANON): protocol for a randomised, controlled, investigator and patient blinded single-centre superiority trial with three parallel arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwed, Krzysztof; Pawliszak, Wojciech; Serafin, Zbigniew; Kowalewski, Mariusz; Tomczyk, Remigiusz; Perlinski, Damian; Szwed, Magdalena; Tomaszewska, Marta; Anisimowicz, Lech; Borkowska, Alina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Neurological injuries remain a major concern following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) that offsets survival benefit of CABG over percutaneous coronary interventions. Among numerous efforts to combat this issue is the development of off-pump CABG (OPCABG) that obviates the need for extracorporeal circulation and is associated with improved neurological outcomes. The objective of this study is to examine whether the neuroprotective effect of OPCABG can be further pronounced by the use of two state-of-the-art operating techniques. Methods and analysis In this randomised, controlled, investigator and patient blinded single-centre superiority trial with three parallel arms, a total of 360 patients will be recruited. They will be allocated in a 1:1:1 ratio to two treatment arms and one control arm. Treatment arms undergoing either aortic no-touch OPCABG or OPCABG with partial clamp applying carbon dioxide surgical field flooding will be compared against control arm undergoing OPCABG with partial clamp. The primary endpoint will be the appearance of new lesions on control brain MRI 3 days after surgery. Secondary endpoints will include the prevalence of new focal neurological deficits in the first 7 days after surgery, the occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction at either 1 week or 3 months after surgery and the incidence of delirium in the first 7 days after surgery. Data will be analysed on intention-to-treat principles and a per protocol basis. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been granted for this study. Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed media. Trial registration number NCT03074604; Pre-results. Date and version identifier 10-Mar-2017 Original PMID:28698347

  17. CArbon dioxide surgical field flooding and aortic NO-touch off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting to reduce Neurological injuries after surgical coronary revascularisation (CANON): protocol for a randomised, controlled, investigator and patient blinded single-centre superiority trial with three parallel arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzysztof, Szwed; Wojciech, Pawliszak; Zbigniew, Serafin; Mariusz, Kowalewski; Remigiusz, Tomczyk; Damian, Perlinski; Magdalena, Szwed; Marta, Tomaszewska; Lech, Anisimowicz; Alina, Borkowska

    2017-07-10

    Neurological injuries remain a major concern following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) that offsets survival benefit of CABG over percutaneous coronary interventions. Among numerous efforts to combat this issue is the development of off-pump CABG (OPCABG) that obviates the need for extracorporeal circulation and is associated with improved neurological outcomes. The objective of this study is to examine whether the neuroprotective effect of OPCABG can be further pronounced by the use of two state-of-the-art operating techniques. In this randomised, controlled, investigator and patient blinded single-centre superiority trial with three parallel arms, a total of 360 patients will be recruited. They will be allocated in a 1:1:1 ratio to two treatment arms and one control arm. Treatment arms undergoing either aortic no-touch OPCABG or OPCABG with partial clamp applying carbon dioxide surgical field flooding will be compared against control arm undergoing OPCABG with partial clamp. The primary endpoint will be the appearance of new lesions on control brain MRI 3 days after surgery. Secondary endpoints will include the prevalence of new focal neurological deficits in the first 7 days after surgery, the occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction at either 1 week or 3 months after surgery and the incidence of delirium in the first 7 days after surgery. Data will be analysed on intention-to-treat principles and a per protocol basis. Ethical approval has been granted for this study. Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed media. NCT03074604; Pre-results. 10-Mar-2017 Original. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Color Blindness? Who Is at Risk for Color Blindness? Color Blindness Causes Color Blindness Diagnosis and Treatment How Color Blindness Is Tested What Is Color Blindness? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el daltonismo? Written ...

  19. Analysis of stroke in ATHENA: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-arm trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg BID for the prevention of cardiovascular hospitalization or death from any cause in patients with atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Stuart J; Crijns, Harry J G M; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    , on stroke has been evaluated in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, ATHENA (A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-arm Trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg BID for the prevention of cardiovascular Hospitalization or death from any cause in patiENts with Atrial fibrillation....../atrial flutter). METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with persistent or paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and at least 1 risk factor for cardiovascular hospitalization were randomized to receive dronedarone (400 mg BID) or double-blind matching placebo and followed up for a minimum of 1 year to a common termination at 30...... of either oral anticoagulant therapy or antiplatelet agent alone was 60%. Dronedarone reduced the risk of stroke from 1.8% per year to 1.2% per year (hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.46 to 0.96, P=0.027). The effect of dronedarone was similar whether or not patients were receiving oral...

  20. Chest-lead ST-J amplitudes using arm electrodes as reference instead of the Wilson central terminal in smartphone ECG applications: Influence on ST-elevation myocardial infarction criteria fulfillment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, Thomas; Engblom, Henrik; Khoshnood, Ardavan; Ekelund, Ulf; Carlsson, Marcus; Pahlm, Olle

    2018-05-07

    "Smartphone 12-lead ECG" for the assessment of acute myocardial ischemia has recently been introduced. In the smartphone 12-lead ECG either the right or the left arm can be used as reference for the chest electrodes instead of the Wilson central terminal. These leads are labeled "CR leads" or "CL leads." We aimed to compare chest-lead ST-J amplitudes, using either CR or CL leads, to those present in the conventional 12-lead ECG, and to determine sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of STEMI for CR and CL leads. Five hundred patients (74 patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 66 patients with nonischemic ST deviation and 360 controls) were included. Smartphone 12-lead ECG chest-lead ST-J amplitudes were calculated for both CR and CL leads. ST-J amplitudes were 9.1 ± 29 μV larger for CR leads and 7.7 ± 42 μV larger for CL leads than for conventional chest leads (V leads). Sensitivity and specificity were 94% and 95% for CR leads and 81% and 97% for CL leads when fulfillment of STEMI criteria in V leads was used as reference. In ischemic patients who met STEMI criteria in V leads, but not in limb leads, STEMI criteria were met with CR or CL leads in 91%. By the use of CR or CL leads, smartphone 12-lead ECG results in slightly lower sensitivity in STEMI detection. Therefore, the adjustment of STEMI criteria may be needed before application in clinical practice. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Blind Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arka Chattopadhyay

    2015-08-01

    There’s no way to know whether he was blind from birth or blindness was something he had picked up from his fights with other cats. He wasn’t an urban cat. He lived in a little village, soaked in the smell of fish with a river running right beside it. Cats like these have stories of a different kind. The two-storied hotel where he lived had a wooden floor. It stood right on the riverbank and had more than a tilt towards the river, as if deliberately leaning on the water.

  2. Blind Ambition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    No matter how dedicated they may be, some teachers are daunted by extreme challenges. Carol Agler, music director at the Ohio State School for the Blind (OSSB), is not one of those teachers. Since joining the OSSB staff 11 years ago, Agler has revived the school's long-dormant band program and created its first marching band. Next January, she…

  3. Study protocol: a phase III randomised, double-blind, parallel arm, stratified, block randomised, placebo-controlled trial investigating the clinical effect and cost-effectiveness of sertraline for the palliative relief of breathlessness in people with chronic breathlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Gareth J; Clark, Katherine; Agar, Meera; Davidson, Patricia M; McDonald, Christine; Lam, Lawrence T; Sajkov, Dimitar; McCaffrey, Nicola; Doogue, Matthew; Abernethy, Amy P; Currow, David C

    2016-11-29

    Breathlessness remains a highly prevalent and distressing symptom for many patients with progressive life-limiting illnesses. Evidence-based interventions for chronic breathlessness are limited, and there is an ongoing need for high-quality research into developing management strategies for optimal palliation of this complex symptom. Previous studies have suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as sertraline may have a role in reducing breathlessness. This paper presents the protocol for a large, adequately powered randomised study evaluating the use of sertraline for chronic breathlessness in people with progressive life-limiting illnesses. A total of 240 participants with modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale breathlessness of level 2 or higher will be randomised to receive either sertraline or placebo for 28 days in this multisite, double-blind study. The dose will be titrated up every 3 days to a maximum of 100 mg daily. The primary outcome will be to compare the efficacy of sertraline with placebo in relieving the intensity of worst breathlessness as assessed by a 0-100 mm Visual Analogue Scale. A number of other outcome measures and descriptors of breathlessness as well as caregiver assessments will also be recorded to ensure adequate analysis of participant breathlessness and to allow an economic analysis to be performed. Participants will also be given the option of continuing blinded treatment until either study data collection is complete or net benefit ceases. Appropriate statistical analysis of primary and secondary outcomes will be used to describe the wealth of data obtained. Ethics approval was obtained at all participating sites. Results of the study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and the key findings presented at national and international conferences. ACTRN12610000464066. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  4. Acute Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekins, Jessica M

    2015-09-01

    Sudden loss of vision is an ophthalmic emergency with numerous possible causes. Abnormalities may occur at any point within the complex vision pathway, from retina to optic nerve to the visual center in the occipital lobe. This article reviews specific prechiasm (retina and optic nerve) and cerebral cortical diseases that lead to acute blindness. Information regarding specific etiologies, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for vision is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dual arm master controller concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures

  6. A pragmatic, phase III, multisite, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm, dose increment randomised trial of regular, low-dose extended-release morphine for chronic breathlessness: Breathlessness, Exertion And Morphine Sulfate (BEAMS) study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currow, David; Watts, Gareth John; Johnson, Miriam; McDonald, Christine F; Miners, John O; Somogyi, Andrew A; Denehy, Linda; McCaffrey, Nicola; Eckert, Danny J; McCloud, Philip; Louw, Sandra; Lam, Lawrence; Greene, Aine; Fazekas, Belinda; Clark, Katherine C; Fong, Kwun; Agar, Meera R; Joshi, Rohit; Kilbreath, Sharon; Ferreira, Diana; Ekström, Magnus

    2017-07-17

    Chronic breathlessness is highly prevalent and distressing to patients and families. No medication is registered for its symptomatic reduction. The strongest evidence is for regular, low-dose, extended- release (ER) oral morphine. A recent large phase III study suggests the subgroup most likely to benefit have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and modified Medical Research Council breathlessness scores of 3 or 4. This protocol is for an adequately powered, parallel-arm, placebo-controlled, multisite, factorial, block-randomised study evaluating regular ER morphine for chronic breathlessness in people with COPD. The primary question is what effect regular ER morphine has on worst breathlessness, measured daily on a 0-10 numerical rating scale. Uniquely, the coprimary outcome will use a FitBit to measure habitual physical activity. Secondary questions include safety and, whether upward titration after initial benefit delivers greater net symptom reduction. Substudies include longitudinal driving simulation, sleep, caregiver, health economic and pharmacogenetic studies. Seventeen centres will recruit 171 participants from respiratory and palliative care. The study has five phases including three randomisation phases to increasing doses of ER morphine. All participants will receive placebo or active laxatives as appropriate. Appropriate statistical analysis of primary and secondary outcomes will be used. Ethics approval has been obtained. Results of the study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, findings presented at relevant conferences and potentially used to inform registration of ER morphine for chronic breathlessness. NCT02720822; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. JPRS Report Arms Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    Table of Contents: (1) COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES - (A) GENERAL Flaws in U.S.-Russian SSD Agreement Viewed, Khariton - Espionage Not Crucial in Soviet Nuclear Arms Development, Further on Espionage Role in Nuclear Arms Projects...

  8. DupuytrEn Treatment EffeCtiveness Trial (DETECT): a protocol for prospective, randomised, controlled, outcome assessor-blinded, three-armed parallel 1:1:1, multicentre trial comparing the effectiveness and cost of collagenase clostridium histolyticum, percutaneous needle fasciotomy and limited fasciectomy as short-term and long-term treatment strategies in Dupuytren's contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Mikko P; Karjalainen, Teemu; Göransson, Harry; Reito, Aleksi; Kautiainen, Hannu; Malmivaara, Antti; Leppänen, Olli V

    2018-03-28

    Dupuytren's contracture (DC) is a chronic fibroproliferative disorder of the palmar fascia which leads to flexion contracture in one or more fingers. There is no definitive cure for DC, and treatment aims at relieving symptoms by releasing the contracture using percutaneous or operative techniques. We planned a prospective, randomised, controlled, outcome assessor-blinded, three-armed parallel 1:1:1, multicentre trial comparing the effectiveness and cost of (1) collagenase clostridium histolyticum injection followed by limited fasciectomy in non-responsive cases, (2) percutaneous needle fasciotomy followed by limited fasciectomy in non-responsive cases and (3) primary limited fasciectomy during short-term and long-term follow-up for Tubiana I-III stages DC. We will recruit participants from seven national centres in Finland. Primary outcome is the rate of success in the treatment arm at 5 years after recruitment. Success is a composite outcome comprising (1) at least 50% contracture release from the date of recruitment and (2) participants in a patient-accepted symptom state (PASS). Secondary outcomes are (1) angle of contracture, (2) quick disabilities of the arm, a shoulder and hand outcome measure (QuickDASH), (3) perceived hand function, (4) EQ-5D-3L, (5) rate of major adverse events, (6) patient's trust of the treatment, (7) global rating, (8) rate of PASS, (9) rate of minimal clinically important improvement, (10) expenses, (11) progression of disease, (12) progression-free survival, (13) favoured treatment modality, (14) patients achieving full contracture release and >50% improvement and (15) patient satisfaction with the treatment effect. Predictive factors for achieving the PASS will also be analysed. The protocol was approved by the Tampere University Hospital Institutional Review Board and Finnish Medicine Agency. The study will be performed according to the principles of good clinical practice. The results of the trial will be disseminated as

  9. Evolution of robotic arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  10. A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Four-Arm Parallel Study Investigating the Effect of a Broad-Spectrum Wellness Beverage on Mood State in Healthy, Moderately Stressed Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Malkanthi; Antony, Joseph; Guthrie, Najla; Landes, Bernie; Aruoma, Okezie I

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a broad-spectrum wellness beverage (Zeal Wellness [ZW]) on standardized measures of mood states, including overall feelings of vitality, in healthy, moderately stressed adults. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted among 99 eligible participants prescreened for moderate stress. Participants were randomized to one of four groups and received ZW once daily (1-dose-ZW; 14 g), ZW twice daily (2-dose-ZW; 28 g), placebo once daily (1-dose-placebo), or placebo twice daily (2-dose-placebo) for 4 weeks. A stress/vitality questionnaire assessed stress and the Profile of Moods (POMS) Questionnaire assessed vigor via mental/physical energy and global mood state. Safety was assessed by clinical chemistry, liver, kidney function, and anthropometric measures and adverse event reporting. Participants receiving 2-dose-ZW reported a 6.6% decrease in scores on POMS-Total Mood Disturbance (TMD; p < 0.05) and a 6.8% decrease in the anger-hostility mood state (p < 0.022) compared to the combined placebo group at day 29. The 2-dose-ZW provided a 12.8% greater improvement in POMS-TMD scores when compared to participants receiving 1-dose-ZW after 28 days of supplementation (p = 0.014). Within groups, there was a 22.4% and a 9.6% decrease in POMS-TMD scores in participants with 2-dose-ZW and 1-dose-ZW, respectively. In addition, participants receiving 2-dose-ZW showed significant improvements (p = 0.001) in the POMS t-score iceberg profile, which represented a shift to a more healthy profile. These data show that daily supplementation with 2-dose-ZW significantly decreased POMS-TMD scores and anger-hostility mood state and shifted the POMS iceberg profile to a healthy profile compared to the combined placebo, reflecting the functional benefit of rice-bran-fruit-vegetable extracts based beverage on health.

  11. Arm locking with Doppler estimation errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Yinan; Wand, Vinzenz; Mitryk, Shawn; Mueller, Guido, E-mail: yinan@phys.ufl.ed [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2010-05-01

    At the University of Florida we developed the University of Florida LISA Interferometer Simulator (UFLIS) in order to study LISA interferometry with hardware in the loop at a system level. One of the proposed laser frequency stabilization techniques in LISA is arm locking. Arm locking uses an adequately filtered linear combination of the LISA arm signals as a frequency reference. We will report about experiments in which we demonstrated arm locking using UFLIS. During these experiments we also discovered a problem associated with the Doppler shift of the return beam. The initial arm locking publications assumed that this Doppler shift can perfectly be subtracted inside the phasemeter or adds an insignificant offset to the sensor signal. However, the remaining Doppler knowledge error will cause a constant change in the laser frequency if unaccounted for. Several ways to circumvent this problem have been identified. We performed detailed simulations and started preliminary experiments to verify the performance of the proposed new controller designs.

  12. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  13. Powered manipulator control arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Mouee, Theodore; Vertut, Jean; Marchal, Paul; Germon, J.C.; Petit, Michel

    1975-01-01

    A remote operated control arm for powered manipulators is described. It includes an assembly allowing several movements with position sensors for each movement. The number of possible arm movements equals the number of possible manipulator movements. The control systems may be interrupted as required. One part of the arm is fitted with a system to lock it with respect to another part of the arm without affecting the other movements, so long as the positions of the manipulator and the arm have not been brought into complete coincidence. With this system the locking can be ended when complete concordance is achieved [fr

  14. The arms race control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemo, J.

    2010-01-01

    Written in 1961, this paper presents the content of a book entitled 'The arms race control' where the author outlined the difference between disarmament and arms control, described the economic and moral role of arms race, the importance of force balance for international security. He wandered whether arms control could ensure this balance and whether nuclear balance meant force balance. Force balance then appears to be a precarious and unsteady component of international security. He commented the challenges of disarmament, recalled some arguments for a nuclear disarmament. Then he discussed what would be an arms control with or without disarmament (either nuclear or conventional)

  15. Definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness: Do we need to revise it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashist, Praveen; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Gupta, Vivek; Gupta, Noopur; Kumar, Atul

    2017-02-01

    A review appropriateness of the current definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB), Government of India. Online search of peer-reviewed scientific published literature and guidelines using PubMed, the World Health Organization (WHO) IRIS, and Google Scholar with keywords, namely blindness and visual impairment, along with offline examination of reports of national and international organizations, as well as their cross-references was done until December 2016, to identify relevant documents on the definition of blindness. The evidence for the historical and currently adopted definition of blindness under the NPCB, the WHO, and other countries was reviewed. Differences in the NPCB and WHO definitions were analyzed to assess the impact on the epidemiological status of blindness and visual impairment in India. The differences in the criteria for blindness under the NPCB and the WHO definitions cause an overestimation of the prevalence of blindness in India. These variations are also associated with an over-representation of refractive errors as a cause of blindness and an under-representation of other causes under the NPCB definition. The targets for achieving elimination of blindness also become much more difficult to achieve under the NPCB definition. Ignoring differences in definitions when comparing the global and Indian prevalence of blindness will cause erroneous interpretations. We recommend that the appropriate modifications should be made in the NPCB definition of blindness to make it consistent with the WHO definition.

  16. Definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness: Do we need to revise it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Vashist

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A review appropriateness of the current definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB, Government of India. Online search of peer-reviewed scientific published literature and guidelines using PubMed, the World Health Organization (WHO IRIS, and Google Scholar with keywords, namely blindness and visual impairment, along with offline examination of reports of national and international organizations, as well as their cross-references was done until December 2016, to identify relevant documents on the definition of blindness. The evidence for the historical and currently adopted definition of blindness under the NPCB, the WHO, and other countries was reviewed. Differences in the NPCB and WHO definitions were analyzed to assess the impact on the epidemiological status of blindness and visual impairment in India. The differences in the criteria for blindness under the NPCB and the WHO definitions cause an overestimation of the prevalence of blindness in India. These variations are also associated with an over-representation of refractive errors as a cause of blindness and an under-representation of other causes under the NPCB definition. The targets for achieving elimination of blindness also become much more difficult to achieve under the NPCB definition. Ignoring differences in definitions when comparing the global and Indian prevalence of blindness will cause erroneous interpretations. We recommend that the appropriate modifications should be made in the NPCB definition of blindness to make it consistent with the WHO definition.

  17. Arms control and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty commits each party to work towards nuclear disarmament and to negotiations to stop the nuclear arms race. All parties to the Treaty are included and a wide range of arms control and disarmament issues are covered. However the main focus at Treaty review conferences has been on nuclear disarmament by the nuclear weapon states which are party to the Treaty. This has led to bilateral United States - Soviet Union negotiations resulting in the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty in December 1987 and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) in July followed by unilateral arms control measures in September and October 1991. (UK)

  18. Blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils at schools for the blind in Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhagaze, Patrick; Njuguna, Kahaki Kimani Margaret; Kandeke, Lévi; Courtright, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils attending schools for the blind in Burundi in order to assist planning for services in the country. All pupils attending three schools for the blind in Burundi were examined. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision was used to record the findings. Data was analyzed for those who became blind or severely visually impaired before the age of 16 years. Overall, 117 pupils who became visually impaired before 16 years of age were examined. Of these, 109 (93.2%) were blind or severely visually impaired. The major anatomical cause of blindness or severe visual impairment was cornea pathology/phthisis (23.9%), followed by lens pathology (18.3%), uveal lesions (14.7%) and optic nerve lesions (11.9%). In the majority of pupils with blindness or severe visual impairment, the underlying etiology of visual loss was unknown (74.3%). More than half of the pupils with lens related blindness had not had surgery; among those who had surgery, outcomes were generally poor. The causes identified indicate the importance of continuing preventive public health strategies, as well as the development of specialist pediatric ophthalmic services in the management of childhood blindness in Burundi. The geographic distribution of pupils at the schools for the blind indicates a need for community-based programs to identify and refer children in need of services.

  19. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  20. Security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodziej, E.A.; Morgan, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book attempts to clarify and define selected current issues and problems related to security and arms control from an international perspective. The chapters are organized under the following headings. Conflict and the international system, Nuclear deterrence, Conventional warfare, Subconventional conflict, Arms control and crisis management

  1. Managing new arms races

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1992-01-01

    The management of new arms races in the region of Asia-Pacific includes considerations of weapons trade and transfer in the region, with an emphasis on nuclear weapons proliferation. It deals with the problem of controlling the arms trade and the efforts to control conventional weapons and underlines the possible role and influence of Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE)

  2. Intensity of leg and arm training after primary middle-cerebralartery stroke: a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, G.; Wagenaar, R.C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Koetsier, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Background. We investigated the effects of different intensities of arm and leg rehabilitation training on the functional recovery of activities of daily living (ADL), walking ability, and dexterity of the paretic arm, in a single-blind randomised controlled trial. Methods. Within 14 days after

  3. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  4. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  5. Representing vision and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Patrick L; Cox, Alexander P; Jensen, Mark; Allen, Travis; Duncan, William; Diehl, Alexander D

    2016-01-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to represent vision or blindness ontologically. This is unsurprising as the related phenomena of sight and blindness are difficult to represent ontologically for a variety of reasons. Blindness has escaped ontological capture at least in part because: blindness or the employment of the term 'blindness' seems to vary from context to context, blindness can present in a myriad of types and degrees, and there is no precedent for representing complex phenomena such as blindness. We explore current attempts to represent vision or blindness, and show how these attempts fail at representing subtypes of blindness (viz., color blindness, flash blindness, and inattentional blindness). We examine the results found through a review of current attempts and identify where they have failed. By analyzing our test cases of different types of blindness along with the strengths and weaknesses of previous attempts, we have identified the general features of blindness and vision. We propose an ontological solution to represent vision and blindness, which capitalizes on resources afforded to one who utilizes the Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level ontology. The solution we propose here involves specifying the trigger conditions of a disposition as well as the processes that realize that disposition. Once these are specified we can characterize vision as a function that is realized by certain (in this case) biological processes under a range of triggering conditions. When the range of conditions under which the processes can be realized are reduced beyond a certain threshold, we are able to say that blindness is present. We characterize vision as a function that is realized as a seeing process and blindness as a reduction in the conditions under which the sight function is realized. This solution is desirable because it leverages current features of a major upper-level ontology, accurately captures the phenomenon of blindness, and can be

  6. Arms Races and Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Baliga; Tomas Sjostrom

    2003-01-01

    Two players simultaneously decide whether or not to acquire new weapons in an arms race game. Each player's type determines his propensity to arm. Types are private information, and are independently drawn from a continuous distribution. With probability close to one, the best outcome for each player is for neither to acquire new weapons (although each prefers to acquire new weapons if he thinks the opponent will). There is a small probability that a player is a dominant strategy type who alw...

  7. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  8. Decontamination trade study for the Light Duty Utility Arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Various methods were evaluated for decontaminating the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). Physical capabilities of each method were compared with the constraints and requirements for the LDUA Decontamination System. Costs were compared and a referred alternative was chosen

  9. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  10. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within...... the organisation to reinforce the notion of women as inferior and subordinate to men, whereby the external hegemony is believed to be restored. Likewise, male Swedish peacekeepers’ demand for prostitution during international peacekeeping missions is explained in terms of a need to confirm manhood and as homo...

  11. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    ARM concept would leverage several key ongoing activities in human exploration, space technology, and planetary defense. The ARRM is planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026. Mission Objectives: The Asteroid Redirect Mission is designed to address the need for flight experience in cis-lunar space and provide opportunities for testing the systems, technologies, and capabilities that will be required for future human operations in deep space. A principle objective of the ARM is the development of a high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle, and the demonstration that it can operate for many years in interplanetary space, which is critical for deep-space exploration missions. A second prime objective of ARM is to conduct a human spaceflight mission involving in-space inter-action with a natural object, in order to provide the systems and operational experience that will be required for eventual human exploration of the Mars system, including the moons Phobos and Deimos. The ARCM provides a focus for the early flights of the Orion program. Astronauts will participate in the scientific in-space investigation of nearly pristine asteroid material, at most only minimally altered by the capture process. The ARCM will provide the opportunity for human explorers to work in space with asteroid material, testing the activities that would be performed and tools that would be needed for later exploration of primitive body surfaces in deep space. The operational experience would be gained close to our home planet, making it a significantly more affordable approach to obtaining this experience. Target Asteroid Candidates: NASA has identified the NEA (341843) 2008 EV5 as the reference target for the ARRM, but is also carrying three other NEAs as potential options [(25143) Itokawa, (162173) Ryugu, and (101955) Bennu]. NASA is continuing to search for additional candidate asteroid targets for ARM. The final target selection for the ARRM will

  12. Fair quantum blind signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian-Yin, Wang; Qiao-Yan, Wen

    2010-01-01

    We present a new fair blind signature scheme based on the fundamental properties of quantum mechanics. In addition, we analyse the security of this scheme, and show that it is not possible to forge valid blind signatures. Moreover, comparisons between this scheme and public key blind signature schemes are also discussed. (general)

  13. Armed conflict and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.

  14. Spiral arms, comets and terrestrial catastrophism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clube, S.V.M.; Napier, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of an hypothesis of terrestrial catastrophism in which comets grow in molecular clouds and are captured by the Sun as it passes through the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Assuming that comets are a major supplier of the Earth-crossing (Appollo) asteroid population, the latter fluctuates correspondingly and leads to episodes of terrestrial bombardment. Changes in the rotational momentum of core and mantle, generated by impacts, lead to episodes of magnetic field reversal and tectonic activity, while surface phenomena lead to ice-ages and mass extinctions. An episodic geophysical history with an interstellar connection is thus implied. If comets in spiral arms are necessary intermediaries in the process of star formation, the theory also has implications relating to early solar system history and galactic chemistry. These aspects are briefly discussed with special reference to the nature of spiral arms. (author)

  15. Global data on blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thylefors, B.; Négrel, A. D.; Pararajasegaram, R.; Dadzie, K. Y.

    1995-01-01

    Globally, it is estimated that there are 38 million persons who are blind. Moreover, a further 110 million people have low vision and are at great risk of becoming blind. The main causes of blindness and low vision are cataract, trachoma, glaucoma, onchocerciasis, and xerophthalmia; however, insufficient data on blindness from causes such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration preclude specific estimations of their global prevalence. The age-specific prevalences of the major causes of blindness that are related to age indicate that the trend will be for an increase in such blindness over the decades to come, unless energetic efforts are made to tackle these problems. More data collected through standardized methodologies, using internationally accepted (ICD-10) definitions, are needed. Data on the incidence of blindness due to common causes would be useful for calculating future trends more precisely. PMID:7704921

  16. Changes in the bilateral pulse transit time difference with a moving arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinge; Wei, Shoushui; Zheng, Dingchang; Huang, Peng; Liu, Chengyu

    2018-04-20

    Changes of pulse transit time (PTT) induced by arm position were studied for unilateral arm. However, consistency of the PTT changes was not validated for both arm sides. We aimed to quantify the PTT changes between horizontal and non-horizontal positions from right arm and left arm in order to explore the consistency of both arms. Twenty-four normal subjects aged between 21 and 50 (14 male and 10 female) years were enrolled. Left and right radial artery pulses were synchronously recorded from 24 healthy subjects with one arm (left or right) at five angles (90∘, 45∘, 0∘, -45∘ and -90∘) and the other arm at the horizontal level (0∘) for reference. The overall mean PTT changes at the five angles (from 90∘ to -90∘) in the left arm (right as reference) were 16.1, 12.3, -0.5, -2.5 and -2.6 ms, respectively, and in the right arm (left as reference) were 18.0, 12.6, 1.6, -1.6 and -2.0 ms, respectively. Obvious differences were not found in the PTT changes between the two arms (left arm moving or right arm moving) under each of the five different positions (all P> 0.05).

  17. PHENIX Muon Arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akikawa, H.; Al-Jamel, A.; Archuleta, J.B.; Archuleta, J.R.; Armendariz, R.; Armijo, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baldisseri, A.; Barker, A.B.; Barnes, P.D.; Bassalleck, B.; Batsouli, S.; Behrendt, J.; Bellaiche, F.G.; Bland, A.W.; Bobrek, M.; Boissevain, J.G.; Borel, H.; Brooks, M.L.; Brown, A.W.; Brown, D.S.; Bruner, N.; Cafferty, M.M.; Carey, T.A.; Chai, J.-S.; Chavez, L.L.; Chollet, S.; Choudhury, R.K.; Chung, M.S.; Cianciolo, V.; Clark, D.J.; Cobigo, Y.; Dabrowski, C.M.; Debraine, A.; DeMoss, J.; Dinesh, B.V.; Drachenberg, J.L.; Drapier, O.; Echave, M.A.; Efremenko, Y.V.; En'yo, H.; Fields, D.E.; Fleuret, F.; Fried, J.; Fujisawa, E.; Funahashi, H.; Gadrat, S.; Gastaldi, F.; Gee, T.F.; Glenn, A.; Gogiberidze, G.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Hance, R.H.; Hart, G.W.; Hayashi, N.; Held, S.; Hicks, J.S.; Hill, J.C.; Hoade, R.; Hong, B.; Hoover, A.; Horaguchi, T.; Hunter, C.T.; Hurst, D.E.; Ichihara, T.; Imai, K.; Isenhower, L.D.L. Davis; Isenhower, L.D.L. Donald; Ishihara, M.; Jang, W.Y.; Johnson, J.; Jouan, D.; Kamihara, N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kang, J.H.; Kapoor, S.S.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, D.-W.; Kim, G.-B.; Kinnison, W.W.; Klinksiek, S.; Kluberg, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Koehler, D.; Kotchenda, L.; Kuberg, C.H.; Kurita, K.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G.S.; LaBounty, J.J.; Lajoie, J.G.; Lee, D.M.; Lee, S.; Leitch, M.J.; Li, Z.; Liu, M.X.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Lockner, E.; Lopez, J.D.; Mao, Y.; Martinez, X.B.; McCain, M.C.; McGaughey, P.L.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, R.E.; Mohanty, A.K.; Montoya, B.C.; Moss, J.M.; Murata, J.; Murray, M.M.; Nagle, J.L.; Nakada, Y.; Newby, J.; Obenshain, F.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S.F.; Plasil, F.; Pope, K.; Qualls, J.M.; Rao, G.; Read, K.F.; Robinson, S.H.; Roche, G.; Romana, A.; Rosnet, P.; Roth, R.; Saito, N.; Sakuma, T.; Sandhoff, W.F.; Sanfratello, L.; Sato, H.D.; Savino, R.; Sekimoto, M.; Shaw, M.R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Sim, K.S.; Skank, H.D.; Smith, D.E.; Smith, G.D.; Sondheim, W.E.; Sorensen, S.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P.W.; Steffens, S.; Stein, E.M.; Stepanov, M.; Stokes, W.; Sugioka, M.; Sun, Z.; Taketani, A.; Taniguchi, E.; Tepe, J.D.; Thornton, G.W.; Tian, W.; Tojo, J.; Torii, H.; Towell, R.S.; Tradeski, J.; Vassent, M.; Velissaris, C.; Villatte, L.; Wan, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Watkins, L.C.; Whitus, B.R.; Williams, C.; Willis, P.S.; Wong-Swanson, B.G.; Yang, Y.; Yoneyama, S.; Young, G.R.; Zhou, S.

    2003-01-01

    The PHENIX Muon Arms detect muons at rapidities of |y|=(1.2-2.4) with full azimuthal acceptance. Each muon arm must track and identify muons and provide good rejection of pions and kaons (∼10 -3 ). In order to accomplish this we employ a radial field magnetic spectrometer with precision tracking (Muon Tracker) followed by a stack of absorber/low resolution tracking layers (Muon Identifier). The design, construction, testing and expected run parameters of both the muon tracker and the muon identifier are described

  18. PHENIX Muon Arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akikawa, H.; Al-Jamel, A.; Archuleta, J.B.; Archuleta, J.R.; Armendariz, R.; Armijo, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baldisseri, A.; Barker, A.B.; Barnes, P.D.; Bassalleck, B.; Batsouli, S.; Behrendt, J.; Bellaiche, F.G.; Bland, A.W.; Bobrek, M.; Boissevain, J.G.; Borel, H.; Brooks, M.L.; Brown, A.W.; Brown, D.S.; Bruner, N.; Cafferty, M.M.; Carey, T.A.; Chai, J.-S.; Chavez, L.L.; Chollet, S.; Choudhury, R.K.; Chung, M.S.; Cianciolo, V.; Clark, D.J.; Cobigo, Y.; Dabrowski, C.M.; Debraine, A.; DeMoss, J.; Dinesh, B.V.; Drachenberg, J.L.; Drapier, O.; Echave, M.A.; Efremenko, Y.V.; En' yo, H.; Fields, D.E.; Fleuret, F.; Fried, J.; Fujisawa, E.; Funahashi, H.; Gadrat, S.; Gastaldi, F.; Gee, T.F.; Glenn, A.; Gogiberidze, G.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Hance, R.H.; Hart, G.W.; Hayashi, N.; Held, S.; Hicks, J.S.; Hill, J.C.; Hoade, R.; Hong, B.; Hoover, A.; Horaguchi, T.; Hunter, C.T.; Hurst, D.E.; Ichihara, T.; Imai, K.; Isenhower, L.D.L. Davis; Isenhower, L.D.L. Donald; Ishihara, M.; Jang, W.Y.; Johnson, J.; Jouan, D.; Kamihara, N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kang, J.H.; Kapoor, S.S.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, D.-W.; Kim, G.-B.; Kinnison, W.W.; Klinksiek, S.; Kluberg, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Koehler, D.; Kotchenda, L.; Kuberg, C.H.; Kurita, K.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G.S.; LaBounty, J.J.; Lajoie, J.G.; Lee, D.M.; Lee, S.; Leitch, M.J.; Li, Z.; Liu, M.X.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Lockner, E.; Lopez, J.D.; Mao, Y.; Martinez, X.B.; McCain, M.C.; McGaughey, P.L.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, R.E.; Mohanty, A.K.; Montoya, B.C.; Moss, J.M.; Murata, J.; Murray, M.M.; Nagle, J.L.; Nakada, Y.; Newby, J.; Obenshain, F.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S.F.; Plasil, F.; Pope, K.; Qualls, J.M.; Rao, G.; Read, K.F. E-mail: readkf@ornl.gov; Robinson, S.H.; Roche, G.; Romana, A.; Rosnet, P.; Roth, R.; Saito, N.; Sakuma, T.; Sandhoff, W.F.; Sanfratello, L.; Sato, H.D.; Savino, R.; Sekimoto, M.; Shaw, M.R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Sim, K.S.; Skank, H.D.; Smith, D.E.; Smith, G.D. [and others

    2003-03-01

    The PHENIX Muon Arms detect muons at rapidities of |y|=(1.2-2.4) with full azimuthal acceptance. Each muon arm must track and identify muons and provide good rejection of pions and kaons ({approx}10{sup -3}). In order to accomplish this we employ a radial field magnetic spectrometer with precision tracking (Muon Tracker) followed by a stack of absorber/low resolution tracking layers (Muon Identifier). The design, construction, testing and expected run parameters of both the muon tracker and the muon identifier are described.

  19. The effect of the development of theatre missile defences on the arms control structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min

    1998-01-01

    Th arms control structure usually refers to current and past results of the efforts by the USA and former Soviet Union to negotiate strategic arms control agreements. The structure is to be represented by the various arms control agreements, such as the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) and the strategic Reduction Talks (START). Whatever the motives of the parties to these agreements, today people commonly regard the structure as the best way to achieve strategic stability. The profile od arms control and the impact of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, to understand how the Theatre Missile Defence (TMD) program affects the arms control structure

  20. Memory impairment is not sufficient for choice blindness to occur

    OpenAIRE

    Sagana, Anna; Sauerland, Melanie; Merckelbach, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Choice blindness refers to the phenomenon that people can be easily misled about the choices they made in the recent past. The aim of this study was to explore the cognitive mechanisms underlying choice blindness. Specifically, we tested whether memory impairment may account for choice blindness. A total of N = 88 participants provided sympathy ratings on 10-point scales for 20 female faces. Subsequently, participants motivated some of their ratings. However, on three trials, they were presen...

  1. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-28

    NACHRICHTEN , 18 Oct 85) 39 Presummit Polish Reporting on SDI Issues (Warsaw RZECZPOSPOLITA, 19-20 Oct 85; Warsaw ZYCIE WARSZAWY, 15 Oct 85) 42...28 February 1986 SDI AND SPACE ARMS MEETING REVEALS SOME SUPPORT FOR EUREKA LINK TO MILITARY Puesseldbrf VDI NACHRICHTEN in German 18 Oct 85 p 10

  2. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-04

    8217Unpredictable Consequences’ of SDI (Moscow PRAVDA, 7 Dec 85) 22 Moscow TV on ASTEC Meeting, Military Monopolies, SDI (Tomas Kolesnichenko; Moscow...planet. /8309 CSO: 5200/1228 22 JPRS-TAO86*014 4 February 1986 SDI AND SPACE ARMS MOSCOW TV ON ASTEC MEETING, MILITARY MONOPOLIES, SDI

  3. Affine pairings on ARM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, T.; Lauter, K.; Naehrig, M.; Shumow, D.; Abdalla, M.; Lange, T.

    2013-01-01

    We report on relative performance numbers for affine and projective pairings on a dual-core Cortex A9 ARM processor. Using a fast inversion in the base field and doing inversion in extension fields by using the norm map to reduce to inversions in smaller fields, we find a very low ratio of

  4. Arms Trafficking and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    chronology of the intensification of violence in the area, see Noche Y Niebla: Panorama De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia Politica En Colombia, Bogotá...Arms, London, UK: Zed Books, 2000, pp. 155–178. Noche Y Niebla: Panorama De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia Politica En Colombia, Bogotá: Cinep & Justicia

  5. Postictal blindness in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeh, M; Goldhammer, Y; Kuritsky, A

    1983-01-01

    Cortical blindness following grand mal seizures occurred in five adult patients. The causes of seizures included idiopathic epilepsy, vascular accident, brain cyst, acute encephalitis and chronic encephalitis. Blindness was permanent in one patients, but the others recovered within several days. Since most of the patients were either unaware of or denied their blindness, it is possible that this event often goes unrecognised. Cerebral hypoxia is considered the most likely mechanism.

  6. Attenuation of Change Blindness in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Leekam, Susan R.; Connolly, Brenda; Collis, Jess M.; Findlay, John M.; McConachie, Helen; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    Change blindness refers to the difficulty most people find in detecting a difference between two pictures when these are presented successively, with a brief interruption between. Attention at the site of the change is required for detection. A number of studies have investigated change blindness in adults and children with autism spectrum…

  7. A Literature Review of Inattentional and Change Blindness in Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to situations in which a person is unaware of a change that is occurring because attention is not currently focused on what is changing. Change blindness occurs when a change takes place during an eye movement or blink ...

  8. Amygdala activation for eye contact despite complete cortical blindness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burra, N.; Hervais-Adelman, A.; Kerzel, D.; Tamietto, M.; de Gelder, B.; Pegna, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical blindness refers to the loss of vision that occurs after destruction of the primary visual cortex. Although there is no sensory cortex and hence no conscious vision, some cortically blind patients show amygdala activation in response to facial or bodily expressions of emotion. Here we

  9. Rubella Deaf-Blind Child: Implications of Psychological Assessment. Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouin, Carole

    Presented are proceedings of a conference involving authorities in testing and evaluating the blind, deaf, and deaf-blind. In a paper titled "Psychological Implications of Assessing the Deaf", C. Goetzinger discusses references used in audiology, anatomy and physiology of the ear, degrees of hearing impairment, and implications of the various…

  10. Roaming Reference: Reinvigorating Reference through Point of Need Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kealin M. McCabe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Roaming reference service was pursued as a way to address declining reference statistics. The service was staffed by librarians armed with iPads over a period of six months during the 2010-2011 academic year. Transactional statistics were collected in relation to query type (Research, Facilitative or Technology, location and approach (librarian to patron, patron to librarian or via chat widget. Overall, roaming reference resulted in an additional 228 reference questions, 67% (n=153 of which were research related. Two iterations of the service were implemented, roaming reference as a standalone service (Fall 2010 and roaming reference integrated with traditional reference desk duties (Winter 2011. The results demonstrate that although the Weller Library’s reference transactions are declining annually, they are not disappearing. For a roaming reference service to succeed, it must be a standalone service provided in addition to traditional reference services. The integration of the two reference models (roaming reference and reference desk resulted in a 56% decline in the total number of roaming reference questions from the previous term. The simple act of roaming has the potential to reinvigorate reference services as a whole, forcing librarians outside their comfort zones, allowing them to reach patrons at their point of need.

  11. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  12. [Rudolph Tegner: The blind from Marrakech (1949-1950)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, M; Permin, H

    1999-01-01

    The Danish sculptor and painter Rudolph Tegner (1873-1950) has built his own Museum in Dronningmolle, where his sculptures enrich the unique landscape. His last and incomplete plaster on a simple, raw wooden scaffold sculpture The Blind from Marrakech (Fig. 1) show five persons moan about, carrying a dead body. All persons are missing their arms. Tegner had a number of years earlier been in Marrakech and had watched a funeral procession, where blind beggars had carried a dead old woman raised high above the bearers on a kind of pall. In a small version of the statue cast, later in bronze from 1963, showed 15 bearers, on both sides of the bier (Fig. 2 & 3). Nine and 15 bearers are looking up, two right in front, and the rest are looking down. Totally blind people can not see the light but can see up to the divine Heaven. Some blind have kept the gleam. The confusion with the eye direction shows that they really are blind. However 10 of the 15 blind people had hollow in the eye (excenteratio orbitae) in contrast to the dead woman. The dead woman had been the blinds' mistress. The last work The Blind in Marrakech may also be the despair of the artist.

  13. Understanding the conventional arms trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    The global conventional arms trade is worth tens of billions of dollars every year and is engaged in by every country in the world. Yet, it is often difficult to control the legal trade in conventional arms and there is a thriving illicit market, willing to arm unscrupulous regimes and nefarious non-state actors. This chapter examines the international conventional arms trade, the range of tools that have been used to control it, and challenges to these international regimes.

  14. Safeguarding arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    This essay reviews the evolution of various safeguards concepts associated with U.S. Soviet arms control negotiations over the past twenty-five years. It explore in some detail the origins, nature, and effectiveness of the safeguards packages associated with six agreements: the Limited Test Ban Treaty (1963), the SALT I Interim Agreement (1972), the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty (1972), the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (1974), the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (1976) and the SALT II Treaty (1979). Finally, the implications of this historical record for developing future nuclear and conventional arms control accords and for shoring up existing pacts, such as the ABM Treaty, are assessed with a view towards practicable prescriptions for Western policymakers. The treaty eliminating intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) incorporates several verification safeguards, and it is very likely that analogous measures would be attached to any accord constraining conventional forces in Europe

  15. Blind Analysis in Particle Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roodman, A

    2003-01-01

    A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of and the advantages of a blind analysis are described. Three distinct kinds of blind analysis in particle physics are presented in detail. Finally, the BABAR collaboration's experience with the blind analysis technique is discussed

  16. Coat of Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Describes an activity, the "coat of arms," that can serve as an ice-breaker or warm-up for the first day of an English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language class, as a motivating start to the week, or act as an innovative segue between skill lessons. The technique can be adapted for students ranging from elementary school to adult language learners of all…

  17. Arms Production in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    studied engineering in the United States. Cardoen produces a wide spectrum of munitions, security equipment and especially armored vehicles, and has...capabilities are: a. The amount of capital available for investment. Arms industry development requires enormous amounts of capital, especially if the...Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5100 5. Director de Educacion de La Armada 1 Comandancia General de La Armada Av. Vollmer, Urb. San

  18. Scientific coats of arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2005-09-01

    With their mythical creatures and arcane symbolism, coats of arms seem to have little connection with modern science. Yet despite its chivalric origins, the ancient language of heraldry has long fascinated famous scientists. Although this idiosyncratic tradition was parodied by Victorian geologists, who laughingly replaced unicorns and griffins with images of dinosaurs that they had recently discovered, it has been perpetuated since by Ernest Rutherford, who liked to present himself as a new alchemist.

  19. Liposuction of arm lymphoedema.

    OpenAIRE

    Brorson, Håkan

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common disease in women, and up to 38% develop lymphedema of the arm following mastectomy, standard axillary node dissection and postoperative irradiation. Limb reductions have been reported utilising various conservative therapies such as manual lymph and pressure therapy. Some patients with long-standing pronounced lymphedema do not respond to these conservative treatments because slow or absent lymph flow causes the formation of excess subcutaneous adipose tissue....

  20. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  1. Strategic arms limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Greb, G.; Johnson, Gerald W.

    1983-10-01

    Following World War II, American scientists and politicians proposed in the Baruch plan a radical solution to the problem of nuclear weapons: to eliminate them forever under the auspices of an international nuclear development authority. The Soviets, who as yet did not possess the bomb, rejected this plan. Another approach suggested by Secretary of War Henry Stimson to negotiate directly with the Soviet Union was not accepted by the American leadership. These initial arms limitation failures both reflected and exacerbated the hostile political relationship of the superpowers in the 1950s and 1960s. Since 1969, the more modest focus of the Soviet-American arms control process has been on limiting the numbers and sizes of both defensive and offensive strategic systems. The format for this effort has been the Strategic Arms Limitatins Talks (Salt) and more recently the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Both sides came to these negotiations convinced that nuclear arsenals had grown so large that some for of mutual restraint was needed. Although the SALT/START process has been slow and ponderous, it has produced several concrete the agreements and collateral benefits. The 1972 ABM Treaty restricts the deployment of ballistic missile defense systems, the 1972 Interim Agreement places a quantitative freeze on each side's land based and sea based strategic launchers, and the as yet unratified 1979 SALT II Treaty sets numerical limits on all offensive strategic systems and sublimits on MIRVed systems. Collateral benefits include improved verification procedures, working definitions and counting rules, and permanent bureaucratic apparatus which enhance stability and increase the chances for achieving additional agreements.

  2. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-22

    dinosaurs (and a large number of other species which disappeared "simultaneously") might have become extinct because a large comet hit the earth’s...clear yet aeain the reasons why Washington is in such haste in the arms race for "star wars" and why it refuses to assume a commitment not to be...Kolesnichenko says: [Begin Kolesnichenko recording in Russian with English translation] In an effort to calm the American public and provide a logical reason

  3. Blinding for unanticipated signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Chaum (David)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractPreviously known blind signature systems require an amount of computation at least proportional to the number of signature types, and also that the number of such types be fixed in advance. These requirements are not practical in some applications. Here, a new blind signature technique

  4. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  5. Unblinding the dark matter blind spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tao; Kling, Felix

    2017-01-01

    The dark matter (DM) blind spots in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) refer to the parameter regions where the couplings of the DM particles to the Z-boson or the Higgs boson are almost zero, leading to vanishingly small signals for the DM direct detections. In this paper, we carry out comprehensive analyses for the DM searches under the blind-spot scenarios in MSSM. Guided by the requirement of acceptable DM relic abundance, we explore the complementary coverage for the theory parameters at the LHC, the projection for the future underground DM direct searches, and the indirect searches from the relic DM annihilation into photons and neutrinos. We find that (i) the spin-independent (SI) blind spots may be rescued by the spin-dependent (SD) direct detection in the future underground experiments, and possibly by the indirect DM detections from IceCube and SuperK neutrino experiments; (ii) the detection of gamma rays from Fermi-LAT may not reach the desirable sensitivity for searching for the DM blind-spot regions; (iii) the SUSY searches at the LHC will substantially extend the discovery region for the blind-spot parameters. As a result, the dark matter blind spots thus may be unblinded with the collective efforts in future DM searches.

  6. Rehabilitation of cortical blindness secondary to stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Tarek A-Z K

    2010-01-01

    Cortical blindness is a rare complication of posterior circulation stroke. However, its complex presentation with sensory, physical, cognitive and behavioural impairments makes it one of the most challenging. Appropriate approach from a rehabilitation standpoint was never reported. Our study aims to discuss the rehabilitation methods and outcomes of a cohort of patients with cortical blindness. The notes of all patients with cortical blindness referred to a local NHS rehabilitation service in the last 6~years were examined. Patients' demographics, presenting symptoms, scan findings, rehabilitation programmes and outcomes were documented. Seven patients presented to our service, six of them were males. The mean age was 63. Patients 1, 2 and 3 had total blindness with severe cognitive and behavioural impairments, wandering and akathisia. All of them failed to respond to any rehabilitation effort and the focus was on damage limitation. Pharmacological interventions had a modest impact on behaviour and sleep pattern. The 3 patients were discharged to a nursing facility. Patients 4, 5, 6 and 7 had partial blindness with variable severity. All of them suffered from significant memory impairment. However, none suffered from any behavioural, physical or other cognitive impairment. Rehabilitation efforts on 3 patients were carried out collaboratively between brain injury occupational therapists and sensory disability officers. All patients experienced significant improvement in handicap and they all maintained community placements. This small cohort of patients suggests that the rehabilitation philosophy and outcomes of these 2 distinct groups of either total or partial cortical blindness differ significantly.

  7. Models for the blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Jan-Eric

    2014-01-01

    person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical......When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind...... background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material...

  8. Armed conflict and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health\\ud throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives\\ud in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely\\ud to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark\\ud contrast to the effect on children, the international arms\\ud trade results in huge profits for the large corporations\\ud involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions.\\ud Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important\\ud health issue that should be...

  9. Blinded by Irrelevance: Pure Irrelevance Induced "Blindness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitam, Baruch; Yeshurun, Yaffa; Hassan, Kinneret

    2013-01-01

    To what degree does our representation of the immediate world depend solely on its relevance to what we are currently doing? We examined whether relevance per se can cause "blindness," even when there is no resource limitation. In a novel paradigm, people looked at a colored circle surrounded by a differently colored ring--the task relevance of…

  10. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  11. Environment and Blindness Situation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Askari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences of adults with acquired blindness while performing the daily activities of normal life and to investigated the role of environmental factors in this process. Methods: A qualitative phenomenological method has been designed for this study. A sample of 22 adults with acquired blindness who were blind for more than 5 years of life were purposefully selected and semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with them. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded and analyzed using van Manen’s method. Results: The five clustered themes that emerged from the interviews included: 1 Products and technology-discusses the benefits and drawbacks of using advanced technology to promote independence, 2 Physical environment-“The streets are like an obstacle course”, 3 Support and relationships-refers to the assistance that blind people receive from family, friends, and society, 4 Attitudes-includes family and social attitudes toward blind people, 5 Services and policies-social security, supportive acts, economic factors, educational problems and providing services. Discusion: Findings identify how the daily living activities of blind people are affected by environmental factors and what those factors are. The results will enable occupational therapists and other health care professionals who are involved with blind people to become more competent during assessment, counseling, teaching, giving support, or other interventions as needed to assist blind people. Recommendations for further research include more studies of this population to identify other challenges over time. This would facilitate long-term goals in the care. Studies that include more diversity in demographic characteristics would provide greater generalization. Some characteristics such as adolescent age group, married and single, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status are particularly important to target.

  12. Shape Perception and Navigation in Blind Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Monica; Cappagli, Giulia; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Finocchietti, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Different sensory systems interact to generate a representation of space and to navigate. Vision plays a critical role in the representation of space development. During navigation, vision is integrated with auditory and mobility cues. In blind individuals, visual experience is not available and navigation therefore lacks this important sensory signal. In blind individuals, compensatory mechanisms can be adopted to improve spatial and navigation skills. On the other hand, the limitations of these compensatory mechanisms are not completely clear. Both enhanced and impaired reliance on auditory cues in blind individuals have been reported. Here, we develop a new paradigm to test both auditory perception and navigation skills in blind and sighted individuals and to investigate the effect that visual experience has on the ability to reproduce simple and complex paths. During the navigation task, early blind, late blind and sighted individuals were required first to listen to an audio shape and then to recognize and reproduce it by walking. After each audio shape was presented, a static sound was played and the participants were asked to reach it. Movements were recorded with a motion tracking system. Our results show three main impairments specific to early blind individuals. The first is the tendency to compress the shapes reproduced during navigation. The second is the difficulty to recognize complex audio stimuli, and finally, the third is the difficulty in reproducing the desired shape: early blind participants occasionally reported perceiving a square but they actually reproduced a circle during the navigation task. We discuss these results in terms of compromised spatial reference frames due to lack of visual input during the early period of development. PMID:28144226

  13. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrholz, Jan; Pohl, Marcus; Platz, Thomas; Kugler, Joachim; Elsner, Bernhard

    2015-11-07

    Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training devices are used in rehabilitation, and may help to improve arm function after stroke. To assess the effectiveness of electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength in people after stroke. We also assessed the acceptability and safety of the therapy. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (last searched February 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2015), EMBASE (1980 to March 2015), CINAHL (1982 to March 2015), AMED (1985 to March 2015), SPORTDiscus (1949 to March 2015), PEDro (searched April 2015), Compendex (1972 to March 2015), and Inspec (1969 to March 2015). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, searched trials and research registers, checked reference lists, and contacted trialists, experts, and researchers in our field, as well as manufacturers of commercial devices. Randomised controlled trials comparing electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for recovery of arm function with other rehabilitation or placebo interventions, or no treatment, for people after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality and risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trialists for additional information. We analysed the results as standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous variables and risk differences (RDs) for dichotomous variables. We included 34 trials (involving 1160 participants) in this update of our review. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training improved activities of daily living scores (SMD 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.64, P = 0.005, I² = 62%), arm function (SMD 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.51, P arm muscle strength (SMD 0.36, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.70, P = 0.04, I² = 72%), but the quality of the evidence was low to very low

  14. Nonparetic arm force does not overinhibit the paretic arm in chronic poststroke hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimyan, Michael A; Perez, Monica A; Auh, Sungyoung; Tarula, Erick; Wilson, Matthew; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether nonparetic arm force overinhibits the paretic arm in patients with chronic unilateral poststroke hemiparesis. Case-control neurophysiological and behavioral study of patients with chronic stroke. Research institution. Eighty-six referred patients were screened to enroll 9 participants (N=9) with a >6 month history of 1 unilateral ischemic infarct that resulted in arm hemiparesis with residual ability to produce 1Nm of wrist flexion torque and without contraindication to transcranial magnetic stimulation. Eight age- and handedness-matched healthy volunteers without neurologic diagnosis were studied for comparison. Not applicable. Change in interhemispheric inhibition targeting the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1) during nonparetic arm force. We hypothesized that interhemispheric inhibition would increase more in healthy controls than in patients with hemiparesis. Healthy age-matched controls had significantly greater increases in inhibition from their active to resting M1 than patients with stroke from their active contralesional to resting ipsilesional M1 in the same scenario (20%±7% vs -1%±4%, F1,12=6.61, P=.025). Patients with greater increases in contralesional to ipsilesional inhibition were better performers on the 9-hole peg test of paretic arm function. Our findings reveal that producing force with the nonparetic arm does not necessarily overinhibit the paretic arm. Though our study is limited in generalizability by the small sample size, we found that greater active contralesional to resting ipsilesional M1 inhibition was related with better recovery in this subset of patients with chronic poststroke. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Removable molar power arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attachment of force elements from the gingival hook of maxillary molar tubes during the retraction of the anterior teeth is very common in orthodontic practice. As the line of force passes below the center of resistance (CR of molar, it results its mesial tipping and also anchorage loss. To overcome this problem, the line of force should pass along the CR of molar. This article highlights a method to overcome this problem by attaching a removable power arm to the headgear tube of molar tube during the retraction of the anterior teeth.

  16. Disarmament and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, B.

    1979-01-01

    This report discusses how far science and technology can provide methods of making arms control and disarmament agreements more controlable in an objective way. Two case studies have been considered, the test ban treaty and the verification of the number of strategic nuclear weapons. These lead to the conclusion that both science and politics are closely interwoven and that within what appear to be scientific arguments, political positions are being defended. Consequently scientists and technologists and the contexts in which they work, play a prominent role. (C.F.)

  17. The blind hens’ challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Hocking, Paul M.; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    about breeding blind hens. But we also argue that alternative views, which (for example) claim that it is important to respect the telos or rights of an animal, do not offer a more convincing solution to questions raised by the possibility of disenhancing animals for their own benefit.......Animal ethicists have recently debated the ethical questions raised by disenhancing animals to improve their welfare. Here, we focus on the particular case of breeding blind hens for commercial egg-laying systems, in order to benefit their welfare. Many people find breeding blind hens intuitively...

  18. Combined arm stretch positioning and neuromuscular electrical stimulation during rehabilitation does not improve range of motion, shoulder pain or function in patients after stroke : a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Lex D.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Gerritsen, Johan; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Postema, Klaas

    2013-01-01

    Question Does static stretch positioning combined with simultaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in the subacute phase after stroke have beneficial effects on basic arm body functions and activities? Design Multicentre randomised trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding, and

  19. Efficacy and safety of ABP 980 compared with reference trastuzumab in women with HER2-positive early breast cancer (LILAC study): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; Colleoni, Marco; Kolberg, Hans-Christian; Morales, Serafin; Santi, Patricia; Tomasevic, Zorica; Zhang, Nan; Hanes, Vladimir

    2018-06-04

    ABP 980 (Amgen Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA) is a biosimilar of trastuzumab, with analytical, functional, and pharmacokinetic similarities. We compared the clinical safety and efficacy of ABP 980 with that of trastuzumab in women with HER2-positive early breast cancer. We did a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, active-controlled equivalence trial at 97 study centres in 20 countries, mainly in Europe and South America. Eligible women were aged 18 years or older, had histologically confirmed HER2-positive invasive early breast cancer, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0 or 1, and were planning to have surgical resection of the breast tumour with sentinel or axillary lymph node dissection and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. After four cycles of run-in anthracycline-based chemotherapy, patients were assigned 1:1 to receive ABP 980 or trastuzumab with a permuted block design (blocks of four) computer-generated randomisation schedule. Patients received neoadjuvant therapy with a loading dose (8 mg/kg) of ABP 980 or trastuzumab plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m 2 in a 90 min intravenous infusion, followed by three cycles of 6 mg/kg intravenous ABP 980 or trastuzumab plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m 2 every 3 weeks in 30 min intravenous infusions (or 80 mg/m 2 paclitaxel once per week for 12 cycles if that was the local standard of care). Randomisation was stratified by T stage, node status, hormone receptor status, planned paclitaxel dosing schedule, and geographical region. Surgery was completed 3-7 weeks after the last dose of neoadjuvant treatment, after which adjuvant treatment with ABP 980 or trastuzumab was given every 3 weeks for up to 1 year after the first dose in the study. Patients had been randomly assigned at baseline to continue APB 980, continue trastuzumab, or switch from trastuzumab to APB 980 as their adjuvant treatment. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were risk difference and risk ratio (RR) of pathological complete response in breast

  20. [Reference citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  1. Blind loop syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001146.htm Blind loop syndrome To use the sharing features on ... Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David ...

  2. Nature of galaxy spiral arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, Yu.N.

    1984-01-01

    The nature of galaxy spiral arms is discussed in a popular form. Two approaches in the theory of spiral arms are considered; they are related to the problem of differential galaxy rotation and the spiral structure wave theory. The example of Galaxy M31 is considered to compare the structural peculiarity of its spiral arms with the wave theory predictions. The situation in the central and south-eastern part of arm S4 in Galaxy M31 noted to be completely explained by the wave theory and modern concepts on the origin of massive stars

  3. Reference Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  4. Nuclear arms cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Soviet Union's demise five years ago brought an end to the Cold War, the 45-year arms race between the Soviet superpower and the United States. The euphoria that greeted the end of this bloodless conflict has dampened somewhat, however, as U.S. officials and their counterparts in the former Soviet republics come to grips with its legacy: thousands of highly toxic and politically destabilizing nuclear weapons. With no more perceived need for much of their vast arsenals, the governments have agreed to dismantle large numbers of nuclear warheads. But the agencies involved in this task face a daunting technical and political problem: what to do with the thousands of tons of plutonium and uranium that are the main ingredients of nuclear weapons

  5. The position of the arm during blood pressure measurement in sitting position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiyaman, Ahmet; Verhoeff, Rutger; Lenders, Jacques W M; Deinum, Jaap; Thien, Theo

    2006-12-01

    Determining the influence of the position of the arm on blood pressure measurement in the sitting position. Blood pressure of 128 individuals (the majority being treated hypertensive patients) visiting the outpatient clinic was measured simultaneously on both arms with arms in two different positions. First, both arms were placed at the chair support level and blood pressure was measured three times on both arms after 10 min of rest. Subsequently, while still remaining in the same sitting position, five blood pressure measurements were made simultaneously at both arms with one arm placed on the desk and one arm placed and supported at heart level (mid-sternal). The arm placed at heart level served as the reference arm. The choice of which arm was placed at desk level and which arm was placed at heart level was randomized. Both at desk level and at chair support level, mean (+/-SD) systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher than blood pressure at heart level by 6.1/5.7+/-4.6/3.1 and 9.3/9.4+/-5.4/3.4 mmHg, respectively. The effect of the height differences between the arm positions on the blood pressure readings was smaller than predicted (0.49 mmHg/cm systolic and 0.47 mmHg/cm diastolic). No significant correlation was found between blood pressure difference in the different arm positions (desk and heart level) and age, sex, weight or baseline blood pressure. Different arm positions below heart level have significant effects on blood pressure readings. The leading guidelines about arm position during blood pressure measurement are not in accordance with the arm position used in the Framingham study, the most frequently used study for risk estimations.

  6. The Neanderthal lower arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Isabelle

    2011-10-01

    Neanderthal forearms have been described as being very powerful. Different individual features in the lower arm bones have been described to distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans. In this study, the overall morphology of the radius and ulna is considered, and morphological differences among Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens and recent H. sapiens are described. Comparisons among populations were made using a combination of 3D geometric morphometrics and standard multivariate methods. Comparative material included all available complete radii and ulnae from Neanderthals, early H. sapiens and archaeological and recent human populations, representing a wide geographical and lifestyle range. There are few differences among the populations when features are considered individually. Neanderthals and early H. sapiens fell within the range of modern human variation. When the suite of measurements and shapes were analyzed, differences and similarities became apparent. The Neanderthal radius is more laterally curved, has a more medially placed radial tuberosity, a longer radial neck, a more antero-posteriorly ovoid head and a well-developed proximal interosseous crest. The Neanderthal ulna has a more anterior facing trochlear notch, a lower M. brachialis insertion, larger relative mid-shaft size and a more medio-lateral and antero-posterior sinusoidal shaft. The Neanderthal lower arm morphology reflects a strong cold-adapted short forearm. The forearms of H. sapiens are less powerful in pronation and supination. Many differences between Neanderthals and H. sapiens can be explained as a secondary consequence of the hyper-polar body proportions of the Neanderthals, but also as retentions of the primitive condition of other hominoids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Have Third-World Arms Industries Reduced Arms Imports?

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Current Research on Peace and Violence, no. 1, 1989. Refereed Journal Article In 1945 only Argentina, Brazil, India and South Africa in the Third World possessed domestic arms industries which produced weapons systems other than small arms and ammunition (SIPRI, 1987, 76).

  8. Flexible kinesthetic distance perception: when do your arms tell you how far you have walked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Steven J; Kuznetsov, Nikita; Breheim, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Given the flexible organization of locomotion evidenced in the many ways the limbs can be coordinated, the authors explored the potentially correspondingly flexible organization of nonvisual (kinesthetic) distance perception. As kinesthetic distance perception is known to be affected by how the limbs are coordinated, the authors probed the potential perceptual contribution of the arms during locomotion by manipulating arm-leg coordination patterns in blind-walked distance-matching tasks. Whereas manipulation of arm-leg coordination for walking with free-swinging arms had no observable perceptual consequences, comparable manipulation for walking with hiking poles did affect distance matching. These results suggest that under conditions in which the arms act to propel the body (e.g., crawling or stair-climbing) a person's nonvisual sense of movement is conveyed in the coordinated actions of all four limbs.

  9. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  10. Nuclear Arms Race and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Anpeng

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new factor, environment, into nuclear arms race model. In this model, nuclear weapons produce larger defense power compared with conventional arms, but hurt the environment meanwhile. In the global welfare maximum level, both conventional and nuclear weapons budget are zero. However, the competitive equilibrium may not achieve the optimum. I give the condition to jump out of the prisoner's dilemma.

  11. Arménie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Verdier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’Arménie est une petite république du Caucase, à la limite sud–est de l’Europe, qui a gagné son autonomie en 1990 après l’ouverture du bloc soviétique. Le nouveau Ministère du Patrimoine a sollicité la coopération de la France pour mettre en place une nouvelle politique culturelle. Tout d’abord, une évaluation sur place de la situation dans les domaines des monuments historiques, de l’archéologie et de l’Inventaire a permis d’envisager les réponses à proposer. Pour la demande d’informatisation des dossiers d’inventaire déjà réalisés sous l’autorité de l’Académie de Saint–Petersbourg, nous avons proposé de former des chercheurs arméniens aux méthodes et techniques de l’Inventaire général. L’accueil d’une stagiaire pendant trois mois au service régional de l’Inventaire de Haute–Normandie a été suivi par la mise en place d’un équipement informatique à Yérévan, puis par l’accueil et la formation de techniciens informaticiens et photographes arméniens. De retour dans leur pays ils ont commencé à remettre en place un service d’inventaire dont le programme comprend la création d’une base de données patrimoniales, le recensement de la ville de Yérévan, la numérisation d’images pour la publication d’un indicateur du patrimoine et la préparation de dossiers de protection au titre du patrimoine mondial.The Armenian heritage comprises both archaeological remains of towns destroyed by never–ending wars and a number of old churches from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, was founded three thousand years ago and is one of Europe’s oldest capitals. From 1925 it has developed according to an ambitious urban planning project. After the major political upheavals of 1991, a special ministry was created to look after the architectural and movable heritage of the country and to promote the Armenian national identity. A mission in Yerevan was

  12. How do octopuses use their arms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J A

    1998-09-01

    A taxonomy of the movement patterns of the 8 flexible arms of octopuses is constructed. Components consist of movements of the arm itself, the ventral suckers and their stalks, as well as the relative position of arms and the skin web between them. Within 1 arm, combinations of components result in a variety of behaviors. At the level of all arms, 1 group of behaviors is described as postures, on the basis of the spread of all arms and the web to make a 2-dimensional surface whose position differs in the 3rd dimension. Another group of arm behaviors is actions, more or less coordinated and involving several to all arms. Arm control appears to be based on radial symmetry, relative equipotentiality of all arms, relative independence of each arm, and separability of components within the arm. The types and coordination of arm behaviors are discussed with relationship to biomechanical limits, muscle structures, and neuronal programming.

  13. Primary design of Si cooling arm structure in ICF cryogenic target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Yi Yong; Tang Changhuan; Zhang Jicheng

    2013-01-01

    According to the requirement of the cryogenic target system to the Si cooling arm structure, the Si cooling arm was primarily designed based on the USA National Ignition Facility (NIF) target. A new three-dimensional model of Si cooling arm was developed by SolidWorks software, and the simulation and analysis of Si cooling arm in aspect of mechanical property, thermal response and assembly were made based on the model. A law about the effect of the arm length of Si cooling arm and the width and the length of bifurcation on Si cooling arm was achieved. The research may provide the theoretical foundation and reference for the further improvement of cryogenic target. (authors)

  14. Virtual Racism Rears its Head: Uncovering Librarian Bias in E-mail Reference Services. A review of: Shachaf, Pnina, and Sarah Horowitz. “Are Virtual Reference Services Color Blind?” Library & Information Science Research 28.4 (Sept. 2006: 501‐20.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Furlan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To examine whether librarians provide equitable virtual reference services to diverse user groups.Design – Unobtrusive method of defined scenarios submitted via e-mail.Setting – Twenty‐three Association of Research Libraries (ARL member libraries from across the United States. All ARL member libraries were invited to participate, with the 23 acceptances providing 19% participation.Subjects – Anonymous librarians from the 23 participating libraries’ virtual e‐mail reference services. Up to 6 librarians from each library may have been involved. Six fictitious personas were developed to represent particular ethnic or religious groups, whereby the ethnic or religious affiliation was only indicated by the name chosen for each user and the correspondinge‐mail address. Names were selected from lists of names or baby names available online: Latoya Johnson (African‐American, Rosa Manuz (Hispanic, Chang Su (Asian ‐Chinese, Mary Anderson(Caucasian/Christian, Ahmed Ibrahim (Muslim, and Moshe Cohen(Caucasian/Jewish. These personas were used to submit reference queries via e‐mail to the virtual reference services taking part in the study.Methods – Five different types of reference queries were developed for use in this study. Three were based on prior published research as they were deemed to be answerable by the majority of libraries. They included a dissertation query, a sports team query, and a population query all designed to be tailored to the target institution. The other 2 queries were developed with participating institutions’ virtual reference guidelines in mind, and were thought to not be answered by the target institutions when submitted by unaffiliated users. They consisted of a subject query on a special collection topic that asked for copies of relevant articles to be sent out, and an article query requesting that a copy of a specific article be e‐mailed to the patron. The study was conducted over a 6 week

  15. International security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekeus, R.

    2000-01-01

    The end of the cold war also ended the focus on the bilateral approach to arms control and disarmament. Key concepts of security needed to be revisited, along with their implications for the disarmament and arms control agenda. Though there is currently a unipolar global security environment, there remain important tasks on the multilateral arms control agenda. The major task is that of reducing and eliminating weapons of mass destruction, especially nuclear weapons. The author contends that maintaining reliance on the nuclear-weapons option makes little sense in a time when the major Powers are strengthening their partnerships in economics, trade, peacemaking and building. (author)

  16. The Right of Child Victims of Armed Conflict to Reintegration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Article 39 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child provides for the right to recovery and reintegration of child victims of armed conflict. In this publication an explanation is tendered of when children are considered to be victims of armed conflict. Specific reference is made to the question of whether or not a former child ...

  17. Oplysningens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  18. Leading Causes of Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in the world. By age 80, more than half of all people in the United States either will have a cataract or have had cataract surgery. Common symptoms are: Blurry vision Colors that seem faded Glare Not being able to ...

  19. Blind Loop Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or scleroderma involving the small intestine History of radiation therapy to the abdomen Diabetes Diverticulosis of the small intestine Complications A blind loop can cause escalating problems, including: Poor absorption of fats. Bacteria in your small intestine break down the bile ...

  20. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei; Gregson, James; Heide, Felix; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non

  1. Postural control in blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Oliveira, Cláudia Silva Remor de; Knabben, Rodrigo José; Domenech, Susana Cristina; Borges Junior, Noe Gomes

    2011-12-01

    To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  2. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  3. Borehole tool outrigger arm displacement control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    As the outrigger arms of a borehole logging tool are flexed inwardly and outwardly according to the diameter of the borehole opening through which they pass, the corresponding axial displacements of the ends of the arms are controlled to determine the axial positions of the arms relative to the tool. Specifically, as the arm ends move, they are caused to rotate by a cam mechanism. The stiffness of the arms causes the arm ends to rotate in unison, and the exact positions of the arms on the tool are then controlled by the differential movements of the arm ends in the cams

  4. The project manager's desk reference: project planning, schedulding, evaluation, control, systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, James P

    2007-01-01

    In this Third Edition of The Project Manager's Desk Reference, top project management consultant James Lewis arms you with today's most comprehensive and understandable project management resources...

  5. Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beom, Jaewon; Koh, Sukgyu; Nam, Hyung Seok; Kim, Wonshik; Kim, Yoonjae; Seo, Han Gil; Oh, Byung-Mo; Chung, Sun Gun; Kim, Sungwan

    2016-08-15

    Mirror therapy has been performed as effective occupational therapy in a clinical setting for functional recovery of a hemiplegic arm after stroke. It is conducted by eliciting an illusion through use of a mirror as if the hemiplegic arm is moving in real-time while moving the healthy arm. It can facilitate brain neuroplasticity through activation of the sensorimotor cortex. However, conventional mirror therapy has a critical limitation in that the hemiplegic arm is not actually moving. Thus, we developed a real-time 2-axis mirror robot system as a simple add-on module for conventional mirror therapy using a closed feedback mechanism, which enables real-time movement of the hemiplegic arm. We used 3 Attitude and Heading Reference System sensors, 2 brushless DC motors for elbow and wrist joints, and exoskeletal frames. In a feasibility study on 6 healthy subjects, robotic mirror therapy was safe and feasible. We further selected tasks useful for activities of daily living training through feedback from rehabilitation doctors. A chronic stroke patient showed improvement in the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and elbow flexor spasticity after a 2-week application of the mirror robot system. Robotic mirror therapy may enhance proprioceptive input to the sensory cortex, which is considered to be important in neuroplasticity and functional recovery of hemiplegic arms. The mirror robot system presented herein can be easily developed and utilized effectively to advance occupational therapy.

  6. Technology and the arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.

    1988-01-01

    This article makes a review of the book Innovation and the Arms Race: How the United States and the Soviet Union Develop New Military Technologies written by Matthew Evangelista. For at least the last two decades, scholars have struggled to come to grips with the role of technological change in the arms race. Possible relationships between theories on technology and politics are examined. The contrasts between U.S. and Soviet approaches are highlighted

  7. Changing patterns of arms transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, H.

    1998-01-01

    Three factors in the international system have been of importance for the trade of arms: the role of the main actors on the supply side and since 1970 on the demand side, the permanently increasing importance of economics, and the balance trade, industrial capacity and jobs in supplier countries and purchasing power of potential importers. Two political events in 1991 had lasting effect on the development of the trade in arms: the dissolution of Soviet Union and the Gulf War

  8. Unequal-Arms Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Michelson interferometers allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the phase stability of the laser light injected into their two almost equal-length arms. If, however, the two arms are unequal, the laser fluctuations can not be removed by simply recombining the two beams. This is because the laser jitters experience different time delays in the two arms, and therefore can not cancel at the photo detector. We present here a method for achieving exact laser noise cancellation, even in an unequal-arm interferometer. The method presented in this paper requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam. By linearly combining the two data sets with themselves, after they have been properly time shifted, we show that it is possible to construct a new data set that is free of laser fluctuations. An application of this technique to future planned space-based laser interferometer detector3 of gravitational radiation is discussed.

  9. The blind leading the blind: use and misuse of blinding in randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E; Stewart, Morgan E

    2011-03-01

    The use of blinding strengthens the credibility of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by minimizing bias. However, there is confusion surrounding the definition of blinding as well as the terms single, double, and triple blind. It has been suggested that these terms should be discontinued due to their broad misinterpretation. We recommend that, instead of abandoning the use of these terms, explicit definitions of blinding should be adopted. We address herein the concept of blinding, propose standard definitions for the consistent use of these terms, and detail when different types of blinding should be utilized. Standardizing the definition of blinding and utilizing proper blinding methods will improve the quality and clarity of reporting in RCTs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. INTRODUCTION Childhood blindness is increasingly becoming a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number of blind years resulting from blindness in children is also equal to the number of blind years due to age related cataract.10 The burden of disability in terms of blind years in these children represents a major. CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AT THE SCHOOL FOR THE. BLIND OWO, NIGERIA.

  11. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  12. A Blind Pilot: Who is a Super-Luminal Observer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the nature of a hypothetical super-luminal observer who, as well as a real (sub-light speed observer, perceives the world by light waves. This consideration is due to that fact that the theory of relativity permits different frames of reference, including light-like and super-luminal reference frames. In analogy with a blind pilot on board a supersonic jet aeroplane (or missile, perceived by blind people, it is concluded that the light barrier is observed in the framework of only the light signal exchange experiment.

  13. Double-Blind Controlled Comparison of Phlebitis Produced by Cephapirin and Cephalothin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizosa, Jaime; Levison, Matthew E.; Kaye, Donald

    1973-01-01

    In a double-blind study with each patient as his own control cephapirin and cephalothin were administered to 20 patients in opposite arms for a period of 48 hr each. Neither the incidence of phlebitis nor the degree of phlebitis was significantly different with the two drugs, and there was no difference in the time of onset of pain or phlebitis. PMID:4597719

  14. Algorithms for Unequal-Arm Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Giacomo; Hellings, Ronald W.; Tinto, Massimo; Bender, Peter L.; Faller, James E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of data acquisition and data analysis is described in which the performance of Michelson-type interferometers with unequal arms can be made nearly the same as interferometers with equal arms. The method requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam.

  15. Concept development of a tendon arm manipulator and anthropomorphic robotic hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, C. T.

    1987-01-01

    AMETEK/ORED inhouse research and development efforts leading toward a next-generation robotic manipulator arm and end-effector technology is summarized. Manipulator arm development has been directed toward a multiple-degree-of-freedom, flexible, tendon-driven concept referred to here as a Tendon Arm Manipulator (TAM). End-effector development has been directed toward a three-fingered, dextrous, tendon-driven, anthropomorphic configuration which is referred to as an Anthropomorphic Robotic Hand (ARH). Key technology issues are identified for both concepts.

  16. ARM-based visual processing system for prosthetic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, Paul B; Byrnes-Preston, Philip; Chen, Spencer C; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of prosthetic devices have been shown to provide visual perception to the profoundly blind through electrical neural stimulation. These first-generation devices offer promising outcomes to those affected by degenerative disorders such as retinitis pigmentosa. Although prosthetic approaches vary in their placement of the stimulating array (visual cortex, optic-nerve, epi-retinal surface, sub-retinal surface, supra-choroidal space, etc.), most of the solutions incorporate an externally-worn device to acquire and process video to provide the implant with instructions on how to deliver electrical stimulation to the patient, in order to elicit phosphenized vision. With the significant increase in availability and performance of low power-consumption smart phone and personal device processors, the authors investigated the use of a commercially available ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) device as an externally-worn processing unit for a prosthetic neural stimulator for the retina. A 400 MHz Samsung S3C2440A ARM920T single-board computer was programmed to extract 98 values from a 1.3 Megapixel OV9650 CMOS camera using impulse, regional averaging and Gaussian sampling algorithms. Power consumption and speed of video processing were compared to results obtained to similar reported devices. The results show that by using code optimization, the system is capable of driving a 98 channel implantable device for the restoration of visual percepts to the blind.

  17. Wavelet-transform-based time–frequency domain reflectometry for reduction of blind spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sin Ho; Park, Jin Bae; Choi, Yoon Ho

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, wavelet-transform-based time–frequency domain reflectometry (WTFDR) is proposed to reduce the blind spot in reflectometry. TFDR has a blind spot problem when the time delay between the reference signal and the reflected signal is short enough compared with the time duration of the reference signal. To solve the blind spot problem, the wavelet transform (WT) is used because the WT has linearity. Using the characteristics of the WT, the overlapped reference signal at the measured signal can be separated and the blind spot is reduced by obtaining the difference of the wavelet coefficients for the reference and reflected signals. In the proposed method, the complex wavelet is utilized as a mother wavelet because the reference signal in WTFDR has a complex form. Finally, the computer simulations and the real experiments are carried out to confirm the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. (paper)

  18. Blinding in trials of interventional procedures is possible and worthwhile [version 2; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Wartolowska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use evidence from our earlier review of surgical randomised controlled trials with a placebo arm to show that blinding in trials of interventional procedures is feasible. We give examples of ingenious strategies that have been used to simulate the active procedure and to make the placebo control indistinguishable from the active treatment. We discuss why it is important to blind of patients, assessors, and caregivers and what types of bias that may occur in interventional trials. Finally, we describe the benefits of blinding, from the obvious ones such as avoiding bias, as well as less evident benefits such as avoiding patient drop out in the control arm.

  19. Perception of blindness and blinding eye conditions in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashaye, Adeyinka; Ajuwon, Ademola Johnson; Adeoti, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the causes and management of blindness and blinding eye conditions as perceived by rural dwellers of two Yoruba communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. METHODS: Four focus group discussions were conducted among residents of Iddo and Isale Oyo, two rural Yoruba communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Participants consisted of sighted, those who were partially or totally blind and community leaders. Ten patent medicine sellers and 12 traditional healers were also interviewed on their perception of the causes and management of blindness in their communities. FINDINGS: Blindness was perceived as an increasing problem among the communities. Multiple factors were perceived to cause blindness, including germs, onchocerciasis and supernatural forces. Traditional healers believed that blindness could be cured, with many claiming that they had previously cured blindness in the past. However, all agreed that patience was an important requirement for the cure of blindness. The patent medicine sellers' reports were similar to those of the traditional healers. The barriers to use of orthodox medicine were mainly fear, misconception and perceived high costs of care. There was a consensus of opinion among group discussants and informants that there are severe social and economic consequences of blindness, including not been able to see and assess the quality of what the sufferer eats, perpetual sadness, loss of sleep and dependence on other persons for daily activities. CONCLUSION: Local beliefs associated with causation, symptoms and management of blindness and blinding eye conditions among rural Yoruba communities identified have provided a bridge for understanding local perspectives and basis for implementing appropriate primary eye care programs. PMID:16775910

  20. Neck and arm pain syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de las Peñas, César Fernández; Cleland, Joshua; Huijbregts, Peter

    approaches.It uniquely addresses the expanding role of the various health care professions which require increased knowledge and skills in screening for contra-indications and recognizing the need for medical-surgical referral. Neck and Arm Pain Syndromes also stresses the integration of experiential......The first of its kind, Neck and Arm Pain Syndromes is a comprehensive evidence- and clinical-based book, covering research-based diagnosis, prognosis and management of neuromusculoskeletal pathologies and dysfunctions of the upper quadrant, including joint, muscle, myofascial and neural tissue...... of the most commonly seen pain syndromes in clinical practice over 800 illustrations demonstrating examination procedures and techniques....

  1. Motor development of blind toddler

    OpenAIRE

    Likar, Petra

    2013-01-01

    For blind toddlers, development of motor skills enables possibilities for learning and exploring the environment. The purpose of this graduation thesis is to systematically mark the milestones in development of motor skills in blind toddlers, to establish different factors which affect this development, and to discover different ways for teachers for visually impaired and parents to encourage development of motor skills. It is typical of blind toddlers that they do not experience a wide varie...

  2. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  3. Taxation, stateness and armed groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kasper; Vlassenroot, Koen; Marchais, Gauthier

    2016-01-01

    of authority and practices of rule that originate in the colonial era. In particular, the article shows that by appealing to both local customary and national forms of political community and citizenship, armed groups are able to assume public authority to tax civilians. However, their public authority may...

  4. Distinguishing targets in armed conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main object of international humanitarian law (IHL) is the amelioration of the effect of armed conflict on the populace. It seeks to accomplish this by establishing rules that ensure that objects the destruction of which will not give military advantage e are protected; thus, such objects are not to be targeted or destroyed.

  5. How Computers are Arming biology!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. In-vitro to In-silico - How Computers are Arming biology! Geetha Sugumaran Sushila Rajagopal. Face to Face Volume 23 Issue 1 January 2018 pp 83-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Blind Quantum Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvail, Louis; Arrighi, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of "having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input". Say Alice wants Bob to compute some known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x. The situa......We investigate the possibility of "having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input". Say Alice wants Bob to compute some known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x....... The situation arises for instance if client Alice has limited computational resources in comparison with mistrusted server Bob, or if x is an inherently mobile piece of data. Could there be a protocol whereby Bob is forced to compute f(x) "blindly", i.e. without observing x? We provide such a blind computation...... protocol for the class of functions which admit an efficient procedure to generate random input-output pairs, e.g. factorization. The cheat-sensitive security achieved relies only upon quantum theory being true. The security analysis carried out assumes the eavesdropper performs individual attacks....

  7. Blind assessment of image blur using the Haar wavelet

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available algorithms. We present an intuitive quality metric for characterizing the amount of blur in an image, through blind image assessment, using the Haar discrete wavelet transform. Thus, the method does not require a reference image or any prior information...

  8. POSTERIOR SEGMENT CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN IN BLIND SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is estimated that there are 1.4 million irreversibly blind children in the world out of which 1 million are in Asia alone. India has the highest number of blind children than any other country. Nearly 70% of the childhood blindness is avoidable. There i s paucity of data available on the causes of childhood blindness. This study focuses on the posterior segment causes of blindness among children attending blind schools in 3 adjacent districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a cross sectiona l study conducted among 204 blind children aged 6 - 16 years age. Detailed eye examination was done by the same investigator to avoid bias. Posterior segment examination was done using a direct and/or indirect ophthalmoscope after dilating pupil wherever nec essary. The standard WHO/PBL for blindness and low vision examination protocol was used to categorize the causes of blindness. A major anatomical site and underlying cause was selected for each child. The study was carried out during July 2014 to June 2015 . The results were analyzed using MS excel software and Epi - info 7 software version statistical software. RESULTS: Majority of the children was found to be aged 13 - 16 years (45.1% and males (63.7%. Family history of blindness was noted in 26.0% and consa nguinity was reported in 29.9% cases. A majority of them were belonged to fulfill WHO grade of blindness (73.0% and in majority of the cases, the onset of blindness was since birth (83.7%. The etiology of blindness was unknown in majority of cases (57.4% while hereditary causes constituted 25.4% cases. Posterior segment causes were responsible in 33.3% cases with retina being the most commonly involved anatomical site (19.1% followed by optic nerve (14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for mandatory oph thalmic evaluation, refraction and assessment of low vision prior to admission into blind schools with periodic evaluation every 2 - 3 years

  9. Blood pressure measurement: one arm or both arm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Prasad K; Shekhar, Susheela; Reddy, B N; Nirmala, B C

    2011-09-01

    Guidelines for measuring blood pressure includes measurement of blood pressure on both arms but it is often ignored. Our case report aims at highlighting the need follow the guidelines. A 60 year old 59 kg weighing male asymptomatic patient without any comobidities was posted for bilateral inguinal hernia repair. The interarm blood pressure difference was discovered incidentally during his preanaesthetic evalution. On further evaluation patient was found to be having subclavian stenosis on left side which was asymptomatic. Intraoperative and post operative period was uneventful. Blood pressure measurement should be done in accordance with the stipulated guidelines. Inter arm blood pressure difference should be noted in all patients as not only for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension but also as a tool to diagnose asymptomatic peripheral vascular disesase.

  10. Virtual Reality Aided Positioning of Mobile C-Arms for Image-Guided Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhou Shao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For the image-guided surgery, the positioning of mobile C-arms is a key technique to take X-ray images in a desired pose for the confirmation of current surgical outcome. Unfortunately, surgeons and patient often suffer the radiation exposure due to the repeated imaging when the X-ray image is of poor quality or not captured at a good projection view. In this paper, a virtual reality (VR aided positioning method for the mobile C-arm is proposed by the alignment of 3D surface model of region of interest and preoperative anatomy, so that a reference pose of the mobile C-arm with respect to the inside anatomy can be figured out from outside view. It allows a one-time imaging from the outside view to greatly reduce the additional radiation exposure. To control the mobile C-arm to the desired pose, the mobile C-arm is modeled as a robotic arm with a movable base. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of appearance model and precision of mobile C-arm positioning. The appearance model was reconstructed with the average error of 2.16 mm. One-time imaging of mobile C-arm was achieved, and new modeling of mobile C-arm with 8 DoFs enlarges the working space in the operating room.

  11. Dual arm master controller concept: consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-04-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features result in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures

  12. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Leer en Español: Pruebas para Detectar Daltonismo en ... study shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  13. Culture and change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takahiko; Nisbett, Richard E

    2006-03-04

    Research on perception and cognition suggests that whereas East Asians view the world holistically, attending to the entire field and relations among objects, Westerners view the world analytically, focusing on the attributes of salient objects. These propositions were examined in the change-blindness paradigm. Research in that paradigm finds American participants to be more sensitive to changes in focal objects than to changes in the periphery or context. We anticipated that this would be less true for East Asians and that they would be more sensitive to context changes than would Americans. We presented participants with still photos and with animated vignettes having changes in focal object information and contextual information. Compared to Americans, East Asians were more sensitive to contextual changes than to focal object changes. These results suggest that there can be cultural variation in what may seem to be basic perceptual processes. 2006 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

  14. Controlling robot arm with the mind

    National Science Foundation

    2017-05-31

    Full Text Available Research test subjects at the University of Minnesota who were fitted with a specialized noninvasive brain cap were able to move a robotic arm just by imagining moving their own arms.

  15. Congenital blindness limits allocentric to egocentric switching ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Gennaro; Ruotolo, Francesco; Iachini, Tina

    2018-03-01

    Many everyday spatial activities require the cooperation or switching between egocentric (subject-to-object) and allocentric (object-to-object) spatial representations. The literature on blind people has reported that the lack of vision (congenital blindness) may limit the capacity to represent allocentric spatial information. However, research has mainly focused on the selective involvement of egocentric or allocentric representations, not the switching between them. Here we investigated the effect of visual deprivation on the ability to switch between spatial frames of reference. To this aim, congenitally blind (long-term visual deprivation), blindfolded sighted (temporary visual deprivation) and sighted (full visual availability) participants were compared on the Ego-Allo switching task. This task assessed the capacity to verbally judge the relative distances between memorized stimuli in switching (from egocentric-to-allocentric: Ego-Allo; from allocentric-to-egocentric: Allo-Ego) and non-switching (only-egocentric: Ego-Ego; only-allocentric: Allo-Allo) conditions. Results showed a difficulty in congenitally blind participants when switching from allocentric to egocentric representations, not when the first anchor point was egocentric. In line with previous results, a deficit in processing allocentric representations in non-switching conditions also emerged. These findings suggest that the allocentric deficit in congenital blindness may determine a difficulty in simultaneously maintaining and combining different spatial representations. This deficit alters the capacity to switch between reference frames specifically when the first anchor point is external and not body-centered.

  16. Perceptual, not memorial, disruption underlies emotion-induced blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Briana L; Most, Steven B

    2012-04-01

    Emotion-induced blindness refers to impaired awareness of stimuli appearing in the temporal wake of an emotionally arousing stimulus (S. B. Most, Chun, Widders, & Zald, 2005). In previous emotion-induced blindness experiments, participants withheld target responses until the end of a rapid stream of stimuli, even though each target appeared in the middle of the stream. The resulting interval between the targets' offset and participants' initiation of a response leaves open the possibility that emotion-induced blindness reflects a failure to encode or maintain target information in memory rather than a failure of perception. In the present study, participants engaged in a typical emotion-induced blindness task but initiated a response immediately upon seeing each target. Emotion-induced blindness was nevertheless robust. This suggests that emotion-induced blindness is not attributable to the delay between awareness of a target and the initiation of a response, but rather reflects the disruptive impact of emotional distractors on mechanisms driving conscious perception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Chaotic evolution of arms races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomochi, Masaki; Kono, Mitsuo

    1998-12-01

    A new set of model equations is proposed to describe the evolution of the arms race, by extending Richardson's model with special emphases that (1) power dependent defensive reaction or historical enmity could be a motive force to promote armaments, (2) a deterrent would suppress the growth of armaments, and (3) the defense reaction of one nation against the other nation depends nonlinearly on the difference in armaments between two. The set of equations is numerically solved to exhibit stationary, periodic, and chaotic behavior depending on the combinations of parameters involved. The chaotic evolution is realized when the economic situation of each country involved in the arms race is quite different, which is often observed in the real world.

  18. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  19. Dual arm master controller development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuban, D. P.; Perkins, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed to human factor design and performance tradeoffs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented.

  20. 21 CFR 890.3640 - Arm sling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... arm sling is a device intended for medical purposes to immobilize the arm, by means of a fabric band... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arm sling. 890.3640 Section 890.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  1. Limited consensus around ARM information protection practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An existing enterprise IP SoP was adapted to ARM through literature analysis and produced a draft ARM SoP. The draft ARM SoP was applied in a rote fashion to a small sample of government-operated archives to identify likely areas of consensus and lack of consensus surrounding the various elements of the SoP.

  2. The MVACS Robotic Arm Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H. U.; Hartwig, H.; Kramm, R.; Koschny, D.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Thomas, N.; Fernades, M.; Smith, P. H.; Reynolds, R.; Lemmon, M. T.; Weinberg, J.; Marcialis, R.; Tanner, R.; Boss, B. J.; Oquest, C.; Paige, D. A.

    2001-08-01

    The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) is one of the key instruments newly developed for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor payload of the Mars Polar Lander. This lightweight instrument employs a front lens with variable focus range and takes images at distances from 11 mm (image scale 1:1) to infinity. Color images with a resolution of better than 50 μm can be obtained to characterize the Martian soil. Spectral information of nearby objects is retrieved through illumination with blue, green, and red lamp sets. The design and performance of the camera are described in relation to the science objectives and operation. The RAC uses the same CCD detector array as the Surface Stereo Imager and shares the readout electronics with this camera. The RAC is mounted at the wrist of the Robotic Arm and can characterize the contents of the scoop, the samples of soil fed to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer, the Martian surface in the vicinity of the lander, and the interior of trenches dug out by the Robotic Arm. It can also be used to take panoramic images and to retrieve stereo information with an effective baseline surpassing that of the Surface Stereo Imager by about a factor of 3.

  3. Blind prediction of natural video quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Michele A; Bovik, Alan C; Charrier, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    We propose a blind (no reference or NR) video quality evaluation model that is nondistortion specific. The approach relies on a spatio-temporal model of video scenes in the discrete cosine transform domain, and on a model that characterizes the type of motion occurring in the scenes, to predict video quality. We use the models to define video statistics and perceptual features that are the basis of a video quality assessment (VQA) algorithm that does not require the presence of a pristine video to compare against in order to predict a perceptual quality score. The contributions of this paper are threefold. 1) We propose a spatio-temporal natural scene statistics (NSS) model for videos. 2) We propose a motion model that quantifies motion coherency in video scenes. 3) We show that the proposed NSS and motion coherency models are appropriate for quality assessment of videos, and we utilize them to design a blind VQA algorithm that correlates highly with human judgments of quality. The proposed algorithm, called video BLIINDS, is tested on the LIVE VQA database and on the EPFL-PoliMi video database and shown to perform close to the level of top performing reduced and full reference VQA algorithms.

  4. Performance of arm locking in LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, Kirk; Spero, Robert E.; Shaddock, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    For the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) to reach its design sensitivity, the coupling of the free-running laser frequency noise to the signal readout must be reduced by more than 14 orders of magnitude. One technique employed to reduce the laser frequency noise will be arm locking, where the laser frequency is locked to the LISA arm length. In this paper we detail an implementation of arm locking. We investigate orbital effects (changing arm lengths and Doppler frequencies), the impact of errors in the Doppler knowledge that can cause pulling of the laser frequency, and the noise limit of arm locking. Laser frequency pulling is examined in two regimes: at lock acquisition and in steady state. The noise performance of arm locking is calculated with the inclusion of the dominant expected noise sources: ultrastable oscillator (clock) noise, spacecraft motion, and shot noise. We find that clock noise and spacecraft motion limit the performance of dual arm locking in the LISA science band. Studying these issues reveals that although dual arm locking [A. Sutton and D. A. Shaddock, Phys. Rev. D 78, 082001 (2008)] has advantages over single (or common) arm locking in terms of allowing high gain, it has disadvantages in both laser frequency pulling and noise performance. We address this by proposing a modification to the dual arm-locking sensor, a hybrid of common and dual arm-locking sensors. This modified dual arm-locking sensor has the laser frequency pulling characteristics and low-frequency noise coupling of common arm locking, but retains the control system advantages of dual arm locking. We present a detailed design of an arm-locking controller and perform an analysis of the expected performance when used with and without laser prestabilization. We observe that the sensor phase changes beneficially near unity-gain frequencies of the arm-locking controller, allowing a factor of 10 more gain than previously believed, without degrading stability. With a time

  5. 20 CFR 416.1720 - Whom we refer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Treatment of Alcoholism Or Drug Addiction § 416.1720 Whom we refer. We will refer you to an approved facility for treatment of your alcoholism or drug addiction if— (a) You are disabled; (b) You are not blind; (c) You are not 65 years old or older; and (d) Alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor...

  6. High precision detector robot arm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  7. To Arm or Not to Arm: The Case Against Arming Vietnam and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    designed to allay 9 Leaf (accessed Oct 24, 2014). 10 Ankit Panda , “What to Expect if the U.S. Lifts...their animated populations. Despite the rhetoric, no ideology or nation is monolithic, thus opportunities exist to improve the U.S.-Sino...Joint Forces Quarterly 2 (2014): 76-80. Panda , Ankit. “What to Expect if the U.S. Lifts Its Vietnam Arms Embargo.” The Diplomat. September 29

  8. The South Asian Origins of the Global Network to Eradicate Blindness: WHO, NGOs, and Decentralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Logan D A

    2018-03-01

    The global network to eradicate blindness emerged out of the work of Western and South Asian professionals to eradicate smallpox which was endemic in South Asia. The history of the emergence of the global network to eradicate blindness demonstrates a shift from vertical command and control public health programs directed by the WHO, to the decentralized public health services originating in non-profit, non-governmental organizations and coordinated by the WHO. The WHO constitution started with a federal regionalist structure that encouraged collaboration and coordination with NGOs. In South Asia in particular, epidemiologists and general medical practitioners moved from eradicating smallpox through the WHO to creating their own domestic and international NGOs based in various countries with a mission to control blindness in South Asia and Africa. In 1975, pushed by the WHO Director General, these new NGOs in turn joined with individual ophthalmologists and existing blind member associations to form the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness. Thus, the WHO was shaped by, and shaping, international NGOs such as the IAPB. The IAPB pushed for the formation of the WHO Prevention of Blindness program. This was the earliest example of how the IAPB facilitates bottom-up agenda-setting in the WHO. In 1980, when the WHO officially closed the smallpox program, the Prevention of Blindness program first received independent funding. Presently, the IAPB acts as a decentralized arm of the WHO. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inconsistency between simultaneous blood pressure measurements in the arm, forearm, and leg in anesthetized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidan, Ilan; Sidi, Avner; Ben-Menachem, Erez; Tene, Yael; Berkenstadt, Haim

    2014-02-01

    To determine the accuracy and precision of simultaneous noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurement in the arm, forearm, and ankle in anesthetized children. Prospective, randomized study. University medical center. 101 ASA physical status 1 and 2 children (aged 1-8 yrs) scheduled for elective surgery with general anesthesia. Simultaneous NIBP measurements were recorded at the arm, forearm, and ankle at 5-minute intervals. The systolic blood pressure difference between the arm-forearm or the arm-ankle was within the ± 10% range in 63% and 29% of measurements, and within the ± 20% range in 85% and 67% of measurements, respectively. The diastolic blood pressure difference between the arm-forearm or the arm-ankle was within the ± 10% range in 42% and 44% and within the ± 20% range in 67% and 74% of measurements, respectively. In patients in whom the initial three NIBP measurements were within the ± 20% range between the forearm and arm, 86% of the subsequent measurements were also within that limit. Forearm and ankle NIBP measurements are unreliable and inconsistent with NIBP measured in the arm of anesthetized children. These alternative BP measurement sites are not reliable in accuracy (comparison with reference "gold" standard) and precision (reproducibility). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Deaf-Blind Education Transition to Adulthood > Transition Self Determination Person Centered Planning Postsecondary Education Independent Living Employment Customized Employment Sex Education Adult Services Technology Personnel > Intervener Services Support ...

  11. American Foundation for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss Text Size Smaller Type Larger Type Change Colors My AFB Search Donate to AFB Shop AFB ... and More Public Policy and Research Statistics on Blindness DirectConnect: Public Policy and Advocacy News Research Navigator: ...

  12. Dual arm master controller development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. This work was performed as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  13. Iron supplementation in HIV-infected Malawian children with anemia: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esan, Michael O.; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; Nkhoma, Ernest; Musicha, Crispin; White, Sarah A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Phiri, Kamija S.

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether iron supplementation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children living in regions with high infection pressure is safe or beneficial. A 2-arm, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to examine the effects of iron supplementation on hemoglobin, HIV

  14. A genetic linkage map of the chromosome 4 short arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, P.A.; MacDonald, M.E.; Srinidhi, J.; Tanzi, R.E.; Haines, J.L. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (United States)); Gilliam, T.C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Conneally, P.M. (Indiana Univ. Medical Center, Indianapolis (United States)); Wexler, N.S. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States) Hereditary Disease Foundation, Santa Monica, CA (United States)); Gusella, J.F. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (United States) Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The authors have generated an 18-interval contiguous genetic linkage map of human chromosome 4 spanning the entire short arm and proximal long arm. Fifty-seven polymorphisms, representing 42 loci, were analyzed in the Venezuelan reference pedigree. The markers included seven genes (ADRA2C, ALB, GABRB1, GC, HOX7, IDUA, QDPR), one pseudogene (RAF1P1), and 34 anonymous DNA loci. Four loci were represented by microsatellite polymorphisms and one (GC) was expressed as a protein polymorphism. The remainder were genotyped based on restriction fragment length polymorphism. The sex-averaged map covered 123 cM. Significant differences in sex-specific rates of recombination were observed only in the pericentromeric and proximal long arm regions, but these contributed to different overall map lengths of 115 cM in males and 138 cM in females. This map provides 19 reference points along chromosome 4 that will be particularly useful in anchoring and seeding physical mapping studies and in aiding in disease studies. 26 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Simple pendulum for blind students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, A. M. B.; Cena, C. R.; Alves, D. C. B.; Errobidart, N. C. G.; Jardim, M. I. A.; Queiros, W. P.

    2017-09-01

    Faced with the need to teach physics to the visually impaired, in this paper we propose a way to demonstrate the dependence of distance and time in a pendulum experiment to blind students. The periodic oscillation of the pendulum is translated, by an Arduino and an ultrasonic sensor, in a periodic variation of frequency in a speaker. The main advantage of this proposal is the possibility that a blind student understands the movement without necessity of touching it.

  16. Individual differences in change blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Katharina Verena

    2016-01-01

    The present work shows the existence of systematic individual differences in change blindness. It can be concluded that the sensitivity for changes is a trait. That is, persons differ in their ability to detect changes, independent from the situation or the measurement method. Moreover, there are two explanations for individual differences in change blindness: a) capacity differences in visual selective attention that may be influenced by top-down activated attention helping to focus attentio...

  17. Three-dimensional C-arm CT-guided transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement: Feasibility, technical success and procedural time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelsen, Dominik; Groezinger, Gerd; Maurer, Michael; Grosse, Ulrich; Horger, Marius; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Syha, Roland [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Lauer, Ulrich M. [University of Tuebingen, Internal Medicine I, Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious disease, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Establishment of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) constitutes a standard procedure in patients suffering from portal hypertension. The most difficult step in TIPS placement is blind puncture of the portal vein. This study aimed to evaluate three-dimensional mapping of portal vein branches and targeted puncture of the portal vein. Twelve consecutive patients suffering from refractory ascites by liver cirrhosis were included in this retrospective study to evaluate feasibility, technical success and procedural time of C-arm CT-targeted puncture of the portal vein. As a control, 22 patients receiving TIPS placement with fluoroscopy-guided blind puncture were included to compare procedural time. Technical success could be obtained in 100 % of the study group (targeted puncture) and in 95.5 % of the control group (blind puncture). Appropriate, three-dimensional C-arm CT-guided mapping of the portal vein branches could be achieved in all patients. The median number of punctures in the C-arm CT-guided study group was 2 ± 1.3 punctures. Procedural time was significantly lower in the study group (14.8 ± 8.2 min) compared to the control group (32.6 ± 22.7 min) (p = 0.02). C-arm CT-guided portal vein mapping is technically feasible and a promising tool for TIPS placement resulting in a significant reduction of procedural time. (orig.)

  18. Bridging the gap between DeafBlind minds: interactional and social foundations of intention attribution in the Seattle DeafBlind community

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Terra

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with social and interactional processes that simplify pragmatic acts of intention attribution. The empirical focus is a series of interactions among DeafBlind people in Seattle, Washington, where pointing signs are used to individuate objects of reference in the immediate environment. Most members of this community are born deaf and slowly become blind. They come to Seattle using Visual American Sign Language, which has emerged and developed in a field organized arou...

  19. Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding from two groups of blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... Background: Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of the blind. Adjustment is often ...

  20. Blinded trials taken to the test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Forfang, E; Haahr, M T

    2007-01-01

    Blinding can reduce bias in randomized clinical trials, but blinding procedures may be unsuccessful. Our aim was to assess how often randomized clinical trials test the success of blinding, the methods involved and how often blinding is reported as being successful....

  1. Can the large-scale magnetic field lines cross the spiral arms in our Milky Way galaxy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    For the Sgr, Ori, and Per spiral arms, the pitch angle (i.e., deviation from a tangent parallel to a circular orbit around the center of the Galaxy) of the magnetic-field lines differs from the pitch angle of the spiral arms. For the spiral arms, the pitch angle of the magnetic-field lines can be measured independently from both quasars and galaxies as well as from pulsars, yielding a small (-6 deg) pitch angle, as predicted in the roughly circular oval gas streamline model of the density-wave theory. Meanwhile, the pitch angle of the spiral arms can be measured independently from both the O type stars and from the H II regions, yielding a large (-18 deg) pitch angle, also as predicted in the density-wave theory. Thus for these arms, the magnetic-field lines cross the spiral arms, to leave them outwardly at a sizable mean angle (+12 deg). 19 references

  2. Rubber hands feel touch, but not in blind individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria I Petkova

    Full Text Available Psychology and neuroscience have a long-standing tradition of studying blind individuals to investigate how visual experience shapes perception of the external world. Here, we study how blind people experience their own body by exposing them to a multisensory body illusion: the somatic rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, healthy blindfolded participants experience that they are touching their own right hand with their left index finger, when in fact they are touching a rubber hand with their left index finger while the experimenter touches their right hand in a synchronized manner (Ehrsson et al. 2005. We compared the strength of this illusion in a group of blind individuals (n = 10, all of whom had experienced severe visual impairment or complete blindness from birth, and a group of age-matched blindfolded sighted participants (n = 12. The illusion was quantified subjectively using questionnaires and behaviorally by asking participants to point to the felt location of the right hand. The results showed that the sighted participants experienced a strong illusion, whereas the blind participants experienced no illusion at all, a difference that was evident in both tests employed. A further experiment testing the participants' basic ability to localize the right hand in space without vision (proprioception revealed no difference between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that blind individuals with impaired visual development have a more veridical percept of self-touch and a less flexible and dynamic representation of their own body in space compared to sighted individuals. We speculate that the multisensory brain systems that re-map somatosensory signals onto external reference frames are less developed in blind individuals and therefore do not allow efficient fusion of tactile and proprioceptive signals from the two upper limbs into a single illusory experience of self-touch as in sighted individuals.

  3. Rubber Hands Feel Touch, but Not in Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Psychology and neuroscience have a long-standing tradition of studying blind individuals to investigate how visual experience shapes perception of the external world. Here, we study how blind people experience their own body by exposing them to a multisensory body illusion: the somatic rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, healthy blindfolded participants experience that they are touching their own right hand with their left index finger, when in fact they are touching a rubber hand with their left index finger while the experimenter touches their right hand in a synchronized manner (Ehrsson et al. 2005). We compared the strength of this illusion in a group of blind individuals (n = 10), all of whom had experienced severe visual impairment or complete blindness from birth, and a group of age-matched blindfolded sighted participants (n = 12). The illusion was quantified subjectively using questionnaires and behaviorally by asking participants to point to the felt location of the right hand. The results showed that the sighted participants experienced a strong illusion, whereas the blind participants experienced no illusion at all, a difference that was evident in both tests employed. A further experiment testing the participants' basic ability to localize the right hand in space without vision (proprioception) revealed no difference between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that blind individuals with impaired visual development have a more veridical percept of self-touch and a less flexible and dynamic representation of their own body in space compared to sighted individuals. We speculate that the multisensory brain systems that re-map somatosensory signals onto external reference frames are less developed in blind individuals and therefore do not allow efficient fusion of tactile and proprioceptive signals from the two upper limbs into a single illusory experience of self-touch as in sighted individuals. PMID:22558268

  4. Rubber hands feel touch, but not in blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Valeria I; Zetterberg, Hedvig; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Psychology and neuroscience have a long-standing tradition of studying blind individuals to investigate how visual experience shapes perception of the external world. Here, we study how blind people experience their own body by exposing them to a multisensory body illusion: the somatic rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, healthy blindfolded participants experience that they are touching their own right hand with their left index finger, when in fact they are touching a rubber hand with their left index finger while the experimenter touches their right hand in a synchronized manner (Ehrsson et al. 2005). We compared the strength of this illusion in a group of blind individuals (n = 10), all of whom had experienced severe visual impairment or complete blindness from birth, and a group of age-matched blindfolded sighted participants (n = 12). The illusion was quantified subjectively using questionnaires and behaviorally by asking participants to point to the felt location of the right hand. The results showed that the sighted participants experienced a strong illusion, whereas the blind participants experienced no illusion at all, a difference that was evident in both tests employed. A further experiment testing the participants' basic ability to localize the right hand in space without vision (proprioception) revealed no difference between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that blind individuals with impaired visual development have a more veridical percept of self-touch and a less flexible and dynamic representation of their own body in space compared to sighted individuals. We speculate that the multisensory brain systems that re-map somatosensory signals onto external reference frames are less developed in blind individuals and therefore do not allow efficient fusion of tactile and proprioceptive signals from the two upper limbs into a single illusory experience of self-touch as in sighted individuals.

  5. Memory impairment is not sufficient for choice blindness to occur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eSagana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Choice blindness refers to the phenomenon that people can be easily misled about the choices they made in the recent past. The aim of this study was to explore the cognitive mechanisms underlying choice blindness. Specifically, we tested whether memory impairment may account for choice blindness. A total of N = 88 participants provided sympathy ratings on 10-point scales for 20 female faces. Subsequently, participants motivated some of their ratings. However, on three trials, they were presented with sympathy ratings that deviated from their original ratings by three full scale points. On nearly 41% of the trials, participants failed to detect (i.e., were blind the manipulation. After a short interval, participants were informed that some trials had been manipulated and were asked to recall their original ratings. Participants adopted the manipulated outcome in only 3% of the trials. Furthermore, the extent to which the original ratings were accurately remembered was not higher for detected as compared with non-detected trials. From a theoretical point of view our findings indicate that memory impairment does not fully account for blindness phenomena.

  6. Memory impairment is not sufficient for choice blindness to occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagana, Anna; Sauerland, Melanie; Merckelbach, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Choice blindness refers to the phenomenon that people can be easily misled about the choices they made in the recent past. The aim of this study was to explore the cognitive mechanisms underlying choice blindness. Specifically, we tested whether memory impairment may account for choice blindness. A total of N = 88 participants provided sympathy ratings on 10-point scales for 20 female faces. Subsequently, participants motivated some of their ratings. However, on three trials, they were presented with sympathy ratings that deviated from their original ratings by three full scale points. On nearly 41% of the trials, participants failed to detect (i.e., were blind) the manipulation. After a short interval, participants were informed that some trials had been manipulated and were asked to recall their original ratings. Participants adopted the manipulated outcome in only 3% of the trials. Furthermore, the extent to which the original ratings were accurately remembered was not higher for detected as compared with non-detected trials. From a theoretical point of view our findings indicate that memory impairment does not fully account for blindness phenomena.

  7. Causes of blindness in blind unit of the school for the handicapped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To describe the causes of blindness in pupils and staff in the blind unit of the School for the Handicapped in Kwara State. 2. To identify problems in the blind school and initiate intervention. All the blind or visually challenged people in the blind unit of the school for the handicapped were interviewed and examined using a ...

  8. Adding a PECS II block for proximal arm arteriovenous access - a randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, K H; Low, E Y; Tan, Y R; Ong, A S C; Tang, T Y; Kam, J W; Kiew, A S C

    2018-05-01

    Brachial plexus block is often utilised for proximal arm arteriovenous access creation. However, the medial upper arm and axilla are often inadequately anaesthetised, requiring repeated, intraoperative local anaesthetic supplementation, or conversion into general anaesthesia. We hypothesised that the addition of a PECS II block would improve anaesthesia and analgesia for proximal arm arteriovenous access surgery. In this prospective, double-blinded, randomised proof-of-concept study, 36 consenting adults with end-stage renal disease aged between 21 and 90 years received either a combined supraclavicular and PECS II block (Group PECS, n = 18), or combined supraclavicular and sham block (Group SCB, n = 18) for proximal arm arteriovenous access surgery. Primary outcome was whether patients required intraoperative local anaesthetic supplementation by the surgeon. In Group PECS, 33.3% (6/18) needed local anaesthetic supplementation vs. 100% (18/18) in Group SCB. Group SCB had three times (RR 3.0, 95% CI 1.6-5.8; P PECS required lower volume of supplemental local anaesthetic compared to Group SCB (0.0 ml, IQR 0.0-6.3 ml vs. 15.0 ml, IQR 7.4-17.8 ml; P PECS II block to a supraclavicular block improves regional anaesthesia for patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing proximal arm arteriovenous access surgery. © 2018 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: cystinosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a condition characterized by accumulation of the amino acid cystine (a building block of proteins) within cells. ... adolescence, include muscle deterioration, blindness, inability to swallow, diabetes, thyroid and nervous system problems, and an inability ...

  10. Arming shoes of the fifteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Volken Marquita

    2017-01-01

    Military footwear for the fifteenth century includes arming shoes worn under sabatons. Written sources suggest arming shoes and footwear used for fighting were ordinary shoes adapted for the purpose. Archaeological footwear was examined for signs of such modifications. Medieval shoe technology is presented, showing the range of footwear and its uses and gait biomechanics. Based on experiences from re-enactors wearing armours, medieval shoe styles are discussed for appropriateness as arming sh...

  11. Star distribution in the Orion spiral arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharina, T.S.; Pavlovskaya, E.D.; Filippova, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of the Orion spiral arm is studied by numerical experiments, assuming that in each direction considered the star distribution along the line of sight is a combination of two Gaussian laws. The corresponding parameters are evaluated for four Milky Way fields; the bimodal laws now fit the observations by the chi 2 criterion. In the Orion arm the line-of-sight star densities follow asymmetric curves, steeper at the outer edge of the arm

  12. Arms races between and within species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, R; Krebs, J R

    1979-09-21

    An adaptation in one lineage (e.g. predators) may change the selection pressure on another lineage (e.g. prey), giving rise to a counter-adaptation. If this occurs reciprocally, an unstable runaway escalation or 'arms race' may result. We discuss various factors which might give one side an advantage in an arms race. For example, a lineage under strong selection may out-evolve a weakly selected one (' the life-dinner principle'). We then classify arms races in two independent ways. They may be symmetric or asymmetric, and they may be interspecific or intraspecific. Our example of an asymmetric interspecific arms race is that between brood parasites and their hosts. The arms race concept may help to reduce the mystery of why cuckoo hosts are so good at detecting cuckoo eggs, but so bad at detecting cuckoo nestlings. The evolutionary contest between queen and worker ants over relative parental investment is a good example of an intraspecific asymmetric arms race. Such cases raise special problems because the participants share the same gene pool. Interspecific symmetric arms races are unlikely to be important, because competitors tend to diverge rather than escalate competitive adaptations. Intraspecific symmetric arms races, exemplified by adaptations for male-male competition, may underlie Cope's Rule and even the extinction of lineages. Finally we consider ways in which arms races can end. One lineage may drive the other to extinction; one may reach an optimum, thereby preventing the other from doing so; a particularly interesting possibility, exemplified by flower-bee coevolution, is that both sides may reach a mutual local optimum; lastly, arms races may have no stable and but may cycle continuously. We do not wish necessarily to suggest that all, or even most, evolutionary change results from arms races, but we do suggest that the arms race concept may help to resolve three long-standing questions in evolutionary theory.

  13. Preventing Interstate Armed Conflict : whose responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Otunba, Ganiyu

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research (ARM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With heavily instrumented field sites around the globe, the ARM Climate Research Facility provides the world's most comprehensive outdoor laboratory and data archive...

  15. Double-Blind Comparison of Phlebitis Produced by Cefazolin Versus Cephalothin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemonsky, Natalie K.; Carrizosa, Jaime; Kaye, Donald; Levison, Matthew E.

    1975-01-01

    In a double-blind study with each patient as his own control, 1 g of cefazolin and 2 g of cephalothin were administered intravenously every 6 h to 20 patients in opposite arms for a period of 48 h each. The degree of phlebitis was significantly more severe with cephalothin than with cefazolin (P phlebitis nor the time of onset of phlebitis was significantly different between the two drugs. PMID:1147583

  16. Double-Blind Comparison of Phlebitis Produced by Cephalothin Infusions with Buffered and Unbuffered Diluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizosa, Jaime; Levison, Matthew E.; Kaye, Donald

    1974-01-01

    In a double-blind study with each patient as his own control, a buffered and an unbuffered cephalothin solution was administered to 13 patients in opposite arms for a period of 48 h each. Neither the incidence of phlebitis nor the degree of phlebitis was different with the two diluents, and there was no difference in the time of onset of phlebitis. PMID:4840431

  17. ICRESH-ARMS 2015 Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Verma, Ajit; Varde, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Containing selected papers from the ICRESH-ARMS 2015 conference in Lulea, Sweden, collected by editors with years of experiences in Reliability and maintenance modeling, risk assessment, and asset management, this work maximizes reader insights into the current trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) and Risk Management. Featuring a comprehensive analysis of the significance of the role of RAMS and Risk Management in the decision making process during the various phases of design, operation, maintenance, asset management and productivity in Industrial domains, these proceedings discuss key issues and challenges in the operation, maintenance and risk management of complex engineering systems and will serve as a valuable resource for those in the field.

  18. Future trends in global blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Resnikoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to discuss the available data on the prevalence and causes of global blindness, and some of the associated trends and limitations seen. A literature search was conducted using the terms "global AND blindness" and "global AND vision AND impairment", resulting in seven appropriate articles for this review. Since 1990 the estimate of global prevalence of blindness has gradually decreased when considering the best corrected visual acuity definition: 0.71% in 1990, 0.59% in 2002, and 0.55% in 2010, corresponding to a 0.73% reduction per year over the 2002-2010 period. Significant limitations were found in the comparability between the global estimates in prevalence or causes of blindness or visual impairment. These limitations arise from various factors such as uncertainties about the true cause of the impairment, the use of different definitions and methods, and the absence of data from a number of geographical areas, leading to various extrapolation methods, which in turn seriously limit comparability. Seminal to this discussion on limitations in the comparability of studies and data, is that blindness has historically been defined using best corrected visual acuity.

  19. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of acquired blindness in Japan. One reason that it often leads to blindness is that it can continue to worsen even after effective medical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only evidence-based treatment. The limitations of current treatments make it critical to identify IOP-independent factors that can cause glaucoma and develop new drugs to target these factors. This is a challenging task, as the pathology of glaucoma is thought to be very complex, with different combinations of factors underlying its development and progression in different patients. Additionally, there is a deficiency in methods to efficiently perform clinical evaluations and reliably probe the state of the disease over relatively short periods. In addition, newly developed drugs need to be evaluated with clinical trials, for which human and financial resources are limited, before they can be widely used for treatment. Taking all these issues into consideration, it is evident that there are two urgent issues to consider: the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on its pathology, and the improvement of clinical evaluation methods. In this review, we discuss some of our efforts to develop new neuroprotective agents for glaucoma, with a focus on the following three areas: 1. Clinical research and development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP-independent factors, and the exploration of possibilities for the improvement of clinical evaluation of glaucoma. 2. Pathology-based research and development of new drugs for glaucoma, focusing on comprehensive gene expression analysis and the development of molecule-targeting drugs, using murine optic nerve crush as a disease model. 3. Development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities and the establishment of infrastructure enabling "big-data" analysis. First, we discuss our clinical research and the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP

  20. Mechanical characterization of the Varian Exact-arm and R-arm support systems for eight aS500 electronic portal imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattan, Mark W. D.; McGarry, Conor K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the positioning accuracy at different gantry angles of two electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) support arm systems by using EPID difference images as a measure for displacement. This work presents a comparison of the mechanical performance of eight Varian aS500 (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) EPIDs, mounted using either the Varian Exact-arm or R-arm. Methods: The mechanical performance of the two arm systems was compared by investigating the variation in sensitivity with gantry angle, both before and after the EPID position was adjusted after gantry rotation. Positional errors were investigated by subtracting images from a reference image taken at gantry 0 deg., and the amplitude of the peaks and troughs at the field edges for longitudinal (radial) and lateral (transverse) profiles across the resulting image was related to the distance of displacement. Calibration curves based on a pixel-by-pixel shift were generated for each EPID and the Varian hand pendant accuracy was compared to the calibration data. Results: The response of the EPIDs was found to change with gantry rotation, with the largest difference at 180 deg. The Exact-arm was found to correct well for any displacement, while the R-arm tended to overcorrect following repositioning using the hand pendant. The calibration curves were consistent within each set of matched linacs, and the hand pendant accuracy was similar for both arm systems, although generally in different directions. With respect to gantry rotation effects, the mechanical performance of the Exact-arm systems was found to be much better than that of the R-arm systems. At gantry positions 90 deg., 270 deg., and 180 deg. the average misalignment in the longitudinal direction was +4.2±0.2, +1.8±1.6, and +7.4±0.5 mm for the R-arms, and +2.9±0.2, +2.1±0.8, and +4.9±0.7 mm for the Exact-arms. In the lateral direction the average positional errors were +2.1±0.4, -4.7±0.4, and -2.5

  1. Blind estimation of blur in hyperspectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mo; Vozel, Benoit; Chehdi, Kacem; Uss, Mykhail; Abramov, Sergey; Lukin, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Hyperspectral images acquired by remote sensing systems are generally degraded by noise and can be sometimes more severely degraded by blur. When no knowledge is available about the degradations present on the original image, blind restoration methods can only be considered. By blind, we mean absolutely no knowledge neither of the blur point spread function (PSF) nor the original latent channel and the noise level. In this study, we address the blind restoration of the degraded channels component-wise, according to a sequential scheme. For each degraded channel, the sequential scheme estimates the blur point spread function (PSF) in a first stage and deconvolves the degraded channel in a second and final stage by means of using the PSF previously estimated. We propose a new component-wise blind method for estimating effectively and accurately the blur point spread function. This method follows recent approaches suggesting the detection, selection and use of sufficiently salient edges in the current processed channel for supporting the regularized blur PSF estimation. Several modifications are beneficially introduced in our work. A new selection of salient edges through thresholding adequately the cumulative distribution of their corresponding gradient magnitudes is introduced. Besides, quasi-automatic and spatially adaptive tuning of the involved regularization parameters is considered. To prove applicability and higher efficiency of the proposed method, we compare it against the method it originates from and four representative edge-sparsifying regularized methods of the literature already assessed in a previous work. Our attention is mainly paid to the objective analysis (via ݈l1-norm) of the blur PSF error estimation accuracy. The tests are performed on a synthetic hyperspectral image. This synthetic hyperspectral image has been built from various samples from classified areas of a real-life hyperspectral image, in order to benefit from realistic spatial

  2. Molecular clouds in the Carina arm - the largest objects, associated regions of star formation, and the Carina arm in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabelsky, D.A.; Cohen, R.S.; Bronfman, L.; Thaddeus, P.

    1988-01-01

    The Columbia CO survey of the southern Galactic plane is used to identify giant molecular clouds and cloud complexes in the Vela-Carina-Centaurus section of the Galaxy. Twenty-seven giant molecular clouds between l = 270 and 300 deg are catalogued and their heliocentric distances given. In addition, 16 clouds at l greater than 300 deg beyond the solar circle extend the catalog to include the very distant portion of the Carina arm. The most massive clouds in the catalog trace the Carina arm over 23 kpc in the plane of the Galaxy. The average mass of these objects is 1.4 x 10 to the 6th solar, and their average spacing along the arm is 700 pc. The composite distribution projected onto the Galactic plane of the largest molecular clouds in the Carina arm and of similarly massive clouds in the first and second quadrants strongly suggests that the Carina and Sagittarius arms form a single spiral arm about 40 kpc in length wrapping two-thirds of the way around the Galaxy. Descriptions of each cloud, including identification of associated star-forming regions, are presented in an appendix. 76 references

  3. New treatments of hereditary blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Rosenberg, Thomas; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life and a structura......Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life...... and a structurally intact retinal tissue to adult life with a complete loss of photoreceptors. It must be assumed that some of the trials will succeed in producing new therapies and action must be taken to refine and accelerate diagnostics and to preserve therapeutic potential in blind people....

  4. Working memory and inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Keith; Simons, Daniel J

    2012-04-01

    Individual differences in working memory predict many aspects of cognitive performance, especially for tasks that demand focused attention. One negative consequence of focused attention is inattentional blindness, the failure to notice unexpected objects when attention is engaged elsewhere. Yet, the relationship between individual differences in working memory and inattentional blindness is unclear; some studies have found that higher working memory capacity is associated with greater noticing, but others have found no direct association. Given the theoretical and practical significance of such individual differences, more definitive tests are needed. In two studies with large samples, we tested the relationship between multiple working memory measures and inattentional blindness. Individual differences in working memory predicted the ability to perform an attention-demanding tracking task, but did not predict the likelihood of noticing an unexpected object present during the task. We discuss the reasons why we might not expect such individual differences in noticing and why other studies may have found them.

  5. 20 CFR 416.983 - How we evaluate statutory blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we evaluate statutory blindness. 416.983... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.983 How we evaluate statutory blindness. We will find that you are blind if you are statutorily blind within the meaning of...

  6. 20 CFR 416.982 - Blindness under a State plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blindness under a State plan. 416.982 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.982 Blindness under a State... plan because of your blindness for the month of December 1973; and (c) You continue to be blind as...

  7. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  8. Epidemiology of blindness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solebo, Ameenat Lola; Teoh, Lucinda; Rahi, Jugnoo

    2017-09-01

    An estimated 14 million of the world's children are blind. A blind child is more likely to live in socioeconomic deprivation, to be more frequently hospitalised during childhood and to die in childhood than a child not living with blindness. This update of a previous review on childhood visual impairment focuses on emerging therapies for children with severe visual disability (severe visual impairment and blindness or SVI/BL).For children in higher income countries, cerebral visual impairment and optic nerve anomalies remain the most common causes of SVI/BL, while retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and cataract are now the most common avoidable causes. The constellation of causes of childhood blindness in lower income settings is shifting from infective and nutritional corneal opacities and congenital anomalies to more resemble the patterns seen in higher income settings. Improvements in maternal and neonatal health and investment in and maintenance of national ophthalmic care infrastructure are the key to reducing the burden of avoidable blindness. New therapeutic targets are emerging for childhood visual disorders, although the safety and efficacy of novel therapies for diseases such as ROP or retinal dystrophies are not yet clear. Population-based epidemiological research, particularly on cerebral visual impairment and optic nerve hypoplasia, is needed in order to improve understanding of risk factors and to inform and support the development of novel therapies for disorders currently considered 'untreatable'. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Arsanilic acid blindness in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, R.W.; Kintner, L.D.; Selby, L.A.; Stewart, R.W.; Marlenfeld, C.J.

    1970-06-01

    Blindness in pigs that were given an overdosage of arsanilic acid is reported. A 0.0375% level of arsanilic acid was fed to 640 pigs for 90 days beginning when the animals were 3 months old. Approximately one month after the start of feeding, partial or complete blindness was observed in 50 of the pigs. Clinical signs, pathologic findings and the chemical analysis of hair are discussed. The level of arsanilic acid used was that recommended for the control of swine dysentery, to be fed for only five or six days. The overdosage resulted from a misunderstanding between the farmer and the feed mill.

  10. Resource Letter PNAR-1: Physics and the nuclear arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeer, D.; Dowling, J.

    1982-01-01

    This collection of article and book references was assembled to help physicists understand and teach about the nuclear arms race. Both technical and political aspects are covered. Entries are therefore marked as elementary for the layman (E), intermediate for college freshman (I), and advanced for the college senior or graduate student (A) for both the technical (t) and the social (s) aspects. Articles or books which are excerpted in a reprint volume (to be published separately by the American Association of Physics Teachers) are marked with an asterisk

  11. Stress analysis for robot arm version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar Abdul Rahman; Fikri, A.; Salleh, M. S.; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Azraf Azman; Rosli Darmawan; Mohd Rizal Mamat

    2010-01-01

    The design of a robot needs to be analyzed to ensure the specification and requirement by the user is full filled. Therefore, stress analysis has been performed on the robot arm version 2 after its complete fabrication. This paper discusses the result of the analysis and proposed measures to improve the future design of robot arm. (author)

  12. Homosexuality in the Dutch Armed Forces 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anna Adolfsen; Saskia Keuzenkamp; m.m.v. Linda Mans

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Uniform uit de kast. This study looks at the attitudes of defence personnel to homosexuality. How do members of the military view homosexual colleagues? Can gays and lesbians working in the armed forces be open about their sexual preferences? Do they regard the armed forces as

  13. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, C; Mazzolai, B; Mattoli, V; Cianchetti, M; Dario, P

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  14. TOWARDS UNIFORM RULES FOR ARMED CONFLICTS Pieter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the two Additional Protocols that followed in 1977, divide armed conflict into two legal categories: ... Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea. Third Convention ... Nationalist China; ibid 116. ... 17 Pictet op cit 43; Junod, S 'Additional Protocol II: History and Scope' (1983) 33 The. American ...

  15. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M [Advanced Robotics Technology and Systems Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Mazzolai, B; Dario, P [Italian Institute of Technology, Genova (Italy); Mattoli, V [Centre of Research in Microengineering Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: cecilia.laschi@sssup.it

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  16. Simple model of the arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zane, L.I.

    1982-01-01

    A simple model of a two-party arms race is developed based on the principle that the race will continue so long as either side can unleash an effective first strike against the other side. The model is used to examine how secrecy, the ABM, MIRV-ing, and an MX system affect the arms race

  17. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M; Mazzolai, B; Dario, P; Mattoli, V

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups

  18. Sound lateralization test in adolescent blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Takao; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2005-06-21

    Blind individuals require to compensate for the lack of visual information by other sensory inputs. In particular, auditory inputs are crucial to such individuals. To investigate whether blind individuals localize sound in space better than sighted individuals, we tested the auditory ability of adolescent blind individuals using a sound lateralization method. The interaural time difference discrimination thresholds of blind individuals were statistically significantly shorter than those of blind individuals with residual vision and controls. These findings suggest that blind individuals have better auditory spatial ability than individuals with visual cues; therefore, some perceptual compensation occurred in the former.

  19. Picking Robot Arm Trajectory Planning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The picking robot arm is scheduled to complete picking tasks in the working space, to overcome the shaking vibration to improve the picking stability, its movement should follow specific consistence trajectory points. Usually we should give definite multiple feature picking points, map their inverse kinematics to the joint space, establish motion equation for the corresponding point in the joint space, then follow these equations motion for the interpolation on the joint so that we can meet the movement requirements. Trajectory planning is decisive significance for accuracy and stability of controlling robot arm. The key issue that picking arm complete picking task will be come true by trajectory planning, namely, robot arm track the desired trajectory. which based on kinematics and statics picking analysis in a joint space according to the requirements of picking tasks, and obtain the position and orientation for picking robot arm, study and calculate the theory of trajectory parameters timely.

  20. Rolling motions in an inner spiral arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, F.M.; Poeppel, W.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen line observations made at low galactic latitudes for l=318degree, 326degree, 334degree, and 337degree show the presence of velocity gradients in latitude in the nearest inner spiral arm, similar to those found by other observations in different regions. Maximum velocity change is about 10 km s -1 for l=337degree. By generating synthetic line profiles constructed from a model spiral arm, several possible causes of these ''rolling motions'' were studied, such as a vertical displacement or a tilt of the arm (which failed to account for the observations) and rotation or shearing in the arm. It was futher shown that a typical arm can maintain such a motion (approx. =75 km s -1 kpc -1 ) with its own gravitational potential. The results are used to study the origin and tilt of Gould's Belt

  1. Blindness and visual impairment in the Americas and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, B; West, S K

    2002-05-01

    To summarise available data on the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in the Americas and the Caribbean. The published literature was searched in Medline and LILACS using the following key words: blindness, visual impairment, prevalence. Articles were reviewed, and the references of the articles were also searched for relevant articles, which were also reviewed. Using the mortality in children under the age of 5 as an indicator, the overall prevalence of childhood blindness (in the under age 15 group) for the region was estimated at 0.45/1000, with the majority (67%) living in countries with mortality of children under age 5 above 30/1000 live births. Corneal opacities were more common in countries where the under 5 year mortality are above 30/1000 live births and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was an important cause in countries with intermediate death rates. For adults, overall blindness rates were not estimated because of the social, economic, and ethnic diversity in the region. The primary causes of visual loss in adults in the Americas were age related eye diseases, notably cataract and glaucoma in the African-American and Hispanic populations, and age related macular degeneration in the white population. Uncorrected refractive error was a significant cause of decreased vision across ages, ethnic groups, and countries. More data are needed on the magnitude and causes of visual loss for the Caribbean and Latin American countries. Rates of blindness and visual loss from available data within these countries are widely disparate. Prevention and control of avoidable blindness needs to be an ongoing focus in this region.

  2. Memory blindness: Altered memory reports lead to distortion in eyewitness memory

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, KJ; Greenspan, RL; Bogart, DF; Loftus, EF

    2016-01-01

    Choice blindness refers to the finding that people can often be misled about their own self-reported choices. However, little research has investigated the more long-term effects of choice blindness. We examined whether people would detect alterations to their own memory reports, and whether such alterations could influence participants' memories. Participants viewed slideshows depicting crimes, and then either reported their memories for episodic details of the event (Exp. 1) or identified a...

  3. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  4. Youth Armed Groups in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the many years of Colombia’s civil war, youth have been trying to find their way in complicated and dangerous situations. A central component of this is their relationship with armed groups, something that has evolved considerably over the past ten years. This practice note examines the context within which these connections are formed and the implications this has for self/social identity and meaningful resistance. The ideas in this practice note are based on consultations with young Colombians, particularly those displaced from 2000-2013. These sessions included art activities, focus groups and individual interviews. Art activities involved descriptive and expressive projects so that participants could explore their feelings and memories of situations and experiences. This provided a base for group discussions where youth exchanged information and debated issues. A total of 34 workshops were held over a twelve year period. These consultations revealed how war flows all over young people, touching every aspect of their identity. The boundaries between the personal and political no longer exist in today’s civil wars, if indeed they every truly did. Young people growing up inside Colombia’s war understand this at a deep level. An acknowledgement of this pain – showing the connections between the personal and political dimensions of war – is, they would maintain, the basis for their personal healing as well as an important tool for the building of sustainable peace.

  5. CyARM: Haptic Sensing Device for Spatial Localization on Basis of Exploration by Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Akita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new type of perception aid device based on user's exploration action, which is named as CyARM (acronym of “Cyber Arm”. The user holds this device in her/his arm, the extension of the arm is controlled by tension in wires, which are attached to her/his body according to the distance to the object. This user interface has unique characteristics that give users the illusion of an imaginary arm that extends to existing objects. The implementations of CyARM and our two experiments to investigate the efficiency and effectiveness of CyARM are described. The results show that we could confirm that CyARM can be used to recognize the presence of an object in front of the user and to measure the relative distance to the object.

  6. Blind Naso-Endotracheal Intubation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Difficult endotracheal intubation techniques include, use of fiberoptic bronchoscope, intubating laryngeal mask airway, tracheostomy, blind nasotracheal and retrograde intubation. According to the Difficult Airway Society guidelines, intubating with the aid of a fiberoptic scope has taken its place as the standard adjuvant for.

  7. Metro Navigation for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Saenz, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of using the software program AudioMetro, a tool that supports the orientation and mobility of people who are blind in the Metro system of Santiago de Chile. A quasi-experimental study considering experimental and control groups and using the paired Student's t in a two sample test analysis (pretest-posttest) was…

  8. Vesicouterine fistula and blind vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M.; Hameed, S.; Asif, S.

    2003-01-01

    A case of vesicouterine fistula with blind vagina following cesarean section for obstructed labor is presented. It was surgically treated by fistulectomy, cervicoplasty and maintenance of bladder and cervical potency by catheterization. Intrauterine synechiae formation was prevented by copper T insertion and oral contraceptive pills. The patient is making uneventful a symptomatic progress planning to conceive. (author)

  9. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News ... series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ...

  10. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ... optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a ...

  11. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ... an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a ...

  12. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ... an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a ...

  13. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos ...

  14. Blinding in randomized clinical trials: imposed impartiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I

    2011-01-01

    Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations...

  15. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? ... Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. ...

  16. On imitation among young and blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Campello Rodrigues

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the imitation among young and blind children. The survey was conducted as a mosaic in the time since the field considerations were taken from two areas: a professional experience with early stimulation of blind babies and a workshop with blind and low vision young between 13-18 years. By statingthe situated trace of knowledge, theresearch indicates that imitation among blind young people can be one of the ways of creating a common world among young blind and sighted people. Imitation among blind young is a multi-sensory process that requires a body experience, including both blind and people who see. The paper concludes with an indication of the unique character of imitation and at the same time, with the affirmation of its relevance to the development and inclusion process of both the child and the young blind.

  17. Endoscopic management of intraoperative small bowel laceration during natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery: a blinded porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyock, Christopher J; Forsmark, Chris E; Wagh, Mihir S

    2011-01-01

    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has recently gained great enthusiasm, but there is concern regarding the ability to endoscopically manage complications purely via natural orifices. To assess the feasibility of endoscopically managing enteral perforation during NOTES using currently available endoscopic accessories. Twelve pigs underwent transgastric or transcolonic endoscopic exploration. Full-thickness enterotomies were intentionally created to mimic accidental small bowel lacerations during NOTES. These lacerations were then closed with endoclips. In the blinded arm of the study, small bowel repair was performed by a second blinded endoscopist. Adequate closure of the laceration was confirmed with a leak test. Primary access sites were closed with endoclips or T-anchors. At necropsy, the peritoneal cavity was inspected for abscesses, bleeding, or damage to surrounding structures. The enterotomy site was examined for adequacy of closure, adhesions, or evidence of infection. Fifteen small bowel lacerations were performed in 12 animals. Successful closure was achieved in all 10 cases in the nonblinded arm. Survival animals had an uncomplicated postoperative course and all enterotomy sites were well healed without evidence of necrosis, adhesions, abscess, or bleeding at necropsy. Leak test was negative in all animals. In the blinded arm, both small intestinal lacerations could not be identified by the blinded endoscopist. Necropsy revealed open small bowel lacerations. Small intestinal injuries are difficult to localize with currently available flexible endoscopes and accessories. Endoscopic clips, however, may be adequate for closure of small bowel lacerations if the site of injury is known.

  18. "VisionTouch Phone" for the Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Robest

    2013-10-01

    Our objective is to enable the blind to use smartphones with touchscreens to make calls and to send text messages (sms) with ease, speed, and accuracy. We believe that with our proposed platform, which enables the blind to locate the position of the keypads, new games and education, and safety applications will be increasingly developed for the blind. This innovative idea can also be implemented on tablets for the blind, allowing them to use information websites such as Wikipedia and newspaper portals.

  19. Magnitude of blood pressure reduction in the placebo arms of modern hypertension trials: implications for trials of renal denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hitesh C; Hayward, Carl; Ozdemir, Baris Ata; Rosen, Stuart D; Krum, Henry; Lyon, Alexander R; Francis, Darrel P; di Mario, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    Early phase studies of novel interventions for hypertension, such as renal sympathetic denervation, are sometimes single-armed (uncontrolled). We explored the wisdom of this by quantifying the blood pressure fall in the placebo arms of contemporary trials of hypertension. We searched Medline up to June 2014 and identified blinded, randomized trials of hypertension therapy in which the control arm received placebo medication or a sham (placebo) procedure. For nonresistant hypertension, we have identified all such trials of drugs licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration since 2000 (5 drugs). This US Food and Drug Administration-related restriction was not applied to resistant hypertension trials. This produced 7451 patients, who were allocated to a blinded control from 52 trials of nonresistant hypertension and 694 patients from 8 trials of resistant hypertension (3 drugs and 2 interventions). Systolic blood pressure fell by 5.92 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 5.14-6.71; Pefficacy explorations of novel therapies for hypertension, once safety is established, should be performed with a randomized, appropriately controlled, and blinded design. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Rosoboroneksport: Arms Sales and the Structure of Russian Defense Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blank, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    In August 2006, the U.S. Government imposed sanctions on Russian arms sellers and producers, Rosoboroneksport, Russia's main arms-selling agency, and Sukhoi, which manufactures aircraft, because of their arms sales to Iran...

  1. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a green leaf might look tan or gray. Color Blindness Is Passed Down Color blindness is almost always an inherited (say: in-HER- ... Eye doctors (and some school nurses) test for color blindness by showing a picture made up of different ...

  2. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  3. The radiographic acromiohumeral interval is affected by arm and radiographic beam position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehringer, Edward V.; Rosipal, Charles E.; Rhodes, David A.; Lauder, Anthony J.; Feschuk, Connie A.; Mormino, Matthew A.; Hartigan, David E. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Omaha, NE (United States); Puumala, Susan E. [Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Preventive and Societal Medicine, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2008-06-15

    The objective was to determine whether arm and radiographic beam positional changes affect the acromiohumeral interval (AHI) in radiographs of healthy shoulders. Controlling for participant's height and position as well as radiographic beam height and angle, from 30 right shoulders of right-handed males without shoulder problems four antero-posterior (AP) radiographic views each were obtained in defined positions. Three independent, blinded physicians measured the AHI to the nearest millimeter in 120 randomized radiographs. Mean differences between measurements were calculated, along with a 95% confidence interval. Controlling for observer effect, there was a significant difference between AHI measurements on different views (p<0.01). All pair-wise differences were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons (all p values <0.01). Even in healthy shoulders, small changes in arm position and radiographic beam orientation affect the AHI in radiographs. (orig.)

  4. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Voyles

    2005-12-31

    Through the ARM Program, the DOE funded the development of several highly instrumented ground stations for studying cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer, and for measuring other parameters that determine the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This scientific infrastructure, and resultant data archive, is a valuable national and international asset for advancing scientific knowledge of Earth systems. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the DOE designated ARM sites as a national scientific user facility: the ARM Climate Research (ACRF). The ACRF has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range interdisciplinary science in areas such as meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, biogeochemical cycling, and satellite validation, to name only a few.

  5. Arming shoes of the fifteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volken Marquita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Military footwear for the fifteenth century includes arming shoes worn under sabatons. Written sources suggest arming shoes and footwear used for fighting were ordinary shoes adapted for the purpose. Archaeological footwear was examined for signs of such modifications. Medieval shoe technology is presented, showing the range of footwear and its uses and gait biomechanics. Based on experiences from re-enactors wearing armours, medieval shoe styles are discussed for appropriateness as arming shoes. The question of why medieval military footwear shows no purposed development is addressed.

  6. ARM Unmanned Aerial Systems Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) coupled with changes in the regulatory environment for operations of UAS in the National Airspace increase the potential value of UAS to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. UAS include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and tethered balloon systems (TBS). The roles UAVs and TBSs could play within the ARM Facility, particularly science questions they could help address, have been discussed in several workshops, reports, and vision documents, including: This document describes the implementation of a robust and vigorous program for use of UAV and TBS for the science missions ARM supports.

  7. Passive detection of nuclear-armed SLCMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Prilutsky, O.F.; Frolov, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    Effective procedures have been developed, using national technical measures (photoreconnaissance satellites, radiointercept stations, etc.), for verification of reductions in land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, such as marine-based ballistic missiles, and strategic bombers. However, there is agreement on procedures for verifying limitations of numbers of long-range nuclear-armed cruise missiles. The difficulties in developing such procedures are sometimes regarded (by opponents of nuclear disarmament) as a reason why cruise missiles based on ships and submarines ought not to be limited by future arms-reduction treaties. This paper considers the detectability of nuclear-armed cruise missiles through the penetrating radiation emitted spontaneously from their warheads

  8. Arms control, nonproliferation, and US national security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The continuation of the arms race and the failure of arms control and disarmament negotiations lend support to the belief that US and Soviet power, prestige, and security depend upon nuclear weapons. Therefore, the argument goes, the non-nuclear-weapon states (particularly those that are not allied with nuclear-weapon states and do not share their nuclear shield) may conclude that they would be well served by possession of these weapons. In this sense, the failure of nuclear arms reductions could create incentives for further proliferation

  9. Prefrontal cortical GABA modulation of spatial reference and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Meagan L; Floresco, Stan B

    2014-10-31

    Dysfunction in prefrontal cortex (PFC) GABA transmission has been proposed to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, yet how this system regulates different cognitive and mnemonic functions remains unclear. We assessed the effects of pharmacological reduction of GABAA signaling in the medial PFC of rats on spatial reference/working memory using different versions of the radial-arm maze task. We used a massed-trials procedure to probe how PFC GABA regulates susceptibility to proactive interference. Male rats were well-trained to retrieve food from the same 4 arms of an 8-arm maze, receiving 5 trials/day (1-2 min intervals). Infusions of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (12.5-50 ng) markedly increased working and reference memory errors and response latencies. Similar treatments also impaired short-term memory on an 8-baited arm task. These effects did not appear to be due to increased susceptibility to proactive interference. In contrast, PFC inactivation via infusion of GABA agonists baclofen/muscimol did not affect reference/working memory. In comparison to the pronounced effects on the 8-arm maze tasks, PFC GABAA antagonism only causes a slight and transient decrease in accuracy on a 2-arm spatial discrimination. These findings demonstrate that prefrontal GABA hypofunction severely disrupts spatial reference and short-term memory and that disinhibition of the PFC can, in some instances, perturb memory processes not normally dependent on the frontal lobes. Moreover, these impairments closely resemble those observed in schizophrenic patients, suggesting that perturbation in PFC GABA signaling may contribute to these types of cognitive deficits associated with the disorder. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  10. Isolated effects of peripheral arm and central body cooling on arm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, G G; Wu, M P; White, M D; Johnston, C E; Bristow, G K

    1995-10-01

    Whole body cooling impairs manual arm performance. The independent contributions of local (peripheral) and/or whole body (central) cooling are not known. Therefore, a protocol was developed in which the arm and the rest of the body could be independently cooled. Biceps temperature (Tmus), at a depth of 20 mm, and esophageal temperature (Tes) were measured. Six subjects were immersed to the clavicles in a tank (body tank) of water under 3 conditions: 1) cold body-cold arm (CB-CA); 2) warm body-cold arm (WB-CA); and 3) cold body-warm arm (CB-WA). In the latter two conditions, subjects placed their dominant arm in a separate (arm) tank. Water temperature (Tw) in each tank was independently controlled. In conditions requiring cold body and/or cold arm, Tw in the appropriate tanks was 8 degrees C. In conditions requiring warm body and/or warm arm, Tw in the appropriate tanks was adjusted between 29 and 38 degrees C to maintain body/arm temperature at baseline values. A battery of 6 tests, requiring fine or gross motor movements, were performed immediately before immersion and after 15, 45, and 70 minutes of immersion. In CB-CA, Tes decreased from an average of 37.2 to 35.6 degrees C and Tmus decreased from 34.6 to 22.0 degrees C. In WB-CA, Tmus decreased to 18.1 degrees C (Tes = 37.1 degrees C), and in CB-WA, Tes decreased to 35.8 degrees C (Tmus = 34.5 degrees C). By the end of immersion, there were significant decrements (43-85%) in the performance of all tests in CB-CA and WB-CA (p body and/or the arm elicits large decrements in finger, hand and arm performance. The decrements are due almost entirely to the local effects of arm tissue cooling.

  11. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in Western Rwanda: Blindness in a Postconflict Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Mathenge, Wanjiku; Nkurikiye, John; Limburg, Hans; Kuper, Hannah

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. VISION 2020, a global initiative that aims to eliminate avoidable blindness, has estimated that 75% of blindness worldwide is treatable or preventable. The WHO estimates that in Africa, around 9% of adults aged over 50 are blind. Some data suggest that people living in regions affected by violent conflict are more likely to be blind than those living in unaffected regions. Currently no data exist on the likely prevalence of blindness in Rwanda, a central African c...

  12. Standing "the Watches" with Armed UAVs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCulloch, Francis

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the additional Options available to the operational commander in charge of conducting 'presence and monitoring' missions with the introduction of an armed capability on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs...

  13. Science team participation in the ARM program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cess, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    This progress report discusses the Science Team participation in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program for the period of October 31, 1992 to November 1, 1993. This report summarized the research accomplishments of six papers

  14. U.S. Arms Sales to Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2008-01-01

    This report briefly reviews the issue of U.S. arms sales to Pakistan. It provides background details regarding recent major weapons transactions between the United States and Pakistan, as well as the rationale given for such sales...

  15. U.S. Arms Sales to Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2007-01-01

    This report briefly reviews the issue of U.S. arms sales to Pakistan. It provides background details regarding recent major weapons transactions between the United States and Pakistan, as well as the rationale given for such sales...

  16. Arming and firing system for DISTANT RUNNER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skenandore, L.H.; Johnson, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Sandia A and F systems Division 1132 provided arming and firing support for the DISTANT RUNNER Test Program at White Sands Missile Range. This report describes the field support and the firing system that was used

  17. The Prototype Automated Research Management System (ARMS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prekop, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Automated Research Management System (ARMS) is a knowledge management application designed to address many of the knowledge management problems identified by SmartWays and FASSP's Knowledge Management Review...

  18. Radiation Pattern of Chair Armed Microstrip Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rabindra Kishore; Sahu, Kumar Satyabrat

    2016-12-01

    This work analyzes planar antenna conformable to chair arm shaped surfaces for WLAN application. Closed form expressions for its radiation pattern are developed and validated using measurements on prototype and commercial EM code at 2.4 GHz.

  19. Position Control Method For Pick And Place Robot Arm For Object Sorting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Moe Myint

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The more increase the number of industries in developing countries the more require labourers or workers in that. To reduce the cost of labour force and to increase the manufacturing capacity of industries the advanced robot arms are more needed. The aim of this journal is to eliminate the manual control for object sorting system.Robot arm design in this research uses two joints three links and servo motors to drive. Microcontroller is used to generate required PWM signal for servo motors. In this research the position control of robot arm was designed by using kinematic control methods. There are two types of kinematic control methods which are forward and reverse kinematic methods. In forward kinematic method the input parameters are the joint angles and link length of robot arm and then the output is the position at XYZ coordinate of tool or gripper. In inverse kinematic the input parameters are position at XYZ coordinate of gripper and the link length of robot arm and then the output parameters are the joint angles. So kinematic methods can explain the analytical description of the geometry motion of the manipulator with reference to a robot coordinate system fixed to a frame without consideration of the forces or the moments causing the movements. For sorting system Metal detector is used to detect the metal or non-metal. This position control of pick and place robot arm is fully tested and the result is obtained more precisely.

  20. Kidins220/ARMS as a functional mediator of multiple receptor signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubrand, Veronika E; Cesca, Fabrizia; Benfenati, Fabio; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2012-04-15

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that several membrane receptors--in addition to activating distinct signalling cascades--also engage in substantial crosstalk with each other, thereby adjusting their signalling outcome as a function of specific input information. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control their coordination and integration of downstream signalling. A protein that is likely to have a role in this process is kinase-D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa [Kidins220, also known as ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS), hereafter referred to as Kidins220/ARMS]. Kidins220/ARMS is a conserved membrane protein that is preferentially expressed in the nervous system and interacts with the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton. It interacts with neurotrophin, ephrin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and glutamate receptors, and is a common downstream target of several trophic stimuli. Kidins220/ARMS is required for neuronal differentiation and survival, and its expression levels modulate synaptic plasticity. Kidins220/ARMS knockout mice show developmental defects mainly in the nervous and cardiovascular systems, suggesting a crucial role for this protein in modulating the cross talk between different signalling pathways. In this Commentary, we summarise existing knowledge regarding the physiological functions of Kidins220/ARMS, and highlight some interesting directions for future studies on the role of this protein in health and disease.

  1. Contact Lenses for Color Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Abdel-Rahman; Hassan, Muhammad Umair; Elsherif, Mohamed; Ahmed, Zubair; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider

    2018-06-01

    Color vision deficiency (color blindness) is an inherited genetic ocular disorder. While no cure for this disorder currently exists, several methods can be used to increase the color perception of those affected. One such method is the use of color filtering glasses which are based on Bragg filters. While these glasses are effective, they are high cost, bulky, and incompatible with other vision correction eyeglasses. In this work, a rhodamine derivative is incorporated in commercial contact lenses to filter out the specific wavelength bands (≈545-575 nm) to correct color vision blindness. The biocompatibility assessment of the dyed contact lenses in human corneal fibroblasts and human corneal epithelial cells shows no toxicity and cell viability remains at 99% after 72 h. This study demonstrates the potential of the dyed contact lenses in wavelength filtering and color vision deficiency management. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  3. Inverse kinematics of OWI-535 robotic arm

    OpenAIRE

    DEBENEC, PRIMOŽ

    2015-01-01

    The thesis aims to calculate the inverse kinematics for the OWI-535 robotic arm. The calculation of the inverse kinematics determines the joint parameters that provide the right pose of the end effector. The pose consists of the position and orientation, however, we will focus only on the second one. Due to arm limitations, we have created our own type of the calculation of the inverse kinematics. At first we have derived it only theoretically, and then we have transferred the derivation into...

  4. Animals and the law of armed conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Roscini, M.

    2017-01-01

    The main purposes of this article are to assess whether the existing rules of the law of armed conflict provide adequate protection to animals and to highlight the fault lines in the law. The article distinguishes the general provisions of the law of armed conflict, i.e. those that were not adopted with specific regard to animals but the application of which might restrict the killing and injuring of animals, from the provisions that specifically provide protection to animals. The analysis es...

  5. Hysteresis of targeting civilians in armed conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Uih Ran Lee

    2015-01-01

    This article explores warring groups’ intentional targeting behavior against civilians, a strictly prohibited war strategy by international norms. Using dynamic panel regressions run on a comprehensive dataset of contemporary warfare which covers 22 years (1989-2010), I find that warring actors, both sovereign states and formally organized armed groups, behave systematically in terms of civilian targeting when they are involved in prolonged armed conflict (15-22 years). Warring actors’ lethal...

  6. Student measurement of blood pressure using a simulator arm compared with a live subject's arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer J; Sobieraj, Diana M; Kuti, Effie L

    2010-06-15

    To compare accuracy of blood pressure measurements using a live subject and a simulator arm, and to determine students' preferences regarding measurement. This was a crossover study comparing blood pressure measurements from a live subject and a simulator arm. Students completed an anonymous survey instrument defining opinions on ease of measurement. Fifty-seven students completed blood pressure measurements on live subjects while 72 students completed blood pressure measurements using the simulator arm. There were no significant systematic differences between the 2 measurement techniques. Systolic blood pressure measurements from a live subject arm were less likely to be within 4 mm Hg compared with measurements of a simulator arm. Diastolic blood pressure measurements were not significantly different between the 2 techniques. Accuracy of student measurement of blood pressure using a simulator arm was similar to the accuracy with a live subject. There was no difference in students' preferences regarding measurement techniques.

  7. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  8. Blind Deconvolution With Model Discrepancies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotera, Jan; Šmídl, Václav; Šroubek, Filip

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2017), s. 2533-2544 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S; GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : blind deconvolution * variational Bayes * automatic relevance determination Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics OBOR OECD: Computer hardware and architecture Impact factor: 4.828, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/ZOI/kotera-0474858.pdf

  9. Multichannel blind iterative image restoration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šroubek, Filip; Flusser, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 9 (2003), s. 1094-1106 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/1711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : conjugate gradient * half-quadratic regularization * multichannel blind deconvolution Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.642, year: 2003 http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20030104.pdf

  10. ARM assembly language with hardware experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Elahi, Ata

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a hands-on approach to learning ARM assembly language with the use of a TI microcontroller. The book starts with an introduction to computer architecture and then discusses number systems and digital logic. The text covers ARM Assembly Language, ARM Cortex Architecture and its components, and Hardware Experiments using TILM3S1968. Written for those interested in learning embedded programming using an ARM Microcontroller. ·         Introduces number systems and signal transmission methods   ·         Reviews logic gates, registers, multiplexers, decoders and memory   ·         Provides an overview and examples of ARM instruction set   ·         Uses using Keil development tools for writing and debugging ARM assembly language Programs   ·         Hardware experiments using a Mbed NXP LPC1768 microcontroller; including General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) configuration, real time clock configuration, binary input to 7-segment display, creating ...

  11. Ocular morbidity patterns among children in schools for the blind in Chennai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, M Vs; Sivakumar, S; Dayal, Ashutosh; Chitra, A; Subramaniam, Sudharshini

    2017-08-01

    To identify the morbidity patterns causing blindness in children attending schools for the blind in Chennai and comparing our data with similar studies done previously. A cross-sectional prevalence study was carried out in two schools for the blind in Chennai. Blind schools were visited by a team of ophthalmologists and optometrists. Students with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) worse than 3/60 in the better eye were included and relevant history was noted. Every student underwent anterior segment evaluation and detailed fundus examination. Morbidity of the better eye was taken as cause of blindness. Health records maintained by the school were referred to wherever available. The anatomical causes of blindness include optic nerve disorders in 75 (24.8%) cases, retinal disorders in 55 (18.2%), corneal disorders in 47 (15.6%), lens-related disorders in 39 (12.9%), congenital anomalies in 11 (3.6%), and congenital glaucoma in 20 (6.6%) cases. The whole globe was involved in six cases (1.99%). Among conditions causing blindness, optic atrophy seen in 73 (24.17%) cases was the most common, followed by retinal dystrophy in 44 (14.56%), corneal scarring in 35 (11.59%), cataract in 22 (7.28%), and congenital glaucoma in 20 (6.6%) cases. It was found that avoidable causes of blindness were seen in 31% of cases and incurable causes in 45%. Optic nerve atrophy and retinal dystrophy are the emerging causes of blindness, underlining the need for genetic counseling and low vision rehabilitation centers, along with a targeted approach for avoidable causes of blindness.

  12. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. A Comparison of Proposed Biosimilar LA-EP2006 and Reference Pegfilgrastim for the Prevention of Neutropenia in Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer Receiving Myelosuppressive Adjuvant or Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Pegfilgrastim Randomized Oncology (Supportive Care) Trial to Evaluate Comparative Treatment (PROTECT-2), a Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Kimberly; Donskih, Roman; Jones, C Michael; Nixon, Allen; Vidal, Maria J; Nakov, Roumen; Singh, Pritibha; Schaffar, Gregor; Gascón, Pere; Harbeck, Nadia

    2016-07-01

    Pegfilgrastim is widely used for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. In highly regulated markets, there are currently no approved biosimilars of pegfilgrastim. Pegfilgrastim Randomized Oncology (Supportive Care) Trial to Evaluate Comparative Treatment (PROTECT-2) was a confirmatory efficacy and safety study designed to compare proposed biosimilar LA-EP2006 with reference pegfilgrastim (Neulasta, Amgen) in early-stage breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant or neoadjuvant myelosuppressive chemotherapy. A total of 308 patients were randomized to LA-EP2006 or reference pegfilgrastim. Each patient received TAC (intravenous docetaxel 75 mg/m(2), doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2), and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m(2)) on day 1 of each cycle, for six or more cycles. Pegfilgrastim (LA-EP2006 or reference) was given subcutaneously (6 mg in 0.6 mL) on day 2 of each cycle. The primary endpoint was duration of severe neutropenia (DSN) during cycle 1 (number of consecutive days with an absolute neutrophil count prevention of neutropenia in patients with early-stage breast cancer receiving TAC. The granulocyte colony-stimulating factor pegfilgrastim is widely used for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Biosimilars are biologics with similar quality, safety, and efficacy to a reference product that may increase the affordability of treatment compared with their reference compounds. There are currently no approved biosimilars of pegfilgrastim in highly regulated markets. No previous phase III studies have been performed with LA-EP2006. PROTECT-2 was conducted to confirm the similarity of the proposed biosimilar LA-EP2006 to pegfilgrastim. Biosimilar pegfilgrastim (LA-EP2006) may benefit oncology patients by offering increased access to biological treatments that may improve clinical outcomes. This means that patients could potentially be treated prophylactically with biologics rather than only after complications have occurred. ©AlphaMed Press.

  14. VBE reference framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Ermilova, E.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Ollus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Defining a comprehensive and generic "reference framework" for Virtual organizations Breeding Environments (VBEs), addressing all their features and characteristics, is challenging. While the definition and modeling of VBEs has become more formalized during the last five years, "reference models"

  15. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  16. The spiral arms of the Milky Way: The relative location of each different arm tracer within a typical spiral arm width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallée, Jacques P.

    2014-01-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12°) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).

  17. The spiral arms of the Milky Way: The relative location of each different arm tracer within a typical spiral arm width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallée, Jacques P., E-mail: jacques.vallee@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, National Science Infrastructure portfolio, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, B.C., V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12°) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).

  18. Changing quantum reference frames

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Matthew C.; Girelli, Florian; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the process of changing reference frames in the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. We find that, as part of this process, decoherence is necessarily induced on any quantum system described relative to these frames. We explore this process with examples involving reference frames for phase and orientation. Quantifying the effect of changing quantum reference frames serves as a first step in developing a relativity principle for theories in which all objects includ...

  19. Dual Arm Work Module Development and Appplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noakes, M.W.

    1999-04-25

    The dual arm work module (DAWM) was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) as a development test bed to study issues related to dual arm manipulation, including platform cotilguration, controls, automation, operations, and tooling. The original platform was based on two Schilling Titan II manipulators mounted to a 5-degree-of- freedom (DOF) base fabricated by RedZone Robotics, Inc. The 5-DOF articulation provided a center torso rotation, linear actuation to change the separation between the arms, and arm base rotation joints to provide "elbows up," elbows down," or "elbows out" orientation. A series of tests were conducted on operations, tooling, and task space scene analysis (TSSA)-driven robotics for overhead transporter- mounted and crane hook-deployed scenarios. A concept was developed for DAWM deployment from a large remote work vehicle, but the project was redirected to support dismantlement of the Chicago Pile #5 (CP-5) reactor at Argonne National Laboratory in fiscal year (FY) 1997. Support of CP-5 required a change in focus of the dual arm technology from that of a development test bed to a system focussed for a specific end user. ORNL teamed with the Idaho National Environmental ,Engineering Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and the Savannah River Technology Center to deliver a crane-deployed derivative of the DAWM, designated the dual arm work platform (DAWP). RTDP staff supported DAWP at CP-5 for one FY; Argonne staff continued operation through to dismantlement of the reactor internals. Lessons learned from this interaction were extensive. Beginning in FY 1999, dual arm development activities are again being pursued in the context of those lessons learned. This paper describes the progression of philosophy of the DAWM from initial test bed to lessons learned through interaction at CP-5 and to the present investigation of telerobotic assist of teleoperation and TSSA- driven robotics.

  20. Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. This website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed ...

  1. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) and ARM-ACME 2.5 Final Campaign Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tom, M. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sweeney, C. [NOAA Earth Systems Research Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 5-year multi-institution and multi-agency airborne study of atmospheric composition and carbon cycling at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, with scientific objectives that are central to the carbon-cycle and radiative-forcing goals of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of 1) the carbon exchange of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) SGP region; 2) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative-forcing, convective processes, and CO2 concentrations over the ARM SGP region, and 3) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  2. IAEA biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Schelenz, R.; Ballestra, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services programme of the IAEA encompasses a wide variety of intercomparisons and reference materials. This paper reviews only those aspects of the subject having to do with biological reference materials. The 1988 programme foresees 13 new intercomparison exercises, one for major, minor and trace elements, five for radionuclides, and seven for stable isotopes. Twenty-two natural matrix biological reference materials are available: twelve for major, minor and trace elements, six for radionuclides, and four for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Seven new intercomparisons and reference materials are in preparation or under active consideration. Guidelines on the correct use of reference materials are being prepared for publication in 1989 in consultation with other major international producers and users of biological reference materials. The IAEA database on available reference materials is being updated and expanded in scope, and a new publication is planned for 1989. (orig.)

  3. Organization of octopus arm movements: a model system for studying the control of flexible arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfreund, Y; Flash, T; Yarom, Y; Fiorito, G; Segev, I; Hochner, B

    1996-11-15

    Octopus arm movements provide an extreme example of controlled movements of a flexible arm with virtually unlimited degrees of freedom. This study aims to identify general principles in the organization of these movements. Video records of the movements of Octopus vulgaris performing the task of reaching toward a target were studied. The octopus extends its arm toward the target by a wave-like propagation of a bend that travels from the base of the arm toward the tip. Similar bend propagation is seen in other octopus arm movements, such as locomotion and searching. The kinematics (position and velocity) of the midpoint of the bend in three-dimensional space were extracted using the direct linear transformation algorithm. This showed that the bend tends to move within a single linear plane in a simple, slightly curved path connecting the center of the animal's body with the target location. Approximately 70% of the reaching movements demonstrated a stereotyped tangential velocity profile. An invariant profile was observed when movements were normalized for velocity and distance. Two arms, extended together in the same behavioral context, demonstrated identical velocity profiles. The stereotyped features of the movements were also observed in spontaneous arm extensions (not toward an external target). The simple and stereotypic appearance of the bend trajectory suggests that the position of the bend in space and time is the controlled variable. We propose that this strategy reduces the immense redundancy of the octopus arm movements and hence simplifies motor control.

  4. Armed guards on vessels : insurance and liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišo Mudrić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paper examines the insurance and liability issues resulting from the use of armed guards on board vessels. The study begins with an overview of the available data on key economic fi gures representing the projected overall annual costs of modern piracy. The focus is then shifted to the issue of public versus private security, where possible dangers of private-based security options are discussed in general. After explaining why the Somalia region deserves a closer attention when compared to other pirate-infested waters, a brief summary of the international effort to combat piracy threat is presented, followed by a structured overview of the use of private maritime security options in the maritime sector in general. One security option is the use of armed guards on board vessels. This option is explored both from the political (the acceptance by stakeholders and legal standpoint (legal issues arising from the use of armed guards. An important remedy for the shipping companies/ operators threatened by the piracy hazard is the existence of affordable and effective (specialized marine insurance. A study of available piracy insurance policies is presented, followed by an analysis of case law and other legal issues arising from piracy attacks, which could prove important when considering the legal implications of armed guards employment. Finally, a simplifi ed economic analysis of available security options is presented, followed by the final assessment of benefi ts derived from the use of armed guards.

  5. Stellar complexes in spiral arms of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, Yu. N.

    The history of the introduction and development of the star complexes conception is briefly described. These large groups of stars were picked out and named as such ones in our Galaxy with argumentation and evidence for their physical unity (using the Cepheid variables the distances and ages of which are easy determined from their periods); anyway earlier the complexes were noted along the spiral arms of the Andromeda galaxy, but were not recognized as a new kind of star group. The chains of complexes along the spiral arms are observed quite rarely; their origin is explained by magneto- gravitational or purely gravitational instability developing along the arm. It is not clear why these chains are quite a rare phenomenon - and more so why sometimes the regular chain of complexes are observed in one arm only. Probably intergalactic magnetic field participated in formation of such chains. Apart from the complexes located along the arms, there are isolated giant complexes known (up to 700 pc in diameter) which look like super-gigantic but rather rarefied globular clusters. Until now only two of these formations are studied, in NGC 6946 and M51.

  6. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  7. ARM Climate Research Facility: Outreach Tools and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, L.; Jundt, R.

    2009-12-01

    Sponsored by the Department of Energy, the ARM Climate Research Facility is a global scientific user facility for the study of climate change. To publicize progress and achievements and to reach new users, the ACRF uses a variety of Web 2.0 tools and strategies that build off of the program’s comprehensive and well established News Center (www.arm.gov/news). These strategies include: an RSS subscription service for specific news categories; an email “newsletter” distribution to the user community that compiles the latest News Center updates into a short summary with links; and a Facebook page that pulls information from the News Center and links to relevant information in other online venues, including those of our collaborators. The ACRF also interacts with users through field campaign blogs, like Discovery Channel’s EarthLive, to share research experiences from the field. Increasingly, field campaign Wikis are established to help ACRF researchers collaborate during the planning and implementation phases of their field studies and include easy to use logs and image libraries to help record the campaigns. This vital reference information is used in developing outreach material that is shared in highlights, news, and Facebook. Other Web 2.0 tools that ACRF uses include Google Maps to help users visualize facility locations and aircraft flight patterns. Easy-to-use comment boxes are also available on many of the data-related web pages on www.arm.gov to encourage feedback. To provide additional opportunities for increased interaction with the public and user community, future Web 2.0 plans under consideration for ACRF include: evaluating field campaigns for Twitter and microblogging opportunities, adding public discussion forums to research highlight web pages, moving existing photos into albums on FlickR or Facebook, and building online video archives through YouTube.

  8. Change blindness, aging, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Matthew; Sparks, Jondavid; McEvoy, Sean; Viamonte, Sarah; Kellison, Ida; Vecera, Shaun P

    2009-02-01

    Change blindness (CB), the inability to detect changes in visual scenes, may increase with age and early Alzheimer's disease (AD). To test this hypothesis, participants were asked to localize changes in natural scenes. Dependent measures were response time (RT), hit rate, false positives (FP), and true sensitivity (d'). Increased age correlated with increased sensitivity and RT; AD predicted even slower RT. Accuracy and RT were negatively correlated. Differences in FP were nonsignificant. CB correlated with impaired attention, working memory, and executive function. Advanced age and AD were associated with increased CB, perhaps due to declining memory and attention. CB could affect real-world tasks, like automobile driving.

  9. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements VI (ARM-ACME VI) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, Sebastien [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    From October 1, 2015 through September 30, 2016, AAF deployed a Cessna 206 aircraft over the Southern Great Plains, collecting observations of trace gas mixing ratios over the ARM/SGP Central Facility. The aircraft payload included two Atmospheric Observing Systems (AOS Inc.) analyzers for continuous measurements of CO2, and a 12-flask sampler for analysis of carbon cycle gases (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, 13CO2). The aircraft payload also includes solar/infrared radiation measurements. This research (supported by DOE ARM and TES programs) builds upon previous ARM-ACME missions. The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of: (a) the carbon exchange of the ARM region; (b) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative forcing, convective processes, and CO2 concentrations over the ARM region, and (c) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  10. Robot-arm-based mobile HTS SQUID system for NDE of structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yotsugi, K; Hatsukade, Y; Tanaka, S [Department of Ecological Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tenpaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)], E-mail: hatukade@eco.tut.ac.jp

    2008-02-01

    A robot-arm-based mobile HTS SQUID system was developed for NDE of fixed targets. To realize the system, active magnetic shielding technique using fluxgate as reference sensor for ambient field was applied to a cryocooler-based HTS SQUID gradiometer that was mounted on commercial robot-arm. In this technique, ambient field noise and pulse noise of 550 nT from robot were measured by the fluxgate near the SQUID, and then the fluxgate output was negatively fed back to generate compensation field around the SQUID and fluxgate. The noise from robot was reduced by a factor of about 20 and the shielding technique enabled the HTS SQUID to move in unshielded environment by the robot-arm without flux-trapping or unlocking at 10 mm/s. System noise measurement and inspection of hidden cracks in multi-layer composite-metal structure were demonstrated using the mobile SQUID-NDE system.

  11. Blind Signal Classification via Spare Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-10

    Blind Signal Classification via Sparse Coding Youngjune Gwon MIT Lincoln Laboratory gyj@ll.mit.edu Siamak Dastangoo MIT Lincoln Laboratory sia...achieve blind signal classification with no prior knowledge about signals (e.g., MCS, pulse shaping) in an arbitrary RF channel. Since modulated RF...classification method. Our results indicate that we can separate different classes of digitally modulated signals from blind sampling with 70.3% recall and 24.6

  12. Tactile maze solving in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C

    2010-01-01

    and environmental cues such as temperature and echolocation. We hypothesize that by limiting these cues, blind individuals will lose their advantage compared with controls in spatial navigation tasks. We therefore evaluated the performance of blind and sighted individuals in small-scale, tactile multiple T mazes....... Our results show that blindfolded sighted controls outperformed blind participants in the route-learning tasks. This suggests that, contrary to indoor large-scale spaces, navigational skills inside small-scale spaces benefit from visual experience....

  13. Finding Objects for Assisting Blind People

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Chucai; Flores, Roberto W.; Chincha, Ricardo; Tian, YingLi

    2013-01-01

    Computer vision technology has been widely used for blind assistance, such as navigation and wayfinding. However, few camera-based systems are developed for helping blind or visually-impaired people to find daily necessities. In this paper, we propose a prototype system of blind-assistant object finding by camera-based network and matching-based recognition. We collect a dataset of daily necessities and apply Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) featu...

  14. Fractures of the humerus during arm wrestling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumbaširević Marko Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Humeral shaft fractures may occur as a result of arm wrestling. The aim of this study was to present our treatment of humerus fracture sustained during arm wrestling. Methods. A total of six patients, aged 22 to 48, were treated at our department form January 2008 to January 2010 with open reduction and internal fixation and with hanging arm casts. A review of all the relevant literature on the subject was also presented. Results. In all the cases, the fractures healed and function returned to normal. No patient had any neural or vascular compromise. Conclusion. Closed and operative treatments were equally successful in all reported cases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175-095

  15. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M

    2015-05-15

    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  16. Rapid processing of haptic cues for postural control in blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieppati, Marco; Schmid, Monica; Sozzi, Stefania

    2014-07-01

    Vision and touch rapidly lead to postural stabilization in sighted subjects. Is touch-induced stabilization more rapid in blind than in sighted subjects, owing to cross-modal reorganization of function in the blind? We estimated the time-period elapsing from onset of availability of haptic support to onset of lateral stabilization in a group of early- and late-onset blinds. Eleven blind (age 39.4 years±11.7SD) and eleven sighted subjects (age 30.0 years±10.0SD), standing eyes closed with feet in tandem position, touched a pad with their index finger and withdrew the finger from the pad in sequence. EMG of postural muscles and displacement of centre of foot pressure were recorded. The task was repeated fifty times, to allow statistical evaluation of the latency of EMG and sway changes following the haptic shift. Steady-state sway (with or without contact with pad, no haptic shift) did not differ between blind and sighted. On adding the haptic stimulus, EMG and sway diminished in both groups, but at an earlier latency (by about 0.5 s) in the blinds (p blinds. When the haptic stimulus was withdrawn, both groups increased EMG and sway at equally short delays. Blinds are rapid in implementing adaptive postural modifications when granted an external haptic reference. Fast processing of the stabilizing haptic spatial-orientation cues may be favoured by cortical plasticity in blinds. These findings add new information to the field of sensory-guided dynamic control of equilibrium in man. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Population dynamics and armed violence in Colombia, 1985-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaya, Hernán Eduardo; Rodríguez, Jesús

    2014-09-01

    Describe changes in the population structure of Colombia's municipalities in relation to internal displacement in response to armed violence. A descriptive ecological study was carried out. Secondary sources were consulted, taken from the Consolidated Registry of Displaced Population and from the National Administrative Department of Statistics, to calculate expulsion and reception rates for population displaced by violence from 2002 to 2010. Based on these rates, four groups were created of municipalities in the extreme quartile for each rate during the entire period, which were classified as high expulsion, low expulsion, high reception, and low reception. Subsequently, population pyramids and structure indicators were constructed for each group of municipalities for two comparative reference years (1985 and 2010). Municipalities with high expulsion or reception rates experienced a slower epidemiological transition, with lower mean ages and aging indices. The high expulsion group had the least regression, based on the Sundbärg index. In the high reception group, the masculinity ratio decreased the most, especially among the economically active population, and it had the highest population growth. Population dynamics in Colombia have been affected by armed violence and changes in these dynamics are not uniform across the country, leading to important social, economic, and cultural consequences. This study is useful for decision-making and public policy making.

  18. Interventional C-arm tomosynthesis for vascular imaging: initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, David A.; Claus, Bernhard E. H.; Al Assad, Omar; Trousset, Yves; Riddell, Cyril; Avignon, Gregoire; Solomon, Stephen B.; Lai, Hao; Wang, Xin

    2015-03-01

    As percutaneous endovascular procedures address more complex and broader disease states, there is an increasing need for intra-procedure 3D vascular imaging. In this paper, we investigate C-Arm 2-axis tomosynthesis ("Tomo") as an alternative to C-Arm Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) for workflow situations in which the CBCT acquisition may be inconvenient or prohibited. We report on our experience in performing tomosynthesis acquisitions with a digital angiographic imaging system (GE Healthcare Innova 4100 Angiographic Imaging System, Milwaukee, WI). During a tomo acquisition the detector and tube each orbit on a plane above and below the table respectively. The tomo orbit may be circular or elliptical, and the tomographic half-angle in our studies varied from approximately 16 to 28 degrees as a function of orbit period. The trajectory, geometric calibration, and gantry performance are presented. We overview a multi-resolution iterative reconstruction employing compressed sensing techniques to mitigate artifacts associated with incomplete data reconstructions. In this work, we focus on the reconstruction of small high contrast objects such as iodinated vasculature and interventional devices. We evaluate the overall performance of the acquisition and reconstruction through phantom acquisitions and a swine study. Both tomo and comparable CBCT acquisitions were performed during the swine study thereby enabling the use of CBCT as a reference in the evaluation of tomo vascular imaging. We close with a discussion of potential clinical applications for tomo, reflecting on the imaging and workflow results achieved.

  19. Tactile spatial resolution in blind braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, R W; Hamilton, R H; Kauffman, T; Keenan, J P; Pascual-Leone, A

    2000-06-27

    To determine if blind people have heightened tactile spatial acuity. Recently, studies using magnetic source imaging and somatosensory evoked potentials have shown that the cortical representation of the reading fingers of blind Braille readers is expanded compared to that of fingers of sighted subjects. Furthermore, the visual cortex is activated during certain tactile tasks in blind subjects but not sighted subjects. The authors hypothesized that the expanded cortical representation of fingers used in Braille reading may reflect an enhanced fidelity in the neural transmission of spatial details of a stimulus. If so, the quantitative limit of spatial acuity would be superior in blind people. The authors employed a grating orientation discrimination task in which threshold performance is accounted for by the spatial resolution limits of the neural image evoked by a stimulus. The authors quantified the psychophysical limits of spatial acuity at the middle and index fingers of 15 blind Braille readers and 15 sighted control subjects. The mean grating orientation threshold was significantly (p = 0.03) lower in the blind group (1.04 mm) compared to the sighted group (1.46 mm). The self-reported dominant reading finger in blind subjects had a mean grating orientation threshold of 0.80 mm, which was significantly better than other fingers tested. Thresholds at non-Braille reading fingers in blind subjects averaged 1.12 mm, which were also superior to sighted subjects' performances. Superior tactile spatial acuity in blind Braille readers may represent an adaptive, behavioral correlate of cortical plasticity.

  20. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 290

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  1. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 293

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George; Archiable, Robert; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  2. Congenital color blindness in young Turkish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirik, Mehmet; Acaroglu, Golge; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2005-04-01

    We investigated a healthy population of men from different regions of Turkey for the presence of congenital red-green color blindness. Using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, 941 healthy men from the Turkish army were tested for congenital red-green color blindness. The prevalence of red-green color blindness was 7.33 +/- 0.98% (5.10% protans and 2.23% deutans). These ratios were higher than other reported samples from Mediterranean Europe. Higher percentages of color blindness were found in regions with a lower education level and more consanguineous marriages.

  3. Blindness and Insight in King Lear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳元玉

    2008-01-01

    This paper intends to explore how William Shakespeare illustrates the theme of blindness and insight in his great tragedy "King Lear".Four characters’ deeds and their fate are used as a case study to examine what blindness is,what insight is,and the relationship between the two.The writer finds that by depicting the characters’ deeds and their fate in a double plot,Shakespeare renders the folly of blindness,the transition from blindness to insight,and the use of reason and thought to understand the truth.

  4. Meeting the healthcare needs of transgender people within the armed forces: putting UK military policy into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, Dean; New, Chris; Coetzee, Rik; Bickerstaffe, Paul

    2016-12-01

    To explain how the healthcare needs of transgender personnel are met within the United Kingdom Armed Forces. It may be that when transgender people disclose their gender preference that they are at increased risk of social exclusion. The United Kingdom Armed Forces has an inclusive organisational policy for the recruitment and management of transgender personnel. This is a position paper about how the healthcare needs of transgender military personnel are met by the United Kingdom Armed Forces. United Kingdom Armed Forces policy was placed into context by reviewing current research, discussing medical terminology and describing the policy. This was followed by an account of how UK AF policy is applied in practice. Where armed forces had an inclusive policy for the management of transgender personnel, there seemed to be little cause for secrecy and zero tolerance of discrimination when compared to nations where this was not the case. Medical terminology has changed to reflect a more inclusive, less stigmatising use of language. The United Kingdom Armed Forces policy has been described as progressive and inclusive. The application of this policy in practice may be dependent upon strong leadership and training. The wider United Kingdom Armed Forces seems capable of adopting a pragmatic and flexible approach to meeting the healthcare needs of transgender personnel. The United Kingdom Armed Forces value diversity within their workforce and have a progressive, inclusive policy for the recruitment and management of transgender personnel. When supporting a transgender military person, healthcare professionals, civilian organisations and military line managers should consider referring to United Kingdom Armed Forces policy as early as possible. Other military and uniformed services may wish to examine the United Kingdom Armed Forces exemplar in order to consider the applicability within their own organisational setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Causes of blindness and career choice among pupils in a blind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    available eye care services Furthermore there is need for career talk in schools for the blind to ... career where their potential can be fully maximized. .... tropicamide 1% eye drops. .... Foster A, Gilbert C. Epidemiology of childhood blindness.

  6. CHARACTERIZING SPIRAL ARM AND INTERARM STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreckel, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Meidt, S. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Blanc, G. A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Groves, B. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Adamo, A. [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Hughes, A., E-mail: kreckel@mpia.de [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France)

    2016-08-20

    Interarm star formation contributes significantly to a galaxy’s star formation budget and provides an opportunity to study stellar birthplaces unperturbed by spiral arm dynamics. Using optical integral field spectroscopy of the nearby galaxy NGC 628 with VLT/MUSE, we construct H α maps including detailed corrections for dust extinction and stellar absorption to identify 391 H ii regions at 35 pc resolution over 12 kpc{sup 2}. Using tracers sensitive to the underlying gravitational potential, we associate H ii regions with either arm (271) or interarm (120) environments. Using our full spectral coverage of each region, we find that most physical properties (luminosity, size, metallicity, ionization parameter) of H ii regions are independent of environment. We calculate the fraction of H α luminosity due to the background of diffuse ionized gas (DIG) contaminating each H ii region, and find the DIG surface brightness to be higher within H ii regions than in the surroundings, and slightly higher within arm H ii regions. Use of the temperature-sensitive [S ii]/H α line ratio instead of the H α surface brightness to identify the boundaries of H ii regions does not change this result. Using the dust attenuation as a tracer of the gas, we find depletion times consistent with previous work (2 × 10{sup 9} yr) with no differences between the arm and interarm, but this is very sensitive to the DIG correction. Unlike molecular clouds, which can be dynamically affected by the galactic environment, we see fairly consistent properties of H ii regions in both arm and interarm environments. This suggests either a difference in star formation and feedback in arms or a decoupling of dense star-forming clumps from the more extended surrounding molecular gas.

  7. Two-Armed, Mobile, Sensate Research Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberger, J. F.; Roberts, W. Nelson; Ryan, David J.; Silverthorne, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The Anthropomorphic Robotic Testbed (ART) is an experimental prototype of a partly anthropomorphic, humanoid-size, mobile robot. The basic ART design concept provides for a combination of two-armed coordination, tactility, stereoscopic vision, mobility with navigation and avoidance of obstacles, and natural-language communication, so that the ART could emulate humans in many activities. The ART could be developed into a variety of highly capable robotic assistants for general or specific applications. There is especially great potential for the development of ART-based robots as substitutes for live-in health-care aides for home-bound persons who are aged, infirm, or physically handicapped; these robots could greatly reduce the cost of home health care and extend the term of independent living. The ART is a fully autonomous and untethered system. It includes a mobile base on which is mounted an extensible torso topped by a head, shoulders, and two arms. All subsystems of the ART are powered by a rechargeable, removable battery pack. The mobile base is a differentially- driven, nonholonomic vehicle capable of a speed >1 m/s and can handle a payload >100 kg. The base can be controlled manually, in forward/backward and/or simultaneous rotational motion, by use of a joystick. Alternatively, the motion of the base can be controlled autonomously by an onboard navigational computer. By retraction or extension of the torso, the head height of the ART can be adjusted from 5 ft (1.5 m) to 6 1/2 ft (2 m), so that the arms can reach either the floor or high shelves, or some ceilings. The arms are symmetrical. Each arm (including the wrist) has a total of six rotary axes like those of the human shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints. The arms are actuated by electric motors in combination with brakes and gas-spring assists on the shoulder and elbow joints. The arms are operated under closed-loop digital control. A receptacle for an end effector is mounted on the tip of the wrist and

  8. MPL-net at ARM Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Berkoff, T. A.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA MPL-net project goal is consistent data products of the vertical distribution of clouds and aerosol from globally distributed lidar observation sites. The four ARM micro pulse lidars are a basis of the network to consist of over twelve sites. The science objective is ground truth for global satellite retrievals and accurate vertical distribution information in combination with surface radiation measurements for aerosol and cloud models. The project involves improvement in instruments and data processing and cooperation with ARM and other partners.

  9. Neurobiology: motor control of flexible octopus arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbre, Germán; Fiorito, Graziano; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2005-02-10

    Animals with rigid skeletons can rely on several mechanisms to simplify motor control--for example, they have skeletal joints that reduce the number of variables and degrees of freedom that need to be controlled. Here we show that when the octopus uses one of its long and highly flexible arms to transfer an object from one place to another, it employs a vertebrate-like strategy, temporarily reconfiguring its arm into a stiffened, articulated, quasi-jointed structure. This indicates that an articulated limb may provide an optimal solution for achieving precise, point-to-point movements.

  10. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  11. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  12. Ship cabin leakage alarm based on ARM SCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liyan

    2018-03-01

    If there is a leakage in the cabin of a sailing ship, it is a major accident that threatens the personnel and property of the ship. If we can’t take timely measures, there will be a devastating disaster. In order to judge the leakage of the cabin, it is necessary to set up a leakage alarm system, so as to achieve the purpose of detecting and alarming the leakage of the cabin, and avoid the occurrence of accidents. This paper discusses the design of ship cabin leakage alarm system based on ARM SCM. In order to ensure the stability and precision of the product, the hardware design of the alarm system is carried out, such as circuit design, software design, the programming of SCM, the software programming of upper computer, etc. It is hoped that it can be of reference value to interested readers.

  13. Enhancing the Entertainment Experience of Blind and Low-Vision Theatregoers through Touch Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, J. P.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how universal design theory and the research available on museum-based touch tours can be used to develop a touch tour for blind and low-vision theatregoers. We discuss these theoretical and practical approaches with reference to data collected and experience gained from the creation and execution of a touch tour for…

  14. Childhood Fears among Children Who Are Blind: The Perspective of Teachers Who Are Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zboon, Eman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate childhood fears in children who are blind from the perspective of teachers who are blind. The study was conducted in Jordan. Forty-six teachers were interviewed. Results revealed that the main fear content in children who are blind includes fear of the unknown; environment-, transportation- and…

  15. 42 CFR 436.531 - Determination of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of blindness. 436.531 Section 436.531... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.531 Determination of blindness. In determining blindness... determine on behalf of the agency— (1) Whether the individual meets the definition of blindness; and (2...

  16. Technique improvement of thoracoabdominal CT scan for patients with arm-raising disability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhidong; Liu Yuanjian; Jiang Guoyin; Feng Fei; Wang Chenglin; Liu Pengcheng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore a new scanning technique to reduce and avoid image artifacts of thoracoabdominal CT and improve image quality for patients who cannot raise their arms. Methods: Sixty-one patients with arm-raising disability between March 2004 and May 2009 were enrolled in the study. Thirty-one cases before June 2007 were scanned with their arms beside their body (control group), 30 cases after June 2007 were scanned with their arms shifting to different imaging planes of the spine (study group), and another 30 patients who can raising their arms were taken as routine group. The images artifacts were blindly evaluated by 5-points scale (severe, less severe, moderate, minimum and no artifact) by 2 experienced CT technologists and one radiologist and compared between the three groups (X 2 test). CT values and its noise of the liver with or without artifact of the three groups were measured and analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: In the control group, 11 cases had severe, 15 cases had less severe, 5 cases had moderate. In the study group, 6 cases had moderate, 15 cases had minimum, 9 cases had no artifact. In the routine group, 8 cases minimum and 22 cases had no artifact. Image quality was significantly improved in the study group compared to the conventional group where X 2 =95.32 and P<0.01. CT value and the noise of the liver without artifact were (54.5 ± 3.0) HU and 10.7 ± 2.4 in the control group, (52.0 ± 3.5) HU and 10.7 ± 0.5 in the study group, (53.7 ± 3.1) HU and 9.9 ± 0.5 in the routine group, respectively. CT value and noise of the liver with artifact were (41.7 ± 8.4) HU and 17.9 ± 2.6 in control group, (53.1 ± 6.9) HU and 11.0 ± 0.7 in the study group, (54.1 ± 2.4) HU and 9.9 ± 0.5 in the routine group, respectively. The CT value and its noise variation with artifact were significantly higher in the control group than the study group and the control group, where F=36.352, 235.848, respectively and P<0.01. Conclusion: The image

  17. The inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference and risk of cardiovascular mortality: A meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Gao, Zhen; Chen, Fei; Xu, Haijun; Dong, Xiao; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    The inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference (SBPD) is recommended to be in relation to potential cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous studies yielded controversial results about the association between an inter-arm SBPD ≥ 10 mmHg or ≥15 mmHg and the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to investigate this association. We searched PubMed and Embase databases through December 31, 2014, and examined the references of retrieved articles to identify relevant cohort studies. We utilized Newcastle-Ottawa scale to assess the quality of included studies and calculated the summary risk estimates in a fixed/random-effect model. All data analyses were conducted using STATA version 11.0. A total of seven studies were identified. Compared with participants with an inter-arm SBPD arm SBPD ≥ 10 mmHg was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.3-1.93), and the pooled HR of cardiovascular mortality of participants with an inter-arm SBPD ≥ 15 mmHg versus those with an inter-arm SBPD arm SBPD may define a subpopulation at high risk of CVD events.

  18. Design considerations for an astronaut monorail system for large space structures and the structural characterization of its positioning arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Judith J.

    1992-08-01

    An astronaut monorail system (AMS) is presented as a vehicle to transport and position EVA astronauts along large space truss structures. The AMS is proposed specifically as an alternative to the crew and equipment transfer aid for Space Station Freedom. Design considerations for the AMS were discussed and a reference configuration was selected for the study. Equations were developed to characterize the stiffness and frequency behavior of the AMS positioning arm. Experimental data showed that these equations gave a fairly accurate representation of the stiffness and frequency behavior of the arm. A study was presented to show trends for the arm behavior based on varying parameters of the stiffness and frequency equations. An ergonomics study was conducted to provide boundary conditions for tolerable frequency and deflection to be used in developing a design concept for the positioning arm. The feasibility of the AMS positioning arm was examined using equations and working curves developed in this study. It was found that a positioning arm of a length to reach all interior points of the space station truss structure could not be designed to satisfy frequency and deflection constraints. By relaxing the design requirements and the ergonomic boundaries, an arm could be designed which would provide a stable work platform for the EVA astronaut and give him access to over 75 percent of the truss interior.

  19. Visual and Motor Recovery After "Cognitive Therapeutic Exercises" in Cortical Blindness: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Patre, Daniele; Van de Winckel, Ann; Panté, Franca; Rizzello, Carla; Zernitz, Marina; Mansour, Mariam; Zordan, Lara; Zeffiro, Thomas A; OʼConnor, Erin E; Bisson, Teresa; Lupi, Andrea; Perfetti, Carlo

    2017-07-01

    Spontaneous visual recovery is rare after cortical blindness. While visual rehabilitation may improve performance, no visual therapy has been widely adopted, as clinical outcomes are variable and rarely translate into improvements in activities of daily living (ADLs). We explored the potential value of a novel rehabilitation approach "cognitive therapeutic exercises" for cortical blindness. The subject of this case study was 48-year-old woman with cortical blindness and tetraplegia after cardiac arrest. Prior to the intervention, she was dependent in ADLs and poorly distinguished shapes and colors after 19 months of standard visual and motor rehabilitation. Computed tomographic images soon after symptom onset demonstrated acute infarcts in both occipital cortices. The subject underwent 8 months of intensive rehabilitation with "cognitive therapeutic exercises" consisting of discrimination exercises correlating sensory and visual information. Visual fields increased; object recognition improved; it became possible to watch television; voluntary arm movements improved in accuracy and smoothness; walking improved; and ADL independence and self-reliance increased. Subtraction of neuroimaging acquired before and after rehabilitation showed that focal glucose metabolism increases bilaterally in the occipital poles. This study demonstrates feasibility of "cognitive therapeutic exercises" in an individual with cortical blindness, who experienced impressive visual and sensorimotor recovery, with marked ADL improvement, more than 2 years after ischemic cortical damage.Video Abstract available for additional insights from the authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, available at: http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A173).

  20. Arms Control, Disarmament, and Peace Newsletters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Considers the research value of four types of newsletters on arms control, disarmament, and peace: direct-action, informational, scholarly, and single-issue. An annotated list of 58 newsletters includes those considered most significant of their type and recommended for library collections. (EM)

  1. STRUCTURED MOLECULAR GAS REVEALS GALACTIC SPIRAL ARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Tsuyoshi [Joint ALMA Office, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile); Hasegawa, Tetsuo [NAOJ Chile Observatory, Joaquin Montero 3000 Oficina 702, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0409 (Chile); Koda, Jin, E-mail: sawada.tsuyoshi@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We explore the development of structures in molecular gas in the Milky Way by applying the analysis of the brightness distribution function and the brightness distribution index (BDI) in the archival data from the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 Galactic Ring Survey. The BDI measures the fractional contribution of spatially confined bright molecular emission over faint emission extended over large areas. This relative quantity is largely independent of the amount of molecular gas and of any conventional, pre-conceived structures, such as cores, clumps, or giant molecular clouds. The structured molecular gas traced by higher BDI is located continuously along the spiral arms in the Milky Way in the longitude-velocity diagram. This clearly indicates that molecular gas changes its structure as it flows through the spiral arms. Although the high-BDI gas generally coincides with H II regions, there is also some high-BDI gas with no/little signature of ongoing star formation. These results support a possible evolutionary sequence in which unstructured, diffuse gas transforms itself into a structured state on encountering the spiral arms, followed by star formation and an eventual return to the unstructured state after the spiral arm passage.

  2. Colleges Grapple with the "Behavioral Broken Arm"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    After the fatal shootings at Virginia Tech last April, colleges went shopping for hardware. They bought sirens, mass-messaging systems, surveillance cameras, and door locks. Some colleges armed their police departments for the first time. Others added assault rifles to their arsenals. "Active shooter" drills happened everywhere. As administrators…

  3. Neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Chih; Lin, Hsin-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Yo; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation system that provides assistance throughout the complete bone drilling process. The system comprised neurosurgical robotic arm navigation combining robotic and surgical navigation, 3D medical imaging based surgical planning that could identify lesion location and plan the surgical path on 3D images, and automatic bone drilling control that would stop drilling when the bone was to be drilled-through. Three kinds of experiment were designed. The average positioning error deduced from 3D images of the robotic arm was 0.502 ± 0.069 mm. The correlation between automatically and manually planned paths was 0.975. The average distance error between automatically planned paths and risky zones was 0.279 ± 0.401 mm. The drilling auto-stopping algorithm had 0.00% unstopped cases (26.32% in control group 1) and 70.53% non-drilled-through cases (8.42% and 4.21% in control groups 1 and 2). The system may be useful for neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment explores new hardware and software platforms that, in the future, may be more suited to its data intensive workloads. One such alternative hardware platform is the ARM architecture, which is designed to be extremely power efficient and is found in most smartphones and tablets. CERN openlab recently installed a small cluster of ARM 64-bit evaluation prototype servers. Each server is based on a single-socket ARM 64-bit system on a chip, with 32 Cortex-A57 cores. In total, each server has 128 GB RAM connected with four fast memory channels. This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto these new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the "external" packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adj...

  5. 49 CFR 236.702 - Arm, semaphore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arm, semaphore. 236.702 Section 236.702 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., semaphore. The part of a semaphore signal displaying an aspect. It consists of a blade fastened to a...

  6. 'Great power' intervention in African armed conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2015-01-01

    This paper asks why the United States (US), China and the European Union (EU) have intervened in a number of armed conflicts in Africa in the twenty-first century. Scrutiny and comparison of the motivations and interests of the three non-African actors in intervening in African crises are assumed...

  7. Endpoints of arm movements to visual targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dobbelsteen, John; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2001-01-01

    Reaching out for objects with an unseen arm involves using both visual and kinesthetic information. Neither visual nor kinesthetic information is perfect. Each is subject to both constant and variable errors. To evaluate how such errors influence performance in natural goal-directed movements, we

  8. Light duty utility arm software requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the software requirements for the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. It is intended to be used to guide the design of the application software, to be a basis for assessing the application software design, and to establish what is to be tested in the finished application software product

  9. Light Duty Utility Arm Software Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes how validation testing of the software will be implemented for the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm System (LDUA). The purpose of LDUA software validation testing is to demonstrate and document that the LDUA software meets its software requirements specification

  10. Instructional Technology in the Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, Howard B., Jr.

    Broad areas of communications media used in technical training in specific occupational skills within the armed forces are examined in the first part of this report. These areas include: traditional audiovisual media, television, the techniques of programed instruction and instructional systems development, and the use of computers. In the second…

  11. Light duty utility arm startup plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    This plan details the methods and procedures necessary to ensure a safe transition in the operation of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The steps identified here outline the work scope and identify responsibilities to complete startup, and turnover of the LDUA to Characterization Project Operations (CPO)

  12. Parallelogram mechanisms for mine manipulator arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoncheva, N

    1983-01-01

    Kinematic equations are written for the mechanism of a manipulator arm which is used as the operational element of a basic machine and is shaped like a parallelogram. The drive is accomplished using a hydraulic cylinder. A transfer functions method is used to acquire kinematic equations of the final shifts and equations for determining accelerations.

  13. The lure of disarmament and arms reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, H.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear disarmament and arms reduction do not have the same aims. Confusing their definitions means misunderstanding the logic which currently drives the power calculations of yesterday's Great Powers, and their associated approaches to the new strategic actor: China. The author knows the subject well from personal experience. (author)

  14. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  15. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    optimisme og misinformation. RCF bygger på teorier, som vandt Daniel Kahneman Nobelprisen i økonomi i 2002. RCF estimerer budgettet for et givet projekt på grundlag af de faktiske udfald for budgetterne i en reference-klasse af projekter. RCF udføres i tre trin: 1. Identifikation af en relevant reference...

  16. LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Maerker, R.E.; Stallmann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The metallurgical irradiation experiment at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor Poolside Facility (ORR-PSF) was designed as a benchmark to test the accuracy of radiation embrittlement predictions in the pressure vessel wall of light water reactors on the basis of results from surveillance capsules. The PSF metallurgical Blind Test is concerned with the simulated surveillance capsule (SSC) and the simulated pressure vessel capsule (SPVC). The data from the ORR-PSF benchmark experiment are the basis for comparison with the predictions made by participants of the metallurgical ''Blind Test''. The Blind Test required the participants to predict the embrittlement of the irradiated specimen based only on dosimetry and metallurgical data from the SSC1 capsule. This exercise included both the prediction of damage fluence and the prediction of embrittlement based on the predicted fluence. A variety of prediction methodologies was used by the participants. No glaring biases or other deficiencies were found, but neither were any of the methods clearly superior to the others. Closer analysis shows a rather complex and poorly understood relation between fluence and material damage. Many prediction formulas can give an adequate approximation, but further improvement of the prediction methodology is unlikely at this time given the many unknown factors. Instead, attention should be focused on determining realistic uncertainties for the predicted material changes. The Blind Test comparisons provide some clues for the size of these uncertainties. In particular, higher uncertainties must be assigned to materials whose chemical composition lies outside the data set for which the prediction formula was obtained. 16 references, 14 figures, 5 tables

  17. 33 CFR 117.861 - Blind Slough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blind Slough. 117.861 Section 117.861 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.861 Blind Slough. The draws of the Portland and...

  18. Mentoring Transition-Age Youth with Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a mentoring project designed for transition-age youth (ages 16-26) who are persons with legal blindness. Youth were matched with adult mentors who were also persons with blindness but who have achieved academic and career success. Results demonstrate that youth who participated in the project for 2 years had significant…

  19. Blindness and visual impairment in opera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Pinar; Ritch, Robert; O'Dwyer, John

    2018-01-01

    The performing arts mirror the human condition. This study sought to analyze the reasons for inclusion of visually impaired characters in opera, the cause of the blindness or near blindness, and the dramatic purpose of the blindness in the storyline. We reviewed operas from the 18 th century to 2010 and included all characters with ocular problems. We classified the cause of each character's ocular problem (organic, nonorganic, and other) in relation to the thematic setting of the opera: biblical and mythical, blind beggars or blind musicians, historical (real or fictional characters), and contemporary or futuristic. Cases of blindness in 55 characters (2 as a choir) from 38 operas were detected over 3 centuries of repertoire: 11 had trauma-related visual impairment, 5 had congenital blindness, 18 had visual impairment of unknown cause, 9 had psychogenic or malingering blindness, and 12 were symbolic or miracle-related. One opera featured an ophthalmologist curing a patient. The research illustrates that visual impairment was frequently used as an artistic device to enhance the intent and situate an opera in its time.

  20. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. What do my eyes do when I’m sleeping? Click to Watch What does it mean to be nearsighted or farsighted? Click to Watch Do fish have eyelids? Click to Watch Why don’t all animal eyes look the same? Click to Watch Why ...

  1. A Taxonomy for Mannerisms of Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichel, Valerie J.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation involving 24 blind children (2-11 years old) set out to develop and validate a coding procedure which employed a set of 34 descriptors with their corresponding definitions. The use of the taxonomy enabled a detailed, systematic study of manneristic behavior in blind children. (Author/SBH)

  2. 45 CFR 233.70 - Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...). Such physician is responsible for making the agency's decision that the applicant or recipient does or... XVI of the Social Security Act must: (1) Contain a definition of blindness in terms of ophthalmic measurement. The following definition is recommended: An individual is considered blind if he has central...

  3. Tackling the high burden of blindness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... care delivery, and tackling the five major eye conditions that contribute to most blindness could reduce the current burden of blindness. This would open the window for addressing glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and macula degeneration which are the new emerging global consequences of non-communicable diseases.

  4. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” ... DeMott, Media Relations Kathryn.DeMott@nih.gov NEI Office of Communications ( ...

  5. Deaf-Blind Perspectives, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Peggy, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These three issues of "Deaf-Blind Perspectives" feature the following articles: (1) "A Group for Students with Usher Syndrome in South Louisiana" (Faye Melancon); (2) "Simply Emily," which discusses a budding friendship between a girl with deaf-blindness and a peer; (3) "Intervener Update" (Peggy Malloy and…

  6. Blindness in designing intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    New investigations of the foundations of artificial intelligence are challenging the hypothesis that problem solving is the cornerstone of intelligence. New distinctions among three domains of concern for humans--description, action, and commitment--have revealed that the design process for programmable machines, such as expert systems, is based on descriptions of actions and induces blindness to nonanalytic action and commitment. Design processes focusing in the domain of description are likely to yield programs like burearcracies: rigid, obtuse, impersonal, and unable to adapt to changing circumstances. Systems that learn from their past actions, and systems that organize information for interpretation by human experts, are more likely to be successful in areas where expert systems have failed.

  7. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  8. Convolutive Blind Source Separation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Larsen, Jan; Kjems, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, much attention has been given to the separation of mixed sources, in particular for the blind case where both the sources and the mixing process are unknown and only recordings of the mixtures are available. In several situations it is desirable to recover all sources from...... the recorded mixtures, or at least to segregate a particular source. Furthermore, it may be useful to identify the mixing process itself to reveal information about the physical mixing system. In some simple mixing models each recording consists of a sum of differently weighted source signals. However, in many...... real-world applications, such as in acoustics, the mixing process is more complex. In such systems, the mixtures are weighted and delayed, and each source contributes to the sum with multiple delays corresponding to the multiple paths by which an acoustic signal propagates to a microphone...

  9. Unconditionally verifiable blind quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Joseph F.; Kashefi, Elham

    2017-07-01

    Blind quantum computing (BQC) allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for them such that the client's input, output, and computation remain private. A desirable property for any BQC protocol is verification, whereby the client can verify with high probability whether the server has followed the instructions of the protocol or if there has been some deviation resulting in a corrupted output state. A verifiable BQC protocol can be viewed as an interactive proof system leading to consequences for complexity theory. We previously proposed [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, Atlanta, 2009 (IEEE, Piscataway, 2009), p. 517] a universal and unconditionally secure BQC scheme where the client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits in separable states randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. In this paper we extend that protocol with additional functionality allowing blind computational basis measurements, which we use to construct another verifiable BQC protocol based on a different class of resource states. We rigorously prove that the probability of failing to detect an incorrect output is exponentially small in a security parameter, while resource overhead remains polynomial in this parameter. This resource state allows entangling gates to be performed between arbitrary pairs of logical qubits with only constant overhead. This is a significant improvement on the original scheme, which required that all computations to be performed must first be put into a nearest-neighbor form, incurring linear overhead in the number of qubits. Such an improvement has important consequences for efficiency and fault-tolerance thresholds.

  10. Allocentric and contra-aligned spatial representations of a town environment in blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Silvia; Schmidt, Susanna; Tinti, Carla; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2017-10-01

    Evidence concerning the representation of space by blind individuals is still unclear, as sometimes blind people behave like sighted people do, while other times they present difficulties. A better understanding of blind people's difficulties, especially with reference to the strategies used to form the representation of the environment, may help to enhance knowledge of the consequences of the absence of vision. The present study examined the representation of the locations of landmarks of a real town by using pointing tasks that entailed either allocentric points of reference with mental rotations of different degrees, or contra-aligned representations. Results showed that, in general, people met difficulties when they had to point from a different perspective to aligned landmarks or from the original perspective to contra-aligned landmarks, but this difficulty was particularly evident for the blind. The examination of the strategies adopted to perform the tasks showed that only a small group of blind participants used a survey strategy and that this group had a better performance with respect to people who adopted route or verbal strategies. Implications for the comprehension of the consequences on spatial cognition of the absence of visual experience are discussed, focusing in particular on conceivable interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  12. Subcortical functional reorganization due to early blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coullon, Gaelle S L; Jiang, Fang; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E; Bridge, Holly

    2015-04-01

    Lack of visual input early in life results in occipital cortical responses to auditory and tactile stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether cross-modal plasticity also occurs in subcortical pathways. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, auditory responses were compared across individuals with congenital anophthalmia (absence of eyes), those with early onset (in the first few years of life) blindness, and normally sighted individuals. We find that the superior colliculus, a "visual" subcortical structure, is recruited by the auditory system in congenital and early onset blindness. Additionally, auditory subcortical responses to monaural stimuli were altered as a result of blindness. Specifically, responses in the auditory thalamus were equally strong to contralateral and ipsilateral stimulation in both groups of blind subjects, whereas sighted controls showed stronger responses to contralateral stimulation. These findings suggest that early blindness results in substantial reorganization of subcortical auditory responses. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Preserved sleep microstructure in blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, Sébrina; Christensen, Julie A.E.; Jennum, Poul

    2018-01-01

    , as light is the primary zeitgeber of the master biological clock found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a greater number of sleep disturbances is often reported in blind individuals. Here, we examined various electroencephalographic microstructural components of sleep, both...... during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep, between blind individuals, including both of early and late onset, and normal-sighted controls. During wakefulness, occipital alpha oscillations were lower, or absent in blind individuals. During sleep, differences were observed across...... electrode derivations between the early and late blind samples, which may reflect altered cortical networking in early blindness. Despite these differences in power spectra density, the electroencephalography microstructure of sleep, including sleep spindles, slow wave activity, and sawtooth waves, remained...

  14. In blind pursuit of racial equality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, Evan P; Pauker, Kristin; Sommers, Samuel R; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-11-01

    Despite receiving little empirical assessment, the color-blind approach to managing diversity has become a leading institutional strategy for promoting racial equality, across domains and scales of practice. We gauged the utility of color blindness as a means to eliminating future racial inequity--its central objective--by assessing its impact on a sample of elementary-school students. Results demonstrated that students exposed to a color-blind mind-set, as opposed to a value-diversity mind-set, were actually less likely both to detect overt instances of racial discrimination and to describe such events in a manner that would prompt intervention by certified teachers. Institutional messages of color blindness may therefore artificially depress formal reporting of racial injustice. Color-blind messages may thus appear to function effectively on the surface even as they allow explicit forms of bias to persist.

  15. User-centered Technologies For Blind Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review, summarize, and illustrate research work involving four audio-based games created within a user-centered design methodology through successive usability tasks and evaluations. These games were designed by considering the mental model of blind children and their styles of interaction to perceive and process data and information. The goal of these games was to enhance the cognitive development of spatial structures, memory, haptic perception, mathematical skills, navigation and orientation, and problem solving of blind children. Findings indicate significant improvements in learning and cognition from using audio-based tools specially tailored for the blind. That is, technologies for blind children, carefully tailored through user-centered design approaches, can make a significant contribution to cognitive development of these children. This paper contributes new insight into the design and implementation of audio-based virtual environments to facilitate learning and cognition in blind children.

  16. European Union's Arms Control Regime and Arms Exports to China: Background and Legal Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F; Papademetriou, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    In recent months, discussions have been held within the European Union (EU) on the question of lifting the embargo on arms exports to the People's Republic of China that was imposed on China on June 27, 1989...

  17. Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Blind or Visually Impaired Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Category All ... Territory Other (International) Organization Name Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Browse All ...

  18. Uranium reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  19. Prevalence and causes of severe visual impairment and blindness among children in the lorestan province of iran, using the key informant method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Hessom; Kuper, Hannah; Rezvan, Farhad; Amelie, Khatere; Mahboobi-Pur, Hassan; Oladi, Mohammad Reza; Muhit, Mohammad; Hashemi, Hassan

    2010-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of severe visual impairment and blindness among children in Lorestan province of Iran, and to assess the feasibility of the Key Informant Method in this setting. Potential cases were identified using the Key Informant Method, in 3 counties of Lorestan province during June through August 2008, and referred for examination. Causes of severe visual impairment/blindness were determined and categorized using standard World Health Organization methods. Of 123 children referred for examination, 27 children were confirmed to have severe visual impairment/blindness or blindness. The median age was11 years (interquartile range 6-13), and 59% were girls. After adjusting for non-attenders, the estimated prevalence of severe visual impairment/blindness was 0.04% (0.03-0.05). The main site of abnormality was retina (44%), followed by disorders of the whole eye (33%). The majority of causes had a hereditary etiology (70%), which was associated with a family history of blindness (P = 0.002). Potentially avoidable causes of severe visual impairment/blindness were found in 14 children (52%). Almost all children with severe visual impairment/blindness had a history of parental consanguinity (93%). Our findings suggest a moderate prevalence of childhood blindness in the Lorestan province of Iran, a high proportion of which may be avoidable, given improved access to ophthalmic and genetic counselling services in rural areas. The Key Informant Method is feasible in Iran; future research is discussed.

  20. How does a planet excite multiple spiral arms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2018-01-01

    Protoplanetary disk simulations show that a single planet excites multiple spiral arms in the background disk, potentially supported by the multi-armed spirals revealed with recent high-resolution observations in some disks. The existence of multiple spiral arms is of importance in many aspects. It is empirically found that the arm-to-arm separation increases as a function of the planetary mass, so one can use the morphology of observed spiral arms to infer the mass of unseen planets. In addition, a spiral arm opens a radial gap as it steepens into a shock, so when a planet excites multiple spiral arms it can open multiple gaps in the disk. Despite the important implications, however, the formation mechanism of multiple spiral arms has not been fully understood by far.In this talk, we explain how a planet excites multiple spiral arms. The gravitational potential of a planet can be decomposed into a Fourier series, a sum of individual azimuthal modes having different azimuthal wavenumbers. Using a linear wave theory, we first demonstrate that appropriate sets of Fourier decomposed waves can be in phase, raising a possibility that constructive interference among the waves can produce coherent structures - spiral arms. More than one spiral arm can form since such constructive interference can occur at different positions in the disk for different sets of waves. We then verify this hypothesis using a suite of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Finally, we present non-linear behavior in the formation of multiple spiral arms.

  1. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  2. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  3. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  4. Neptunium: a bibliographic reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, R.E.

    1979-06-01

    A comprehensive bibliograhy of the literature on the element neptunium published prior to January 1976 is presented. A short abstract is given for each listed reference, with a few exceptions. The references are divided into sections categorized as General, Man-Made Sources (Reactors), Man-Made Sources (Fuel Reprocessing), Chemistry (Solubility), Chemistry (Compounds), Chemistry (Isotopes), Analyses (Instrumental), Analyses (Chemical), Chemical (Animal), Biological (Effects), Biological (Animal-Metabolism-Retention), Biological (Air Movement), Biological (Human Inhalation), Measurement, and Dosimetry. The bibliography contains author and keyword indexes and was compiled to serve as a quick reference source for neptunium-related work. 184 citations

  5. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  6. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  7. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  8. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  9. Blind Source Parameters for Performance Evaluation of Despeckling Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagashettappa Biradar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The speckle noise is inherent to transthoracic echocardiographic images. A standard noise-free reference echocardiographic image does not exist. The evaluation of filters based on the traditional parameters such as peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean square error, and structural similarity index may not reflect the true filter performance on echocardiographic images. Therefore, the performance of despeckling can be evaluated using blind assessment metrics like the speckle suppression index, speckle suppression and mean preservation index (SMPI, and beta metric. The need for noise-free reference image is overcome using these three parameters. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of eleven types of despeckling filters for echocardiographic images in terms of blind and traditional performance parameters along with clinical validation. The noise is effectively suppressed using the logarithmic neighborhood shrinkage (NeighShrink embedded with Stein’s unbiased risk estimation (SURE. The SMPI is three times more effective compared to the wavelet based generalized likelihood estimation approach. The quantitative evaluation and clinical validation reveal that the filters such as the nonlocal mean, posterior sampling based Bayesian estimation, hybrid median, and probabilistic patch based filters are acceptable whereas median, anisotropic diffusion, fuzzy, and Ripplet nonlinear approximation filters have limited applications for echocardiographic images.

  10. Blind Source Parameters for Performance Evaluation of Despeckling Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, Nagashettappa; Dewal, M L; Rohit, ManojKumar; Gowre, Sanjaykumar; Gundge, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    The speckle noise is inherent to transthoracic echocardiographic images. A standard noise-free reference echocardiographic image does not exist. The evaluation of filters based on the traditional parameters such as peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean square error, and structural similarity index may not reflect the true filter performance on echocardiographic images. Therefore, the performance of despeckling can be evaluated using blind assessment metrics like the speckle suppression index, speckle suppression and mean preservation index (SMPI), and beta metric. The need for noise-free reference image is overcome using these three parameters. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of eleven types of despeckling filters for echocardiographic images in terms of blind and traditional performance parameters along with clinical validation. The noise is effectively suppressed using the logarithmic neighborhood shrinkage (NeighShrink) embedded with Stein's unbiased risk estimation (SURE). The SMPI is three times more effective compared to the wavelet based generalized likelihood estimation approach. The quantitative evaluation and clinical validation reveal that the filters such as the nonlocal mean, posterior sampling based Bayesian estimation, hybrid median, and probabilistic patch based filters are acceptable whereas median, anisotropic diffusion, fuzzy, and Ripplet nonlinear approximation filters have limited applications for echocardiographic images.

  11. Greek mythology: the eye, ophthalmology, eye disease, and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompoukis, Constantinos; Kourkoutas, Dimitrios

    2007-06-01

    In distant eras, mythology was a form of expression used by many peoples. A study of the Greek myths reveals concealed medical knowledge, in many cases relating to the eye. An analysis was made of the ancient Greek texts for mythological references relating to an understanding of vision, visual abilities, the eye, its congenital and acquired abnormalities, blindness, and eye injuries and their treatment. The Homeric epics contain anatomical descriptions of the eyes and the orbits, and an elementary knowledge of physiology is also apparent. The concept of the visual field can be seen in the myth of Argos Panoptes. Many myths describe external eye disease ("knyzosis"), visual disorders (amaurosis), and cases of blinding that, depending on the story, are ascribed to various causes. In addition, ocular motility abnormalities, congenital anomalies (cyclopia), injuries, and special treatments, such as the "licking" method, are mentioned. The study of mythological references to the eye reveals reliable medical observations of the ancient Greeks, which are concealed within the myths.

  12. On the functional order of binocular rivalry and blind spot filling-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Cheng S; Brascamp, Jan W; Liu, Taosheng

    2017-07-01

    Binocular rivalry is an important phenomenon for understanding the mechanisms of visual awareness. Here we assessed the functional locus of binocular rivalry relative to blind spot filling-in, which is thought to transpire in V1, thus providing a reference point for assessing the locus of rivalry. We conducted two experiments to explore the functional order of binocular rivalry and blind spot filling-in. Experiment 1 examined if the information filled-in at the blind spot can engage in rivalry with a physical stimulus at the corresponding location in the fellow eye. Participants' perceptual reports showed no difference between this condition and a condition where filling-in was precluded by presenting the same stimuli away from the blind spot, suggesting that the rivalry process is not influenced by any filling-in that might occur. In Experiment 2, we presented the fellow eye's stimulus directly in rivalry with the 'inducer' stimulus that surrounds the blind spot, and compared it with two control conditions away from the blind spot: one involving a ring physically identical to the inducer, and one involving a disc that resembled the filled-in percept. Perceptual reports in the blind spot condition resembled those in the 'ring' condition, more than those in the latter, 'disc' condition, indicating that a perceptually suppressed inducer does not engender filling-in. Thus, our behavioral data suggest binocular rivalry functionally precedes blind spot filling-in. We conjecture that the neural substrate of binocular rivalry suppression includes processing stages at or before V1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phase-dependent organization of postural adjustments associated with arm movements while walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashner, L M; Forssberg, H

    1986-06-01

    This study examines the interactions between anteroposterior postural responses and the control of walking in human subjects. In the experimental paradigm, subjects walked upon a treadmill, gripping a rigid handle with one hand. Postural responses at different phases of stepping were elicited by rapid arm pulls or pushes against the handle. During arm movements, EMG's recorded the activity of representative arm, ankle, and thigh segment muscles. Strain gauges in the handle measured the force of the arm movement. A Selspot II system measured kinematics of the stepping movements. The duration of support and swing phases were marked by heel and toe switches in the soles of the subjects' shoes. In the first experiment, subjects were instructed to pull on the handle at their own pace. In these trials all subjects preferred to initiate pulls near heel strikes. Next, when instructed to pull as rapidly as possible in response to tone stimuli, reaction times were similar for all phases of the step cycle. Leg muscle responses associated with arm pulls and pushes, referred to as "postural activations," were directionally specific and preceded arm muscle activity. The temporal order and spatial distribution of postural activations in the muscles of the support leg were similar when arm pull movements occurred while the subject was standing in place and after heel strike while walking. Activations began in the ankle and radiated proximally to the thigh and then the arm. Activations of swing leg muscles were also directionally specific and involved flexion and forward or backward thrust of the limb. When arm movements were initiated during transitions from support by one leg to the other, patterns of postural activations were altered. Alterations usually occurred 10-20 ms before hell strikes and involved changes in the timing and sometimes the spatial structure of postural activations. Postural activation patterns are similar during in-place standing and during the support phase

  14. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of chlorhexidine prophylaxis for 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis with nonblinded randomized comparison to oral cooling (cryotherapy) in gastrointestinal malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, T.; Bork, E.; Damstrup, L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose was to evaluate prevention of oral mucositis (OM) using chlorhexidine compared with placebo and with oral cooling (cryotherapy) during fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. METHODS: Patients with previously untreated GI cancer receiving...... bolus 5-FU/leucovorin chemotherapy were randomized to chlorhexidine mouthrinse 3 times a day for 3 weeks (Arm A), double-blind placebo (normal saline) with the same dose and frequency (Arm B), or cryotherapy with crushed ice 45 minutes during chemotherapy (Arm C). Patients self-reported on severity (CTC...... (33%) than in A (13%, Pcryotherapy. The latter is easy and inexpensive but has...

  15. Optimal primitive reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, David

    2011-01-01

    We consider the smallest possible directional reference frames allowed and determine the best one can ever do in preserving quantum information in various scenarios. We find that for the preservation of a single spin state, two orthogonal spins are optimal primitive reference frames; and in a product state, they do approximately 22% as well as an infinite-sized classical frame. By adding a small amount of entanglement to the reference frame, this can be raised to 2(2/3) 5 =26%. Under the different criterion of entanglement preservation, a very similar optimal reference frame is found; however, this time it is for spins aligned at an optimal angle of 87 deg. In this case 24% of the negativity is preserved. The classical limit is considered numerically, and indicates under the criterion of entanglement preservation, that 90 deg. is selected out nonmonotonically, with a peak optimal angle of 96.5 deg. for L=3 spins.

  16. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  17. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  18. Python essential reference

    CERN Document Server

    Beazley, David M

    2009-01-01

    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  19. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  20. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  1. Early visual deprivation prompts the use of body-centered frames of reference for auditory localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercillo, Tiziana; Tonelli, Alessia; Gori, Monica

    2018-01-01

    The effects of early visual deprivation on auditory spatial processing are controversial. Results from recent psychophysical studies show that people who were born blind have a spatial impairment in localizing sound sources within specific auditory settings, while previous psychophysical studies revealed enhanced auditory spatial abilities in early blind compared to sighted individuals. An explanation of why an auditory spatial deficit is sometimes observed within blind populations and its task-dependency remains to be clarified. We investigated auditory spatial perception in early blind adults and demonstrated that the deficit derives from blind individual's reduced ability to remap sound locations using an external frame of reference. We found that performance in blind population was severely impaired when they were required to localize brief auditory stimuli with respect to external acoustic landmarks (external reference frame) or when they had to reproduce the spatial distance between two sounds. However, they performed similarly to sighted controls when had to localize sounds with respect to their own hand (body-centered reference frame), or to judge the distances of sounds from their finger. These results suggest that early visual deprivation and the lack of visual contextual cues during the critical period induce a preference for body-centered over external spatial auditory representations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  3. Clinical effects of Portulaca oleracea seeds on dyslipidemia in obese adolescents: a triple-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Kelishadi, Roya; Jelokhanian, Hadi; Asgary, Sedigheh; Ghannadi, Alireza; Badri, Shirinsadat

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health concern worldwide while the current epidemic may be secondary to over consumption of high-fat, energy-rich foods. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) has been traditionally used in medicine for several antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. In this study the anti-dyslipidemic effects of Poleracea was evaluated in obese adolescents. In this triple-blinded randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial which was done from July 2011 to June 2012, obese adolescent patients whom were referred to the Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute (Iran) were randomly allocated to the two arms of cases and controls. The cases group was asked to take one capsule containing powdered P. oleracea seeds (500 milligrams) two times a day for one month, and the controls group were asked to take identical but placebo (lactose) capsules in the same way. Biochemical parameters including 12-hours fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were measured before the initiation and after the completion of the study protocol. Total cholesterol, LDL-C, and TG showed statistically significant changes over time (one month) in the P. oleracea group (p < 0.05). However, between-group analysis using general linear model (multivariate) test revealed that the differences in the mentioned parameters between two study groups were statistically significant just for LDL-C and TG, while others did not differ significantly. P. oleracea L. may have positive effects on serum lipids profile which may be attributed to its polyphenolic and antioxidant compounds. This herbal drug seems to be well-tolerated in adolescent population as well. Further studies are recommended.

  4. Rosoboroneksport: Arms Sales and the Structure of Russian Defense Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blank, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    .... Arms sales thus have become the main source of its revenue until the present and will play a key role in Russia's ongoing attempt to regenerate its armed forces while winning friends and influence abroad...

  5. Feasibility Analysis of an All Volunteer Armed Force in Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alanc, Ozgun U

    2007-01-01

    .... Accordingly, this project report provides a Draft versus All Volunteer Forces (AVF) analysis for the Turkish Armed Forces, by evaluating the feasibility and the desirability of an AVF for the Turkish Armed Forces...

  6. 77 FR 42707 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-35] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... Force (DAY) [[Page 42709

  7. Limited consensus around ARM information protection practices1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATUU, Shadrack

    surrounding Information Protection (IP) has been ... compares IP and ARM information protection through .... decision-making methodology used to help ... and differing requirements of institutions into account. ARM literature is prescriptive with.

  8. ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) Solar Radiation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) was conducted at the Department of Energy's ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility between September 22, 1995...

  9. Comparability of reference values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Stoeppler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Harmonization of certified values in Reference Materials (RMs) can be carried out by applying nuclear analytical techniques to RMs of various matrix types and concentration levels. Although RMs generally should not be used as primary standards the cross evaluation of concentrations in RMs leads to better compatibility of reference values and thus to a greater agreement between analytical results from different laboratories using these RMs for instrument calibration and quality assurance. (orig.)

  10. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  11. 2002 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  12. Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) for Monitoring of Treatment of Tendinopathies: A Double-blinded, Longitudinal Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirrichs, Timm; Quack, Valentin; Gatz, Matthias; Tingart, Markus; Rath, Björn; Betsch, Marcel; Kuhl, Christiane K; Schrading, Simone

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy with which shear wave elastography (SWE) can be used to monitor response to treatment of tendinopathies, and to compare it to conventional ultrasound (US)-imaging methods (B-mode US (B-US) and power Doppler US (PD-US)). A prospective Institutional Review Board-approved longitudinal study on 35 patients with 47 symptomatic tendons (17 Achilles-, 15 patellar-, and 15 humeral-epicondylar) who underwent standardized multimodal US and standardized clinical assessment before and after 6 months of treatment (tailored stretching exercise, sport break, and local Polidocanol) was carried out. All US studies were performed by radiologists blinded to the clinical symptoms on both tendon sides to avoid biased interpretations, by B-US, PD-US, and SWE, conducted in the same order, using a high-resolution linear 15 MHz probe (Aixplorer). Orthopedic surgeons who were in turn blinded to US imaging results used established orthopedic scores (Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment questionnaire for Achilles, Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment questionnaire for patellar tendons, and Disability Arm Shoulder Hand scoring system) to rate presence, degree, and possible resolution of symptoms. We analyzed the diagnostic accuracy with which the different US imaging methods were able to detect symptomatic tendons at baseline as well as treatment effects, with orthopedic scores serving as reference standard. B-US, PD-US, and SWE detected symptomatic tendons with a sensitivity of 66% (31 of 47), 72% (34 of 47), and 87.5% (41 of 47), respectively. Positive predictive value was 0.67 for B-US, 0.87 for PD-US, and 1 for SWE. After treatment, clinical scores improved in 68% (32 of 47) of tendons. Treatment effects were observable by B-US, PD-US, and SWE with a sensitivity of 3.1% (1 of 32), 28.1% (9 of 32), and 81.3% (26 of 32), respectively. B-US was false-positive in 68.8% (20 of 32), PD-US in 46.9% (15 of 32), and SWE in 12.5% (4 of 32

  13. Remote Ischaemic PrEconditioning of Human Myocardium (RIPE): study protocol for a double-blinded randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deja, Marek A; Wiaderkiewicz, Ryszard; Czekaj, Piotr; Czech, Ewa; Malinowski, Marcin; Machej, Leszek; Węglarzy, Andrzej; Kowalówka, Adam; Piekarska, Magda; Szurlej, Bartosz; Latusek, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Remote preconditioning has been shown to be a potent protective phenomenon in many animals. Several studies aimed to demonstrate it was feasible in humans by trying to show its protective effect during cardiac surgery. Of these, some small studies and one larger trial were positive while two other bigger studies showed no effectiveness of remote preconditioning as assessed by levels of postoperatively released cardiac markers. Recently, two large clinical trials also failed to prove the benefit of remote preconditioning in cardiac surgery. No study showed that remote preconditioning actually increases resistance of human myocardium to standardised ischaemic and reperfusion stimulus in experimental settings. In animal studies, remote preconditioning was shown to improve mitochondrial function and structure, but such data on human myocardium are scarce. The aim of the study is to determine whether remote preconditioning protects human myocardium against ischaemia-reperfusion injury in both in vivo and in vitro conditions. The trial is designed as a single-centre, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial of 120 patients. We randomise (1:1) patients referred for coronary artery bypass grafting for stable coronary artery disease to remote preconditioning or "sham" intervention. The remote preconditioning is obtained by three cycles of 5 min inflation and 5 min deflation of a blood pressure cuff on the right arm. Postoperative course including myocardial enzymes profile will be analysed. Moreover, in the in-vitro arm the clinically preconditioned myocardium will be assessed for function, mitochondria structure, and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. The informed consent of all patients is obtained before enrolment into the study by the investigator. The study conforms to the spirit and the letter of the declaration of Helsinki. In case the effect of remote preconditioning is not measurable in ex-vivo assessment, any future attempt at implementing this phenomenon in clinical

  14. Kinematic decomposition and classification of octopus arm movements

    OpenAIRE

    Zelman, Ido; Titon, Myriam; Yekutieli, Yoram; Hanassy, Shlomi; Hochner, Binyamin; Flash, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    The octopus arm is a muscular hydrostat and due to its deformable and highly flexible structure it is capable of a rich repertoire of motor behaviors. Its motor control system uses planning principles and control strategies unique to muscular hydrostats. We previously reconstructed a data set of octopus arm movements from records of natural movements using a sequence of 3D curves describing the virtual backbone of arm configurations. Here we describe a novel representation of octopus arm move...

  15. Simulation of Octopus Arm Based on Coupled CPGs

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Tian; Qiang Lu

    2015-01-01

    The octopus arm has attracted many researchers’ interests and became a research hot spot because of its amazing features. Several dynamic models inspired by an octopus arm are presented to realize the structure with a large number of degrees of freedom. The octopus arm is made of a soft material introducing high-dimensionality, nonlinearity, and elasticity, which makes the octopus arm difficult to control. In this paper, three coupled central pattern generators (CPGs) are built and a 2-dimens...

  16. Prefrontal Cortical GABA Modulation of Spatial Reference and Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Auger, Meagan L.; Floresco, Stan B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dysfunction in prefrontal cortex (PFC) GABA transmission has been proposed to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, yet how this system regulates different cognitive and mnemonic functions remains unclear. Methods: We assessed the effects of pharmacological reduction of GABAA signaling in the medial PFC of rats on spatial reference/working memory using different versions of the radial-arm maze task. We used a massed-trials procedure to probe how PFC GABA regulates ...

  17. Clinical effectiveness of decongestive treatments on excess arm volume and patient-centered outcomes in women with early breast cancer-related arm lymphedema: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Eunice; Ream, Emma; Taylor, Cath; Bick, Debra

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the effect of decongestive lymphedema treatment on excess arm volume or patient-centered outcomes in women presenting within either 12 months or a mean nine months of developing arm lymphedema following breast cancer treatment. Introduction: Lymphedema is a common consequence of breast cancer treatment requiring life-long treatment to reduce symptoms and prevent complications. Currently, evidence to inform the optimal decongestive lymphedema treatment package is lacking. Inclusion criteria: The review included studies on women who received lymphedema treatment within either 12 months or a mean of nine months of developing unilateral breast cancer-related arm lymphedema. The intervention was any decongestive lymphedema treatment delivered with the purpose of reducing arm lymphedema, compared to another form of lymphedema treatment (whether self or practitioner-administered), placebo or no treatment. The clinical outcome was excess arm volume; patient-centered outcomes were health-related quality of life, arm heaviness, arm function, patient-perceived benefit and satisfaction with treatment. Experimental study designs were eligible, including randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental, prospective and retrospective before and after studies were considered. Methods: A three-step search strategy was utilized to find published and unpublished studies. The search identified studies published from the inception of each database to July 6, 2016. Reference lists were scanned to identify further eligible studies. Studies were critically appraised using appropriate standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Details describing each study and treatment results regarding outcomes of interest were extracted from papers included in the review using appropriate standardized data extraction tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Due to heterogeneity in included studies, results for similar

  18. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00529764; The ATLAS collaboration; Stewart, Graeme; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.

  19. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Stewart, Graeme A.; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.

  20. China and nuclear arms limitation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, E.V.

    1980-01-01

    The Chinese attitudes from 1949 to 1980 towards nuclear arms limitation are divided into four distinct periods: 1949-1956, 1957-1963, 1964-1972 and 1973-1980. During 1949-1956, China held the view that an atom bomb or nuclear weapons are not decisive for the outcome of any war. It is the people who decide the outcome of a war. The period 1957-1963, after Soviet refusal to transfer nuclear technology, is marked by the development of the nuclear programme which led to the explosion of a nuclear device in 1964. China continued to build nuclear capability during 1964-1972. Mao died in 1976 and the relations with the U.S.A. were normalised in 1979. Taking an anti-Soviet stance China now takes the view that any nuclear arms agreement with Soviet Union is futile and describes SALT II agreement as an absolute farce. (M.G.B.)

  1. MAGIC: Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, ER; Wiscombe, WJ; Albrecht, BA; Bland, GL; Flagg, CN; Klein, SA; Kollias, P; Mace, G; Reynolds, RM; Schwartz, SE; Siebesma, AP; Teixeira, J; Wood, R; Zhang, M

    2012-10-03

    The second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF2) will be deployed aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship merchant vessel (M/V) Spirit for MAGIC, the Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds. The Spirit will traverse the route between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, from October 2012 through September 2013 (except for a few months in the middle of this time period when the ship will be in dry dock). During this field campaign, AMF2 will observe and characterize the properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; standard meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric structure. There will also be two intensive observational periods (IOPs), one in January 2013 and one in July 2013, during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure will be made.

  2. Special Gripper for a Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel SELLES

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available New structures for gripping objects in robotic manipulation processes are oriented to the new arrangement of mechanical structures using new materials and processing technologies and innovative procedures for the implementation of contact gripping element links to an object with a high degree of adaptively of applications together with the ability to alter the structure of grip and limiting the intensity of the contact stiffness variation of snap elements custody and pliability. The application of elastomeric materials and surface finishes is important. This paper presents both a new gripper design for robot arms but also the search of the selected materials to make an experimental evaluation of technical parameters that are used to assess their application potential and suitability for the targeted applications. Also the results and conclusions for gripper testing in manipulation operations with two different robot arms are presented.

  3. Causes and emerging trends of childhood blindness: findings from schools for the blind in Southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaji, Ada; Okoye, Obiekwe; Bowman, Richard

    2015-06-01

    To ascertain the causes severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL) in schools for the blind in southeast Nigeria and to evaluate temporal trends. All children who developed blindness at schools for the blind in southeast Nigeria were examined. All the data were recorded on a WHO/Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) form entered into a Microsoft Access database and transferred to STATA V.12.1 for analysis. To estimate temporal trends in causes of blindness, older (>15 years) children were compared with younger (≤15 years) children. 124 children were identified with SVI/BL. The most common anatomical site of blindness was the lens (33.9%). Overall, avoidable blindness accounted for 73.4% of all blindness. Exploring trends in SVI/BL between children ≤15 years of age and those >15 years old, this study shows a reduction in avoidable blindness but an increase in cortical visual impairment in the younger age group. The results from this study show a statistically significant decrease in avoidable blindness in children ≤15 years old. Corneal blindness appears to be decreasing but cortical visual impairment seems to be emerging in the younger age group. Appropriate strategies for the prevention of avoidable childhood blindness in Nigeria need to be developed and implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Angiography-based C-arm CT for the assessment of extrahepatic shunting before radioembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusner, Till Alexander; Hahn, S.; Forsting, M.; Antoch, G.; Hamami, M.E.; Poeppel, T.; Bockisch, A.; Ertle, J.; Hilgard, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: to retrospectively assess the accuracy of angiography-based C-arm CT for the detection of extrahepatic shunting before SIRT. Materials and methods: 30 patients (mean age: 64 ± 12 years) with hypervascularized hepatic tumors underwent hepatic angiography, coil embolization of gastrointestinal collaterals and 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) SPECT/CT before SIRT. Before MAA injection via a microcatheter from the intended treatment position, an angiography and angiography-based C-arm CT (XperCT trademark, Philips Healthcare) were acquired. Angiographies and XperCT trademark were performed from 48 microcatheter positions followed by MAA injections and MAA-SPECT/CT. MAA-SPECT/CT served as the reference standard for determining the accuracy of hepatic arteriography and C-arm CT for the detection of extrahepatic shunting. Results: MAA-SPECT/CT revealed extrahepatic shunting in 5 patients (17%). Hepatic arteriography yielded a true negative in 22 (73%), a false negative in 5 (17%), and an unclear result in 3 patients (10%). C-arm CT yielded a true positive in 3 (10%), true negative in 24 (80%), false positive in 1 (3%), and false negative in 2 patients (7%). The specificity and the NPV of hepatic arteriography for the detection of extrahepatic shunting were 88% and 81%, respectively. For C-arm CT the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy for the detection of extrahepatic shunting were 60%, 96%, 75%, 92%, and 90%, respectively. Conclusion: C-arm CT offers additional information to angiography when assessing SIRT patients for extrahepatic shunting. More accurate detection of extrahepatic shunting may optimize the workflow in SIRT preparations by avoiding unnecessary repeat angiographies. (orig.)

  5. Robot-Arm Dynamic Control by Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, Antal K.; Tarn, Tzyh J.; Chen, Yilong J.

    1987-01-01

    Feedforward and feedback schemes linearize responses to control inputs. Method for control of robot arm based on computed nonlinear feedback and state tranformations to linearize system and decouple robot end-effector motions along each of cartesian axes augmented with optimal scheme for correction of errors in workspace. Major new feature of control method is: optimal error-correction loop directly operates on task level and not on joint-servocontrol level.

  6. Diversity in the Danish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming; Larsen, Esben Salling

    The Danish Armed Forces face the functional imperative of becoming a smaller, professional expeditionary force and the societal imperative of including women and ethnic minorities. It currently lags behind its NATO partners in gender and ethnic diversity. Lessons to be learned from NATO members...... and realistic goals, systematically developing recruitment, development, and retention policies, and the superiority of an all-volunteer force over conscription in fulfilling this societal imperative....

  7. Gorbachev’s Arms Control Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-22

    on- site inspection for verifying nuclear tests as well as for dismantling missiles on Soviet territory. Clearlv Gorbachev wants an arms , -4- control...bring its seismological test equipment to what he called the "holy of holies", the area adjoining the Soviet proving ground near Semipalatinsk to offer...prenotification and observation of military exercises including on- site inspection on Soviet territory. But on the big issues--- nuclear testing , strategic weapons

  8. Memories of the armed struggle in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Margarita Pasquali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and develops some of the edges on working of the guerrilla that emerge in the memories of the former militants of the armed organizations in Argentina. Beginig from this journey we will have access to the registration that one has presently on it, which will allows us to establish part of the subjective environment of the moment, the main characters consideration of the activism and their significance in the general context of the militancy.

  9. Rock Moved by Mars Lander Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander slid a rock out of the way during the mission's 117th Martian day (Sept. 22, 2008) to gain access to soil that had been underneath the rock.The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took the two images for this stereo view later the same day, showing the rock, called 'Headless,' after the arm pushed it about 40 centimeters (16 inches) from its previous location. 'The rock ended up exactly where we intended it to,' said Matt Robinson of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, robotic arm flight software lead for the Phoenix team. The arm had enlarged the trench near Headless two days earlier in preparation for sliding the rock into the trench. The trench was dug to about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) deep. The ground surface between the rock's prior position and the lip of the trench had a slope of about 3 degrees downward toward the trench. Headless is about the size and shape of a VHS videotape. The Phoenix science team sought to move the rock in order to study the soil and the depth to subsurface ice underneath where the rock had been. This image was taken at about 12:30 p.m., local solar time on Mars. The view is to the north northeast of the lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Financial Ratio Analysis using ARMS Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrendsen, Bruce L.; Katchova, Ani L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the financial performance measures calculated and reported by Economic Resource Service (ERS) from ARMS data. The evaluation includes the calculation method and the underlying assumptions used in obtaining the reported values. The financial measures calculated and reported are compared with those recommended by the Farm Financial Standards Council (FFSC). The underlying assumptions are identified by analyzing the software code used in calculating th...

  11. The Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial lipid lowering arm: extended observations 2 years after trial closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sever, Peter S; Poulter, Neil R; Dahlof, Bjorn

    2008-01-01

    Aims To determine the cardiovascular benefits in those originally assigned atorvastatin in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-2.2 years after closure of the lipid-lowering arm of the trial (ASCOT-LLA). Methods and results The Blood Pressure Lowering Arm of the ASCOT trial (ASCOT......-BPLA) compared two different antihypertensive treatment strategies on cardiovascular outcomes. ASCOT-LLA was a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of atorvastatin in those enrolled into ASCOT-BPLA with total cholesterol concentrations at baseline of ... enrolled in ASCOT-BPLA and 10 305 were further assigned either atorvastatin, 10 mg, or placebo. ASCOT-LLA was stopped prematurely after a median 3.3 years follow-up because of substantial cardiovascular benefits in those assigned atorvastatin. Trial physicians were invited to offer atorvastatin to all...

  12. Putting the Glare of Publicity on International Arms Sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a United Nations committee recommendation that the Security Council establish a universal register of arms. Suggests that such a register would limit the destabilizing influence of major arms sales on developing nations. Argues that visibility of arms sales may help reduce their number. (DK)

  13. 49 CFR 236.810 - Spectacle, semaphore arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectacle, semaphore arm. 236.810 Section 236.810 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Spectacle, semaphore arm. That part of a semaphore arm which holds the roundels and to which the blade is...

  14. Ten years left to eliminate blinding trachoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad D.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available n 1997, the World Health Organization formed the Global Alliance to Eliminate Blinding Trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020, a coalition of governmental, non-governmental, research, and pharmaceutical partners. In 1998, the World Health Assembly urged member states to map blinding trachoma in endemic areas, implement the SAFE strategy (which stands for surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, facial-cleanliness and environmental change, such as clean water and latrines and collaborate with the global alliance in its work to eliminate blinding trachoma.

  15. Blind image deconvolution methods and convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Rameshan, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Blind deconvolution is a classical image processing problem which has been investigated by a large number of researchers over the last four decades. The purpose of this monograph is not to propose yet another method for blind image restoration. Rather the basic issue of deconvolvability has been explored from a theoretical view point. Some authors claim very good results while quite a few claim that blind restoration does not work. The authors clearly detail when such methods are expected to work and when they will not. In order to avoid the assumptions needed for convergence analysis in the

  16. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data...... thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Variety Seeking Tendency Scale, the Intuitive Eating Scale, and the Body Awareness Questionnaire. Our...

  17. Finding Objects for Assisting Blind People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chucai; Flores, Roberto W; Chincha, Ricardo; Tian, Yingli

    2013-07-01

    Computer vision technology has been widely used for blind assistance, such as navigation and wayfinding. However, few camera-based systems are developed for helping blind or visually-impaired people to find daily necessities. In this paper, we propose a prototype system of blind-assistant object finding by camera-based network and matching-based recognition. We collect a dataset of daily necessities and apply Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature descriptors to perform object recognition. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our prototype system.

  18. Continuum robot arms inspired by cephalopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian D.; Dawson, Darren M.; Flash, Tamar; Grasso, Frank W.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hochner, Binyamin; Kier, William M.; Pagano, Christopher C.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Qiming M.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent results in the development of a new class of soft, continuous backbone ("continuum") robot manipulators. Our work is strongly motivated by the dexterous appendages found in cephalopods, particularly the arms and suckers of octopus, and the arms and tentacles of squid. Our ongoing investigation of these animals reveals interesting and unexpected functional aspects of their structure and behavior. The arrangement and dynamic operation of muscles and connective tissue observed in the arms of a variety of octopus species motivate the underlying design approach for our soft manipulators. These artificial manipulators feature biomimetic actuators, including artificial muscles based on both electro-active polymers (EAP) and pneumatic (McKibben) muscles. They feature a "clean" continuous backbone design, redundant degrees of freedom, and exhibit significant compliance that provides novel operational capacities during environmental interaction and object manipulation. The unusual compliance and redundant degrees of freedom provide strong potential for application to delicate tasks in cluttered and/or unstructured environments. Our aim is to endow these compliant robotic mechanisms with the diverse and dexterous grasping behavior observed in octopuses. To this end, we are conducting fundamental research into the manipulation tactics, sensory biology, and neural control of octopuses. This work in turn leads to novel approaches to motion planning and operator interfaces for the robots. The paper describes the above efforts, along with the results of our development of a series of continuum tentacle-like robots, demonstrating the unique abilities of biologically-inspired design.

  19. Arms control agency faces uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ember, L.

    1993-01-01

    National security cognoscenti are busy sifting tea leaves trying to puzzle out the fate of arms control and nonproliferation policy in the new Administration. Of special concern to these policy gurus is the future of the semiautonomous Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA). ACDA's existence as a separate entity on the executive branch's organization chart is precarious. The agency has never functioned as intended since Congress created it in 1961. Its stock over the decades has ebbed and flowed, paralleling the prominence and clout of its director. And except for a few notable successes--the conclusion of the chemical weapons treaty being one--the agency's authority has plummeted in the past 14 years. Today, almost every interested party agrees that something has to be done, that the agency cannot continue as it now functions. Several recent studies have called for its rejuvenation. Still other studies have suggested that ACDA be dismantled, and those activities relevant to national security in a post-Cold War environment be shifted to and integrated into the State Department. Observers expect ACDA to evolve into an agency whose primary focus is on problems of proliferation. In a world in which tighter export controls on dual-use technologies, restraint on arms transfers, and economic assistance conditional on a recipients's security behavior will be the norm for security and stability, a role for ACDA as the U.S.'s nonproliferation nanny is not a bad one

  20. Monitoring and Controlling an Underwater Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, John; Todd, Brian Keith; Woodcock, Larry; Robinson, Fred M.

    2009-01-01

    The SSRMS Module 1 software is part of a system for monitoring an adaptive, closed-loop control of the motions of a robotic arm in NASA s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, where buoyancy in a pool of water is used to simulate the weightlessness of outer space. This software is so named because the robot arm is a replica of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This software is distributed, running on remote joint processors (RJPs), each of which is mounted in a hydraulic actuator comprising the joint of the robotic arm and communicating with a poolside processor denoted the Direct Control Rack (DCR). Each RJP executes the feedback joint-motion control algorithm for its joint and communicates with the DCR. The DCR receives joint-angular-velocity commands either locally from an operator or remotely from computers that simulate the flight like SSRMS and perform coordinated motion calculations based on hand-controller inputs. The received commands are checked for validity before they are transmitted to the RJPs. The DCR software generates a display of the statuses of the RJPs for the DCR operator and can shut down the hydraulic pump when excessive joint-angle error or failure of a RJP is detected.

  1. The Perseus arm in the anticenter direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monguió, M.; Grosbøl, P.; Figueras, F.

    2015-05-01

    The stellar overdensity due to the Perseus arm has been detected in the anticenter direction through individual field stars. For that purpose, a Str&{uml;o}mgren photometric survey covering 16° ^2 was developed with the Wide Field Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope. This photometry allowed us to compute individual physical parameters for these stars using a new method based on atmospheric models and evolutionary tracks. The analysis of the surface density as a function of distance for intermediate young stars in this survey allowed us to detect an overdensity at 1.6±0.2 kpc from the Sun, that can be associated with the Perseus arm, with a surface density amplitude of ˜14%. The significance of the detection is above 4σ for all the cases. The fit for the radial scale length of the Galactic disk provided values in the range [2.9,3.5] kpc for the population of the B4-A1 stars. We also analyzed the interstellar visual absorption distribution, and its variation as a function of distance is coherent with a dust layer before the Perseus arm location.

  2. Galactic spiral arms formed by central explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havnes, O.

    1978-01-01

    Calculations have been made of spiral arm formation due to central explosions in a nucleus surrounded by a disc containing most of the galactic mass with the purpose of obtaining estimates on lifetimes of arms and the requirements on the energy involved in the process. The ejected gas is taken to be a few percent, or less, of the central nucleus and is ejected with velocities of the order of 1000 km s -1 . The gas, considered to be in forms of blobs, moves under the gravitational force from the disc and the nucleus and the drag force by the gas in the disc. The orbits of the blobs evolve towards the circular orbits of the disc due to this drag force and the velocities in the arms will therefore, after some time, approach those of a normal rotation curve. A relatively open structure will last 8 years. Stable ring structures with longer lifetimes may be formed by some explosions. With an energy of approximately 5 x 10 57 erg in the initial gas-blob motion and a duration of the explosion of approximately 10 7 years, the energy output in such explosions has to be > 10 43 erg s -1 . (Auth.)

  3. Design of a multi-arm randomized clinical trial with no control arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaret, Amalia; Angus, Derek C; Adhikari, Neill K J; Banura, Patrick; Kissoon, Niranjan; Lawler, James V; Jacob, Shevin T

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trial designs that include multiple treatments are currently limited to those that perform pairwise comparisons of each investigational treatment to a single control. However, there are settings, such as the recent Ebola outbreak, in which no treatment has been demonstrated to be effective; and therefore, no standard of care exists which would serve as an appropriate control. For illustrative purposes, we focused on the care of patients presenting in austere settings with critically ill 'sepsis-like' syndromes. Our approach involves a novel algorithm for comparing mortality among arms without requiring a single fixed control. The algorithm allows poorly-performing arms to be dropped during interim analyses. Consequently, the study may be completed earlier than planned. We used simulation to determine operating characteristics for the trial and to estimate the required sample size. We present a potential study design targeting a minimal effect size of a 23% relative reduction in mortality between any pair of arms. Using estimated power and spurious significance rates from the simulated scenarios, we show that such a trial would require 2550 participants. Over a range of scenarios, our study has 80 to 99% power to select the optimal treatment. Using a fixed control design, if the control arm is least efficacious, 640 subjects would be enrolled into the least efficacious arm, while our algorithm would enroll between 170 and 430. This simulation method can be easily extended to other settings or other binary outcomes. Early dropping of arms is efficient and ethical when conducting clinical trials with multiple arms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Blindness of Johann Sebastian Bach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkkanen, Ahti

    2013-03-01

    Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was one of the greatest composers of all time. Apart from performing as a brilliant organist, he composed over 1.100 works in almost every musical genre. He was known as a hardworking, deeply Christian person, who had to support his family of 20 children and many students staying at his home. At the age of 64 years, his vision started to decline. Old biographies claim that it was the result of overstressing his vision in poor illumination. By persuasion of his friends, he had his both eyes operated by a travelling British eye surgeon. A cataract couching was performed. After surgery, Bach was totally blind and unable to play an organ, compose or direct choirs and orchestras. He was confined to bed and suffering from immense pain of the eyes and the body. He died <4 months after surgery. In this paper, as the plausible diagnosis, intractable glaucoma because of pupillary block or secondary to phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis is suggested. © 2012 The Author. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  5. Next-generation sequencing analysis of the ARMS2 gene in Turkish exudative age-related macular degeneration patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardak, H; Gunay, M; Ercalik, Y; Bardak, Y; Ozbas, H; Bagci, O

    2017-01-23

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries. It is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. To improve clinical management of this condition, it is important to develop risk assessment and prevention strategies for environmental influences, and establish a more effective treatment approach. The aim of the present study was to investigate age-related maculopathy susceptibility protein 2 (ARMS2) gene sequences among Turkish patients with exudative AMD. In addition to 39 advanced exudative AMD patients, 250 healthy individuals for whom exome sequencing data were available were included as a control group. Patients with a history of known environmental and systemic AMD risk factors were excluded. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood and analyzed using next-generation sequencing. All coding exons of the ARMS2 gene were assessed. Three different ARMS2 sequence variations (rs10490923, rs2736911, and rs10490924) were identified in both the patient and control group. Within the control group, two further ARMS2 gene variants (rs7088128 and rs36213074) were also detected. Logistic regression analysis revealed a relationship between the rs10490924 polymorphism and AMD in the Turkish population.

  6. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1985-01-01

    To make real and accurate dose assessment method so far, it is necessitated to provide ''Reference Japanese Man'' based on anotomical, physiological and biochemical data of Japanese people instead of the Reference Man presented in ICRP Publications 23 and 30. This review describes present status of researched for the purpose of establishing of Reference Japanese Man. The Reference Japanese Man is defined as a male or female adult who lives in Japan with a Japanese life-style and food custom. His stature and body weight, and the other data was decided as mean values of male or female people of Japan. As for food custom, Japanese people take significantly smaller amount of meat and milk products than Western people, while larger intake amount of cereals and marine products such as fish or seaweeds. Weight of organs is a principal factor for internal dose assessment and mean values for living Japanese adult has been investigated and the value employable for dose assessment for organs and tissues are shown. To employ these values of Reference Japanese Man, it should be taken into account of age. Metabolic parameters should also be considered. Iodine metabolism in Japanese is quite different from that of Western people. The above-mentioned data are now tentatively employing in modification of table of MIRD method and others. (Takagi, S.)

  7. Genetics Home Reference: oculodentodigital dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely interferes with normal cell growth and cell specialization, processes that determine the shape and function of ... NORD) The Foundation Fighting Blindness University of Kansas Medical Center Resource List: Hard of Hearing/Deafness Scientific ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Peters anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (3 links) Children's Eye Foundation Contact a Family Resource List from the University of Kansas Medical Center: Blind/Visual Impairment ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific Articles ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: spondylothoracic dysostosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal-length arms and legs, called short-trunk dwarfism. The spine and rib abnormalities, which are present ... Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (2 links) Health Topic: Dwarfism Health Topic: Spine Injuries and Disorders Genetic and ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary hyperekplexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperekplexia can include muscle twitches when falling asleep (hypnagogic myoclonus) and movements of the arms or legs ... fall down. They may also continue to have hypnagogic myoclonus or movements during sleep. As they get ...

  11. Bilateral movements increase sustained extensor force in the paretic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nyeonju; Cauraugh, James H

    2018-04-01

    Muscle weakness in the extensors poststroke is a common motor impairment. Unfortunately, research is unclear on whether bilateral movements increase extensor force production in the paretic arm. This study investigated sustained force production while stroke individuals maximally extended their wrist and fingers on their paretic arm. Specifically, we determined isometric force production in three conditions: (a) unilateral paretic arm, (b) unilateral nonparetic arm, and (c) bilateral (both arms executing the same movement simultaneously). Seventeen chronic stroke patients produced isometric sustained force by executing wrist and fingers extension in unilateral and bilateral contraction conditions. Mean force, force variability (coefficient of variation), and signal-to-noise ratio were calculated for each contraction condition. Analysis of two-way (Arm × Type of Condition: 2 × 2; Paretic or Nonparetic Arm × Unilateral or Bilateral Conditions) within-subjects ANOVAs revealed that the bilateral condition increased sustained force in the paretic arm, but reduced sustained force in the nonparetic arm. Further, although the paretic arm exhibited more force variability and less signal-to-noise ratio than the nonparetic arm during a unilateral condition, there were no differences when participants simultaneously executed isometric contractions with both arms. Our unique findings indicate that bilateral contractions transiently increased extensor force in the paretic arm. Implications for Rehabilitation Bilateral movements increased isometric wrsit extensor force in paretic arms and redcued force in nonparetic arms versus unilateral movements. Both paretic and nonparetic arms produced similar force variability and signal-to-noise ratio during bilateral movements. Increased sustained force in the paretic arm during the bilateral condition indicates that rehabilitation protocols based on bilateral movements may be beneficial for functional recovery.

  12. Direct model reference adaptive control with application to flexible robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvorth, Rodrigo; Kaufman, Howard; Neat, Gregory W.

    1992-01-01

    A modification to a direct command generator tracker-based model reference adaptive control (MRAC) system is suggested in this paper. This modification incorporates a feedforward into the reference model's output as well as the plant's output. Its purpose is to eliminate the bounded model following error present in steady state when previous MRAC systems were used. The algorithm was evaluated using the dynamics for a single-link flexible-joint arm. The results of these simulations show a response with zero steady state model following error. These results encourage further use of MRAC for various types of nonlinear plants.

  13. Supporting the President's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Agenda: Transparency and Verification for Nuclear Arms Reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, James E.; Meek, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The President's arms control and nonproliferation agenda is still evolving and the details of initiatives supporting it remain undefined. This means that DOE, NNSA, NA-20, NA-24 and the national laboratories can help define the agenda, and the policies and the initiatives to support it. This will require effective internal and interagency coordination. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda is broad and includes the path-breaking goal of creating conditions for the elimination of nuclear weapons. Responsibility for various elements of the agenda will be widely scattered across the interagency. Therefore an interagency mapping exercise should be performed to identify the key points of engagement within NNSA and other agencies for creating effective policy coordination mechanisms. These can include informal networks, working groups, coordinating committees, interagency task forces, etc. It will be important for NA-20 and NA-24 to get a seat at the table and a functional role in many of these coordinating bodies. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda comprises both mature and developing policy initiatives. The more mature elements such as CTBT ratification and a follow-on strategic nuclear arms treaty with Russia have defined milestones. However, recent press reports indicate that even the START follow-on strategic arms pact that is planned to be complete by the end of 2009 may take significantly longer and be more expansive in scope. The Russians called for proposals to count non-deployed as well as deployed warheads. Other elements of the agenda such as FMCT, future bilateral nuclear arms reductions following a START follow-on treaty, nuclear posture changes, preparations for an international nuclear security summit, strengthened international safeguards and multilateral verification are in much earlier stages of development. For this reason any survey of arms control capabilities within the USG should be structured to address potential needs across the

  14. Arms control and disarmament: A new conceptual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of the Millennium Assembly of the UN, the Secretary-General urged the global community to seize a sense of the occasion that comes from the turning of the century, to step back from today's headlines and take a broader, longer-term view of the state of the world and the challenges it poses. In partnership with the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), the Department for Disarmament Affairs (DDA) is taking up precisely that challenge. This panel discussion is part of a series of events sponsored by the Department to deepen the discussion on topical disarmament and security related issues. It is also part of the constant search for a new approach, a new concept, a new paradigm or vision for disarmament and arms control since the end of the cold war, the end of the post-cold war period and the beginning of the new century. It is axiomatic that progress in disarmament is closely linked to the evolution of the security environment. Disarmament cannot be separated from the new geo-political and security configurations in Europe, new demonstrations of nuclear capability in Asia, the emergence of new conflicts that are being driven mainly by internal and ethnic strife and that are outrageous in their brutality in Europe, Asia and Africa. Today's agenda is still full and diverse in the traditional areas of disarmament, nuclear, chemical and biological disarmament as well as ballistic missile defense and proliferation and conventional disarmament including landmines. Like many organizations, research institutes, researchers and individuals in the field of security, DDA has set store on the reliability and credibility of the research and publications produced by SIPRI. As an independent international institute for research on problems for peace and conflict, disarmament and arms control founded in 1966, SIPRI's primary research has been consistently objective, timely, comprehensive and clearly presented. SIPRI's Yearbook has been a reference

  15. Preventive arms control. Case study: plutonium disposition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, W.

    2001-01-01

    Plutonium stored in separated form poses a severe threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. While options for the disposition of military plutonium stockpiles have been studied for several years, similar work has hardly been undertaken for plutonium stockpiles in the civilian sector. In the framework of this project, the various options to dispose of stockpiles of separated plutonium in the civilian sector were to be investigated. The project was embedded in the FONAS-project network on Preventive Arms Control, and the findings of this study were to be considered for the development of a concept of Preventive Arms Control. As a first step, the internationally available information on different options for plutonium disposition (MOX-use, immobilization together with radioactive wastes, elimination) were collected and compiled to allow further assessment of the different options. For some of the options, technical questions were examined in more detail. For this purpose, neutron transport and fuel burnup calculations were performed. In particular, the analysis focused on concepts for the elimination of plutonium by the use of uranium-free fuel in existing light-water reactors, since they are particularly attractive from the point of view of non-proliferation. The calculations were performed for a reference fuel based on yttrium-stabilized zirconia, with parameters like the initial plutonium content or the use of burnable neutron poisons varying. A systematic and complete analysis of the performed calculations, however, could not be undertaken due to project time restrictions. On the basis of assessment criteria for Preventive Arms Control developed by the project network, a specific set of criteria for the assessment of the pros and cons of different plutonium disposition methods has been defined. These criteria may then be used as part of a concept of prospective technology assessment. The project findings present a starting base for a comprehensive assessment of the

  16. Reference costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terraz, N.

    1997-01-01

    The calculation of electric power production reference costs is used in France, even in the present case of over-capacity, for comparing the relative interest of the various means of power generation (nuclear plants, coal plants, hydroelectricity, gas combined cycles, etc.) and as an aid for future investment decisions. Reference costs show a sharp decrease between 1993 and 1997 due to advancements in nuclear plant operating ability and fossil fuel price decrease. Actuarial rates, plant service life, fuel costs and exchange rates are important parameters. The various costs from the research stage to the waste processing stages are discussed and the reference costs of the various power generation systems are presented and compared together with their competitiveness; the future of wind energy and cogeneration and the prospective of the renewal of nuclear plants at the 2010 horizon are also addressed

  17. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  18. Memory systems in the rat: effects of reward probability, context, and congruency between working and reference memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William A; Guitar, Nicole A; Marsh, Heidi L; MacDonald, Hayden

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of working and reference memory was studied in rats on an eight-arm radial maze. In two experiments, rats were trained to perform working memory and reference memory tasks. On working memory trials, they were allowed to enter four randomly chosen arms for reward in a study phase and then had to choose the unentered arms for reward in a test phase. On reference memory trials, they had to learn to visit the same four arms on the maze on every trial for reward. Retention was tested on working memory trials in which the interval between the study and test phase was 15 s, 15 min, or 30 min. At each retention interval, tests were performed in which the correct WM arms were either congruent or incongruent with the correct RM arms. Both experiments showed that congruency interacted with retention interval, yielding more forgetting at 30 min on incongruent trials than on congruent trials. The effect of reference memory strength on the congruency effect was examined in Experiment 1, and the effect of associating different contexts with working and reference memory on the congruency effect was studied in Experiment 2.

  19. Effects of age, sex and arm on the precision of arm position sense—left-arm superiority in healthy right-handers

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Lena; Depper, Lena; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Position sense is an important proprioceptive ability. Disorders of arm position sense (APS) often occur after unilateral stroke, and are associated with a negative functional outcome. In the present study we assessed horizontal APS by measuring angular deviations from a visually defined target separately for each arm in a large group of healthy subjects. We analyzed the accuracy and instability of horizontal APS as a function of age, sex and arm. Subjects were required to specify verbally th...

  20. Spiral-arm instability: giant clump formation via fragmentation of a galactic spiral arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shigeki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2018-03-01

    Fragmentation of a spiral arm is thought to drive the formation of giant clumps in galaxies. Using linear perturbation analysis for self-gravitating spiral arms, we derive an instability parameter and define the conditions for clump formation. We extend our analysis to multicomponent systems that consist of gas and stars in an external potential. We then perform numerical simulations of isolated disc galaxies with isothermal gas, and compare the results with the prediction of our analytic model. Our model describes accurately the evolution of the spiral arms in our simulations, even when spiral arms dynamically interact with one another. We show that most of the giant clumps formed in the simulated disc galaxies satisfy the instability condition. The clump masses predicted by our model are in agreement with the simulation results, but the growth time-scale of unstable perturbations is overestimated by a factor of a few. We also apply our instability analysis to derive scaling relations of clump properties. The expected scaling relation between the clump size, velocity dispersion, and circular velocity is slightly different from that given by the Toomre instability analyses, but neither is inconsistent with currently available observations. We argue that the spiral-arm instability is a viable formation mechanism of giant clumps in gas-rich disc galaxies.

  1. Iterated Gate Teleportation and Blind Quantum Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Delgado, Carlos A; Fitzsimons, Joseph F

    2015-06-05

    Blind quantum computation allows a user to delegate a computation to an untrusted server while keeping the computation hidden. A number of recent works have sought to establish bounds on the communication requirements necessary to implement blind computation, and a bound based on the no-programming theorem of Nielsen and Chuang has emerged as a natural limiting factor. Here we show that this constraint only holds in limited scenarios, and show how to overcome it using a novel method of iterated gate teleportations. This technique enables drastic reductions in the communication required for distributed quantum protocols, extending beyond the blind computation setting. Applied to blind quantum computation, this technique offers significant efficiency improvements, and in some scenarios offers an exponential reduction in communication requirements.

  2. Global Transsaccadic Change Blindness During Scene Perception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, John

    2003-01-01

    .... The results from two experiments demonstrated a global transsaccadic change-blindness effect, suggesting that point-by-point visual representations are not functional across saccades during complex scene perception. Ahstract.

  3. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? Do fish have eyelids? ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how ...

  4. Short communication: Cerebral Malaria Complicated by Blindness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grade intermittent fever associated with multiple convulsions and prolonged coma. He regained consciousness after 12 days of treatment with intravenous quinine but was found to have blindness, sensory‑neural deafness and extrapyramidal ...

  5. Congenital blindness improves semantic and episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualotto, Achille; Lam, Jade S Y; Proulx, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies reported that congenitally blind people possess superior verb-generation skills. Here we tested the impact of blindness on capacity and the fidelity of semantic memory by using a false memory paradigm. In the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, participants study lists of words that are all semantically related to a lure that is not presented. Subsequently, participants frequently recall the missing lure. We found that congenitally blind participants have enhanced memory performance for recalling the presented words and reduced false memories for the lure. The dissociation of memory capacity and fidelity provides further evidence for enhanced verbal ability in the blind, supported by their broader structural and functional brain reorganisation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Universal blind quantum computation for hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He-Liang; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Tan; Li, Feng-Guang; Fu, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Hai-Long; Wang, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    As progress on the development of building quantum computer continues to advance, first-generation practical quantum computers will be available for ordinary users in the cloud style similar to IBM's Quantum Experience nowadays. Clients can remotely access the quantum servers using some simple devices. In such a situation, it is of prime importance to keep the security of the client's information. Blind quantum computation protocols enable a client with limited quantum technology to delegate her quantum computation to a quantum server without leaking any privacy. To date, blind quantum computation has been considered only for an individual quantum system. However, practical universal quantum computer is likely to be a hybrid system. Here, we take the first step to construct a framework of blind quantum computation for the hybrid system, which provides a more feasible way for scalable blind quantum computation.

  7. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, ...

  8. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... t you see colors well in the dark? Do fish have eyelids? Why does saltwater sting your ... treated, and how people become color blind. What do my eyes do when I’m sleeping? Click ...

  9. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in ... and more with our Ask a Scientist video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, ...

  10. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ...

  11. Teaching Introductory Statistics to Blind Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Stephen M.; Harrington, Charles F.; Walls, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The challenges of learning statistics, particularly distributions and their characteristics, can be potentially monumental for vision impaired and blind students. The authors provide some practical advice for teaching these students.

  12. Detecting Blind Spot By Using Ultrasonic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Ajay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Safety remains a top concern for automobile industries and new-car shoppers. Detection of Blind Spots is a major concern for safety issues. So automobiles have been constantly updating their products with new technologies to detect blind spots so that they can add more safety to the vehicle and also reduce the road accidents. Almost 1.5 million people die in road accidents each year. Blind spot of an automobile is the region of the vehicle which cannot be observed properly while looking either through side or rear mirror view. To meet the above requirements this paper describes detecting blind spot by using ultrasonic sensor and controlling the direction of car by automatic steering. The technology embedded in the system is capable of automatically steer the vehicle away from an obstacle if the system determines that a collision is impending or if the vehicle is in the vicinity of our car.

  13. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color ... I’m sleeping? Click to Watch What does it mean to be nearsighted or farsighted? Click to ...

  14. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding ... NEI Office of Communications (301)496-5248 Health Information Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos ...

  15. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  16. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’ ... a scientist? Click to Watch What is an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click ...

  17. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and Data Resources for the media Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin. ...

  18. Spatial Memory by Blind and Sighted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Susanna

    1975-01-01

    Non-verbal recall of haptically presented spatial positions by three age groups of blind and sighted children was tested under conditions varying cuing, recall type and stimulus position in a within-subject design. (Editor)

  19. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blind.” News & Events Events Calendar ... Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Kathryn DeMott, Media Relations Kathryn.DeMott@nih.gov NEI Office of Communications ( ...

  20. Unsteady analysis on the instantaneous forces and moment arms acting on a novel Savonius-style wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Sukanta; Ducoin, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-dimensional unsteady simulations on a novel Savonius-style wind turbine. • Instantaneous behavior of drag and lift coefficients, and corresponding moment arms. • Effect of tip speed ratio on the instantaneous force coefficients and moments arms. • Effect of force coefficients and moment arms on the instantaneous moment and power. • Analysis of power and moment coefficients at different tip speed ratios. - Abstract: This paper aims to present a transient analysis on the forces acting on a novel two-bladed Savonius-style wind turbine. Two-dimensional unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations are solved using shear stress transport k–ω turbulence model at a Reynolds number of 1.23 × 10"5. The instantaneous longitudinal drag and lateral lift forces acting on each of the blades and their acting points are calculated. The corresponding moment arms responsible for the torque generation are obtained. Further, the effect of tip speed ratio on the force coefficients, moment arms and overall turbine performances are observed. Throughout the paper, the obtained results for the new design are discussed with reference to conventional semi-circular design of Savonius turbines. A significant performance improvement is achieved with the new design due to its increased lift and moment arm contribution as compared to the conventional design. More interestingly, the present study sets a platform for future aerodynamic research and improvements for Savonius-style wind turbines.