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Sample records for blinded placebo-controlled trials

  1. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of paroxetine in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A double-blind placebo controlled trial of paroxetine in the management of social phobia (social anxiety disorder) in South Africa. Dan J. Stein, Michael Berk, Charl Els, Robin A. Emsley, Leon Gittelson, Don Wilson, Rosemary Oakes, Brian Hunter ...

  2. Does different information disclosure on placebo control affect blinding and trial outcomes? A case study of participant information leaflets of randomized placebo-controlled trials of acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Soyeon; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Hyangsook

    2018-01-18

    While full disclosure of information on placebo control in participant information leaflets (PILs) in a clinical trial is ethically required during informed consent, there have been concerning voices such complete disclosures may increase unnecessary nocebo responses, breach double-blind designs, and/or affect direction of trial outcomes. Taking an example of acupuncture studies, we aimed to examine what participants are told about placebo controls in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, and how it may affect blinding and trial outcomes. Authors of published randomized, placebo-controlled trials of acupuncture were identified from PubMed search and invited to provide PILs for their trials. The collected PILs were subjected to content analysis and categorized based on degree of information disclosure on placebo. Blinding index (BI) as a chance-corrected measurement of blinding was calculated and its association with different information disclosure was examined. The impact of different information disclosure from PILs on primary outcomes was estimated using a random effects model. In 65 collected PILs, approximately 57% of trials fully informed the participants of placebo control, i.e. full disclosure, while the rest gave deceitful or no information on placebo, i.e. no disclosure. Placebo groups in the studies with no disclosure tended to make more opposite guesses on the type of received intervention than those with disclosure, which may reflect wishful thinking (BI -0.21 vs. -0.16; p = 0.38). In outcome analysis, studies with no disclosure significantly favored acupuncture than those with full disclosure (standardized mean difference - 0.43 vs. -0.12; p = 0.03), probably due to enhanced expectations. How participants are told about placebos can be another potential factor that may influence participant blinding and study outcomes by possibly modulating patient expectation. As we have few empirical findings on this issue, future studies are needed to

  3. Does different information disclosure on placebo control affect blinding and trial outcomes? A case study of participant information leaflets of randomized placebo-controlled trials of acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeon Cheon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While full disclosure of information on placebo control in participant information leaflets (PILs in a clinical trial is ethically required during informed consent, there have been concerning voices such complete disclosures may increase unnecessary nocebo responses, breach double-blind designs, and/or affect direction of trial outcomes. Taking an example of acupuncture studies, we aimed to examine what participants are told about placebo controls in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, and how it may affect blinding and trial outcomes. Methods Authors of published randomized, placebo-controlled trials of acupuncture were identified from PubMed search and invited to provide PILs for their trials. The collected PILs were subjected to content analysis and categorized based on degree of information disclosure on placebo. Blinding index (BI as a chance-corrected measurement of blinding was calculated and its association with different information disclosure was examined. The impact of different information disclosure from PILs on primary outcomes was estimated using a random effects model. Results In 65 collected PILs, approximately 57% of trials fully informed the participants of placebo control, i.e. full disclosure, while the rest gave deceitful or no information on placebo, i.e. no disclosure. Placebo groups in the studies with no disclosure tended to make more opposite guesses on the type of received intervention than those with disclosure, which may reflect wishful thinking (BI −0.21 vs. −0.16; p = 0.38. In outcome analysis, studies with no disclosure significantly favored acupuncture than those with full disclosure (standardized mean difference − 0.43 vs. −0.12; p = 0.03, probably due to enhanced expectations. Conclusions How participants are told about placebos can be another potential factor that may influence participant blinding and study outcomes by possibly modulating patient expectation. As we

  4. Short course prednisolone for adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder or stiff painful shoulder): a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchbinder, R.; Hoving, J. L.; Green, S.; Hall, S.; Forbes, A.; Nash, P.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a short course of prednisolone is superior to placebo for improving pain, function, and range of motion in adhesive capsulitis. DESIGN: Double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Community based rheumatology practice in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 50

  5. Homoeopathic pathogenetic trial of Withania somnifera: A multicentric, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritha Mehra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homoeopathic drug proving being the first step in finding the pathogenetic powers of a drug is an integral part of Homoeopathic system of medicine. Objective: To elicit the pathogenetic response of Withania somnifera in homoeopathic potencies on healthy human provers. Materials and Methods: A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at four centres under Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy. Proving was conducted on 63 relatively healthy provers. All the provers were given 12 doses of placebo divided into 4 doses/day for 3 days during the first phase of the trial. After randomisation, 43 provers in the intervention group were given W. somnifera in 6C and 30C potencies in two phases. In the placebo group, 20 provers were administered unmedicated globules. The symptoms and signs manifested during the trial were noted down by the provers, elaborated by the proving masters and the data compilation on W. somnifera was done at proving-cum-data processing cell. Results: Out of 43 provers who were on actual drug trial, only 15 provers manifested 39 symptoms. The symptoms have been manifested predominantly in 30C potency. Among the objective findings, the drug has shown its effect on kidney, ovaries and helminthic infestation. Conclusion: The pathogenetic response elicited during this trial expands the scope of the use of W. somnifera and needs to be further validated by clinical verification study.

  6. Modafinil May Alleviate Poststroke Fatigue: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Mai Bang; Damgaard, Bodil; Zerahn, Bo; Overgaard, Karsten; Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard

    2015-12-01

    Poststroke fatigue is common and reduces quality of life. Current evidence for intervention is limited, and this is the first placebo-controlled trial to investigate treatment of poststroke fatigue with the wakefulness promoting drug modafinil. The trial was randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled. Patients were treated with 400-mg modafinil or placebo for 90 days. Assessments were done at inclusion, 30, 90, and 180 days. The primary end point was fatigue at 90 days measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20 general fatigue domain. Secondary end points included the Fatigue Severity Scale, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the modified Rankin Scale and the Stroke-specific quality of Life questionnaire. Adult patients with a recent stroke achieving a score of ≥12 on the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20 general fatigue domain were consecutively included. Exclusion criteria were severe cognitive disabilities and contraindications for modafinil treatment. One thousand one hundred twenty-one patients with stroke were screened and 41 patients included, 21 received modafinil. The primary end point, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20 general fatigue score, did not differ between groups. Patients in the modafinil group obtained better scores on the Fatigue Severity Scale (P=0.02) and in some subscales of the stroke-specific quality of life questionnaire (0.001trials. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01800097. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Mavoglurant in fragile X syndrome: Results of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Des Portes, Vincent; Hagerman, Randi; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Charles, Perrine; Visootsak, Jeannie; Brinkman, Marc; Rerat, Karin; Koumaras, Barbara; Zhu, Liansheng; Barth, Gottfried Maria; Jaecklin, Thomas; Apostol, George; von Raison, Florian

    2016-01-13

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autistic spectrum disorder, is typically caused by transcriptional silencing of the X-linked FMR1 gene. Work in animal models has described altered synaptic plasticity, a result of the up-regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-mediated signaling, as a putative downstream effect. Post hoc analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover phase 2 trial suggested that the selective mGluR5 antagonist mavoglurant improved behavioral symptoms in FXS patients with completely methylated FMR1 genes. We present the results of two phase 2b, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies of mavoglurant in FXS, designed to confirm this result in adults (n = 175, aged 18 to 45 years) and adolescents (n = 139, aged 12 to 17 years). In both trials, participants were stratified by methylation status and randomized to receive mavoglurant (25, 50, or 100 mg twice daily) or placebo over 12 weeks. Neither of the studies achieved the primary efficacy end point of improvement on behavioral symptoms measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Edition using the FXS-specific algorithm (ABC-C(FX)) after 12 weeks of treatment with mavoglurant. The safety and tolerability profile of mavoglurant was as previously described, with few adverse events. Therefore, under the conditions of our study, we could not confirm the mGluR theory of FXS nor the ability of the methylation state of the FMR1 promoter to predict mavoglurant efficacy. Preclinical results suggest that future clinical trials might profitably explore initiating treatment in a younger population with longer treatment duration and longer placebo run-ins and identifying new markers to better assess behavioral and cognitive benefits. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of dapsone in antihistamine refractory chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Matt; Cooke, Andrew; Rogers, Laura; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Khan, David A

    2014-01-01

    Management of antihistamine refractory chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) has poorly defined therapeutic options. To evaluate the efficacy of dapsone (4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone) in antihistamine refractory CIU compared with placebo. Twenty-two patients with antihistamine refractory CIU were randomly assigned to 100 mg of dapsone daily or placebo for 6 weeks in a 14-week double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. End points were measured from a daily diary that reflected the weekly hive score, the weekly itch score, and a visual analog scale (VAS) score. Secondary to a carryover effect, the first period results were analyzed as a parallel design that compared placebo with dapsone directly by using repeated-measures analysis. After 6 weeks, the patients in the dapsone arm showed mean improvement over baseline in VAS (2.3 [95% CI, 0.6-4.1], P = .01), urticaria score (-3.5 [95% CI, -6.2 to -0.9], P = .01), and itch score (-4.8 [95% CI, -7.6 to -2.1], P = .001), whereas the placebo arm showed no improvement over baseline for VAS, urticaria, or itch scores. Dapsone showed greater improvement compared with placebo for itch (P = .047) and VAS (P = .04). Of the 22 patients, 3 showed complete resolution of hives and itch with dapsone, whereas 31% and 41% had ≥ 50% resolution of hives and itch, respectively. No serious adverse effects were observed with dapsone. To our knowledge, this is the first double-blind, placebo controlled study of dapsone in CIU and indicates that dapsone has efficacy in patients with antihistamine refractory CIU. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Preoperative Use of Dexamethasone in Rhinoplasty: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Denis S; Steffen, Niveo; Carvalho, Lauro A; Borille, Giuliano B; Zanella, Rafaela K; Padoin, Alexandre V

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative edema and ecchymosis following rhinoplasty are a cause of anxiety for both patients and physicians and can affect the cosmetic results. Corticosteroids have been used to reduce these events. To determine whether preoperative use of dexamethasone sodium phosphate alters the occurrence of edema and ecchymosis following rhinoplasty. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial at an institutional referral center among a sample of individuals with rhinomegaly. Patients were randomized into 2 groups. In group 1, dexamethasone was intravenously injected before surgery. In group 2, normal saline solution was intravenously injected before surgery. When patients returned at 1 week after surgery, standardized photographs were obtained. The photographs were analyzed by 5 plastic surgeons who were blinded as to whether dexamethasone or normal saline solution had been injected. The plastic surgeons rated the degree of edema and ecchymosis. Forty-two patients participated in the study. Randomization by lottery resulted in 20 patients in group 1 and 22 patients in group 2. Group 1 showed lower rates of postoperative ecchymosis than group 2; the difference of 0.62 (P = .02) reflects less perceived ecchymosis when dexamethasone was administered. Group 1 also showed lower rates of postoperative edema than group 2; the difference of 0.68 (P = .01) reflects less perceived edema when dexamethasone was administered. Preoperative use of dexamethasone reduced edema and ecchymosis at 7 days after rhinoplasty. Rigorous methods in this trial demonstrate the beneficial effect of preoperative corticosteroid administration in this surgical procedure. 1.

  10. Oral contraceptives induce lamotrigine metabolism: evidence from a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Petrenaite, Vaiva; Attermann, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluates the effect of oral contraceptives on lamotrigine (LTG) plasma concentrations and urine excretion of LTG metabolites in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Women with epilepsy, treated with LTG in monotherapy and tak...

  11. Efficacy of heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine in haemodialysis patients and staff. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmyter, J.; Colaert, J.; de Groote, G.; Reynders, M.; Reerink-Brongers, E. E.; Lelie, P. N.; Dees, P. J.; Reesink, H. W.

    1983-01-01

    The efficacy of a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine, 3 micrograms of surface antigen (HBsAg), given at 0, 1, 2, and 5 months, was evaluated in 401 haemodialysis patients in 18 centres by a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised trial. The attack-rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in

  12. Implant decontamination during surgical peri-implantitis treatment : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Yvonne C.M.; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Huddleston Slater, James J R; Meijer, Hendrikus; Winkel, Edwin G; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan

    AIM: The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to study the effect of implant surface decontamination with chlorhexidine (CHX)/cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) on microbiological and clinical parameters. MATERIAL & METHODS: Thirty patients (79 implants) with

  13. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Niacinamide for Reduction of Phosphorus in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Steven C.; Young, Daniel O.; Huang, Yihung; Delmez, James A.; Coyne, Daniel W.

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Niacinamide inhibits intestinal sodium/phosphorus transporters and reduces serum phosphorus in open-label studies. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed for assessment of the safety and efficacy of niacinamide.

  14. Topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment of chronic patellar tendinopathy : a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steunebrink, Mirjam; Zwerver, Johannes; Brandsema, Ruben; Groenenboom, Petra; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Weir, Adam

    Objectives To assess if continuous topical glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) treatment improves outcome in patients with chronic patellar tendinopathy when compared with eccentric training alone. Methods Randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing a 12-week programme of using a GTN

  15. Threshold electrical stimulation (TES) in ambulant children with CP: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dali, Christine í; Hansen, Flemming Juul; Pedersen, Søren Anker

    2002-01-01

    A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out to determine whether a group of stable children with cerebral palsy (36 males, 21 females; mean age 10 years 11 months, range 5 to 18 years) would improve their motor skills after 12 months of threshold electrical...

  16. Prospective double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of the pectoral nerves (Pecs) block type II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versyck, B.; Geffen, G.J. van; Houwe, P. Van

    2017-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this clinical trial was to test the hypothesis whether adding the pectoral nerves (Pecs) block type II to the anesthetic procedure reduces opioid consumption during and after breast surgery. DESIGN: A prospective randomized double blind placebo-controlled study. SETTING:

  17. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Menopause: A Review of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chueh Chang

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Hormone replacement therapy (HRT is frequently prescribed to healthy women to ameliorate menopausal symptoms. HRT is used long term (≥ 1 year to prevent chronic disease in older women. The objective of this study was to review the benefits and risks of HRT and studies of menopause or HRT in Taiwan via a MEDLINE search. Recommendations are provided for future HRT research in Taiwan. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials are considered the gold standard of scientific evidence. A MEDLINE literature search (January 1966-July 2002 identified 23 papers on trials (≥ 1 year that met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that various HRT regimens used for more than 1 year caused more harm than good in healthy menopausal women and that there was no benefit for women with coronary artery disease, Alzheimer's disease, hysterectomy, hysterosalpingooophorectomy, and ischemic stroke. None of this research was conducted in Taiwan. A MEDLINE search using the key words “estrogen replacement therapy and menopause in Taiwan” identified 16 studies. There was only one, short-term, HRT trial. No evidence suggested benefits from long-term HRT in menopausal women in Taiwan.

  18. Temporary sympathectomy in chronic refractory angina: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby, Christine; Groves, David G; Eleuteri, Antonio; Tsang, Hoo Kee; Leach, Austin; Hammond, Clare; Bridson, John D; Fisher, Michael; Elt, Matthew; Laflin, Robert; Fisher, Anthony C

    2015-08-01

    Temporary sympathectomy by injection of bupivacaine at the site of the left stellate ganglion is used in the management of refractory angina at several UK centres. Although patients frequently report significant reduction in symptoms, efficacy has not been established by double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial (RCT). To investigate the efficacy of the procedure for the first time by a double-blind RCT. Consecutive patients referred to the authors' National Health Service (NHS) angina centre who were candidates for temporary sympathectomy were invited to participate in a trial. A total of 65 patients were randomised to receive either bupivacaine or saline injections. Identical syringes were prepared remotely, blinding patients and staff from randomisation. Cardiac autonomic function was measured 3 hours pre- and post-injection using new heart rate variability (HRV) analyses. Angina episodes were recorded contemporaneously by patients in study diaries in the 7-day periods pre- and post-injection. In 51 patients suitable for analysis, no significant differences between the active and placebo groups were found in patient-recorded frequency or intensity of angina episodes pre- and post-injection. However, across both groups combined, a significant difference was found in the frequency of angina episodes pre- and post-injection. The reduction in frequency of angina episodes produced by this procedure may not be due to drug pharmacology. It may be a placebo response or due to the mechanical effects of the injection of fluid. There is a need for further work using a larger patient cohort considering both mechanical and psychological factors.

  19. Probiotics for standard triple Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Goran; Salkic, Nermin; Vukelic, Karina; JajacKnez, Alenka; Stimac, Davor

    2015-05-01

    The primary objective in the study is determination of efficacy of probiotic preparation as a supportive therapy in eradication of Helicobacter pylori.The study was multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, and double-blind. The subjects first filled out a specially designed questionnaire to assess the severity of the 10 symptoms, which can be related to eradication therapy to be monitored during the trial. Each subject then received 28 capsules of probiotic preparation or matching placebo capsules, which they were supposed to take over the following 14 days, twice a day, at least 2 hours prior to or after the antibiotic therapy administration.A total of 804 patients were enrolled in the trial, of which 650 (80.85%) were included in the analysis. The results show a significantly larger share of cured subjects in the probiotic arm versus the placebo arm (87.38% vs 72.55%; P probiotic treatment was found superior to placebo in 7 of 10 mentioned symptoms. Average intensity for symptoms potentially related to antibiotic therapy was significantly higher in the placebo group, 0.76 vs 0.55 (P probiotics to the standard triple therapy for H pylori eradication significantly contributes to treatment efficacy and distinctly decreases the adverse effects of therapy and the symptoms of the underlying disease.

  20. Magnetic resonance therapy for knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökşen, Nurgül; Çaliş, Mustafa; Doğan, Serap; Çaliş, Havva T; Özgöçmen, Salih

    2016-08-01

    Therapeutic nuclear magnetic resonance therapy (MRT) works based on the electromagnetic fields. To investigate efficacy of MRT in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Outpatient clinic, university hospital. Patients who had mild to moderate knee OA at a single knee joint and between 30-75-years-old were randomized by blinded chip cards (1:1). The treatment group received ten sessions of one hour daily MRT, controls received placebo MRT. All patients underwent clinical examination at baseline, after 2 weeks, and 12 weeks. Imaging included blindly assessed ultrasonography and magnetic resonance (MR) of the knee. Ninety-seven patients completed the study. Both groups improved significantly but the average change from baseline in outcome parameters was similar in MRT group (on VAS-pain,-2.6; WOMAC-pain, -2.09; WOMAC-stiffness, -1.81; WOMAC-physical, -1.96) compared to placebo after two weeks (VAS-pain,-1.6; WOMAC-pain, -1.91; WOMAC-stiffness, -1.27; WOMAC-physical, -1.54). Also changes were quite similar at the 12th week after the treatment. SF-36 components at 12th week improved but changes were not significant. Imaging arm also failed to show significant differences between groups in terms of cartilage thickness on US and MR scores. No adverse events were recorded. MRT is safe, but not superior to placebo in terms of improvement in clinical or imaging parameters after a 10-day course of treatment in mild to moderate knee OA. The present study does not promote use of a 10-day course of MRT in mild to moderate knee OA.

  1. Pulsed electromagnetic fields in knee osteoarthritis: a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Gian Luca; Miceli, Giovanni; Marino, Natale; Sciortino, Davide; Bagnato, Gian Filippo

    2016-04-01

    This trial aimed to test the effectiveness of a wearable pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) device in the management of pain in knee OA patients. In this randomized [with equal randomization (1:1)], double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, patients with radiographic evidence of knee OA and persistent pain higher than 40 mm on the visual analog scale (VAS) were recruited. The trial consisted of 12 h daily treatment for 1 month in 60 knee OA patients. The primary outcome measure was the reduction in pain intensity, assessed through VAS and WOMAC scores. Secondary outcomes included quality of life assessment through the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form version 2 (SF-36 v2), pressure pain threshold (PPT) and changes in intake of NSAIDs/analgesics. Sixty-six patients were included, and 60 completed the study. After 1 month, PEMF induced a significant reduction in VAS pain and WOMAC scores compared with placebo. Additionally, pain tolerance, as expressed by PPT changes, and physical health improved in PEMF-treated patients. A mean treatment effect of -0.73 (95% CI - 1.24 to - 0.19) was seen in VAS score, while the effect size was -0.34 (95% CI - 0.85 to 0.17) for WOMAC score. Twenty-six per cent of patients in the PEMF group stopped NSAID/analgesic therapy. No adverse events were detected. These results suggest that PEMF therapy is effective for pain management in knee OA patients and also affects pain threshold and physical functioning. Future larger studies, including head-to-head studies comparing PEMF therapy with standard pharmacological approaches in OA, are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01877278. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  2. Treatment of dysferlinopathy with deflazacort: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dysferlinopathies are autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in the dysferlin (DYSF) gene encoding the dysferlin protein. DYSF mutations lead to a wide range of muscular phenotypes, with the most prominent being Miyoshi myopathy (MM) and limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B). Methods We assessed the one-year-natural course of dysferlinopathy, and the safety and efficacy of deflazacort treatment in a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial. After one year of natural course without intervention, 25 patients with genetically defined dysferlinopathy were randomized to receive deflazacort and placebo for six months each (1 mg/kg/day in month one, 1 mg/kg every 2nd day during months two to six) in one of two treatment sequences. Results During one year of natural course, muscle strength declined about 2% as measured by CIDD (Clinical Investigation of Duchenne Dystrophy) score, and 76 Newton as measured by hand-held dynamometry. Deflazacort did not improve muscle strength. In contrast, there is a trend of worsening muscle strength under deflazacort treatment, which recovers after discontinuation of the study drug. During deflazacort treatment, patients showed a broad spectrum of steroid side effects. Conclusion Deflazacort is not an effective therapy for dysferlinopathies, and off-label use is not warranted. This is an important finding, since steroid treatment should not be administered in patients with dysferlinopathy, who may be often misdiagnosed as polymyositis. Trial registration This clinical trial was registered at http://www.ClincalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT00527228, and was always freely accessible to the public. PMID:23406536

  3. Vitamin D as supplementary treatment for tuberculosis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wejse, Christian; Gomes, Victor F; Rabna, Paulo; Gustafson, Per; Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida M; Andersen, Paul L; Glerup, Henning; Sodemann, Morten

    2009-05-01

    Vitamin D has been shown to be involved in the host immune response toward Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To test whether vitamin D supplementation of patients with tuberculosis (TB) improved clinical outcome and reduced mortality. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in TB clinics at a demographic surveillance site in Guinea-Bissau. We included 365 adult patients with TB starting antituberculosis treatment; 281 completed the 12-month follow-up. The intervention was 100,000 IU of cholecalciferol or placebo at inclusion and again 5 and 8 months after the start of treatment. The primary outcome was reduction in a clinical severity score (TBscore) for all patients with pulmonary TB. The secondary outcome was 12-month mortality. No serious adverse effects were reported; mild hypercalcemia was rare and present in both arms. Reduction in TBscore and sputum smear conversion rates did not differ among patients treated with vitamin D or placebo. Overall mortality was 15% (54 of 365) at 1 year of follow-up and similar in both arms (30 of 187 for vitamin D treated and 24 of 178 for placebo; relative risk, 1.19 [0.58-1.95]). HIV infection was seen in 36% (131 of 359): 21% (76 of 359) HIV-1, 10% (36 of 359) HIV-2, and 5% (19 of 357) HIV-1+2. Vitamin D does not improve clinical outcome among patients with TB and the trial showed no overall effect on mortality in patients with TB; it is possible that the dose used was insufficient. Clinical trial registered with www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn (ISRCTN35212132).

  4. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of olanzapine in the treatment of trichotillomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ameringen, Michael; Mancini, Catherine; Patterson, Beth; Bennett, Mark; Oakman, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    Trichotillomania has been considered as part of the obsessive-compulsive disorder spectrum; however, trichotillomania treatment with obsessive-compulsive disorder medications has largely been unsuccessful. To determine whether a dopaminergic treatment as used in tics and Tourette's syndrome would be effective in trichotillomania. Twenty-five participants with DSM-IV trichotillomania participated in a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of flexible-dose olanzapine for trichotillomania. Recruitment occurred between August 2001 and December 2005, and follow-up was completed in February 2006. The primary outcome measure was the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale, and secondary measures of efficacy included the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Trichotillomania (TTM-YBOCS) and the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) scale. Eleven of 13 participants (85%) in the olanzapine group and 2 of 12 (17%) in the placebo group were considered responders according to the CGI-I (P = .001). There was a significant change from baseline to end point in the TTM-YBOCS (P trichotillomania. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00182507. © Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  5. The efficacy of azithromycin in pityriasis rosea: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Pandhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Macrolides are prescribed in the treatment of pityriasis rosea despite conflicting results of the limited number of studies evaluating their role in its treatment. Aim: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of azithromycin on the clinical course of pityriasis rosea. Methods: Seventy patients of pityriasis rosea were given either azithromycin (n = 35 or placebo (n = 35 and were followed-up at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Pruritus was assessed in both groups using the visual analogue scale (VAS . Change in the pityriasis rosea severity score (PRSS and in the VAS were recorded as outcome measures and were compared statistically. Results: The decrease in PRSS from baseline through 2, 4 and 6 weeks within both treatment (P < 0.001 and placebo (P < 0.001 arms was found to be statistically significant; however, this change was not significantly different in the two groups (P = 0.179. Similarly, the decrease in VAS was found to be statistically significant within both groups (P < 0.001; however, the change was comparable between the two groups (P < 0.937. Analysis by Fisher′s exact test did not find a significant difference between the two groups for PRSS and VAS. Conclusion: Azithromycin is not effective in pityriasis rosea and the use of macrolides for this disease should not be encouraged in clinical practice.

  6. Polypodium leucotomos extract in atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Bosca, A; Zapater, P; Betlloch, I; Albero, F; Martínez, A; Díaz-Alperi, J; Horga, J F

    2012-09-01

    Topical corticosteroids are used to treat inflammation and relieve itching in atopic dermatitis, but their use is limited by adverse reactions. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether daily treatment with Polypodium leucotomos extract would reduce the use of topical corticosteroids in children and adolescents with atopic dermatitis. We also analyzed oral antihistamine use and changes in disease severity. We performed a phase IV randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial involving 105 patients aged between 2 and 17 years who were receiving topical corticosteroids to treat moderate atopic dermatitis. The patients were randomized to receive, in addition to their standard treatment, Polypodium leucotomos extract or placebo (both in capsule form) for 6 months. The percentage of days on which topical corticosteroids and other atopic dermatitis treatments were used was calculated. Use of Polypodium leucotomos extract did not significantly reduce the mean (SD) percentage of days on which topical corticosteroids were used (11% [12%] vs 12% [11%] for placebo). A significant reduction was, however, observed for oral histamine use (median percentage of days, 4.5% in the Polypodium leucotomos group and 13.6% in the placebo group [P= .038]). The percentage of patients who used oral antihistamines was also lower in the Polypodium leucotomos group. Long-term treatment with Polypodium leucotomos extract has benefits for children and adolescents with atopic dermatitis who require pharmacologic treatment to reduce inflammation and relieve itching. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. Randomised, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Echinacea Supplementation in Air Travellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tiralongo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify whether a standardised Echinacea formulation is effective in the prevention of respiratory and other symptoms associated with long-haul flights. Methods. 175 adults participated in a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial travelling back from Australia to America, Europe, or Africa for a period of 1–5 weeks on commercial flights via economy class. Participants took Echinacea (root extract, standardised to 4.4 mg alkylamides or placebo tablets. Participants were surveyed before, immediately after travel, and at 4 weeks after travel regarding upper respiratory symptoms and travel-related quality of life. Results. Respiratory symptoms for both groups increased significantly during travel (P<0.0005. However, the Echinacea group had borderline significantly lower respiratory symptom scores compared to placebo (P=0.05 during travel. Conclusions. Supplementation with standardised Echinacea tablets, if taken before and during travel, may have preventive effects against the development of respiratory symptoms during travel involving long-haul flights.

  8. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Swedish snus for smoking reduction and cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Robert

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest that smokeless tobacco in the form of Swedish snus has been used by many smokers in Scandinavia to quit smoking, but the efficacy of snus has so far not been evaluated in controlled clinical trials. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial aimed at assessing the efficacy of snus to help adult cigarette smokers in Serbia to substantially reduce, and, eventually, completely stop smoking. The study enrolled 319 healthy smokers aged 20-65 years at two occupational health centers in Belgrade, Serbia. Most of them (81% expressed an interest to quit rather than just reduce their smoking. Study products were used ad libitum throughout the 48-week study period. The main study objective during the first 24 weeks was smoking reduction. The primary end-point was defined as a biologically verified reduction of ≥ 50% in the average number of smoked cigarettes per day during week 21-24 compared to baseline. During week 25-48 participants were actively instructed to stop smoking completely. Outcome measures of biologically verified, complete smoking cessation included 1-week point prevalence rates at clinical visits after 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks, as well as 4-, 12- and 24-week continued cessation rates at the week 36 and 48 visits. Results At the week 24 visit, the proportion of participants who achieved the protocol definition of a ≥ 50% smoking reduction was similar in the two treatment groups. However, the proportion that reported more extreme reductions (≥ 75% was statistically significantly higher in the snus group than in the placebo group (p Conclusions Swedish snus could promote smoking cessation among smokers in Serbia, that is, in a cultural setting without traditional use of oral, smokeless tobacco. Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00601042

  9. Dronabinol for the treatment of cannabis dependence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Frances R; Mariani, John J; Brooks, Daniel J; Pavlicova, Martina; Cheng, Wendy; Nunes, Edward V

    2011-07-01

    Cannabis dependence is a substantial public health problem. Behavioral treatments have shown promise, but there are no effective medications for cannabis dependence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dronabinol, a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a naturally occurring pharmacologically active component of marijuana, in treating cannabis dependence. 156 cannabis-dependent adults were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial. After a 1-week placebo lead-in phase, participants were randomized to receive dronabinol 20mg twice a day or placebo. Doses were maintained until the end of week 8 and then tapered off over 2 weeks. All participants received weekly motivational enhancement and relapse prevention therapy. Marijuana use was assessed using the timeline follow back method. There was no significant difference between treatment groups in the proportion of participants who achieved 2 weeks of abstinence at the end of the maintenance phase (dronabinol: 17.7%; placebo: 15.6%). Although both groups showed a reduction in marijuana use over time, there were no differences between the groups. Treatment retention was significantly higher at the end of the maintenance phase on dronabinol (77%), compared to placebo (61%) (P=.02), and withdrawal symptoms were significantly lower on dronabinol than placebo (P=.02). This is the first trial using an agonist substitution strategy for treatment of cannabis dependence. Dronabinol showed promise, it was well-tolerated, and improved treatment retention and withdrawal symptoms. Future trials might test higher doses, combinations of dronabinol with other medications with complementary mechanisms, or with more potent behavioral interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of herbal therapy for children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eliza L Y; Sung, Rita Yn Tz; Leung, Ting Fan; Wong, Yeuk Oi; Li, Albert M C; Cheung, Kam Lau; Wong, Chun Kwok; Fok, Tai Fai; Leung, Ping Chung

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this trial was to evaluate whether the herbal formula of CUF2 used as complementary therapy improves the clinical symptoms and biochemical markers in children with asthma using inhaled corticosteroids. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective trial, 85 children with asthma aged 7-15 years were randomly assigned to receive either a daily oral herbal formula of 0.619-g CUF2 capsule of dried aqueous extract with an equal weight of five herbs (Astragalus mongholius Bunge, Cordyceps sinensis Sacc., Radix stemonae, Bulbus fritillariae cirrhosae, and Radix scutellariae) or placebo for 6 months. The primary endpoint was the change in steroids dosage; the secondary outcomes included the disease severity score, lung function test, and biochemical markers in blood. Eighty-five (85) children (42 on active treatment and 43 on placebo) completed the 6-month clinical trial. Children randomized to the herbal formula of CUF2 and the placebo showed a similar improvement in clinical symptoms and biomedical markers. The comparison between the CUF2 group and the placebo group showed no significant difference on the dosage of steroids (-2.3 versus -3.1 mg, p = 0.915), disease severity score (-2.3 versus -3.1, p = 0.215), and lung function test of forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity percent (0.1 versus 0.6%, p = 0.809) and peak expiratory flow rate (-7.3 versus -0.6 l/minutes, p = 0.118). No significant difference was found between the two study groups in the biochemical outcomes measured. The intervention effect of CUF2 was smaller than the placebo effect. This study provides no evidence to support the use of the herbal formula of CUF2 in children with asthma. Parents are thus advised to discuss with health professionals before choosing an herbal formula in preference to conventional treatment modes.

  11. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of simvastatin to treat Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K.L.; Galasko, D.; Galvin, J.E.; Thomas, R.G.; van Dyck, C.H.; Aisen, P.S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lowering cholesterol is associated with reduced CNS amyloid deposition and increased dietary cholesterol increases amyloid accumulation in animal studies. Epidemiologic data suggest that use of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) may decrease the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and a single-site trial suggested possible benefit in cognition with statin treatment in AD, supporting the hypothesis that statin therapy is useful in the treatment of AD. Objective: To determine if the lipid-lowering agent simvastatin slows the progression of symptoms in AD. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of simvastatin was conducted in individuals with mild to moderate AD and normal lipid levels. Participants were randomly assigned to receive simvastatin, 20 mg/day, for 6 weeks then 40 mg per day for the remainder of 18 months or identical placebo. The primary outcome was the rate of change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive portion (ADAS-Cog). Secondary outcomes measured clinical global change, cognition, function, and behavior. Results: A total of 406 individuals were randomized: 204 to simvastatin and 202 to placebo. Simvastatin lowered lipid levels but had no effect on change in ADAS-Cog score or the secondary outcome measures. There was no evidence of increased adverse events with simvastatin treatment. Conclusion: Simvastatin had no benefit on the progression of symptoms in individuals with mild to moderate AD despite significant lowering of cholesterol. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that simvastatin 40 mg/day does not slow decline on the ADAS-Cog. PMID:21795660

  12. Psyllium Supplementation in Adolescents Improves Fat Distribution & Lipid Profile: A Randomized, Participant-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial

    OpenAIRE

    de Bock, Martin; Derraik, José G. B.; Brennan, Christine M.; Biggs, Janene B.; Smith, Greg C.; Cameron-Smith, David; Wall, Clare R.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: We aimed to assess the effects of psyllium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and other parameters of the metabolic syndrome in an at risk adolescent population. METHODS: This study encompassed a participant-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Subjects were 47 healthy adolescent males aged 15-16 years, recruited from secondary schools in lower socio-economic areas with high rates of obesity. Participants received 6 g/day of psyllium or placebo for 6 weeks, with...

  13. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of orlistat for weight loss in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maahs, David; de Serna, Daniela Gonzalez; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Ralston, Shawn; Sandate, Jeffrey; Qualls, Clifford; Schade, David S

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of orlistat to enhance weight loss in obese adolescents. The study was a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare the effects of orlistat (120 mg orally 3 times a day) and placebo on reduction of body mass index (BMI). Forty adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age with a mean BMI of 40 kg/m2 entered the protocol between December 2002 and February 2003. Study subjects stayed overnight in the General Clinical Research Center, during which dietary records were reviewed and lifestyle recommendations were given. The study participants received either orlistat (120 mg orally 3 times a day) or placebo and were assessed monthly for 6 months. At 0, 3, and 6 months, fasting laboratory tests were performed. The primary end point was the change in BMI from baseline to 6 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in weight, lean body mass, and results of blood chemistry studies. No statistically significant difference was noted between the 2 study groups for decrease in BMI from baseline to 6 months (P = 0.39). The decrease in BMI within the orlistat group (-1.3 +/- 1.6 kg/m2; P = 0.04) and within the placebo group (-0.8 +/- 3.0 kg/m2; P = 0.02), however, was statistically significant. Laboratory measurements did not differ between the 2 groups. In comparison with the placebo group, the orlistat group had increased adverse events, primarily gastrointestinal symptoms and findings. In this study of obese adolescents, orlistat did not significantly reduce BMI in comparison with placebo at 6 months.

  14. Distal Ureteric Stones and Tamsulosin: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Multicenter Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furyk, Jeremy S; Chu, Kevin; Banks, Colin; Greenslade, Jaimi; Keijzers, Gerben; Thom, Ogilvie; Torpie, Tom; Dux, Carl; Narula, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    We assess the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin compared with placebo as medical expulsive therapy in patients with distal ureteric stones less than or equal to 10 mm in diameter. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial of adult participants with calculus on computed tomography (CT). Patients were allocated to 0.4 mg of tamsulosin or placebo daily for 28 days. The primary outcomes were stone expulsion on CT at 28 days and time to stone expulsion. There were 403 patients randomized, 81.4% were men, and the median age was 46 years. The median stone size was 4.0 mm in the tamsulosin group and 3.7 mm in the placebo group. Of 316 patients who received CT at 28 days, stone passage occurred in 140 of 161 (87.0%) in the tamsulosin group and 127 of 155 (81.9%) with placebo, a difference of 5.0% (95% confidence interval -3.0% to 13.0%). In a prespecified subgroup analysis of large stones (5 to 10 mm), 30 of 36 (83.3%) tamsulosin participants had stone passage compared with 25 of 41 (61.0%) with placebo, a difference of 22.4% (95% confidence interval 3.1% to 41.6%) and number needed to treat of 4.5. There was no difference in urologic interventions, time to self-reported stone passage, pain, or analgesia requirements. Adverse events were generally mild and did not differ between groups. We found no benefit overall of 0.4 mg of tamsulosin daily for patients with distal ureteric calculi less than or equal to 10 mm in terms of spontaneous passage, time to stone passage, pain, or analgesia requirements. In the subgroup with large stones (5 to 10 mm), tamsulosin did increase passage and should be considered. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of Dapsone in Antihistamine Refractory Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Matt; Cooke, Andrew; Rogers, Laura; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Khan, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Management of antihistamine refractory CIU has poorly defined therapeutic options. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of dapsone in antihistamine refractory CIU compared to placebo. Methods Twenty-two patients with antihistamine refractory CIU were randomly assigned to 100 mg of dapsone daily or placebo for 6 weeks in a 14 week double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Endpoints were measured from a daily diary reflecting weekly hive score (WHS) and weekly itch score (WIS) and a visual analog score. Secondary to a carryover effect, the first period results were analyzed as a parallel design comparing placebo to dapsone directly using repeated measures analysis. Results After 6 weeks patients in the dapsone arm showed mean improvement over baseline in VAS (+2.3 [0.6,4.1], p=0.01), urticaria score (-3.5 [-6.2, -0.9], p=0.01), and itch score (-4.8 [-7.6, -2.1], p=0.001), whereas the placebo arm showed no improvement over baseline for VAS, urticaria or itch scores. Dapsone showed greater improvement compared to placebo for itch (p=0.047) and VAS (p=0.04). Of the 22 patients, 3 showed complete resolution of hives and itch with dapsone, while 31% and 41% had ≥ 50% resolution of hives and itch respectively. No serious adverse effects were observed from dapsone. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first DBPC study of dapsone in CIU and suggests dapsone has efficacy in antihistamine refractory CIU patients. PMID:25213055

  16. Double blind, placebo-controlled trial of Tranexamic acid on recent internal hemorrhoid bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul A. Rani

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Double blind randomized placebo controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Tranexamic acid in 54 patients with recent hemorrhoid bleeding. Age, gender, body weight, height, grade of hemorrhoid, time of onset of recent bleeding were comparable between two groups. Analysis of haemostatic effect or stop bleeding as an immediate outcome of this study revealed that in the grade 2 patients, 23/23 (100% of tranexamic group and 18/23(78.26% of placebo group the bleeding stop. After 3 days of observation, there was statistically significant different for the rate of stop bleeding as well as at the end of observation. Bleeding stop earlier in the Tranexamic group with median 4 days (3-5 days, compare to placebo, median 11(9.55-12.45. Analysis of recurrent bleeding as an outcome of this study revealed that in the placebo group 9/18(50% of grade 2 patients and all grade 3 (100%patients suffered from recurrent bleeding. Since the days 4, both group have significant different time for recurrent bleeding and at the end of observation, cumulative probability of free of bleeding between two groups significantly different. Median still stop bleeding in the placebo group was 36 days, and the tranexamic group never reaches the median until the end of observation. Conclusion: tranexamic acid was an effective drug to stop recent hemorrhoid bleeding and prevent further recurrent bleeding, significantly better than placebo. (Med J Indones 2002;11: 215-21Keywords: Tranexamic acid, hemorrhoid bleeding, haemostatic effect, recurrent bleeding.

  17. Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial of Selenium in Graves Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahaly, George J; Riedl, Michaela; König, Jochem; Diana, Tanja; Schomburg, Lutz

    2017-11-01

    Supplemental selenium (Se) may affect the clinical course of Graves disease (GD). Evaluate efficacy of add-on Se on medical treatment in GD. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized supplementation trial. Academic endocrine outpatient clinic. Seventy untreated hyperthyroid patients with GD. Additionally to methimazole (MMI), patients received for 24 weeks either sodium selenite 300 µg/d po or placebo. MMI was discontinued at 24 weeks in euthyroid patients. Response rate (week 24), recurrence rate (week 36), and safety. A response was registered in 25 of 31 patients (80%) and in 27 of 33 (82%) at week 24 [odds ratio (OR) 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.26 to 3.25; P = 0.904] in the Se (+MMI) and placebo (+MMI) groups, respectively. During a 12-week follow-up, 11 of 23 (48%) and 12 of 27 (44%) relapsed (OR 1.13; 95% CI, 0.29 to 2.66; P = 0.81) in the Se and placebo groups, respectively. Serum concentrations of Se and selenoprotein P were unrelated to response or recurrence rates. At week 36, 12 of 29 (41%) and 15 of 33 (45%) were responders and still in remission in the Se and placebo groups, respectively (OR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.31 to 2.32; P = 0.80). Serum levels of free triiodothyronine/free tetraiodothyronine, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody, prevalence of moderate to severe Graves orbitopathy, thyroid volume, and MMI starting dose were significantly lower in responders than in nonresponders. A total of 56 and 63 adverse events occurred in the Se and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.164), whereas only one drug-related side effect (2.9%) was noted in 35 patients on placebo + MMI. Supplemental Se did not affect response or recurrence rates in GD. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  18. Threshold electrical stimulation (TES) in ambulant children with CP: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dali, Christine í; Hansen, Flemming Juul; Pedersen, Søren Anker

    2002-01-01

    A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out to determine whether a group of stable children with cerebral palsy (36 males, 21 females; mean age 10 years 11 months, range 5 to 18 years) would improve their motor skills after 12 months of threshold electrical...... stimulation (TES). Two thirds received active and one third received inactive stimulators. For the primary outcome we constructed a set of plausible motor function tests and studied the change in summary indices of the performance measurements. Tests were videotaped and assessed blindly to record qualitative...

  19. Pregabalin in patients with central neuropathic pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a flexible-dose regimen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vranken, J. H.; Dijkgraaf, M. G. W.; Kruis, M. R.; van der Vegt, M. H.; Hollmann, M. W.; Heesen, M.

    2008-01-01

    The effective treatment of patients suffering from central neuropathic pain remains a clinical challenge, despite a standard pharmacological approach in combination with anticonvulsants and antidepressants. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the effects of pregabalin on

  20. Duloxetine in patients with central neuropathic pain caused by spinal cord injury or stroke: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vranken, J. H.; Hollmann, M. W.; van der Vegt, M. H.; Kruis, M. R.; Heesen, M.; Vos, K.; Pijl, A. J.; Dijkgraaf, M. G. W.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying central neuropathic pain are poorly understood. Pain inhibitory mechanisms including sertononergic and norepinephrine systems may be dysfunctional. In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial we evaluated the effects of duloxetine on pain relief

  1. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Modafinil for Cocaine Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dackis, Charles A.; Kampman, Kyle M.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Plebani, Jennifer G.; Pettinati, Helen M.; Sparkman, Thorne; O’Brien, Charles P.

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study of modafinil treatment for cocaine dependence. Patients (n=210), who were actively using cocaine at baseline, were randomized to 8-weeks of modafinil (0 mg/day, 200 mg/day or 400 mg/day) combined with once-weekly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Our primary efficacy measure was cocaine abstinence, based on urine benzoylecgonine (BE) levels, with secondary measures of craving, cocaine withdrawal, retention and tolerability. We found no significant differences between modafinil and placebo patients on any of these measures. However, there was a significant gender difference in that male patients treated with 400 mg/day tended to be more abstinent than their placebo-treated counterparts (p=0.06). Our negative findings might be explained by gender differences and/or inadequate psychosocial treatment intensity in patients with severe cocaine dependence. PMID:22377391

  2. High-volume infiltration analgesia in total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.O.; Husted, H.; Otte, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    through an intra-articular catheter for 24 h and pain and opioid requirements assessed for 48 h in a fast-track setting. RESULTS: Pain at rest and during movement was significantly reduced for up to 32 h with the high-volume local anesthetic infiltration technique. No major side effects were observed......BACKGROUND: High-volume infiltration analgesia may be effective with a low risk of side effects in hip and knee arthroplasty. The present placebo-controlled study was carried out to evaluate the analgesic effect of high-volume infiltration analgesia in bilateral total knee arthroplasty, along...... with a detailed description of the infiltration technique. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 12 patients undergoing bilateral knee arthroplasty, saline or high-volume (170 ml) ropivacaine (0.2%) with epinephrine was infiltrated around each knee, with repeated doses administered...

  3. Implementation of a Novel Adherence Monitoring Strategy in a Phase III, Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husnik, Marla J; Brown, Elizabeth R; Marzinke, Mark; Livant, Edward; Palanee-Phillips, Thesla; Hendrix, Craig W; Matovu Kiweewa, Flavia; Nair, Gonasagrie; Soto-Torres, Lydia E; Schwartz, Katie; Hillier, Sharon L; Baeten, Jared M

    2017-11-01

    Placebo-controlled HIV-1 prevention trials of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have not generally used concurrent measurement of adherence because of the potential risk of unblinding. However, several pre-exposure prophylaxis trials for HIV-1 prevention among women failed to show effectiveness because of low product adherence. Evaluation of product adherence objectively during a study provides the opportunity for strengthening adherence activities at sites having low adherence. During MTN-020/ASPIRE, a phase III, placebo-controlled trial of the dapivirine intravaginal ring, we implemented an adherence monitoring system. Monitoring began in quarter 1 (Q1) 2013 and continued through the conclusion of the trial. Blood plasma was collected quarterly and tested for dapivirine concentrations while maintaining blinding among study team members involved in participant management. Dapivirine concentrations >95 pg/mL, reflecting >8 hours of continuous use, were assessed as signaling product use. Study leadership monitored results on a monthly basis and provided feedback to site investigators. Experiences were shared across sites to motivate staff and counsel participants to strive toward higher adherence levels. An upward trend in adherence was observed (P 95 pg/mL increased from 63% in Q1 2013 to 84% by Q1 2015. Ongoing drug level testing as a marker of adherence in MTN-020/ASPIRE demonstrates the feasibility of real-time adherence monitoring while maintaining study blinding at the level of participants, sites, and study leadership. This approach is novel for large-scale effectiveness studies for HIV-1 prevention.

  4. Trachyspermum ammi 10 % topical cream versus placebo on neuropathic pain, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petramfar, Peyman; Moein, Mahmoodreza; Samani, Soliman Mohammadi; Tabatabaei, Sayed Hamidreza; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2016-09-01

    A four-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to assay the effectiveness of Ajwain 10 % (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) topical cream on neuropathic pain. Intervention encompassed Ajwain 10 % and placebo creams. Ninety-two patients who specifically mentioned daily and nocturnal burning feet were randomly assigned to receive one of those interventions. Presence and decline in patients' numbness, tingling and allodynia were also evaluated. Major outcome measure was alteration in feet burning intensity (final week versus baseline week) regarding to a visual analog scale on a 0-10 cm scale (0 being "no pain", 10 being "worst pain"). Significant reduction in feet burning scores as well as numbness, tingling and allodynia were found in Ajwain group compared to placebo. This trial examining a cream of Ajwain essential oil versus placebo revealed the significance difference between two groups. This medicament can be a good candidate for the alleviation of feet burning, a neuropathic complication.

  5. Randomized, placebo controlled, double blind trial evaluating early pregnancy phytonutrient supplementation in the prevention of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, M R; Martin, J N; Lamarca, B B; Ellis, B; Parrish, S A; Owens, M Y; May, W L

    2013-08-01

    Daily provision of pregnant patients with dietary supplements containing antioxidants and phytonutrients, if initiated in the first trimester of pregnancy and continued throughout the gestation, may significantly decrease the incidence of preeclampsia. We conducted a single center, randomized, placebo-controlled investigation in which women were randomized by their risk status and assigned to daily ingestion of a supplement consisting primarily of a blended fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate or placebo. Of the 684 patients randomized to the trial, 267 (39.0%) completed it. The final analysis is based on those participants who completed the study. For the primary outcome of preeclampsia, there was no difference observed between the phytonutrient supplement group and the placebo group: 15.9% vs 16.3%, respectively, (R.R. 0.97 (0.56-1.69)). Non-significant trends toward lower placenta-related obstetrical complications were observed in the supplement group compared with the placebo cohort (8.3% vs 15.5%, respectively, (R.R. 0.57 (0.29-1.14). Those infants born to mothers taking the supplement in the high-risk stratified group demonstrated non-significant trends toward lower rates of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS); 5.3% in the supplement group vs 15.4% in the placebo group: R.R. 0.34 (0.12-1.01). Initiation of antioxidant/phytonutrient supplementation in the first trimester did not decrease rates of preeclampsia. Non-significant trends toward lower incidences of placental derived morbidity in those mothers taking the supplement in addition to decreased rates of RDS in infants born to supplemented mothers considered to be high-risk for preeclampsia, warrant further investigation.

  6. Nigella sativa Supplementation Improves Asthma Control and Biomarkers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, Abdulrahman; Wei, Li; Koshak, Emad; Wali, Siraj; Alamoudi, Omer; Demerdash, Abdulrahman; Qutub, Majdy; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Heinrich, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Poor compliance with conventional asthma medications remains a major problem in achieving asthma control. Nigella sativa oil (NSO) is used traditionally for many inflammatory conditions such as asthma. We aimed to investigate the benefits of NSO supplementation on clinical and inflammatory parameters of asthma. NSO capsules 500 mg twice daily for 4 weeks were used as a supplementary treatment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in asthmatics (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02407262). The primary outcome was Asthma Control Test score. The secondary outcomes were pulmonary function test, blood eosinophils and total serum Immunoglobulin E. Between 1 June and 30 December 2015, 80 asthmatics were enrolled, with 40 patients in each treatment and placebo groups. After 4 weeks, ten patients had withdrawn from each group. Compared with placebo, NSO group showed a significant improvement in mean Asthma Control Test score 21.1 (standard deviation = 2.6) versus 19.6 (standard deviation = 3.7) (p = 0.044) and a significant reduction in blood eosinophils by -50 (-155 to -1) versus 15 (-60 to 87) cells/μL (p = 0.013). NSO improved forced expiratory volume in 1 second as percentage of predicted value by 4 (-1.25 to 8.75) versus 1 (-2 to 5) but non-significant (p = 0.170). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial demonstrated that NSO supplementation improves asthma control with a trend in pulmonary function improvement. This was associated with a remarkable normalization of blood eosinophlia. Future studies should follow asthmatics for longer periods in a multicentre trial. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Fusidic acid cream in the treatment of impetigo in general practice: double blind randomised placebo controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Koning (Sander); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette); J.L. Nouwen (Jan); C.M. Verduin (Cees); R.M.D. Bernsen (Roos); A.P. Oranje (Arnold); S. Thomas (Siep); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fusidic acid would not increase the treatment effect of disinfecting with povidone-iodine alone in children with impetigo. DESIGN: Randomised placebo controlled trial. SETTING: General practices in Greater Rotterdam.

  8. Olanzapine versus Placebo in Adolescents with Schizophrenia; a 6-Week, Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzhanovskaya, Ludmila; Schulz, Charles; McDougle, Christopher; Frazier, Jean; Dittman, Ralf; Robertson-Plouch, Carol; Bauer, Theresa; Xu, Wen; Wang, Wei; Carlson, Janice; Tohen, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of olanzapine in treating schizophrenia was tested through a placebo-controlled trial involving one hundred seven inpatient and outpatients adolescents. Patients who took olanzapine experienced significant symptom improvement.

  9. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of omeprazole on urinary pH in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Rasmussen, L; Pedersen, S A

    1992-01-01

    male subjects took placebo and omeprazole, 40 mg o.m., for 10 days in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Morning fasting urinary pH was measured on day 10 of each treatment course using a pH meter. No effect of omeprazole on urinary pH could be demonstrated. It is thus unlikely......Urinary pH is related to urinary calculus formation as well as urinary infection. Omeprazole is an effective inhibitor of gastric acid secretion through inhibition of the parietal cell H+K+ATPase. In this study we have evaluated a possible effect of omeprazole on urine acidification. Ten healthy...... that it is necessary to take omeprazole treatment into consideration in stone screening. As omeprazole did not affect urinary pH, no urological side effects related to changes in urinary pH can be expected....

  10. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ficus carica paste for the management of functional constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyang-Im; Ha, Ki-Chan; Kim, Hye-Mi; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Park, Eun-Ock; Park, Byung-Hyun; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Hee Joo; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Constipation affects up to 20% of the world's population. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation with Ficus carica paste could be used to treat constipation in Korean subjects with functional constipation. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects with functional constipation were orally supplemented with either F. carica paste (n=40) or placebo (n=40) for 8 weeks. We measured the efficacy and safety of F. carica paste. Primary outcomes (colon transit time) and secondary outcomes (questionnaire related to defecation) were compared before and after the 8-week intervention period. F. carica paste supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in colon transit time and a significant improvement in stool type and abdominal discomfort compared with the placebo. Blood parameters and clinical findings for organ toxicity remained within normal ranges. These results suggest that F. carica paste may have beneficial effects in subjects suffering from constipation.

  11. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of omeprazole on urinary pH in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Rasmussen, L; Pedersen, S A

    1992-01-01

    Urinary pH is related to urinary calculus formation as well as urinary infection. Omeprazole is an effective inhibitor of gastric acid secretion through inhibition of the parietal cell H+K+ATPase. In this study we have evaluated a possible effect of omeprazole on urine acidification. Ten healthy...... male subjects took placebo and omeprazole, 40 mg o.m., for 10 days in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Morning fasting urinary pH was measured on day 10 of each treatment course using a pH meter. No effect of omeprazole on urinary pH could be demonstrated. It is thus unlikely...... that it is necessary to take omeprazole treatment into consideration in stone screening. As omeprazole did not affect urinary pH, no urological side effects related to changes in urinary pH can be expected....

  12. Magnesium sulfate with lidocaine for preventing propofol injection pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgon, Richard E; Strube, Peter; Heier, Jake; Groth, Jeremy; Wang, Sijian; Schroeder, Kristopher M

    2015-04-01

    Propofol injection pain, despite various strategies, remains common and troublesome. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that pretreatment with the combination of intravenous lidocaine and magnesium would have an additive effect on reducing propofol injection pain. After institutional review board (IRB) approval and informed consent, we performed a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Subjects were randomly assigned to pretreatment with either lidocaine (50 mg), magnesium sulfate (0.25 mg), lidocaine (50 mg) plus magnesium sulfate (0.25 mg), or 0.9 % sodium chloride. Following pretreatment, propofol (50 mg) was administered, and subjects were questioned regarding injection site pain and observed for behavioral signs of pain. Two hundred subjects were enrolled and 158 subjects (39 placebo, 38 lidocaine, 44 magnesium sulfate, and 37 lidocaine plus magnesium sulfate) received their assigned pretreatment intervention. Intergroup baseline characteristics were similar. The proportion of subjects reporting propofol injection pain was highest in those pretreated with magnesium sulfate (57 %), followed by those pretreated with placebo (46 %), lidocaine plus magnesium sulfate (41 %), and then lidocaine (29 %; p = 0.011). When adjusted for age, gender, diabetes mellitus, chronic pain, tobacco use, and selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor use, the pain response scale scores were significantly reduced by lidocaine pretreatment compared to magnesium sulfate and placebo (p = 0.031 and p = 0.0003, respectively). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, the combination of intravenous magnesium sulfate and lidocaine offered no additional benefit for the relief of propofol injection pain compared to intravenous lidocaine alone. An improved, receptor-based understanding of the mechanism of propofol injection pain is still needed.

  13. A randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled trial in dementia patients continuing or stopping neuroleptics (the DART-AD trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Ballard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There have been increasing concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of neuroleptics in people with dementia, but there are very few long-term trials to inform clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of long-term treatment with neuroleptic agents upon global cognitive decline and neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Alzheimer disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: DESIGN: Randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled parallel two-group treatment discontinuation trial. SETTING: Oxfordshire, Newcastle and Gateshead, London and Edinburgh, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Patients currently prescribed the neuroleptics thioridazine, chlorpromazine, haloperidol trifluoperazine or risperidone for behavioural or psychiatric disturbance in dementia for at least 3 mo. INTERVENTIONS: Continue neuroleptic treatment for 12 mo or switch to an identical placebo. OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was total Severe Impairment Battery (SIB score. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. RESULTS: 165 patients were randomised (83 to continue treatment and 82 to placebo, i.e., discontinue treatment, of whom 128 (78% commenced treatment (64 continue/64 placebo. Of those, 26 were lost to follow-up (13 per arm, resulting in 51 patients per arm analysed for the primary outcome. There was no significant difference between the continue treatment and placebo groups in the estimated mean change in SIB scores between baseline and 6 mo; estimated mean difference in deterioration (favouring placebo -0.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] -6.4 to 5.5, adjusted for baseline value (p = 0.9. For neuropsychiatric symptoms, there was no significant difference between the continue treatment and placebo groups (n = 56 and 53, respectively in the estimated mean change in NPI scores between baseline and 6 mo; estimated mean difference in deterioration (favouring continue treatment -2.4 (95% CI -8.2 to 3.5, adjusted for

  14. The Addition of Platelet-Rich Plasma to Facial Lipofilling: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Joep C N; Van Dongen, Joris; Spiekman, Maroesjka; Vermeulen, Karin M; Harmsen, Martin C; van der Lei, Berend; Stevens, H P Jeroen

    2018-02-01

    Lipofilling is a treatment modality to restore tissue volume, but it may also rejuvenate the aging skin. Platelet-rich plasma has been reported to augment the efficacy of lipofilling, both on graft take and rejuvenation, by altering the adipose-derived stem cells. The authors hypothesized that addition of platelet-rich plasma would increase the rejuvenating effect and shorten recovery time. The study conducted was a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial (2012 to 2015). In total, a well-defined cohort of 32 healthy female patients enrolled in the study, with 25 completing the follow-up. All patients underwent aesthetic facial lipofilling with either saline or platelet-rich plasma added. Outcome was determined by changes in skin elasticity, volumetric changes of the nasolabial fold, recovery time, and patient satisfaction during follow-up (1 year). Platelet-rich plasma did not improve the outcome of facial lipofilling when looking at skin elasticity improvement, graft volume maintenance in the nasolabial fold. Reversal of the correlation between age and elasticity, however, might suggest a small effect size, and thus might not be significant with our small study population. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study clearly has shown that platelet-rich plasma significantly reduces postoperative recovery time but does not improve patient outcome when looking at skin elasticity, improvement of the nasolabial fold, or patient satisfaction. The reversal of the correlation between age and elasticity might indicate some effect on skin but requires more power in future studies. Therapeutic, II.

  15. Lactobacillus reuteri for Infants with Colic: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatheree, Nicole Y; Liu, Yuying; Taylor, Christopher M; Hoang, Thomas K; Cai, Chunyan; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Ferris, Michael; McMurtry, Valarie; Wong, Christine; Vu, Ta; Dancsak, Theresa; Wang, Ting; Gleason, Wallace; Bandla, Vinay; Navarro, Fernando; Tran, Dat Q; Rhoads, J Marc

    2017-12-01

    To assess the safety of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strain Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen (DSM) 17938 with daily administration to healthy infants with colic and to determine the effect of L reuteri strain DSM 17938 on crying, fussing, inflammatory, immune, and microbiome variables. We performed a controlled, double-blinded, phase 1 safety and tolerability trial in healthy breast-fed infants with colic, aged 3 weeks to 3 months, randomly assigned to L reuteri strain DSM 17938 (5 × 10 8 colony-forming units daily) or placebo for 42 days and followed for 134 days. Of 117 screened infants, 20 were randomized to L reuteri strain DSM 17938 or placebo (sunflower oil) (in a 2:1 ratio) with 80% retention. Eleven of the 20 (55%) presented with low absolute neutrophil counts (L reuteri strain DSM 17938 produced no severe adverse events and did not significantly change crying time, plasma bicarbonate, or inflammatory biomarkers. Fecal calprotectin decreased rapidly in both groups. In the infants with dominant fecal gram negatives (Klebsiella, Proteus, and Veillonella), resolution of colic was associated with marked decreases in these organisms. Daily administration of L reuteri strain DSM 17938 appears to be safe in newborn infants with colic, including those with neutropenia, which frequently coexists. A placebo response of 66% suggests that many infants with colic will have resolution within 3 weeks. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01849991. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of memantine for agitation in Alzheimer's dementia: a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Fox

    Full Text Available Agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD is common and associated with poor patient life-quality and carer distress. The best evidence-based pharmacological treatments are antipsychotics which have limited benefits with increased morbidity and mortality. There are no memantine trials in clinically significant agitation but post-hoc analyses in other populations found reduced agitation. We tested the primary hypothesis, memantine is superior to placebo for clinically significant agitation, in patients with moderate-to-severe AD.We recruited 153 participants with AD and clinically significant agitation from care-homes or hospitals for a double-blind randomised-controlled trial and 149 people started the trial of memantine versus placebo. The primary outcome was 6 weeks mixed model autoregressive analysis of Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI. Secondary outcomes were: 12 weeks CMAI; 6 and 12 weeks Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI, Clinical Global Impression Change (CGI-C, Standardised Mini Mental State Examination, Severe Impairment Battery. Using a mixed effects model we found no significant differences in the primary outcome, 6 weeks CMAI, between memantine and placebo (memantine lower -3.0; -8.3 to 2.2, p = 0.26; or 12 weeks CMAI; or CGI-C or adverse events at 6 or 12 weeks. NPI mean difference favoured memantine at weeks 6 (-6.9; -12.2 to -1.6; p = 0.012 and 12 (-9.6; -15.0 to -4.3 p = 0.0005. Memantine was significantly better than placebo for cognition. The main study limitation is that it still remains to be determined whether memantine has a role in milder agitation in AD.Memantine did not improve significant agitation in people with in moderate-to-severe AD. Future studies are urgently needed to test other pharmacological candidates in this group and memantine for neuropsychiatric symptoms.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00371059.International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial 24953404.

  17. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controled clinical trial of sublingual immunotherapy in natural rubber latex allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audicana Maria T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural rubber latex allergy is a common and unsolved health problem. Since the avoidance of exposure is very difficult, immunotherapy is strongly recommended, but before its use in patients, it is essential to prove the efficacy and safety of extracts. The aim of the present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of latex sublingual immunotherapy in adult patients undergoing permanent latex avoidance. Methods Twenty-eight adult latex-allergic patients (5 males and 23 females, with mean age of 39 years (range 24-57 were randomized to receive a commercial latex-sublingual immunotherapy or placebo during one year, followed by another year of open, active therapy. The following outcomes were measured at baseline and at the end of first and second year of follow-up: skin prick test, gloves-use score, conjunctival challenge test, total and specific IgE, basophil activation test, and adverse reactions monitoring. Results No significant difference in any of the efficacy in vivo variables was observed between active and placebo groups at the end of the placebo-controlled phase, nor when each group was compared with their baseline values at the end of the two year-study. An improvement in the average percentage of basophils activated was observed. During the induction phase, 4 reactions in the active group and 5 in the placebo group were recorded. During the maintenance phase, two patients dropped out due to pruritus and to acute dermatitis respectively. Conclusion Further studies are needed to evaluate latex-sublingual immunotherapy, since efficacy could not be demonstrated in adult patients with avoidance of the allergen. Trial registration number ACTRN12611000543987

  18. Efficacy of Dragon's blood cream on wound healing: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroogh Namjoyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The blood-red sap of Dragon's blood has been used in folk medicine for fractures, wounds, inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatism, blood circulation dysfunctions, and cancer. Existing in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of this herb on different mechanisms of healing shows strong potential of this sap in wound healing. This clinical trial study was designated to evaluate the wound healing effect of Dragon's blood on human wounds. Sixty patients, between the ages of 14–65 years, who were referred to remove their skin tag, were assigned to this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial and received either Dragon's blood or a placebo cream. They were visited on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th, and 20th day of the trial to check the process of healing and to measure the wound's surface. At the end of trial, there was a significant difference in the mean duration of wound healing between the two groups (p = 0.0001. The phenolic compounds and the alkaloid taspine, which exist in Dragon's-blood resin, are probably the main reasons for the wound healing property of this plant. Being natural accessible, safe, and affordable makes Dragon's blood cream, a good choice for addition to the wound healing armamentarium. Further studies on wounds with different causes and among larger populations are suggested to ensure the effectiveness and safety of Dragon's blood.

  19. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Human Immunoglobulin for Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Melmed, Raun D.; Hansen, Robin L.; Aman, Michael G.; Burnham, David L.; Bruss, Jon B.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the extent and possible causal relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and autism. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups, dose-ranging study of oral, human immunoglobulin (IGOH 140, 420, or 840 mg/day) was utilized with 125 children (ages 2-17 years) with autism and persistent GI…

  20. Adjuvant Aspirin Therapy Reduces Symptoms of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders : Results From a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Wijnand; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Selten, Jean-Paul; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Kahn, Rene S.; Burger, Huibert

    Objective: Inflammatory processes may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of adjuvant treatment with aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Method: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled

  1. The effect of cetirizine in dogs with chronic atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Yun-Hsia; Chen, Charles; Willemse, Ton

    2016-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to evaluate the effect of cetirizine in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD), fulfilling Favrot's diagnostic clinical criteria. In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study, the dogs received either 3 mg/kg cetirizine orally once daily (n=27), or a placebo (n=23)

  2. Heart rate acceleration with GLP-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes patients : an acute and 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Mark M; Tonneijck, Lennart; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Hoekstra, T.; Kramer, Mark H H; Diamant, Michaela; van Raalte, Daniël H

    OBJECTIVE: To examine mechanisms underlying resting heart rate (RHR) increments of GLP-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes patients. DESIGN: Acute and 12-week randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, single-centre, parallel-group trial. METHODS: In total, 57 type 2 diabetes patients

  3. CT scan-evaluated outcome of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of acute scaphoid fractures: a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannemann, P.F.; van Wezenbeek, M.R.; Kolkman, K.A.; Twiss, E.L.; Berghmans, C.H.; Dirven, P.A.; Brink, P.R.; Poeze, M.

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesised that the use of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) bone growth stimulation in acute scaphoid fractures would significantly shorten the time to union and reduce the number of nonunions in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre trial. A total of 102 patients (78

  4. Flexible-dose fesoterodine in elderly adults with overactive bladder: results of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of fesoterodine in an aging population trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagg, Adrian; Khullar, Vik; Marschall-Kehrel, Daniela; Michel, Martin C.; Oelke, Matthias; Darekar, Amanda; Bitoun, Caty E.; Weinstein, David; Osterloh, Ian

    2013-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of flexible-dose fesoterodine in elderly adults with overactive bladder (OAB). Twelve-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Sixty-one outpatient clinics in Europe, Israel, and Turkey. Seven hundred ninety-four individuals aged 65 and older (47%

  5. Low doses of mirtazapine or quetiapine for transient insomnia : A randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, Julie; Hagenauw, Loes A.; Kamphuis, Jeanine; Lancel, Marike

    Low doses of the antidepressant mirtazapine or the neuroleptic quetiapine are often prescribed off-label for insomnia. However, studies on the effects on sleep and hangover effects the following day are scarce. In this randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial, the influence of

  6. Effects of influenza plus pneumococcal conjugate vaccination versus influenza vaccination alone in preventing respiratory tract infections in children : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Angelique G S C; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Hoes, Arno W; van Loon, Anton M; Hak, Eelko

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of influenza vaccination with or without heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comprising 579 children age 18 to 72 months with

  7. Prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE) designed trials yield the same results as double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with respect to ABPM measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David H; Neutel, Joel M; Lacourcière, Yves; Kempthorne-Rawson, Joan

    2003-07-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to determine whether ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) results from double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) and prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE) hypertension trials are statistically comparable. Two DBPC and three PROBE parallel-group studies were selected from an angiotensin II receptor blocker clinical programme. These were fixed-dose studies involving similar mild to moderate hypertensive patient populations. All used SpaceLabs 90207 ABPM devices, and each comprised a 4-week placebo period and a 4-8-week treatment period. Data from patients receiving telmisartan 80 mg were used to compare the results of DBPC (126 patients) and PROBE (734 patients) trials. The analysis had approximately 87% power to show equivalence between the two design types in terms of ruling out differences of >or= 3 mmHg in SBP and >or= 2 mmHg in DBP. Office blood pressure was also compared. The change from baseline in mean 24-h ambulatory SBP was -12.2 mmHg in DBPC trials and -12.3 mmHg in PROBE trials, a rounded difference of 0.2 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI): -1.8, 2.1]. The change from baseline in mean 24-h ambulatory DBP was -7.7 mmHg in DBPC trials versus -7.9 mmHg in PROBE trials, a difference of 0.2 mmHg (95% CI: -1.1, 1.5). Ambulatory pulse pressure results were identical. Thus, changes in mean 24-h ambulatory blood pressure from the DBPC and PROBE trials in this meta-analysis are statistically equivalent in terms of ruling out a difference of >or= 3 mmHg in SBP and >or= 2 mmHg in DBP. This supports the validity of the PROBE design in assessing antihypertensive efficacy based on blinded ABPM measurements.

  8. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poeze Martijn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%, non-union (5-21% and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32% which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences. Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. Methods/Design This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning. Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory. Study parameters are clinical consolidation

  9. Methylprednisolone in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (SIRS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Richard P; Devereaux, P J; Teoh, Kevin H; Lamy, Andre; Vincent, Jessica; Pogue, Janice; Paparella, Domenico; Sessler, Daniel I; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Villar, Juan Carlos; Zuo, Yunxia; Avezum, Álvaro; Quantz, Mackenzie; Tagarakis, Georgios I; Shah, Pallav J; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin; Zheng, Hong; Pettit, Shirley; Chrolavicius, Susan; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-09-26

    Cardiopulmonary bypass initiates a systemic inflammatory response syndrome that is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Steroids suppress inflammatory responses and might improve outcomes in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. We aimed to assess the effects of steroids in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. The Steroids In caRdiac Surgery (SIRS) study is a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. We used a central computerised phone or interactive web system to randomly assign (1:1) patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality from 80 hospital or cardiac surgery centres in 18 countries undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass to receive either methylprednisolone (250 mg at anaesthetic induction and 250 mg at initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass) or placebo. Patients were assigned with block randomisation with random block sizes of 2, 4, or 6 and stratified by centre. Patients aged 18 years or older were eligible if they had a European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation of at least 6. Patients were excluded if they were taking or expected to receive systemic steroids in the immediate postoperative period or had a history of bacterial or fungal infection in the preceding 30 days. Patients, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. The primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and a composite of death and major morbidity (ie, myocardial injury, stroke, renal failure, or respiratory failure) within 30 days, both analysed by intention to treat. Safety outcomes were also analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00427388. Patients were recruited between June 21, 2007, and Dec 19, 2013. Complete 30-day data was available for all 7507 patients randomly assigned to methylprednisolone (n=3755) and to placebo (n=3752). Methylprednisolone, compared

  10. Effect of Uric Acid-Lowering Agents on Endothelial Function: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgi, Lea; McMullan, Ciaran; Wohlhueter, Ann; Curhan, Gary C; Fisher, Naomi D; Forman, John P

    2017-02-01

    Higher levels of serum uric acid are independently associated with endothelial dysfunction, a mechanism for incident hypertension. Overweight/obese individuals are more prone to endothelial dysfunction than their lean counterparts. However, the effect of lowering serum uric acid on endothelial dysfunction in these individuals has not been examined thoroughly. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nonhypertensive, overweight, or obese individuals with higher serum uric acid (body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 and serum uric acid ≥5.0 mg/dL), we assigned subjects to probenecid (500-1000 mg/d), allopurinol (300-600 mg/d), or matching placebo. The primary outcome was endothelium-dependent vasodilation measured by brachial artery ultrasound at baseline and 8 weeks. By the end of the trial, 47, 49, and 53 participants had been allocated to receive probenecid, allopurinol, and placebo, respectively. Mean serum uric acid levels significantly decreased in the probenecid (from 6.1 to 3.5 mg/dL) and allopurinol groups (from 6.1 to 2.9 mg/dL) but not in the placebo group (6.1 to 5.6 mg/dL). None of the interventions produced any significant change in endothelium-dependent vasodilation (probenecid, 7.4±5.1% at baseline and 8.3±5.1% at 8 weeks; allopurinol, 7.6±6.0% at baseline and 6.2±4.8% at 8 weeks; and placebo, 6.5±3.8% at baseline and 7.1±4.9% at 8 weeks). In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, uric acid lowering did not affect endothelial function in overweight or obese nonhypertensive individuals. These data do not support the hypothesis that uric acid is causally related to endothelial dysfunction, a potential mechanism for development of hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Pascal; Göttgens, Kevin W A; van Wely, Bob J; Kolkman, Karel A; Werre, Andries J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2011-05-06

    The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%), non-union (5-21%) and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32%) which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences.Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning).Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory.Study parameters are clinical consolidation, radiological consolidation evaluated by CT-scanning, functional

  12. Esomeprazole treatment of frequent heartburn: two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peura, David A; Traxler, Barry; Kocun, Christopher; Lind, Tore

    2014-07-01

    To determine the efficacy of a 14-day regimen of esomeprazole 20 mg for the treatment of frequent heartburn in subjects who are likely to self-treat with over-the-counter medications without consulting a health care provider. Adults with frequent heartburn ≥ 2 days per week in the past 4 weeks were randomly assigned to 14-day double-blind treatment with esomeprazole 20 mg once daily or placebo in 2 identical multicenter studies (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01370525, NCT01370538). The primary efficacy outcome was percentage of heartburn-free 24-hour days across 14 days. Secondary efficacy outcomes included heartburn resolution, defined as heartburn ≤ 2 days over 14 days, and percentages of subjects reporting ≤ 1 day with heartburn in the first and final weeks of treatment. Subjects recorded data in daily self-assessment diaries. The percentage of heartburn-free 24-hour days over 14 days was significantly higher (P esomeprazole 20 mg compared with placebo in study 1 (N = 331; 46.13% vs. 33.07%, respectively) and study 2 (N = 320; 48.00% vs 32.75%, respectively). Significantly more subjects treated with esomeprazole 20 mg had heartburn resolution over 14 days and in the first and final weeks compared with placebo. Within the first 4 days, the proportion of subjects with heartburn-free days was significantly greater with esomeprazole 20 mg versus placebo. Treatment was generally well tolerated, with a safety pattern consistent with the known profile for esomeprazole. A 14-day regimen of esomeprazole 20 mg once daily was effective for treating frequent heartburn in subjects who are likely to self-treat with over-the-counter medications.

  13. Intravenous lidocaine for postmastectomy pain treatment: randomized, blind, placebo controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Cursino de Menezes Couceiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Postoperative pain treatment in mastectomy remains a major challenge despite the multimodal approach. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of intravenous lidocaine in patients undergoing mastectomy, as well as the postoperative consumption of opioids. METHODS: After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira in Recife, Pernambuco, a randomized, blind, controlled trial was conducted with intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3 mg/kg infused over 1 h in 45 women undergoing mastectomy under general anesthesia. One patient from placebo group was. RESULTS: Groups were similar in age, body mass index, type of surgery, and postoperative need for opioids. Two of 22 patients in lidocaine group and three of 22 patients in placebo group requested opioid (p = 0.50. Pain on awakening was identified in 4/22 of lidocaine group and 5/22 of placebo group (p = 0.50; in the post-anesthetic recovery room in 14/22 and 12/22 (p = 0.37 of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively. Pain evaluation 24 h after surgery showed that 2/22 and 3/22 patients (p = 0.50 of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively, complained of pain. CONCLUSION: Intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3 mg/kg administered over a period of an hour during mastectomy did not promote additional analgesia compared to placebo in the first 24 h, and has not decreased opioid consumption. However, a beneficial effect of intravenous lidocaine in selected and/or other therapeutic regimens patients cannot be ruled out.

  14. Davunetide for Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Adam L.; Lang, Anthony E.; Grossman, Murray; Knopman, David S.; Miller, Bruce L.; Schneider, Lon S.; Doody, Rachelle S.; Lees, Andrew; Golbe, Lawrence I.; Williams, David R.; Corvol, Jean-Cristophe; Ludolph, Albert; Burn, David; Lorenzl, Stefan; Litvan, Irene; Roberson, Erik D.; Höglinger, Günter U.; Koestler, Mary; Jack, Clifford R.; Van Deerlin, Viviana; Randolph, Christopher; Lobach, Iryna V.; Heuer, Hilary W.; Gozes, Illana; Parker, Lesley; Whitaker, Steve; Hirman, Joe; Stewart, Alistair J.; Gold, Michael; Morimoto, Bruce H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Davunetide (AL-108, NAP) is an eightamino acid peptide that promotes microtubule stability and decreases tau phosphorylation in pre-clinical studies. Since PSP is tightly linked to tau pathology, davunetide could be an effective treatment for PSP.The goals of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of davunetide in PSP. Methods A phase 2/3 double-blind, parallel group, clinical trial of davunetide 30 mg or placebo (randomized 1:1) administered intranasally twice daily for 52 weeks was conducted at 48centers. Participants met modifiedNNIPPS criteria for possible or probable PSP. Co-primary endpointswere the change from baseline in PSP Rating Scale (PSPRS) and Schwab and England ADL(SEADL) scale at up to 52 weeks. Data from all individuals who received at least one dose of medication and had a post-baseline efficacy assessment were compared using a rank-based method.Secondary outcomes included the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) and the change in regional brain volumeon MRI. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01110720. Findings 360 participants were screened, 313 were randomized and 243 (77.6%) completed the study. There were no group differences in PSPRS (mean difference: 0.49 [95% CI: −1.5, 2.5], p = 0.72) or SEADL (1% [−2, 4%], p = 0.76) change from baseline (CFB) and mean 52 week CFB PSPRS scores were similar between the davunetide (11.3 [9.8,12.8]) and placebo groups (10.9 [9.1, 13.0]). There wereno differences in any of the secondary or exploratory endpoints. There were 11deaths in the davunetide group and tenin the placebo group. There were more nasal adverse events in the davunetide group. Interpretation Davunetide is well tolerated but is not an effective treatment for PSP. Clinical trials of disease modifying therapy are feasible in PSP and should be pursued with other promising tau-directed therapies. Funding Allon Therapeutics PMID:24873720

  15. Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Annette; Stevens, John

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Bacopa monnieri Linn. for improvement of memory performance in healthy older persons. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The trial took place in Lismore, NSW, Australia between February and July 2005. Ninety-eight (98) healthy participants over 55 years of age were recruited from the general population. Participants were randomized to receive an extract of Bacopa monnieri called BacoMind(TM) (Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd.), 300 mg/day, or an identical placebo. Following screening, neuropsychologic and subjective memory assessments were performed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Audioverbal and visual memory performance were measured by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and the Reitan Trail Making Test (TMT). Subjective memory performance was measured by the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q). One hundred and thirty-six (136) subjects volunteered; 103 met entry criteria, 98 commenced, and 81 completed the trial. Bacopa significantly improved verbal learning, memory acquisition, and delayed recall as measured by the AVLT: trial a4 (p = 0.000), trial a5 (p = 0.016); trial a6 (p = 0.000); trial a7 (delayed recall) (p = 0.001); total learning (p = 0.011); and retroactive interference (p = 0.048). CFT, MAC-Q, and TMT scores improved but group differences were not significant. Bacopa versus placebo caused gastrointestinal tract (GIT) side-effects. Bacopa significantly improved memory acquisition and retention in healthy older Australians. This concurs with previous findings and traditional use. Bacopa caused GIT side-effects of increased stool frequency, abdominal cramps, and nausea.

  16. Prevention of colonic neoplasia with polyethylene glycol: A short term randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Ramesh K; Bianchi, Laura; Kupfer, Sonia; De La Cruz, Mart; Jovanovic, Borko; Weber, Christopher; Goldberg, Michael J; Rodriguez, L M; Bergan, Raymond; Rubin, David; Tull, Mary Beth; Richmond, Ellen; Parker, Beth; Khan, Seema; Roy, Hemant K

    2018-01-01

    Chemoprevention represents an attractive modality against colorectal cancer (CRC) although widespread clinical implementation of promising agents (e.g. aspirin/NSAIDS) have been stymied by both suboptimal efficacy and concerns over toxicity. This highlights the need for better agents. Several groups, including our own, have reported that the over-the-counter laxative polyethylene glycol (PEG) has remarkable efficacy in rodent models of colon carcinogenesis. In this study, we undertook the first randomized human trial to address the role of PEG in prevention of human colonic neoplasia. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm trial where eligible subjects were randomized to 8g PEG-3350 (n = 27) or 17g PEG-3350 (n = 24), or placebo (n = 24; maltodextrin) orally for a duration of six months. Our initial primary endpoint was rectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF) but this was changed during protocol period to rectal mucosal epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Of the 87 patients randomized, 48 completed study primary endpoints and rectal EGFR unchanged PEG treatment. Rectal ACF had a trend suggesting potentially reduction with PEG treatment (pre-post change 1.7 in placebo versus -0.3 in PEG 8+ 17g doses, p = 0.108). Other endpoints (proliferation, apoptosis, expression of SNAIL and E-cadherin), previously noted to be modulated in rodent models, appeared unchanged with PEG treatment in this clinical trial. We conclude that PEG was generally well tolerated with the trial failing to meet primary efficacy endpoints. However, rectal ACFs demonstrated a trend (albeit statistically insignificant) for suppression with PEG. Moreover, all molecular assays including EGFR were unaltered with PEG underscoring issues with lack of translatability of biomarkers from preclinical to clinical trials. This data may provide the impetus for future clinical trials on PEG using more robust biomarkers of chemoprevention. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00828984.

  17. Antidepressant Controlled Trial For Negative Symptoms In Schizophrenia (ACTIONS): a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Thomas R E; Leeson, Verity C; Paton, Carol; Costelloe, Céire; Simon, Judit; Kiss, Noemi; Osborn, David; Killaspy, Helen; Craig, Tom K J; Lewis, Shôn; Keown, Patrick; Ismail, Shajahan; Crawford, Mike; Baldwin, David; Lewis, Glyn; Geddes, John; Kumar, Manoj; Pathak, Rudresh; Taylor, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Negative symptoms of schizophrenia represent deficiencies in emotional responsiveness, motivation, socialisation, speech and movement. When persistent, they are held to account for much of the poor functional outcomes associated with schizophrenia. There are currently no approved pharmacological treatments. While the available evidence suggests that a combination of antipsychotic and antidepressant medication may be effective in treating negative symptoms, it is too limited to allow any firm conclusions. To establish the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of augmentation of antipsychotic medication with the antidepressant citalopram for the management of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. A multicentre, double-blind, individually randomised, placebo-controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. Adult psychiatric services, treating people with schizophrenia. Inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia, on continuing, stable antipsychotic medication, with persistent negative symptoms at a criterion level of severity. Eligible participants were randomised 1 : 1 to treatment with either placebo (one capsule) or 20 mg of citalopram per day for 48 weeks, with the clinical option at 4 weeks to increase the daily dosage to 40 mg of citalopram or two placebo capsules for the remainder of the study. The primary outcomes were quality of life measured at 12 and 48 weeks assessed using the Heinrich's Quality of Life Scale, and negative symptoms at 12 weeks measured on the negative symptom subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. No therapeutic benefit in terms of improvement in quality of life or negative symptoms was detected for citalopram over 12 weeks or at 48 weeks, but secondary analysis suggested modest improvement in the negative symptom domain, avolition/amotivation, at 12 weeks (mean difference -1.3, 95% confidence interval -2.5 to -0.09). There were no statistically significant differences between the two treatment arms over 48-week

  18. Short-Term Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Lower Back Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Young Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This trial was performed to investigate the efficacy of laser acupuncture for the alleviation of lower back pain. Methods. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to either the laser acupuncture group (n=28 or the sham laser acupuncture group (n=28. Participants in both groups received three treatment sessions over the course of one week. Thirteen acupuncture points were selected. The visual analogue scale for pain, pressure pain threshold, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Euro-Quality-of-Life Five Dimensions questionnaire (Korean version were used to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture treatment on lower back pain. Results. There were no significant differences in any outcome between the two groups, although the participants in both groups showed a significant improvement in each assessed parameter relative to the baseline values. Conclusion. Although there was no significant difference in outcomes between the two groups, the results suggest that laser acupuncture can provide effective pain alleviation and can be considered an option for relief from lower back pain. Further studies using long-term intervention, a larger sample size, and rigorous methodology are required to clarify the effect of laser acupuncture on lower back pain.

  19. Varenicline for opioid withdrawal in patients with chronic pain: a randomized, single-blinded, placebo controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooten, W Michael; Warner, David O

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot trial were to investigate the effects of varenicline on opioid withdrawal among chronic pain patients undergoing opioid detoxification in an interdisciplinary pain program and the feasibility of varenicline use in this population. Twenty-one patients were recruited (varenicline=10, placebo=11), and 7 patients in the varenicline and 11 in the placebo group completed the study. Opioid withdrawal was quantified using the Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale, and varenicline-related adverse effects were assessed. Opioid withdrawal scores tended to decrease over the course of opioid tapering in those receiving varenicline and increase in those receiving placebo. Varenicline was well-tolerated in this population, with no adverse drug effects (including nausea) observed and no effect on improvements in pain severity and depression. This randomized pilot study provides preliminary data for future trials of varenicline in opioid-dependent adults with chronic pain undergoing medically directed opioid detoxification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MIDAS (Modafinil in Debilitating Fatigue After Stroke): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivard, Andrew; Lillicrap, Thomas; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Pagram, Heather; Nilsson, Michael; Parsons, Mark; Levi, Christopher R

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting agent in alleviating post-stroke fatigue ≥3 months after stroke. We hypothesized that 200 mg of modafinil daily for 6 weeks would result in reduced symptoms of fatigue compared with placebo. This single-center phase 2 trial used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. The key inclusion criterion was a multidimensional fatigue inventory score of ≥60. Patients were randomized to either modafinil or placebo for 6 weeks of therapy, then after a 1 week washout period swapped treatment arms for a second 6 weeks of therapy. The primary outcome was the multidimensional fatigue inventory; secondary outcomes included the Montreal cognitive assessment, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS), and the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SSQoL) scale. The multidimensional fatigue inventory is a self-administered questionnaire with a range of 0 to 100. Treatment efficacy was assessed using linear regression by estimating within-person, baseline-adjusted differences in mean outcomes after therapy. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12615000350527). A total of 232 stroke survivors were screened and 36 were randomized. Participants receiving modafinil reported a significant decrease in fatigue (multidimensional fatigue inventory, -7.38; 95% CI, -21.76 to -2.99; P modafinil therapy during the study period ( P >0.05). Stroke survivors with nonresolving fatigue reported reduced fatigue and improved quality of life after taking 200 mg daily treatment with modafinil. URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=368268. Unique identifier: ACTRN12615000350527. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Treatment of chronic tension-type headache with botulinum toxin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padberg, M.; de Bruijn, S. F. T. M.; de Haan, R. J.; Tavy, D. L. J.

    2004-01-01

    Botulinum toxin is increasingly advocated as effective treatment in chronic tension-type headache. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to prove efficacy of botulinum toxin in chronic tension-type headache. Patients were randomly assigned to receive botulinum toxin (maximum

  2. Prolonged release melatonin for improving sleep in totally blind subjects: a pilot placebo-controlled multicenter trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Roth,1 Tali Nir,2 Nava Zisapel2,3 1Henry Ford Sleep Disorders Center, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Neurim Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Tel Aviv, Israel; 3Department of Neurobiology Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Introduction: Melatonin, secreted by the pineal gland during the night phase, is a regulator of the biological clock and sleep tendency. Totally blind subjects frequently report severe, periodic sleep problems, with 50%–75% of cases displaying non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder (N24HSWD due to inability to synchronize with the environmental day–night cycle. Melatonin immediate-release preparations are reportedly effective in N24HSWD. Here, we studied the efficacy and safety of prolonged-release melatonin (PRM, a registered drug for insomnia, for sleep disorders in totally blind subjects living in normal social environments. The primary endpoint was demonstration of clinically meaningful effects on sleep duration (upper confidence interval [CI] limit >20 minutes whether significant or not to allow early decision-making on further drug development in this indication. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov registry – NCT00972075. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled proof-of-principle study, 13 totally blind subjects had 2 weeks' placebo run-in, 6 weeks' randomized (1:1 PRM (Circadin® or placebo nightly, and 2 weeks' placebo run-out. Outcome measures included daily voice recorded sleep diary, Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC, WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5, and safety. Results: Mean nightly sleep duration improved by 43 minutes in the PRM and 16 minutes in the placebo group (mean difference: 27 minutes, 95% CI: -14.4 to 69 minutes; P=0.18; effect size: 0.82 meeting the primary endpoint. Mean sleep latency decreased by 29 minutes with PRM over placebo (P=0.13; effect size: 0.92 and nap duration decreased in the PRM but not placebo group. The variability in sleep onset/offset and

  3. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral Matricaria recutita (chamomile) extract therapy for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsterdam, Jay D; Li, Yimei; Soeller, Irene; Rockwell, Kenneth; Mao, Jun James; Shults, Justine

    2009-08-01

    We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and tolerability trial of Matricaria recutita (chamomile) extract therapy in patients with mild to moderate generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We hypothesized that chamomile would be superior to placebo in reducing GAD symptoms with a comparable tolerability profile. Sixty-one outpatients with mild to moderate GAD were enrolled, and 57 were randomized to either double-blind chamomile extract (n = 28) or placebo therapy (n = 29) for 8 weeks. The study was powered to detect a statistically significant and clinically meaningful group difference in change over time in total Hamilton Anxiety Rating (HAM-A) scores. Secondary outcomes included change in the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Psychological Well Being, and Clinical Global Impression Severity scores and the proportion of patients with 50% reduction or more in baseline HAM-A score. We observed a significantly greater reduction in mean total HAM-A score during chamomile versus placebo therapy (P = 0.047). Although the study was not powered to identify small to moderate differences in secondary outcomes, we observed a positive change in all secondary outcomes in the same direction as the primary outcome measure. One patient in each treatment group discontinued therapy for adverse events. The proportion of patients experiencing 0, 1, 2, or 3 adverse events or more was not significantly different between groups (P = 0.417). This is the first controlled clinical trial of chamomile extract for GAD. The results suggest that chamomile may have modest anxiolytic activity in patients with mild to moderate GAD. Future studies are needed to replicate these observations.

  4. A RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE-BLIND, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL OF ORAL MATRICARIA RECUTITA (CHAMOMILE) EXTRACT THERAPY OF GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsterdam, Jay D.; Li, Yimei; Soeller, Irene; Rockwell, Kenneth; Mao, Jun James; Shults, Justine

    2013-01-01

    Objective We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and tolerability trial of Matricaria recutita (chamomile) extract therapy in patients with mild to moderate Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). We hypothesized that chamomile would be superior to placebo in reducing GAD symptoms with a comparable tolerability profile. Materials & Methods 61 outpatients with mild to moderate GAD were enrolled and 57 were randomized to either double blind chamomile extract (n=28) or placebo (n=29) therapy for 8 weeks. The study was powered to detect a statistically significant and clinically meaningful group difference in change over time in total Hamilton Anxiety Rating (HAM-A) scores. Secondary outcomes included change in the Beck Anxiety Inventory score, Psychological Well Being score, Clinical Global Impression Severity score, and the proportion of patients with ≥50% reduction in baseline HAM-A score. Results We observed a significantly greater reduction in mean total HAM-A score during chamomile versus placebo therapy (p=0.047). Although the study was not powered to identify small to moderate differences in secondary outcomes, we observed a positive change in all secondary outcomes in the same direction as the primary outcome measure. One patient in each treatment group discontinued therapy for adverse events. The proportion of patients experiencing 0, 1, 2, or ≥3 adverse events was not significantly different between groups (p=0.417). Conclusion This is the first, controlled clinical trial of chamomile extract for GAD. The results suggest that chamomile may have modest anxiolytic activity in patients with mild to moderate GAD. Future studies are needed to replicate these observations. PMID:19593179

  5. A double blind, placebo controlled trial of modafinil for the treatment of cocaine dependence without co-morbid alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampman, Kyle M; Lynch, Kevin G; Pettinati, Helen M; Spratt, Kelly; Wierzbicki, Michael R; Dackis, Charles; O'Brien, Charles P

    2015-10-01

    Modafinil is a medication approved for narcolepsy and shift work sleep disorder. It has both dopaminergic and glutamatergic activity that could be useful for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Modafinil has reduced cocaine subjective effects and cocaine self-administration in human laboratory trials and has reduced cocaine use in cocaine dependent patients in some clinical trials. This was an 8-week, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial involving 94 cocaine dependent subjects. Subjects received 300mg of modafinil or identical placebo daily along with weekly individual therapy. The primary outcome measure was cocaine use measured by self-report, and confirmed by twice weekly urine benzoylecgonine tests (UBT). Additional outcome measures included cocaine craving measured by the Brief Substance Craving Scale and global improvement measured by the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI). The odds ratio (OR) in favor of abstinence for modafinil vs. placebo was 2.54 (p=. 03) and modafinil-treated subjects were significantly more likely than placebo-treated subjects to be abstinent from cocaine during the last 3 weeks of the trial, 23% vs. 9%, χ(2)=3.9, pModafinil treated subjects were more likely to report very low levels of cocaine craving intensity and duration on the Brief Substance Craving Scale (OR=2.04, p=.03 and OR 1.06, p=.03 respectively). Modafinil-treated subjects were also more likely than placebo-treated subjects to rate themselves as "very much improved" on the CGI (OR=2.69, p=.03). Modafinil may be an efficacious treatment for cocaine dependence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of sodium butyrate adjunct therapy in shigellosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment of shigellosis in rabbits with butyrate reduces clinical severity and counteracts the downregulation of cathelicidin (CAP-18) in the large intestinal epithelia. Here, we aimed to evaluate whether butyrate can be used as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of shigellosis in patients. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group designed clinical trial was conducted. Eighty adult patients with shigellosis were randomized to either the Intervention group (butyrate, n = 40) or the Placebo group (normal saline, n = 40). The Intervention group was given an enema containing sodium butyrate (80 mM), twice daily for 3 days, while the Placebo group received the same dose of normal saline. The primary endpoint of the trial was to assess the efficacy of butyrate in improving clinical, endoscopic and histological features of shigellosis. The secondary endpoint was to study the effect of butyrate on the induction of antimicrobial peptides in the rectum. Clinical outcomes were assessed and concentrations of antimicrobial peptides (LL-37, human beta defensin1 [HBD-1] and human beta defensin 3 [HBD-3]) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β] and interleukin-8 [IL-8]) were measured in the stool. Sigmoidoscopic and histopathological analyses, and immunostaining of LL-37 in the rectal mucosa were performed in a subgroup of patients. Results Compared with placebo, butyrate therapy led to the early reduction of macrophages, pus cells, IL-8 and IL-1β in the stool and improvement in rectal histopathology. Butyrate treatment induced LL-37 expression in the rectal epithelia. Stool concentration of LL-37 remained significantly higher in the Intervention group on days 4 and 7. Conclusion Adjunct therapy with butyrate during shigellosis led to early reduction of inflammation and enhanced LL-37 expression in the rectal epithelia with prolonged release of LL-37 in the stool. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials

  7. Maintenance nifedipine therapy for preterm symptomatic placenta previa: A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Verspyck

    Full Text Available To assess the impact of maintenance nifedipine therapy on pregnancy duration in women with preterm placenta previa bleeding.PPADAL was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted between 05/2008 and 05/2012 in five French hospitals. The trial included 109 women, aged ≥ 18 years, with at least one episode of placenta previa bleeding, intact membranes and no other pregnancy complication, at gestational age 24 to 34 weeks and after 48 hours of complete acute tocolysis. Women were randomly allocated to receive either 20 mg of slow-release nifedipine three times daily (n = 54 or placebo (n = 55 until 36 + 6 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome for the trial was length of pregnancy measured in days after enrolment. Main secondary outcomes were rates of recurrent bleeding, cesarean delivery due to hemorrhage, blood transfusion, maternal side effects, gestational age at delivery and adverse perinatal outcomes (perinatal death, chronic lung disease, neonatal sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage > grade 2, perventricular leukomalacia > grade 1, or necrotizing enterocolitis. Analysis was by intention to treat.Mean (SD prolongation of pregnancy was not different between the nifedipine (n = 54 and the placebo (n = 55 group; 42.5 days ± 23.8 versus 44.2 days ± 24.5, p = 0.70. Cesarean due to hemorrhage performed before 37 weeks occurred more frequently in the nifedipine group in comparison with the placebo group (RR, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.72. Adverse perinatal outcomes were comparable between groups; 3.8% for nifedipine versus 5.5% for placebo (relative risk, 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.10-2.61. No maternal mortality or perinatal death occurred.Maintenance oral nifedipine neither prolongs duration of pregnancy nor improves maternal or perinatal outcomes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00620724.

  8. Homeopathy for mental fatigue: lessons from a randomized, triple blind, placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Michael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Difficulty in controlling attention can lead to mental fatigue in the healthy population. We identified one trial reporting a benefit in patients’ attention using a homeopathic formula preparation. One component of the preparation was potassium phosphate, widely available off the shelf as Kali phos 6x for cognitive problems. The aim of this exploratory trial was to assess the effectiveness of Kali phos 6x for attention problems associated with mental fatigue. Methods We recruited student and staff volunteers (University of York with self-reported mental fatigue, excluding any using homeopathy or prescribed stimulants, or with a diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome. In a triple blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 86 volunteers were randomized to receive Kali phos 6x or identical placebo 10 minutes before taking a psychological test of attention (Stroop Colour-Word Test. One week later they were crossed over and took the other preparation before repeating the test. Results We found no evidence of a treatment effect in a comparison of Kali phos 6x with placebo (Kali phos minus placebo = −1.1 (95% CI −3.0 to 0.9, P = 0.3 Stroop score units, Cohen effect size = −0.17 even when allowing for a weak period effect with accuracy scores in the second period being higher than those in the first (P = 0.05. We observed a ceiling effect in the Stroop test which undermined our ability to interpret this result. Conclusions Kali phos 6x was not found to be effective in reducing mental fatigue. A ceiling effect in our primary outcome measure meant that we could not rule out a type II error. Thorough piloting of an adequate outcome measure could have led to an unequivocal result. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16521161

  9. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of probiotics for primary prevention: no clinical effects of Lactobacillus GG supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Matthias Volkmar; Hennemuth, Isabell; Heinzmann, Andrea; Urbanek, Radvan

    2008-04-01

    The value of probiotics for primary prevention is controversial. Published trials vary considerably in study design and the applied probiotics, thereby limiting comparability of the results. The purpose of this trial was to study the preventive effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus GG on the development of atopic dermatitis. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective trial, 105 pregnant women from families with > or = 1 member (mother, father, or child) with an atopic disease were randomly assigned to receive either the probiotic Lactobacillus GG (American Type Culture Collection 53103; 5 x 10(9) colony-forming units of Lactobacillus GG twice daily) or placebo. Ninety-four families (89.5%) completed the trial. The supplementation period started 4 to 6 weeks before expected delivery, followed by a postnatal period of 6 months. The primary end point was the occurrence of atopic dermatitis at the age of 2 years. Secondary outcomes were severity of atopic dermatitis, recurrent episodes of wheezing bronchitis, and allergic sensitization at the age of 2 years. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 14 (28%) of 50 in the Lactobacillus GG group and in 12 (27.3%) of 44 in the placebo group. The risk of atopic dermatitis in children on probiotics relative to placebo was 0.96 (confidence interval 0.38-2.33). Severity of atopic dermatitis was comparable between the 2 groups. Notably, children with recurrent (> or = 5) episodes of wheezing bronchitis were more frequent in the Lactobacillus GG group (26%; n = 13), as compared with the placebo group (9.1%; n = 4). No difference was observed between both groups in total immunoglobulin E concentrations or numbers of specific sensitization to inhalant allergens. Supplementation with Lactobacillus GG during pregnancy and early infancy neither reduced the incidence of atopic dermatitis nor altered the severity of atopic dermatitis in affected children but was associated with an increased rate of recurrent episodes of wheezing

  10. Sleep disruption in tetraplegia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of 3 mg melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, J; Kennedy, G A; Tseng, J; Brown, D J; Armstrong, S; Berlowitz, D J

    2014-08-01

    Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of melatonin supplementation to people with complete tetraplegia. To investigate the effect that 3 mg melatonin supplementation has on objective and subjective sleep, quality of life and mood of people living with complete tetraplegia. Austin Hospital Sleep Laboratory and participants' homes, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Two week run-in followed by 3 week nightly administration of 3 mg melatonin or placebo, 2-week washout and further 3 week administration of the opposite treatment. Four testing sessions were conducted; the last nights of the run-in, treatment and washout periods. Testing sessions involved recording full polysomnography, completing a questionnaire battery and collecting urine and blood samples. The questionnaires assessed mood, sleep symptoms and health-related quality of life, and the urine and plasma samples assayed 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) and melatonin levels, respectively. A sleep diary was completed throughout the study. Eight participants (mean (s.d.): age 49.5 years (16), postinjury 16.9 years (7.1)) were recruited in which seven concluded the protocol. Endogenous-circulating melatonin was significantly higher (P tetraplegia is beneficial, especially for subjective sleep. Investigation of the pharmacokinetics of melatonin metabolism in this population is warranted. This project is proudly supported by the Transport Accident Commission.

  11. Modafinil improves real driving performance in patients with hypersomnia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Pierre; Chaufton, Cyril; Taillard, Jacques; Capelli, Aurore; Coste, Olivier; Léger, Damien; Moore, Nicholas; Sagaspe, Patricia

    2014-03-01

    Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) are at high risk for driving accidents, and physicians are concerned by the effect of alerting drugs on driving skills of sleepy patients. No study has up to now investigated the effect of modafinil (a reference drug to treat EDS in patients with hypersomnia) on on-road driving performance of patients suffering from central hypersomnia. The objective is to evaluate in patients with central hypersomnia the effect of a wake-promoting drug on real driving performance and to assess the relationship between objective sleepiness and driving performance. Randomized, crossover, double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted among 13 patients with narcolepsy and 14 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive modafinil (400 mg) or placebo for 5 days prior to the driving test. Each condition was separated by at least 3 weeks of washout. Mean number of Inappropriate Line Crossings, Standard Deviation of Lateral Position of the vehicle and mean sleep latency in the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test were assessed. Modafinil reduced the mean number of Inappropriate Line Crossings and Standard Deviation of Lateral Position of the vehicle compared to placebo (F(1,25) = 4.88, P Modafinil improves driving performance in patients with narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. The Maintenance of Wakefulness Test is a suitable clinical tool to assess fitness to drive in this population.

  12. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of tafenoquine for weekly prophylaxis against Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Braden R; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Fryauff, David J; Koram, Kwadwo A; Adjuik, Martin; Oduro, Abraham R; Prescott, W Roy; Baird, J Kevin; Nkrumah, Francis; Ritchie, Thomas L; Franke, Eileen D; Binka, Fred N; Horton, John; Hoffman, Stephen L

    2003-03-01

    Tafenoquine is a promising new 8-aminoquinoline drug that may be useful for malaria prophylaxis in nonpregnant persons with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) function. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled chemoprophylaxis trial was conducted with adult residents of northern Ghana to determine the minimum effective weekly dose of tafenoquine for the prevention of infection by Plasmodium falciparum. The primary end point was a positive malaria blood smear result during the 13 weeks of study drug coverage. Relative to the placebo, all 4 tafenoquine dosages demonstrated significant protection against P. falciparum infection: for 25 mg/week, protective efficacy was 32% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20%-43%); for 50 mg/week, 84% (95% CI, 75%-91%); for 100 mg/week, 87% (95% CI, 78%-93%); and for 200 mg/week, 86% (95% CI, 76%-92%). The mefloquine dosage of 250 mg/week also demonstrated significant protection against P. falciparum infection (protective efficacy, 86%; 95% CI, 72%-93%). There was little difference between study groups in the adverse events reported, and there was no evidence of a relationship between tafenoquine dosage and reports of physical complaints or the occurrence of abnormal laboratory parameters. Tafenoquine dosages of 50, 100, and 200 mg/week were safe, well tolerated, and effective against P. falciparum infection in this study population.

  13. Safety and Efficacy of MLC601 in Iranian Patients after Stroke: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Harandi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the safety and efficacy of MLC601 (NeuroAid as a traditional Chinese medicine on motor recovery after ischemic stroke. Methods. This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on 150 patients with a recent (less than 1 month ischemic stroke. All patients were given either MLC601 (100 patients or placebo (50 patients, 4 capsules 3 times a day, as an add-on to standard stroke treatment for 3 months. Results. Sex, age, elapsed time from stroke onset, and risk factors in the treatment group were not significantly different from placebo group at baseline (P>.05. Repeated measures analysis showed that Fugl-Meyer assessment was significantly higher in the treatment group during 12 weeks after stroke (P<.001. Good tolerability to treatment was shown, and adverse events were mild and transient. Conclusion. MLC601 showed better motor recovery than placebo and was safe on top of standard ischemic stroke medications especially in the severe and moderate cases.

  14. Double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial on the use of paracetamol for performing mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-Junior, Ruffo; Martins, Edesio; Metran-Nascente, Cristiane; Carvalho, Angela Assis; Silva, Marilceia Ferreira da; Soares, Leonardo Ribeiro; Ximenes, Carlos Alberto

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted within the Goias Mastology Research Network. To verify the possibility of diminishing pain, and discomfort during the mammography using analgesic administration. Randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial, testing paracetamol to diminish the pain, and discomfort during mammography. Three hundred patients who came for screening mammography were randomized for this study. A questionnaire with 2 parts was used: the first had questions that concerned the patient identification, and factors related to the pain during mammography; and the second asked about the scale of discomfort (no discomfort; uncomfortable; very uncomfortable; intolerable), and the pain (analogical linear scale) during the mammography. Each patient received 1000 mg of paracetamol, or placebo. Afterwards each patient filled out the second part of the questionnaire. Six patients were excluded from the analysis; this resulted in 149 in the paracetamol group, and 145 in the placebo group. The 2 groups were homogenous concerning the mean of the ages, weight, height, and breast size. The mean of the pain was 3.5 in the paracetamol, and 2.8 in the placebo group (P = .12). There were fewer women experiencing mild pain in the paracetamol group when compared with those in placebo group (relative risk [RR] 0.76, confidence interval [CI] 95% 0.52-0.98). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups, according to the degrees of discomfort (P =  .69). The use of paracetamol can reduces the mild pain for women undergoing mammography.

  15. A 6 week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of ziprasidone for the acute depressive mixed state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Patkar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of ziprasidone vs. placebo for the depressive mixed state in patients with bipolar disorder type II or major depressive disorder (MDD. METHODS: 73 patients were randomized in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to ziprasidone (40-160 mg/d or placebo for 6 weeks. They met DSM-IV criteria for a major depressive episode (MDE, while also meeting 2 or 3 (but not more nor less DSM-IV manic criteria. They did not meet DSM-IV criteria for a mixed or manic episode. Baseline psychotropic drugs were continued unchanged. The primary endpoint measured was Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS scores over time. The mean dose of ziprasidone was 129.7±45.3 mg/day and 126.1±47.1 mg/day for placebo. RESULTS: The primary outcome analysis indicated efficacy of ziprasidone versus placebo (p = 0.0038. Efficacy was more pronounced in type II bipolar disorder than in MDD (p = 0.036. Overall ziprasidone was well tolerated, without notable worsening of weight or extrapyramidal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: There was a statistically significant benefit with ziprasidone versus placebo in this first RCT of any medication for the provisional diagnostic concept of the depressive mixed state. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00490542.

  16. Randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of ozone therapy as treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, A; Shreef, E; Behiry, E; Zalat, S; Noaman, M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the safety and efficacy of ozone therapy in adult patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel group, clinical trial. Forty-five adult patients presented with sudden sensorineural hearing loss, and were randomly allocated to receive either placebo (15 patients) or ozone therapy (auto-haemotherapy; 30 patients). For the latter treatment, 100 ml of the patient's blood was treated immediately with a 1:1 volume, gaseous mixture of oxygen and ozone (from an ozone generator) and re-injected into the patient by intravenous infusion. Treatments were administered twice weekly for 10 sessions. The following data were recorded: pre- and post-treatment mean hearing gains; air and bone pure tone averages; speech reception thresholds; speech discrimination scores; and subjective recovery rates. Significant recovery was observed in 23 patients (77 per cent) receiving ozone treatment, compared with six (40 per cent) patients receiving placebo (p ozone-treated patients compared with placebo-treated patients (p Ozone therapy is a significant modality for treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss; no complications were observed.

  17. Orange Pomace Improves Postprandial Glycemic Responses: An Acute, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial in Overweight Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-Y. Oliver Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange pomace (OP, a fiber-rich byproduct of juice production, has the potential for being formulated into a variety of food products. We hypothesized that OP would diminish postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and lunch. We conducted an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover trial with 34 overweight men who consumed either a 255 g placebo (PLA, a low (35% OP (LOP, or a high (77% (HOP dose OP beverage with breakfast. Blood was collected at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 45 min and at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, and 8 h. Lunch was consumed after the 5.5-h blood draw. OP delayed the time (Tmax1 to the maximum concentration (Cmax1 of serum glucose during the 2-h period post breakfast by ≥36% from 33 (PLA to 45 (HOP and 47 (LOP min (p = 0.055 and 0.013, respectively. OP decreased post-breakfast insulin Cmax1 by ≥10% and LOP delayed the Tmax1 by 14 min, compared to PLA at 46 min (p ≤ 0.05. HOP reduced the first 2-h insulin area under concentration time curve (AUC by 23% compared to PLA. Thus, OP diminishes postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and the second meal in overweight men.

  18. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effects of topical insulin on wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Omid; Shabbak, Elahe; Aslani, Abolfazl; Bidar, Ramin; Jafari, Mehrdad; Safarnezhad, Saeed

    2009-08-01

    Although the literature contains evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of insulin on wound healing, no suitable method for the routine administration of insulin has been reported. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of topical insulin on healing in 45 patients (29 men, mean age for both groups 40.62 years, range 12 to 71 years) with noninfected acute and chronic extremity wounds. Patients were randomly assigned to twice-daily topical application (spray) of 1 cc saline 0.9% for each 10 cm2 of wound with or without 10 units (0.1 cc) of insulin crystal and insulin. The endpoint was complete wound closure. Systemic glucose levels were measured before and 1 hour after treatment application. No patients developed signs or symptoms of hypoglycemia and glucose levels pre- and post-application did not differ significantly. Time to healing did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Healing rates were affected by baseline wound area, patient age, wound type (acute versus chronic), and treatment group. The mean rate of healing rate was 46.09 mm2/day in the treatment and 32.24 mm2/day in the control group (P = 0.029), independent of baseline wound size. In this study, the topical application of insulin was safe and effective. Clinical studies with a larger sample size and that include patients with diabetes mellitus are warranted.

  19. Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of the effect of botulinum toxin on walking in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubhi, T; Bhakta, B B; Ives, H L; Allgar, V; Roussounis, S H

    2000-12-01

    Cerebral palsy is the commonest cause of severe physical disability in childhood. For many years treatment has centred on the use of physiotherapy and orthotics to overcome the problems of leg spasticity, which interferes with walking and can lead to limb deformity. Intramuscular botulinum toxin (BT-A) offers a targeted form of therapy to reduce spasticity in specific muscle groups. To determine whether intramuscular BT-A can improve walking in children with cerebral palsy. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Forty patients with spastic diplegia or hemiplegia were enrolled. Twenty two received botulinum toxin and 18 received placebo. The primary outcome measure was video gait analysis and secondary outcome measures were gross motor function measure (GMFM), physiological cost index (PCI), and passive ankle dorsiflexion. Video gait analysis showed clinically and statistically significant improvement in initial foot contact following BT-A at six weeks and 12 weeks compared to placebo. Forty eight per cent of BT-A treated children showed clinical improvement in VGA compared to 17% of placebo treated children. The GMFM (walking dimension) showed a statistically significant improvement in favour of the botulinum toxin treated group. Changes in PCI and passive ankle dorsiflexion were not statistically significant. The study gives further support to the use of intramuscular botulinum toxin type A as an adjunct to conventional physiotherapy and orthoses to reduce spasticity and improve functional mobility in children with spastic diplegic or hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

  20. Lidocaine and tenoxicam effectiveness for pain relief during Pipelle: Non-randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargin, Mehmet Akif; Yassa, Murat; Celik, Ayhan; Ergun, Emrah; Tug, Niyazi

    2017-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of intrauterine lidocaine infusion with lidocaine and intravenous tenoxicam for decreasing the pain levels associated with endometrial biopsy. This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from May to November 2015, and comprised patients undergoing endometrial biopsy with Pipelle. Intrauterine lidocaine infusion, paracervical block with lidocaine, intravenous tenoxicam or 4ml intravenous normal saline administered prior to biopsy. The main outcome measure was pain intensity immediately afterwards and 30minutes after biopsy, determined by a visual analogue scale score. Number Cruncher Statistical System 2007 was used for statistical analyses. Of the 232 participants, intrauterine lidocaine infusion group had 59(25.4%) patients, 57(24.6%) were controls while paracervical block group and intravenous tenoxicam group each had 58(25%) patients. Both visual analogue scale 0 and 30 scores of the control group were significantly higher than the other three groups (p<0.05). Also, the scores of intravenous tenoxicam group were significantly higher than both intrauterine lidocaine infusion and paracervical block with lidocaine groups (p<0.05 each). Intravenous tenoxicam had a significantly lower effect than intrauterine lidocaine infusion and paracervical block with lidocaine during the early period after the procedure.

  1. Aspirin desensitization for patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Hossein; Nabavi, Mohammad; Aryan, Zahra; Arshi, Saba; Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Fallahpour, Morteza; Mortazavi, Negar

    2015-10-01

    The effect of aspirin desensitization (AD) on immunologic profile of patients with AERD has been poorly understood. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of AD on clinical and immunological markers of patients with AERD. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial comprised 34 adult patients (67.6% female) with chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and aspirin-intolerant asthma. The active group underwent AD over a 2-day period with increasing doses of aspirin (60, 125, 325, and 625 mg), followed by receiving aspirin 625 mg twice daily for 6 months. Symptom scores and medication needs of patients with AERD who have undergone AD were significantly lower compared to the placebo group after 6 months (7.5 ± 3.5 vs. 10.6 ± 3.8 and 9.3 ± 2.0 vs. 11.0 ± 3.1, respectively, all p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in serum concentration of IL-10, IFN-γ, and TGF-β between two groups neither at baseline nor at the end of study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The lipid-lowering effect of tenofovir/emtricitabine: a randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José R; Saumoy, María; Curran, Adrian; Bravo, Isabel; Llibre, Josep M; Navarro, Jordi; Estany, Carla; Podzamczer, Daniel; Ribera, Esteban; Negredo, Eugènia; Clotet, Bonaventura; Paredes, Roger

    2015-08-01

    It is unknown if tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), which is often coformulated with the lipid-neutral emtricitabine (FTC), has a lipid-lowering effect. We performed a randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected subjects with HIV-1 RNA placebo (washout) and 12 additional weeks of placebo (placebo period). Subjects in arm 2 added placebo for 12 weeks (placebo period) followed by TDF/FTC for 12 weeks and placebo for 12 additional weeks (washout). The primary endpoint was change in median fasting TC levels. Of 46 subjects enrolled, 56% received darunavir/ritonavir and 44% lopinavir/ritonavir. Exposure to TDF/FTC reduced TC from 234 to 205 mg/dL (P placebo (P = .001 and P = .002, respectively). The TC/HDL-c ratio and triglyceride levels did not change with TDF/FTC exposure. Coformulated TDF/FTC has an intrinsic lipid-lowering effect, likely attributable to TDF. NCT01458977. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effect of Methylphenidate and Folic Acid on ADHD Symptoms and Quality of Life and Aggression: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Sayyari, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective This clinical trial examines the effect of augmentation of methylphenidate (MPH) with folic acid to improve quality of life, and to treat aggression and ADHD symptoms. Method Participants of this eight week randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial were 49 children with ADHD. They were randomly assigned into one of the two groups: the first group receiving methylphenidate (10 to 20mg/day) plus folic (5mg/day), and the second group receiving methylphenidate plus place...

  4. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of niacinamide for reduction of phosphorus in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Steven C; Young, Daniel O; Huang, Yihung; Delmez, James A; Coyne, Daniel W

    2008-07-01

    Niacinamide inhibits intestinal sodium/phosphorus transporters and reduces serum phosphorus in open-label studies. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed for assessment of the safety and efficacy of niacinamide. Hemodialysis patients with phosphorus levels > or =5.0 mg/dl were randomly assigned to 8 wk of niacinamide or placebo, titrated from 500 to 1500 mg/d. After a 2-wk washout period, patients switched to 8 wk of the alternative therapy. Vitamin D analogs and calcimimetics were held constant; phosphorus binders were not changed unless safety criteria were met. Thirty-three patients successfully completed the trial. Serum phosphorus fell significantly from 6.26 to 5.47 mg/dl with niacinamide but not with placebo (5.85 to 5.98 mg/dl). A concurrent fall in calcium-phosphorus product was seen with niacinamide, whereas serum calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, uric acid, platelet, triglyceride, LDL, and total cholesterol levels remained stable in both arms. Serum HDL levels rose with niacinamide (50 to 61 mg/dl but not with placebo. Adverse effects were similar between both groups. Among patients who were > or =80% compliant, results were similar, although the decrease in serum phosphorus with niacinamide was more pronounced (6.45 to 5.28 mg/dl) and the increase in HDL approached significance (49 to 58 mg/dl). In hemodialysis patients, niacinamide effectively reduces serum phosphorus when co-administered with binders and results in a potentially advantageous increase in HDL cholesterol. Further study in larger randomized trials and other chronic kidney disease populations is indicated.

  5. Effects of synbiotics on treatment of children with failure to thrive: A triple blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famouri, Fatemeh; Khoshdel, Abolfazl; Golshani, Arghavan; Kheiri, Soleiman; Saneian, Hossein; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-11-01

    Failure to thrive (FTT) is a common problem of children especially in underdeveloped countries. In addition to its short-term adverse health effects, it is associated with long-term behavioral and cognitive defects. One of the recommended treatment modalities for FTT is using synbiotics. Due to high prevalence of FTT with undefined organic causes and failure of most medications on treatment of this type of FTT, we decided to search the effect of synbiotics on these patients. A randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled trial study was done from 2011 to 2012. A number of 84 patients were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The synbiotics sachets were administered to study group for 6 months. The growth indices were measured at the beginning of the trial after 3 and 6 months, and compared with control. Variance analysis of observations showed improvement of growth indices in both groups. The increase in weight was significantly higher in synbiotics group than in controls (P 0.05). At the beginning of the trial, the mean weights were 10.25 ± 0.20 kg and 10.750 ± 0.160 kg in intervention and control groups, respectively, Meanwhile, after 6 months, the mean weights of two groups became 12.280 ± 0.190 and 11.760 ± 0.17 kg in intervention and control groups, respectively. This result has confirmed that the effect of synbiotics is significant on weight gain of our patients. Our findings support beneficial effects of synbiotics in weight gain of children with FTT.

  6. Effects of synbiotics on treatment of children with failure to thrive: A triple blind placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Famouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Failure to thrive (FTT is a common problem of children especially in underdeveloped countries. In addition to its short-term adverse health effects, it is associated with long-term behavioral and cognitive defects. One of the recommended treatment modalities for FTT is using synbiotics. Due to high prevalence of FTT with undefined organic causes and failure of most medications on treatment of this type of FTT, we decided to search the effect of synbiotics on these patients. Materials and Methods: A randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled trial study was done from 2011 to 2012. A number of 84 patients were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The synbiotics sachets were administered to study group for 6 months. The growth indices were measured at the beginning of the trial after 3 and 6 months, and compared with control. Results: Variance analysis of observations showed improvement of growth indices in both groups. The increase in weight was significantly higher in synbiotics group than in controls (P 0.05. At the beginning of the trial, the mean weights were 10.25 ± 0.20 kg and 10.750 ± 0.160 kg in intervention and control groups, respectively, Meanwhile, after 6 months, the mean weights of two groups became 12.280 ± 0.190 and 11.760 ± 0.17 kg in intervention and control groups, respectively. This result has confirmed that the effect of synbiotics is significant on weight gain of our patients. Conclusion: Our findings support beneficial effects of synbiotics in weight gain of children with FTT.

  7. Psyllium supplementation in adolescents improves fat distribution & lipid profile: a randomized, participant-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin de Bock

    Full Text Available AIMS: We aimed to assess the effects of psyllium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and other parameters of the metabolic syndrome in an at risk adolescent population. METHODS: This study encompassed a participant-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Subjects were 47 healthy adolescent males aged 15-16 years, recruited from secondary schools in lower socio-economic areas with high rates of obesity. Participants received 6 g/day of psyllium or placebo for 6 weeks, with a two-week washout before crossing over. Fasting lipid profiles, ambulatory blood pressure, auxological data, body composition, activity levels, and three-day food records were collected at baseline and after each 6-week intervention. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Matsuda method using glucose and insulin values from an oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: 45 subjects completed the study, and compliance was very high: 87% of participants took >80% of prescribed capsules. At baseline, 44% of subjects were overweight or obese. 28% had decreased insulin sensitivity, but none had impaired glucose tolerance. Fibre supplementation led to a 4% reduction in android fat to gynoid fat ratio (p = 0.019, as well as a 0.12 mmol/l (6% reduction in LDL cholesterol (p = 0.042. No associated adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary supplementation with 6 g/day of psyllium over 6 weeks improves fat distribution and lipid profile (parameters of the metabolic syndrome in an at risk population of adolescent males. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000888268.

  8. A preliminary randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial of intravenous immunoglobulin for Japanese encephalitis in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Rayamajhi

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE virus (JEV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus found across Asia that is closely related to West Nile virus. There is no known antiviral treatment for any flavivirus. Results from in vitro studies and animal models suggest intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG containing virus-specific neutralizing antibody may be effective in improving outcome in viral encephalitis. IVIG's anti-inflammatory properties may also be beneficial.We performed a pilot feasibility randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of IVIG containing anti-JEV neutralizing antibody (ImmunoRel, 400mg/kg/day for 5 days in children with suspected JE at two sites in Nepal; we also examined the effect on serum neutralizing antibody titre and cytokine profiles. 22 children were recruited, 13 of whom had confirmed JE; 11 received IVIG and 11 placebo, with no protocol violations. One child (IVIG group died during treatment and two (placebo subsequently following hospital discharge. Overall, there was no difference in outcome between treatment groups at discharge or follow up. Passive transfer of anti-JEV antibody was seen in JEV negative children. JEV positive children treated with IVIG had JEV-specific neutralizing antibody titres approximately 16 times higher than those treated with placebo (p=0.2, which was more than could be explained by passive transfer alone. IL-4 and IL-6 were higher in the IVIG group.A trial of IVIG for JE in Nepal is feasible. IVIG may augment the development of neutralizing antibodies in JEV positive patients. IVIG appears an appealing option for JE treatment that warrants further study.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01856205.

  9. Palmitoylethanolamide as adjunctive therapy in major depressive disorder: A double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazizadeh-Hashemi, Maryam; Ghajar, Alireza; Shalbafan, Mohammad-Reza; Ghazizadeh-Hashemi, Fatemeh; Afarideh, Mohsen; Malekpour, Farzaneh; Ghaleiha, Ali; Ardebili, Mehrdad Eftekhar; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2018-05-01

    Experimental studies provide evidence for antidepressant effects of Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in animal models of depression. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of PEA add-on therapy in treatment of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). In a randomized double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, 58 patients with MDD (DSM-5) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score ≥ 19 were randomized to receive either 600 mg twice daily Palmitoylethanolamide or placebo in addition to citalopram for six weeks. Patients were assessed using the HAM-D scale at baseline and weeks 2, 4, and 6. Fifty-four individuals completed the trial. At week 2, patients in the PEA group demonstrated significantly greater reduction in HAM-D scores compared to the placebo group (8.30 ± 2.41 vs. 5.81 ± 3.57, P = .004). The PEA group also demonstrated significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms [F (3, 156) = 3.35, P = .021] compared to the placebo group throughout the trial period. The patients in the PEA group experienced more response rate (≥ 50% reduction in the HAM-D score) than the placebo group (100% vs. 74% respectively, P = .01) at the end of the trial. Baseline parameters and frequency of side effects were not significantly different between the two groups. The population size in this study was small and the follow-up period was relatively short. Palmitoylethanolamide adjunctive therapy to citalopram can effectively improve symptoms of patients (predominantly male gender) with major depressive disorder. PEA showed rapid-onset antidepressant effects which need further investigation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A six-month double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of duloxetine for the treatment of fibromyalgia

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    Amy S Chappell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amy S Chappell1, Laurence A Bradley2, Curtis Wiltse1, Michael J Detke1,3,4, Deborah N D’Souza1, Michael Spaeth51Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA; 3Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 4Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5Practice for Internal Medicine/Rheumatology, Graefelfing, GermanyObjective: Assess the efficacy of duloxetine 60/120 mg (N = 162 once daily compared with placebo (N = 168 in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia, during six months of treatment.Methods: This was a phase-III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study assessing the efficacy and safety of duloxetine.Results: There were no significant differences between treatment groups on the co-primary efficacy outcome measures, change in the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI average pain severity from baseline to endpoint (P = 0.053 and the Patient’s Global Impressions of Improvement (PGI-I at endpoint (P = 0.073. Duloxetine-treated patients improved significantly more than placebo-treated patients on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire pain score, BPI least pain score and average interference score, Clinical Global Impressions of Severity scale, area under the curve of pain relief, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory mental fatigue dimension, Beck Depression Inventory-II total score, and 36-item Short Form Health Survey mental component summary and mental health score. Nausea was the most common treatment-emergent adverse event in the duloxetine group. Overall discontinuation rates were similar between groups.Conclusions: Although duloxetine 60/120 mg/day failed to demonstrate significant improvement over placebo on the co-primary outcome measures, in this supportive study, duloxetine demonstrated significant improvement compared with placebo on numerous secondary measures.Keywords: fibromyalgia, duloxetine, placebo, double-blind, trial

  11. 5-HT3 antagonist for cognition improvement in schizophrenia: a double blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Neyousha Mohammadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with schizophrenia characteristically exhibit cognitive deficits. The level of cognitive impairment is found to predict the functional outcome of the illness more strongly than the severity of positive or negative symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist as an adjuvant agent in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia in particular for cognitive impairments. Methods: This investigation was a 12-week, double blind study of parallel groups of patients with stable chronic schizophrenia. Thirty patients were recruited from inpatient and outpatient departments. All participants met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia. To be eligible, patients were required to have been treated with a stable dose of risperidone as their primary antipsychotic treatment for a minimum period of 8 weeks. The subjects were randomized to receive ondansetron (8 mg/day or the placebo in addition to risperidone. Cognition was measured by a cognitive battery. Patients were assessed at baseline and after 8, and 12 weeks after the medication started. Results: Administration of ondansetron significantly improved visual memory based on improvement on visual reproduction, visual paired associate and figural memory sub tests of Wechsler Memory Scale Revised. Discussion: The present study indicates ondansetron as potential adjunctive treatment strategy for chronic schizophrenia particularly for cognitive impairments.

  12. 5-HT3 antagonist for cognition improvement in schizophrenia: a double blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyousha Mohammadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract   Introduction: Patients with schizophrenia characteristically exhibit cognitive deficits. The level of cognitive impairment is found to predict the functional outcome of the illness more strongly than the severity of positive or negative symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist as an adjuvant agent in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia in particular for cognitive impairments.   Methods: This investigation was a 12-week, double blind study of parallel groups of patients with stable chronic schizophrenia. Thirty patients were recruited from inpatient and outpatient departments. All participants met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia. To be eligible, patients were required to have been treated with a stable dose of risperidone as their primary antipsychotic treatment for a minimum period of 8 weeks. The subjects were randomized to receive ondansetron (8 mg/day or the placebo in addition to risperidone. Cognition was measured by a cognitive battery. Patients were assessed at baseline and after 8, and 12 weeks after the medication started.   Results: Administration of ondansetron significantly improved visual memory based on improvement on visual reproduction, visual paired associate and figural memory sub tests of Wechsler Memory Scale Revised.  Discussion: The present study indicates ondansetron as potential adjunctive treatment strategy for chronic schizophrenia particularly for cognitive impairments.

  13. Effect of oral L-arginine supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jia-Yi; Qin, Li-Qiang; Zhang, Zengli; Zhao, Youyou; Wang, Junkuan; Arigoni, Fabrizio; Zhang, Weiguo

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that L-arginine, an amino acid and a substrate of nitric oxide synthase, may have blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect. Because some studies were performed with limited number of patients with hypertension and therefore limited statistical power with sometimes inconsistent results, we aimed to examine the effect of oral L-arginine supplementation on BP by conducting a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched through June 2011 to identify randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of oral L-arginine supplementation on BP in humans. We also reviewed reference lists of obtained articles. Either a fixed-effects or, in the presence of heterogeneity, a random-effects model was used to calculate the combined treatment effect. We included 11 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving 387 participants with oral L-arginine intervention ranging from 4 to 24 g/d. Compared with placebo, L-arginine intervention significantly lowered systolic BP by 5.39 mm Hg (95% CI -8.54 to -2.25, P = .001) and diastolic BP by 2.66 mm Hg (95% CI -3.77 to -1.54, P L-arginine supplementation significantly lowers both systolic and diastolic BP. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. EFFICACY OF CITALOPRAM IN TREATMENT OF PATHOLOGICAL SKIN PICKING, A RANDOMIZED DOUBLE BLIND PLACEBO CONTROLLED TRIAL

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    M Arbabi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nVarious studies suggest that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs may be useful in treating pathological skin picking (PSP. This study sought to assess effectiveness of citalopram in comparison with placebo in treating PSP. Forty five individuals with PSP were recruited in a four-week, randomized clinical trial of citalopram (20 mg/day in comparison with placebo. Study measures assessing skin picking severity, mental health status, obsessive compulsive disorder and quality of life were given at baseline, weeks 2 and 4. PSP severity, general health status, obsession-compulsion severity and quality of life level were similar between two groups at baseline (P > 0.05. Treatment analyses revealed significant improvements in quality of life, general health status and obsession-compulsion severity in citalopram group compared to placebo group (P < 0.05. Mean PSP severity reduction in citalopram group was more than placebo group but this difference was not significant. Citalopram can improve general health status and quality of life in individuals with PSP but its effect on skin picking behavior doesn't differ significantly with placebo. Other trials with longer time are needed to determine the exact efficacy of citalopram on PSP

  15. Pharmacotherapy Relapse Prevention in Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A; Keshaviah, Aparna; Dougherty, Darin D; Stout, Robert L; Menard, William; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is common, distressing, and often severely impairing. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors appear efficacious, but the few existing pharmacotherapy studies were short term (≤4 months), and no relapse prevention studies or continuation phase studies have been conducted to the authors' knowledge. The authors report results from the first relapse prevention study in body dysmorphic disorder. Adults (N=100) with DSM-IV body dysmorphic disorder received open-label escitalopram for 14 weeks (phase 1); 58 responders were then randomized to double-blind continuation treatment with escitalopram versus switch to placebo for 6 months (phase 2). Reliable and valid outcome measures were utilized. In phase 1, 67.0% of treated subjects and 81.1% of subjects who completed phase 1 responded to escitalopram. Body dysmorphic disorder severity (in both the intent-to-treat and the completer groups) and insight, depressive symptoms, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life significantly improved from baseline to end of phase 1. In phase 2, time to relapse was significantly longer with escitalopram than with placebo treatment (hazard ratio=2.72, 95% CI=1.01-8.57). Phase 2 relapse proportions were 18% for escitalopram and 40% for placebo. Among escitalopram-treated subjects, body dysmorphic disorder severity significantly decreased over time during the continuation phase, with 35.7% of subjects showing further improvement. There were no significant group differences in body dysmorphic disorder severity or insight, depressive symptoms, psychosocial functioning, or quality of life. Continuation-phase escitalopram delayed time to relapse, and fewer escitalopram-treated subjects relapsed than did placebo-treated subjects. Body dysmorphic disorder severity significantly improved during 6 additional months of escitalopram treatment following acute response; more than one-third of escitalopram-treated subjects experienced further improvement.

  16. Transcranial pulsed electromagnetic fields for multiple chemical sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Skovbjerg, Sine; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Christensen, Karl Bang; Elberling, Jesper

    2013-08-16

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition of unknown etiology. MCS is characterized by recurrent nonspecific symptoms from multiple organ systems in response to chemical exposures in concentrations that are normally tolerated by the majority of the population. The symptoms may have severe impact on patients' lives, but an evidence-based treatment for the condition is nonexisting. The pathophysiology is unclarified, but several indicators point towards abnormal processing of sensory signals in the central nervous system. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) offer a promising new treatment for refractory depression and can be targeted at the brain, thereby activating biochemical cell processes. In a parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at the Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, the effects of PEMF in MCS patients will be assessed using the Re5 Independent System. Based on sample size estimation, 40 participants will be randomized to either PEMF therapy or placebo. The allocation sequence will be generated by computer. All involved parties (that is, participants, investigators, the research nurse, and the statistician) will be blinded to group allocation. The participants will receive PEMF therapy or placebo applied transcranially 30 minutes twice a day for 7 days a week over 6 consecutive weeks. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, once weekly during treatment, post treatment, and at 2.5-month and 4.5-month follow-up according to a predefined timetable. The primary outcome will be a measurement of the impact of MCS on everyday life. The secondary outcomes will be measurements of MCS symptoms, psychological distress (stress, anxiety or depressive symptoms), capsaicin-induced secondary punctate hyperalgesia, immunological markers in serum, and quality of life. This trial will assess the effects of PEMF therapy for MCS. Currently, there is no treatment with a documented effect on MCS, and in terms of

  17. Adjuvant denosumab in breast cancer (ABCSG-18): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnant, Michael; Pfeiler, Georg; Dubsky, Peter C; Hubalek, Michael; Greil, Richard; Jakesz, Raimund; Wette, Viktor; Balic, Marija; Haslbauer, Ferdinand; Melbinger, Elisabeth; Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna; Artner-Matuschek, Silvia; Fitzal, Florian; Marth, Christian; Sevelda, Paul; Mlineritsch, Brigitte; Steger, Günther G; Manfreda, Diether; Exner, Ruth; Egle, Daniel; Bergh, Jonas; Kainberger, Franz; Talbot, Susan; Warner, Douglas; Fesl, Christian; Singer, Christian F

    2015-08-01

    Adjuvant endocrine therapy compromises bone health in patients with breast cancer, causing osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fractures. Antiresorptive treatments such as bisphosphonates prevent and counteract these side-effects. In this trial, we aimed to investigate the effects of the anti-RANK ligand antibody denosumab in postmenopausal, aromatase inhibitor-treated patients with early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, postmenopausal patients with early hormone receptor-positive breast cancer receiving treatment with aromatase inhibitors were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either denosumab 60 mg or placebo administered subcutaneously every 6 months in 58 trial centres in Austria and Sweden. Patients were assigned by an interactive voice response system. The randomisation schedule used a randomly permuted block design with block sizes 2 and 4, stratified by type of hospital regarding Hologic device for DXA scans, previous aromatase inhibitor use, and baseline bone mineral density. Patients, treating physicians, investigators, data managers, and all study personnel were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was time from randomisation to first clinical fracture, analysed by intention to treat. As an additional sensitivity analysis, we also analysed the primary endpoint on the per-protocol population. Patients were treated until the prespecified number of 247 first clinical fractures was reached. This trial is ongoing (patients are in follow-up) and is registered with the European Clinical Trials Database, number 2005-005275-15, and with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00556374. Between Dec 18, 2006, and July 22, 2013, 3425 eligible patients were enrolled into the trial, of whom 3420 were randomly assigned to receive denosumab 60 mg (n=1711) or placebo (n=1709) subcutaneously every 6 months. Compared with the placebo group, patients in the denosumab group had a

  18. Effect of hookworm infection on wheat challenge in celiac disease--a randomised double-blinded placebo controlled trial.

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    A James Daveson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The association between hygiene and prevalence of autoimmune disease has been attributed in part to enteric helminth infection. A pilot study of experimental infection with the hookworm Necator americanus was undertaken among a group of otherwise healthy people with celiac disease to test the potential of the helminth to suppress the immunopathology induced by gluten. METHODS: In a 21-week, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we explored the effects of N. americanus infection in 20 healthy, helminth-naïve adults with celiac disease well controlled by diet. Staged cutaneous inoculations with 10 and 5 infective 3(rd stage hookworm larvae or placebo were performed at week-0 and -12 respectively. At week-20, a five day oral wheat challenge equivalent to 16 grams of gluten per day was undertaken. Primary outcomes included duodenal Marsh score and quantification of the immunodominant α-gliadin peptide (QE65-specific systemic interferon-γ-producing cells by ELISpot pre- and post-wheat challenge. RESULTS: Enteric colonisation with hookworm established in all 10 cases, resulting in transiently painful enteritis in 5. Chronic infection was asymptomatic, with no effect on hemoglobin levels. Although some duodenal eosinophilia was apparent, hookworm-infected mucosa retained a healthy appearance. In both groups, wheat challenge caused deterioration in both primary and several secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Experimental N. americanus infection proved to be safe and enabled testing its effect on a range of measures of the human autoimmune response. Infection imposed no obvious benefit on pathology. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00671138.

  19. The analgesic efficacy of intravenous lidocaine infusion after laparoscopic fundoplication: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Dale GJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gregory J Dale,1 Stephanie Phillips,2 Gregory L Falk3 1Westmead Hospital Clinical School, The University of Sydney, 2Sydney Adventist Hospital Clinical School, The University of Sydney, 3Concord Clinical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Abstract: This study aimed to determine if intravenous lidocaine infusion reduces postoperative pain intensity following laparoscopic fundoplication surgery and to also validate the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. This was an equally randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single center trial. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication were recruited. The intervention group received 1 mg/kg intravenous lidocaine bolus prior to induction of anesthesia, then an intravenous infusion at 2 mg/kg/h for 24 hours. The primary outcome was pain, measured using a numeric rating scale for 30 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were nausea and vomiting, opioid requirements, adverse events, serum lidocaine concentration, and length of hospital stay. The study was terminated after an interim analysis of 24 patients showed evidence of futility. There was no difference in postoperative pain scores (lidocaine versus control, mean ± standard deviation at rest (2.0 ± 2.7 vs 2.1 ± 2.4, P=0.286 or with movement (2.0 ± 2.6 vs 2.6 ± 2.7, P=0.487. Three adverse events occurred in the lidocaine group (25% of patients. Intravenous lidocaine did not provide clinically significant analgesia to patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication. The serum lidocaine concentration of patients who experienced adverse events were within the therapeutic range. This trial cannot confirm the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. Keywords: analgesia, local anesthetics, intravenous infusions, pharmacokinetics

  20. Topical lidocaine to improve oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth ulcers: a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Sandy M; McCarthy, Michelle; Tancharoen, Chasari; Lee, Katherine J; Davidson, Andrew; Babl, Franz E

    2014-03-01

    We establish the efficacy of 2% viscous lidocaine in increasing oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions compared with placebo. This was a randomized placebo-controlled trial of viscous lidocaine versus placebo at a single pediatric emergency department. Study staff, clinicians, nurses, caregivers, and participants were blinded to the group assignment. Children with acute infectious ulcerative mouth conditions (gingivostomatitis, ulcerative pharyngitis, or hand, foot, and mouth disease) and poor oral fluid intake were randomized to receive 0.15 mL/kg of either 2% viscous lidocaine or placebo with identical appearance and flavor. The primary outcome was the amount of fluid ingested in the 60 minutes after administration of the intervention, with a difference in intake of 4 mL/kg considered clinically important. Secondary outcomes were specific milliliter per kilogram fluid targets and incidence of adverse events. One hundred participants were recruited (50 per treatment group), all of whom completed the 60-minute fluid trial period. Oral intake 1 hour after drug administration was similar in both groups: lidocaine median 8.49 mL/kg (interquartile range 4.07, 13.84 mL/kg) versus placebo 9.31 mL/kg (interquartile range 3.06, 15.18 mL/kg); difference in medians 0.82 mL/kg (95% confidence interval -2.52 to 3.26); Mann-Whitney P=.90. Likewise, short-term secondary outcomes were similar between the groups and there were no adverse events in either group. Viscous lidocaine is not superior to a flavored gel placebo in improving oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth ulcers. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sustained-release methylphenidate in methamphetamine dependence treatment: a double-blind and placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farzin; Emami, Maryam; Zahed, Shakiba; Morabbi, Mohammad-Javad; Farahzadi, Mohammadhadi; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2015-01-15

    The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy of sustained-release methylphenidate (MPH-SR) in treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Fifty-six individuals who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for methamphetamine dependence participated in this 10-week trial. The participants were randomly allocated into two groups and received 18 to 54 mg/day sustained-released methylphenidate or placebo for 10 weeks. Craving was evaluated by a visual analogue craving scale every week. Urinary screening test for methamphetamine was carried out each week. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was used to monitor participant depressive symptoms at baseline and bi-weekly during the treatment period. At the end of the trial, the MPH-SR group was less methamphetamine positive compared to the placebo group and the difference was significant (p = 0.03). By the end of the study, MPH-SR group showed significantly less craving scores compared to the placebo group [MD (95% CI) = -10.28(0.88-19.18), t(54) = 2.19, p = 0.03]. There was greater improvement in the depressive symptoms scores in the intervention group compared to the placebo group [MD (95% CI) =2.03(0.31-3.75), t (54) =2.37, p = 0.02]. Sustained-released methylphenidate was safe and well tolerated among active methamphetamine users and significantly reduced methamphetamine use, craving and depressive symptoms. IRCT201202281556N38.

  2. Efficacy of Plai Cream in Adult Patients with Muscle Strain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheechareoan, Sukrom; Pathanawiriyasirikul, Thanate; Manmee, Charuwan; Janpol, Kanya

    2016-02-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are a standard treatment option for muscle strain; however, side effects persist. This clinical trial was designed to compare the efficacy of Plai cream compared to placebos in adult patients with muscle strain. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 140 participants aged over 18 years with muscle strain were randomized to receive either Plai cream (n = 70 patients, treatment group) or placebos (n = 70 patients, control group) . Outcome assessments included the visual analog scale (VAS), quality of life (QoL), the amount of remaining cream, and the number of acetaminophen tablets used. After 2 weeks, the mean pain scores following treatment with both Plai cream and placebos in patients with muscle strain decreased from baseline to the end of the study at week 2. However, no significant difference for VA S score was found. The QoL of the two groups showed improvements in QoL as witnessed by increased mean QoL scores from baseline to week 2; however, these differences were not statistically significant. In general, mean QoL scores above 50 indicate good quality of life. The amount of Plai cream used reduced from baseline to week 2, but no significant difference in the amount of cream remaining was found between the two groups at each visit. Similarly, the number of acetaminophen tablets used was not statistically different between the treatment and control groups. There was no difference in pain reduction in the 2-week period between patients with muscle strain using Plai cream and those given placebos, but Plai cream tended to reduce pain in the long term. No side effects were found from Plai cream, so this non-invasive treatment may be offered to patients.

  3. Psyllium supplementation in adolescents improves fat distribution & lipid profile: a randomized, participant-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bock, Martin; Derraik, José G B; Brennan, Christine M; Biggs, Janene B; Smith, Greg C; Cameron-Smith, David; Wall, Clare R; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of psyllium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and other parameters of the metabolic syndrome in an at risk adolescent population. This study encompassed a participant-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Subjects were 47 healthy adolescent males aged 15-16 years, recruited from secondary schools in lower socio-economic areas with high rates of obesity. Participants received 6 g/day of psyllium or placebo for 6 weeks, with a two-week washout before crossing over. Fasting lipid profiles, ambulatory blood pressure, auxological data, body composition, activity levels, and three-day food records were collected at baseline and after each 6-week intervention. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Matsuda method using glucose and insulin values from an oral glucose tolerance test. 45 subjects completed the study, and compliance was very high: 87% of participants took >80% of prescribed capsules. At baseline, 44% of subjects were overweight or obese. 28% had decreased insulin sensitivity, but none had impaired glucose tolerance. Fibre supplementation led to a 4% reduction in android fat to gynoid fat ratio (p = 0.019), as well as a 0.12 mmol/l (6%) reduction in LDL cholesterol (p = 0.042). No associated adverse events were recorded. Dietary supplementation with 6 g/day of psyllium over 6 weeks improves fat distribution and lipid profile (parameters of the metabolic syndrome) in an at risk population of adolescent males. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000888268.

  4. Lovastatin for the Treatment of Adult Patients With Dengue: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorn, James; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Khanh, Lam Phung; Kien, Duong Thi Hue; Quyen, Nguyen Than Ha; Tran, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Hang, Nguyen Thuy; Truong, Nguyen Thanh; Hue Tai, Luong Thi; Cam Huong, Nguyen Thi; Nhon, Vo Thanh; Van Tram, Ta; Farrar, Jeremy; Wolbers, Marcel; Simmons, Cameron P; Wills, Bridget

    2016-02-15

    Dengue endangers billions of people in the tropical world, yet no therapeutic is currently available. In part, the severe manifestations of dengue reflect inflammatory processes affecting the vascular endothelium. In addition to lipid lowering, statins have pleiotropic effects that improve endothelial function, and epidemiological studies suggest that outcomes from a range of acute inflammatory syndromes are improved in patients already on statin therapy. Following satisfactory review of a short pilot phase (40 mg lovastatin vs placebo in 30 cases), we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 5 days of 80 mg lovastatin vs placebo in 300 Vietnamese adults with a positive dengue NS1 rapid test presenting within 72 hours of fever onset. The primary outcome was safety. Secondary outcomes included comparisons of disease progression rates, fever clearance times, and measures of plasma viremia and quality of life between the treatment arms. Adverse events occurred with similar frequency in both groups (97/151 [64%] placebo vs 82/149 [55%] lovastatin; P = .13), and were in keeping with the characteristic clinical and laboratory features of acute dengue. We also observed no difference in serious adverse events or any of the secondary outcome measures. We found lovastatin to be safe and well tolerated in adults with dengue. However, although the study was not powered to address efficacy, we found no evidence of a beneficial effect on any of the clinical manifestations or on dengue viremia. Continuing established statin therapy in patients who develop dengue is safe.Chinese Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN03147572. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  5. Milk containing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and respiratory illness in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpu, M; Kekkonen, R A; Kautiainen, H; Järvenpää, S; Kristo, A; Huovinen, P; Pitkäranta, A; Korpela, R; Hatakka, K

    2012-09-01

    To determine whether long-term daily consumption of milk containing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) decreases respiratory illness in children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 523 children aged 2-6 years attending day care centers in Finland. Subjects received either normal milk or the same milk with GG on three daily meals for 28 weeks. Daily recording of children' symptoms was done by parents. Primary outcome data from 501 subjects were available for analysis, and data from 128 subjects were analyzed as completed cases in terms of recovery of GG in fecal samples. Number of days with at least one respiratory symptom in all subjects was 5.03/month (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.92-5.15) in the GG group and 5.17/month (95% CI: 5.05-5.29) in the placebo group incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-1.00; P=0.098). In the completed cases, the figures were 4.71 days/month (95% CI: 4.52-4.90) in the GG group and 5.67 days/month (95% CI: 5.40-5.94) in the placebo group (IRR 0.83; 95% CI: 0.78-0.88; PGG reduced the occurrence of respiratory illness in children attending day care centers in the completed cases subgroup, but not in the total population. Thus, future clinical trials are warranted to clarify the association between fecal recovery of a probiotic and the symptom prevalence.

  6. Effect of Auricular Acupress Therapy on Insomnia of Cancer Patients : Randomized, Single Blinded, Placebo Controlled Trial

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    In-Sook Jung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Auricular acupressure is one of the traditional health care treatments in oriental medicine. Approximately, 30~40% of the cancer patients have said to be suffering from insomnia and half of them having chronic and severe insomnia at the same time. Insomnia caused cancer patients feel more pain, fatigue, depression and anxiety and it sometimes let the power to have the best of cancer pull down. Objective: To investigate how effective the auricular acupressure treatment to cancer patients suffering from insomnia. Methods: We recruited participants from East-West Cancer Center of Daejeon University. Finally, of the people whose age range from 20 to 75, 12 patients who got less than 40 points from the score of Oh's sleeping score (OSS were recruited. Single-blind, randomized pilot study was performed. The treatment group received auricular acupressure treatment (AAT on active points and the control group had received sham acupressure treatment (SAT for five times. Sleep parameters were checked by using OSS and numeric rating scale (NRS. We checked the scale everytime, both before and after treatment. We analyzed the data statistically by using independent T-test, paired T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA test. (p<0.05 Results: Twelve cancer patients participated in this pilot study and there was no significant difference between control and treatment group. Only 7 of them had completed the whole treatment process, 4 patients of AAT group and 3 participants of SAT. The OSS of AAT group had increased from 34.0± 4.3 to 39.5±3.1 and that of SAT group had increased from 38.3±3.5 to 40.0±0.0. There was no significant difference between them. The NRS of AAT group had increased from 6.3±2.9 to 4.8±2.1 and that of SAT group had increased from 7.0±1.0 to 5.0±2.6. No significant difference was observed between them. Conclusion: Although both groups did not show significant differences, most of the experimental participants showed

  7. Aripiprazole for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Phillip Oliver; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Das, Moupali; Santos, Deirdre M; Huffaker, Shannon; Matheson, Tim; Gasper, James; Vittinghoff, Eric; Colfax, Grant N

    2013-04-01

    To test aripiprazole for efficacy in decreasing use in methamphetamine-dependent adults, compared to placebo. Participants were randomized to receive 12 weeks of aripiprazole or placebo, with a 3-month follow-up and a platform of weekly 30-minute substance abuse counseling. The trial was conducted from January 2009 to March 2012 at the San Francisco Department of Public Health. Ninety actively using, methamphetamine-dependent, sexually active adults were recruited from community venues. The primary outcome was regression estimated reductions in weekly methamphetamine-positive urines. Secondary outcomes were study medication adherence [by self-report and medication event monitoring systems (MEMS)], sexual risk behavior and abstinence from methamphetamine. Participant mean age was 38.7 years, 87.8% were male, 50.0% white, 18.9% African American, and 16.7% Latino. Eighty-three per cent of follow-up visits and final visits were completed. By intent-to-treat, participants assigned to aripiprazole had similar reductions in methamphetamine-positive urines as participants assigned to placebo [risk ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-1.19, P = 0.41]. Urine positivity declined from 73% (33 of 45 participants) to 45% (18 of 40) in the placebo arm and from 77% (34 of 44) to 44% (20 of 35) in the aripiprazole arm. Adherence by MEMS and self-report was 42 and 74%, respectively, with no significant difference between arms (MEMS P = 0.31; self-report P = 0.17). Most sexual risk behaviors declined similarly among participants in both arms (all P > 0.05). There were no serious adverse events related to study drug, although participants randomized to aripiprazole reported more akathisia, fatigue and drowsiness (P methamphetamine use significantly among actively using, dependent adults. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Bevacizumab Therapy for Radiation Necrosis of the Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Victor A.; Bidaut, Luc; Hou, Ping; Kumar, Ashok J.; Wefel, Jeffrey S.; Bekele, B. Nebiyou; Prabhu, Sujit; Loghin, Monica; Gilbert, Mark R.; Jackson, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct a controlled trial of bevacizumab for the treatment of symptomatic radiation necrosis of the brain. Methods and Materials: A total of 14 patients were entered into a placebo-controlled randomized double-blind study of bevacizumab for the treatment of central nervous system radiation necrosis. All patients were required to have radiographic or biopsy proof of central nervous system radiation necrosis and progressive neurologic symptoms or signs. Eligible patients had undergone irradiation for head-and-neck carcinoma, meningioma, or low- to mid-grade glioma. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous saline or bevacizumab at 3-week intervals. The magnetic resonance imaging findings 3 weeks after the second treatment and clinical signs and symptoms defined the response or progression. Results: The volumes of necrosis estimated on T 2 -weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T 1 -weighted gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated that although no patient receiving placebo responded (0 of 7), all bevacizumab-treated patients did so (5 of 5 randomized and 7 of 7 crossover) with decreases in T 2 -weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T 1 -weighted gadolinium-enhanced volumes and a decrease in endothelial transfer constant. All bevacizumab-treated patients-and none of the placebo-treated patients-showed improvement in neurologic symptoms or signs. At a median of 10 months after the last dose of bevacizumab in patients receiving all four study doses, only 2 patients had experienced a recurrence of magnetic resonance imaging changes consistent with progressive radiation necrosis; one patient received a single additional dose of bevacizumab and the other patient received two doses. Conclusion: The Class I evidence of bevacizumab efficacy from the present study in the treatment of central nervous system radiation necrosis justifies consideration of this treatment option for people with radiation necrosis

  9. Captopril for prevention of Contrast Induced Nephropathy in patients undergoing Coronary Angioplasty: A double blind placebo controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hashemi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contrast induced nephropathy is a potential cause of mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing angiography–angioplasty. Except for hydrating and probably low – isoosmolar contrast agents in high risk groups, other modalities have not provided benefit. We investigated preventive effects of captopril for contrast induced nephropathy during angiography–angioplasty. Methods: In a double blind placebo controlled clinical trial, 88 patients were randomized to two groups: 42 patients received captopril (12.5 mg every 8 hours from 2 hours before the procedure until 48 hours thereafter, and 46 patients received placebo in the same manner. Serum creatinine was measured before and 48 hours after angioplasty. The data were analyzed by SPSS software, using unpaired student t-test for comparing mean creatinine rise in both groups and paired student t-test for the changes in serum creatinine in each group. Results: The mean creatinine rise in captopril group (0.214 mg/dl and placebo group (0.226 mg/dl were not significantly different. The incidence of acute renal failure (creatinine rise more than 0.5 mg/dl in the captopril (11.9 % and placebo group (10.8 % were not significantly different. Conclusion: Captopril does not effectively prevent contrast nephropathy, but it is not harmful for renal function and can be administered safely during angiography – angioplasty in patients with normal renal function. However, the effect of captopril in patients with high- risk characteristics remains to be clarified. Of note, we found a trend for less creatinine rise in diabetics who received captopril during the procedure in comparison to diabetics who received placebo. Keywords: Angiography, Angioplasty, Contrast induced Nephropathy, Captopril, Angiotension Converting Enzyme Inhibitor, Creatinine

  10. Comparative lipid-lowering effects of policosanol and atorvastatin: a randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeddu, Luigi X; Cubeddu, Roberto J; Heimowitz, Todd; Restrepo, Beatriz; Lamas, Gervasio A; Weinberg, Gloria B

    2006-11-01

    Policosanol, commonly derived from purified sugar cane wax, has been reported to exert lipid-lowering effects. Policosanol is available in the United States as a nutritional supplement despite no US research clinical experience. This trial was designed to rigorously establish the lipid-lowering efficacy of policosanol as monotherapy and its potential additive and possibly synergistic effects when added to statin therapy. A randomized, parallel, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled design was used. Patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels from 140 to 189 mg/dL were assigned into 1 of 4 groups to receive policosanol 20 mg, atorvastatin 10 mg, combination therapy, or placebo for 12 weeks. A total of 99 patients were examined. Baseline characteristics were similar among all treatment groups. Policosanol (20 mg/d for 12 weeks) did not significantly change plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglyceride levels when compared with baseline values or with values of placebo-treated patients. Atorvastatin (10 mg/d for 12 weeks) reduced total cholesterol by 27% and LDL-C by 35%. Addition of policosanol to atorvastatin failed to produce any further reduction in lipid levels above that of atorvastatin alone. Policosanol was safe and did not affect liver enzyme or creatinine phosphokinase levels. Policosanol did not reduce LDL-C or total cholesterol levels either alone or in combination with atorvastatin. This observation supports the need for systematic evaluation of available products containing policosanol to determine their clinical lipid-lowering efficacy under rigorous experimental conditions. We propose that policosanol should be added to the list of nutritional supplements lacking scientific validity to support their use.

  11. Theobromine for the treatment of persistent cough: a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, Alyn H; McGarvey, Lorcan; Pavord, Ian D; Higgins, Bernard; Chung, Kian Fan; Birring, Surinder S

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effect of BC1036 on health-related quality of life (QOL) in subjects with persistent cough. The secondary objective was to investigate the effect of BC1036 on subjective cough severity. This was a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 289 subjects with persistent cough. Subjects received BC1036 or placebo twice daily for 14 days. The primary endpoint comprised cough-related QOL assessed using the validated Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) at Day 14. Secondary endpoints comprised the LCQ scores at Day 7 and Day 28, cough severity VAS scores at each visit and pulmonary function tests. At baseline, mean total LCQ score in the BC1036 group was lower (i.e., worse QOL) than placebo (P<0.001), indicating significant between-group heterogeneity. Mean baseline-adjusted change in LCQ score at Day 14 was greater for BC1036 [mean (SD) 2.4±3.5] compared to placebo [mean (SD) score 2.2±3.0], but did not reach statistical significance (P=0.60). Mean cough severity VAS score decreased to a greater extent in the BC1036 group compared to placebo, but again the results were not statistically significant (-12.2±23.28 in BC1036 group and -11.0±21.34 in placebo group at Day 14, P=0.688). There was no significant change in pulmonary function measurements. The adverse event (AE) profile was similar in both groups. This study showed that BC1036 was well tolerated and, although the primary endpoint did not achieve statistical significance, the magnitude of improvement was greater with BC1036 compared to placebo with respect to improving QOL and reducing cough severity. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01656668.

  12. Effect of Kaempferia parviflora Extract on Physical Fitness of Soccer Players: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promthep, Kreeta; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Chatchawan, Uraiwan

    2015-05-06

    Physical fitness is a fundamental prerequisite for soccer players. Kaempferia parviflora is an herbal plant that has been used in some Asian athletes with the belief that it might prevent fatigue and improve physical fitness. This study aimed to determine the effects of Kaempferia parviflora on the physical fitness of soccer players. Sixty soccer players who routinely trained at a sports school participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial and were randomly allocated to the treatment group or the placebo group. The participants in both groups were given either 180 mg of Kaempferia parviflora extract in capsules or a placebo once daily for 12 weeks. Baseline data were collected using the following 6 tests of physical performance: a sit-and-reach test, a hand grip strength test, a back-and-leg strength test, a 40-yard technical test, a 50-metre sprint test, and a cardiorespiratory fitness test. All of the tests were performed every 4 weeks throughout the 12-week study period. The study showed that after treatment with Kaempferia parviflora, the right-hand grip strength was significantly increased at weeks 4, 8, and 12. The left-hand grip strength was significantly increased at week 8. However, the back-and-leg strength, the 40-yard technical test, the sit-and-reach test, the 50-metre sprint test, and the cardiorespiratory fitness test results of the treatment group were not significantly different from those of the placebo group. Taking Kaempferia parviflora supplements for 12 weeks may significantly enhance some physical fitness components in soccer players.

  13. Efficacy of mouth rinses on dental plaque and gingivitis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the years chlorhexidine (CHX, triclosan and sodium fluoride (NaF mouth rinses are used alone or combined in the prevention of dental diseases. However, at present little is known about the combined effects of NaF + triclosan and CHX + NaF + triclosan mouth rinses on reducing dental plaque and gingivitis. Aim: The aim was to determine the efficacy of mouth rinses used as adjuncts to regular oral hygiene measures on reducing dental plaque and gingivitis. Materials and Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study was conducted for 6-month, among 12-15 years old school children in Nellore, India. Eligible subjects (n = 210 with consent were randomly allocated to four groups and were provided with a mouth rinse (Group A = 0.2% CHX; Group B = 0.05% sodium fluoride + 0.03% triclosan; Group C = 0.2% CHX + 0.05% sodium fluoride + 0.03% triclosan; Group D = Placebo. All subjects used 10 ml of mouth rinse, once daily for 60 s. The clinical parameters evaluated were plaque index (PlI and gingival Index (GI. Statistical significance within and between four groups was tested using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc and paired t-test. Results: At the end of clinical trial, the three test groups showed statistically significant (P < 0.001 reduction in PlI and GI scores compared with placebo group. Conclusion: The active agents demonstrated highly potent antiplaque and antigingivitis properties when compared to placebo.

  14. Acupuncture for post-operative pain after inguinal hernia repair: a placebo controlled, double-blinded clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acupuncture is one of the most effective methods of alleviating pain in different situations including chronic and acute pain management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in the reduction of post-operative pain after hernia repair.Methods: In this placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial, we enrolled 60 male patients aged 30 to 60 years old with an ASA physical status of I or II undergoing elective inguinal hernia repair under general anesthesia in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. All patients experienced standard anesthetic and surgical procedures. After completion of the operation and while the patients were still under general anesthesia, they were randomly assigned to two groups: acupuncture (with stimulation of GV2, GV4 and SP6 points with sterile acupuncture needles, and control (with sham acupuncture stimulation. After termination of anesthesia, during the first six hours, the pain intensity was evaluated hourly. Pethidine (25 mg was administered for the patients when necessary. Pain intensity and pethidine use were recorded and compared between the two groups.Results: The mean age of two groups did not differ. Pain intensity was significantly lower in the acupuncture group between the second and fifth postoperative hours. Moreover, pethidine use was significantly lower in the acupuncture group versus the control group during the first six hours after surgery (12.07±7.5 mg vs. 12.91±6.5 mg, respectively; p=0.0001.Conclusion: The application of acupuncture in patients is associated with a marked decrease in pain after inguinal hernia repair and does not have any serious complications. Acupuncture is strongly recommended for all post-operative patients."n 

  15. Effect of Zolpidem on Sleep Quality of Professional Firefighters; a Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Mehrdad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Professional firefighting is among the most demanding jobs. Prior studies have showed the notable prevalence of poor sleep quality among professional firefighters that may result in catastrophes. The aim of this study was in field confirmation of zolpidem usage (10 mg/PO/bed time for short term management of poor sleeps quality among professional firefighters. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial among professional firefighters, 27 poor sleepers were assigned randomly to one of the two groups. Two 14 days experimental periods were separated by a 14-day washout phase. Sleep quality was assessed using the Persian version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Six of the 27 enrolled voluntaries dropped out. Two rare side effects of zolpidem occurred in the study. A significant improvement of the PSQI score was detected in zolpidem period versus placebo in both groups (7.14 ± 3.02 vs 12.38 ± 2.51, PP=0.89. Zolpidem significantly improved all components of PSQI (Subjective sleep quality, Sleep latency, Sleep duration, Habitual sleep efficiency, Sleep disturbances and Daytime dysfunction in the current study except the use of sleep medication. Sleep onset latency was the component of PSQI with the greatest degree of abnormality among firefighters in a previous study. Interestingly, sleep latency was the component of PSQI with the most treatment effect of zolpidem in the current study. Zolpidem can be used as a part of treatment regimens in short time management of poor sleep quality among professional firefighters.

  16. The Deferasirox-AmBisome Therapy for Mucormycosis (DEFEAT Mucor) study: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellberg, Brad; Ibrahim, Ashraf S; Chin-Hong, Peter V; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Morris, Michele I; Perfect, John R; Fredricks, David; Brass, Eric P

    2012-03-01

    Host iron availability is fundamental to mucormycosis pathogenesis. The combination of liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) and deferasirox iron chelation therapy synergistically improved survival in diabetic mice with mucormycosis. To determine the safety of combination deferasirox plus LAmB therapy for mucormycosis, a multicentred, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial was conducted. Twenty patients with proven or probable mucormycosis were randomized to receive treatment with LAmB plus deferasirox (20 mg/kg/day for 14 days) or LAmB plus placebo (NCT00419770, clinicaltrials.gov). The primary analyses were for safety and exploratory efficacy. Patients in the deferasirox arm (n=11) were more likely than those in the placebo arm (n=9) to have active malignancy, neutropenia and corticosteroid therapy, and were less likely to receive concurrent non-study antifungal therapy. Reported adverse events and serious adverse events were similar between the groups. However, death was more frequent in the deferasirox than in the placebo arm at 30 days (45% versus 11%, P=0.1) and 90 days (82% versus 22%, P=0.01). Global success (alive, clinically stable, radiographically improved) for the deferasirox arm versus the placebo arm at 30 and 90 days, respectively, was 18% (2/11) versus 67% (6/9) (P=0.06) and 18% (2/11) versus 56% (5/9) (P=0.2). Patients with mucormycosis treated with deferasirox had a higher mortality rate at 90 days. Population imbalances in this small Phase II study make generalizable conclusions difficult. Nevertheless, these data do not support a role for initial, adjunctive deferasirox therapy for mucormycosis.

  17. The Deferasirox–AmBisome Therapy for Mucormycosis (DEFEAT Mucor) study: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellberg, Brad; Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Chin-Hong, Peter V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Morris, Michele I.; Perfect, John R.; Fredricks, David; Brass, Eric P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Host iron availability is fundamental to mucormycosis pathogenesis. The combination of liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) and deferasirox iron chelation therapy synergistically improved survival in diabetic mice with mucormycosis. To determine the safety of combination deferasirox plus LAmB therapy for mucormycosis, a multicentred, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial was conducted. Methods Twenty patients with proven or probable mucormycosis were randomized to receive treatment with LAmB plus deferasirox (20 mg/kg/day for 14 days) or LAmB plus placebo (NCT00419770, clinicaltrials.gov). The primary analyses were for safety and exploratory efficacy. Results Patients in the deferasirox arm (n = 11) were more likely than those in the placebo arm (n = 9) to have active malignancy, neutropenia and corticosteroid therapy, and were less likely to receive concurrent non-study antifungal therapy. Reported adverse events and serious adverse events were similar between the groups. However, death was more frequent in the deferasirox than in the placebo arm at 30 days (45% versus 11%, P = 0.1) and 90 days (82% versus 22%, P = 0.01). Global success (alive, clinically stable, radiographically improved) for the deferasirox arm versus the placebo arm at 30 and 90 days, respectively, was 18% (2/11) versus 67% (6/9) (P = 0.06) and 18% (2/11) versus 56% (5/9) (P = 0.2). Conclusions Patients with mucormycosis treated with deferasirox had a higher mortality rate at 90 days. Population imbalances in this small Phase II study make generalizable conclusions difficult. Nevertheless, these data do not support a role for initial, adjunctive deferasirox therapy for mucormycosis. PMID:21937481

  18. Perioperative prostaglandin e1 infusion in living donor liver transplantation: A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathan, Viju Kumar; Chandran, Biju; Gopalakrishnan, Unnikrishnan; Varghese, Christi Titus; Menon, Ramachandran N; Balakrishnan, Dinesh; Sudheer, O V; Dhar, Puneet; Surendran, Sudhindran

    2016-08-01

    The role of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) infusion in improving early graft function has not been well defined, especially in the scenario of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the role of perioperative PGE1 infusion in LDLT. Patients in the study arm received PGE1 (alprostadil) at the rate of 0.25 μg/kg/hour, starting at 1 hour after portal venous reperfusion, and continued for 96 hours. The primary endpoint was early allograft dysfunction (EAD). We analyzed multiple secondary endpoints including postoperative liver function and renal function parameters, acute kidney injury (AKI), hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT), postoperative bleeding, overall mortality, and posttransplant hospital stay. The incidence of EAD was lower in the PGE1 arm, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (22.4% versus 36%; P = 0.21). Among the secondary endpoints, the incidence of AKI was significantly lower in the PGE1 arm (8.2% versus 28%; P = 0.02), as were the peak and mean postoperative creatinine levels. The need for renal replacement therapy was similar between the 2 groups. Among the postoperative graft function parameters, postoperative alanine aminotransferase level was significantly lower in the PGE1 arm (P = 0.04), whereas the remaining parameters including serum bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and international normalized ratio were similar between the 2 arms. There was no difference in the incidence of HAT and postoperative bleeding, in-hospital mortality, and posttransplant hospital stay between the 2 arms. Perioperative PGE1 infusion reduces the incidence of posttransplant renal dysfunction in patients undergoing LDLT. Liver Transplantation 22 1067-1074 2016 AASLD. © 2016 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. Melatonin for sedative withdrawal in older patients with primary insomnia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lähteenmäki, Ritva; Puustinen, Juha; Vahlberg, Tero; Lyles, Alan; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Partinen, Markku; Räihä, Ismo; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa

    2014-01-01

    Aim We compared the efficacy of melatonin and placebo as adjuvants in the withdrawal of patients from long term temazepam, zopiclone or zolpidem (here ‘BZD’) use. Methods A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted in a primary health care outpatient clinic. Ninety-two men or women (≥55 years) with primary insomnia and chronic BZD use received controlled release melatonin 2 mg (CRM) (n = 46) or placebo (n = 46) during the 1 month withdrawal from BZDs. Psychosocial support was provided. Follow-up continued for up to 6 months. Successful BZD withdrawal by the end of 1 month was confirmed by BZD plasma determinations, while reduction in BZD use and abstinence continuing for 6 months were noted. Results There were two drop-outs on CRM and one on placebo. After a 1 month withdrawal, 31 participants (67%; 95% CI 54, 81) on CRM and 39 (85%; 74, 95) on placebo had withdrawn completely (intention-to-treat analysis between groups, P = 0.051; per protocol P = 0.043). Reduction in BZD use was similar or even more rare in the CRM than in the placebo group (P = 0.052 per protocol). After 6 months, 14 participants in the CRM group and 20 in the placebo group remained non-users of BZD (NS between groups). BZD doses were higher in the CRM than in the placebo group at the end of the 6 month follow-up (P = 0.025). Withdrawal symptoms did not differ between the groups. Conclusions Gradual dose reduction of BZDs combined with CRM or placebo, and psychosocial support produced high short term and moderate long term BZD abstinence. CRM showed no withdrawal benefit compared with placebo. PMID:24286360

  20. Ephedrine versus ondansetron in the prevention of hypotension during cesarean delivery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivatpumin, P; Thamvittayakul, V

    2016-08-01

    Maternal hypotension is common after spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. We compared the effects of prophylactic ephedrine with ondansetron on post-spinal blood pressure. One hundred and sixty-eight term, singleton parturients were enrolled in this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were randomized to receive either prophylactic intravenous ephedrine 10mg (Group E), ondansetron 8mg (Group O) or normal saline (Group P) immediately after spinal anesthesia. The primary outcome was maternal blood pressure between spinal block and delivery; secondary outcomes were nausea and vomiting scores, Apgar scores, numbers requiring intraoperative vasoconstrictors and the dose of vasoconstrictors required. Fifty-six patients were recruited to each group, but two in Group P were excluded from the analysis owing to protocol violations. There were no significant differences between the groups in maternal systolic, diastolic or mean arterial pressures, or the proportion of patients experiencing hypotension. The proportion of patients in Group E requiring intraoperative ephedrine or any vasoconstrictor (ephedrine and/or norepinephrine) was significantly lower than that in Group P (P=0.023 and 0.034, respectively). The proportion of patients in Group O requiring intraoperative norepinephrine was significantly lower than that in Group P (P=0.02). There was no difference in the proportions of patients in Groups E and O requiring any vasoconstrictors (P=0.34). There was no significant difference in maternal blood pressure in women administered prophylactic ephedrine or ondansetron after spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery compared with placebo. Ephedrine reduced the proportion of patients requiring a rescue vasoconstrictor before delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The nasal airways response in normal subjects to oxymetazoline spray: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, L; Shakib, S; Taverner, D

    1999-07-01

    The effects of a single dose of oxymetazoline nasal spray on nasal patency have been compared with placebo using three separate measuring systems in normal subjects. The study was a placebo-controlled, randomised double-blind crossover trial. Subjects without ear, nose or throat disease and with resting nasal airways resistance >0.15 Pa s cm-3 were selected so that a fall in airways resistance could be detected. Nasal airways resistance (NAR) was measured by NR6-2 rhinomanometer. Acoustic rhinometry (SR-2000 rhinometer) provided the sum of the minimum cross-sectional areas (tMCA) and volume (tVOL) of the left and right nasal cavities. Symptoms of congestion were assessed on a visual analogue scale (CON, range 0-100). Measurements were made for 60 min before and for 120 min after bilateral administration of oxymetazoline nasal spray (0.9 mg) or placebo (0.9% saline). Crossover occurred 7-21 days later. Results for all measures were analysed as change from average baseline value by trapezoidal AUC, and statistical significance was tested by 2-way anova. NAR, tMCA, tVOL and CON did not change after placebo, but NAR and CON fell and tMCA and tVOL increased significantly at all timepoints after oxymetazoline. NAR_AUC, tVOL_AUC, tMCA_AUC were significantly different between placebo and oxymetazoline (P<0.001) as was CON_AUC (P=0.012). The day-to-day intraindividual repeatability of baseline NAR tMCA and tVOL was <10%. Normal subjects can be used to detect the effects of nasally vasoactive drugs with a variety of complementary systems, with the advantages of easy subject recruitment and low variability.

  2. Oral Zinc Sulfate as Adjuvant Treatment in Children With Nephrolithiasis: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Cyrus, Ali; Dorreh, Fatemeh; Rafeie, Mohammad; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Frohar, Faryar; Safi, Fatemeh

    2015-12-01

    Nephrolithiasis in children is associated with a high rate of complications and recurrence. Since some evidences reported that zinc has an important place amongst inhibitors of crystallization and crystal growth, we decided to assess the effectiveness of oral zinc sulfate as adjuvant treatment in children with nephrolithiasis. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. 102 children in the age range 1 month to 11 years with first nephrolithiasis were recruited. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups (intervention and control groups). Intervention group received conservative measures for stones and 1 mg/kg/day (maximum 20 mg/day) oral zinc sulfate syrup for 3 months. Control group received placebo in addition to conservative measures, also for 3 months. Patients were followed up by ultrasonography for 9 months, in 5 steps (at the end of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 6th and 9th month after treatment) assessing size and number of stones in the kidneys. Only at the end of the first month, the average number (intervention: 1.15 ± 3.78, control: 1.3 ± 2.84) (P = 0.001) and size (cm) (intervention: 0.51 ± 1.76, control: 0.62 ± 1.39) (P = 0.001) of stones was significantly lower in the intervention group, and in other points there was no significant therapeutic efficacy in oral zinc adjuvant treatment compared to conservative treatment alone. Also, during the 9-month follow-up, the number and size of stones in both groups decreased significantly (both: P field.

  3. Selenium supplementation improves the nutritional status of hemodialysis patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Moosa; Sohrabi, Zahra; Ekramzadeh, Maryam; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Kazem; Ayatollahi, Maryam; Geramizadeh, Bita; Hassanzadeh, Jafar; Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi

    2013-03-01

    Malnutrition is highly prevalent in hemodialysis (HD) patients. These patients have high levels of oxidative stress and inflammation which can subsequently induce malnutrition. Selenium levels have been found to be decreased in HD patients. As selenium deficiency leads to oxidative stress and inflammatory response, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of selenium supplementation on oxidative and inflammatory markers and the nutritional status of HD patients. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 80 patients on stable HD for at least 3 months without any acute illness or active infections were randomly allocated to two equal groups to receive one selenium (200 µg) or placebo capsule daily for 12 weeks. Serum levels of lipoproteins, malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP), homocysteine, ferritin and transferrin as well as the subjective global assessment (SGA) score, malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels were measured at the baseline and at the end of the treatment phase. The primary outcome was a change in the nutritional status measured by the SGA score from the baseline towards the end of the treatment phase of the study. The SGA score and MIS decreased significantly in the selenium group compared to the placebo group (P < 0.001 for both). Moreover, serum levels of MDA decreased significantly in the selenium group compared with increasing levels in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Selenium supplementation also hindered an increase in IL-6 levels compared with the placebo group (P = 0.016). There were no significant differences between the selenium and placebo groups in terms of changes in serum levels of lipoproteins, HSCRP, homocysteine, ferritin and transferrin or Hb levels. This study shows that selenium may be an effective complementary supplement for reducing the severity of malnutrition in HD patients through alleviating oxidative stress and

  4. Pioglitazone adjunctive therapy for moderate-to-severe major depressive disorder: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepanjnia, Khatereh; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Ashrafi, Mandana; Modabbernia, Mohammad-Jafar; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2012-08-01

    Thiazolidinediones have shown antidepressant effect in animal studies, as well as in some uncontrolled studies evaluating human subjects with concurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) and metabolic syndrome. Although these drugs are insulin sensitizers, they also have important anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-excitotoxic properties. Thus, we hypothesized that they would show antidepressant effect in patients with MDD even if it was not accompanied by metabolic disturbances. In this double-blind placebo-controlled study, 40 patients with MDD (DSM-IV-TR) and Hamilton depression rating scale-17 (Ham-D) score ≥ 22 were randomized to citalopram plus pioglitazone (15 mg every 12 h) (n=20) or citalopram plus placebo (n=20) for 6 weeks. Patients were evaluated using Ham-D (weeks 0, 2, 4, 6). Repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance were used for comparison of scores between the two groups. Treatment response (≥ 50% reduction in Ham-D score), remission (Ham-D score ≤ 7), and early improvement (≥ 20% reduction in Ham-D score within the first 2 weeks) were compared between the two groups using Fisher's exact test. Pioglitazone showed superiority over placebo during the course of the trial (F(1, 38)=9.483, p=0.004). Patients in the pioglitazone group had significantly lower scores at all time points than the placebo group (P<0.01). Frequency of early improvement, response (week 6), and remission was significantly higher in the pioglitazone group (95%, 95%, 45%, respectively) than in the placebo (30%, 40%, 15% respectively) group (P<0.001, <0.001, 0.04, respectively). Frequency of side effects was similar between the two groups. Pioglitazone is a safe and effective adjunctive short-term treatment in patients with moderate-to-severe MDD even in the absence of metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

  5. Preoperative cesarean delivery intravenous acetaminophen treatment for postoperative pain control: a randomized double-blinded placebo control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Craig V; Shelton, Sarah; van Nes, Jaclyn; Gregory, Emily; Liske, Emily; Smalley, Arion; Mobley, Edward; Faircloth, Barbara; Fortner, Kim B

    2018-03-01

    The United States currently has an opioid use disorder epidemic and research evaluating ways to minimize the use of opioids postsurgery are needed. One of these options is intravenous acetaminophen. If the use of preoperative intravenous acetaminophen was found to be effective for cesarean delivery, this would be beneficial for both the mother and breast-feeding neonate. The primary study objective was to see if maternal opioid use was significantly less in the postoperative period for the study group that received 1 g of intravenous acetaminophen preoperatively compared with a control group that received placebo. The secondary objectives were to evaluate maternal length of stay and pain scores postoperatively, and assess the acetaminophen level in cord blood at delivery. This study was a prospective double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial. All pregnant patients who entered labor and delivery for a scheduled cesarean from November 2015 through April 2017 were eligible. Once consented, the medication was supplied by the pharmacy department, which performed the blinded randomization. Both the study drug of 1000 mg (1 g) of acetaminophen and placebo of normal saline were distributed as unmarked 100-mL bags administered over 15 minutes just prior to incision. No study personnel from the obstetric or anesthesia departments had any access to the randomization. Based on a power analysis using the published surgical data results, the goal was to obtain a minimum of 100 patients (50 patients in each arm). Primary data collection included demographics, number of opioid doses and morphine milligram equivalents administered to the patient postoperatively, length of stay postdelivery, pain scores, and newborn cord blood acetaminophen levels. Exclusions were maternal acetaminophen allergy, receipt of acetaminophen in the prior 24 hours, opioid use disorder, and hepatitis/liver impairment. Statistics involved χ 2 , Fisher exact, and the Student t test where

  6. L-arginine and Vitamin D Adjunctive Therapies in Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Anna P.; Waramori, Govert; Pontororing, Gysje J.; Kenangalem, Enny; Wiguna, Andri; Tjitra, Emiliana; Sandjaja; Lolong, Dina B.; Yeo, Tsin W.; Chatfield, Mark D.; Soemanto, Retno K.; Bastian, Ivan; Lumb, Richard; Maguire, Graeme P.; Eisman, John; Price, Ric N.; Morris, Peter S.; Kelly, Paul M.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D (vitD) and L-arginine have important antimycobacterial effects in humans. Adjunctive therapy with these agents has the potential to improve outcomes in active tuberculosis (TB). Methods In a 4-arm randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled factorial trial in adults with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Timika, Indonesia, we tested the effect of oral adjunctive vitD 50,000 IU 4-weekly or matching placebo, and L-arginine 6.0 g daily or matching placebo, for 8 weeks, on proportions of participants with negative 4-week sputum culture, and on an 8-week clinical score (weight, FEV1, cough, sputum, haemoptysis). All participants with available endpoints were included in analyses according to the study arm to which they were originally assigned. Adults with new smear-positive PTB were eligible. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00677339. Results 200 participants were enrolled, less than the intended sample size: 50 received L-arginine + active vitD, 49 received L-arginine + placebo vit D, 51 received placebo L-arginine + active vitD and 50 received placebo L-arginine + placebo vitD. According to the factorial model, 99 people received arginine, 101 placebo arginine, 101 vitamin D, 99 placebo vitamin D. Results for the primary endpoints were available in 155 (4-week culture) and 167 (clinical score) participants. Sputum culture conversion was achieved by week 4 in 48/76 (63%) participants in the active L-arginine versus 48/79 (61%) in placebo L-arginine arms (risk difference −3%, 95% CI −19 to 13%), and in 44/75 (59%) in the active vitD versus 52/80 (65%) in the placebo vitD arms (risk difference 7%, 95% CI −9 to 22%). The mean clinical outcome score also did not differ between study arms. There were no effects of the interventions on adverse event rates including hypercalcaemia, or other secondary outcomes. Conclusion Neither vitD nor L-arginine supplementation, at the doses administered and with the power attained

  7. L-arginine and vitamin D adjunctive therapies in pulmonary tuberculosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P Ralph

    Full Text Available Vitamin D (vitD and L-arginine have important antimycobacterial effects in humans. Adjunctive therapy with these agents has the potential to improve outcomes in active tuberculosis (TB.In a 4-arm randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled factorial trial in adults with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in Timika, Indonesia, we tested the effect of oral adjunctive vitD 50,000 IU 4-weekly or matching placebo, and L-arginine 6.0 g daily or matching placebo, for 8 weeks, on proportions of participants with negative 4-week sputum culture, and on an 8-week clinical score (weight, FEV1, cough, sputum, haemoptysis. All participants with available endpoints were included in analyses according to the study arm to which they were originally assigned. Adults with new smear-positive PTB were eligible. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00677339.200 participants were enrolled, less than the intended sample size: 50 received L-arginine + active vitD, 49 received L-arginine + placebo vit D, 51 received placebo L-arginine + active vitD and 50 received placebo L-arginine + placebo vitD. According to the factorial model, 99 people received arginine, 101 placebo arginine, 101 vitamin D, 99 placebo vitamin D. Results for the primary endpoints were available in 155 (4-week culture and 167 (clinical score participants. Sputum culture conversion was achieved by week 4 in 48/76 (63% participants in the active L-arginine versus 48/79 (61% in placebo L-arginine arms (risk difference -3%, 95% CI -19 to 13%, and in 44/75 (59% in the active vitD versus 52/80 (65% in the placebo vitD arms (risk difference 7%, 95% CI -9 to 22%. The mean clinical outcome score also did not differ between study arms. There were no effects of the interventions on adverse event rates including hypercalcaemia, or other secondary outcomes.Neither vitD nor L-arginine supplementation, at the doses administered and with the power attained, affected TB outcomes.ClinicalTrials

  8. Adjunctive rifampicin for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (ARREST): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, Guy E; Scarborough, Matthew; Szubert, Alexander; Nsutebu, Emmanuel; Tilley, Robert; Greig, Julia; Wyllie, Sarah A; Wilson, Peter; Auckland, Cressida; Cairns, Janet; Ward, Denise; Lal, Pankaj; Guleri, Achyut; Jenkins, Neil; Sutton, Julian; Wiselka, Martin; Armando, Gonzalez-Ruiz; Graham, Clive; Chadwick, Paul R; Barlow, Gavin; Gordon, N Claire; Young, Bernadette; Meisner, Sarah; McWhinney, Paul; Price, David A; Harvey, David; Nayar, Deepa; Jeyaratnam, Dakshika; Planche, Tim; Minton, Jane; Hudson, Fleur; Hopkins, Susan; Williams, John; Török, M Estee; Llewelyn, Martin J; Edgeworth, Jonathan D; Walker, A Sarah

    2017-12-14

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a common cause of severe community-acquired and hospital-acquired infection worldwide. We tested the hypothesis that adjunctive rifampicin would reduce bacteriologically confirmed treatment failure or disease recurrence, or death, by enhancing early S aureus killing, sterilising infected foci and blood faster, and reducing risks of dissemination and metastatic infection. In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adults (≥18 years) with S aureus bacteraemia who had received ≤96 h of active antibiotic therapy were recruited from 29 UK hospitals. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via a computer-generated sequential randomisation list to receive 2 weeks of adjunctive rifampicin (600 mg or 900 mg per day according to weight, oral or intravenous) versus identical placebo, together with standard antibiotic therapy. Randomisation was stratified by centre. Patients, investigators, and those caring for the patients were masked to group allocation. The primary outcome was time to bacteriologically confirmed treatment failure or disease recurrence, or death (all-cause), from randomisation to 12 weeks, adjudicated by an independent review committee masked to the treatment. Analysis was intention to treat. This trial was registered, number ISRCTN37666216, and is closed to new participants. Between Dec 10, 2012, and Oct 25, 2016, 758 eligible participants were randomly assigned: 370 to rifampicin and 388 to placebo. 485 (64%) participants had community-acquired S aureus infections, and 132 (17%) had nosocomial S aureus infections. 47 (6%) had meticillin-resistant infections. 301 (40%) participants had an initial deep infection focus. Standard antibiotics were given for 29 (IQR 18-45) days; 619 (82%) participants received flucloxacillin. By week 12, 62 (17%) of participants who received rifampicin versus 71 (18%) who received placebo experienced treatment failure or disease recurrence, or died (absolute

  9. Escitalopram in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Extension Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Adelaide; Bose, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extended efficacy, safety, and tolerability of escitalopram relative to placebo in adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Adolescents (12–17 years) who completed an 8-week randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose, placebo-controlled, lead-in study of escitalopram 10–20 mg versus placebo could enroll in a 16–24-week, multisite extension trial; patients maintained the same lead-in randomization (escitalopram or placebo) and dosage (escitalopram 10 or 20 mg/day, or placebo) during the extension. The primary efficacy was Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) change from the lead-in study baseline to treatment week 24 (8-week lead-in study plus 16-week extension); the secondary efficacy was Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) score at week 24. All efficacy analyses used the last observation carried forward (LOCF) approach; sensitivity analyses used observed cases (OC) and mixed-effects model for repeated measures (MMRM). Safety was evaluated via adverse event (AE) reports and the clinician-rated Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Results Following lead-in, 165 patients enrolled in the double-blind extension (82 placebo; 83 escitalopram); 40 (48.8%) placebo and 37 (44.6%) escitalopram patients completed treatment. CDRS-R total score improvement was significantly greater for escitalopram than for placebo (p=0.005, LOCF; p=0.014; MMRM). Response rates (CDRS-R ≥40% reduction from baseline [adjusted and unadjusted] and CGI-I ≤2) were significantly higher for escitalopram than for placebo (LOCF); remission rates (CDRS-R ≤28) were 50.6% for escitalopram and 35.7% for placebo (p=0.002). OC analyses were not significantly different between groups. The most frequent escitalopram AEs (≥5% and more frequent than placebo) were headache, nausea, insomnia, vomiting, influenza-like symptoms, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection. Most AEs were

  10. Antifatigue Effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sa-Ra; Lee, Jin-Seok; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Nam-Hun; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the antifatigue effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer in 90 subjects (21 men and 69 women) with idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF) in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled and parallel designed trial. A bespoke 20% ethanol extract of P. ginseng (1 g or 2 g day–1) or a placebo was administered to each group for 4 weeks, and then fatigue severity was monitored using a self-rating numeric scale (NRS) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) as a primary endpoint. Serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (GSH) contents and glutathione reductase (GSH-Rd) activity were determined. After 4-week, P. ginseng administration decreased the total NRS score, but they were not statistically significant compared with placebo (P>0.05). Mental NRS score was significantly improved by P. ginseng administrations as 20.4±5.0 to 15.1±6.5 [95% CI 2.3∼8.2] for 1 g and 20.7±6.3 to 13.8±6.2 [95% CI −0.1∼4.2] for 2 g compared with placebo 20.9±4.5 to 18.8±2.9 [95% CI 4.1∼9.9, Pginseng significantly reduced the VAS score from 7.3±1.3 to 4.4±1.8 [95% CI 0.7∼1.8] compared with the placebo 7.1±1.0 to 5.8±1.3 [95% CI 2.2 ∼3.7, Pginseng compared to placebo. P. ginseng 1 g increased GSH concentration and GSH-Rd activity. Our results provide the first evidence of the antifatigue effects of P. ginseng in patients with ICF, and we submit that these changes in antioxidant properties contribute in part to its mechanism. Trial Registration Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) KCT0000048 PMID:23613825

  11. The effect of Lactobacillus brevis KB290 against irritable bowel syndrome: a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami Katsumi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional disorder of the digestive tract that causes chronic abdominal symptoms. We evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus brevis KB290 (KB290, which has been demonstrated to be effective at improving bowel movements and the composition of intestinal microflora, on IBS symptoms. Methods We performed a placebo control double-blind cross matched trial. Thirty-five males and females (aged 6 years and above who had been diagnosed with IBS according to the Rome III criteria were divided into 2 groups, and after a 4-week pre-trial observation period, they were administered test capsules containing KB290 or placebo for 4 weeks (consumption period I. Then, the capsule administration was suspended for 4 weeks in both groups (washout period, before the opposite capsules were administered for a further 4 weeks (consumption period II. Fecal samples were collected on the first day of the pre-consumption observation period, the last day of consumption period I, the last day of the washout period, and the last day of consumption period II. In addition, the subjects’ IBS symptoms and quality of life (QOL and any adverse events that they experienced were evaluated. Results No significant difference in IBS symptoms was noted among the various periods. However, the mean QOL scores were improved during the test capsule consumption. The frequencies of watery and mushy feces were significantly lower in the test capsule consumption period than during the pre-consumption observation period, and the frequency of abdominal pain was significantly reduced in the test capsule consumption period compared with the other periods. The frequency of the genus Bifidobacterium was significantly higher, and that of the genus Clostridium was significantly lower, after the test capsule consumption than after the placebo consumption. The frequencies of the genera Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, and Enterococcus were also

  12. A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of Balapiravir, a Polymerase Inhibitor, in Adult Dengue Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Tran, Chau Nguyen Bich; Phung, Lam Khanh; Duong, Kien Thi Hue; Huynh, Huy le Anh; Farrar, Jeremy; Nguyen, Quyen Than Ha; Tran, Hien Tinh; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Merson, Laura; Hoang, Long Truong; Hibberd, Martin L.; Aw, Pauline P. K.; Wilm, Andreas; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Nguyen, Dung Thi; Pham, Mai Phuong; Nguyen, Truong Thanh; Javanbakht, Hassan; Klumpp, Klaus; Hammond, Janet; Petric, Rosemary; Wolbers, Marcel; Nguyen, Chinh Tran; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Dengue is the most common arboviral infection of humans. There are currently no specific treatments for dengue. Balapiravir is a prodrug of a nucleoside analogue (called R1479) and an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus replication in vivo. Methods. We conducted in vitro experiments to determine the potency of balapiravir against dengue viruses and then an exploratory, dose-escalating, randomized placebo-controlled trial in adult male patients with dengue with treatment. Conclusions. Although this trial, the first of its kind in dengue, does not support balapiravir as a candidate drug, it does establish a framework for antiviral treatment trials in dengue and provides the field with a clinically evaluated benchmark molecule. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01096576. PMID:22807519

  13. The effect of azithromycin in adults with stable neutrophilic COPD: a double blind randomised, placebo controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie L Simpson

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is a progressive airway disease characterised by neutrophilic airway inflammation or bronchitis. Neutrophilic bronchitis is associated with both bacterial colonisation and lung function decline and is common in exacerbations of COPD. Despite current available therapies to control inflammation, neutrophilic bronchitis remains common. This study tested the hypothesis that azithromycin treatment, as an add-on to standard medication, would significantly reduce airway neutrophil and neutrophils chemokine (CXCL8 levels, as well as bacterial load. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in COPD participants with stable neutrophilic bronchitis.Eligible participants (n = 30 were randomised to azithromycin 250 mg daily or placebo for 12 weeks in addition to their standard respiratory medications. Sputum was induced at screening, randomisation and monthly for a 12 week treatment period and processed for differential cell counts, CXCL8 and neutrophil elastase assessment. Quantitative bacteriology was assessed in sputum samples at randomisation and the end of treatment visit. Severe exacerbations where symptoms increased requiring unscheduled treatment were recorded during the 12 week treatment period and for 14 weeks following treatment. A sub-group of participants underwent chest computed tomography scans (n = 15.Nine participants with neutrophilic bronchitis had a potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated and the median total bacterial load of all participants was 5.22×107 cfu/mL. Azithromycin treatment resulted in a non-significant reduction in sputum neutrophil proportion, CXCL8 levels and bacterial load. The mean severe exacerbation rate was 0.33 per person per 26 weeks in the azithromycin group compared to 0.93 exacerbations per person in the placebo group (incidence rate ratio (95%CI: 0.37 (0.11,1.21, p = 0.062. For participants who underwent chest CT scans, no

  14. Valsartan improves adipose tissue function in humans with impaired glucose metabolism: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs H Goossens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In rodents, it has been demonstrated that RAS blockade improved adipose tissue (AT function and glucose homeostasis. However, the effects of long-term RAS blockade on AT function have not been investigated in humans. Therefore, we examined whether 26-wks treatment with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker valsartan affects AT function in humans with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study, in which 38 subjects with IGM were treated with valsartan (VAL, 320 mg/d or placebo (PLB for 26 weeks. Before and after treatment, an abdominal subcutaneous AT biopsy was collected for measurement of adipocyte size and AT gene/protein expression of angiogenesis/capillarization, adipogenesis, lipolytic and inflammatory cell markers. Furthermore, we evaluated fasting and postprandial AT blood flow (ATBF ((133Xe wash-out, systemic inflammation and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. VAL treatment markedly reduced adipocyte size (P<0.001, with a shift toward a higher proportion of small adipocytes. In addition, fasting (P = 0.043 and postprandial ATBF (P = 0.049 were increased, whereas gene expression of angiogenesis/capillarization, adipogenesis and macrophage infiltration markers in AT was significantly decreased after VAL compared with PLB treatment. Interestingly, the change in adipocyte size was associated with alterations in insulin sensitivity and reduced AT gene expression of macrophage infiltration markers. VAL did not alter plasma monocyte-chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, TNF-α, adiponectin and leptin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: 26-wks VAL treatment markedly reduced abdominal subcutaneous adipocyte size and AT macrophage infiltration markers, and increased ATBF in IGM subjects. The VAL

  15. Sleep architecture and cognitive changes in olanzapine-treated patients with depression: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazowski, Lauren K; Townsend, Ben; Hawken, Emily R; Jokic, Ruzica; du Toit, Regina; Milev, Roumen

    2014-07-17

    Disturbance in sleep quality is a symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) and thus improving quality of sleep is an important aspect of successful treatment. Here, a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study examined the effect of olanzapine (an atypical antipsychotic) augmentation therapy on sleep architecture, specifically slow wave sleep (SWS), in the treatment of depression. The effect of olanzapine augmentation therapy on other features of sleep (e.g., sleep continuity) and depression (e.g., illness severity and cognitive function) were also determined. Patients currently experiencing a major depressive episode and who were on a stable medication were included. Sleep architecture was measured by overnight ambulatory polysomnography. Illness severity was determined using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Cognitive function was examined using Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): Spatial Working Memory (SWM), Spatial Span (SSP), and Reaction Time (RTI) tasks. Polysomnographs, clinical measures and cognitive tests were administered at baseline, after 2-4 days of treatment and after 28-31 days of treatment. Twenty-five patients participated in the study (N = 10, N = 15 for placebo and olanzapine treated groups respectively). The primary objective of the study was to assess the objective (polysomnographic) changes in sleep quality, defined as changes in SWS, following olanzapine treatment for depression. Latency to but not duration of SWS was found to significantly differ between olanzapine- and placebo-treated participants (Hedge's g: 0.97, 0.13 respectively). A significant improvement in olanzapine-treated participants over placebo-treated participants was observed in secondary outcome measures, including sleep efficiency, total sleep time, and sleep latency. Secondary objectives assessed the subjective changes in sleep quality parameters and correlated them with

  16. Azithromycin for prevention of exacerbations in severe asthma (AZISAST): a multicentre randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusselle, Guy G; Vanderstichele, Christine; Jordens, Paul; Deman, René; Slabbynck, Hans; Ringoet, Veerle; Verleden, Geert; Demedts, Ingel K; Verhamme, Katia; Delporte, Anja; Demeyere, Bénédicte; Claeys, Geert; Boelens, Jerina; Padalko, Elizaveta; Verschakelen, Johny; Van Maele, Georges; Deschepper, Ellen; Joos, Guy F P

    2013-04-01

    Patients with severe asthma are at increased risk of exacerbations and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Severe asthma is heterogeneous, encompassing eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic (mainly neutrophilic) phenotypes. Patients with neutropilic airway diseases may benefit from macrolides. We performed a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial in subjects with exacerbation-prone severe asthma. Subjects received low-dose azithromycin (n=55) or placebo (n=54) as add-on treatment to combination therapy of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2 agonists for 6 months. The primary outcome was the rate of severe exacerbations and LRTI requiring treatment with antibiotics during the 26-week treatment phase. Secondary efficacy outcomes included lung function and scores on the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The rate of primary endpoints (PEPs) during 6 months was not significantly different between the two treatment groups: 0.75 PEPs (95% CI 0.55 to 1.01) per subject in the azithromycin group versus 0.81 PEPs (95% CI 0.61 to 1.09) in the placebo group (p=0.682). In a predefined subgroup analysis according to the inflammatory phenotype, azithromycin was associated with a significantly lower PEP rate than placebo in subjects with non-eosinophilic severe asthma (blood eosinophilia ≤200/µl): 0.44 PEPs (95% CI 0.25 to 0.78) versus 1.03 PEPs (95% CI 0.72 to 1.48) (p=0.013). Azithromycin significantly improved the AQLQ score but there were no significant between-group differences in the ACQ score or lung function. Azithromycin was well tolerated, but was associated with increased oropharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant streptococci. Azithromycin did not reduce the rate of severe exacerbations and LRTI in patients with severe asthma. However, the significant reduction in the PEP rate in azithromycin-treated patients with non-eosinophilic severe asthma warrants further study. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV NUMBER

  17. Eplerenone for early cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Subha V; Hor, Kan N; Mazur, Wojciech; Halnon, Nancy J; Kissel, John T; He, Xin; Tran, Tam; Smart, Suzanne; McCarthy, Beth; Taylor, Michael D; Jefferies, John L; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A; Lowe, Jeovanna; Roble, Sharon L; Cripe, Linda H

    2015-02-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a leading cause of death in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and myocardial damage precedes decline in left ventricular systolic function. We tested the efficacy of eplerenone on top of background therapy in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy with early myocardial disease. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, boys from three centres in the USA aged 7 years or older with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myocardial damage by late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MRI and preserved ejection fraction received either eplerenone 25 mg or placebo orally, every other day for the first month and once daily thereafter, in addition to background clinician-directed therapy with either angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). Computer-generated randomisation was done centrally using block sizes of four and six, and only the study statistician and the investigational pharmacy had the preset randomisation assignments. The primary outcome was change in left ventricular circumferential strain (Ecc) at 12 months, a measure of contractile dysfunction. Safety was established through serial serum potassium levels and measurement of cystatin C, a non-creatinine measure of kidney function. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01521546. Between Jan 26, 2012, and July 3, 2013, 188 boys were screened and 42 were enrolled. 20 were randomly assigned to receive eplerenone and 22 to receive placebo, of whom 20 in the eplerenone group and 20 in the placebo group completed baseline, 6-month, and 12-month visits. After 12 months, decline in left ventricular circumferential strain was less in those who received eplerenone than in those who received placebo (median ΔEcc 1·0 [IQR 0·3-2·2] vs 2·2 [1·3-3·1]; p=0·020). Cystatin C concentrations remained normal in both groups, and all non-haemolysed blood samples showed normal potassium concentrations. One 23-year-old patient in

  18. Preoperative dexamethasone improves surgical outcome after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thue; Klarskov, Birthe; Kehlet, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    and pain. Preoperatively and at several times during the first 24 postoperative hours, we measured C-reactive protein (CRP) and pulmonary function, pain scores, nausea, and number of vomiting episodes were registered. Analgesic and antiemetic requirements were recorded. Also, on a daily basis, patients...... drug. Dexamethasone significantly reduced postoperative levels of CRP (P = 0.01), fatigue (P = 0.01), overall pain, and incisional pain during the first 24 postoperative hours (P opioids (P pain scores during......OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of preoperative dexamethasone on surgical outcome after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pain and fatigue are dominating symptoms after LC and may prolong convalescence. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 88 patients...

  19. Oral doxycycline for the prevention of postoperative trachomatous trichiasis in Ethiopia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtamu, Esmael; Wondie, Tariku; Aweke, Sintayehu; Tadesse, Zerihun; Zerihun, Mulat; Gashaw, Bizuayehu; Roberts, Chrissy H; Kello, Amir Bedri; Mabey, David C W; Rajak, Saul N; Callahan, E Kelly; Macleod, David; Weiss, Helen A; Burton, Matthew J

    2018-05-01

    Trachomatous trichiasis is treated surgically to prevent sight loss. Unfavourable surgical outcomes remain a major challenge. We investigated the hypothesis that doxycycline might reduce the risk of postoperative trichiasis following surgery in patients with trachomatous trichiasis through anti-matrix metalloproteinase and anti-inflammatory activity. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adults (aged >18 years) with upper lid trachomatous trichiasis in association with tarsal conjunctive scarring were recruited through community-based screening and surgical outreach campaigns in Ethiopia. Individuals who had previously had eyelid surgery were excluded. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), with random block sizes of four or six, to receive oral doxycycline (100 mg once a day) or placebo for 28 days immediately after trichiasis surgery. Randomisation was stratified by surgeon. Patients, investigators, surgeons, and all other study team members were masked to study group allocation and treatment. Participants were examined at 10 days, and 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The primary outcome was the cumulative proportion of individuals who developed postoperative trichiasis by 12 months. Primary analyses were done in all participants who attended at least one of the four follow-up assessments. Safety analyses were done in all participants who attended either the 10 day or 1 month follow-up assessments. This trial is registered with the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, number PACTR201512001370307. Between Dec 21, 2015, and April 6, 2016, 1000 patients with trichiasis were enrolled and randomly assigned to treatment (499 patients to doxycycline, 501 patients to placebo). All but one participant attended at least one follow-up assessment. Thus, 999 participants were assessed for the primary outcome: 498 in the doxycycline group and 501 in the placebo group. By month 12, 58 (12%) of 498 patients in the doxycycline group and 62 (12%) of

  20. Direct iodine supplementation of infants versus supplementation of their breastfeeding mothers: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhouch, Raschida R; Bouhouch, Sabir; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; Aboussad, Abdelmounaim; Stinca, Sara; Haldimann, Max; Andersson, Maria; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2014-03-01

    Iodine deficiency in infants can damage the developing brain and increase mortality. Present recommendations state that oral iodised oil should be given to breastfeeding mothers to correct iodine deficiency in infancy when iodised salt is not available, and that direct supplementation should be given to infants who are not being breastfed or receiving iodine-fortified complimentary foods. However, there is little evidence for these recommendations. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of direct versus indirect supplementation of the infant. We did this double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in Morocco. Healthy breastfeeding mothers and their term newborn babies (aged ≤8 weeks) were block randomised by clinic day to receive either: one dose of 400 mg iodine to the mother and placebo to the infant (indirect infant supplementation), or one dose of about 100 mg iodine to the infant and placebo to the mother (direct infant supplementation). Randomisation was masked to participants and investigators. Coprimary outcomes were: maternal and infant urinary iodine concentrations, breastmilk iodine concentration, maternal and infant thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations, maternal and infant thyroxine (T4) concentrations, and infant growth. These outcomes were measured at baseline, and when infants were aged about 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months, and the two groups were compared using mixed effects models. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01126125. We recruited 241 mother-infant pairs between Feb 25, and Aug 10, 2010, and completed data collection by Aug 6, 2011. At baseline, median urinary iodine concentration was 35 μg/L (IQR 29-40) in mothers and 73 μg/L (29-237) in infants, suggesting iodine deficiency. During the study, maternal urinary iodine concentration (p=0.011), breastmilk iodine concentration (pMaternal TSH (p=0.276) and T4 (p=0.074) concentrations did not differ between the groups over the course of the

  1. Zinc adjunct therapy reduces case fatality in severe childhood pneumonia: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Maheswari G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumonia is a leading cause of children's deaths in developing countries and hinders achievement of the fourth Millennium Development Goal. This goal aims to reduce the under-five mortality rate, by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015. Few studies have examined the impact of zinc adjunct therapy on the outcome of childhood pneumonia. We determined the effect of zinc as adjunct therapy on time to normalization of respiratory rate, temperature and oxygen saturation. We also studied the effect of zinc adjunct therapy on case fatality of severe childhood pneumonia (as a secondary outcome in Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Methods In this double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 352 children aged 6 to 59 months, with severe pneumonia were randomized to zinc (20 mg for children ≥12 months, and 10 mg for those Results Time to normalization of the respiratory rate, temperature and oxygen saturation was not significantly different between the two arms. Case fatality was 7/176 (4.0% in the zinc group and 21/176 (11.9% in the placebo group: Relative Risk 0.33 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.76. Relative Risk Reduction was 0.67 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.85, while the number needed to treat was 13. Among HIV infected children, case fatality was higher in the placebo (7/27 than in the zinc (0/28 group; RR 0.1 (95% CI 0.0, 1.0. Among 127 HIV uninfected children receiving the placebo, case fatality was 7/127 (5.5%; versus 5/129 (3.9% among HIV uninfected group receiving zinc: RR 0.7 (95% CI 0.2, 2.2. The excess risk of death attributable to the placebo arm (Absolute Risk Reduction or ARR was 8/100 (95% CI: 2/100, 14/100 children. This excess risk was substantially greater among HIV positive children than in HIV negative children (ARR: 26 (95% CI: 9, 42 per 100 versus 2 (95% CI: -4, 7 per 100; P-value for homogeneity of risk differences = 0.006. Conclusion Zinc adjunct therapy for severe pneumonia had no significant effect on time to normalization of

  2. Double blind placebo controlled exposure to molds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H W; Jensen, K A; Nielsen, K F

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to develop an experimental setup for human exposure to mold spores, and to study the clinical effect of this exposure in sensitive subjects who had previously experienced potentially building-related symptoms (BRS) at work. From three water-damaged schools eight employees....... In conclusion this is, to our knowledge, the first study to successfully conduct a human exposure to a highly controlled dose of fungal material aerosolized directly from wet building materials. This short-term exposure to high concentrations of two different molds induced no more reactions than exposure...... to placebo in eight sensitive school employees. However, a statistical type II error cannot be excluded because of the small sample size. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: In this double blind, placebo controlled study of mold exposure changes in symptoms, objective measurements and blood samples were small and mostly...

  3. Smoking cessation or reduction with nicotine replacement therapy: a placebo-controlled double blind trial with nicotine gum and inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavsson Gunnar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even with effective smoking cessation medications, many smokers are unable to abruptly stop using tobacco. This finding has increased interest in smoking reduction as an interim step towards complete cessation. Methods This multi-center, double-blind placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of nicotine 4 mg gum or nicotine 10 mg inhaler in helping smokers (N = 314 to reduce or quit smoking. It included smokers willing to control their smoking, and participants could set individual goals, to reduce or quit. The study was placebo-controlled, randomized in a ratio of 2:1 (Active:Placebo, and subjects could choose inhaler or gum after randomization. Outcome was short-term (from Week 6 to Month 4 and long-term (from Month 6 to Month 12 abstinence or reduction. Abstinence was defined as not a single cigarette smoked and expired CO readings of Results Significantly more smokers managed to quit in the Active group than in the Placebo group. Sustained abstinence rates at 4 months were 42/209 (20.1% subjects in the Active group and 9/105 (8.6% subjects in the Placebo group (p = 0.009. Sustained abstinence rates at 12 months were 39/209 (18.7% and 9/105 (8.6%, respectively (p = 0.019. Smoking reduction did not differ between the groups, either at short-term or long-term. Twelve-month reduction results were 17.2% vs. 18.1%, respectively. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion In conclusion, treatment with 10 mg nicotine inhaler or 4 mg nicotine chewing gum resulted in a significantly higher abstinence rate than placebo. In addition a large number of smokers managed to reduce their cigarette consumption by more than 50% compared to baseline.

  4. Crocus sativus L. in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Tahmacebi-Pour, Najaf; Noorbala, Ahamad-Ali; Amini, Homayoun; Fallah-Pour, Hassan; Jamshidi, Amir-Hossein; Khani, Mousa

    2005-02-01

    Depression is a serious disorder in today's society, with estimates of lifetime prevalence as high as 21% of the general population in some developed countries. As a therapeutic plant, saffron is considered excellent for stomach ailments and as an antispasmodic, to help digestion and to increase appetite. It is also used for depression in Persian traditional medicine. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of the stigmas of Crocus sativus (saffron) in the treatment of mild to moderate depression in a 6-week double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomized trial. Forty adult outpatients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition for major depression based on the structured clinical interview for DSM IV participated in the trial. Patients had a baseline Hamilton rating scale for depression score of at least 18. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-centre and randomized trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive a capsule of saffron 30 mg[sol ]day (BD) (Group 1) or a capsule of placebo (BD) (Group 2) for a 6-week study. At 6 weeks, Crocus sativus produced a significantly better outcome on the Hamilton depression rating scale than the placebo (d.f. = 1, F = 18.89, p effects. The results of this study indicate the efficacy of Crocus sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. A large-scale trial is justified. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Exploring the Effect of Lactium™ and Zizyphus Complex on Sleep Quality: A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Scholey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute, non-clinical insomnia is not uncommon. Sufferers commonly turn to short-term use of herbal supplements to alleviate the symptoms. This placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the efficacy of LZComplex3 (lactium™, Zizyphus, Humulus lupulus, magnesium and vitamin B6, in otherwise healthy adults with mild insomnia. After a 7-day single-blind placebo run-in, eligible volunteers (n = 171 were randomized (1:1 to receive daily treatment for 2 weeks with LZComplex3 or placebo. Results revealed that sleep quality measured by change in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI score improved in both the LZComplex3 and placebo groups. There were no significant between group differences between baseline and endpoint on the primary outcome. The majority of secondary outcomes, which included daytime functioning and physical fatigue, mood and anxiety, cognitive performance, and stress reactivity, showed similar improvements in the LZComplex3 and placebo groups. A similar proportion of participants reported adverse events (AEs in both groups, with two of four treatment-related AEs in the LZComplex3 group resulting in permanent discontinuation. It currently cannot be concluded that administration of LZComplex3 for 2 weeks improves sleep quality, however, a marked placebo response (despite placebo run-in and/or short duration of treatment may have masked a potential beneficial effect on sleep quality.

  6. Anti-hemorrhagic effect of prophylactic tranexamic acid in benign hysterectomy-a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsoee, Märta Fink; Bergholt, Thomas; Ravn, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    to benign hysterectomy is still missing. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antihemorrhagic effect of prophylactic tranexamic acid in elective benign hysterectomy. STUDY DESIGN: A double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted at 4 gynecological departments in Denmark from April 2013 to October......BACKGROUND: Hysterectomy is one of the most frequently performed major gynecological surgical procedures. Even when the indication for the procedure is benign, relatively high complication rates have been reported. Perioperative bleeding seems to represent the most common cause of complications...

  7. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of naltrexone in the treatment of concurrent alcohol use disorder and pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toneatto, Tony; Brands, Bruna; Selby, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of naltrexone as a treatment for concurrent alcohol abuse or dependence and pathological gambling was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fifty-two, mostly male, subjects were recruited from the community and received 11 weeks of medication during which cognitive-behavioral counseling was also provided. No significant group differences were found on any alcohol or gambling variable (ie, frequency, quantity, expenditures) at post-treatment or at the one year follow-up. However, a strong time effect was found suggesting that treatment, in general, was effective. The use of naltrexone to treat concurrent alcohol use and gambling problems was not supported.

  8. Effect of tesofensine on bodyweight loss, body composition, and quality of life in obese patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Madsbad, Sten; Breum, Leif

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight-loss drugs produce an additional mean weight loss of only 3-5 kg above that of diet and placebo over 6 months, and more effective pharmacotherapy of obesity is needed. We assessed the efficacy and safety of tesofensine-an inhibitor of the presynaptic uptake of noradrenaline......, dopamine, and serotonin-in patients with obesity. METHODS: We undertook a phase II, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in five Danish obesity management centres. After a 2 week run-in phase, 203 obese patients (body-mass index 30-...

  9. N-acetylcysteine plus deferoxamine for patients with prolonged hypotension does not decrease acute kidney injury incidence: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Cassiana Mazon; Tomasi, Cristiane Damiani; Damasio, Danusa de Castro; Vuolo, Francieli; Ritter, Cristiane; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2016-10-17

    The aim was to test the primary hypothesis that in patients suffering from shock, treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) plus deferoxamine (DFX) decreases the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI). A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in a general intensive care unit in an academic hospital. Patients were included if they had new-onset hypotension, defined as mean arterial blood pressure hypotension did not decrease the incidence of AKI. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00870883 (Registered 25 March 2009.).

  10. Fusidic acid cream in the treatment of impetigo in general practice: double blind randomised placebo controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Sander; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Nouwen, Jan L; Verduin, Cees M; Bernsen, Roos M D; Oranje, Arnold P; Thomas, Siep; van der Wouden, Johannes C

    2002-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that fusidic acid would not increase the treatment effect of disinfecting with povidone-iodine alone in children with impetigo. Design Randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting General practices in Greater Rotterdam. Participants 184 children aged 0-12 years with impetigo. Main outcome measures Clinical cure and bacterial cure after one week. Results After one week of treatment 55% of the patients in the fusidic acid group were clinically cured compared with 13% in the placebo group (odds ratio 12.6, 95% confidence interval 5.0 to 31.5, number needed to treat 2.3). After two weeks and four weeks the differences in cure rates between the two groups had become smaller. More children in the placebo group were non-compliant (12 v 5) and received extra antibiotic treatment (11 v 3), and more children in the placebo group reported adverse effects (19 v 7). Staphylococcus aureus was found in 96% of the positive cultures; no strains were resistant to fusidic acid. Conclusions Fusidic acid is much more effective than placebo (when both are given in combination with povidone-iodine shampoo) in the treatment of impetigo. Because of the low rate of cure and high rate of adverse events in the placebo group, the value of povidone-iodine in impetigo can be questioned. What is already known on this topicImpetigo is the most common skin infection in childrenFusidic acid, which is advocated as topical treatment in several countries, has never been investigated in a placebo controlled studyWhat this study addsIn combination with povidone-iodine, treatment with fusidic acid is much more effective than placeboNone of the strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated at baseline showed resistance to fusidic acidThe value of treatment with povidone-iodine alone can be questioned PMID:11809642

  11. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the effect of piracetam on breath-holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawires, Happy; Botrous, Osama

    2012-07-01

    Breath-holding spells (BHS) are apparently frightening events occurring in otherwise healthy children.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of piracetam in the treatment of breath-holding spells. Forty patients with BHS (who were classified into two groups)were involved in a double-blinded placebo-controlled prospective study. Piracetam was given to group A while group B received placebo. Patients were followed monthly for a total period of 4 months. The numbers of attacks/month before and monthly after treatment were documented, and the overall number of attacks/month after treatment was calculated in both groups. The median number of attacks/month before treatment in the two groups was 5.5 and 5,respectively, while after the first month of treatment, it was 2 and 5, respectively. The median overall number of attacks/month after treatment in both groups was 1 and 5, respectively.There was a significant decline of number of attacks after piracetam treatment compared to placebo (p valuepiracetam throughout the study period. In conclusion, piracetam is a safe and effective drug for the treatment of breath-holding spells in children.

  12. Evaluation of a Crataegus-Based Multiherb Formula for Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1 g daily, Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels between placebo and active treatment (−9% was significantly (P<0.05 better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by −3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (−1.1% (P=0.098. There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects.

  13. Symptoms after ingestion of pig whipworm Trichuris suis eggs in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Roepstorff, Allan Knud

    2011-01-01

    21 days for 168 days (total 8 doses) in a double-blind clinical trial. In a previous publication, we reported a lack of efficacy and a high prevalence of adverse gastrointestinal reactions. The aim of the present study was to present a detailed description of the adverse event data and post...... reactions lasting up to 14 days, whereas 4 months further treatment mainly provoked a subclinical stimulation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: University hospital Medical Information Network trial registry Reg. no. R000001298, Trial ID UMIN000001070....

  14. Effect of perioperative beta blockade in patients with diabetes undergoing major non-cardiac surgery: randomised placebo controlled, blinded multicentre trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anne Benedicte; Wetterslev, Jørn; Gluud, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the long term effects of perioperative blockade on mortality and cardiac morbidity in patients with diabetes undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. Design Randomised placebo controlled and blinded multicentre trial. Analyses were by intention to treat. Setting University...... anaesthesia and surgical centres and one coordinating centre. Participants 921 patients aged > 39 scheduled for major non-cardiac surgery. Interventions 100 mg metoprolol controlled and extended release or placebo administered from the day before surgery to a maximum of eight perioperative days. Main outcome...... with serious adverse events was 2.4% (- 0.8% to 5.6%). Conclusions Perioperative metoprolol did not significantly affect mortality and cardiac morbidity in these patients with diabetes. Confidence intervals, however, were wide, and the issue needs reassessment. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials...

  15. Effect of valsartan on systemic right ventricular function: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bom, Teun; Winter, Michiel M.; Bouma, Berto J.; Groenink, Maarten; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Pieper, Petronella G.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Sieswerda, Gertjan T.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The role of angiotensin II receptor blockers in patients with a systemic right ventricle has not been elucidated. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial of angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan 160 mg twice daily compared with placebo in patients with a

  16. Effect of Valsartan on Systemic Right Ventricular Function A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bom, Teun; Winter, Michiel M.; Bouma, Berto J.; Groenink, Maarten; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Pieper, Petronella G.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Sieswerda, Gertjan T.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background-The role of angiotensin II receptor blockers in patients with a systemic right ventricle has not been elucidated. Methods and Results-We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial of angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan 160 mg twice daily compared

  17. Acupuncture for serum uric acid in patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingjuan; Meng, Jun; Sun, Baoguo; Xiang, Ting; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Biyu; Wu, Yingzi; Chen, Zexiong; Zhang, Shijun

    2017-04-01

    Hyperuricemia (HUA) is the most common disease associated with cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and kidney disease. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy, mechanism, and safety of acupuncture on serum uric acid in patients with asymptomatic HUA. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial among 123 patients with asymptomatic HUA was conducted. The acupoints used in the acupuncture group were bilateral Five Shu in Spleen Meridian. Each participant received the intervention once daily for 10 consecutive days. The sham group received the same treatment duration on the same acupoints by the Park Sham Device. All patients underwent measurements of serum or urine creatinine, uric acid, serum lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, xanthine oxidase (XOD) and urate-anion exchanger (URAT-1). At the end of the intervention, the individuals in the acupuncture group were found to have significantly less levels of serum uric acid than those in the sham group [(453±65 vs. 528±81) μmol/L, puric acid level, urine pH value and 24-hour urine volume than the sham treatment (puric acid in a Chinese HUA patient population. The mechanism might be associated with the decrease level of enzyme URAT-1. ChiCTR-TRC-13004122. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Intravenous dexamethasone in acute management of vestibular neuritis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, Ivan; Krbot Skorić, Magdalena; Gabelić, Tereza; Barun, Barbara; Ljevak, Josip; Bujan Kovač, Andreja; Jurjević, Ivana; Habek, Mario

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of intravenous dexamethasone in relieving the symptoms and signs of vestibular neuritis in the emergency department setting. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, superiority, single-blind study. Patients were randomized either to intravenous dexamethasone (group A) or to placebo (group B), with all patients receiving symptomatic therapy. The primary outcome was defined as necessity to hospitalize patients who present with vestibular neuritis in the emergency department. The secondary outcomes were (a) improvement in nystagmus, (b) improvement in postural instability, (c) lessening of nausea, (d) lessening of vomiting, and (e) recovery of subjective symptoms. Altogether, 100 patients were randomized, 51 into group A and 49 into group B. There was no difference in the hospitalization rate between groups (P=0.284). In both groups, there was a statistically significant difference in the values of all measured variables 2 h after therapy intervention compared with the baseline values. In group A, significantly fewer patients had third-degree nystagmus 2 h after therapy intervention whereas the difference in group B did not reach statistical significance. After therapy, more patients had first-degree nystagmus in group A as well as in group B than before the intervention. There was a significantly greater absolute difference in European Evaluation of Vertigo scale results in group A compared with group B. The value of dexamethasone cannot be established, given the small sample and limitations of the present study. Some observations consistent with clinical improvement cannot exclude a true treatment effect, and further study is still warranted.

  19. Therapy for acute nonpurulent rhinosinusitis with cineole: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrl, Wolfgang; Sonnemann, Uwe; Dethlefsen, Uwe

    2004-04-01

    Nonpurulent rhinosinusitis can be treated successfully with cineole. Prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. We compared efficacy and safety of cineole capsules with placebo capsules in 152 patients with acute rhinosinusitis (76 patients in each treatment group). The dosage of the active ingredient was two 100-mg capsules of cineole three times daily. The primary end point was the reduction of a defined symptoms-sum-score based on symptoms and signs comparing baseline therapy difference from the beginning to the end of the 7-day treatment. All randomly selected patients were assigned to the intention-to-treat-population. At the beginning, the mean symptoms-sum-score was 15.6 in both treatment groups. The mean values for the symptoms-sum-scores in the cineole group were 6.9 +/- 2.9 after 4 days and 3.0 +/- 2.8 after 7 days, and in the placebo group, 12.2 +/- 2.5 after 4 days and 9.2 +/- 3.0 after 7 days. The differences between both groups were clinically relevant and statistically significant after 4 and 7 days. The result for the primary end point was validated by the amelioration of the following secondary end points: headache on bending, frontal headache, sensitivity of pressure points of trigeminal nerve, impairment of general condition, nasal obstruction, and rhinological secretion. Mild side effects, possibly associated with medication, were observed in two patients as heartburn and exanthema after treatment with cineole. In patients with acute nonpurulent rhinosinusitis, timely treatment with cineole is effective and safe before antibiotics are indicated.

  20. Effect of clonazepam and clonidine on primary sleep bruxism: a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takuro; Kato, Takafumi; Yoshizawa, Shuichiro; Suganuma, Takeshi; Takaba, Masayuki; Ono, Yasuhiro; Yoshizawa, Ayako; Yoshida, Yuya; Kurihara, Tatsuya; Ishii, Masakazu; Kawana, Fusae; Kiuchi, Yuji; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the acute effects of clonazepam and clonidine on rhythmic masticatory muscle activity in young adults with primary sleep bruxism, as well as accompanying effects on sleep architecture and cardiac activity. This study used a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled design. Polysomnography was performed on 19 subjects [nine men and 10 women; mean age (±SE): 25.4 ± 2.7 years] for 5 nights. The first 2 nights were used for the habituation and diagnosis of sleep bruxism. The other 3 nights were randomly assigned for clonazepam (1.0 mg), clonidine (0.15 mg) or placebo (all administered 30 min before bedtime). Sleep, oromotor activity and cardiac activity variables were assessed and compared among the three drug conditions. Clonidine significantly reduced the median percentage of time spent in the rapid eye movement sleep stage compared with placebo and clonazepam. The number of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity episodes was reduced with clonidine by >30% compared with placebo and clonazepam. The reduction of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity index by clonidine was associated with an increase of mean RR intervals (slower heart rate) during quiet sleep periods and during a 70-s period before the onset of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity episodes. However, no changes in cardiac activity variables were observed for clonazepam. In young adults with primary sleep bruxism, clonidine was significantly more effective in suppressing sleep bruxism than clonazepam. The acute effects of clonidine on rhythmic masticatory muscle activity episodes may be mediated by suppression of autonomic nervous system activity and non-rapid eye movement-rapid eye movement sleep processes. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of adalimumab for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Philip C

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of adalimumab for the treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome was investigated in a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, proof of concept study. Patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome were randomized to receive a loading dose of 80 mg subcutaneous adalimumab followed by 40 mg every 2 weeks or subcutaneous placebo for 12 weeks, and outcome measures were assessed. The incidence of adverse events was also assessed. Of a total of 43 patients 21 received adalimumab and 22 received placebo. Of the patients who received adalimumab, there was a statistically significant improvement demonstrated in the O'Leary-Sant Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Indexes (p = 0.0002), Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index (p = 0.0011), Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index (p = 0.0002), and Pelvic Pain, Urgency, Frequency Symptom Scale (p = 0.0017) at 12 weeks compared to baseline. At 12 weeks 11 of 21 (53%) patients in the adalimumab group had a 50% or greater improvement in global response assessment (p ≤ 0.0001). There was not a statistically significant improvement in any outcome measure in patients receiving adalimumab compared to placebo. There were no significant adverse events. Adalimumab treatment resulted in a statistically significant improvement in outcome measures compared to baseline in patients with moderate to severe interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Adalimumab failed to demonstrate positive proof of concept compared to placebo due to a significant placebo effect. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of solifenacin on postvoid dribbling in women: results of a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablove, Tova; Bell, Lauren N; Liang, Hong; Chappell, Richard J; Toklu, Hale Z; Yale, Steven H

    2018-03-24

    To determine the effectiveness of the muscarinic receptor antagonist solifenacin (VESIcare®) in the treatment of postvoid dribbling (PVD). We carried out a multicenter, 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel design study. Between 2012 and 2015, a total of 118 women (age 18-89 years) with PVD at least twice/weekly, were randomized to receive solifenacin (5 mg; n = 58) or placebo (n = 60) once daily. The primary outcome was the percentage reduction in PVD episodes. Secondary outcomes included the percentage of patients with ≥50% reduction in PVD episodes and changes in quality of life. There were no differences in either the primary or secondary outcome variables. Subgroup analysis, based on those with more severe disease (>10 PVD episodes/week), showed a greater and significant percentage reduction in the frequency of PVD episodes per day (60.3% vs 32.1%; p = 0.035) and a higher percentage of patients showing ≥50% reduction in the frequency of PVD episodes with solifenacin (68.1% vs 45.8%; p = 0.0476). A significant solifenacin effect occurred at week 2 and continued through week 12 for the subgroup. For solifenacin, PVD reduction was the same for the entire cohort and subgroup, whereas for placebo, it was 10% lower in the subgroup, declining from 42% to 32%. There were no differences in PVD outcomes between the solifenacin and placebo groups. Solifenacin may play a role in treating women with the most severe symptoms. Because of the powerful placebo response seen in this study, behavior-based interventions may be useful for treating PVD.

  3. Suspected Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity Confirmed in Few Patients After Gluten Challenge in Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Infante, Javier; Carroccio, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, gluten challenge has been proposed to confirm a diagnosis of nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) in patients without celiac disease who respond to a gluten-free diet. To determine the accuracy of this approach, we analyzed data from 10 double-blind, placebo-controlled, gluten-challenge trials, comprising 1312 adults. The studies varied in the duration of the challenge (range, 1 d to 6 wk), daily doses for the gluten challenge (range, 2-52 g; 3 studies administered gluten-free products, xylose, whey protein, rice, or corn starch containing fermentable carbohydrates). Most of the studies found gluten challenge to significantly increase symptom scores compared with placebo. However, only 38 of 231 NCGS patients (16%) showed gluten-specific symptoms. Furthermore, 40% of these subjects had a nocebo response (similar or increased symptoms in response to placebo). These findings reveal heterogeneity and potential methodology flaws among studies of gluten challenge, cast doubt on gluten as the culprit food component in most patients with presumptive NCGS, and highlight the importance of the nocebo effect in these types of studies. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Open-label trial and randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of hydrogen-enriched water for mitochondrial and inflammatory myopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Mikako

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular hydrogen has prominent effects on more than 30 animal models especially of oxidative stress-mediated diseases and inflammatory diseases. In addition, hydrogen effects on humans have been reported in diabetes mellitus type 2, hemodialysis, metabolic syndrome, radiotherapy for liver cancer, and brain stem infarction. Hydrogen effects are ascribed to specific radical-scavenging activities that eliminate hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite, and also to signal-modulating activities, but the detailed molecular mechanisms still remain elusive. Hydrogen is a safe molecule that is largely produced by intestinal bacteria in rodents and humans, and no adverse effects have been documented. Methods We performed open-label trial of drinking 1.0 liter per day of hydrogen-enriched water for 12 weeks in five patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (PMD, four patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM, and five patients with mitochondrial myopathies (MM, and measured 18 serum parameters as well as urinary 8-isoprostane every 4 weeks. We next conducted randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of 0.5 liter per day of hydrogen-enriched water or placebo water for 8 weeks in 10 patients with DM and 12 patients with MM, and measured 18 serum parameters every 4 weeks. Results In the open-label trial, no objective improvement or worsening of clinical symptoms was observed. We, however, observed significant effects in lactate-to-pyruvate ratios in PMD and MM, fasting blood glucose in PMD, serum matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3 in PM/DM, and serum triglycerides in PM/DM. In the double-blind trial, no objective clinical effects were observed, but a significant improvement was detected in lactate in MM. Lactate-to-pyruvate ratios in MM and MMP3 in DM also exhibited favorable responses but without statistical significance. No adverse effect was observed in either trial except for hypoglycemic episodes in an insulin

  5. Botulinum toxin type A for cephalic cutaneous allodynia in chronic migraine: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Hollanda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cephalic allodynia (CA can be observed in 50-70% of patients with chronic migraine (CM. The aim of this trial was to assess the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (Botx-A in the treatment of CA associated with CM. In this placebo-controlled trial, patients were randomized either into Botx-A or 0.9% saline injections and efficacy measures were assessed every 4 weeks for 3 months. Efficacy endpoints were number of migraine episodes associated with CA, changes from baseline in visual analogical scale scores for pain (VAS and frequency of common analgesics use for migraine. A total of 38 subjects were randomized to saline (n=18 or Botx-A (n=20. There were no significant differences in baseline between active intervention or placebo groups regarding mean age, number of headache episodes [mean 12.1 (9.22 and 17.00 (9.69 respectively; P=0.12], pain severity as measured by the VAS or frequency of analgesic use for headache episodes. Efficacy analysis showed that Botx-A injections led to an important decrease from baseline in the mean migraine episodes associated with CA after 12 weeks (5.20 versus 11.17; P=0.01. Also, VAS scores and frequency of analgesics use for headache were significantly reduced in the Botx-A group. This study suggests that Botx-A injections are superior to saline in the treatment of CA associated with CM, with mild self limited side effects.

  6. History of early abuse as a predictor of treatment response in patients with fibromyalgia : A post-hoc analysis of a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine controlled release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pae, Chi-Un; Masand, Prakash S.; Marks, David M.; Krulewicz, Stan; Han, Changsu; Peindl, Kathleen; Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a post-hoc analysis to determine whether a history of physical or sexual abuse was associated with response to treatment in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine controlled release (CR) in fibromyalgia. Methods. A randomized, double-blind,

  7. Local anesthetic wound infiltration for pain management after periacetabular osteotomy. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial with 53 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Rune D; Ovesen, Ole; Lindholm, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To our knowledge, there is no evidence to support the use of local infiltration analgesia (LIA) for postoperative pain relief after periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). We investigated the effect of wound infiltration with a long-acting local anesthetic (ropivacaine......) for postoperative analgesia after PAO. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00815503) in 53 patients undergoing PAO to evaluate the effect of local anesthetic infiltration on postoperative pain and on postoperative opioid consumption. All...... subjects received intraoperative infiltration followed by 5 postoperative injections in 10-hour intervals through a multi-holed catheter placed at the surgical site. 26 patients received ropivacaine and 27 received saline. The intervention period was 2 days and the observational period was 4 days. All...

  8. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial evaluating topical zinc oxide for acute open wounds following pilonidal disease excision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agren, Magnus S; Ostenfeld, Ulla; Kallehave, Finn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial was to compare topical zinc oxide with placebo mesh on secondary healing pilonidal wounds. Sixty-four (53 men) consecutive patients, aged 17-60 years, were centrally randomized to either treatment with 3% zinc oxide...... (n = 33) or placebo (n = 31) by concealed allocation. Patients were followed with strict recording of beneficial and harmful effects including masked assessment of time to complete wound closure. Analysis was carried out on an intention-to-treat basis. Median healing times were 54 days (interquartile...... abnormalities by histopathological examination of wound biopsies, or other harmful effects. Larger clinical trials will be required to show definitive effects of topical zinc oxide on wound healing and infection....

  9. Antihypertensive potential of combined extracts of olive leaf, green coffee bean and beetroot: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rachel H X; Garg, Manohar L; Wood, Lisa G; Howe, Peter R C

    2014-11-05

    Extracts of olive leaf, green coffee bean and beetroot may deliver cardiovascular benefits. This study sought to evaluate the effects of regularly consuming a combination of these extracts on blood pressure (BP), arterial compliance, blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin sensitivity. A double-blind randomised placebo-controlled crossover trial was conducted in adults with untreated high normal or borderline elevated BP. They were randomised to take an active supplement, comprising 500 mg olive leaf extract, 100 mg green coffee bean extract and 150 mg beet powder, or a matching placebo twice daily for six weeks, followed by the alternate supplement for a further six weeks. Assessments of 24-h ambulatory BP (ABP), clinic BP arterial compliance (pulse-wave analysis), blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin were obtained at baseline and at the end of each treatment phase. Baseline clinic BP in 37 overweight middle-aged men and women who completed the trial averaged 145/84 mmHg. There was no significant effect of treatment on ABP or any other outcome measure. The failure to confirm prior evidence of the antihypertensive benefits of these extracts emphasises the importance of placebo control and the value of ABP monitoring. Further dose-response evaluation of olive leaf, green coffee bean or beetroot extracts is required to confirm or refute the purported benefits.

  10. Antihypertensive Potential of Combined Extracts of Olive Leaf, Green Coffee Bean and Beetroot: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel H.X. Wong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of olive leaf, green coffee bean and beetroot may deliver cardiovascular benefits. This study sought to evaluate the effects of regularly consuming a combination of these extracts on blood pressure (BP, arterial compliance, blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin sensitivity. A double-blind randomised placebo-controlled crossover trial was conducted in adults with untreated high normal or borderline elevated BP. They were randomised to take an active supplement, comprising 500 mg olive leaf extract, 100 mg green coffee bean extract and 150 mg beet powder, or a matching placebo twice daily for six weeks, followed by the alternate supplement for a further six weeks. Assessments of 24-h ambulatory BP (ABP, clinic BP arterial compliance (pulse-wave analysis, blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin were obtained at baseline and at the end of each treatment phase. Baseline clinic BP in 37 overweight middle-aged men and women who completed the trial averaged 145/84 mmHg. There was no significant effect of treatment on ABP or any other outcome measure. The failure to confirm prior evidence of the antihypertensive benefits of these extracts emphasises the importance of placebo control and the value of ABP monitoring. Further dose-response evaluation of olive leaf, green coffee bean or beetroot extracts is required to confirm or refute the purported benefits.

  11. A Phase 3 Placebo-Controlled, Double Blind, Multi-Site Trial of the alpha-2-adrenergic Agonist, Lofexidine, for Opioid Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Elmer; Miotto, Karen; Akerele, Evaristo; Montgomery, Ann; Elkashef, Ahmed; Walsh, Robert; Montoya, Ivan; Fischman, Marian W.; Collins, Joseph; McSherry, Frances; Boardman, Kathy; Davies, David K.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Ling, Walter; Kleber, Herbert; Herman, Barbara H.

    2008-01-01

    Context Lofexidine is an alpha-2-A noradrenergic receptor agonist that is approved in the United Kingdom for the treatment of opioid withdrawal symptoms. Lofexidine has been reported to have more significant effects on decreasing opioid withdrawal symptoms with less hypotension than clonidine. Objective To demonstrate that lofexidine is well tolerated and effective in the alleviation of observationally-defined opioid withdrawal symptoms in opioid dependent individuals undergoing medically supervised opioid detoxification as compared to placebo. Design An inpatient, Phase 3, placebo-controlled, double blind, randomized multi-site trial with three phases: (1) Opioid Agonist Stabilization Phase (days 1–3), (2) Detoxification/Medication or Placebo Phase (days 4–8), and (3) Post Detoxification/Medication Phase (days 9–11). Subjects Sixty-eight opioid dependent subjects were enrolled at three sites with 35 randomized to lofexidine and 33 to placebo. Main Outcome Measure Modified Himmelsbach Opiate Withdrawal Scale (MHOWS) on study day 5 (2nd opioid detoxification treatment day). Results Due to significant findings, the study was terminated early. On the study day 5 MHOWS, subjects treated with lofexidine had significantly lower scores (equating to fewer/less severe withdrawal symptoms) than placebo subjects (Least squares means 19.5 ± 2.1 versus 30.9 ± 2.7; p=0.0019). Lofexidine subjects had significantly better retention in treatment than placebo subjects (38.2% versus 15.2%; Log rank test p=0.01). Conclusions Lofexidine is well tolerated and more efficacious than placebo for reducing opioid withdrawal symptoms in inpatients undergoing medically supervised opioid detoxification. Trial Registration trial registry name A Phase 3 Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Multi-Site Trial of Lofexidine for Opiate Withdrawal, registration number NCT00032942, URL for the registry http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00032942?order=4. PMID:18508207

  12. Rationale and design of a multicenter placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial to evaluate the effect of empagliflozin on endothelial function: the EMBLEM trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Okada, Yosuke; Taguchi, Isao; Yamaoka-Tojo, Minako; Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Teragawa, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Seigo; Yoshida, Hisako; Sato, Yasunori; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Ikehara, Yumi; Machii, Noritaka; Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Shima, Kosuke R; Takamura, Toshinari; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Kimura, Kazuo; Sakuma, Masashi; Oyama, Jun-Ichi; Inoue, Teruo; Higashi, Yukihito; Ueda, Shinichiro; Node, Koichi

    2017-04-12

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by systemic metabolic abnormalities and the development of micro- and macrovascular complications, resulting in a shortened life expectancy. A recent cardiovascular (CV) safety trial, the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, showed that empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, markedly reduced CV death and all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with T2DM and established CV disease (CVD). SGLT2 inhibitors are known to not only decrease plasma glucose levels, but also favorably modulate a wide range of metabolic and hemodynamic disorders related to CV pathways. Although some experimental studies revealed a beneficial effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on atherosclerosis, there is a paucity of clinical data showing that they can slow the progression of atherosclerosis in patients with T2DM. Therefore, the EMBLEM trial was designed to investigate whether empagliflozin treatment can improve endothelial function, which plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, in patients with T2DM and established CVD. The EMBLEM trial is an ongoing, prospective, multicenter, placebo-controlled double-blind randomized, investigator-initiated clinical trial in Japan. A total of 110 participants with T2DM (HbA1c range 6.0-10.0%) and with established CVD will be randomized (1:1) to receive either empagliflozin 10 mg once daily or a placebo. The primary endpoint of the trial is change in the reactive hyperemia (RH)-peripheral arterial tonometry-derived RH index at 24 weeks from baseline. For comparison of treatment effects between the treatment groups, the baseline-adjusted means and their 95% confidence intervals will be estimated by analysis of covariance adjusted for the following allocation factors: HbA1c (EMBLEM is the first trial to assess the effect of empagliflozin on endothelial function in patients with T2DM and established CVD. Additionally, mechanisms associating

  13. Preliminary aggregate safety and immunogenicity results from three trials of a purified inactivated Zika virus vaccine candidate: phase 1, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modjarrad, Kayvon; Lin, Leyi; George, Sarah L; Stephenson, Kathryn E; Eckels, Kenneth H; De La Barrera, Rafael A; Jarman, Richard G; Sondergaard, Erica; Tennant, Janice; Ansel, Jessica L; Mills, Kristin; Koren, Michael; Robb, Merlin L; Barrett, Jill; Thompson, Jason; Kosel, Alison E; Dawson, Peter; Hale, Andrew; Tan, C Sabrina; Walsh, Stephen R; Meyer, Keith E; Brien, James; Crowell, Trevor A; Blazevic, Azra; Mosby, Karla; Larocca, Rafael A; Abbink, Peter; Boyd, Michael; Bricault, Christine A; Seaman, Michael S; Basil, Anne; Walsh, Melissa; Tonwe, Veronica; Hoft, Daniel F; Thomas, Stephen J; Barouch, Dan H; Michael, Nelson L

    2017-12-04

    A safe, effective, and rapidly scalable vaccine against Zika virus infection is needed. We developed a purified formalin-inactivated Zika virus vaccine (ZPIV) candidate that showed protection in mice and non-human primates against viraemia after Zika virus challenge. Here we present the preliminary results in human beings. We did three phase 1, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials of ZPIV with aluminium hydroxide adjuvant. In all three studies, healthy adults were randomly assigned by a computer-generated list to receive 5 μg ZPIV or saline placebo, in a ratio of 4:1 at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA, or of 5:1 at Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO, USA, and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA. Vaccinations were given intramuscularly on days 1 and 29. The primary objective was safety and immunogenicity of the ZPIV candidate. We recorded adverse events and Zika virus envelope microneutralisation titres up to day 57. These trials are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT02963909, NCT02952833, and NCT02937233. We enrolled 68 participants between Nov 7, 2016, and Jan 25, 2017. One was excluded and 67 participants received two injections of Zika vaccine (n=55) or placebo (n=12). The vaccine caused only mild to moderate adverse events. The most frequent local effects were pain (n=40 [60%]) or tenderness (n=32 [47%]) at the injection site, and the most frequent systemic reactogenic events were fatigue (29 [43%]), headache (26 [39%]), and malaise (15 [22%]). By day 57, 52 (92%) of vaccine recipients had seroconverted (microneutralisation titre ≥1:10), with peak geometric mean titres seen at day 43 and exceeding protective thresholds seen in animal studies. The ZPIV candidate was well tolerated and elicited robust neutralising antibody titres in healthy adults. Departments of the Army and Defense and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Placebo-Controlled Trials, Ethics of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, R; Rid, Annette

    2015-01-01

    There are often good scientific and ethical reasons for using placebo controls in clinical trials. At the same time placebo use is controversial, especially when an established effective treatment is being withheld from the control group. This article gives an overview of the key ethical positions

  15. CT scan-evaluated outcome of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of acute scaphoid fractures: a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, P F W; van Wezenbeek, M R; Kolkman, K A; Twiss, E L L; Berghmans, C H J; Dirven, P A M G M; Brink, P R G; Poeze, M

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesised that the use of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) bone growth stimulation in acute scaphoid fractures would significantly shorten the time to union and reduce the number of nonunions in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre trial. A total of 102 patients (78 male, 24 female; mean age 35 years (18 to 77)) from five different medical centres with a unilateral undisplaced acute scaphoid fracture were randomly allocated to PEMF (n = 51) or placebo (n = 51) and assessed with regard to functional and radiological outcomes (multiplanar reconstructed CT scans) at 6, 9, 12, 24 and 52 weeks. The overall time to clinical and radiological healing did not differ significantly between the active PEMF group and the placebo group. We concluded that the addition of PEMF bone growth stimulation to the conservative treatment of acute scaphoid fractures does not accelerate bone healing. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  16. Can long-term antibiotic treatment prevent progression of peripheral arterial occlusive disease? A large, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, J B; Juul, Svend; Henneberg, E

    2007-01-01

    history. Follow-up was performed every 6 months. Primary events were defined as death, peripheral revascularization and major lower limb amputation. Secondary events were thrombosis, stroke, transient cerebral ischaemic attack and myocardial infarction. Change in ABPI was also investigated. Data were......, no significant differences were found. CONCLUSION: Long-term treatment with roxithromycin is ineffective in preventing death, amputation, peripheral revascularization, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient cerebral ischaemic attack, thrombosis and decline in ABPI in patients with an established diagnosis......PURPOSE: The purpose was to investigate in a large, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, whether antibiotic treatment can prevent progression of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five hundred and seven patients were included; all patients had an established...

  17. Vernakalant hydrochloride for the rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowey, Peter R; Dorian, Paul; Mitchell, L Brent

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative atrial arrhythmias are common and are associated with considerable morbidity. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vernakalant for the conversion of atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) after cardiac surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS...... and complete atrioventricular block). There were no cases of torsades de pointes, sustained ventricular tachycardia, or ventricular fibrillation. There were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Vernakalant was safe and effective in the rapid conversion of AF to sinus rhythm in patients who had AF after cardiac surgery......: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vernakalant for the conversion of AF or AFL after coronary artery bypass graft, valvular surgery, or both. Patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to receive a 10-minute infusion of 3 mg/kg vernakalant or placebo. If AF or AFL was present after...

  18. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of paracetamol and ketoprofren lysine salt for pain control in children with pharyngotonsillitis cared by family pediatricians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Casa Alberighi Ornella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the analgesic effect and tolerability of paracetamol syrup compared to placebo and ketoprofen lysine salt in children with pharyngotonsillitis cared by family pediatricians. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a 12 mg/kg single dose of paracetamol paralleled by open-label ketoprofren lysine salt sachet 40 mg. Six to 12 years old children with diagnosis of pharyngo-tonsillitis and a Children's Sore Throat Pain (CSTP Thermometer score > 120 mm were enrolled. Primary endpoint was the Sum of Pain Intensity Differences (SPID of the CSTP Intensity scale by the child. Results 97 children were equally randomized to paracetamol, placebo or ketoprofen. Paracetamol was significantly more effective than placebo in the SPID of children and parents (P Conclusions A single oral dose of paracetamol or ketoprofen lysine salt are safe and effective analgesic treatments for children with sore throat in daily pediatric ambulatory care.

  19. Newly formulated chlorhexidine gluconate chewing gum that gives both anti-plaque effectiveness and an acceptable taste: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Soolari, Ahmad; Ghalayani, Parichehr; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Fazilaty, Mohammad

    2008-04-01

    In previous investigations the chlorhexidine (CHX) chewing gums tasted unpleasant. The main problem with different CHX formulations is the high incompatibility of CHX with anionic compounds. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new formulation for CHX gum that gives both anti-plaque effectiveness and an acceptable taste. Randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, employing two 5-day trial periods without mechanical oral hygiene. 18 from 22 volunteer dental students (8 males, 10 females, mean age 22 +/- 2.3 years). Active gum, containing 10 mg CHX, and placebo were used for 20 min twice daily. A 7-day washout period between trial periods was used. Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein index was used to assess plaque formation. Success of blinding was assessed at the second day of each test period. At the end of each test period, subjects were asked to evaluate the taste of the products used. CHX gum has a significantly higher anti-plaque effect than placebo (95% confidence interval 2.7865 to 3.5302, p mechanical plaque control. The observation period needs to be extended if this product is anticipated for longer-term use.

  20. Can homeopathically prepared mercury cause symptoms in healthy volunteers? A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, A J; van Haselen, R; Heger, M

    2001-04-01

    To pilot a method for determining whether homeopathically prepared mercury causes more symptoms (a "drug proving") in healthy volunteers than placebo. One hundred and eighteen (118) healthy volunteers ages 18 to 65 were recruited by local advertising. Subjects unfamiliar with homeopathy undertook a 1-week single-blind placebo run-in, a 1-week of double-blind, randomized treatment on either homeopathically prepared mercury 12C or placebo, and a third week of placebo run-out. Each day, symptoms were recorded on a checklist that included both true mercury symptoms and symptoms not expected to be caused by mercury (false symptoms). Additional symptoms were assessed by open reporting. Outcome was assessed by calculating a score for each day as the number of true symptoms minus the number of false symptoms. The mean score during placebo was then subtracted from the mean score for weeks two and three of the trial. Fourteen (14) subjects dropped out during placebo run-in. The remaining 104 completed the trial. Baseline comparability was good. Mean difference score was -0.125 (SD 3.47) for mercury and -0.221 (SD 3.01) for placebo (p > 0.2). No significant differences between groups were found for the number of subjects meeting predefined criteria for a drug-proving reaction. This pilot study failed to find evidence that mercury 12C causes significantly more symptoms in healthy volunteers than placebo. Questionnaires with a limited number of gross symptoms do not seem to be an appropriate methodological technique in drug proving research. If drug-proving phenomena exist, they appear to be rare.

  1. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of modafinil (200 mg/day) for methamphetamine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, James; Darke, Shane; Rodgers, Craig; Slade, Tim; van Beek, Ingrid; Lewis, John; Brady, Donna; McKetin, Rebecca; Mattick, Richard P; Wodak, Alex

    2009-02-01

    To examine the safety and efficacy of modafinil (200 mg/day) compared to placebo in the treatment of methamphetamine dependence and to examine predictors of post-treatment outcome. Eighty methamphetamine-dependent subjects in Sydney, Australia were allocated randomly to modafinil (200 mg/day) (n = 38) or placebo (n = 42) under double-blind conditions for 10 weeks with a further 12 weeks post-treatment follow-up. Comprehensive drug use data (urine specimens and self-report) and other health and psychosocial data were collected weekly during treatment and research interviews at baseline, week 10 and week 22. Treatment retention and medication adherence were equivalent between groups. There were no differences in methamphetamine abstinence, craving or severity of dependence. Medication-compliant subjects tended to provide more methamphetamine-negative urine samples over the 10-week treatment period (P = 0.07). Outcomes were better for methamphetamine-dependent subjects with no other substance dependence and those who accessed counselling. There were statistically significant reductions in systolic blood pressure (P = 0.03) and weight gain (P = 0.05) in modafinil-compliant subjects compared to placebo. There were no medication-related serious adverse events. Adverse events were generally mild and consistent with known pharmacological effects. Modafinil demonstrated promise in reducing methamphetamine use in selected methamphetamine-dependent patients. The study findings support definitive trials of modafinil in larger multi-site trials.

  2. IMPROVEMENT OF INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY WITH ALANYL-GLUTAMINE IN HIV PATIENTS: a randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério Dias LEITE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Glutamine is the main source of energy of the enterocyte and diarrhea and weight loss are frequent in HIV infected patients. Objective To determine the effect of alanyl-glutamine supplementation on intestinal permeability and absorption in these patients. Methods Randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled study using isonitrogenous doses of alanyl-glutamine (24 g/day and placebo (glycine, 25 g/day during 10 days. Before and after this nutritional supplementation lactulose and mannitol urinary excretion were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results Forty six patients with HIV/AIDS, 36 of whom were male, with 37.28 ± 3 (mean ± standard error years were enrolled. Twenty two and 24 subjects were treated with alanyl-glutamine and with glycine respectively. In nine patients among all in the study protocol that reported diarrhea in the 14 days preceding the beginning of the study, mannitol urinary excretion was significantly lower than patients who did not report this symptom [median (range: 10.51 (3.01–19.75 vs. 15.37 (3.93–46.73; P = 0.0281] and lactulose/mannitol ratio was significantly higher [median (range: 0.04 (0.00–2.89 vs. 0.02 (0.00–0.19; P = 0.0317]. There was also a significant increase in mannitol urinary excretion in the group treated with alanyl-glutamine [median (range: 14.38 (8.25–23.98 before vs 21.24 (6.27–32.99 after treatment; n = 14, P = 0.0382]. Conclusion Our results suggest that the integrity and intestinal absorption are more intensely affected in patients with HIV/AIDS who recently have had diarrhea. Additionally, nutritional supplementation with alanyl-glutamine was associated with an improvement in intestinal absorption. Contexto A glutamina é a principal fonte de energia do enterócito e diarreia e perda de peso são frequentes em pacientes infectados pelo HIV. Objetivo Determinar o efeito da alanil-glutamina sobre a permeabilidade e a absorção intestinais nesses

  3. Antihyperglycemic effect of short-term arginyl-fructose supplementation in subjects with prediabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Eun; Kim, Ok-Hwan; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Hyoung; Kwon, Young-In; Chung, Kwang Hoe; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-11-14

    A previous study reported that arginyl-fructose may have great value as a functional food with antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. However, there have been few clinical studies on the efficacy of arginyl-fructose supplementation for blood glucose control. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 Korean subjects with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to placebo or test groups. The test group subjects received 1500 mg/day arginyl-fructose. Fasting serum levels of glucose, hemoglobin A1c, insulin, and free fatty acids were measured by 2-hour oral glucose tolerance tests at baseline and after the 6-week intervention. Eleven subjects dropped out or were excluded during the trial. The data for the remaining 49 were statistically analyzed using Student's t-test and paired t-test. After the 6-week intervention, the test group showed significant reductions in serum glucose levels at 30 minutes (-19.4 ± 5.62 mg/dL) and 60 minutes (-15.4 ± 7.01 mg/dL) and reduced glucose area under the curve (-27.4 ± 8.59 mg/dL) compared with those of the placebo control group. The changes (differences from baseline) in serum glucose levels at 60 minutes and glucose area under the curve in the test group differed significantly from those in the control group even after adjusting for baseline values. In contrast, glucose-related biomarkers including hemoglobin A1c, insulin, and C-peptide levels were not significantly improved by the dietary intervention with arginyl-fructose. Arginyl-fructose supplementation (1500 mg/day) may be beneficial for reducing postprandial blood glucose levels in patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02285231 . Registered 11 May 2014.

  4. Aluminium foil for the prevention of post-amputation pain: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnee, Robert C; Bosma, Jan; Lam, Kayan Y; Wisselink, Willem; Vahl, Anco C

    2013-05-01

    Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a painful sensation perceived in the missing limb after amputation. The underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. Until recently, only opioid analgesics have been proven to be effective in prospective studies. Anecdotally, patients with PLP employ self-help measures, sometimes including 'wrapping up' or rubbing their stump with aluminium foil for relief. Our hypothesis is that wrapping an amputation stump with aluminium foil perioperatively will prevent PLP in the postoperative period. From September 2007 to September 2009, 32 consecutive patients were included in a crossover, double-blinded, randomised clinical trial. Perioperative fitting of an aluminium stump bandage was compared with a placebo paper foil. Scores were noted daily in a variable diary. The observation period was 2 weeks: in the first week participants were double blinded, and in the second week there was a change of bandage from aluminium to placebo or vice versa. A visual analogue scale (VAS) score was used as primary research variable. Secondary variables were use of analgesics, VAS measures of wound pain and the incidence of wound infections. Statistical analysis was done by means of Student's t-test for non-paired observations. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. A period effect (p= 0.84) and treatment-period interaction (p = 0.79) were not present. There was no significant difference (mean difference 0.42) between both treatments in PLP VAS scores (95% CI -2.56 to -1.81, p = 0.71). VAS measure of wound pain showed no significant difference between both groups (mean difference 0.34, 95% CI -2.32 to -1.66, p = 0.72). Also, the other secondary endpoints did not differ. Patients receiving an aluminium foil stump wrapping do not experience less phantom pain than with a placebo.

  5. Moderate salt restriction with or without paricalcitol in type 2 diabetes and losartan-resistant macroalbuminuria (PROCEED) : A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvanova, Aneliya; Trillini, Matias; Podestà, Manuel A; Iliev, Ilian Petrov; Ruggiero, Barbara; Abbate, Manuela; Perna, Annalisa; Peraro, Francesco; Diadei, Olimpia; Rubis, Nadia; Gaspari, Flavio; Carrara, Fabiola; Stucchi, Nadia; Belviso, Antonio; Bossi, Antonio C; Trevisan, Roberto; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; de Borst, Martin; Ruggenenti, Piero

    BACKGROUND: Macroalbuminuria predicts renal and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the albuminuria-lowering effects of salt restriction, paricalcitol therapy, or both, in this population. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover

  6. The effect of barusiban, a selective oxytocin antagonist, in threatened preterm labor at late gestational age: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Steven; Goodwin, Thomas M; Greisen, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare barusiban with placebo in threatened preterm labor. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. One hundred sixty-three women at 34-35 weeks plus 6 days, and with 6 or more contractions of 30 seconds...

  7. N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Pediatric Trichotillomania: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Add-On Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Grant, Jon E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. Method: A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary…

  8. Laxation of critically ill patients with lactulose or polyethylene glycol : a two-center randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spoel, Johan I; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M; Kuiper, Michael A; van Roon, Eric N; Zandstra, Durk F; van der Voort, Peter H J

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether lactulose or polyethylene glycol is effective to promote defecation in critically ill patients, whether either of the two is superior, and whether the use of enteral laxatives is related to clinical outcome. DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

  9. Laxation of critically ill patients with lactulose or polyethylene glycol: a two-center randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spoel, Johan I.; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M.; Kuiper, Michael A.; van Roon, Eric N.; Zandstra, Durk F.; van der Voort, Peter H. J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether lactulose or polyethylene glycol is effective to promote defecation in critically ill patients, whether either of the two is superior, and whether the use of enteral laxatives is related to clinical outcome. DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

  10. The angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan reduces urinary albumin excretion in patients with isolated systolic hypertension: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan; Koester, Juergen; Manolis, Athanasios J.; Reid, John L.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide on the control of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) unselected for albuminuria in a pre-planned substudy of a large, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized

  11. The angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan reduces urinary albumin excretion in patients with isolated systolic hypertension: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan; Köster, Jürgen; Manolis, Athanasios J.; Reid, John L.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2005-01-01

    To examine the effect of telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide on the control of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) unselected for albuminuria in a pre-planned substudy of a large, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. The

  12. Efficacy and safety of statin therapy in children with familial hypercholesterolemia - A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with simvastatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, Saskia; Ose, Leiv; Szamosi, Tamás; Gagné, Claude; Lambert, M.; Scott, Russell; Perron, P.; Dobbelaere, Dries; Saborio, M.; Tuohy, Mary B.; Stepanavage, Michael; Sapre, Aditi; Gumbiner, Barry; Mercuri, Michele; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Bakker, Henk D.; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2002-01-01

    Background-A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate LDL cholesterol-lowering efficacy, overall safety, and tolerability and the influence on growth and pubertal development of simvastatin in a large cohort of boys and girls with heterozygous

  13. In patients undergoing fast track total knee arthroplasty, addition of buprenorphine to a femoral nerve block has no clinical advantage A prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Rienk; Zonneveldt, Harry J.; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Steens, Jeroen; Lirk, Phillip; Hollmann, Marcus W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several adjuvants have been proposed to prolong the effect of peripheral nerve blocks, one of which is buprenorphine. In this randomized double blinded placebo controlled trial we studied whether the addition of buprenorphine to a femoral nerve block prolongs analgesia in patients

  14. Modafinil In Debilitating fatigue After Stroke (MIDAS): study protocol for a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillicrap, Thomas; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; Attia, John; Nilsson, Michael; Levi, Christopher R; Parsons, Mark W; Bivard, Andrew

    2016-08-17

    Fatigue is a common symptom in stroke survivors for which there is currently no proven therapy. Modafinil is a wakefulness-promoting agent with established benefits in other disease models. We aim to test if modafinil will improve patient's self-reported fatigue scores when compared to placebo and if therapy results in increased quality of life. MIDAS is a phase II, single-centre, prospective, double-blinded, randomised, crossover trial of modafinil for the treatment of persistent fatigue in survivors of ischaemic stroke. The inclusion criteria will require an average score of 12 or more across all domains of the Multi-dimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) and the diagnosis of a stroke more than 6 months prior. Patients will be randomised 1:1 to receive either modafinil 200 mg daily or placebo for a period of 6 weeks, after which a crossover will occur where patients who are on modafinil will begin taking placebo and vice versa. The primary outcome will be improvement in fatigue as measured by the MFI-20. Secondary outcomes will include changes in the Fatigue Severity Scale, improved cognition measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, improvement in mood as determined by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and improvement in each patient's stroke-specific quality of life score. All participants will also undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline, crossover and study conclusion to measure cerebral blood flow on arterial spin labelling and brain activity on resting state functional MRI. This study will comply with the CONSORT guidelines. The projected sample size requirement is 36 participants in a crossover trial giving a power of 80 % and a type-1 error rate of 0.05. MIDAS seeks to enhance the quality of life in stroke survivors by assisting or resolving stroke-associated fatigue. ACTRN12615000350527 , registered on the 17 April 2015. Protocol version 3, approved 16 June 2015.

  15. Phenobarbitone in Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn: a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatnarayan, Kannan; Sankar, Mari Jeeva; Agarwal, Ramesh; Paul, Vinod K; Deorari, Ashok K

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic oral phenobarbitone (PB) in neonates with Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn. In this double-blind randomized trial conducted in a tertiary care unit, we randomly allocated neonates with Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn born at or after 32 weeks' gestation to PB (10 mg/kg/day on day 1 followed by 5 mg/kg/day on days 2-5) (n = 23) or oral glucose (n = 21). The primary outcome was the duration of phototherapy. Baseline variables were comparable. There was no difference in the median duration of phototherapy [54 (range: 0-180) vs. 35 h (0-127); p = 0.39] and in the incidences of failure of phototherapy or significant rebounds of serum bilirubin. However, the proportion of infants with cholestasis was significantly lower in the PB group (0 vs. 19%; p = 0.04). PB does not reduce duration of phototherapy or its episodes. Its potential to reduce cholestasis needs validation in larger studies.

  16. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba added to risperidone in patients with autistic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Elmira; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezaei, Farzin; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2012-10-01

    Ginkgo biloba has been reported to affect the neurotransmitter system and to have antioxidant properties that could impact the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based on these studies, we decided to assess the effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba extract (Ginko T.D., Tolidaru, Iran) as an adjunctive agent to risperidone in the treatment of autism. Forty-seven outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of autism ages between 4 and 12 years were assigned to this double blinded clinical trial and were randomly divided into two groups. One group received risperidone plus Ginko T.D and the other received risperidone plus placebo. The dose of risperidone was 1-3 mg/day and the dose of Ginko T.D. was 80 mg/day for patients under 30 kg and 120 mg/day for patients above 30 kg. Patients were assessed using Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) rating scale and the side effect check list every 2 weeks until the endpoint. None of the 5 subscales of ABC-C rating scale showed significant differences between the two groups. Incidents of side effects were not significantly different between the two groups. Adding Ginkgo biloba to risperidone did not affect the treatment outcome of ADs. Nevertheless, further observations are needed to confirm this result.

  17. Effects of Semelil (ANGIPARSTM on diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A randomized, double-blind Placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Bakhshayeshi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Background and the purpose of the study: Diabetic neuropathy is the most common diabetic complication that often is accompanied by significant morbidity, mortality and economic burden. The purpose of this study was evaluation of effect of Semelil (ANGIPARSTM, a new herbal drug for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers or diabetic peripheral neuropathy. "nMethods: In this double blind clinical trial, 49 type 2 diabetes patients with different degrees of neuropathy were evaluated in two groups (ANGIPARSTM and placebo groups. All patients were assessed at the start and 12 weeks after treatment, with laboratory tests, United Kingdom screening test, Michigan neuropathy screening score, Michigan diabetic neuropathy score, vibration perception thresholds, nerve conduction study, monofilament test and visual analog scale. "nResults: Michigan diabetic neuropathy score was decreased notably in ANGIPARSTM group. In the nerve conduction study, appropriate meaningful changes were observed in the distal latency and amplitude in the motor Ulnar nerve in ANGIPARSTM group. Conclusion: The results showed limited evidence of efficacy of ANGIPARSTM in diabetic neuropathy treatment and more studies with a larger sample size and longer duration are required.

  18. Effects of Panax ginseng extract in patients with fibromyalgia: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra S. Braz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of an extract of Panax ginseng in patients with fibromyalgia. A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was carried out over 12 weeks to compare the effects of P. ginseng (100 mg/d with amitriptyline (25 mg/d and placebo in 38 patients with fibromyalgia: 13 in Group I (amitriptyline, 13 in Group II (placebo, and 12 in Group III (P. ginseng. Ratings on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS revealed a reduction in pain in the P. ginseng group (p < .0001, an improvement in fatigue (p < .0001 and an improvement in sleep (p < .001, with respect to baseline characteristics, but there were no differences between the three groups. With respect to anxiety, improvements occurred in the P. ginseng group compared to baseline (p < .0001; however, amitriptyline treatment resulted in significantly greater improvements (p < .05. P. ginseng reduced the number of tender points and improved patients' quality of life (using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire - FIQ; however, there were no differences between groups. The beneficial effects experienced by patients for all parameters suggest a need for further studies to be performed on the tolerability and efficacy of this phytotherapic as a complementary therapy for fibromyalgia.

  19. Neuroprotective impact of a vitamin trace element composition - a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial with healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muss, Claus; Mosgoeller, Wilhelm; Endler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Neurotoxic metabolites and oxidative and nitrosative stress reactions play a crucial role in the pathways leading to neuronal cell death and neurodegeneration. The bioavailability of the many antioxidant ingredients a vitamin and trace element composition was investigated, to reveal the neuroprotective (preventive) potential of the composition. We recruited 159 healthy volunteers, assigned them randomly and double blind to a placebo and verum group. Physicians excluded volunteers with severe chronic diseases or interfeering medications. 142 participants finished the six month trial. Laboratory parameters were determined 1) before participation, and 2) after three and 3) six months. We confirmed the bioavailability of ingredients, and determined metabolic parameters associated with the integrity of the blood brain barrier, mitochondrial deficiency (Q 10), neurodegeneration (homocystein), and antioxidative capacity (e.g. lipidperoxidation), and superoxiddismutase activity. Starting from baseleine, after three months neuroprotective ingredients increased within their physiological borders, folic acid (p<0.003), pyridoxin (p<0.001), cobalamin (p=0.001), and the fat soluble vitamin tocopherol (p<0.001). In parallel, homocytein decreased after 3 and 6 months (p<0.001, and p<0.025, respectively). Other paramters like zinc reacted slower, significant changes were observed only after 6 months. The observed metabolic changes and alteration of the oxidative status after 3 and six month of regular intake underlines the compositions' potential to ameliorate neurodegenerative processes. We conclude that the subsitution of vitamins and trace-elements with natural source in a proper manner may be effective for neuroprotection in healthy population.

  20. Baclofen for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial [ISRCTN32121581

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi-Abhari Seyed Ali

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of preclinical studies suggest that the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen may be useful in treatment of opioid dependence. This study was aimed at assessing the possible efficacy of baclofen for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. Methods A total of 40 opioid-dependent patients were detoxified and randomly assigned to receive baclofen (60 mg/day or placebo in a 12-week, double blind, parallel-group trial. Primary outcome measure was retention in treatment. Secondary outcome measures included opioids and alcohol use according to urinalysis and self-report ratings, intensity of opioid craving assessed with a visual analogue scale, opioid withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Short Opiate Withdrawal Scale and depression scores on the Hamilton inventory. Results Treatment retention was significantly higher in the baclofen group. Baclofen also showed a significant superiority over placebo in terms of opiate withdrawal syndrome and depressive symptoms. Non-significant, but generally favorable responses were seen in the baclofen group with other outcome measures including intensity of opioid craving and self-reported opioid and alcohol use. However, no significant difference was seen in the rates of opioid-positive urine tests. Additionally, the drug side effects of the two groups were not significantly different. Conclusion The results support further study of baclofen in the maintenance treatment of opioid dependence.

  1. Controlling hypertension and hypotension immediately post-stroke (CHHIPS): a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, John F; Robinson, Thompson G; Ford, Gary A; Mistri, Amit; James, Martin; Chernova, Julia; Jagger, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Raised blood pressure is common after acute stroke and is associated with an adverse prognosis. We sought to assess the feasibility, safety, and effects of two regimens for lowering blood pressure in patients who have had a stroke. Patients who had cerebral infarction or cerebral haemorrhage and were hypertensive (systolic blood pressure [SBP] >160 mm Hg) were randomly assigned by secure internet central randomisation to receive oral labetalol, lisinopril, or placebo if they were non-dysphagic, or intravenous labetalol, sublingual lisinopril, or placebo if they had dysphagia, within 36 h of symptom onset in this double-blind pilot trial. The doses were titrated up if target blood pressure was not reached. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the National Research Register, number N0484128008. 179 patients (mean age 74 [SD 11] years; SBP 181 [SD 16] mm Hg; diastolic blood pressure [DBP] 95 [SD 13] mm Hg; median National Institutes of Health stroke scale [NIHSS] score 9 [IQR 5-16] points) were randomly assigned to receive labetolol (n=58), lisinopril (n=58), or placebo (n=63) between January, 2005, and December, 2007. The primary outcome--death or dependency at 2 weeks--occurred in 61% (69) of the active and 59% (35) of the placebo group (relative risk [RR] 1.03, 95% CI 0.80-1.33; p=0.82). There was no evidence of early neurological deterioration with active treatment (RR 1.22, 0.33-4.54; p=0.76) despite the significantly greater fall in SBP within the first 24 h in this group compared with placebo (21 [17-25] mm Hg vs 11 [5-17] mm Hg; p=0.004). No increase in serious adverse events was reported with active treatment (RR 0.91, 0.69-1.12; p=0.50) but 3-month mortality was halved (9.7%vs 20.3%, hazard ratio [HR] 0.40, 95% CI 0.2-1.0; p=0.05). Labetalol and lisinopril are effective antihypertensive drugs in acute stroke that do not increase serious adverse events. Early lowering of blood pressure with lisinopril and labetalol after acute

  2. Davunetide in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2/3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Adam L; Lang, Anthony E; Grossman, Murray; Knopman, David S; Miller, Bruce L; Schneider, Lon S; Doody, Rachelle S; Lees, Andrew; Golbe, Lawrence I; Williams, David R; Corvol, Jean-Cristophe; Ludolph, Albert; Burn, David; Lorenzl, Stefan; Litvan, Irene; Roberson, Erik D; Höglinger, Günter U; Koestler, Mary; Jack, Clifford R; Van Deerlin, Viviana; Randolph, Christopher; Lobach, Iryna V; Heuer, Hilary W; Gozes, Illana; Parker, Lesley; Whitaker, Steve; Hirman, Joe; Stewart, Alistair J; Gold, Michael; Morimoto, Bruce H

    2014-07-01

    In preclinical studies, davunetide promoted microtubule stability and reduced tau phosphorylation. Because progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is linked to tau pathology, davunetide could be a treatment for PSP. We assessed the safety and efficacy of davunetide in patients with PSP. In a double-blind, parallel group, phase 2/3 trial, participants were randomly assigned with permuted blocks in a 1:1 ratio to davunetide (30 mg twice daily, intranasally) or placebo for 52 weeks at 48 centres in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the UK, and the USA. Participants met the modified Neuroprotection and Natural History in Parkinson Plus Syndrome study criteria for PSP. Primary endpoints were the change from baseline in PSP Rating Scale (PSPRS) and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living (SEADL) scale at up to 52 weeks. All participants and study personnel were masked to treatment assignment. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT01110720. 313 participants were randomly assigned to davunetide (n=157) or to placebo (n=156), and 241 (77%) completed the study (118 and 156 in the davunetide and placebo groups, respectively). There were no differences in the davunetide and placebo groups in the baseline PSPRS and SEADL. The davunetide and placebo groups did not differ in the change from baseline in PSPRS (median 11·8 [95% CI 10·5 to 13·0] vs 11·8 [10·5 to 13·0], respectively, p=0·41) or SEADL (-0·20 [-0·20 to -0·17] vs -0·20 [-0·22 to -0·17], respectively, p=0·92). 54 serious adverse events were reported in each of the treatment groups, including 11 deaths in the davunetide group and ten in the placebo group. The frequency of nasal adverse events was greater in the davunetide group than in the placebo group (epistaxis 18 [12%] of 156 vs 13 [8%] of 156, rhinorrhoea 15 [10%] vs eight [5%], and nasal discomfort 15 [10%] vs one [<1%]). Davunetide is not an effective treatment for PSP. Clinical trials of

  3. Low dose aspirin as adjuvant treatment for venous leg ulceration: pragmatic, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial (Aspirin4VLU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Andrew; Wadham, Angela; Bullen, Chris; Parag, Varsha; Kerse, Ngaire; Waters, Jill

    2017-11-24

    Objective  To determine the effect of low dose aspirin on ulcer healing in patients with venous leg ulcers. Design  Pragmatic, community based, parallel group, double blind, randomised controlled trial. Setting  Five community nursing centres in New Zealand. Participants  251 adults with venous leg ulcers who could safely be treated with aspirin or placebo: 125 were randomised to aspirin and 126 to placebo. Interventions  150 mg oral aspirin daily or matching placebo for up to 24 weeks treatment, with compression therapy as standard background treatment. Main outcome measures  The primary outcome was time to complete healing of the reference ulcer (largest ulcer if more than one ulcer was present). Secondary outcomes included proportion of participants healed, change in ulcer area, change in health related quality of life, and adverse events. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results  The median number of days to healing of the reference ulcer was 77 in the aspirin group and 69 in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 1.13, P=0.25). The number of participants healed at the endpoint was 88 (70%) in the aspirin group and 101 (80%) in the placebo group (risk difference -9.8%, 95% confidence interval -20.4% to 0.9%, P=0.07). Estimated change in ulcer area was 4.1 cm 2 in the aspirin group and 4.8 cm 2 in the placebo group (mean difference -0.7 cm 2 , 95% confidence interval -1.9 to 0.5 cm 2 , P=0.25). 40 adverse events occurred among 29 participants in the aspirin group and 37 adverse events among 27 participants in the placebo group (incidence rate ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 1.7, P=0.71). Conclusion  Our findings do not support the use of low dose aspirin as adjuvant treatment for venous leg ulcers. Trial registration  ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02158806. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klupp, Nerida L.; Kiat, Hosen; Bensoussan, Alan; Steiner, Genevieve Z.; Chang, Dennis H.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of hyperglycaemia and other cardiovascular risk components of metabolic syndrome using a prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Eighty-four participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were randomised to one of three intervention groups: Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma lucidum with Cordyceps sinensis, or placebo. The dosage was 3 g/day of Ganoderma lucidum, with or without Cordyceps sinensis, for 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure was blood glucose (glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c] and fasting plasma glucose [FPG]); a number of secondary outcome measures were also tested. Data from the two intervention groups were combined. The combined intervention had no effect on any of the primary (baseline-adjusted difference in means: HbA1c = 0.13%, 95% CI [−0.35, 0.60], p = 0.60; FPG = 0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI [−0.90, 0.96], p = 0.95) or secondary outcome measures over the course of the 16-week trial, and no overall increased risk of adverse events with either active treatment. Evidence from this randomised clinical trial does not support the use of Ganoderma lucidum for treatment of cardiovascular risk factors in people with diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. This Clinical Trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry on November 23, 2006. Trial ID: ACTRN12606000485538 and can be accessed here: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=81705. PMID:27511742

  5. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klupp, Nerida L; Kiat, Hosen; Bensoussan, Alan; Steiner, Genevieve Z; Chang, Dennis H

    2016-08-11

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of hyperglycaemia and other cardiovascular risk components of metabolic syndrome using a prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Eighty-four participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were randomised to one of three intervention groups: Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma lucidum with Cordyceps sinensis, or placebo. The dosage was 3 g/day of Ganoderma lucidum, with or without Cordyceps sinensis, for 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure was blood glucose (glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c] and fasting plasma glucose [FPG]); a number of secondary outcome measures were also tested. Data from the two intervention groups were combined. The combined intervention had no effect on any of the primary (baseline-adjusted difference in means: HbA1c = 0.13%, 95% CI [-0.35, 0.60], p = 0.60; FPG = 0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI [-0.90, 0.96], p = 0.95) or secondary outcome measures over the course of the 16-week trial, and no overall increased risk of adverse events with either active treatment. Evidence from this randomised clinical trial does not support the use of Ganoderma lucidum for treatment of cardiovascular risk factors in people with diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. This Clinical Trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry on November 23, 2006. Trial ID: ACTRN12606000485538 and can be accessed here: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=81705.

  6. Efficacy of probiotic supplementation on quality of life and pulmonary symptoms due to sulfur mustard exposure: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Ghanei, Mostafa; Vahedi, Ensieh; Mousavi, Seyyed Hossein; Imani, Saber; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy and safety of supplementation with probiotics in improving chronic pulmonary symptoms due to sulfur mustard (SM) exposure. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, 65 subjects suffering from chronic pulmonary complications of SM were assigned to one probiotic capsule (1 × 10 9 CFU containing seven strains of lactic acid-producing bacteria) every 12 h or an identical placebo for six weeks. Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, pulmonary function tests (FEV1, FEV1/FVC and MMEF 25-75%) and COPD assessment test (CAT) were assessed at baseline and at the end of trial. The groups were comparable in baseline characteristics. There were significant improvements in FEV1/FVC in the probiotic but not in placebo group. CAT scores were decreased in both study groups. However, between-group comparison of changes in the assessed parameters reached statistical significance only for CAT score (p < 0.001). There was no report of adverse events during the course of trial. Findings of the present trial favor the efficacy of probiotic supplementation in improving the pulmonary symptoms of SM-exposed subjects.

  7. Lower-extremity Dynamometry as a Novel Outcome Measure in a Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Feasibility Trial of Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) for HIV-associated Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Papp, Jessica; George, Mary Catherine; Nmashie, Alexandra; Weisz, Donald; Simpson, David M

    2018-02-01

    Objective : Open-label data suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) might improve lower-extremity strength in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated myelopathy (HIVM), a rare but debilitating neurologic complication of HIV. We sought to determine the feasibility of testing the efficacy of IVIG for HIVM more rigorously. Design : We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled feasibility trial of IVIG for HIVM, using dynamometry as an outcome measure (Clinical Trial No. NCT01561755). Setting : The study took place in an academic medical center in New York, New York Participants : Only 12 participants were enrolled in four years; critical impediments to the study were the rarity of patients with new HIVM diagnoses and prior exposure to IVIG in patients with an established diagnosis. Measurements : Dynamometry of hip flexion, knee flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion were measured; the HIV Dementia Motor Score (HDMS); and the two-minute timed walk test were utilized. Results : Recruitment was the major feasibility issue. Dynamometry was generally well-tolerated, had good test-retest reliability ( r =0.71-0.86, p Dynamometry was valid and clinically meaningful based on its correlations with the HDMS and the two-minute timed walk test. Conclusion : We conclude that an adequately powered clinical trial of IVIG for HIVM would likely require a prolonged recruitment period and multiple participating sites. Lower limb dynamometry is a useful outcome measure for HIVM, which might also be useful in other HIV-related gait disorders.

  8. Eight weeks of omeprazole 20 mg significantly reduces both laryngopharyngeal reflux and comorbid chronic rhinosinusitis signs and symptoms: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzić, S A; Turkalj, M; Župan, A; Labor, M; Plavec, D; Baudoin, T

    2018-04-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux recommended treatment (dose and duration) with proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) compared to placebo significantly reduces the signs and symptoms of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and comorbid chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. Eight weeks of treatment with omeprazole 20 mg once daily (OD). Sixty patients (28 women, aged 19-87 years) with diagnosed LPR and comorbid CRS. Significant reduction in signs and symptoms (reflux symptom index (RSI) score as subjective, and reflux finding score (RFS) as objective measure) of LPR after 8 weeks of treatment with omeprazole 20 mg OD when compared to placebo. Secondary objectives were significant reduction in signs and symptoms of comorbid CRS after 8 weeks of treatment with omeprazole 20 mg OD when compared to placebo and the association of the severity of signs and symptoms of LPR with the ones of CRS. RSI and RFS decreased significantly more in the active treatment group after 8 weeks compared to placebo (P < .001 for both). CRS and endoscopy scoring decreased both significantly more in the active group after 8 weeks compared to placebo (P < .001 for both). CRS scoring significantly correlated with RSI (R = 0.312, P = .015) but not with RFS (R = 0.199, P = .127). The results of our trial suggest that omeprazole 20 mg OD for 8 weeks was effective in reducing signs and symptoms of both LPR and CRS, although in most patients still present at the end of the trial. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. High phenylalanine levels directly affect mood and sustained attention in adults with phenylketonuria: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Hoedt, Amber E; de Sonneville, Leo M J; Francois, Baudouin; ter Horst, Nienke M; Janssen, Mirian C H; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Wijburg, Frits A; Hollak, Carla E M; Bosch, Annet M

    2011-02-01

    The main debate in the treatment of Phenylketonuria (PKU) is whether adult patients need the strict phenylalanine (Phe)-restricted diet. Physicians and patients lack evidence-based guidelines to help them make well-informed choices. We have carried out the first randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial into the effects of short-term elevation of Phe levels on neuropsychological functions and mood of adults with PKU. Nine continuously treated adults with PKU underwent two 4-week supplementation periods: one with Phe, mimicking normal dietary intake, and one with placebo in randomly allocated order via a randomisation coding list in a double-blind cross-over design. A set of neuropsychological tests (Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks) was administered at the end of each study period. In addition, patients and for each patient a friend or relative, completed weekly Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaires, evaluating the patients' mood. Phe levels were measured twice weekly. Mean plasma Phe levels were significantly higher during Phe supplementation compared with placebo (p = 0.008). Neuropsychological tests demonstrated an impairment in sustained attention during Phe supplementation (p = 0.029). Both patients and their friend or relative reported lower scores on the POMS questionnaires during Phe supplementation (p = 0.017 and p = 0.040, respectively). High plasma Phe levels have a direct negative effect on both sustained attention and on mood in adult patients with PKU. A Phe-restricted "diet for life" might be an advisable option for many.

  10. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Eszopiclone for the Treatment of Insomnia in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Harold W.; Preud'homme, Xavier A.; Krystal, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia, which is very common in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP), has long been viewed as a pain symptom that did not merit specific treatment. Recent data suggest that adding insomnia therapy to pain-targeted treatment should improve outcome; however, this has not been empirically tested in LBP or in any pain condition treated with a standardized pain medication regimen. We sought to test the hypothesis that adding insomnia therapy to pain-targeted treatment might improve sleep and pain in LBP. Design: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, 1-mo trial. Setting: Duke University Medical Center Outpatient Sleep Clinic. Patients: Fifty-two adult volunteers with LBP of at least 3 mo duration who met diagnostic criteria for insomnia (mean age: 42.5 y; 63% females). Interventions: Subjects were randomized to eszopiclone (ESZ) 3 mg plus naproxen 500 mg BID or matching placebo plus naproxen 500 mg twice a day. Measurements and Results: ESZ significantly improved total sleep time (mean increase: ESZ, 95 min; placebo, 9 min) (primary outcome) and nearly all sleep measures as well as visual analog scale pain (mean decrease: ESZ, 17 mm; placebo, 2 mm) (primary pain outcome), and depression (mean Hamilton Depression Rating Scale improvement ESZ, 3.8; placebo, 0.4) compared with placebo. Changes in pain ratings were significantly correlated with changes in sleep. Conclusions: The addition of insomnia-specific therapy to a standardized naproxen pain regimen significantly improves sleep, pain, and depression in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). The findings indicate the importance of administering both sleep and pain-directed therapies to patients with LBP in clinical practice and provide strong evidence that improving sleep disturbance may improve pain. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00365976 Citation: Goforth HW, Preud'homme XA, Krystal AD. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of eszopiclone

  11. Maintenance Therapy by Vaginal Progesterone after Threatened Idiopathic Preterm Labor: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Double-blind Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Hajar Sharami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with arrested preterm labor (PTL are at increased risk for recurrence ofpreterm birth (PTB. Maintenance tocolysis after arrest of acute PTL is of questionable value. Theobjective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 200 mg vaginal progesterone in order toprevent PTB in women with episodes of threatened PTL.Materials and Methods: This is a randomized double blind clinical trial study.Women with singletonpregnancies between 28-36 weeks of gestation, who were hospitalized for PTL were included. Atotal of 173 pregnant patients were randomly allocated to receive 200 mg vaginal progesteronesuppositories (n=86 or placebo (n=87 daily until the 36th gestational week. The two groups werecompared relative to demographic characteristics, incidence of PTB before 34 and 37 weeks, andmaternal and neonatal complications. Data were analyzed by chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests.Results: Mean latency until delivery in the cases was longer than the control group (23.88 ± 18.01vs. 16.67 ± 12.9; p=0.004.Treatment with progesterone was not associated with a reduction inthe rate of PTB before 34 weeks [cases: 9 (10.8% vs. controls: 8 (10%] and 37 weeks [cases: 45(54.2% vs. controls: 33 (41.2%]. Log rank analysis revealed a significant difference for mean timeto delivery between the two groups (p=0.028. There were no significant differences for neonataland maternal complications in the two groups.Conclusion: Prophylactic administration of 200 mg vaginal progesterone suppositories aftersuccessful tocolysis in patients with threatened idiopathic PTL is associated with a longer latencyto delivery, but failed to reduce the rate of PTB (Registeration Number: IRCT138706051096N1.

  12. Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial on Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938: improvement in symptoms and bowel habit in functional constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riezzo, G; Orlando, A; D'Attoma, B; Linsalata, M; Martulli, M; Russo, F

    2018-01-29

    Dysbiosis may contribute to constipation and its symptoms, therefore probiotic administration could improve significantly gut health and functions. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a long-lasting administration of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (LR DSM 17938) on symptoms and quality of life (QoL) score in patients with functional constipation (FC). 56 FC patients with normal colonic transit time and without anorectal disorders and pelvic floor dysfunctions completed the study. LR DSM 17938 was administered for 105 days in a randomised double-blind clinical trial (28 patients per arm). Individual and cumulative scores including the Constipaq, a modified Constipation Scoring System (CSS) that considers the patient assessment of constipation-QoL (PAC-QoL), were calculated during the preliminary visit (V0), at day 15 (end of the induction period with a LR DSM 17938 double dosage, 4×10 8 cfu), day 60 (intermediate evaluation) and day 105 (V4) after a standard dosage (2×10 8 cfu). At the end of treatment, the beneficial effect of LR DSM 17938 compared to placebo was significantly evident for symptoms related to gas content and dysbiosis (abdominal discomfort, pain and bloating), incomplete defecation and helps for defecation (PDSM 17938 treatment, a marked and positive effect on both the CSS single and the cumulative items was evident with the exception of unfruitful attempt and Bristol score. Present findings indicate that LR DSM 17938 has an effect on symptoms different from stool consistency, and they suggest that this probiotic can effectively be used in association therapy rather than as single-drug therapy in the management of FC.

  13. Natural products for the management of xerostomia: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Morante, Anabel; Wolff, Andy; Bautista Mendoza, Gloria Rocio; López-Jornet, Pia

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of lycopene-enriched virgin olive oil in spray form used to treat patients with drug-induced xerostomia, comparing this with a placebo spray. This double-blind, randomized clinical trial included elderly subjects with drug-induced xerostomia (n = 60). Resting salivary flow was measured using the draining technique. The Xerostomia Inventory (XI) was used to assess symptoms and the Oral Health Impact Profile 14 (OHIP-14) to assess patient quality of life. Evaluations were made before and after 12 weeks of product/placebo application. Sixty patients took part in the study. Symptoms improved among the treatment group (n = 30) after 12 weeks in the following XI domains: 'Rate the difficulty you experience in speaking because of dryness' (P = 0.03); 'Rate how much saliva is in your mouth' (P = 0.03); and 'Rate the dryness of your lips' (P = 0.04). The placebo group (n = 30) underwent improvements in: 'Rate how much saliva is in your mouth' (P = 0.02) and 'Rate the dryness of your mouth' (P = 0.01). A significant improvement (P = 0.001) in oral-related quality of life (OHIP-14) was identified in the treatment group, while no significant differences were observed in the placebo group (P > 0.05). The topical application of lycopene-enriched virgin olive oil and its placebo counterpart improved xerostomia-related symptoms significantly (but not salivary flow rate) in patients with drug-induced xerostomia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The effects of oral garlic on vaginal candida colony counts: a randomised placebo controlled double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C J; Grando, D; Fairley, C K; Chondros, P; Garland, S M; Myers, S P; Pirotta, M

    2014-03-01

    Garlic is effective against Candida species in vitro, and along with other alternative therapies, is used by women with vulvovaginal candidiasis. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether oral garlic reduced vaginal candida counts during the second half of the menstrual cycle in asymptomatic women colonised with Candida species. A simple randomised double-blinded controlled trial. Melbourne, Australia. Sixty-three asymptomatic women who were culture-positive for Candida species at screening. Participants were randomised to three garlic tablets or placebo orally, twice daily, for 14 days. The primary outcome was the proportion of women with colony counts of candida >100 colony-forming units per ml in any given day during the last 7 days before menstruation, defined as a 'case'. Secondary outcomes included the mean quantitative colony counts of candida over 14 days prior to menses. There was no evidence of a difference between the proportion of cases in the garlic and placebo groups (76 versus 90%; relative risk, RR 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 0.67-1.08), in the mean colony counts in both groups (ratio of geometric means of candidal colony counts 0.63; 95% CI 0.39-10.03; P = 0.74), or difference in the number of women reporting abnormal vaginal symptoms during the 2 weeks before menstruation (RR 1.03; 95% CI 0.67-1.58; P = 0.91). The garlic group reported more adverse effects (83% compared 43% in the placebo group; difference in proportions 39%; 95% CI 17-%; P garlic, but provided no evidence to inform clinical practice regarding the use of garlic in vaginal candidiasis. Further studies might investigate longer courses or topical formulations. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Static magnetic field therapy for symptomatic diabetic neuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Michael I; Wolfe, Gil I; Barohn, Richard A; Cole, Steven P; Parry, Gareth J; Hayat, Ghazala; Cohen, Jeffrey A; Page, Jeffrey C; Bromberg, Mark B; Schwartz, Sherwyn L

    2003-05-01

    To determine if constant wearing of multipolar, static magnetic (450G) shoe insoles can reduce neuropathic pain and quality of life (QOL) scores in symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Randomized, placebo-control, parallel study. Forty-eight centers in 27 states. Three hundred seventy-five subjects with DPN stage II or III were randomly assigned to wear constantly magnetized insoles for 4 months; the placebo group wore similar, unmagnetized device. Nerve conduction and/or quantified sensory testing were performed serially. Daily visual analog scale scores for numbness or tingling and burning and QOL issues were tabulated over 4 months. Secondary measures included nerve conduction changes, role of placebo, and safety issues. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and chi-square analysis were performed. There were statistically significant reductions during the third and fourth months in burning (mean change for magnet treatment, -12%; for sham, -3%; P<.05, ANCOVA), numbness and tingling (magnet, -10%; sham, +1%; P<.05, ANCOVA), and exercise-induced foot pain (magnet, -12%; sham, -4%; P<.05, ANCOVA). For a subset of patients with baseline severe pain, statistically significant reductions occurred from baseline through the fourth month in numbness and tingling (magnet, -32%; sham, -14%; P<.01, ANOVA) and foot pain (magnet, -41%; sham, -21%; P<.01, ANOVA). Static magnetic fields can penetrate up to 20mm and appear to target the ectopic firing nociceptors in the epidermis and dermis. Analgesic benefits were achieved over time.

  16. An evaluation of the hypolipidemic effect of an extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa leaves in hyperlipidemic Indians: a double blind, placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rajendran

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hibiscus sabdariffa is used regularly in folk medicine to treat various conditions. Methods The study was a double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Sixty subjects with serum LDL values in the range of 130-190 mg/dl and with no history of coronary heart disease were randomized into experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received 1 gm of the extract for 90 days while the placebo received a similar amount of maltodextrin in addition to dietary and physical activity advice for the control of their blood lipids. Anthropometry, blood biochemistry, dietary and physical activity were assessed at baseline, day 45 and day 90. Results While body weight, serum LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased in both groups, there were no significant differences between the experimental and placebo group. Conclusions It is likely that the observed effects were as a result of the patients following the standard dietary and physical activity advice. At a dose of 1 gm/day, hibiscus sabdariffa leaf extract did not appear to have a blood lipid lowering effect. Trial Registration REFCTRI2009000472

  17. An evaluation of the hypolipidemic effect of an extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa leaves in hyperlipidemic Indians: a double blind, placebo controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Hibiscus sabdariffa is used regularly in folk medicine to treat various conditions. Methods The study was a double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Sixty subjects with serum LDL values in the range of 130-190 mg/dl and with no history of coronary heart disease were randomized into experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received 1 gm of the extract for 90 days while the placebo received a similar amount of maltodextrin in addition to dietary and physical activity advice for the control of their blood lipids. Anthropometry, blood biochemistry, dietary and physical activity were assessed at baseline, day 45 and day 90. Results While body weight, serum LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased in both groups, there were no significant differences between the experimental and placebo group. Conclusions It is likely that the observed effects were as a result of the patients following the standard dietary and physical activity advice. At a dose of 1 gm/day, hibiscus sabdariffa leaf extract did not appear to have a blood lipid lowering effect. Trial Registration REFCTRI2009000472 PMID:20553629

  18. Local anesthetic wound infiltration for pain management after periacetabular osteotomy. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial with 53 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Rune D; Ovesen, Ole; Lindholm, Peter; Overgaard, Søren

    2014-04-01

    To our knowledge, there is no evidence to support the use of local infiltration analgesia (LIA) for postoperative pain relief after periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). We investigated the effect of wound infiltration with a long-acting local anesthetic (ropivacaine) for postoperative analgesia after PAO. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00815503) in 53 patients undergoing PAO to evaluate the effect of local anesthetic infiltration on postoperative pain and on postoperative opioid consumption. All subjects received intraoperative infiltration followed by 5 postoperative injections in 10-hour intervals through a multi-holed catheter placed at the surgical site. 26 patients received ropivacaine and 27 received saline. The intervention period was 2 days and the observational period was 4 days. All subjects received patient-controlled opioid analgesia without any restrictions on the total daily dose. Pain was assessed at specific postoperative time points and the daily opioid usage was registered. Infiltration with 75 mL (150 mg) of ropivacaine did not reduce postoperative pain or opioid requirements during the first 4 days. The clinical importance of ropivacaine as single component in postoperative treatment of pain is questionable, and we are planning further studies to explore the potential of LIA in larger volume-and also a multimodal regimen-to treat pain in this category of patients.

  19. A pilot randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial on topical chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) oil for severe carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Lari, Zeinab Nasiri; Ghoreishi, Parissa Sadat; Daneshfard, Babak; Ghasemi, Mohammad Sadegh; Homayouni, Kaynoosh; Zargaran, Arman

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effectiveness of standardized topical Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) oil in patients with severe carpal tunnel syndrome, as a complementary treatment. A pilot randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Twenty six patients with documented severe carpal tunnel syndrome were treated in two parallel groups with a night splint plus topical chamomile oil or placebo. They were instructed to use their prescribed oil for 4 weeks, twice daily. Symptomatic and functional status of the patients and their electrodiagnostic parameters were evaluated when enrolled and after the trial period, as our outcome measures. A significant improvement of symptomatic and functional status of patients in the chamomile oil group was observed (p = 0.019 and 0.016, respectively) compared with those in the placebo group. However, electrodiagnostic parameters showed no significant changes between the two groups. Chamomile oil improved symptomatic and functional status of patients with severe carpal tunnel syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of maca root as treatment for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dording, Christina M; Schettler, Pamela J; Dalton, Elizabeth D; Parkin, Susannah R; Walker, Rosemary S W; Fehling, Kara B; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We sought to demonstrate that maca root may be an effective treatment for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction (AISD) in women. Method. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of maca root (3.0 g/day) in 45 female outpatients (mean age of 41.5 ± 12.5 years) with SSRI/SNRI-induced sexual dysfunction whose depression remitted. Endpoints were improvement in sexual functioning as per the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) and the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Function Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ). Results. 45 of 57 consented females were randomized, and 42 (30 premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal women) were eligible for a modified intent-to-treat analysis based on having had at least one postmedication visit. Remission rates by the end of treatment were higher for the maca than the placebo group, based on attainment of an ASEX total score ≤ 10 (9.5% for maca versus 4.8% for placebo), attaining an MGH-SFQ score ≤ 12 (30.0% for maca versus 20.0% for placebo) and reaching an MGH-SFQ score ≤ 8 (9.5% for maca versus 5.0% for placebo). Higher remission rates for the maca versus placebo group were associated with postmenopausal status. Maca was well tolerated. Conclusion. Maca root may alleviate SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. This trial is registered with NCT00568126.

  1. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Maca Root as Treatment for Antidepressant-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Dording

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We sought to demonstrate that maca root may be an effective treatment for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction (AISD in women. Method. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of maca root (3.0 g/day in 45 female outpatients (mean age of 41.5 ± 12.5 years with SSRI/SNRI-induced sexual dysfunction whose depression remitted. Endpoints were improvement in sexual functioning as per the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX and the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Function Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ. Results. 45 of 57 consented females were randomized, and 42 (30 premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal women were eligible for a modified intent-to-treat analysis based on having had at least one postmedication visit. Remission rates by the end of treatment were higher for the maca than the placebo group, based on attainment of an ASEX total score ≤ 10 (9.5% for maca versus 4.8% for placebo, attaining an MGH-SFQ score ≤ 12 (30.0% for maca versus 20.0% for placebo and reaching an MGH-SFQ score ≤ 8 (9.5% for maca versus 5.0% for placebo. Higher remission rates for the maca versus placebo group were associated with postmenopausal status. Maca was well tolerated. Conclusion. Maca root may alleviate SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. This trial is registered with NCT00568126.

  2. Ataluren in patients with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (ACT DMD): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Craig M; Campbell, Craig; Torricelli, Ricardo Erazo; Finkel, Richard S; Flanigan, Kevin M; Goemans, Nathalie; Heydemann, Peter; Kaminska, Anna; Kirschner, Janbernd; Muntoni, Francesco; Osorio, Andrés Nascimento; Schara, Ulrike; Sejersen, Thomas; Shieh, Perry B; Sweeney, H Lee; Topaloglu, Haluk; Tulinius, Már; Vilchez, Juan J; Voit, Thomas; Wong, Brenda; Elfring, Gary; Kroger, Hans; Luo, Xiaohui; McIntosh, Joseph; Ong, Tuyen; Riebling, Peter; Souza, Marcio; Spiegel, Robert J; Peltz, Stuart W; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2017-09-23

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe, progressive, and rare neuromuscular, X-linked recessive disease. Dystrophin deficiency is the underlying cause of disease; therefore, mutation-specific therapies aimed at restoring dystrophin protein production are being explored. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of ataluren in ambulatory boys with nonsense mutation DMD. We did this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial at 54 sites in 18 countries located in North America, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, and Latin America. Boys aged 7-16 years with nonsense mutation DMD and a baseline 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) of 150 m or more and 80% or less of the predicted normal value for age and height were randomly assigned (1:1), via permuted block randomisation (block size of four) using an interactive voice-response or web-response system, to receive ataluren orally three times daily (40 mg/kg per day) or matching placebo. Randomisation was stratified by age (DMD trials with the 6-minute walk test as the endpoint. PTC Therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a multi-strain probiotic in treatment of symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasnovsky, Charlotte L; Bjarnason, Ingvar; Donaldson, Ana Nora; Sherwood, Roy A; Papagrigoriadis, Savvas

    2017-05-20

    Diverticular disease is a significant burden on healthcare systems that is managed, surgically or medically, mainly as an emergency or acute condition. There are no standardized treatment recommendations for symptomatic uncomplicated disease. We hypothesized that a probiotic would reduce abdominal pain in such patients. We conducted a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of probiotic treatment (Symprove) in adult patients with moderate-to-severe chronic, non-acute symptomatic diverticular disease. 143 patients were randomized to receive 1 mL/kg/day of probiotic liquid (N = 72) or placebo (N = 71) daily for 3 months. The primary endpoint was abdominal pain severity. Secondary endpoints consisted of the change in the frequency of eight abdominal symptoms and the level of intestinal inflammation (fecal calprotectin). 120 patients completed the trial. Abdominal pain score, the primary end point, decreased in both groups, but no significant difference between the groups was found (P = 0.11). In relation to placebo, the probiotic significantly decreased the frequency of four of the eight secondary endpoints: constipation, diarrhea, mucorrhea, and back pain (P diverticular disease.

  4. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for the Management of Functional Abdominal Pain in Childhood: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Zvi; Abu-Abed, Jaber; Binsztok, Mauricio

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether administration of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 is beneficial in functional abdominal pain (FAP) of childhood. A total of 101 children, aged 6-15 years, who fulfilled the Rome III criteria for FAP were enrolled in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and were randomly assigned to receive either L reuteri DSM 17938 or placebo for 4 weeks, with further follow-up of additional 4 weeks. Response to therapy was based on a self-reported daily questionnaire monitoring frequency and intensity of abdominal pain, using the faces scoring system by Hicks. L reuteri (n = 47) was significantly superior to placebo (n = 46) in relieving frequency (1.9 ± 0.8 vs 3.6 ± 1.7 episodes/wk, P L reuteri. L reuteri DSM 17938, compared with placebo, significantly reduced the frequency and intensity of FAP in children. ClicalTrials.gov: NCT01180556. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of buccal misoprostol to reduce the need for additional uterotonic drugs during cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Castro, Flavio; López-Serna, Norberto; Treviño-Salinas, Emilio M; Soria-López, Juan A; Sordia-Hernández, Luis H; Cárdenas-Estrada, Eloy

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether buccal misoprostol during cesarean delivery in conjunction with active management of the third stage of labor reduces the need for additional uterotonic drugs. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed in Monterrey, Mexico, between February 2008 and December 2013. Eligible women had risk factors for uterine atony and were to undergo cesarean delivery under epidural block. Using a computer-generated sequence and blocks of six, patients were randomly assigned to receive 400μg misoprostol or 800μg placebo buccally after cord clamping. Both groups received an intravenous oxytocin infusion. The primary outcome was the need for additional uterotonic drugs. Analyses were performed per protocol. Patients, investigators, and data analysts were masked to group assignment. A total of 120 women were included in analyses (60 in each group). At least one additional uterotonic drug was required in 24 (40%) women in the placebo group versus 6 (10%) women in the misoprostol group (relative risk 0.16; 95% confidence interval 0.06-0.44). No adverse effects due to misoprostol were recorded. Buccal misoprostol during cesarean delivery reduced the need for additional uterotonic drugs to treat uterine atony. ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01733329. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ivabradine for patients with stable coronary artery disease and left-ventricular systolic dysfunction (BEAUTIFUL): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Kim; Ford, Ian; Steg, P Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    of cardiovascular death, admission to hospital for acute myocardial infarction, and admission to hospital for new onset or worsening heart failure. We analysed patients by intention to treat. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00143507. FINDINGS: Mean heart rate at baseline was 71.6 (SD 9......, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. 5479 patients received 5 mg ivabradine, with the intention of increasing to the target dose of 7.5 mg twice a day, and 5438 received matched placebo in addition to appropriate cardiovascular medication. The primary endpoint was a composite...... the primary composite outcome (hazard ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.81-1.04, p=0.17), cardiovascular death, or admission to hospital for new-onset or worsening heart failure. However, it did reduce secondary endpoints: admission to hospital for fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction (0.64, 95% CI 0.49-0.84, p=0...

  7. The effect of magnesium supplementation on primary insomnia in elderly: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnood Abbasi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nearly 50% of older adults have insomnia, with difficulty in getting to sleep, early awakening, or feeling unrefreshed on waking. With aging, several changes occur that can place one at risk for insomnia, including age-related changes in various circadian rhythms, environmental and lifestyle changes, and decreased nutrients intake, absorption, retention, and utilization. The natural N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA antagonist and GABA agonist, Mg 2+ , seems to play a key role in the regulation of sleep. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of magnesium supplementation to improve insomnia in elderly. Materials and Methods: A double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted in 46 elderly subjects, randomly allocated into the magnesium or the placebo group and received 500 mg magnesium or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Questionnaires of insomnia severity index (ISI, physical activity, and sleep log were completed at baseline and after the intervention period. Anthropometric confounding factors, daily intake of magnesium, calcium, potassium, caffeine, calories form carbohydrates, and total calorie intake, were obtained using 24-h recall for 3 days. Blood samples were taken at baseline and after the intervention period for analysis of serum magnesium, renin, melatonin, and cortisol. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 19 and P values < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: No significant differences were observed in assessed variables between the two groups at the baseline. As compared to the placebo group, in the experimental group, dietary magnesium supplementation brought about statistically significant increases in sleep time ( P = 0.002, sleep efficiency ( P = 0.03, concentration of serum renin ( P < 0.001, and melatonin ( P = 0.007, and also resulted in significant decrease of ISI score ( P = 0.006, sleep onset latency ( P = 0.02 and serum cortisol concentration ( P = 0

  8. Effect of Chongkukjang on histamine-induced skin wheal response: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyang-Im Baek

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Oral administration of CKJ for 12 weeks resulted in a reduction of the skin wheal response to histamine, with no apparent adverse effects. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01402141.

  9. Is there an effect of intranasal insulin on development and behaviour in Phelan-McDermid syndrome? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanenburg, Renée J; Bocca, Gianni; Ruiter, Selma A J; Dillingh, Jan H; Flapper, Boudien C T; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M A

    2016-12-01

    Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) or 22q13.3 deletion syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder with at least 60 children and 35 adults diagnosed in the Netherlands. Clinical features are moderate to severe intellectual disability and behavioural problems in the autism spectrum. Other researchers had observed a beneficial effect of intranasal insulin on development and behaviour in a pilot study in six children with PMS. To validate this effect, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a stepped-wedge design. From March 2013 to June 2015, 25 children aged 1-16 years with a molecularly confirmed 22q13.3 deletion including the SHANK3 gene participated in the clinical trial for a period of 18 months. Starting 6 months before the trial, children were systematically assessed for cognitive, language and motor development and for adaptive, social and emotional behaviour every 6 months. The second, third and fourth assessments were followed by daily nose sprays containing either intranasal insulin or intranasal placebo for a 6-month period. A fifth assessment was done directly after the end of the trial. Intranasal insulin did not cause serious adverse events. It increased the level of developmental functioning by 0.4-1.4 months per 6-month period, but the effect was not statistically significant in this small group. We found a stronger effect of intranasal insulin, being significant for cognition and social skills, for children older than 3 years, who usually show a decrease of developmental growth. However, clinical trials in larger study populations are required to prove the therapeutic effect of intranasal insulin in PMS.

  10. A human model of inflammatory cardio-metabolic dysfunction; a double blind placebo-controlled crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Nehal N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammation may contribute to insulin resistance (IR, metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis although evidence of causality is lacking in humans. We hypothesized that very low-dose experimental endotoxemia would induce adipose tissue inflammation and systemic IR during a low-grade but asymptomatic inflammatory response and thus provide an experimental model for future tests of pharmacologic and genomic modulation of cardio-metabolic traits in humans. Methods Ten healthy, human volunteers (50% male, 90% Caucasian, mean age 22.7 ± 3.8 were randomized in a double-masked, placebo-controlled, crossover study to separate 36-hour inpatient visits (placebo versus intravenous-LPS 0.6 ng/kg. We measured clinical symptoms via the McGill pain questionnaire and serial vital signs. Plasma and serum were collected for measurement of cytokines, C-reactive protein, insulin and glucose, serial whole blood & subcutaneous adipose tissue mRNA expression were measured by real-time PCR. HOMA-IR, a well-validated measure of IR was calculated to estimate insulin resistance, and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing (FSIGTT was performed to confirm an insulin resistant state. We performed ANOVA and within subject ANOVA to understand the differences in cytokines, adipose tissue inflammation and IR before and after LPS or placebo. Results There was no significant difference between placebo and LPS in clinical responses of symptom scores, body temperature or heart rate. However, low-dose endotoxemia induced a rapid and transient 25-fold induction of plasma TNF-alpha and 100-fold increase in plasma IL-6 (Figure 1B (p p p = 0.01 increased with MCP-1 (peak 10-fold, F = 5.6, p p p p  Conclusions We present a low dose human endotoxemia model of inflammation which induces adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance in the absence of overt clinical response. Such a model has the potential

  11. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of adalimumab in the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I; Lynggaard, C D; Lophaven, S

    2011-01-01

    the outcomes were blinded to group assignment. The primary efficacy endpoints were changes in the HS scores (Sartorius and Hurley scoring systems). Secondary efficacy endpoints included changes in pain (visual analogue scale), days with lesions and Dermatology Life Quality Index, and evaluation of scarring......BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) has an impact on patients' quality of life. Treatment of HS is generally unsatisfactory, thus new treatments are needed. OBJECTIVES: To test the efficacy of adalimumab in HS. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo...... subcutaneously (s.c.) at baseline followed by 40 mg s.c. every other week for 12 weeks. Placebo-treated patients received identical-looking injections with no active ingredient. The medicine was dispensed in sequentially numbered computer-randomized containers. Participants, care givers and those assessing...

  12. Small Amounts of Gluten in Subjects With Suspected Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sabatino, Antonio; Volta, Umberto; Salvatore, Chiara; Biancheri, Paolo; Caio, Giacomo; De Giorgio, Roberto; Di Stefano, Michele; Corazza, Gino R

    2015-09-01

    There is debate over the existence of nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms in response to ingestion of gluten-containing foods by people without celiac disease or wheat allergy. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial to determine the effects of administration of low doses of gluten to subjects with suspected NCGS. We enrolled 61 adults without celiac disease or a wheat allergy who believed ingestion of gluten-containing food to be the cause of their intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms. Participants were assigned randomly to groups given either 4.375 g/day gluten or rice starch (placebo) for 1 week, each via gastrosoluble capsules. After a 1-week gluten-free diet, participants crossed over to the other group. The primary outcome was the change in overall (intestinal and extraintestinal) symptoms, determined by established scoring systems, between gluten and placebo intake. A secondary outcome was the change in individual symptom scores between gluten vs placebo. According to the per-protocol analysis of data from the 59 patients who completed the trial, intake of gluten significantly increased overall symptoms compared with placebo (P = .034). Abdominal bloating (P = .040) and pain (P = .047), among the intestinal symptoms, and foggy mind (P = .019), depression (P = .020), and aphthous stomatitis (P = .025), among the extraintestinal symptoms, were significantly more severe when subjects received gluten than placebo. In a cross-over trial of subjects with suspected NCGS, the severity of overall symptoms increased significantly during 1 week of intake of small amounts of gluten, compared with placebo. Clinical trial no: ISRCTN72857280. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The efficacy of Shugan Jianpi Zhixie therapy for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Xiao

    Full Text Available Shugan Jianpi Zhixie therapy (SJZT has been widely used to treat diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D, but the results are still controversial. A meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials was performed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of SJZT for IBS-D.The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database and the Wanfang database were searched up to June 2014 with no language restrictions. Summary estimates, including 95% confidence intervals (CI, were calculated for global symptom improvement, abdominal pain improvement, and Symptom Severity Scale (BSS score.Seven trials (N=954 were included. The overall risk of bias assessment was low. SJZT showed significant improvement for global symptom compared to placebo (RR 1.61; 95% CI 1.24, 2.10; P =0.0004; therapeutic gain = 33.0%; number needed to treat (NNT = 3.0. SJZT was significantly more likely to reduce overall BSS score (SMD -0.67; 95% CI -0.94, -0.40; P < 0.00001 and improve abdominal pain (RR 4.34; 95% CI 2.64, 7.14; P < 0.00001 than placebo. The adverse events of SJZT were no different from those of placebo.This meta-analysis suggests that SJZT is an effective and safe therapy option for patients with IBS-D. However, due to the high clinical heterogeneity and small sample size of the included trials, further standardized preparation, large-scale and rigorously designed trials are needed.

  14. Effect of Methylphenidate and Folic Acid on ADHD Symptoms and Quality of Life and Aggression: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available bjective: This clinical trial examines the effect of augmentation of methylphenidate (MPH with folic acid to improve quality of life, and to treat aggression and ADHD symptoms .Method:Participants of this eight week randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial were 49 children with ADHD. They were randomly assigned into one of the two groups: the first group receiving methylphenidate (10 to 20mg/day plus folic (5mg/day, and the second group receiving methylphenidate plus placebo. Parent-reported ADHD symptoms and Overt Aggression Scale score were the outcome measures. Quality of life was assessed as well. Assessments were performed at pre-intervention, and at one month and two months after starting the interventions using repeated measure analysis Results:The mean age of children was 9.6(2.7 years. Age and gender were not associated with the groups. ADHD symptoms significantly decreased in both groups during the trial. However, no difference was observed between the groups. Moreover, aggression non-significantly decreased in both groups. Meanwhile, there was no difference between the two groups in efficacy for treating different types of aggressive behaviors including: verbal aggression, physical aggression against people, physical aggression against properties or objects, and aggression against self (self-injurious behavior. While methylphenidate improved quality of life of children with ADHD, folic acid did not improve it more than placebo. Both medications were well tolerated.Conclusion:considering the marked limitations of this trial, this primarily report suggests that methylphenidate may improve ADHD symptoms and the quality of life of children with ADHD. Current evidence does not support that folic acid as an adjuvant is effective for treating ADHD symptoms or aggression, or the improving quality of life of children with ADHD.

  15. Bupropion for the treatment of apathy in Huntington’s disease: A multicenter, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective crossover trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderblom, Harald; Wüstenberg, Torsten; McLean, Tim; Mütze, Lisanne; Fischer, Wilhelm; Saft, Carsten; Hoffmann, Rainer; Süssmuth, Sigurd; Schlattmann, Peter; van Duijn, Erik; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Priller, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bupropion in the treatment of apathy in Huntington’s disease (HD). Methods In this phase 2b multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, individuals with HD and clinical signs of apathy according to the Structured Clinical Interview for Apathy—Dementia (SCIA-D), but not depression (n = 40) were randomized to receive either bupropion 150/300mg or placebo daily for 10 weeks. The primary outcome parameter was a significant change of the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) score after ten weeks of treatment as judged by an informant (AES-I) living in close proximity with the study participant. The secondary outcome parameters included changes of 1. AES scores determined by the patient (AES-S) or the clinical investigator (AES-C), 2. psychiatric symptoms (NPI, HADS-SIS, UHDRS-Behavior), 3. cognitive performance (SDMT, Stroop, VFT, MMSE), 4. motor symptoms (UHDRS-Motor), 5. activities of daily function (TFC, UHDRS-Function), and 6. caregiver distress (NPI-D). In addition, we investigated the effect of bupropion on brain structure as well as brain responses and functional connectivity during reward processing in a gambling task using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results At baseline, there were no significant treatment group differences in the clinical primary and secondary outcome parameters. At endpoint, there was no statistically significant difference between treatment groups for all clinical primary and secondary outcome variables. Study participation, irrespective of the intervention, lessened symptoms of apathy according to the informant and the clinical investigator. Conclusion Bupropion does not alleviate apathy in HD. However, study participation/placebo effects were observed, which document the need for carefully controlled trials when investigating therapeutic interventions for the neuropsychiatric symptoms of HD. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov 01914965 PMID:28323838

  16. The effect of Ginkgo biloba on functional outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskouei, Darioush Savadi; Rikhtegar, Reza; Hashemilar, Mazyar; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Sharifi-Bonab, Mohsen; Sadeghi-Hokmabadi, Elyar; Zarrintan, Sina; Sharifipour, Ehsan

    2013-11-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is a major cerebrovascular disease with potential morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of thrombolytic therapy in some centers, risk factor modification and rehabilitation therapy are the mainstays of stroke management. There is supporting evidence that Ginkgo biloba may afford neuroprotection and improve the outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial, we assessed the efficacy of G biloba on functional outcome in patients with acute stroke. The National Institutes of Heath Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was used to measure functional outcome. A total of 102 patients with acute ischemic stroke were studied. All patients received either G biloba or placebo tablets for 4 months. This trial was registered to the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (www.irct.ir; trial IRCT138804212150N1). There were 52 patients who received G biloba and 50 patients who were in the placebo group. Age, sex distribution, previous medical condition, and laboratory data did not have any significant difference between the 2 groups (P>.05). The mean difference of 4-month follow-up NIHSS scores and NIHSS scores at admission was 4.7±2.7 and 4.1±3.0 in the G biloba and placebo groups, respectively (P>.05). The primary outcome-a 50% reduction in the 4-month follow-up NIHSS score compared to the baseline NIHSS score-was reached in 17 patients (58.6%) and 5 patients (18.5%) in the G biloba and placebo groups, respectively (Pbiloba group compared to the placebo group (Pbiloba may have protective effects in ischemic stroke. Therefore, the administration of G biloba is recommended after acute ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy for allergic asthma: retrospective meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lianqin; Shi, Baoyu; Shi, Guochao; Wan, Huanying

    2014-04-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only available curative choice with a disease-modifying effect against respiratory allergies. The efficacy of SIT via the sublingual route was demonstrated by a number of clinical trials. This meta-analysis was performed to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of sublingual-specific immunotherapy (SLIT) for allergic asthma. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled (DBPC) trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of SLIT on allergic asthma. Subgroup analyses were performed according to age, type of allergen and duration of SLIT treatment. Sixteen randomized DBPC trials comprising 794 patients in total met the inclusion criteria. The results suggest that SLIT significantly reduces both symptom [standardized mean difference (SMD), -0.74; P=0.006] and medication scores (SMD, -0.78; P=0.02) compared with placebo. SLIT offers a better clinical response in mite sensitive asthmatics but without confirmed proof from subgroup analyses. Prolonged duration of treatment for more than 12 months brings no additive effects. Improvement in the skin prick test was also observed following immunotherapy. There was no consistent effect on forced expiratory volume in 1 s, serum levels of antigen-specific immunoglobulin G4 and immunoglobulin E in the treated group. The risk of adverse effects was relative risk 2.23 (P=0.01). SLIT is safe and clinically effective in reducing symptoms and medication use for allergic asthma. Our subgroup analyses failed to identify a disproportionate benefit of SLIT in any specific group of asthmatics, but some possible trends did emerge. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effect of the serotonin receptor agonist, buspirone, on immune function in HIV-infected individuals: a six-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Benfield, T; Axen, T E

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that agents modulating the cAMP/PKA pathway have a beneficial effect on immune reconstitution in HIV-infected individuals. Here we evaluate the effect of buspirone on immune function as measured by CD4 and CD8 T-cell counts, CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio, HIV viral load......, and response to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) in antiretroviral naive HIV-1-infected individuals. METHOD: Twenty-three HIV-infected patients with CD4 T-cell counts above 300 per microL were enrolled in a 6-month double-blinded placebo controlled trial. No patients received antiretroviral therapy during the study...... to placebo-treated patients was observed. There were no significant differences in CD4 T-cell counts, HIV viral load, or proliferative response to PWM between those receiving placebo and those receiving buspirone. CONCLUSION: Buspirone treatment leads to significant changes in CD8 T-cell count and in CD4/CD8...

  19. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral pregabalin for relief of shoulder pain after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutthachote, Pattiya; Sirayapiwat, Porntip; Wisawasukmongchol, Wirach; Charuluxananan, Somrat

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of pregabalin for the relief of postoperative shoulder pain after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Canadian Task Force classification I). Tertiary referral center, university hospital. Fifty-six women undergoing elective laparoscopic gynecologic surgery between June 2012 and March 2013. Women in the study group received 75 mg pregabalin 2 hours before surgery and then every 12 hours for 2 doses, and women in the control group received an identical capsule and the same dosage of placebo. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores for shoulder pain and surgical pain at 24 and 48 hours after surgery were evaluated as primary outcome. Postoperative analgesics used and drug-related adverse events were also monitored. Patients in the pregabalin group had significantly lower postoperative VAS scores for shoulder pain at 24 hours, compared with the placebo group (median, 23.14 [range, 13.67-32.61] vs. 37.22 [27.75-46.64]; p = .04), and required less analgesic (p = .01). There were no significant differences in VAS scores for surgical pain and adverse events between the 2 groups (p = .56). Perioperative administration of 75 mg pregabalin significantly reduced postoperative laparoscopic shoulder pain and amount of analgesic used. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Orlistat in clozapine- or olanzapine-treated patients with overweight or obesity: a 16-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Grigori; Takala, Pirjo; Tchoukhine, Evgueni; Hakko, Helinä; Raidma, Mirjam; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2008-05-01

    Undesirable metabolic effects of modern antipsychotics, especially clozapine and olanzapine, merit development of new weight-control strategies, including pharmacologic ones. We investigated the feasibility of treatment with orlistat, a weight-control drug with no central effects, for overweight/obesity in clozapine- or olanzapine-treated male and female patients. Add-on orlistat was prescribed for 16 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to patients who were receiving stable clozapine or olanzapine medication and were aged 18 to 65 years, with no compliance with nonpharmacologic programs or hypocaloric diet required. The primary efficacy variable was body weight change. The study was conducted from 2004 through 2005. Of 71 randomly assigned subjects, 63 were eligible for modified intent-to-treat analysis. While no statistically significant effect was observed in the whole population, male (but not female) patients benefited from treatment with orlistat (-2.36 kg vs. 0.62 kg on placebo, p = .011). There were 5 responders (16.1%) (those with >or= 5% weight loss) that received orlistat versus 2 responders (6.3%) that received placebo (number needed to treat = 11), but the difference was not statistically significant. Without a hypocaloric diet, the effect of orlistat in overweight/obese clozapine-or olanzapine-treated patients is modest and may only be seen in men. More studies should define the optimal length of treatment and feasibility of combination of orlistat with behavioral programs in this population.

  1. Improved glycemic control in patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus taking Urtica dioica leaf extract: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianbakht, Saeed; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Dabaghian, Fataneh Hashem

    2013-01-01

    Advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) needing insulin therapy is common. Most conventional anti-hyperglycemic drugs have limited efficacies and significant side effects, so that better anti-hyperglycemic agents are needed. Urtica dioica L. (nettle) leaves have insulin secretagogue, PPARgamma agonistic, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Moreover, nettle leaves are used in traditional medicine as an anti-hyperglycemic agent to treat diabetes mellitus. Thus, efficacy and safety of nettle in the treatment of patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus needing insulin were studied. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the effects of taking nettle leaf extract (one 500 mg capsule every 8 hours for 3 months) combined with the conventional oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs on the blood levels of fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), creatinine and liver enzymes SGOT and SGPT, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures in 46 patients and compared with the placebo group (n = 46). At the endpoint, the extract lowered the blood levels of fasting glucose, 2 hours postprandial glucose, and HbA1c significantly (p 0.05) compared with placebo. Nettle may safely improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients needing insulin therapy.

  2. Self-esteem, confidence, and relationships in men treated with sildenafil citrate for erectile dysfunction: results of two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althof, Stanley E; O' Leary, Michael P; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Glina, Sidney; King, Rosie; Tseng, Li-Jung; Bowler, Jessica L

    2006-10-01

    Men with erectile dysfunction (ED) often have low self-esteem, confidence, and sexual relationship satisfaction. We evaluated the impact of sildenafil citrate and its generalizability across cultures on self-esteem, confidence, and sexual relationship satisfaction in men with ED using the Self-Esteem And Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire. Pooled analysis of 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose trials of sildenafil with identical protocols: 1 was conducted in the United States and the other in Mexico, Brazil, Australia, and Japan. Men > or = 18 years old with ED. The impact of treatment on psychosocial factors associated with ED was determined by patient responses to the SEAR questionnaire. Erectile function was determined using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and a global efficacy question. Successful sexual intercourse attempts were derived from event logs of sexual activity. Treatment effect sizes were calculated for all study outcomes. Compared with patients who received placebo (n = 274), patients who received sildenafil (n = 279) reported significantly greater improvements (P self-esteem, confidence, sexual relationship satisfaction, and in all sexual function domains of the IIEF. Treatment effect sizes were large (range, 0.7 to 1.2) for all SEAR components, and improvement in psychosocial measures showed moderate to high correlations (range, 0.50 to 0.83, P self-esteem, confidence, and sexual relationship satisfaction. Improvements in these psychosocial factors were observed crossculturally and correlated significantly and tangibly with improvements in erectile function.

  3. Preemptive Analgesic Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on Postoperative Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidy, Mohammad; Fazel, Mohammad Reza; Janzamini, Monir; Haji Rezaei, Mostafa; Moravveji, Ali Reza

    2016-04-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological analgesic method used to control different types of pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of preoperative TENS on post inguinal hernia repair pain. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 66 male patients with unilateral inguinal hernias who were admitted to the Shahid Beheshti hospital in Kashan, Iran, from April to October 2014. Participants were selected using a convenience sampling method and were assigned to intervention (n = 33) and control (n = 33) groups using permuted-block randomization. Patients in the intervention group were treated with TENS 1 hour before surgery, while the placebo was administered to patients in the control group. All of the patients underwent inguinal hernia repair by the Lichtenstein method, and pain intensity was evaluated at 2, 4, 6, and 12 hours after surgery using a visual analogue scale. Additionally, the amounts of analgesic administered by pump were calculated and compared between the two groups. The mean estimated postoperative pain intensity was 6.21 ± 1.63 in the intervention group and 5.45 ± 1.82 in the control group (P = 0.08). In the intervention group pain intensity at 2 and 4 hours after surgery were 3.54 ± 1.48 and 5.12 ± 1.41 (P TENS can reduce postoperative pain in the early hours after inguinal hernia repair surgery.

  4. Light rhythmic exercise with dietary milk fat globule membrane improves physical fitness in an elderly Japanese population: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaka, Yasuko; Soga, Satoko; Ota, Noriyasu; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Kimura, Misaka

    2018-01-03

    This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of home-based, light gymnastic exercise plus dietary milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) intake on physical fitness of an elderly Japanese sample in a pilot, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Seventy-one subjects (male, n = 13; female, n = 58) were randomly assigned into two groups: placebo (n = 35 [male, n = 6; female, n = 29]) and MFGM group (n = 36 [male, n = 7; female, n = 29]). The intervention was eight weeks. Subjects ingested either MFGM (1 g/day) or placebo tablets daily and engaged in an exercise program daily. Physical function tests were performed at baseline and after four and eight weeks. Foot tapping and open-close stepping scores significantly increased from baseline to eight weeks in the MFGM group. Study results suggest daily MFGM ingestion might further enhance the effects of light-intensity exercise in healthy elderly people.

  5. [Oral N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Marcelo José Uchoa; Mariz, Henrique Ataíde; Andrade, Luís Eduardo Coelho; Kayser, Cristiane

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) orally on digital microcirculation blood flow in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) secondary to systemic sclerosis (SSc). This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which 42 patients with SSc received oral NAC at a dose of 600mg tid (21 patients, mean age 45.6±9.5 years) or placebo (21 patients, mean age 45.0±12.7 years) for four weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in cutaneous microcirculation blood flow before and after cold stimulation measured by laser Doppler imaging (LDI) at weeks 0 and 4. The frequency and severity of RP and the number of digital ulcers were also measured at weeks 0 and 4. The adverse events were recorded in the fourth week. There was no significant change in digital blood flow assessed by LDI before or after cold stimulus after four weeks of NAC or placebo. Both groups showed significant improvement in the frequency and severity of RP attacks, with no difference between the two groups. At the end of the study, the placebo group had three digital ulcers, while the NAC group showed no ulcers. NAC was well tolerated and no patient discontinued the treatment. NAC orally at a dose of 1800mg/day showed no vasodilator effect on hands' microcirculation after four weeks of treatment in patients with RP secondary to SSc. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Lidocaine 5% Patch for Treatment of Acute Pain After Robotic Cardiac Surgery and Prevention of Persistent Incisional Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrooman, Bruce; Kapural, Leonardo; Sarwar, Sheryar; Mascha, Edward J; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Gillinov, Marc; Qavi, Shahbaz; Sessler, Daniel I

    2015-08-01

    To test the hypotheses that lidocaine 5% patches decrease the severity of acute pain and incidence of persistent incisional pain after robotic cardiac valve surgery. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Tertiary care academic medical center. Patients having robotic cardiac valve surgery. Patients having robotic cardiac valve surgery were randomly assigned to 5% lidocaine patches or identical-appearing placebo patches. Patches were applied around each incision 12 hours/day until pain resolved, or for 6 months. Supplemental opioid was provided by patient-controlled analgesia or orally. Pain was initially evaluated with a Visual Analog Scale, and subsequently by telephone with a Verbal Response Scale and the Pain Disability Index (our primary outcome) after 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Global Perceived Effect, a measure of patient satisfaction, was simultaneously recorded. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and generalized estimating equations were our primary statistical tools. Acute pain scores and opioid use were low, as was the incidence of persistent pain. Lidocaine 5% patches did not influence any measure of acute or persistent incisional pain. Estimated difference (95% CI) in mean Pain Disability Index for Lidocaine patch minus placebo was -2.5 (95% CI -7.1, 2.1), P = 0.28. Lidocaine 5% patches did not reduce acute or persistent pain in patients having robotic thoracic surgery, though pain scores were low in both treatment groups. Clinicians should choose alternative analgesic approaches in these patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Adjunctive sarcosine plus benzoate improved cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia patients with constant clinical symptoms: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yuan; Liang, Sun-Yuan; Chang, Yue-Cune; Ting, Shuo-Yen; Kao, Ching-Ling; Wu, Yu-Hsin; Tsai, Guochuan E; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Hypofunction of NMDA receptor is implicated in the pathophysiology, particularly cognitive impairment, of schizophrenia. Sarcosine, a glycine transporter I (GlyT-1) inhibitor, and sodium benzoate, a d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) inhibitor, can both enhance NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission. We proposed simultaneously inhibiting DAAO and GlyT-1 may be more effective than inhibition of either in improving the cognitive and global functioning of schizophrenia patients. Methods This study compared add-on sarcosine (2 g/day) plus benzoate (1 g/day) vs. sarcosine (2 g/day) for the clinical symptoms, as well as the cognitive and global functioning, of chronic schizophrenia patients in a 12-week, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale every 3 weeks. Seven cognitive domains, recommended by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Committee, were measured at weeks 0 and 12. Results Adjunctive sarcosine plus benzoate, but not sarcosine alone, improved the cognitive and global functioning of patients with schizophrenia, even when their clinical symptoms had not improved. Conclusions This finding suggests N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-enhancement therapy can improve the cognitive function of patients with schizophrenia, further indicating this pro-cognitive effect can be primary without improvement in clinical symptoms.

  8. Double-Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial Demonstrating Serum Cholesterol Lowering Efficacy of a Smoothie Drink with Added Plant Stanol Esters in an Indonesian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanny Lestiani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesians have a high intake of saturated fats, a key contributing dietary factor to elevated blood cholesterol concentrations. We investigated the cholesterol lowering efficacy of a smoothie drink with 2 grams of plant stanols as esters to lower serum total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolemic Indonesian adults. The double-blind randomized placebo controlled parallel design study involved 99 subjects. Fifty subjects received control drink and dietary advice, and 49 subjects received intervention drink (Nutrive Benecol® and dietary advice. Baseline, midline (week 2, and endline (week 4 assessments were undertaken for clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical variables. Compared to control, the smoothie drink with plant stanols reduced serum LDL-cholesterol concentration by 7.6% (p<0.05 and 9.0% (p<0.05 in two and four weeks, respectively. Serum total cholesterol was reduced by 5.7% (p<0.05 compared to control in two weeks, and no further reduction was detected after four weeks (5.6%. Compared to baseline habitual diet, LDL-cholesterol was reduced by 9.3% (p<0.05 and 9.8% (p<0.05 in the plant stanol ester group in two and four weeks, respectively. We conclude that consumption of smoothie drink with added plant stanol esters effectively reduces serum total and LDL-cholesterol of hypercholesterolemic Indonesian subjects already in two weeks. Trial is registered as NCT02316808.

  9. Dietary milk fat globule membrane supplementation combined with regular exercise improves skeletal muscle strength in healthy adults: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Satoko; Ota, Noriyasu; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-08-25

    Our previous studies demonstrated that dietary supplementation with milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) combined with habitual exercise improved muscle strength by stimulating neuromuscular development in mice. This study aimed to demonstrate the beneficial effects of dietary MFGM supplementation plus regular exercise on muscle strength and neuromuscular function in healthy humans. The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Fourteen Japanese adults aged 31-48 years took daily MFGM (1 g) or placebo tablets during the 4-week study period and attended a training program twice a week. Physical function tests and surface electromyography (EMG) were conducted at baseline and at the end of the study period. The MFGM group had significantly greater leg extension strength than the placebo group after the 4-week study period. Surface EMG showed that the MFGM group had a significantly higher root mean square amplitude than the placebo group, which indicated that the MFGM group had higher motor unit activity. Dietary MFGM supplementation combined with regular exercise improves skeletal muscle strength, which may be due to increased motor unit recruitment in healthy Japanese middle-aged adults.

  10. Lack of an effect of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in preventing nosocomial diarrhea in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Monika; Szajewska, Hania

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of administering Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for the prevention of nosocomial diarrhea. Children (n = 106; aged 1-48 months) admitted to the hospital for reasons other than diarrhea were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. They received L reuteri DSM 17938 at a dose of 10(8) colony-forming units (n = 54) or a placebo (n = 52) orally, once daily, for the duration of the hospital stay. Data from all children were included in the final analysis. L reuteri DSM 17938 did not significantly affect the risk of developing nosocomial diarrhea, defined as 3 loose or watery stools per day in a 24-hour period that occurred >72 hours after admission (risk ratio 1.06, 95% CI 0.7-1.5) or rotavirus infection (1.04, 0.6-1.6). There was also no difference between the probiotic and placebo groups for any of the other secondary outcomes (ie, incidence of rotavirus infection, incidence of diarrhea, duration of diarrhea, incidence of recurrent diarrhea, incidence of chronic diarrhea, length of hospital stay in days, and frequency of need for rehydration). No adverse events were reported. In hospitalized children, the administration of L reuteri DSM 17938 compared with placebo had no effect on the overall incidence of nosocomial diarrhea, including rotavirus infection. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of the analgesic efficacy of oral ketorolac versus intramuscular tramadol after third molar surgery: A parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiordia-Espinoza, M-A; Pozos-Guillen, A; Martinez-Rider, R; Perez-Urizar, J

    2016-09-01

    Preemptive analgesia is considered an alternative for treating the postsurgical pain of third molar removal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preemptive analgesic efficacy of oral ketorolac versus intramuscular tramadol after a mandibular third molar surgery. A parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out. Thirty patients were randomized into two treatment groups using a series of random numbers: Group A, oral ketorolac 10 mg plus intramuscular placebo (1 mL saline solution); or Group B, oral placebo (similar tablet to oral ketorolac) plus intramuscular tramadol 50 mg diluted in 1 mL saline solution. These treatments were given 30 min before the surgery. We evaluated the time of first analgesic rescue medication, pain intensity, total analgesic consumption and adverse effects. Patients taking oral ketorolac had longer time of analgesic covering and less postoperative pain when compared with patients receiving intramuscular tramadol. According to the VAS and UAC results, this study suggests that 10 mg of oral ketorolac had superior analgesic effect than 50 mg of tramadol when administered before a mandibular third molar surgery.

  12. Beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation: enhancement of Natural Killer cell activity and early inflammatory response (Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that Chlorella is a potent biological response modifier on immunity. However, there were no direct evidences for the effect of Chlorella supplementation on immune/inflammation response in healthy humans. Methods This study was designed for an 8-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial: 5g of Chlorella (n=23) or Placebo (n=28) as form of tablets. Mainly, cytotoxic activities of Natural killer (NK) cells and serum concentrations of interferon-γ, interleukin-1β and interleukin-12 were measured. Results After the 8-week, serum concentrations of interferon-γ (pChlorella group. The increments of these cytokines after the intervention were significantly bigger in the Chlorella group than those in the placebo group. In addition, NK cell activities (%) were significantly increased in Chlorella group, but not in Placebo group. The increments of NK cell activities (%) were also significantly bigger in the Chlorella group than the placebo group. Additionally, changed levels of NK cell activity were positively correlated with those of serum interleukin-1β (r=0.280, p=0.047) and interferon-γ (r=0.271, pChlorella supplementation which enhances the NK cell activity and produces interferon-γ and interleukin-12 as well as interleukin-1β, the Th-1 cell-induced cytokines in healthy people. PMID:22849818

  13. Does lipoic acid consumption affect the cytokine profile in multiple sclerosis patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Mohammad; Azimi, Amirreza; Izadi, Vajihe; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Mirshafiey, Abbas; Sahraian, Mohamad Ali; Motevalian, Abbas; Norouzi, Abbas; Sanoobar, Meisam; Eskandari, Ghazaleh; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Amani, Firouz

    2014-01-01

    A limited amount of data exists regarding the effect of lipoic acid (LA), an oral antioxidant supplement, on cytokine profiles among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. We aimed to assess the effect of daily consumption of LA on the cytokine profiles in MS patients. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, 52 relapsing-remitting MS patients with an age range of 18-50 years were recruited into 2 groups: LA consumption (1,200 mg/day) or placebo. Patients followed their prescribed supplements for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples for cytokine profile measurement were collected at baseline and after the intervention. Anthropometric parameters were measured based on the standard guidelines. INF-γ, ICAM-1, TGF-β and IL-4 were significantly reduced in the LA group compared to the placebo group [(INF-γ: 0.82 ± 0.2 vs. 0.2 ± 0.2 pg/ml, p consumption of 1,200 mg LA per day beneficially affects several inflammatory cytokines including INF-γ, ICAM-1 TGF-β and IL-4. Further investigations are needed to verify the beneficial role of LA on other cytokine profiles among MS patients.

  14. Evaluation of S-adenosyl l-methionine in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial for treatment of presumptive osteoarthritis in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Darren J; Gordon-Evans, Wanda J; Evans, Richard B; Johnson, Ann L; Griffon, Dominique J; Swanson, Kelly S

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of S-adenosyl l-methionine (SAMe) in the treatment of clinically inferred canine osteoarthritis (OA). Six weeks, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Dogs (n=33) with clinical signs, history, and orthopedic exams consistent with OA. Dogs were block randomized by body condition score (goniometry, and the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) at the time of study entrance and at 3 and 6 weeks after entry. Groups were compared using parametric and nonparametric paired tests as appropriate, and numbers needed to treat (NNT) were calculated for the CBPI and peak vertical force (PVF). Both groups (n=15 placebo, n=18 SAMe) had a reduction in mean PVF (P=.02) and vertical impulse (VI; P=.06) from the 1st to 3rd visit. There was no significant difference between the placebo group and SAMe group for PVF, VI, or either part of the CBPI (Severity or Impact). The NNT at 6 weeks for the Severity score was 3, Impact score was 25, and PVF was 45. These data do not support the use of SAMe as an effective stand alone treatment for reducing clinical signs of OA, as measured by PVF, VI, goniometry, CBPI (both Severity and Impact), and examination score within 6 weeks of treatment. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. Efficacy of topical chamomile oil for mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ghasemi, Mohammad Sadegh; Daneshfard, Babak; Ghoreishi, Parissa Sadat; Lari, Zeinab Nasiri; Homayouni, Kaynoosh; Zargaran, Arman

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of topical chamomile oil in patients with mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Eighty six patients with electrodiagnostic criteria of mild and moderate CTS were enrolled in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial and received wrist splint plus topical chamomile oil or placebo for 4 weeks. They were evaluated at the baseline and end of the study regarding functional and symptomatic scores, dynamometry, and electrodiagnostic indexes. Dynamometry, functionality, and symptom severity scores of the patients were significantly improved in the chamomile oil group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.040, P = 0.0001, P = 0.017, respectively). Additionally, compound latency of the median nerve in the chamomile oil group significantly decreased (P = 0.035) compared to the placebo group. Other electerodiagnostic measurements did not change significantly. Complementary treatment with topical chamomile oil may have some benefits for patients with mild and moderate CTS, both subjectively and objectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of consumption of chicory inulin on bowel function in healthy subjects with constipation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micka, Antje; Siepelmeyer, Anne; Holz, Anja; Theis, Stephan; Schön, Christiane

    2017-02-01

    Constipation is among the most common health impairments in Western countries. This study aimed to determine the effect of the chicory-derived fermentable dietary fiber Orafti ® Inulin on stool frequency in healthy subjects with constipation. The study was conducted according to recent guidance documents for investigating bowel function and used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design with a 2-week wash-out phase. Each study period comprised a run-in phase followed by 4 weeks daily intake of 3 × 4g inulin or maltodextrin (placebo). Forty-four healthy volunteers with constipation documented stool frequency and consistency, gastrointestinal characteristics and quality of life. Consumption of Orafti ® Inulin significantly increased stool frequency compared to placebo (median 4.0 [IQR 2.5-4.5] versus 3.0 [IQR 2.5-4.0] stools/week, p = 0.038). This was accompanied by a softening of stools and trend toward higher satisfaction versus placebo (p = 0.059). In conclusion, Orafti ® Inulin was effective in volunteers with chronic constipation and significantly improved bowel function. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02548247.

  17. Effect of Agaricus sylvaticus supplementation on nutritional status and adverse events of chemotherapy of breast cancer: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadares, Fabiana; Garbi Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho; Cañete, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) represents the highest incidence of malignancy in women throughout the world. Medicinal fungi can stimulate the body, reduce side-effects associated with chemotherapy and improve the quality of life in patients with cancer. To evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Agaricus sylvaticus on clinical and nutritional parameters in BC patients undergoing chemotherapy. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial was carried out at the Oncology Clinic, Hospital of the Federal District-Brazil from September 2007 to July 2009. Forty six patients with BC, Stage II and III, were randomly assigned to receive either nutritional supplement with A. sylvaticus (2.1 g/day) or placebo. Patients were evaluated during treatment period. Patient supplemented with A. sylvaticus improved in clinical parameters and gastrointestinal functions. Poor appetite decreased by 20% with no changes in bowel functions (92.8%), nausea and vomiting (80%). Dietary supplementation with A. sylvaticus improved nutritional status and reduced abnormal bowel functions, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia in patients with BC receiving chemotherapy.

  18. The effects of licorice flavonoid oil with respect to increasing muscle mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Tetsu; Matsumoto, Akio; Yoshino, Kazuhiro; Furukawa, Shinya

    2017-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of licorice flavonoid oil (LFO) with respect to increasing the muscle mass of elderly populations using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Fifty participants aged 54-90 years (seven men, 43 women), who underwent rehabilitation treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee, were examined and assigned to either the LFO group (n = 26) or the placebo group (n = 24). The LFO group consumed 300 mg LFO day -1 , whereas the placebo group consumed one placebo capsule every day for 16 weeks. We measured muscle mass, body fat percentage and the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure score at baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter. In the LFO group, muscle mass in the body trunk increased significantly after 16 weeks of LFO intake (+0.38 kg, P = 0.02). The trunk muscle mass weight of the LFO group increased significantly compared to that of the placebo group (P respectively). The results of the present trial indicate that LFO supplementation has effects with respect to increasing muscle mass and suppressing the body fat percentage of elderly populations, especially in the body trunk. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial With Magnesium Oxide to Reduce Intrafraction Prostate Motion for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lips, Irene M., E-mail: i.m.lips@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gils, Carla H. van [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kotte, Alexis N.T.J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Leerdam, Monique E. van [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Franken, Stefan P.G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Vulpen, Marco van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether magnesium oxide during external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer reduces intrafraction prostate motion in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Methods and Materials: At the Department of Radiotherapy, prostate cancer patients scheduled for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (77 Gy in 35 fractions) using fiducial marker-based position verification were randomly assigned to receive magnesium oxide (500 mg twice a day) or placebo during radiotherapy. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with clinically relevant intrafraction prostate motion, defined as the proportion of patients who demonstrated in {>=}50% of the fractions an intrafraction motion outside a range of 2 mm. Secondary outcome measures included quality of life and acute toxicity. Results: In total, 46 patients per treatment arm were enrolled. The primary endpoint did not show a statistically significant difference between the treatment arms with a percentage of patients with clinically relevant intrafraction motion of 83% in the magnesium oxide arm as compared with 80% in the placebo arm (p = 1.00). Concerning the secondary endpoints, exploratory analyses demonstrated a trend towards worsened quality of life and slightly more toxicity in the magnesium oxide arm than in the placebo arm; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Magnesium oxide is not effective in reducing the intrafraction prostate motion during external-beam radiotherapy, and therefore there is no indication to use it in clinical practice for this purpose.

  20. Body Weight Management in Adults Under Chronic Stress Through Treatment With Ashwagandha Root Extract: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Dnyanraj; Bhattacharyya, Sauvik; Joshi, Kedar

    2017-01-01

    Chronic stress has been associated with a number of illnesses, including obesity. Ashwagandha is a well-known adaptogen and known for reducing stress and anxiety in humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a standardized root extract of Ashwagandha through a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 52 subjects under chronic stress received either Ashwagandha (300 mg) or placebo twice daily. Primary efficacy measures were Perceived Stress Scale and Food Cravings Questionnaire. Secondary efficacy measures were Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, serum cortisol, body weight, and body mass index. Each subject was assessed at the start and at 4 and 8 weeks. The treatment with Ashwagandha resulted in significant improvements in primary and secondary measures. Also, the extract was found to be safe and tolerable. The outcome of this study suggests that Ashwagandha root extract can be used for body weight management in adults under chronic stress. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Effectiveness of Shortwave Diathermy for Subacromial Impingement Syndrome and Value of Night Pain for Patient Selection: A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz Kaysin, Meryem; Akpinar, Pinar; Aktas, Ilknur; Unlü Ozkan, Feyza; Silte Karamanlioglu, Duygu; Cagliyan Hartevioglu, Hulya; Vural, Nazan

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of short wave diathermy (SWD) in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. In this double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 57 patients (aged 35-65 yrs) were classified into night pain positive (NP[+]) (n = 28) and night pain negative (NP[-]) (n = 29) groups. Both groups were randomly assigned to SWD (NP[+], n = 14; NP[-], n = 14) and sham (NP[+], n = 15; NP[-], n = 14) subgroups. Visual analog scale, Constant-Murley Scale (CS), and Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ) scores were used for evaluation. There was only a significant difference in pain with activity at 1-mo (mean difference [MD], -1.65; 95% confidence interval, -3.01 to -0.28]) and 2-mo evaluations (MD, -2.1; 95% confidence interval, -3.51 to -0.69) between SWD versus sham groups. In the NP(+) SWD group, the CS pain score was significantly higher than in the NP(+) sham group at all evaluations after treatment. At 1 mo, the NP(-) SWD group showed significantly better pain, strength, total CS, and SDQ scores than the NP(-) sham group. At 2 mos, the pain, range of motion, strength, and total CS and SDQ scores were better in the NP(-) SWD group than in the NP(-) sham group (P impingement syndrome without NP.

  2. Misoprostol reduces serious gastrointestinal complications in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, F E; Graham, D Y; Senior, J R; Davies, H W; Struthers, B J; Bittman, R M; Geis, G S

    1995-08-15

    To investigate whether concurrent administration of misoprostol reduces the occurrence of serious upper gastrointestinal complications, such as perforation, gastric outlet obstruction, or bleeding, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who are receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 664 clinical practices of family medicine, internal medicine, or rheumatology in the United States and Canada. 8843 men and women (mean age, 68 years) receiving continuous therapy with any of 10 specified NSAIDs for control of symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Patients were enrolled between July 1991 and August 1993. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 200 micrograms of misoprostol or placebo four times a day. Development of serious upper gastrointestinal complications detected by clinical symptoms or findings (not by scheduled endoscopy). Serious upper gastrointestinal complications were reduced by 40% (odds ratio, 0.598 [95% CI, 0.364 to 0.982; P = 0.049]) among patients receiving misoprostol (25 of 4404 patients) compared with those receiving placebo (42 of 4439 patients). During the first month, more patients receiving misoprostol (20%) than placebo (15%) withdrew from the study, primarily because of diarrhea and related problems (P rheumatoid arthritis, misoprostol reduced serious NSAID-induced upper gastrointestinal complications by 40% compared with placebo.

  3. The Safety and Efficacy of an Enzyme Combination in Managing Knee Osteoarthritis Pain in Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang W. Bolten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and comparator-controlled trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of an enzyme combination, as Wobenzym, in adults with moderate-to-severe osteoarthritis (OA of the knee. Adults (n=150 received Wobenzym, diclofenac (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, NSAID, or placebo for 12 weeks. Improvement in pain scores (Lequesne Functional Index did not differ between subjects treated with Wobenzym or diclofenac, and both treatment groups improved compared to placebo (P<0.05. Reduction in total WOMAC scores (secondary outcome measure did not differ between Wobenzym and diclofenac, although only diclofenac emerged as different from placebo (P<0.05. The median number of rescue medication (paracetamol tablets consumed was less in the Wobenzym group compared to placebo (P<0.05, while there was no difference between diclofenac and placebo. Adverse events were similar in frequency in Wobenzym and placebo groups (7.2% and 9.1% of subjects, resp. and higher in diclofenac group (15.6%. Wobenzym is comparable to the NSAID diclofenac in relieving pain and increasing function in adults with moderate-to-severe painful knee OA and reduces reliance on analgesic medication. Wobenzym is associated with fewer adverse events and, therefore, may be appropriate for long-term use.

  4. Effect of Melatonin on Sleep in the Perioperative Period after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Michael Tvilling; Hansen, Melissa Voigt; Andersen, Lærke Toftegård; Hageman, Ida; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Bokmand, Susanne; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-02-01

    To investigate whether administration of an oral dose of 6 mg melatonin before bedtime perioperatively in breast cancer surgery could change sleep outcomes measured by actigraphy. This paper reports secondary outcomes from a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial where patients received 6 mg melatonin (n = 27) or placebo (n = 21) approximately 60 minutes before bedtime 3 nights preoperatively until at least one week postoperatively. Participants were monitored in the entire period with actigraphy, and were instructed to complete visual analogue scale (VAS) for sleep, and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) each morning. Administration of 6 mg oral melatonin approximately 1 hour before bedtime resulted in significantly increased sleep efficiency and reduced wake after sleep onset for the entire 2-week postoperative period. No other significant differences for actigraphy determined sleep outcomes or subjective outcome parameters in the perioperative period were found between the groups. Overall, the patients sleep outcomes were within normal ranges and no participants had pathological sleep disturbances. Melatonin significantly changed sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset after surgery, but had no effects on other objective sleep outcomes or on subjective sleep quality (VAS and KSS). © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  5. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial on probiotics in small bowel bacterial overgrowth in children treated with omeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegar, Badriul; Hutapea, Esther I; Advani, Najid; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) in children treated with omeprazole, and to test whether probiotics influence the incidence. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was performed in 70 children treated orally during four weeks with 20mg omeprazole per day. Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 (1.9×10(9) cfu) and Lactobacillus acidophilus R0052 (0.1×10(9) cfu) were simultaneously given daily to 36 subjects (probiotic group), while 34 subjects received placebo (placebo group). The diagnosis of SBBO was based on the development of suggestive symptoms, in combination with a positive glucose breath test. After one month of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment, 30% (21/70) had a positive breath test suggesting SBBO; of these 62% were symptomatic. Five children developed SBBO-like symptoms, but had a negative breath test; and 44 (63%) were symptom free and had a negative breath test. There was no difference in the incidence of positive breath tests in the probiotic versus the placebo group (33% vs 26.5%; p=0.13). Since symptoms suggesting SBBO developed in 26% of PPI-treated children, and since the glucose breath test was abnormal in 72% of these, this side-effect should be more frequently considered. The probiotic tested did not decrease the risk to develop SBBO. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. The efficacy of zinc supplementation on outcome of children with severe pneumonia. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavi, Ehsan; Hakimzadeh, Mehran; Shamsizadeh, Ahmad; Aminzadeh, Majid; Alghasi, Arash

    2011-09-01

    To compare the clinical outcome of children having severe pneumonia, with and without zinc supplementation by a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. In this study, 128 children (3-60 months old) admitted to the hospital with severe pneumonia were randomly divided into 2 groups (64 in each) that received either zinc sulfate (2 mg/kg/d, maximum 20 mg in 2 divided doses, for 5 days) or a placebo, along with the standard antimicrobial therapy. Primary outcome measurements included the time taken for clinical symptoms of severe pneumonia such as fever and respiratory distress symptoms to resolve, and the secondary outcome included the duration of hospital stay. The time taken for all the symptoms to resolve in the zinc-supplemented group was significantly lesser then that in the placebo group (42.26 [6.66] vs. 47.52 [7.15] h respectively, p children. The results suggest that adjuvant treatment with zinc accelerates recovery from severe pneumonia in young children and significantly reduces the duration of hospital stay. Further studies are required to develop appropriate recommendations for the use of zinc in the treatment of severe pneumonia in other populations.

  7. Influence of Acute Multispecies and Multistrain Probiotic Supplementation on Cardiovascular Function and Reactivity to Psychological Stress in Young Adults: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Clara M; Olsa, Eamon J A; Ginty, Annie T; Rapelje, Alyssa L; Tindall, Christina L; Holesh, Laura A; Petersen, Karen L; Conklin, Sarah M

    2017-10-01

    The potential influence of probiotic supplementation on cardiovascular health and stress responsivity remains largely unexplored. Some evidence suggests the possibility that probiotics may influence blood pressure. A separate body of research suggests that exaggerated cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress in the laboratory predict cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The current investigation explored the effect of acute probiotic use on (1) resting cardiovascular measures in healthy young adults and (2) cardiovascular and psychological reactions to an acute psychological stressor in the laboratory. Participants (N = 105, M [SD] age = 20.17 [1.26], 84.8% white) completed a 2-week, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial of a multispecies and multistrain probiotic. Exclusion criteria included previous probiotic use, diagnosed gastrointestinal disorder, and/or current antibiotic use. At visits 1 and 2, participants completed the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, a widely used psychological stress task. Participants were randomly assigned to a probiotic blend or matched placebo. Compared with placebo, 2-week probiotic supplementation did not affect resting measures of cardiovascular function, cardiovascular responses during or recovery from stress, or psychological reactions to acute psychological stress. Contrary to expectations, short-term use of a probiotic supplement in healthy participants did not influence measures of cardiovascular function or responsivity to psychological stress. Future research is needed to determine species- and strain-specific effects of probiotics in healthy participants with various degrees of stress responsiveness, as well as in diseased populations.

  8. Effects of spirulina consumption on body weight, blood pressure, and endothelial function in overweight hypertensive Caucasians: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miczke, A; Szulińska, M; Hansdorfer-Korzon, R; Kręgielska-Narożna, M; Suliburska, J; Walkowiak, J; Bogdański, P

    2016-01-01

    Some studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of Spirulina maxima (Arthrospira maxima) consumption on glycemic, lipid, and blood pressure parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Spirulina maxima on body weight, blood pressure, and endothelial function. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 40 patients with hypertension but lacking evidence of cardiovascular disease were enrolled to receive daily either 2.0 g Hawaiian spirulina or placebo for three months. Anthropometric parameters, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and stiffness index (SI) using digital plethysmography were measured before and after the intervention. After three months, there was no change in body mass index (BMI) or weight in either the spirulina or the placebo group. However, a significant reduction in SBP and SI was observed. The patients in the spirulina group showed significant reductions in BMI (26.9 ± 3.1 vs. 25.0 ± 2.7 kg/m(2), p = 0.0032), weight (75.5 ± 11.8 vs. 70.5 ± 10.3 kg, p Spirulina maxima not only improves BMI and weight but also results in improvements in blood pressure and endothelial function spirulina in overweight patients with hypertension but lacking evidence of cardiovascular disease.

  9. The Relieving Effects of BrainPower Advanced, a Dietary Supplement, in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Complaints: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfen Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjective memory complaints (SMCs are common in older adults that can often predict further cognitive impairment. No proven effective agents are available for SMCs. The effect of BrainPower Advanced, a dietary supplement consisting of herbal extracts, nutrients, and vitamins, was evaluated in 98 volunteers with SMCs, averaging 67 years of age (47–88, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjective hypomnesis/memory loss (SML and attention/concentration deficits (SAD were evaluated before and after 12-week supplementation of BrainPower Advanced capsules (n=47 or placebo (n=51, using a 5-point memory questionnaire (1 = no/slight, 5 = severe. Objective memory function was evaluated using 3 subtests of visual/audio memory, abstraction, and memory recall that gave a combined total score. The BrainPower Advanced group had more cases of severe SML (severity ⩾ 3 (44/47 and severe SAD (43/47 than the placebo group (39/51 and 37/51, < 0.05, < 0.05, resp. before the treatment. BrainPower Advanced intervention, however, improved a greater proportion of the severe SML (29.5%(13/44 (P<0.01 and SAD (34.9%(15/43(P<0.01 than placebo (5.1% (2/39 and 13.5% (5/37, resp.. Thus, 3-month BrainPower Advanced supplementation appears to be beneficial to older adults with SMCs.

  10. Methylphenidate for Apathy in Community-Dwelling Older Veterans With Mild Alzheimer's Disease: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padala, Prasad R; Padala, Kalpana P; Lensing, Shelly Y; Ramirez, Daniel; Monga, Varun; Bopp, Melinda M; Roberson, Paula K; Dennis, Richard A; Petty, Frederick; Sullivan, Dennis H; Burke, William J

    2018-02-01

    Apathy is a common behavioral problem in Alzheimer's disease. Apathy has profound consequences, such as functional impairment, higher service utilization, higher caregiver burden, and increased mortality. The authors' objective was to study the effects of methylphenidate on apathy in Alzheimer's disease. A 12-week, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (methylphenidate versus placebo) was conducted in community-dwelling veterans (N=60) with mild Alzheimer's disease. The primary outcome for apathy (Apathy Evaluation Scale-Clinician) and secondary outcomes for cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination, Modified Mini-Mental State Examination), functional status (activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living), improvement and severity (Clinical Global Impressions Scale [CGI]), caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Scale), and depression (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia) were measured at baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Participants were all men (77 years old, SD=8). After adjusting for baseline, the methylphenidate group had significantly greater improvement in apathy than the placebo group at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, there was also greater improvement in cognition, functional status, caregiver burden, CGI scores, and depression in the methylphenidate group compared with the placebo group. Methylphenidate improved apathy in a group of community-dwelling veterans with mild Alzheimer's disease. Methylphenidate also improved cognition, functional status, caregiver burden, CGI scores, and depression.

  11. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris for the treatment of premenopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder: a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Fabiene Bernardes Castro; Zanolla Dias de Souza, Karla; Rezende, Camilla Russi; Geber, Selmo

    2018-05-01

    Although hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual complaint, there is no consensus for the ideal treatment. Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of treating premenopausal women with HSDD with Tribulus terrestris and its effect on the serum levels of testosterone. We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, with 40 premenopausal women reporting diminished libido, receiving T. terrestris or placebo. The questionnaires FSFI and the QS-F were used to evaluate sexual dysfunction before and after treatment. Patients treated with T. terrestris experienced improvement in total score of FSFI (p terrestris had improvements in "desire" (p = .012), "sexual arousal/lubrication" (p = .002), "pain" (p = .031), "orgasm" (p = .004) and "satisfaction" (p = .001). Women treated with placebo did not score improvements. Women receiving T. terrestris had increased levels of free (p = .046) and bioavailable (p terrestris might be a safe alternative for the treatment of premenopausal women with HSDD as it was effective in reducing the symptoms, probably due to an increase in the serum levels of free and bioavailable testosterone.

  12. Effects of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on pregnancy outcome in women with history of preterm delivery: a double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh, Azar; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Belghis

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of high dose zinc (Zn) supplement during pregnancy in pregnancy outcome in healthy pregnant women with a previous preterm delivery in Isfahan, Iran. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted between January 2007 and June 2008. Eighty-four pregnant women with a previous preterm delivery age 19 to 35 years were randomly allocated to receive either 50 mg/day Zn as Zn sulfate or placebo from 12 to 16 weeks of gestation till delivery. Pregnancy outcome was assessed in term of incidence of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), birth weight, crown-heel length, head circumference, Apgar score, and gestational age at delivery. The mean birth head circumference was higher in Zn supplemented group than in the placebo group (35.0 cm vs. 33.7 cm, P delivery (37.1 week vs. 36.7 week) and birth weight (2960.6 g vs. 2819.0 g) of babies born in Zn supplemented group was slightly higher than placebo group, it was not statistically significant. No significant differences were seen for infant length, Apgar score, and IUGR. Adding Zn supplementation during pregnancy to routine care of women with a previous preterm delivery had no significant effect on the gestational age at delivery and birth weight but increased the birth head circumference.

  13. Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Has Narrowed the Spectrum of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Sadeghi, Amirsaeid; Malekzadeh, Reza; Khatavi, Fatima; Etemadi, Mehrnoosh; Kalantri, Ebrahim; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Rostami, Kamran

    2015-06-05

    Several studies have shown that a large number of patients who are fulfilling the criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are sensitive to gluten. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a gluten-free diet on gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS. In this double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 148 IBS patients fulfilling the Rome III criteria were enrolled between 2011 and 2013. However, only 72 out of the 148 commenced on a gluten-free diet for up to six weeks and completed the study; clinical symptoms were recorded biweekly using a standard visual analogue scale (VAS). In the second stage after six weeks, patients whose symptoms improved to an acceptable level were randomly divided into two groups; patients either received packages containing powdered gluten (35 cases) or patients received placebo (gluten free powder) (37 cases). Overall, the symptomatic improvement was statistically different in the gluten-containing group compared with placebo group in 9 (25.7%), and 31 (83.8%) patients respectively (p gluten. Using the term of IBS can therefore be misleading and may deviate and postpone the application of an effective and well-targeted treatment strategy in gluten sensitive patients.

  14. Benefits of Semelil (ANGIPARSTM on oxidant-antioxidant balance in diabetic patients; A randomized, double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hemmatabadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world with dreadful complications which not only is debilating for the patients but also puts a big burden on the health system.One of the mechanisms by which the complications of diabetes occur is imbalance in the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in the body and therefore many studies have been performed to either correct this equilibrium or delay the occurrence of the complications. "nMethods:In this randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, a total number of 61 subjects were divided into two groups and the antioxidant effects of a novel herbal drug, Semelil,was compared with placebo. Baseline laboratory tests including a complete blood count, fasting blood sugar,lipid profile,fasting plasma insulin, liver and renal function tests plus tumor necrotizing factor α (TNFα and C-reactive protein (CRP and homocystein were performed. Total antioxidant power assay, cellular lipid peroxidation assay, and nuclear damage (deoxyguanosine and carbonly molecules were also measured to help determination of state of antioxidants- oxidants equilibrium in serum. "nResult:Apart from deoxyguanosine, no significant change was found in TNFα or CRP levels in the studied group who received Semelil.Conclusion: Mechanisms other than antioxidant effects are involved for Semelil in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

  15. Threshold electrical stimulation (TES) in ambulant children with CP: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dali, Christine í; Hansen, Flemming Juul; Pedersen, Søren Anker

    2002-01-01

    stimulation (TES). Two thirds received active and one third received inactive stimulators. For the primary outcome we constructed a set of plausible motor function tests and studied the change in summary indices of the performance measurements. Tests were videotaped and assessed blindly to record qualitative......). There was no significant difference between active and placebo treatment in any of the tested groups, nor combined. Visual and subjective assessments favoured TES (ns), whereas objective indices showed the opposite trend. We conclude that TES in these patients did not have any significant clinical effect during the test...

  16. Mirroring everyday clinical practice in clinical trial design: a new concept to improve the external validity of randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials in the pharmacological treatment of major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severus Emanuel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials constitute the gold standard in clinical research when testing the efficacy of new psychopharmacological interventions in the treatment of major depression. However, the blinded use of placebo has been found to influence clinical trial outcomes and may bias patient selection. Discussion To improve clinical trial design in major depression so as to reflect clinical practice more closely we propose to present patients with a balanced view of the benefits of study participation irrespective of their assignment to placebo or active treatment. In addition every participant should be given the option to finally receive the active medication. A research agenda is outlined to evaluate the impact of the proposed changes on the efficacy of the drug to be evaluated and on the demographic and clinical characteristics of the enrollment fraction with regard to its representativeness of the eligible population. Summary We propose a list of measures to be taken to improve the external validity of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in major depression. The recommended changes to clinical trial design may also be relevant for other psychiatric as well as medical disorders in which expectations regarding treatment outcome may affect the outcome itself.

  17. Treatment with L-citrulline in patients with post-polio syndrome: study protocol for a single-center, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simone; Gocheva, Vanya; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Rubino-Nacht, Daniela; Bonati, Ulrike; Fischer, Dirk; Hafner, Patricia

    2017-03-09

    Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that affects polio survivors years after recovery from an initial acute infection by the Poliomyelitis virus. Most often, patients who suffered from polio start to experience gradual new weakening in muscles, a gradual decrease in the size of muscles (muscle atrophy) and fatigue years after the acute illness. L-citrulline is known to change muscular metabolism synthesis by raising nitric oxide (NO) levels and increasing protein synthesis. This investigator-initiated, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, trial aims to demonstrate that L-citrulline positively influences muscle function and increases muscular energy production in patients with PPS. Thirty ambulant PPS patients will be recruited in Switzerland. Patients will be randomly allocated to one of the two arms of the study (placebo:verum 1:1). After a 24-week run-in phase to observe natural disease history and progression, participants will be treated either with L-citrulline or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint is change in the 6-min Walking Distance Test. Secondary endpoints will include motor function measure, quantitative muscle force, quantitative muscle magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy and serum biomarker laboratory analysis DISCUSSION: The aim of this phase IIa trial is to determine if treatment with L-citrulline shows a positive effect on clinical function and paraclinical biomarkers in PPS. If treatment with L-citrulline shows positive effects, this might represent a cost-efficient symptomatic therapy for PPS patients. ClinicalTrial.gov, ID: NCT02801071 . Registered on 6 June 2016.

  18. A double blind randomized placebo control crossover trial on the effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on exercise tolerance in stable moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Paul; Basham, Jane E; Yong, Theresa; Chazan, Adrian; Finlay, Paul; Barnes, Sara; Bardin, Phillip G; Campbell, Donald

    2015-05-02

    Dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to decrease the oxygen cost of exercise and prolong exercise tolerance, as measured by sub-maximal exercise endurance distance and time at 85% V̇O2max, in both elite athletes and normal healthy subjects. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have reduced quality of life and ability to perform activities of daily living attributable to diminished exercise tolerance, and dietary nitrate may be able to ameliorate this. We performed a double-blind, computer-randomized placebo control crossover trial at a tertiary Australian hospital to investigate whether dietary nitrate supplementation as beetroot juice (BR) would augment submaximal exercise endurance in individuals with spirometrically confirmed stable moderate COPD. Volunteers underwent an incremental shuttle walk test to determine V̇O2max followed by a test dose of BR to establish safety in the study population. Participants performed an endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT) at 85% V̇O2max after randomization to either a 3 day wash-in of BR (4.8 mmol twice a day) or placebo (nitrate deplete BR), with a final dose on the morning of testing. They then crossed over after 4 day washout. Repeated measures two sided paired t-tests were employed. 35 participants were recruited with 19 completing the trial. In the initial safety phase, we measured systolic blood pressure over four hours post first dose of BR, and found a mean 10 mmHg decrement maximal at 1 hour. One individual developed symptomatic postural hypotension and was excluded. The primary outcomes of ESWT distance and time to fatigue improved by 11% and 6% respectively; however these differences did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.494 and 0.693 respectively). Our study does not support a role for routine dietary nitrate supplementation for enhancement of exercise endurance in COPD. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trial Register: ACTRN12611001088932.

  19. Sono-electro-magnetic therapy for treating chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Thomas M; Mordasini, Livio; Weisstanner, Christian; Jüni, Peter; da Costa, Bruno R; Wiest, Roland; Thalmann, George N

    2014-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of sono-electro-magnetic therapy compared to placebo in men with refractory CPPS. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind single center trial, we assessed the effect of sono-electro-magnetic therapy in men with treatment refractory CPPS. Sixty male patients were randomly assigned to treatment with either sono-electro-magnetic (n = 30) or placebo therapy (n = 30) for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was a change in the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) from baseline to 12 weeks. The 12-week difference between sono-electro-magnetic and placebo therapy in changes of the NIH-CPSI total score was -3.1 points (95% CI -6.8 to 0.6, p = 0.11). In secondary comparisons of NIH-CPSI sub-scores, we found differences between groups most pronounced for the quality-of-life sub-score (difference at 12 weeks -1.6, 95% CI -2.8 to -0.4, p = 0.015). In stratified analyses, the benefit of sono-electro-magnetic therapy appeared more pronounced among patients who had a symptom duration of 12 months or less (difference in NIH-CPSI total score -8.3, 95% CI -14.5 to 2.6) than in patients with a longer symptom duration (-0.8, 95% CI -4.6 to 3.1; p for interaction = 0.023). Sono-electro-magnetic therapy did not result in a significant improvement of symptoms in the overall cohort of treatment refractory CPPS patients compared to placebo treatment. Subgroup analysis indicates, however, that patients with a symptom-duration of 12 months or less may benefit from sono-electro-magnetic therapy, warranting larger randomized controlled trials in this subpopulation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00688506.

  20. Topical Insulin Accelerates Wound Healing in Diabetes by Enhancing the AKT and ERK Pathways: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria H. M.; Caricilli, Andréa M.; de Abreu, Lélia L.; Araújo, Eliana P.; Pelegrinelli, Fabiana F.; Thirone, Ana C. P.; Tsukumo, Daniela M.; Pessoa, Ana Flávia M.; dos Santos, Marinilce F.; de Moraes, Maria A.; Carvalheira, José B. C.; Velloso, Lício A.; Saad, Mario J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Wound healing is impaired in diabetes mellitus, but the mechanisms involved in this process are virtually unknown. Proteins belonging to the insulin signaling pathway respond to insulin in the skin of rats. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the regulation of the insulin signaling pathway in wound healing and skin repair of normal and diabetic rats, and, in parallel, the effect of a topical insulin cream on wound healing and on the activation of this pathway. Research Design and Methods We investigated insulin signaling by immunoblotting during wound healing of control and diabetic animals with or without topical insulin. Diabetic patients with ulcers were randomized to receive topical insulin or placebo in a prospective, double-blind and placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial (NCT 01295177) of wound healing. Results and Conclusions Expression of IR, IRS-1, IRS-2, SHC, ERK, and AKT are increased in the tissue of healing wounds compared to intact skin, suggesting that the insulin signaling pathway may have an important role in this process. These pathways were attenuated in the wounded skin of diabetic rats, in parallel with an increase in the time of complete wound healing. Upon topical application of insulin cream, the wound healing time of diabetic animals was normalized, followed by a reversal of defective insulin signal transduction. In addition, the treatment also increased expression of other proteins, such as eNOS (also in bone marrow), VEGF, and SDF-1α in wounded skin. In diabetic patients, topical insulin cream markedly improved wound healing, representing an attractive and cost-free method for treating this devastating complication of diabetes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01295177 PMID:22662132

  1. Diabetes Health, Residence & Metabolism in Asians: the DHRMA study, research into foods from the Indian subcontinent - a blinded, randomised, placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Jeetesh V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is highly prevalent amongst the South Asian communities in Britain. The reasons for this excess CHD risk are multifactorial, but in part relate to a susceptibility to diabetes mellitus - where the aberrant metabolism of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and glucose are likely to underpin vascular disease in this population. Dietary intervention is an important and first line approach to manage increased CHD risk. However, there is limited information on the impact of the South Asian diet on CHD risk. Methods/Design The Diabetes Health, Residence & Metabolism in Asians (DHRMA study is a blinded, randomised, placebo controlled trial that analyses the efficacy of reduced glycaemic index (GI staples of the South Asian diet, in relation to cardio-metabolic risk factors that are commonly perturbed amongst South Asian populations - primarily glucose, fatty acid and lipoprotein metabolism and central adiposity. Using a 10-week dietary intervention study, 50 healthy South Asians will be randomised to receive either a DHRMA (reduced GI supply of chapatti (bread, stone ground, high protein wheat flour and white basmati rice (high bran, unpolished or commercially available (leading brand versions chapatti wheat flour and basmati rice. Volunteers will be asked to complete a 75g oral glucose tolerance test at baseline and at 10-weeks follow-up, where blood metabolites and hormones, blood pressure and anthropometry will also be assessed in a standardised manner. Discussion It is anticipated that the information collected from this study help develop healthy diet options specific (but not exclusive for South Asian ethnic communities. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN02839188

  2. Beneficial effects of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on academic stress-induced sleep disturbance in healthy adults: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, M; Nishida, K; Gondo, Y; Kikuchi-Hayakawa, H; Ishikawa, H; Suda, K; Kawai, M; Hoshi, R; Kuwano, Y; Miyazaki, K; Rokutan, K

    2017-04-26

    The present study examined whether Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) improves sleep quality under psychological stress. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in healthy 4 th year medical students exposed to academic examination stress. The trial was repeated over two consecutive years in different groups of students, and the data were pooled. For 8 weeks prior to and 3 weeks after a national standardised examination, a total of 48 and 46 subjects received a daily dose of 100 ml of LcS-fermented milk or non-fermented placebo milk, respectively. Study measures included subjective anxiety, overnight single-channel electroencephalography (EEG) recordings, and the Oguri-Shirakawa-Azumi (OSA) sleep inventory scores of subjective sleep quality. Total OSA scores were significantly lower than baseline on the day before the exam and recovered after the exam, indicating a stress-induced decline in sleep quality. There was a significant positive effect of LcS treatment on OSA factors for sleepiness on rising and sleep length. Sleep latency measured by EEG lengthened as the exam approached in the placebo group but was significantly suppressed in the LcS group. The percentage of stage 3 non-REM (N3) sleep decreased in the placebo group as the exam approached, whereas it was maintained in the LcS group throughout the trial. Delta power during the first sleep cycle, measured as an index of sleep intensity, increased as the exam approached in the LcS group and was significantly higher than in the placebo group. These findings suggest that daily consumption of LcS may help to maintain sleep quality during a period of increasing stress. The observed retention of N3 sleep and increased delta power in the LcS group may have contributed to higher perceived sleep satisfaction.

  3. Effects of oral L-carnitine administration in narcolepsy patients: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Miyagawa

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, and rapid eye movement (REM sleep abnormalities. A genome-wide association study (GWAS identified a novel narcolepsy-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, which is located adjacent to the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B gene encoding an enzyme involved in β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. The mRNA expression levels of CPT1B were associated with this SNP. In addition, we recently reported that acylcarnitine levels were abnormally low in narcolepsy patients. To assess the efficacy of oral L-carnitine for the treatment of narcolepsy, we performed a clinical trial administering L-carnitine (510 mg/day to patients with the disease. The study design was a randomized, double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled trial. Thirty narcolepsy patients were enrolled in our study. Two patients were withdrawn and 28 patients were included in the statistical analysis (15 males and 13 females, all with HLA-DQB1*06:02. L-carnitine treatment significantly improved the total time for dozing off during the daytime, calculated from the sleep logs, compared with that of placebo-treated periods. L-carnitine efficiently increased serum acylcarnitine levels, and reduced serum triglycerides concentration. Differences in the Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 vitality and mental health subscales did not reach statistical significance between L-carnitine and placebo. This study suggests that oral L-carnitine can be effective in reducing excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: University hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN UMIN000003760.

  4. Bupropion for the treatment of apathy in Huntington's disease: A multicenter, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderblom, Harald; Wüstenberg, Torsten; McLean, Tim; Mütze, Lisanne; Fischer, Wilhelm; Saft, Carsten; Hoffmann, Rainer; Süssmuth, Sigurd; Schlattmann, Peter; van Duijn, Erik; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Priller, Josef

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bupropion in the treatment of apathy in Huntington's disease (HD). In this phase 2b multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, individuals with HD and clinical signs of apathy according to the Structured Clinical Interview for Apathy-Dementia (SCIA-D), but not depression (n = 40) were randomized to receive either bupropion 150/300mg or placebo daily for 10 weeks. The primary outcome parameter was a significant change of the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) score after ten weeks of treatment as judged by an informant (AES-I) living in close proximity with the study participant. The secondary outcome parameters included changes of 1. AES scores determined by the patient (AES-S) or the clinical investigator (AES-C), 2. psychiatric symptoms (NPI, HADS-SIS, UHDRS-Behavior), 3. cognitive performance (SDMT, Stroop, VFT, MMSE), 4. motor symptoms (UHDRS-Motor), 5. activities of daily function (TFC, UHDRS-Function), and 6. caregiver distress (NPI-D). In addition, we investigated the effect of bupropion on brain structure as well as brain responses and functional connectivity during reward processing in a gambling task using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At baseline, there were no significant treatment group differences in the clinical primary and secondary outcome parameters. At endpoint, there was no statistically significant difference between treatment groups for all clinical primary and secondary outcome variables. Study participation, irrespective of the intervention, lessened symptoms of apathy according to the informant and the clinical investigator. Bupropion does not alleviate apathy in HD. However, study participation/placebo effects were observed, which document the need for carefully controlled trials when investigating therapeutic interventions for the neuropsychiatric symptoms of HD. ClinicalTrials.gov 01914965.

  5. Bupropion for the treatment of apathy in Huntington's disease: A multicenter, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Gelderblom

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bupropion in the treatment of apathy in Huntington's disease (HD.In this phase 2b multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, individuals with HD and clinical signs of apathy according to the Structured Clinical Interview for Apathy-Dementia (SCIA-D, but not depression (n = 40 were randomized to receive either bupropion 150/300mg or placebo daily for 10 weeks. The primary outcome parameter was a significant change of the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES score after ten weeks of treatment as judged by an informant (AES-I living in close proximity with the study participant. The secondary outcome parameters included changes of 1. AES scores determined by the patient (AES-S or the clinical investigator (AES-C, 2. psychiatric symptoms (NPI, HADS-SIS, UHDRS-Behavior, 3. cognitive performance (SDMT, Stroop, VFT, MMSE, 4. motor symptoms (UHDRS-Motor, 5. activities of daily function (TFC, UHDRS-Function, and 6. caregiver distress (NPI-D. In addition, we investigated the effect of bupropion on brain structure as well as brain responses and functional connectivity during reward processing in a gambling task using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.At baseline, there were no significant treatment group differences in the clinical primary and secondary outcome parameters. At endpoint, there was no statistically significant difference between treatment groups for all clinical primary and secondary outcome variables. Study participation, irrespective of the intervention, lessened symptoms of apathy according to the informant and the clinical investigator.Bupropion does not alleviate apathy in HD. However, study participation/placebo effects were observed, which document the need for carefully controlled trials when investigating therapeutic interventions for the neuropsychiatric symptoms of HD.ClinicalTrials.gov 01914965.

  6. A randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centric parallel arm trial to assess the effects of homoeopathic medicines on chronic rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K Manchanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is one of the most common illnesses interfering with patient′s quality of life and work. Observational studies conducted by the Council indicate positive outcome. This protocol has been developed to ascertain the usefulness of homoeopathic intervention in comparison with control group in a randomised control setting. Objectives: Primary objective is to evaluate the changes in TSS (Total Symptoms Score and SNOT-22 (Sino-nasal Outcome Test-22 within the two groups of the study (Homoeopathy + Placebo. Secondary objective is to evaluate changes in SNOT-22 at end of the trial, changes in Lund and Mackay staging of CT scan, rhinoscopy grading, absolute eosinophil count, global assessment by investigator and patient, and number of acute exacerbations of CRS (for frequency, duration and intensity as per TSS scale compared to placebo. Methods/Design: This is a randomised double blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centric parallel arm trial of 6 months (three months treatment and three months observation period with 14 days run-in period. The primary outcome is a composite of the changes in the TSS and SNOT-22 over 3 months from baseline with area under the curve and changes over 3 months in the Sinus Nasal Outcome Test 22 (SNOT-22 from baseline. Prescription shall be made as per the homoeopathic principles. Efficacy data will be analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Discussion: This trial will help to evaluate the efficacy of homoeopathic individualised treatment using LM-potencies versus placebo in patients suffering from CRS as per the homoeopathic dictum.

  7. Safety and immunogenicity of RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine administered at birth or in infancy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bines, Julie E; Danchin, Margaret; Jackson, Pamela; Handley, Amanda; Watts, Emma; Lee, Katherine J; West, Amanda; Cowley, Daniel; Chen, Mee-Yew; Barnes, Graeme L; Justice, Frances; Buttery, Jim P; Carlin, John B; Bishop, Ruth F; Taylor, Barry; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2015-12-01

    Despite the success of rotavirus vaccines, suboptimal vaccine efficacy in regions with a high burden of disease continues to present a challenge to worldwide implementation. A birth dose strategy with a vaccine developed from an asymptomatic neonatal rotavirus strain has the potential to address this challenge and provide protection from severe rotavirus disease from birth. This phase 2a randomised, double-blind, three-arm, placebo-controlled safety and immunogenicity trial was undertaken at a single centre in New Zealand between Jan 13, 2012, and April 17, 2014. Healthy, full-term (≥36 weeks gestation) babies, who weighed at least 2500 g, and were 0-5 days old at the time of randomisation were randomly assigned (1:1:1; computer-generated; telephone central allocation) according to a concealed block randomisation schedule to oral RV3-BB vaccine with the first dose given at 0-5 days after birth (neonatal schedule), to vaccine with the first dose given at about 8 weeks after birth (infant schedule), or to placebo. The primary endpoint was cumulative vaccine take (serum immune response or stool shedding of vaccine virus after any dose) after three doses. The immunogenicity analysis included all randomised participants with available outcome data. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12611001212943. 95 eligible participants were randomised, of whom 89 were included in the primary analysis. A cumulative vaccine take was detected in 27 (90%) of 30 participants in the neonatal schedule group after three doses of RV3-BB vaccine compared with four (13%) of 32 participants in the placebo group (difference in proportions 0·78, 95% CI 0·55-0·88; protavirus vaccines. Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, the New Zealand Health Research Council, and the Murdoch Childrens Research Institute. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rituximab for childhood-onset, complicated, frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Kazumoto; Sako, Mayumi; Nozu, Kandai; Mori, Rintaro; Tuchida, Nao; Kamei, Koichi; Miura, Kenichiro; Aya, Kunihiko; Nakanishi, Koichi; Ohtomo, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Shori; Tanaka, Ryojiro; Kaito, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hidefumi; Ishikura, Kenji; Ito, Shuichi; Ohashi, Yasuo

    2014-10-04

    Rituximab could be an effective treatment for childhood-onset, complicated, frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). We investigated the efficacy and safety of rituximab in patients with high disease activity. We did a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at nine centres in Japan. We screened patients aged 2 years or older experiencing a relapse of FRNS or SDNS, which had originally been diagnosed as nephrotic syndrome when aged 1-18 years. Patients with complicated FRNS or SDNS who met all other criteria were eligible for inclusion after remission of the relapse at screening. We used a computer-generated sequence to randomly assign patients (1:1) to receive rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) or placebo once weekly for 4 weeks, with age, institution, treatment history, and the intervals between the previous three relapses as adjustment factors. Patients, guardians, caregivers, physicians, and individuals assessing outcomes were masked to assignments. All patients received standard steroid treatment for the relapse at screening and stopped taking immunosuppressive agents by 169 days after randomisation. Patients were followed up for 1 year. The primary endpoint was the relapse-free period. Safety endpoints were frequency and severity of adverse events. Patients who received their assigned intervention were included in analyses. This trial is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network clinical trials registry, number UMIN000001405. Patients were centrally registered between Nov 13, 2008, and May 19, 2010. Of 52 patients who underwent randomisation, 48 received the assigned intervention (24 were given rituximab and 24 placebo). The median relapse-free period was significantly longer in the rituximab group (267 days, 95% CI 223-374) than in the placebo group (101 days, 70-155; hazard ratio: 0·27, 0·14-0·53; pchildhood-onset, complicated FRNS and SDNS. Japanese Ministry of

  9. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of venlafaxine-extended release for co-occurring cannabis dependence and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Frances R; Mariani, John; Brooks, Daniel J; Pavlicova, Martina; Nunes, Edward V; Agosti, Vito; Bisaga, Adam; Sullivan, Maria A; Carpenter, Kenneth M

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate whether venlafaxine-extended release (VEN-XR) is an effective treatment for cannabis dependence with concurrent depressive disorders. This was a randomized, 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of out-patients (n = 103) with DSM-IV cannabis dependence and major depressive disorder or dysthymia. Participants received up to 375 mg VEN-XR on a fixed-flexible schedule or placebo. All patients received weekly individual cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy that primarily targeted marijuana use. The trial was conducted at two university research centers in the United States. One hundred and three cannabis-dependent adults participated in the trial. The primary outcome measures were (i) abstinence from marijuana defined as at least two consecutive urine-confirmed abstinent weeks and (ii) improvement in depressive symptoms based on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The proportion of patients achieving a clinically significant mood improvement (50% decrease in Hamilton Depression score from baseline) was high and did not differ between groups receiving VEN-XR (63%) and placebo (69%) (χ1 (2)  = 0.48, P = 0.49). The proportion of patients achieving abstinence was low overall, but was significantly worse on VEN-XR (11.8%) compared to placebo (36.5%) (χ1 (2)  = 7.46, P depressed, cannabis-dependent patients, venlafaxine-extended release does not appear to be effective at reducing depression and may lead to an increase in cannabis use. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Evaluation of the efficacy of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbakhsh, Seyedeh Pardis; Manteghi, Ali Akhondpour; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Mahyari, Saman; Gholampour, Beheshteh; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder that is causally linked to dysregulation of the serotonergic system. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of Withania somnifera (W. somnifera) root extract as an adjunct therapy to standard OCD treatment. Thirty patients with a confirmed diagnosis of OCD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria participated in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial and were randomly assigned to the treatment group (W. somnifera extract, 120mg/day; n=15) or the placebo group (n=15). All patients were under treatment with Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), and were instructed to take 4 capsules of the extract or placebo per day, preferably after meals, for a period of six weeks. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was used in order to assess the severity of OCD symptoms at baseline and at the end of the trial. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software and Y-BOCS values were presented as median and range (Min-Max). Comparison of the change in Y-BOCS score during the course of the trial revealed a significantly greater effect of W. somnifera (26 (14-40) [pre-treatment] versus 14 (4-40) [post-treatment]; change: -8 (-23 to 0)) versus placebo (18 (11-33) [pre-treatment] versus 16 (10-31) [post-treatment]; change: -2 (-4 to 0)) (Psomnifera extract may be beneficial as a safe and effective adjunct to SSRIs in the treatment of OCD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effect of adrenaline on survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ian G; Finn, Judith C; Jelinek, George A; Oxer, Harry F; Thompson, Peter L

    2011-09-01

    There is little evidence from clinical trials that the use of adrenaline (epinephrine) in treating cardiac arrest improves survival, despite adrenaline being considered standard of care for many decades. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of adrenaline on patient survival to hospital discharge in out of hospital cardiac arrest. We conducted a double blind randomised placebo-controlled trial of adrenaline in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Identical study vials containing either adrenaline 1:1000 or placebo (sodium chloride 0.9%) were prepared. Patients were randomly allocated to receive 1 ml aliquots of the trial drug according to current advanced life support guidelines. Outcomes assessed included survival to hospital discharge (primary outcome), pre-hospital return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and neurological outcome (Cerebral Performance Category Score - CPC). A total of 4103 cardiac arrests were screened during the study period of which 601 underwent randomisation. Documentation was available for a total of 534 patients: 262 in the placebo group and 272 in the adrenaline group. Groups were well matched for baseline characteristics including age, gender and receiving bystander CPR. ROSC occurred in 22 (8.4%) of patients receiving placebo and 64 (23.5%) who received adrenaline (OR=3.4; 95% CI 2.0-5.6). Survival to hospital discharge occurred in 5 (1.9%) and 11 (4.0%) patients receiving placebo or adrenaline respectively (OR=2.2; 95% CI 0.7-6.3). All but two patients (both in the adrenaline group) had a CPC score of 1-2. Patients receiving adrenaline during cardiac arrest had no statistically significant improvement in the primary outcome of survival to hospital discharge although there was a significantly improved likelihood of achieving ROSC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of calcium acetate on serum phosphorus concentrations in patients with advanced non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chiang-Hong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD contributes to secondary hyperparathyroidism, soft tissue calcification, and increased mortality risk. This trial was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of calcium acetate in controlling serum phosphorus in pre-dialysis patients with CKD. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 110 nondialyzed patients from 34 sites with estimated GFR 2 and serum phosphorus > 4.5 mg/dL were randomized to calcium acetate or placebo for 12 weeks. The dose of study drugs was titrated to achieve target serum phosphorus of 2.7-4.5 mg/dL. Serum phosphorus, calcium, iPTH, bicarbonate and serum albumin were measured at baseline and every 2 weeks for the 12 week study period. The primary efficacy endpoint was serum phosphorus at 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints were to measure serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels. Results At 12 weeks, serum phosphorus concentration was significantly lower in the calcium acetate group compared to the placebo group (4.4 ± 1.2 mg/dL vs. 5.1 ± 1.4 mg/dL; p = 0.04. The albumin-adjusted serum calcium concentration was significantly higher (9.5 ± 0.8 vs. 8.8 ± 0.8; p p Conclusions In CKD patients not yet on dialysis, calcium acetate was effective in reducing serum phosphorus and iPTH over a 12 week period. Trial Registration www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00211978.

  13. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of sublingual immunotherapy in children with house dust mite allergy in primary care: study design and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jongste Johan C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For respiratory allergic disorders in children, sublingual immunotherapy has been developed as an alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy. Sublingual immunotherapy is more convenient, has a good safety profile and might be an attractive option for use in primary care. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was designed to establish the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergen compared to placebo treatment in 6 to18-year-old children with allergic rhinitis and a proven house dust mite allergy in primary care. Described here are the methodology, recruitment phases, and main characteristics of the recruited children. Methods Recruitment took place in September to December of 2005 and 2006. General practitioners (in south-west Netherlands selected children who had ever been diagnosed with allergic rhinitis. Children and parents could respond to a postal invitation. Children who responded positively were screened by telephone using a nasal symptom score. After this screening, an inclusion visit took place during which a blood sample was taken for the RAST test. Results A total of 226 general practitioners invited almost 6000 children: of these, 51% was male and 40% Conclusion Our study was designed in accordance with recent recommendations for research on establishing the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy; 98% of the target sample size was achieved. This study is expected to provide useful information on sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergen in primary care. The results on efficacy and safety are expected to be available by 2010. Trial registration the trial is registered as ISRCTN91141483 (Dutch Trial Register

  14. Intraoperative local infiltration analgesia for early analgesia after total hip arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, Troels H; Husted, Henrik; Solgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    : High-volume local infiltration analgesia (LIA) is widely applied as part of a multimodal pain management strategy in total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, methodological problems hinder the exact interpretation of previous trials, and the evidence for LIA in THA remains to be clarified. Theref...

  15. Yukmijihwang-tang for the treatment of xerostomia in the elderly: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-center trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gajin; Park, Jae-Woo; Ko, Seok-Jae; Son, Jihee; Seon, Jongki; Kim, Juyeon; Kim, Seulki; Yeo, Inkwon; Ryu, Bongha; Kim, Jinsung

    2013-09-03

    Xerostomia, a subjective sense of dry mouth, is not generally regarded a disease despite its high prevalence among the elderly, and therefore continues to impair affected patients' quality of life. In traditional Korean medicine, 'Yin-Deficiency' has been implicated in the pathogenesis of xerostomia among the elderly. Yukmijihwang-tang is a famous herbal prescription used to relieve 'Yin-Deficiency', and reportedly has antioxidant effects; therefore, it is postulated that Yukmijihwang-tang can be used to treat xerostomia in the elderly. However, to our knowledge, no clinical trial has been conducted on the effects of Yukmijihwang-tang on xerostomia. Thus, we designed a randomized clinical trial to investigate the effects and safety of Yukmijihwang-tang on xerostomia in the elderly. In addition, we will clarify the aforementioned assumption that 'Yin-Deficiency' is the major cause of xerostomia in the elderly by identifying a correlation between xerostomia and 'Yin-Deficiency'. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will be carried out at two centers: Kyung Hee University Korean Medicine Hospital and Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong. We will recruit 96 subjects aged 60-80 years who have experienced xerostomia for 3 months prior to participation. Subjects who present with score >40 on the visual analogue scale for xerostomia and unstimulated salivary flow rate under 0.3mL/min will be included and the randomization will be carried out by an independent statistician by using a random number creation program. The subjects and all researchers except the statistician will be blinded to the group assignment. Yukmijihwang-tang or placebo will be administered to each group for 8 weeks. The primary outcome is change in the scores for the visual analogue scale for xerostomia and the dry mouth symptom questionnaire from 0 to 8 weeks. It will be assessed whether Yukmijihwang-tang can be used as a new herbal treatment for xerostomia in the elderly by

  16. A double blind, randomised placebo controlled trial of topical 2% viscous lidocaine in improving oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopper Sandy M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Painful infectious mouth conditions are a common presentation to emergency departments. Although self limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and can lead to dehydration. Oral analgesia is of limited efficacy and is often refused by the patient. Despite widespread use of oral 2% viscous lidocaine for many years, there is little evidence for its efficacy as an analgesic and in aiding oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions. This study aims to establish the effectiveness of 2% viscous lidocaine in increasing oral intake in these children by comparing it with placebo. Methods/Design This study is a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of children between 6 months and 8 years of age with painful infectious mouth conditions defined as gingivostomatitis (herpetic or non herpetic, ulcerative pharyngitis, herpangina and hand foot and mouth disease as assessed by the treating clinician in association with a history of poor oral fluid intake. It will be conducted at a single tertiary paediatric emergency department in Melbourne Australia. 20 patients have already been randomised to receive 2% lidocaine or placebo in a pilot study to determine the sample size in a preplanned adaptive design. A further 80 patients will be randomised to receive either 2% lidocaine or placebo. The placebo agent is identical to lidocaine in terms of appearance, flavour and smell. All clinical and research staff involved, patients and their parents will be blinded to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint is the amount of fluid ingested by each child, expressed in ml/kg, within 60 minutes from the time of administration of the study mixture. Secondary endpoints are the proportion of patients ingesting 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg at 30 and 60 minutes after drug administration and the incidence of adverse events. Longer term outcomes will include the proportion of patients requiring

  17. Effectiveness of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for the Prevention of Nosocomial Diarrhea in Children: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbańska, Magdalena; Gieruszczak-Białek, Dorota; Szymański, Henryk; Szajewska, Hania

    2016-02-01

    Multiple studies of probiotics used to prevent nosocomial diarrhea have provided conflicting results. The effects likely depend on the probiotic strain and/or dosage. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (L. reuteri; daily dose of 1 × 10 colony forming units) for preventing nosocomial diarrhea in children. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 184 children, 1-48 months of age, admitted to the hospital for reasons other than diarrhea. A computer-generated randomization scheme was used to allocate participants to receive either L. reuteri (n = 91) at a daily dose of 1 × 10 colony forming units, for the duration of hospitalization, or an identical appearing placebo (n = 93). Patients, study personnel and data analysts were blinded to assignment. The primary outcome was the occurrence of nosocomial diarrhea (≥3 loose or watery stools in 24 hours that occurred >72 hours after admission). Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Baseline characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. Nosocomial diarrhea occurred in 13 (7.1%) children. No difference was found between the L. reuteri and the placebo groups (7/91 vs 6/93, respectively; relative risk: 1.19; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-3.27). There was also no difference between the L. reuteri and placebo groups for any of the secondary outcomes, including adverse effects. Rotavirus vaccination status had no effect on the results. L. reuteri in the dosage regimen used was not effective in preventing nosocomial diarrhea in children.

  18. The Belgian trial with azithromycin for acute COPD exacerbations requiring hospitalization: an investigator-initiated study protocol for a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeersch K

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kristina Vermeersch,1 Maria Gabrovska,2 Griet Deslypere,3 Ingel K Demedts,4 Hans Slabbynck,5 Joseph Aumann,3 Vincent Ninane,2 Geert M Verleden,1 Thierry Troosters,1,6 Kris Bogaerts,7,8 Guy G Brusselle,9 Wim Janssens1 On behalf of the BACE Trial Investigators 1KU Leuven, Laboratory of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Leuven, Belgium; 2Department of Pneumology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Pierre, Brussels, Belgium; 3Department of Pneumology, Jessa Ziekenhuis, Hasselt, Belgium; 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, AZ Delta Roeselare-Menen, Roeselare, Belgium; 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, ZNA Middelheim, Antwerpen, Belgium; 6KU Leuven, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, Leuven, Belgium; 7KU Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, I-BioStat, Leuven, Belgium; 8Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium; 9Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium Background: Long-term use of macrolide antibiotics is effective to prevent exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. As risks and side effects of long-term intervention outweigh the benefits in the general COPD population, the optimal dose, duration of treatment, and target population are yet to be defined. Hospitalization for an acute exacerbation (AE of COPD may offer a targeted risk group and an obvious risk period for studying macrolide interventions.Methods/design: Patients with COPD, hospitalized for an AE, who have a smoking history of ≥10 pack-years and had ≥1 exacerbation in the previous year will be enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (NCT02135354. On top of a standardized treatment of systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics, subjects will be randomized to receive either azithromycin or placebo during 3 months, at an uploading dose of 500 mg once a day for

  19. Effects of long-term treatment with oxytocin in chronic constipation; a double blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, B; Truedsson, M; Bengtsson, M; Torstenson, R; Sjölund, K; Björnsson, E S; Simrèn, M

    2005-10-01

    Oxytocin and its receptor have been found throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where it affects gut function. Clinically, we have noticed an improvement of bowel habits during lactation in constipated women. The aim of this study was to examine whether oxytocin has an effect on bowel symptoms and psychological well being in women with refractory constipation. Fifty-nine women with refractory constipation were included in a double blind, multicentre study. After a 2-week run-in period, they were randomly allocated to nasal inhalation of either placebo or oxytocin treatment twice daily for 13 weeks, followed by a 2 weeks, posttreatment period. The patients completed a questionnaire every day concerning bowel habits, abdominal pain and discomfort, and Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale (GSRS) and Psychological General Well-being (PGWB) twice during the study; namely, during the baseline period and at the end of the treatment period. Both oxytocin and placebo led to improvement of the constipation according to the GSRS and led to improvement in the sensation of incomplete evacuation and anorectal obstruction, without significant differences between the groups. Abdominal pain and discomfort responded weakly to oxytocin, with no effect of the placebo. In a subgroup of patients with IBS and concomitant depression, a weak improvement in depressed mood was observed after oxytocin administartion. Nasal administration of oxytocin had no significant advantage over placebo concerning an effect on constipation. However, it seems to have a positive effect on abdominal pain and discomfort and depressed mood. These findings should be further explored.

  20. Efficacy and safety of retapamulin ointment as treatment of impetigo: randomized double-blind multicentre placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, S; van der Wouden, J C; Chosidow, O; Twynholm, M; Singh, K P; Scangarella, N; Oranje, A P

    2008-05-01

    Impetigo is a common skin infection, primarily caused by Staphylococcus aureus and mainly occurring in children. It is usually treated topically with antibiotics to achieve a quick cure and prevent spread of the infection. Worldwide, resistance rates of S. aureus against commonly used antibiotics are rising. Retapamulin belongs to a newly developed class of antibiotics for the treatment of uncomplicated skin infections. Our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of topical application of retapamulin ointment with topical placebo ointment in the treatment of primary impetigo. In a randomized, double-blind, multicentre study, patients received either topical retapamulin ointment 1% twice daily for 5 days or topical placebo. Patients were enrolled into the study for 14 days and attended the clinic for three visits during which clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed. Two hundred and thirteen patients were randomized, with 139 evaluable patients in the retapamulin group and 71 in the placebo group. Based on the primary efficacy endpoint of clinical response after 7 days (intention to treat), retapamulin ointment was superior to placebo (success rate 85.6% vs. 52.1%; Pimpetigo, offering a new treatment option.

  1. Recombinant human growth hormone and rosiglitazone for abdominal fat accumulation in HIV-infected patients with insulin resistance: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall J Glesby

    Full Text Available Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT volume in HIV-infected patients but can worsen glucose homeostasis and lipoatrophy. We aimed to determine if adding rosiglitazone to rhGH would abrogate the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity (SI and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT volume.Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial using a 2×2 factorial design in which HIV-infected subjects with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, rosiglitazone 4 mg twice daily, combination rhGH + rosiglitazone, or double placebo (control for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in SI by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test from entry to week 12. Body composition was assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and dual Xray absorptiometry (DEXA. Seventy-seven subjects were randomized of whom 72 initiated study drugs. Change in SI from entry to week 12 differed across the 4 arms by 1-way ANCOVA (P = 0.02; by pair-wise comparisons, only rhGH (decreasing SI; P = 0.03 differed significantly from control. Changes from entry to week 12 in fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve on 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test differed across arms (1-way ANCOVA P = 0.004, increasing in the rhGH arm relative to control. VAT decreased significantly in the rhGH arms (-17.5% in rhGH/rosiglitazone and -22.7% in rhGH but not in the rosiglitazone alone (-2.5% or control arms (-1.9%. SAT did not change significantly in any arm. DEXA results were consistent with the MRI data. There was no significant rhGH x rosiglitazone interaction for any body composition parameter.The addition of rosiglitazone abrogated the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance while not significantly modifying the lowering effect of rhGH on VAT.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00130286.

  2. Recombinant human growth hormone and rosiglitazone for abdominal fat accumulation in HIV-infected patients with insulin resistance: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesby, Marshall J; Albu, Jeanine; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Ham, Kirsis; Engelson, Ellen; He, Qing; Muthukrishnan, Varalakshmi; Ginsberg, Henry N; Donovan, Daniel; Ernst, Jerry; Lesser, Martin; Kotler, Donald P

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume in HIV-infected patients but can worsen glucose homeostasis and lipoatrophy. We aimed to determine if adding rosiglitazone to rhGH would abrogate the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity (SI) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial using a 2×2 factorial design in which HIV-infected subjects with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, rosiglitazone 4 mg twice daily, combination rhGH + rosiglitazone, or double placebo (control) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in SI by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test from entry to week 12. Body composition was assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual Xray absorptiometry (DEXA). Seventy-seven subjects were randomized of whom 72 initiated study drugs. Change in SI from entry to week 12 differed across the 4 arms by 1-way ANCOVA (P = 0.02); by pair-wise comparisons, only rhGH (decreasing SI; P = 0.03) differed significantly from control. Changes from entry to week 12 in fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve on 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test differed across arms (1-way ANCOVA P = 0.004), increasing in the rhGH arm relative to control. VAT decreased significantly in the rhGH arms (-17.5% in rhGH/rosiglitazone and -22.7% in rhGH) but not in the rosiglitazone alone (-2.5%) or control arms (-1.9%). SAT did not change significantly in any arm. DEXA results were consistent with the MRI data. There was no significant rhGH x rosiglitazone interaction for any body composition parameter. The addition of rosiglitazone abrogated the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance while not significantly modifying the lowering effect of rhGH on VAT. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00130286.

  3. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a physiotherapy program for chronic rotator cuff pathology: A protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, Kim; Coburn, Sally; Wee, Elin; Green, Sally; Harris, Anthony; Forbes, Andrew; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic rotator cuff pathology (CRCP) is a common shoulder condition causing pain and disability. Physiotherapy is often the first line of management for CRCP yet there is little conclusive evidence to support or refute its effectiveness and no formal evaluation of its cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will involve 200 participants with CRCP recruited from medical practices, outpatient departments and the community via print and radio media. Participants will be randomly allocated to a physiotherapy or placebo group using concealed allocation stratified by treating physiotherapist. Both groups will receive 10 sessions of individual standardised treatment over 10 weeks from one of 10 project physiotherapists. For the following 12 weeks, the physiotherapy group will continue a home exercise program and the placebo group will receive no treatment. The physiotherapy program will comprise shoulder joint and spinal mobilisation, soft tissue massage, postural taping, and home exercises for scapular control, posture and rotator cuff strengthening. The placebo group will receive inactive ultrasound and gentle application of an inert gel over the shoulder region. Blinded assessment will be conducted at baseline and at 10 weeks and 22 weeks after randomisation. The primary outcome measures are self reported questionnaires including the shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI), average pain on an 11-point numeric rating scale and participant perceived global rating of change. Secondary measures include Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form (SF-36), Assessment of Quality of Life index, numeric rating scales for shoulder pain and stiffness, participant perceived rating of change for pain, strength and stiffness, and manual muscle testing for shoulder strength using a handheld dynamometer. To evaluate cost-effectiveness, participants will record the use of all health-related treatments in a log

  4. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a physiotherapy program for chronic rotator cuff pathology: A protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Anthony

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic rotator cuff pathology (CRCP is a common shoulder condition causing pain and disability. Physiotherapy is often the first line of management for CRCP yet there is little conclusive evidence to support or refute its effectiveness and no formal evaluation of its cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will involve 200 participants with CRCP recruited from medical practices, outpatient departments and the community via print and radio media. Participants will be randomly allocated to a physiotherapy or placebo group using concealed allocation stratified by treating physiotherapist. Both groups will receive 10 sessions of individual standardised treatment over 10 weeks from one of 10 project physiotherapists. For the following 12 weeks, the physiotherapy group will continue a home exercise program and the placebo group will receive no treatment. The physiotherapy program will comprise shoulder joint and spinal mobilisation, soft tissue massage, postural taping, and home exercises for scapular control, posture and rotator cuff strengthening. The placebo group will receive inactive ultrasound and gentle application of an inert gel over the shoulder region. Blinded assessment will be conducted at baseline and at 10 weeks and 22 weeks after randomisation. The primary outcome measures are self reported questionnaires including the shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI, average pain on an 11-point numeric rating scale and participant perceived global rating of change. Secondary measures include Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form (SF-36, Assessment of Quality of Life index, numeric rating scales for shoulder pain and stiffness, participant perceived rating of change for pain, strength and stiffness, and manual muscle testing for shoulder strength using a handheld dynamometer. To evaluate cost-effectiveness, participants will record the use of all health

  5. A double blind, randomised placebo controlled trial of topical 2% viscous lidocaine in improving oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Sandy M; Babl, Franz E; McCarthy, Michelle; Tancharoen, Chasari; Lee, Katherine J; Oakley, Ed

    2011-11-21

    Painful infectious mouth conditions are a common presentation to emergency departments. Although self limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and can lead to dehydration. Oral analgesia is of limited efficacy and is often refused by the patient. Despite widespread use of oral 2% viscous lidocaine for many years, there is little evidence for its efficacy as an analgesic and in aiding oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions. This study aims to establish the effectiveness of 2% viscous lidocaine in increasing oral intake in these children by comparing it with placebo. This study is a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of children between 6 months and 8 years of age with painful infectious mouth conditions defined as gingivostomatitis (herpetic or non herpetic), ulcerative pharyngitis, herpangina and hand foot and mouth disease as assessed by the treating clinician in association with a history of poor oral fluid intake. It will be conducted at a single tertiary paediatric emergency department in Melbourne Australia.20 patients have already been randomised to receive 2% lidocaine or placebo in a pilot study to determine the sample size in a preplanned adaptive design. A further 80 patients will be randomised to receive either 2% lidocaine or placebo. The placebo agent is identical to lidocaine in terms of appearance, flavour and smell. All clinical and research staff involved, patients and their parents will be blinded to treatment allocation.The primary endpoint is the amount of fluid ingested by each child, expressed in ml/kg, within 60 minutes from the time of administration of the study mixture. Secondary endpoints are the proportion of patients ingesting 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg at 30 and 60 minutes after drug administration and the incidence of adverse events. Longer term outcomes will include the proportion of patients requiring hospital admission and length of emergency department stay

  6. Study protocol for a single-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial of Tianjiu effects in patients with intradialytic hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Yen; Su, Yu-Jen; Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Chen, Shih-Yu; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Wu, Chien-Hsing; Chen, Yung-Hsiang

    2016-03-10

    Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is the most frequent complication of haemodialysis (HD) and may contribute to cardiovascular events and high mortality. The aetiology of IDH is multifactorial; therefore, it remains a challenging problem in the management of patients with HD. Since the application of Tianjiu at specific points can influence haemodynamics, we hypothesise that Tianjiu therapy at the traditionally used meridian points will reduce the severity of hypotension in patients who undergo HD. In this clinical trial, eligible patients with IDH will be divided randomly and equally into a Tianjiu group and a control group for 4 weeks. In the Tianjiu group, the patients will have Tianjiu applied at three points (conception vessel 4, and bilateral kidney 1) during each HD session. In the control group, patients will have clay patches applied in the same way as those in the Tianjiu treatment group. Both groups will be followed up for 2 weeks. The primary outcome measure will be the percentage of target ultrafiltration achieved, defined as the actual ultrafiltration volume divided by the target ultrafiltration volume. Secondary outcome measures, including frequency of IDH episodes and number of nursing interventions during HD sessions, predialysis and postdialysis blood pressure (BP), patient's participative assessment of the degree of fatigue after dialysis (scale from 0, not at all, to 10, extremely), and recovery time from fatigue after dialysis will be recorded at the 0th and 4th weeks. This trial has undergone ethical scrutiny and been approved by the ethics review board of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (Permission number: 102-4749A3 and 104-3156C). The pre-results of this trial will help to determine whether Tianjiu is an effective and safe treatment for IDH, and, if so, whether it is a therapeutic effect rather than a placebo effect. NCT02210377; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  7. Does glyceryl nitrate prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis? A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Hornum, Mads; Elkjaer, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Acute pancreatitis is the most dreaded complication of ERCP. Two studies have shown a significant effect of glyceryl nitrate (GN) in preventing post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). We wanted to evaluate this promising effect in a larger study with a realistically precalculated incidence of PEP...... (PL) was an identical-looking patch applied before ERCP. A total of 401 patients received GN; 405 received PL. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients had PEP (5.8%), 18 (4.5%) in the GN group and 29 (7.1%) in the PL group. The relative risk reduction of PEP in the GN group of 36% (95% CI, 11%-65%) compared...... (P = .006) were more common in the GN group. Significant variables predictive of PEP were not having biliary stones extracted; hypotension after ERCP; morphine, propofol, glucagon, and general anesthesia during the procedure; or no sufentanil during the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The trial showed...

  8. Lithium trial in Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter 10-week study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hampel, Harald

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lithium, a first-line drug for the treatment of bipolar depression, has recently been shown to regulate glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a kinase that is involved in the phosphorylation of the tau protein. Since hyperphosphorylation of tau is a core pathological feature in Alzheimer\\'s disease, lithium-induced inhibition of GSK-3 activity may have therapeutic effects in Alzheimer\\'s disease. In the current study, we tested the effect of short-term lithium treatment in patients with Alzheimer\\'s disease. METHOD: A total of 71 patients with mild Alzheimer\\'s disease (Mini-Mental State Examination score > or = 21 and < or = 26) were successfully randomly assigned to placebo (N = 38) or lithium treatment (N = 33) at 6 academic expert memory clinics. The 10-week treatment included a 6-week titration phase to reach the target serum level of lithium (0.5-0.8 mmol\\/L). The primary outcome measures were cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and GSK-3 activity in lymphocytes. Secondary outcome measures were CSF concentration of total tau and beta-amyloid(1-42) (Abeta(1-42)), plasma levels of Abeta(1-42), Alzheimer\\'s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS)-Cognitive summary scores, MMSE, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Patients were enrolled in the study from November 2004 to July 2005. RESULTS: No treatment effect on GSK-3 activity or CSF-based biomarker concentrations (P > .05) was observed. Lithium treatment did not lead to change in global cognitive performance as measured by the ADAS-Cog subscale (P = .11) or in depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The current results do not support the notion that lithium treatment may lead to reduced hyperphosphorylation of tau protein after a short 10-week treatment in the Alzheimer\\'s disease target population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: (Controlled-Trials.com) Identifier: ISRCTN72046462.

  9. Rivastigmine in apathetic but dementia and depression-free patients with Parkinson's disease: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, David; Moreau, Caroline; Maltête, David; Lefaucheur, Romain; Kreisler, Alexandre; Eusebio, Alexandre; Defer, Gilles; Ouk, Thavarak; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Witjas, Tatiana; Delliaux, Marie; Destée, Alain; Duhamel, Alain; Bordet, Régis; Defebvre, Luc; Dujardin, Kathy

    2014-06-01

    Even with optimal dopaminergic treatments, many patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are frequently incapacitated by apathy prior to the development of dementia. We sought to establish whether rivastigmine's ability to inhibit acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterases could relieve the symptoms of apathy in dementia-free, non-depressed patients with advanced PD. We performed a multicentre, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial (Protocol ID: 2008-002578-36; clinicaltrials.gov reference: NCT00767091) in patients with PD with moderate to severe apathy (despite optimised dopaminergic treatment) and without dementia. Patients from five French university hospitals were randomly assigned 1:1 to rivastigmine (transdermal patch of 9.5 mg/day) or placebo for 6 months. The primary efficacy criterion was the change over time in the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS) score. 101 consecutive patients were screened, 31 were eligible and 16 and 14 participants were randomised into the rivastigmine and placebo groups, respectively. Compared with placebo, rivastigmine improved the LARS score (from -11.5 (-15/-7) at baseline to -20 (-25/-12) after treatment; F(1, 25)=5.2; p=0.031; adjusted size effect: -0.9). Rivastigmine also improved the caregiver burden and instrumental activities of daily living but failed to improve quality of life. No severe adverse events occurred in the rivastigmine group. Rivastigmine may represent a new therapeutic option for moderate to severe apathy in advanced PD patients with optimised dopaminergic treatment and without depression dementia. These findings require confirmation in a larger clinical trial. Our results also confirmed that the presence of apathy can herald a pre-dementia state in PD. Clinicaltrials.gov reference: NCT00767091.

  10. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase III Chemoprevention Trial of Selenium Supplementation in Patients With Resected Stage I Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: ECOG 5597

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Daniel D.; Lee, Sandra J.; Keller, Steven M.; Wright, Gail Shaw; Aisner, Seena; Belinsky, Steven Alan; Johnson, David H.; Johnston, Michael R.; Goodman, Gary; Clamon, Gerald; Okawara, Gordon; Marks, Randolph; Frechette, Eric; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Lippman, Scott M.; Ruckdeschel, John; Khuri, Fadlo R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Selenium has been reported to have chemopreventive benefits in lung cancer. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs) in patients with resected non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving selenium supplementation. Patients and Methods Patients with completely resected stage I NSCLC were randomly assigned to take selenized yeast 200 μg versus placebo daily for 48 months. Participation was 6 to 36 months postoperatively and required a negative mediastinal node biopsy, no excessive vitamin intake, normal liver function, negative chest x-ray, and no other evidence of recurrence. Results The first interim analysis in October 2009, with 46% of the projected end points accumulated, showed a trend in favor of the placebo group with a low likelihood that the trial would become positive; thus, the study was stopped. One thousand seven hundred seventy-two participants were enrolled, with 1,561 patients randomly assigned. Analysis was updated in June 2011 with the maturation of 54% of the planned end points. Two hundred fifty-two SPTs (from 224 patients) developed, of which 98 (from 97 patients) were lung cancer (38.9%). Lung and overall SPT incidence were 1.62 and 3.54 per 100 person-years, respectively, for selenium versus 1.30 and 3.39 per 100 person-years, respectively, for placebo (P = .294). Five-year disease-free survival was 74.4% for selenium recipients versus 79.6% for placebo recipients. Grade 1 to 2 toxicity occurred in 31% of selenium recipients and 26% of placebo recipients, and grade ≥ 3 toxicity occurred in less than 2% of selenium recipients versus 3% of placebo recipients. Compliance was excellent. No increase in diabetes mellitus or skin cancer was detected. Conclusion Selenium was safe but conferred no benefit over placebo in the prevention of SPT in patients with resected NSCLC. PMID:24002495

  11. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III chemoprevention trial of selenium supplementation in patients with resected stage I non-small-cell lung cancer: ECOG 5597.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Daniel D; Lee, Sandra J; Keller, Steven M; Wright, Gail Shaw; Aisner, Seena; Belinsky, Steven Alan; Johnson, David H; Johnston, Michael R; Goodman, Gary; Clamon, Gerald; Okawara, Gordon; Marks, Randolph; Frechette, Eric; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Lippman, Scott M; Ruckdeschel, John; Khuri, Fadlo R

    2013-11-20

    Selenium has been reported to have chemopreventive benefits in lung cancer. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs) in patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving selenium supplementation. Patients with completely resected stage I NSCLC were randomly assigned to take selenized yeast 200 μg versus placebo daily for 48 months. Participation was 6 to 36 months postoperatively and required a negative mediastinal node biopsy, no excessive vitamin intake, normal liver function, negative chest x-ray, and no other evidence of recurrence. The first interim analysis in October 2009, with 46% of the projected end points accumulated, showed a trend in favor of the placebo group with a low likelihood that the trial would become positive; thus, the study was stopped. One thousand seven hundred seventy-two participants were enrolled, with 1,561 patients randomly assigned. Analysis was updated in June 2011 with the maturation of 54% of the planned end points. Two hundred fifty-two SPTs (from 224 patients) developed, of which 98 (from 97 patients) were lung cancer (38.9%). Lung and overall SPT incidence were 1.62 and 3.54 per 100 person-years, respectively, for selenium versus 1.30 and 3.39 per 100 person-years, respectively, for placebo (P = .294). Five-year disease-free survival was 74.4% for selenium recipients versus 79.6% for placebo recipients. Grade 1 to 2 toxicity occurred in 31% of selenium recipients and 26% of placebo recipients, and grade ≥ 3 toxicity occurred in less than 2% of selenium recipients versus 3% of placebo recipients. Compliance was excellent. No increase in diabetes mellitus or skin cancer was detected. Selenium was safe but conferred no benefit over placebo in the prevention of SPT in patients with resected NSCLC.

  12. The Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Signaling Pathway of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Hemodialysis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad Kashani, Hamed; Seyed Hosseini, Elahe; Nikzad, Hossein; Soleimani, Alireza; Soleimani, Maryam; Tamadon, Mohammad Reza; Keneshlou, Fariba; Asemi, Zatollah

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on signaling pathway of inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted among 60 diabetic HD patients. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups to intake either vitamin D supplements at a dosage of 50,000 IU ( n = 30) or placebo ( n = 30) every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. Gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and biomarkers of oxidative stress were assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of diabetic HD patients with RT-PCR method. Results: Results of RT-PCR indicated that after the 12-week intervention, compared to the placebo, vitamin D supplementation downregulated gene expression of interleukin (IL)-1β ( P = 0.02), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) ( P = 0.02) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) ( P = 0.03) in PBMCs of diabetic HD patients. Additionally, vitamin D supplementation, compared to the placebo, downregulated gene expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) ( P = 0.04), protein kinase C (PKC) ( P = 0.001), and mitogen-activated protein kinases 1 (MAPK1) ( P = 0.02) in PBMCs of diabetic HD patients. Although not significant, vitamin D supplementation let to a reduction of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) ( p = 0.75) expression in PBMCs isolated from diabetic patients compared to the placebo group. There was no statistically significant change following supplementation with vitamin D on gene expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in PBMCs of diabetic HD patients. Conclusions: Overall, we found that vitamin D supplementation for 12 weeks among diabetic HD patients had beneficial effects on few gene expression related to inflammation and oxidative stress. Clinical trial registration: IRCT201701035623N101. Registered on January 8, 2017.

  13. Effect of probiotic fermented milk (kefir) on glycemic control and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Taghizadeh, Akbar; Mobasseri, Majid; Farrin, Nazila; Payahoo, Laleh; Beyramalipoor Gheshlaghi, Zahra; Vahedjabbari, Morteza

    2015-02-01

    Diabetes is a global health problem in the world. Probiotic food has anti-diabetic property. The aim of this trial was to determine the effect of probiotic fermented milk (kefir) on glucose and lipid profile control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 diabetic patients aged 35 to 65 years.Patients were randomly and equally (n=30) assigned to consume either probiotic fermented milk (kefir) or conventional fermented milk (dough) for 8 weeks. Probiotic group consumed 600 ml/day probiotic fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria and control group consumed 600 ml/day conventional fermented milk.Blood samples tested for fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C at the baseline and end of the study. The comparison of fasting blood glucose between two groups after intervention was statistically significant (P=0.01). After intervention, reduced HbA1C compared with the baseline value in probiotic fermented milk group was statistically significant (P=0.001), also the HbA1C level significantly decreased in probiotic group in comparison with control group (P=0.02) adjusting for serum levels of glucose, baseline values of HbA1c and energy intake according to ANCOVA model. Serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL- cholesterol levels were not shown significant differences between and within the groups after intervention. Probiotic fermented milk can be useful as a complementary or adjuvant therapy in the treatment of diabetes.

  14. Effects of rhubarb (Rheum ribes L.) syrup on dysenteric diarrhea in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiveh, Ali; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Shakiba, Mehrdad; Lotfi, Mohammad Hassan; Shakeri, Afsaneh; Kazemeini, SeidKazem; Mousavi, Zohre; Jabbari, Marzie; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Emtiazy, Majid

    2017-09-01

    Rheum ribes L. is a plant native to China, Iran, Turkey, India, and a few other countries. Antidiarrheal activity is considered to be one of its important properties according to various systems of traditional medicine. An increasing rate of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has led to treatment failure in some cases of shigellosis in children, and underlines a need for safe, efficient and valid options. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of R. ribes syrup as a complementary medicine for treatment of shigellosis in children. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial started with a group of 150 children aged between 12-72 months with suspected Shigella dysentery. R. ribes syrup or placebo syrup was administered to the intervention and control groups, respectively for 5 days. In addition, the standard antibiotic treatment (ceftriaxone for the first 3 days and cefixime syrup for 2 further days) was administered to both groups. Body temperature, abdominal pain, need for antipyretics, defecation frequency, stool volume and consistency and microscopic stool examination were recorded as outcome measures. Any observed adverse effects were also recorded. Mean duration of fever and diarrhea in the R. ribes group was significantly lower than that in the placebo group (P = 0.016 and 0.001, respectively). In addition, patients in the R. ribes group showed shorter duration of need for antipyretics and shorter duration of abdominal pain (P = 0.012 and 0.001, respectively). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the microscopic stool analyses. Furthermore, no adverse effect was reported. R. ribes syrup can be recommended as a complementary treatment for children with Shigella dysentery. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial: IRCT2014070518356N1.

  15. A pilot double-blind randomised placebo-controlled dose-response trial assessing the effects of melatonin on infertility treatment (MIART): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Shavi; Osianlis, Tiki; Vollenhoven, Beverley; Wallace, Euan; Rombauts, Luk

    2014-09-01

    High levels of oxidative stress can have considerable impact on the outcomes of in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Recent studies have reported that melatonin, a neurohormone secreted from the pineal gland in response to darkness, has significant antioxidative capabilities which may protect against the oxidative stress of infertility treatment on gametes and embryos. Early studies of oral melatonin (3-4 mg/day) in IVF have suggested favourable outcomes. However, most trials were poorly designed and none have addressed the optimum dose of melatonin. We present a proposal for a pilot double-blind randomised placebo-controlled dose-response trial aimed to determine whether oral melatonin supplementation during ovarian stimulation can improve the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology. We will recruit 160 infertile women into one of four groups: placebo (n=40); melatonin 2 mg twice per day (n=40); melatonin 4 mg twice per day (n=40) and melatonin 8 mg twice per day (n=40). The primary outcome will be clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary clinical outcomes include oocyte number/quality, embryo number/quality and fertilisation rate. We will also measure serum melatonin and the oxidative stress marker, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine at baseline and after treatment and levels of these in follicular fluid at egg pick-up. We will investigate follicular blood flow with Doppler ultrasound, patient sleepiness scores and pregnancy complications, comparing outcomes between groups. This protocol has been designed in accordance with the SPIRIT 2013 Guidelines. Ethical approval has been obtained from Monash Health HREC (Ref: 13402B), Monash University HREC (Ref: CF14/523-2014000181) and Monash Surgical Private Hospital HREC (Ref: 14107). Data analysis, interpretation and conclusions will be presented at national and international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. ACTRN12613001317785. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  16. Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of a Vero-cell-culture-derived trivalent influenza vaccine: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, P Noel; Berezuk, Gregory; Fritsch, Sandor; Aichinger, Gerald; Hart, Mary Kate; El-Amin, Wael; Kistner, Otfried; Ehrlich, Hartmut J

    2011-02-26

    The use of cell-culture technologies for the manufacture of influenza vaccines might contribute to improved strain selection and robust vaccine supplies. We investigated the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of a Vero-cell-culture-derived influenza vaccine, and assessed the correlation between vaccine efficacy and haemagglutination inhibition antibody titre. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial undertaken in 36 centres in the USA, healthy adults (aged 18-49 years) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to one injection of either placebo or Vero-cell-culture-derived influenza vaccine during the 2008-09 season. Randomisation was done in blocks by use of the random number generator algorithm, and participants were allocated by use of a centralised telephone system. The primary objective was the efficacy of the vaccine in preventing cell-culture-confirmed influenza infection with viruses that were antigenically matched to one of the vaccine strains. Analysis was by intention to treat. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00566345. 7250 participants were randomly assigned to vaccine (n=3626) and placebo (n=3624). 7236 were analysed for the primary outcome (n=3619 and n=3617, respectively). Overall protective efficacy for antigenically matched influenza infection was 78·5% (95% CI 60·8-88·2). The vaccine was well tolerated with no treatment-related serious adverse events. Adverse events were mainly mild and transient. An HI titre of at least 1:15 provided a reliable correlate of cell-culture-derived influenza vaccine-induced protection; no additional benefit was noted with titres greater than 1:30. The data indicate that existing correlates of protection afforded with egg-derived seasonal influenza vaccines also apply to this vaccine. Federal (US Government) funds from the Office for Preparedness and Response, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, under contract to DynPort Vaccine Company. Copyright

  17. Skin-whitening and skin-condition-improving effects of topical oxidized glutathione: a double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial in healthy women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumiko; Hashizume, Erika; Chan, Gertrude P; Kamimura, Ayako

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Glutathione is a tripeptide consisting of cysteine, glycine, and glutamate and functions as a major antioxidant. It is synthesized endogenously in humans. Glutathione protects thiol protein groups from oxidation and is involved in cellular detoxification for maintenance of the cell environment. Reduced glutathione (GSH) has a skin-whitening effect in humans through its tyrosinase inhibitory activity, but in the case of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) this effect is unclear. We examined the skin-whitening and skin-condition effects of topical GSSG in healthy women. Subjects and methods The subjects were 30 healthy adult women aged 30 to 50 years. The study design was a randomized, double-blind, matched-pair, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Subjects applied GSSG 2% (weight/weight [w/w]) lotion to one side of the face and a placebo lotion to the other side twice daily for 10 weeks. We objectively measured changes in melanin index values, moisture content of the stratum corneum, smoothness, wrinkle formation, and elasticity of the skin. The principal investigator and each subject also used subjective scores to investigate skin whitening, wrinkle reduction, and smoothness. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences between groups. Results The skin melanin index was significantly lower with GSSG treatment than with placebo from the early weeks after the start of the trial through to the end of the study period (at 10 weeks, P<0.001). In addition, in the latter half of the study period GSSG-treated sites had significant increases in moisture content of the stratum corneum, suppression of wrinkle formation, and improvement in skin smoothness. There were no marked adverse effects from GSSG application. Conclusion Topical GSSG is safe and effectively whitens the skin and improves skin condition in healthy women. PMID:25378941

  18. Effect of intravenous immunoglobulin on steroid consumption in patients with severe asthma: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmun, L M; Barlan, I; Wolf, H M; Eibl, M; Twarog, F J; Geha, R S; Schneider, L C

    1999-05-01

    There is a significant group of patients with severe asthma who require chronic use of systemic steroids for control of their disease. These patients are at risk for severe side effects from oral steroids. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has immunomodulatory properties, and a few open-label trials have suggested its possible benefit in individuals with severe asthma. This study was designed to assess the potential benefit of IVIG as a steroid-sparing agent in patients with severe asthma. Thirty-eight immunocompetent steroid-requiring patients with severe asthma were randomly enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of IVIG. Of the 38 patients enrolled, 28 patients completed the study. A significant reduction in oral steroid requirement was observed in both the IVIG-treated (n = 16) and the placebo-treated (n = 12) patients. Further exploration of the results showed that IVIG, but not placebo, had a significant steroid-sparing effect in patients requiring high doses of oral steroids (ie, >2000 mg in the year before the study). Within this subgroup, IVIG treatment (n = 9) resulted in a significant decrease in oral steroid requirement, with a median of 16.4 mg/day during the pretreatment period to 3 mg/day during the treatment phase (P =. 0078). No significant decrease in oral steroid requirement was observed in placebo-treated patients (n = 8) within this subgroup. Objective and subjective parameters of the patients' asthma were unchanged in spite of the steroid tapering achieved in the group treated with IVIG. IVIG may be a useful steroid-sparing agent in patients with severe asthma requiring high doses of oral steroids.

  19. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a highly purified equine F(ab)2 antibody black widow spider antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Richard C; Bogdan, Gregory; Heard, Kennon; Bucher Bartelson, Becki; Garcia-Ubbelohde, Walter; Bush, Sean; Arnold, Tom; Clark, Richard C; Hendey, Gregory W; Holstege, Christopher; Spradley, Elizabeth A

    2013-04-01

    Black widow spider antivenom has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial, to our knowledge. We explore various efficacy measures for a novel F(ab)2 antivenom in patients with moderate to severe pain caused by black widow spider envenomation. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial was conducted in 12 academic emergency departments. We included patients at least 10 years old with moderate to severe latrodectism. Subjects received either a single intravenous infusion of antivenom or placebo. Pain was assessed with the visual analog scale. The primary efficacy outcome was the difference in pre- and posttreatment visual analog scale score. Prospectively defined secondary outcomes included treatment failures and time to clinically important decrease in pain. Twenty-four subjects were enrolled between October 2005 and October 2006; 13 were randomized to antivenom and 11 to placebo. The median change in visual analog scale at 150 minutes posttreatment was -50.0 mm (Interquartile Range [IQR] -67, -41 mm) in the antivenom treatment group and -46.0 mm (IQR -51, 0 mm) in the placebo treatment group (P=.14). There were 7 treatment failures (64%; 95% confidence interval 35% to 92%) in the placebo group and 3 (23%; 95% confidence interval 0.2% to 46%) in the antivenom group (P=.06). The median time to a clinically important decrease in pain after treatment was shorter in the antivenom group compared with the placebo group (30 minutes [IQR 30, 60 minutes] versus 90 minutes [IQR 30, 90 minutes]; P=.03). No serious adverse events or deaths were reported. Although the overall reduction in pain was similar for antivenom- and placebo-treated subjects, antivenom reduced pain more rapidly than placebo. No significant adverse events occurred in either group. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  20. Agave Inulin Supplementation Affects the Fecal Microbiota of Healthy Adults Participating in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holscher, Hannah D; Bauer, Laura L; Gourineni, Vishnupriya; Pelkman, Christine L; Fahey, George C; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Prebiotics resist digestion, providing fermentable substrates for select gastrointestinal bacteria associated with health and well-being. Agave inulin differs from other inulin type fibers in chemical structure and botanical origin. Preclinical animal research suggests these differences affect bacterial utilization and physiologic outcomes. Thus, research is needed to determine whether these effects translate to healthy adults. We evaluated agave inulin utilization by the gastrointestinal microbiota by measuring fecal fermentative end products and bacterial taxa. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-period, crossover trial was undertaken in healthy adults (n = 29). Participants consumed 0, 5.0, or 7.5 g agave inulin/d for 21 d with 7-d washouts between periods. Participants recorded daily dietary intake; fecal samples were collected during days 16-20 of each period and were subjected to fermentative end product analysis and 16S Illumina sequencing. Fecal Actinobacteria and Bifidobacterium were enriched (P inulin/d, respectively, compared with control. Desulfovibrio were depleted 40% with agave inulin compared with control. Agave inulin tended (P inulin (g/kcal) and Bifidobacterium (r = 0.41, P inulin/d) per kilocalorie was positively associated with fecal butyrate (r = 0.30, P = 0.005), tended to be positively associated with Bifidobacterium (r = 0.19, P = 0.08), and was negatively correlated with Desulfovibrio abundance (r = -0.31, P = 0.004). Agave inulin supplementation shifted the gastrointestinal microbiota composition and activity in healthy adults. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether the observed changes translate into health benefits in human populations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01925560. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Lactobacillus reuteri supplements do not affect salivary IgA or cytokine levels in healthy subjects: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; Keller, Mette Kirstine; Kragelund, Camilla; Hamberg, Kristina; Ericson, Dan; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Twetman, Svante

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of daily ingestion of probiotic lactobacilli on the levels of secretory IgA (sIgA) and selected cytokines in whole saliva of healthy young adults. The study group consisted of 47 healthy adults (18-32 years) who volunteered for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial after informed consent. During intervention, the subjects ingested two lozenges per day containing two strains of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) or placebo lozenges. The intervention and wash-out periods were 3 weeks. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, immediately after each intervention period and 3 weeks post-intervention. ELISA was used to measure sIgA and luminex technology was used to measure the interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. For statistical analyses a mixed ANOVA model was employed to calculate changes in the salivary outcome variables. Forty-one subjects completed the study and reported a good compliance. No significant differences in the concentrations of salivary sIgA or cytokines were recorded between the L. reuteri and placebo interventions or between baseline and 3 weeks post-intervention levels. No side- or adverse effects were reported. Supplementation with two strains of the probiotic L. reuteri did not affect sIgA or cytokine levels in whole saliva in healthy young adults. The results thereby indicate that daily oral supplementation with L. reuteri do not seem to modulate the salivary oral immune response in healthy young subjects (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02017886).

  2. Effect of Melatonin on Cognitive Function and Sleep in relation to Breast Cancer Surgery: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Voigt Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction are common in patients with breast cancer. Disturbed sleep leads to poor cognitive performance and exogenous melatonin may improve sleep and attenuate cognitive dysfunction. We hypothesized that melatonin would improve sleep and cognitive function after surgery. Methods. This study reports secondary endpoints from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Women, 30–75 years, were randomized to 6mg oral melatonin/placebo for 3 months. We assessed postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD with a neuropsychological test battery, sleep with a diary, and sleep quality with VAS. Results. 54 patients were randomized to melatonin (n=28 or placebo (n=26; 11 withdrew (10 placebo, 1 melatonin, P=0.002. The incidence of POCD was 0% (0/20 [95% CI 0.0%; 16.8%] in the placebo group and 0% (0/26 [95% CI 0.0%; 13.2%] in the melatonin group 2 weeks postoperatively (P=1.00 and 6.3% (1/16 [95% CI 0.0%; 30.2%] in the placebo group and 0% (0/26 [95% CI 0.0%; 13.2%] in the melatonin group 12 weeks postoperatively (P=0.38. Sleep efficiency was significantly greater in the melatonin group; mean difference was 4.28% [95% CI 0.57; 7.82] (P=0.02. The total sleep period was significantly longer in the melatonin group; mean difference was 37.0 min [95% CI 3.6; 69.7] (P=0.03. Conclusion. Melatonin increased sleep efficiency and total sleep time but did not affect cognitive function. The dropout rate was significantly lower in the melatonin group. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01355523.

  3. Effect of Melatonin on Cognitive Function and Sleep in relation to Breast Cancer Surgery: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt; Madsen, Michael Tvilling; Andersen, Lærke Toftegård; Hageman, Ida; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Bokmand, Susanne; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Background. Sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction are common in patients with breast cancer. Disturbed sleep leads to poor cognitive performance and exogenous melatonin may improve sleep and attenuate cognitive dysfunction. We hypothesized that melatonin would improve sleep and cognitive function after surgery. Methods. This study reports secondary endpoints from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Women, 30-75 years, were randomized to 6mg oral melatonin/placebo for 3 months. We assessed postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) with a neuropsychological test battery, sleep with a diary, and sleep quality with VAS. Results. 54 patients were randomized to melatonin (n = 28) or placebo (n = 26); 11 withdrew (10 placebo, 1 melatonin, P = 0.002). The incidence of POCD was 0% (0/20) [95% CI 0.0%; 16.8%] in the placebo group and 0% (0/26) [95% CI 0.0%; 13.2%] in the melatonin group 2 weeks postoperatively (P = 1.00) and 6.3% (1/16) [95% CI 0.0%; 30.2%] in the placebo group and 0% (0/26) [95% CI 0.0%; 13.2%] in the melatonin group 12 weeks postoperatively (P = 0.38). Sleep efficiency was significantly greater in the melatonin group; mean difference was 4.28% [95% CI 0.57; 7.82] (P = 0.02). The total sleep period was significantly longer in the melatonin group; mean difference was 37.0 min [95% CI 3.6; 69.7] (P = 0.03). Conclusion. Melatonin increased sleep efficiency and total sleep time but did not affect cognitive function. The dropout rate was significantly lower in the melatonin group. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01355523.

  4. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Low-Dose Sertraline in Young Children With Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiss Hess, Laura; Fitzpatrick, Sarah E; Nguyen, Danh V; Chen, Yanjun; Gaul, Kimberly N; Schneider, Andrea; Lemons Chitwood, Kerrie; Eldeeb, Marwa Abd Al Azaim; Polussa, Jonathan; Hessl, David; Rivera, Susan; Hagerman, Randi J

    2016-10-01

    Observational studies and anecdotal reports suggest that sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, may improve language development in young children with fragile X syndrome (FXS). The authors evaluated the efficacy of 6 months of treatment with low-dose sertraline in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 52 children with FXS aged 2 to 6 years. Eighty-one subjects were screened for eligibility, and 57 were randomized to sertraline (27) or placebo (30). Two subjects from the sertraline arm and 3 from the placebo arm discontinued. Intent-to-treat analysis showed no difference from placebo on the primary outcomes: the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) expressive language (EL) age equivalent and Clinical Global Impression Scale-Improvement. However, analyses of secondary measures showed significant improvements, particularly in motor and visual perceptual abilities and social participation. Sertraline was well tolerated, with no difference in side effects between sertraline and placebo groups. No serious adverse events occurred. This randomized controlled trial of 6 months of sertraline treatment showed no primary benefit with respect to early EL development and global clinical improvement. However, in secondary exploratory analyses, there were significant improvements seen on motor and visual perceptual subtests, the cognitive T score sum on the MSEL, and on one measure of social participation on the Sensory Processing Measure-Preschool. Furthermore, post hoc analysis found significant improvement in early EL development as measured by the MSEL among children with autism spectrum disorder on sertraline. Treatment appears safe for this 6-month period in young children with FXS, but the authors do not know the long-term side effects of this treatment. These results warrant further studies of sertraline in young children with FXS using refined outcome measures as well as longer term follow-up studies to address long-term side effects of

  5. Bupropion for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence in non-daily users: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ann L; Li, Shou-Hua; Markova, Denka; Holmes, Tyson H; Chiang, Nora; Kahn, Roberta; Campbell, Jan; Dickerson, Daniel L; Galloway, Gantt P; Haning, William; Roache, John D; Stock, Christopher; Elkashef, Ahmed M

    2015-05-01

    Bupropion was tested for efficacy to achieve methamphetamine (MA) abstinence in dependent, non-daily users. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, with 12-week treatment and 4-week follow-up, was conducted with 204 treatment-seeking participants having MA dependence per DSM-IV, who used MA on a less-than-daily basis. 104 were randomized to matched placebo and 100 to bupropion, sustained-release 150mg, twice daily. Participants were seen three times weekly to obtain urine for MA and bupropion assays, study assessments, and thrice weekly, 90-min, group psychotherapy. There was no biomarker for placebo adherence. The primary outcome was achievement of abstinence throughout the last two weeks of treatment; 'success' requiring at least two urine samples during each of Weeks 11 and 12, and all samples MA-negative (treatment (chi-square, p=0.32). Subgroup analysis of participants with lower baseline MA use (≤18 of last 30 days before consent) also revealed no difference in success between groups (p=0.73). Medication adherence per protocol (detectable bupropion, >5ng/mL, in ≥50% of urine samples from Study Weeks 1-10 and ≥66% of urine samples from Weeks 11 to 12) was achieved by 47% of participants taking bupropion. These data indicate that bupropion did not increase abstinence in dependent participants who were using MA less-than-daily. Medication non-adherence was a limitation in this trial. Psychosocial therapy remains the mainstay of treatment for MA dependence. Further research on subgroups who may respond to bupropion may be warranted. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Multisite, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of buspirone as a relapse-prevention treatment for cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winhusen, Theresa M; Kropp, Frankie; Lindblad, Robert; Douaihy, Antoine; Haynes, Louise; Hodgkins, Candace; Chartier, Karen; Kampman, Kyle M; Sharma, Gaurav; Lewis, Daniel F; VanVeldhuisen, Paul; Theobald, Jeff; May, Jeanine; Brigham, Gregory S

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the potential efficacy of buspirone as a relapse-prevention treatment for cocaine dependence. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 16-week pilot trial was conducted at 6 clinical sites between August 2012 and June 2013. Adult crack cocaine users meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for current cocaine dependence who were scheduled to be in inpatient/residential substance use disorder (SUD) treatment for 12-19 days when randomized and planning to enroll in local outpatient treatment through the end of the active treatment phase were randomized to buspirone titrated to 60 mg/d (n = 35) or placebo (n = 27). All participants received psychosocial treatment as usually provided by the SUD treatment programs in which they were enrolled. Outcome measures included maximum days of continuous cocaine abstinence (primary), proportion of cocaine use days, and days to first cocaine use during the outpatient treatment phase (study weeks 4-15) as assessed by self-report and urine drug screens. There were no significant treatment effects on maximum continuous days of cocaine abstinence or days to first cocaine use. In the female participants (n = 23), there was a significant treatment-by-time interaction effect (χ²₁ = 15.26, P P = .70). The results suggest that buspirone is unlikely to have a beneficial effect on preventing relapse to cocaine use and that buspirone for cocaine-dependent women may worsen their cocaine use outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01641159. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  7. Influence of the Chungkookjang on histamine-induced wheal and flare skin response: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Dae-Young

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Allergic disease is a consequence of exposure to normally innocuous substances that elicit the activation of mast cells. Mast-cell-mediated allergic response is involved in many diseases such as anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergic rhinitis, asthma and allergic dermatitis. The development of food products for the prevention of allergic disease is an important subject in human health. The chungkookjang (CKJ has been reported to exhibit antiallergic inflammatory activity. Therefore, the aim of the study is to examine the effects of the CKJ to reduce histamine-induced wheal and flare skin responses. Methods/Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 60 healthy subjects will be carried out. Sixty volunteers (aged 20-80 who gave a written consent before entering the study will be randomized in two groups of thirty subjects each. The skin prick test with histamine solution of 10 mg/ml will be performed on the ventral forearm, 10 cm from the elbow. The subjects will be instructed to take 35 g per day of either the CKJ pills or a placebo pills for a period of 3 months. Diameters of wheal and flare will be assessing 15 minutes after performing the above-mentioned skin prick test. The primary outcome is change in wheal and flare responses. Secondary outcomes will be include change in serum histamine, immunoglobulin E, cytokines (interferon-gamma, interleukin-4, -10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and eosinophil cationic protein. Discussion This study will show the potential anti-inflammatory properties of the CKJ in their skin activity when histamine is the challenging agent as occurs in the clinical situation. And the present protocol will confirm the efficacy and safety of the CKJ for allergy symptoms, suggesting more basic knowledge to conduct further randomized controlled trials (RCT. If this study will be successfully performed, the CKJ will be an alternative dietary supplemental remedy for allergy patients

  8. Intravenous Ibuprofen for Treatment of Post-Operative Pain: A Multicenter, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escontrela Rodriguez, Blanca; Planas Roca, Antonio; Martínez Ruiz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are often used as components of multimodal therapy for postoperative pain management, but their use is currently limited by its side effects. The specific objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new formulation of intravenous (IV) ibuprofen for the management of postoperative pain in a European population. Methods and Findings A total of 206 patients from both abdominal and orthopedic surgery, were randomly assigned in 1:1 ratio to receive 800 mg IV-ibuprofen or placebo every 6 hours; all patients had morphine access through a patient controlled analgesia pump. The primary outcome measure was median morphine consumption within the first 24 hours following surgery. The mean±SEM of morphine requirements was reduced from 29,8±5,25 mg to 14,22±3,23 mg (p = 0,015) and resulted in a decrease in pain at rest (p = 0,02) measured by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) from mean±SEM 3.34±0,35 to 0.86±0.24, and also in pain during movement (p = 0,02) from 4.32±0,36 to 1.90±0,30 in the ibuprofen treatment arm; while in the placebo group VAS score at rest ranged from 4.68±0,40 to 2.12±0,42 and during movement from 5.66±0,42 to 3.38±0,44. Similar treatment-emergent adverse events occurred across both study groups and there was no difference in the overall incidence of these events. Conclusions Perioperative administration of IV-Ibuprofen 800 mg every 6 hours in abdominal surgery patient’s decreases morphine requirements and pain score. Furthermore IV-Ibuprofen was safe and well tolerate. Consequently we consider appropriate that protocols for management of postoperative pain include IV-Ibuprofen 800 mg every 6 hours as an option to offer patients an analgesic benefit while reducing the potentially risks associated with morphine consumption. Trial Registration EU Clinical Trials Register 2011-005007-33 PMID:27152748

  9. Ursodeoxycholic acid for treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis: a placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuers, U.; Spengler, U.; Kruis, W.; AYDEMIR, U.; WIEBECKE, B.; HELDWEIN, W.; WEINZIERL, M.; Pape, G. R.; Sauerbruch, T.; Paumgartner, G.

    1992-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of ursodeoxycholic acid for the treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis were evaluated in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fourteen patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis documented by cholestatic serum enzyme pattern, liver

  10. Modafinil for the treatment of fatigue in lung cancer: results of a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spathis, Anna; Fife, Kate; Blackhall, Fiona; Dutton, Susan; Bahadori, Ronja; Wharton, Rose; O'Brien, Mary; Stone, Patrick; Benepal, Tim; Bates, Nick; Wee, Bee

    2014-06-20

    Fatigue is a distressing symptom occurring in more than 60% of patients with cancer. The CNS stimulants modafinil and methylphenidate are recommended for the treatment of cancer-related fatigue, despite a limited evidence base. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of modafinil in the management of fatigue in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Adults with advanced NSCLC and performance status of 0 to 2, who were not treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy within the last 4 weeks, were randomly assigned to daily modafinil (100 mg on days 1 to 14; 200 mg on days 15 to 28) or matched placebo. The primary outcome was change in Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) -Fatigue score from baseline to 28 days, adjusted for baseline fatigue and performance status. Secondary outcomes included safety and patient-reported measures of depression, daytime sleepiness, and quality of life. A total of 208 patients were randomly assigned, and 160 patients (modafinil, n = 75; placebo, n = 85) completed questionnaires at both baseline and day 28 and were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. FACIT-Fatigue scores improved from baseline to day 28 (mean score change: modafinil, 5.29; 95% CI, 2.57 to 8.02; placebo, 5.09; 95% CI, 2.54 to 7.65), but there was no difference between treatments (0.20; 95% CI, -3.56 to 3.97). There was also no difference between treatments for the secondary outcomes; 47% of the modafinil group and 23% of the placebo group stated that the intervention was not helpful. Modafinil had no effect on cancer-related fatigue and should not be prescribed outside a clinical trial setting. Its use was associated with a clinically significant placebo effect. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  11. Escitalopram treatment for depressive disorder following acute coronary syndrome: a 24-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Min; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Stewart, Robert; Jung, Bo-Ok; Kang, Hee-Ju; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Ju Han; Shin, Hee-Young; Kang, Gaeun; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Jong-Keun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Depression is common after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and has adverse effects on prognosis. There are few evidence-based interventions for treating depression in ACS. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of escitalopram in treating depressive disorders identified 2-14 weeks after a confirmed ACS episode. A total of 217 patients with DSM-IV depressive disorders (121 major and 96 minor) and ACS were randomly assigned to receive escitalopram in flexible doses of 5-20 mg/d (n = 108) or placebo (n = 109) for 24 weeks. The study was conducted from 2007 to 2013. The primary outcome measure was the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Secondary outcome measures included the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale (CGI-S), Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-12. Cardiovascular safety outcomes included echocardiography, electrocardiography, laboratory test, body weight, and blood pressure results. Escitalopram was superior to placebo in reducing HDRS scores (mean difference = 2.3, P = .016, effect size = 0.38). Escitalopram was also superior to placebo in decreasing depressive symptoms evaluated by the MADRS, BDI, and CGI-S and in improving SOFAS functioning level. Escitalopram was not associated with any harmful changes in cardiovascular safety measures. Dizziness was significantly more frequently reported in the escitalopram group (P = .018), but there were no significant differences in any other adverse events. These results indicate that escitalopram has clinically meaningful antidepressant effects with no evidence of reduced cardiovascular safety in depressive disorder following ACS. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00419471. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. Optimal dose of intra-articular corticosteroids for adhesive capsulitis: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Young; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kwack, Kyu-Sung

    2013-05-01

    Intra-articular corticosteroid injection is a commonly used therapy for adhesive capsulitis, but there are only few studies that compare the efficacy of corticosteroids according to different doses. To determine whether intra-articular injections with a high-dose corticosteroid improves pain and function in patients with adhesive capsulitis better than a low dose or a placebo. Randomized controlled clinical trial; Level of evidence, 1. Participants (n = 53) with primary adhesive capsulitis in the freezing stage were randomly assigned to receive ultrasound-guided intra-articular injections with 40 mg triamcinolone acetonide (high-dose group, n = 20), 20 mg triamcinolone acetonide (low-dose group, n = 20), or placebo (n = 13). After a single injection, participants were all instructed to carry out a home exercise program. The outcome measures included the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), visual analog scale (VAS) for average shoulder pain level, and passive range of motion including flexion, abduction, extension, external rotation, and internal rotation before treatment and at weeks 1, 3, 6, and 12 after treatment. There were no significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline between the 3 groups. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc tests showed improvement in SPADI and VAS scores and in flexion, abduction, and internal rotation especially for the low- and high-dose groups compared with the placebo. Yet, no significant difference was found between the 2 different corticosteroid dose groups. We assessed the efficacy of corticosteroid injections according to 2 different doses that are most widely used in intra-articular injections for adhesive capsulitis. This study shows that there were no significant differences between the high- and low-dose corticosteroid groups, indicating the preferred use of a low dose in the initial stage.

  13. Beneficial effects of dark chocolate on exercise capacity in sedentary subjects: underlying mechanisms. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Pam R; Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; Patel, Minal; Higginbotham, Erin; Moreno-Ulloa, Aldo; Román-Pintos, Luis Miguel; Phillips, Paul; Perkins, Guy; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2016-09-14

    In heart failure patients the consumption of (-)-epicatechin ((-)-Epi)-rich cocoa can restore skeletal muscle (SkM) mitochondrial structure and decrease biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, nothing is known about its effects on exercise capacity and underlying mechanisms in normal, sedentary subjects. Twenty normal, sedentary subjects (∼50 years old) were randomized to placebo or dark chocolate (DC) groups and consumed 20 g of the products for 3 months. Subjects underwent before and after treatment, bicycle ergometry to assess VO2 max and work, SkM biopsy to assess changes in mitochondrial density, function and oxidative stress and blood sampling to assess metabolic endpoints. Seventeen subjects completed the trial. In the DC group (n = 9), VO2 max increased (17% increase, p = 0.056) as well as maximum work (watts) achieved (p = 0.026) with no changes with placebo (n = 8). The DC group evidenced increases in HDL levels (p = 0.005) and decreased triglycerides (p = 0.07). With DC, SkM evidenced significant increases in protein levels for LKB1, AMPK and PGC1α and in their active forms (phosphorylated AMPK and LKB1) as well as in citrate synthase activity while no changes were observed in mitochondrial density. With DC, significant increases in SkM reduced glutathione levels and decreases in protein carbonylation were observed. Improvements in maximum work achieved and VO2 max may be due to DC activation of upstream control systems and enhancement of SkM mitochondria efficiency. Larger clinical studies are warranted to confirm these observations.

  14. Low-dose ketamine infusion for labor analgesia: A double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Joel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most primary and secondary level hospitals in developing countries provide inadequate labor analgesia due to various medical, technical and economic reasons. This clinical trial was an effort to study the efficacy, safety and feasibility of intravenous (IV ketamine to provide labor analgesia. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 parturients were consented and randomly assigned to receive either IV ketamine or 0.9% saline. A loading dose of ketamine (0.2 mg/kg was followed-by an infusion (0.2 mg/kg/h until the delivery of the neonate. Similar volume of saline was infused in the placebo-group. Intramuscular meperidine was the rescue analgesic in both groups. The pain score, hemodynamic parameters of mother and fetus and the anticipated side-effects of ketamine were observed for. The newborn was assessed by the Neonatologist. Results: The pain score showed a decreasing trend in the ketamine group and after the 1 st h more than 60% of women in the ketamine group had pain relief, which was statistically significant. There was no significant clinical change in the maternal hemodynamics and fetal heart rate. However, 17 (48.5% of them had transient light headedness in the ketamine group. All the neonates were breast fed and the umbilical cord blood pH was between 7.1 and 7.2. The overall satisfaction was significantly high in the intervention group (P = 0.028. Conclusion: A low-dose ketamine infusion (loading dose of 0.2 mg/kg delivered over 30 min, followed-by an infusion at 0.2 mg/kg/h could provide acceptable analgesia during labor and delivery.

  15. Double blind placebo controlled exposure to molds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H W; Jensen, K A; Nielsen, K F

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to develop an experimental setup for human exposure to mold spores, and to study the clinical effect of this exposure in sensitive subjects who had previously experienced potentially building-related symptoms (BRS) at work. From three water-damaged schools eight employees...... with a positive histamine release test to Penicillium chrysogenum were exposed double- blinded to either placebo, approximately 600,000 spores/m3 air of P. chrysogenum or approximately 350,000 spores/m3 of Trichoderma harzianum for 6 min on three separate days. A statistically significant rise in symptoms from...... mucous membranes appeared from the 9-graded symptom scale after exposure to T. harzianum or placebo. Dichotomizing the data, whether the participants experienced at least a two-step rise on the symptom scale or not, gave borderline increase in mucous membrane symptoms after exposure to P. chrysogenum...

  16. Long-term treatment with ruxolitinib for patients with myelofibrosis: 5-year update from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 COMFORT-I trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdan Verstovsek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 COMFORT-I trial evaluated the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib in patients with intermediate-2/high-risk myelofibrosis. The primary and planned 3-year analyses of COMFORT-I data demonstrated that ruxolitinib—the first myelofibrosis-approved therapy—reduced splenomegaly and prolonged overall survival versus placebo. Here, we present the final 5-year results. Methods Patients managed in Australia, Canada, and the USA were randomized centrally (interactive voice response system 1:1 to oral ruxolitinib twice daily (15 or 20 mg per baseline platelet counts or placebo. Investigators and patients were blinded to treatment. The secondary endpoints evaluated in this analysis were durability of a ≥35% reduction from baseline in spleen volume (spleen response and overall survival, evaluated in the intent-to-treat population. Safety was evaluated in patients who received study treatment. Results Patients were randomized (September 2009–April 2010 to ruxolitinib (n = 155 or placebo (n = 154. At termination, 27.7% of ruxolitinib-randomized patients and 25.2% (28/111 who crossed over from placebo were on treatment; no patients remained on placebo. Patients randomized to ruxolitinib had a median spleen response duration of 168.3 weeks and prolonged median overall survival versus placebo (ruxolitinib group, not reached; placebo group, 200 weeks; HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.50–0.96; P = 0.025 despite the crossover to ruxolitinib. The ruxolitinib safety profile remained consistent with previous analyses. The most common new-onset all-grade nonhematologic adverse events starting <12 versus ≥48 months after ruxolitinib initiation were fatigue (29.0 vs 33.3% and diarrhea (27.8 vs 14.6%. New-onset grade 3 or 4 anemia and thrombocytopenia both primarily occurred within the first 6 months, with no cases after 42 months. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event

  17. Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Metabolic Status in Pregnant Women: a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, Mehri; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Vahedpoor, Zahra; Salmani, Ali; Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, Maryam; Jafari, Parvaneh; Hashemi Dizaji, Shahrzad; Asemi, Zatollah

    2016-10-01

    Limited data is available on the effects of multispecies probiotic supplementation on metabolic status in pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy. The current study was carried out to determine the effects of multispecies probiotic capsule supplementation on metabolic status among pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy. A randomized clinical trial was conducted among 60 pregnant women aged 18-37 years. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: group A (n = 30) received multispecies probiotic supplements containing three probiotic bacteria spices Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum (2 × 109 CFU/g each) and group B (n = 30) received placebo from 9 weeks of gestation for a duration of 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study and after 12 weeks of intervention to determine metabolic profiles, inflammatory cytokines and biomarkers of oxidative stress. After 12 weeks of intervention, compared to the placebo group, the pregnant women who consumed probiotic capsule had significantly decreased serum insulin concentrations (-1.5 ± 4.8 vs. +1.3 ± 5.2 µIU/mL, P = 0.03), the homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-0.3 ± 0.9 vs. +0.3 ± 1.1, P = 0.04), the homeostasis model of assessment-estimated b cell function (HOMA-B) (-7.2 ± 23.1 vs. +5.3 ± 22.6, P = 0.03) and increased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (+0.01 ± 0.05 vs. -0.01 ± 0.02, P = 0.03). In addition, changes in serum triglycerides levels (-14.7 ± 46.5 vs. +37.3 ± 74.2 mg/dL, P = 0.002), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (-1.0 ± 2.6 vs. +1.7 ± 4.3 mg/L, P = 0.004), plasma nitric oxide (NO) (+6.8 ± 9.3 vs. -4.7 ± 7.4 µmol/L, P probiotic supplementation for 12 weeks among pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy had beneficial effects on markers of insulin metabolism, triglycerides, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.

  18. Red clover-derived isoflavones and mammographic breast density: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN42940165

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, Charlotte; Warren, Ruth ML; Sala, Evis; Dowsett, Mitch; Dunning, Alison M; Healey, Catherine S; Runswick, Shirley; Day, Nicholas E; Bingham, Sheila A

    2004-01-01

    Isoflavones are hypothesized to protect against breast cancer, but it is not clear whether they act as oestrogens or anti-oestrogens in breast tissue. Our aim was to determine the effects of taking a red clover-derived isoflavone supplement daily for 1 year on mammographic breast density. Effects on oestradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), lymphocyte tyrosine kinase activity and menopausal symptoms were also assessed. A total of 205 women (age range 49–65 years) with Wolfe P2 or DY mammographic breast patterns were randomly assigned to receive either a red clover-derived isoflavone tablet (26 mg biochanin A, 16 mg formononetin, 1 mg genistein and 0.5 mg daidzein) or placebo. Change in mammographic breast density, serum oestradiol, FSH, LH, menopausal symptoms and lymphocyte tyrosine kinase activity from baseline to 12 months were assessed. A total of 177 women completed the trial. Mammographic breast density decreased in both groups but the difference between the treatment and placebo was not statistically significant. There was a significant interaction between treatment group and oestrogen receptor (ESR1) PvuII polymorphism for the change in estimated percentage breast density (mean ± standard deviation): TT isoflavone 1.4 ± 12.3% and TT placebo -9.6 ± 14.2%; CT isoflavone -5.2 ± 12.0% and CT placebo -2.8 ± 10.3%; and CC isoflavone -3.4 ± 9.7% and CC placebo -1.1 ± 9.5%. There were no statistically significant treatment effects on oestradiol, FSH, or LH (assessed only in postmenopausal women), or on lymphocyte tyrosine kinase activity. Baseline levels of menopausal symptoms were low, and there were no statistically significant treatment effects on frequency of hot flushes or other menopausal symptoms. In contrast to studies showing that conventional hormone replacement therapies increase mammographic breast density, the isoflavone supplement did not increase mammographic breast density in this population of women

  19. The efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream for dry skin and itch relief: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial- study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Moisturisers prevent and treat dry skin. They can also protect sensitive skin, improve skin tone and texture, and mask imperfections. Herbal medicines or their extracts have been available as topical formulations and cosmetics. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) has been used to treat inflammatory disorders and various skin problems. It could be a candidate herbal medicine for treating dry skin condition. This study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract, which has been approved by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for use in cosmetics. Methods/Designs This study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with two parallel groups (proposed herbal moisturising cream vs. placebo cream). We will recruit 66 healthy male and female participants, aged 20 to 65 years, who have been diagnosed with dry skin conditions. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either the proposed herbal moisturising cream or a placebo cream for four weeks. Each participant will be examined for signs and symptoms before and after using the cream. Skin hydration, sebum (oily secretion) levels and transepidermal water loss (TEWL; constitutive loss of water from the skin surface) will be assessed. Participants will also be asked to fill out a health-related quality of life questionnaire. Safety will be assessed using blood tests, urine analysis, a pregnancy test, and the assessment of vital signs. Discussion This trial will utilise high-quality methodologies in accordance with both consolidated standards for reporting trials guidelines and the guidelines for clinical trials of cosmetics products that are aimed at expressions and advertisement approval in Korea. It will evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract to treat dry skin conditions and provide itch relief. Moreover, we will also employ

  20. Vorinostat in patients with advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma who have progressed on previous chemotherapy (VANTAGE-014): a phase 3, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Lee M; Kindler, Hedy L; Calvert, Hilary; Manegold, Christian; Tsao, Anne S; Fennell, Dean; Öhman, Ronny; Plummer, Ruth; Eberhardt, Wilfried E E; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Gaafar, Rabab M; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Hillerdal, Gunnar; Chu, Quincy; Buikhuisen, Wieneke A; Lubiniecki, Gregory M; Sun, Xing; Smith, Margaret; Baas, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Vorinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that changes gene expression and protein activity. On the basis of the clinical benefit reported in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma treated in a phase 1 study of vorinostat, we designed this phase 3 trial to investigate whether vorinostat given as a second-line or third-line therapy improved patients' overall survival. This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial was done in 90 international centres. Patients with measurable advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma and disease progression after one or two previous systemic regimens were eligible. After stratification for Karnofsky performance status, histology, and number of previous chemotherapy regimens, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by use of an interactive voice response system with a block size of four to either treatment with vorinostat or placebo. Patients received oral vorinostat 300 mg (or matching placebo) twice daily on days 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, and 17 of a 21-day cycle. The primary endpoints were overall survival and safety and tolerability of vorinostat. The primary efficacy comparison was done in the intention-to-treat population, and safety and tolerability was assessed in the treated population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00128102. From July 12, 2005, to Feb 14, 2011, 661 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either vorinostat (n=329) or placebo (n=332) and included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Median overall survival for vorinostat was 30·7 weeks (95% CI 26·7-36·1) versus 27·1 weeks (23·1-31·9) for placebo (hazard ratio 0·98, 95% CI 0·83-1·17, p=0·86). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events for patients treated with vorinostat were fatigue or malaise (51 [16%] patients in the vorinostat group vs 25 [8%] in the placebo group]) and dyspnoea (35 [11%] vs 45 [14%]). In this randomised trial, vorinostat given as a second-line or third

  1. Use of a fermented dairy probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei (DN-114 001) to decrease the rate of illness in kids: the DRINK study A patient-oriented, double-blind, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Merenstein, D; Murphy, M; Fokar, A; Hernandez, R K; Park, H; Nsouli, H; Sanders, M E; Davis, B A; Niborski, V; Tondu, F; Shara, N M

    2010-01-01

    Background: To evaluate whether a fermented dairy drink containing the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 could reduce the incidence of common infectious diseases (CIDs) and the change of behavior because of illness in children. Subjects/Methods: We conducted a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled allocation concealment clinical trial in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Participants were 638 children 3?6 years old in daycare/schools. The intervention was a fermente...

  2. REFINE-1, a Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 3 Trial With ATX-101, an Injectable Drug for Submental Fat Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Derek H; Carruthers, Jean; Joseph, John H; Callender, Valerie D; Walker, Patricia; Lee, Daniel R; Subramanian, Meenakshi; Lizzul, Paul F; Gross, Todd M; Beddingfield, Frederick C

    2016-01-01

    ATX-101, an injectable form of deoxycholic acid, is approved in the United States and Canada for submental fat (SMF) reduction. To report results of REFINE-1, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 trial investigating the efficacy and safety of ATX-101. Subjects dissatisfied with their moderate or severe SMF received ATX-101 (2 mg/cm) or placebo. Coprimary outcome measures were composite ≥1-grade and ≥2-grade improvements in clinician-assessed and subject-assessed SMF severity using validated scales at 12 weeks after last treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provided an objective measure of submental volume reduction. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed. Among 256 ATX-101-treated and 250 placebo-treated subjects, a ≥1-grade composite response was achieved in 70.0% and 18.6%, and a ≥2-grade composite response in 13.4% and 0%, respectively (p ATX-101 than placebo (46.3% vs 5.3%; p ATX-101-treated subjects reported improvement in the psychological impact of SMF and satisfaction with treatment (p ATX-101-treated subjects reported 1-grade improvement in clinician-assessed SMF after 2 and 4 treatments, respectively. Adverse events (primarily localized to the injection site) were mostly mild or moderate, and transient. Marginal mandibular nerve paresis reported in 4.3% of ATX-101-treated subjects (1.0% of all ATX-101 treatment sessions) was mostly mild, transient, and resolved without sequelae. ATX-101 is a safe and efficacious, first-in-class, injectable drug for SMF reduction.

  3. The effect of continuous ultrasound on chronic non-specific low back pain: a single blind placebo-controlled randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders around the world including Iran. One of the most widely used modalities in the field of physiotherapy is therapeutic ultrasound (US). Despite its common use, there is still inconclusive evidence to support its effectiveness in patients with NSCLBP. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of continuous US compared with placebo US additional to exercise therapy for patients with NSCLBP. Methods In this single blind placebo controlled study, 50 patients with NSCLBP were randomized into two treatment groups: 1) continuous US (1 MHz &1.5 W/cm2) plus exercise 2) placebo US plus exercise. Patients received treatments for 4 weeks, 10 treatment sessions, 3 times per week, every other day. Treatment effects were assessed in terms of primary outcome measures: 1) functional disability, measured by Functional Rating Index, and 2) global pain, measured by a visual analog scale. Secondary outcome measures were lumbar flexion and extension range of motion (ROM), endurance time and rate of decline in median frequency of electromyography spectrum during a Biering Sorensen test. All outcome variables were measured before, after treatment, and after one-month follow-up. An intention to treat analysis was performed. Main effects of Time and Group as well as their interaction effect on outcome measures were investigated using repeated measure ANOVA. Results Analysis showed that both groups had improved regarding function (FRI) and global pain (VAS) (P .05). Improvement in function and lumbar ROM as well as endurance time were significantly greater in the group receiving continuous US (P exercise program significantly improved function, lumbar ROM and endurance time. Further studies including a third group of only exercise and no US can establish the possible effects of placebo US. Trial registration NTR2251 PMID:23031570

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergens, U R; Dethlefsen, U; Steinkamp, G; Gillissen, A; Repges, R; Vetter, H

    2003-03-01

    Airway hypersecretion is mediated by increased release of inflammatory mediators and can be improved by inhibition of mediator production. We have recently reported that 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) which is known as the major monoterpene of eucalyptus oil suppressed arachidonic acid metabolism and cytokine production in human monocytes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of 1.8-cineol by determining its prednisolone equivalent potency in patients with severe asthma. Thirty-two patients with steroid-dependent bronchial asthma were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After determining the effective oral steroid dosage during a 2 month run-in phase, subjects were randomly allocated to receive either 200 mg 1.8-cineol t. i.d. or placebo in small gut soluble capsules for 12 weeks. Oral glucocorticosteroids were reduced by 2.5 mg increments every 3 weeks. The primary end point of this investigation was to establish the oral glucocorticosteroid-sparing capacity of 1.8-cineol in severe asthma. Reductions in daily prednisolone dosage of 36% with active treatment (range 2.5-10 mg, mean: 3.75 mg) vs. a decrease of only 7% (2.5-5 mg, mean: 0.91 mg) in the placebo group (P = 0.006) were tolerated. Twelve of 16 cineol vs. four out of 16 placebo patients achieved a reduction of oral steroids (P = 0.012). Long-term systemic therapy with 1.8-cineol has asignificant steroid-saving effect in steroid-depending asthma. This is the first evidence suggesting an anti-inflammatory activity of the monoterpene 1.8-cineol in asthma and a new rational for its use as mucolytic agent in upper and lower airway diseases.

  5. Recombinant streptokinase suppositories in the treatment of acute haemorrhoidal disease. Multicentre randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial (THERESA-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bernal, F; Valenzuela-Silva, C M; Quintero-Tabío, L; Castellanos-Sierra, G; Monterrey-Cao, D; Aguilera-Barreto, A; López-Saura, P

    2013-11-01

    A four-arm multicentre randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to assess the effect and safety of suppositories containing recombinant streptokinase (rSK) at two dose levels (100,000 IU and 200,000 IU) with sodium salicylate (SS) compared with placebo and SS for the treatment of acute haemorrhoidal disease. Patients with acute symptoms of haemorrhoids were randomized to four treatment groups: (I) placebo, (II) SS, (III) SS + rSK 100,000 IU and (IV) SS + rSK 200,000 IU per suppository. Inpatient treatment was by four suppositories given every 6 h to discharge at 24 h. Evaluations were made at the time of discharge (24 h) and at 3, 5 and 20 days later. The main end-point was the degree of relief of pain, oedema and reduction in the size of the lesion by 90% on day 5. Adverse events and the occurrence of anti-SK antibodies were also determined. Eighty patients were included. Respective response rates in the four groups were 16%, 30%, 25% and 52%. In the last group there was a significant difference (36.8%) compared with control (95% CI 7.0-58.4%). The time to response was significantly shorter (median 5 days) in the 200,000 IU rSK group with respect to the others. There were no adverse events attributable to the treatment. No increase in anti-SK antibodies was detected 20 days after treatment. Suppositories with 200,000 IU rSK showed a significant improvement in symptoms of acute haemorrhoids, with an adequate safety profile. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. The Effects of a Standardized Herbal Remedy Made from a Subtype of Rosa canina in Patients with Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warholm, Odd; Skaar, Sigrun; Hedman, Ewa; Mølmen, Hanna Maria; Eik, Liv

    2003-01-01

    A standardized rose-hip powder produced from the seeds and husks of fruit from a subtype of Rosa canina has been reported to inhibit leukocyte functions that cause cell injury in osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of standardized rose-hip powder on mobility of the hip and knee joints, activities of daily living, quality of life, and pain in patients with osteoarthritis. Patients with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis of either the hip or knee, verified on radiography, participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Half of the patients were given five 0.5-g capsules of standardized rose-hip powder twice daily for 4 months, and the other half received identical placebo capsules twice daily for the same period. Mobility of the hip or knee was measured in both groups after the initial screening and again after 4 months of therapy. One hundred patients (65 women, 35 men; mean [SD] age, 65.2 [11.1] years) were divided into 2 treatment groups of 50 patients each. Hip joint mobility improved significantly in the treatment group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.033). Similarly, pain decreased significantly in the treatment group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.035). Two patients (4%) from each group withdrew during the early stages of the trial for reasons not related to treatment. In this study population, standardized rose-hip powder reduced symptoms of osteoarthritis, as 64.6% of patients reported at least some reduction of pain while receiving treatment. Standardized rose-hip powder may improve hip flexion and reduce pain in patients with osteoarthritis.

  7. The Effectiveness of Intravenous Parecoxib on the Incidence of Ipsilateral Shoulder Pain After Thoracotomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipanmekaporn, Tanyong; Punjasawadwong, Yodying; Charuluxananan, Somrat; Lapisatepun, Worawut; Bunburaphong, Pavena; Boonsri, Settapong; Tantraworasin, Apichat; Bunchungmongkol, Nutchanart

    2018-02-01

    To determine the incidence of ipsilateral shoulder pain (ISP) with the therapeutic use of parecoxib compared with a placebo after thoracotomy. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A tertiary-care university hospital. Adult patients undergoing an elective thoracotomy between June 2011 and February 2015. Patients were allocated randomly into the parecoxib group (n = 80) and the control group (n = 80). In the parecoxib group, 40 mg of parecoxib was diluted into 2 mL and given intravenously 30 minutes before surgery and then every 12 hours postoperatively for 48 hours. In the control group, 2 mL of normal saline was given to the patients at the same intervals. A numerical rating scale was used to assess the intensity of ISP at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after surgery. Intravenous morphine (0.05 mg/kg) was used as the rescue medication for ISP during the 96-hour period. Baseline characteristics of patients in both groups were comparable. Patients in the parecoxib group had a significantly lower incidence of ISP, both overall (42.5% v 62.0%, p = 0.014) and of moderate-to-severe ISP when compared with the control group (26.2% v 49.4%, p = 0.003). Parecoxib reduced the risk of ISP by a statistically significant 32% (risk ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.93, p = 0.016). There were no significant differences in the occurrence of adverse effects between the groups. Intravenous parecoxib significantly can reduce the incidence and severity of ISP after thoracotomy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy of topical Rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) oil for migraine headache: A randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Maria; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Heydari, Mojtaba; Shariat, Abdolhamid

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of topical formulation of Rosa damascena Mill. (R. damascena) oil on migraine headache, applying syndrome diffrentiation model. Forty patients with migraine headache were randomly assigned to 2 groups of this double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial. The patients were treated for the first 2 consecutive migraine headache attacks by topical R. damascena oil or placebo. Then, after one week of washout period, cross-over was done. Pain intensity of the patients' migraine headache was recorded at the beginnig and ten-sequence time schadule of attacks up to 24h. In addition, photophobia, phonophobia, and nausea and/or vomitting (N/V) of the patients were recorded as secondary outcomes. Finally, gathered data were analysed in a syndrome differentiation manner to assess the effect of R. damascena oil on Hot- and Cold-type migraine headache. Mean pain intensity of the patients' migraine headache in the different time-points after R. damascena oil or placebo use, was not significantly different. Additionally, regarding mean scores of N/V, photophobia, and phonophobia severity of the patients, no significant differences between the two groups were observed. Finally, applying syndrome differentiation model, the mean score of migraine headache pain intensity turned out to be significantly lower in patients with "hot" type migraine syndrome at in 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120min after R. damascena oil application compared to "cold" types (P values: 0.001, 0.001, <0.001, <0.001, and 0.02; respectively). It seems that syndrome differentiation can help in selection of patients who may benefit from the topical R. damascena oil in short-term relief of pain intensity in migraine headache. Further studies of longer follow-up and larger study population, however, are necessitated for more scientifically rigorous judgment on efficacy of R. damascena oil for patients with migraine headache. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevention of preterm delivery with vaginal progesterone in women with preterm labour (4P): randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez de Tejada, B; Karolinski, A; Ocampo, M C; Laterra, C; Hösli, I; Fernández, D; Surbek, D; Huespe, M; Drack, G; Bunader, A; Rouillier, S; López de Degani, G; Seidenstein, E; Prentl, E; Antón, J; Krähenmann, F; Nowacki, D; Poncelas, M; Nassif, J C; Papera, R; Tuma, C; Espoile, R; Tiberio, O; Breccia, G; Messina, A; Peker, B; Schinner, E; Mol, B W; Kanterewicz, L; Wainer, V; Boulvain, M; Othenin-Girard, V; Bertolino, M V; Irion, O

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of 200 mg of daily vaginal natural progesterone to prevent preterm birth in women with preterm labour. Multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Twenty-nine centres in Switzerland and Argentina. A total of 385 women with preterm labour (24(0/7) to 33(6/7) weeks of gestation) treated with acute tocolysis. Participants were randomly allocated to either 200 mg daily of self-administered vaginal progesterone or placebo within 48 hours of starting acute tocolysis. Primary outcome was delivery before 37 weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes were delivery before 32 and 34 weeks, adverse effects, duration of tocolysis, re-admissions for preterm labour, length of hospital stay, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The study was ended prematurely based on results of the intermediate analysis. Preterm birth occurred in 42.5% of women in the progesterone group versus 35.5% in the placebo group (relative risk [RR] 1.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.93-1.5). Delivery at <32 and <34 weeks did not differ between the two groups (12.9 versus 9.7%; [RR 1.3; 95% CI 0.7-2.5] and 19.7 versus 12.9% [RR 1.5; 95% CI 0.9-2.4], respectively). The duration of tocolysis, hospitalisation, and recurrence of preterm labour were comparable between groups. Neonatal morbidity occurred in 44 (22.8%) cases on progesterone versus 35 (18.8%) cases on placebo (RR: 1.2; 95% CI 0.82-1.8), whereas there were 4 (2%) neonatal deaths in each study group. There is no evidence that the daily administration of 200 mg vaginal progesterone decreases preterm birth or improves neonatal outcome in women with preterm labour. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Efficacy and safety of a vaginal medicinal product containing three strains of probiotic bacteria: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomusiak, Anna; Strus, Magdalena; Heczko, Piotr B; Adamski, Paweł; Stefański, Grzegorz; Mikołajczyk-Cichońska, Aleksandra; Suda-Szczurek, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether vaginal administration of probiotic Lactobacillus results in their colonization and persistence in the vagina and whether Lactobacillus colonization promotes normalization and maintenance of pH and Nugent score. The study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. Altogether, 376 women were assessed for eligibility, and signed informed consent. One hundred and sixty eligible women with abnormal, also called intermediate, vaginal microflora, as indicated by a Nugent score of 4-6 and pH >4.5 and zero or low Lactobacillus count, were randomized. Each participant was examined four times during the study. Women were randomly allocated to receive either the probiotic preparation inVag(®), or a placebo (one capsule for seven consecutive days vaginally). The product inVag includes the probiotic strains Lactobacillus fermentum 57A, Lactobacillus plantarum 57B, and Lactobacillus gasseri 57C. We took vaginal swabs during visits I, III, and IV to determine the presence and abundance of bacteria from the Lactobacillus genus, measure the pH, and estimate the Nugent score. Drug safety evaluation was based on analysis of the types and occurrence of adverse events. Administration of inVag contributed to a significant decrease (between visits) in both vaginal pH (Ppresence of Lactobacillus strains originating from inVag in 82% of women taking the drug at visit III, and 47.5% at visit IV. There was no serious adverse event related to inVag administration during the study. The probiotic inVag is safe for administration to sustainably restore the healthy vaginal microbiota, as demonstrated by predominance of the Lactobacillus bacteria in vaginal microbiota.

  11. Effect of a traditional syrup from Citrus medica L. fruit juice on migraine headache: A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Mehrnaz; Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Hamedi, Azadeh; Shariat, Abdolhamid; Salehi, Alireza; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2016-02-17

    In Persian ethnomedicine several herbal remedies and functional foods have been used to treat migraine headache which are mostly summarized in Qarabadin-e-kabir (Aghili-Shirazi MH, 1773). One of them is Citron syrup (Sharbat-e-Balang) containing edible Citrus medica L. fruit juice and sugar. The present study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of Citron syrup on patients with migraine headache. Citron syrup was prepared as described in Qarabadin-e-kabir. In this double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, ninety patients with migraine headache were allocated to three parallel groups (Citron syrup, propranolol or placebo). Patients received 15ml of Citron syrup, placebo syrup or 20mg of propranolol tablet three times daily after a meal for 4 weeks. Primary outcomes were obtained from three measures: the frequency (per month), mean duration (hour) and mean intensity (visual analogue scale "VAS" 0-10 score) of headache attacks evaluated prior to and following 4 weeks of the intervention. Citron syrup was superior to placebo in reduction of headache attacks intensity (P0.05). However, unlike propranolol, Citron syrup could not significantly reduce the frequency of attacks compared to placebo. No indication of any serious side effects from Citron syrup was observed. According to obtained results, Citron syrup as a traditional Persian remedy can be suggested as an effective treatment for decreasing pain intensity and duration of attacks in migraine headache and the effectiveness is comparable to propranolol. However, the syrup did not show significant effect on frequency of attacks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Corticosteroid nasal irrigations are more effective than simple sprays in a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial for chronic rhinosinusitis after sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Richard J; Snidvongs, Kornkiat; Kalish, Larry H; Oakley, Gretchen M; Sacks, Raymond

    2018-04-01

    Persistent mucosal inflammation in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) often results in ongoing symptoms, recurrence of polypoid mucosa, infective exacerbations, and further systemic medication despite surgical intervention. Debate exists as to the most effective topical therapy in CRS. The objective was to determine if corticosteroid delivered via a nasal irrigation or via a simple nasal spray would be more effective in controlling the symptoms and signs of CRS. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial over 12 months was performed between 3 tertiary rhinologic clinics. After sinus surgery, all patients performed a nasal irrigation followed by a nasal spray once a day for 12 months. Groups were defined by corticosteroid (2 mg mometasone) delivered by either spray or irrigation. The primary outcomes were patient-reported symptoms: visual analogue score (VAS) and 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22), a global rating of sinonasal function. Secondary outcomes were also recorded from radiology (Lund-Mackay score [LMS]) and endoscopic (Modified Lund-Kennedy score [mLKS]) assessments. A total of 44 patients were randomized (age 50.3 ± 13.0 years; 40.9% female). Overall, patients improved significantly from either intervention. However, the corticosteroid nasal irrigation group had greater improvement in nasal blockage (-69.91 ± 29.37 vs -36.12 ± 42.94; p = 0.029), a greater improvement on LMS (-12.07 ± 4.43 vs -7.39 ± 6.94; p = 0.031) and less inflammation on mLKS at 12 months (7.33 ± 11.55 vs 21.78 ± 23.37; p = 0.018). One-year posttreatment blockage, drainage, fever, and total VAS scores were all lower in the corticosteroid irrigation group. In the setting of diffuse or patchy CRS disease, the use of corticosteroid delivered by nasal irrigation is superior to simple nasal spray in postsurgical patients. © 2018 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  13. Overall skin tone and skin-lightening-improving effects with oral supplementation of lutein and zeaxanthin isomers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juturu V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vijaya Juturu,1 James P Bowman,2 Jayant Deshpande1 1Department of Scientific and Clinical Affairs, OmniActive Health Technologies Inc., Morristown, NJ, 2James P Bowman & Associates LLC, Loveland, OH, USA Purpose: Carotenoids, especially lutein and zeaxanthin isomers (L/Zi, filter blue light and protect skin from environmental factors including high-energy sources. These carotenoids may be able to block the formation of melanin pathways, decrease cytokines, and increase antioxidants.Subjects and methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial over a 12-week supplementation period. Fifty healthy people (50 healthy subjects were recruited and 46 subjects completed the study (males and females, age: 18–45 years with mild-to-moderate dry skin were included in this study. Skin type of the subjects was classified as Fitzpatrick skin type II–IV scale. Subjects were administered with either an oral dietary supplement containing 10 mg lutein (L and 2 mg zeaxanthin isomers (Zi (L/Zi: RR-zeaxanthin and RS (meso-zeaxanthin or a placebo daily for 12 weeks. The minimal erythemal dose and skin lightening (L* were measured via the Chromameter®. The individual typological angle was calculated. Subjective assessments were also recorded.Results: Overall skin tone was significantly improved in the L/Zi group compared to placebo (P<0.0237, and luminance (L* values were significantly increased in the L/Zi group. Mean minimal erythemal dose was increased with L/Zi supplementation after 12 weeks of supplementation. L/Zi supplementation significantly increased the individual typological angle.Conclusion: L/Zi supplementation lightens and improves skin conditions. Keywords: lutein, zeaxanthin isomers, skin lightening, minimal erythemal dose, individual typological angle, overall skin tone

  14. Does nebulized lidocaine reduce the pain and distress of nasogastric tube insertion in young children? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babl, Franz E; Goldfinch, Christopher; Mandrawa, Christine; Crellin, Dianne; O'Sullivan, Ronan; Donath, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Nasogastric tube insertion is a common procedure in children that is very painful and distressing. Although nebulized lidocaine has been shown to be effective in reducing the pain and discomfort of nasogastric tube insertion in adults, there have been no similar studies in children. We set out to investigate the role of nebulized lidocaine in reducing pain and distress of nasogastric tube insertion in young children. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nebulized 2% lidocaine at 4 mg/kg versus saline placebo during nasogastric tube insertion at a tertiary urban pediatric emergency department. Patients were eligible if they were aged from 1 to 5 years with no comorbid disease and a clinical indication for a nasogastric tube. Nebulization occurred for 5 minutes, 5 minutes before nasogastric tube insertion. Video recordings before, during, and after the procedure were rated using the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (FLACC) pain and distress assessment tool (primary outcome measure) and pain and distress visual analog scale scores (secondary outcome measures). Difficulty of insertion and adverse events were also assessed. Eighteen participants were nebulized with 2% lidocaine and 18 participants with normal saline. Nebulization was found to be highly distressing. FLACC scores during nasogastric tube insertion were very high in both groups. There was a trend in the post-nasogastric tube insertion period toward lower FLACC scores in the lidocaine group. Visual analog scale scores for this postinsertion period were significantly lower in the lidocaine arm for pain and distress. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of difficulty of insertion and the number of minor adverse events. The study was terminated early because of the distress and treatment delay associated with nebulization. Nasogastric tube insertion results in very high FLACC scores irrespective of lidocaine use. Nebulized lidocaine cannot be

  15. Immediate effect of electric point stimulation (TENS) in treating latent upper trapezius trigger points: a double blind randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Hugh; Hilland, Axel

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of electric point stimulation in treating latent upper trapezius trigger points compared to placebo. Double blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. Anglo-European College of Chiropractic. Sixty participants with latent upper trapezius trigger points. Electric point stimulator type of TENS, or detuned (inactive) electric point stimulator type of TENS. The three outcome measures were pressure pain threshold at the trigger point, a numerical rating scale for pain elicited over the trigger point, and lateral cervical flexion to the side opposite the trigger point. On the outcome of pressure pain threshold the electric point stimulator group had a mean change of 0.49 (0.99) kg/cm(2), while the placebo group had a mean change of 0.45 (0.98) kg/cm(2) (t = 0.16, df = 58, p = 0.88). For change in pain over the trigger point, the electric point stimulator group had a mean decrease of 0.93 (0.87) points, while the placebo group had a mean decrease of 0.23 (0.97) points (t = 0.70, df = 58, p = 0.005). On the outcome of change in lateral cervical flexion the electric point stimulator group had a mean increase of 2.87 (4.55) degrees, while the placebo group had a mean increase of 1.99 (2.49) degrees (t = 0.92, df = 58, p = 0.36). Electric point stimulator type of TENS is superior to placebo only in reduction of pain for treating latent upper trapezius trigger points. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Folinic acid improves verbal communication in children with autism and language impairment: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, R E; Slattery, J; Delhey, L; Furgerson, B; Strickland, T; Tippett, M; Sailey, A; Wynne, R; Rose, S; Melnyk, S; Jill James, S; Sequeira, J M; Quadros, E V

    2018-02-01

    We sought to determine whether high-dose folinic acid improves verbal communication in children with non-syndromic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and language impairment in a double-blind placebo control setting. Forty-eight children (mean age 7 years 4  months; 82% male) with ASD and language impairment were randomized to receive 12 weeks of high-dose folinic acid (2 mg kg -1 per day, maximum 50 mg per day; n=23) or placebo (n=25). Children were subtyped by glutathione and folate receptor-α autoantibody (FRAA) status. Improvement in verbal communication, as measured by a ability-appropriate standardized instrument, was significantly greater in participants receiving folinic acid as compared with those receiving placebo, resulting in an effect of 5.7 (1.0,10.4) standardized points with a medium-to-large effect size (Cohen's d=0.70). FRAA status was predictive of response to treatment. For FRAA-positive participants, improvement in verbal communication was significantly greater in those receiving folinic acid as compared with those receiving placebo, resulting in an effect of 7.3 (1.4,13.2) standardized points with a large effect size (Cohen's d=0.91), indicating that folinic acid treatment may be more efficacious in children with ASD who are FRAA positive. Improvements in subscales of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, the Autism Symptom Questionnaire and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children were significantly greater in the folinic acid group as compared with the placebo group. There was no significant difference in adverse effects between treatment groups. Thus, in this small trial of children with non-syndromic ASD and language impairment, treatment with high-dose folinic acid for 12 weeks resulted in improvement in verbal communication as compared with placebo, particularly in those participants who were positive for FRAAs.

  17. A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of recombinant human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (rhBDNF) in diabetic polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, A; Misra, V P; Sharief, M K; Kopelman, P G; Anand, P

    2001-12-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (rhBDNF) was conducted in 30 patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus, with obligatory abnormalities of sural nerve conduction studies and vibration perception threshold (VPT) at the great toe on recruitment. Nine patients received placebo, 11 rhBDNF (25 microg/ kg) and 10 rhBDNF (100 microg/kg) s.c. daily for 3 months, and were assessed at days 0, 8, 15, 29, 43, 57 and 85 with nerve conduction and quantitative sensory and autonomic tests including VPT, thermal and light touch thresholds, and cutaneous axon-reflexes. No statistically significant differences were found among the 3 treatment groups between baseline and day 85 values. To examine possible reasons for lack of effect, post hoc analysis was performed. In the subset of patients with abnormal but detectable cool detection threshold (CDT) at baseline, there was improvement of CDT at day 85 when compared to baseline in the treated (p 0.05). Skin biopsies failed to show evidence of structural change; assessment of innervation of hair follicles, which is partly dependent on BDNF, was not possible because of the marked loss of this end-organ in diabetic neuropathic skin. The only side effects of rhBDNF were infrequent non-painful injection-site skin reactions and increased gut motility at the higher dose. We conclude that further preclinical studies are warranted before any future clinical trials to see if rhBDNF improves CDT and constipation in diabetics.

  18. Effects of probiotic supplementation on glycaemic control and lipid profiles in gestational diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamali, M; Dadkhah, F; Sadrkhanlou, M; Jamilian, M; Ahmadi, S; Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, M; Jafari, P; Asemi, Z

    2016-09-01

    To our knowledge, data on the effects of probiotic supplementation on glycaemic control and lipid concentrations in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are scarce. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation on glycaemic control and lipid profiles in GDM patients. Sixty pregnant women with GDM, primigravida and aged 18-40years, were divided into two groups to receive either probiotic capsules (n=30) or a matching placebo (n=30) in this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The patients in the probiotic group took a daily capsule that contained three viable freeze-dried strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus (2×10(9)CFU/g), L. casei (2×10(9)CFU/g) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (2×10(9)CFU/g) for 6weeks. The placebo group took capsules filled with cellulose for the same time period. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the study to quantify the relevant markers. After 6weeks of intervention, probiotic supplementation vs a placebo resulted in significant decreases in fasting plasma glucose (-9.2±9.2mg/dL vs +1.1±12.2mg/dL, Pprobiotics compared with the placebo. However, no significant changes in other lipid profiles were seen with the intervention. Overall, the results of our study have demonstrated that taking probiotic supplements for 6weeks in patients with GDM had beneficial effects on glycaemic control, triglycerides and VLDL cholesterol concentrations, although there was no effect on other lipid profiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunomodulation of antiretroviral drug-suppressed chronic HIV-1 infection in an oral probiotic double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Otto O; Kelesidis, Theodoros; Cordova, Robert; Khanlou, Homayoon

    2014-10-01

    A putative source of inappropriate immune activation that drives human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 immunopathogenesis is the gastrointestinal tract. Even with effective antiretroviral treatment, residual activation persists. We hypothesized that an oral probiotic could improve the residual immune activation in chronic treated HIV-1 infection, and tested a Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 capsule probiotic in HIV-1-infected persons with suppressed viremia on stable antiretroviral therapy in a 3-month double-blind placebo-controlled trial (10 probiotic, 7 placebo). The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) was administered monthly. Blood was tested at the start and end of placebo/probiotic administration for viremia, CD4(+) T cell percentage/concentration, soluble (s)CD14, soluble intestinal fatty acid binding protein, sCD163, D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α. All participants maintained viremia probiotic was safe and well tolerated, and appeared to improve chronic gastrointestinal symptoms. Its administration was associated with a significant increase in the percentage of blood CD4(+) T cells compared to placebo (+2.8% versus -1.8%, p=0.018) although CD4(+) T cell concentrations were generally unchanged in both groups. None of the biomarkers showed significant changes on probiotic treatment or between-group differences in change (although significance was borderline for a greater sCD163 drop in the probiotic versus placebo group, p=0.05). Some biomarkers showed significant correlations to each other, particularly D-dimer with CRP and sCD14 with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. These data demonstrate the safety and possible benefit of this probiotic for residual inflammation in treated HIV-1 infection, although further study will be required to determine the immune pathways involved.

  20. The effect of probiotics on serum levels of cytokine and endotoxin in peritoneal dialysis patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-K; Wu, Y-Y; Yang, Y-F; Ting, I-W; Lin, C-C; Yen, T-H; Chen, J-H; Wang, C-H; Huang, C-C; Lin, H-C

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory markers such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are elevated in dialysis patients and can predict cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Endotoxin is an important source and also another marker of inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of oral probiotics on serum levels of endotoxemia and cytokines in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The decline of residual renal function, peritonitis episodes, and cardiovascular events were also recorded. From July 2011 to June 2012, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in PD patients. The intervention group received one capsule of probiotics containing 10(9) cfu Bifobacterium bifidum A218, 10(9) cfu Bifidobacterium catenulatum A302, 10(9) cfu Bifidobacterium longum A101, and 10(9) cfu Lactobacillus plantarum A87 daily for six months, while the placebo group received similar capsules containing maltodextrin for the same duration. Levels of serum TNF-α, interferon gamma, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, and endotoxin were measured before and six months after intervention. 39 patients completed the study (21 in the probiotics group and 18 in the placebo group). In patients receiving probiotics, levels of serum TNF-α, IL-5, IL-6, and endotoxin significantly decreased after six months of treatment, while levels of serum IL-10 significantly increased. In contrast, there were no significant changes in levels of serum cytokines and endotoxin in the placebo group after six months. In addition, the residual renal function was preserved in patients receiving probiotics. In conclusion, probiotics could significantly reduce the serum levels of endotoxin, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), IL-5, increase the serum levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and preserve residual renal function in PD patients.

  1. Daily blueberry consumption improves blood pressure and arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women with pre- and stage 1-hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah A; Figueroa, Arturo; Navaei, Negin; Wong, Alexei; Kalfon, Roy; Ormsbee, Lauren T; Feresin, Rafaela G; Elam, Marcus L; Hooshmand, Shirin; Payton, Mark E; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2015-03-01

    Postmenopausal women have a high prevalence of hypertension and often develop arterial stiffness thereby increasing cardiovascular disease risk. Although antihypertensive drug therapies exist, increasing numbers of people prefer natural therapies. In vivo studies and a limited number of clinical studies have demonstrated the antihypertensive and vascular-protective effects of blueberries. To examine the effects of daily blueberry consumption for 8 weeks on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women with pre- and stage 1-hypertension. This was an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Forty-eight postmenopausal women with pre- and stage 1-hypertension recruited from the greater Tallahassee, FL, area participated. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 22 g freeze-dried blueberry powder or 22 g control powder. Resting brachial systolic and diastolic blood pressures were evaluated and arterial stiffness was assessed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. C-reactive protein, nitric oxide, and superoxide dismutase were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using a split plot model of repeated measures analysis of variance. After 8 weeks, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (131±17 mm Hg [Pblueberry powder group, whereas there were no changes in the group receiving the control powder. Nitric oxide levels were greater (15.35±11.16 μmol/L; Pblueberry powder group at 8 weeks compared with baseline values (9.11±7.95 μmol/L), whereas there were no changes in the control group. Daily blueberry consumption may reduce blood pressure and arterial stiffness, which may be due, in part, to increased nitric oxide production. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Protein supplementation increases muscle mass gain during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail elderly people: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieland, Michael; Dirks, Marlou L; van der Zwaluw, Nikita; Verdijk, Lex B; van de Rest, Ondine; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2012-10-01

    Protein supplementation has been proposed as an effective dietary strategy to augment the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training in elderly people. Our objective was to assess the impact of protein supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and physical performance during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail elderly men and women. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 2 arms in parallel among 62 frail elderly subjects (78 ± 1 year). These elderly subjects participated in a progressive resistance-type exercise training program (2 sessions per week for 24 weeks) during which they were supplemented twice daily with either protein (2 * 15 g) or a placebo. Lean body mass (DXA), strength (1-RM), and physical performance (SPPB) were assessed at baseline, and after 12 and 24 weeks of intervention. Lean body mass increased from 47.2 kg (95% CI, 43.5-50.9) to 48.5 kg (95% CI, 44.8-52.1) in the protein group and did not change in the placebo group (from 45.7 kg, 95% CI, 42.1-49.2 to 45.4 kg, 95% CI, 41.8-48.9) following the intervention (P value for treatment × time interaction = .006). Strength and physical performance improved significantly in both groups (P = .000) with no interaction effect of dietary protein supplementation. Prolonged resistance-type exercise training represents an effective strategy to improve strength and physical performance in frail elderly people. Dietary protein supplementation is required to allow muscle mass gain during exercise training in frail elderly people. clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01110369. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy and Safety of Tamsulosin in Medical Expulsive Therapy for Distal Ureteral Stones with Renal Colic: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhangqun; Zeng, Guohua; Yang, Huan; Tang, Kun; Zhang, Xiaochun; Li, Hong; Li, Weibing; Wu, Zhong; Chen, Lingwu; Chen, Xingfa; Liu, Xiankui; Deng, Yaoliang; Pan, Tiejun; Xing, Jinchun; Wang, Shusheng; Cheng, Yue; Gu, Xiaojian; Gao, Wenxi; Yang, Jianggen; Zhang, Yonghai; Mi, Qiwu; Qi, Lin; Li, Jiongming; Hu, Weilie; Liang, Peiyu; Sun, Zhaolin; Xu, Changbao; Long, Yongfu; Liao, Yongbin; Liu, Siping; Liu, Guoqing; Xu, Xun; He, Wei; Chen, Zhiqiang; Xu, Hua

    2017-11-12

    Recent large high-quality trials have questioned the clinical effectiveness of medical expulsive therapy using tamsulosin for ureteral stones. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin for distal ureteral stones compared with placebo. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 3296 patients with distal ureteral stones, across 30 centers, to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) into tamsulosin (0.4mg) or placebo groups for 4 wk. The primary end point of analysis was the overall stone expulsion rate, defined as stone expulsion, confirmed by negative findings on computed tomography, over a 28-d surveillance period. Secondary end points included time to stone expulsion, use of analgesics, and incidence of adverse events. Among 3450 patients randomized between September 1, 2011, and August 31, 2013, 3296 (96%) were included in the primary analysis. Tamsulosin benefits from a higher stone expulsion rate than the placebo (86% vs 79%; ptamsulosin for the treatment of large distal ureteral stones (>5mm). Considering the secondary end points, tamsulosin-treated patients reported a shorter time to expulsion (ptamsulosin use benefits distal ureteral stones in facilitating stone passage and relieving renal colic. Subgroup analyses find that tamsulosin provides a superior expulsion rate for stones >5mm, but no effect for stones ≤5mm. In this report, we looked at the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin for the treatment of distal ureteral stones. We find that tamsulosin significantly facilitates the passage of distal ureteral stones and relieves renal colic. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutraceutical Effects on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Patients with Impaired Fasting Glucose: A Pilot, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial on a Combined Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Fogacci, Federica; Morbini, Martino; Colletti, Alessandro; Bove, Marilisa; Veronesi, Maddalena; Giovannini, Marina; Borghi, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    A number of natural compounds have individually demonstrated to improve glucose and lipid levels in humans. To  evaluate the short-term glucose and lipid-lowering activity in subjects with impaired fasting glucose. To assess the effects of a combination of nutraceuticals based on Lagerstroemia speciosa, Berberis aristata, Curcuma longa, Alpha-lipoic acid, Chrome picolinate and Folic acid, we performed a double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial in 40 adults affected by impaired fasting glucose (FPG = 100-125 mg/dL) in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. After a period of 2 weeks of dietary habits correction only, patients continued the diet and began a period of 8 weeks of treatment with nutraceutical or placebo. Data related to lipid pattern, insulin resistance, liver function and hsCRP were obtained at the baseline and at the end of the study. No side effects were detected in both groups of subjects. After the nutraceutical treatment, and compared to the placebo-treated group, the enrolled patients experienced a significant improvement in TG (-34.7%), HDL-C (+13.7), FPI (-13.4%), and HOMA-Index (-25%) versus the baseline values. No significant changes were observed in the other investigated parameters in both groups (Body Mass Index, LDL-C, hsCRP). The tested combination of nutraceuticals showed clinical efficacy in the improvement of TG, HDL-C, FPI and HOMA-Index, with an optimal tolerability profile. Further confirmation is needed to verify these observations on the middle and long term with a larger number of subjects.

  5. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial investigating the behavioural effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 fatty acid supplementation in typically developing adolescent schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammam, Jonathan D; Steinsaltz, David; Bester, D W; Semb-Andenaes, Turid; Stein, John F

    2016-01-28

    Nutrient deficiencies have been implicated in anti-social behaviour in schoolchildren; hence, correcting them may improve sociability. We therefore tested the effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 supplementation on behaviour in a 12-week double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in typically developing UK adolescents aged 13-16 years (n 196). Changes in erythrocyte n-3 and 6 fatty acids and some mineral and vitamin levels were measured and compared with behavioural changes, using Conners' teacher ratings and school disciplinary records. At baseline, the children's PUFA (n-3 and n-6), vitamin and mineral levels were low, but they improved significantly in the group treated with n-3, vitamins and minerals (P=0·0005). On the Conners disruptive behaviour scale, the group given the active supplements improved, whereas the placebo group worsened (F=5·555, d=0·35; P=0·02). The general level of disciplinary infringements was low, thus making it difficult to obtain improvements. However, throughout the school term school disciplinary infringements increased significantly (by 25 %; Bayes factor=115) in both the treated and untreated groups. However, when the subjects were split into high and low baseline infringements, the low subset increased their offences, whereas the high-misbehaviour subset appeared to improve after treatment. But it was not possible to determine whether this was merely a statistical artifact. Thus, when assessed using the validated and standardised Conners teacher tests (but less clearly when using school discipline records in a school where misbehaviour was infrequent), supplementary nutrition might have a protective effect against worsening behaviour.

  6. Efficacy and safety of quetiapine extended release monotherapy in bipolar depression: a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huafang; Gu, Niufan; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Gang; Tan, Qingrong; Yang, Fude; Ning, Yuping; Zhang, Honggeng; Lu, Zheng; Xu, Xiufeng; Shi, Jianguo; Gao, Chengge; Li, Lingjiang; Zhang, Kerang; Tian, Hongjun; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Keqing; Li, Huichun; Xu, Yi; Xie, Shiping; Yu, Xin

    2016-04-01

    Quetiapine extended release (XR) has been used to treat various psychiatric disorders, including depressive episodes associated with bipolar I and II disorders. Quetiapine XR is the first approved drug in China for the treatment of bipolar disorder. The study evaluated the efficacy and safety of short-term quetiapine XR monotherapy in the treatment of depressive episodes of bipolar I and II disorders. This was an 8-week multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose phase 3 study. The primary endpoint was the mean change of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score. Secondary endpoints included Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar (CGI-BP) and remission rates. The study recruited 279 adult bipolar I or II patients currently experiencing depression from 11 Chinese provinces. Of these, 139 received quetiapine XR (300 mg/day) and 140 received placebo for 8 weeks. The mean change in the MADRS total score was significantly greater in the quetiapine XR group than in the placebo group (-19.00 ± 7.88 vs. -16.20 ± 9.32; p = 0.004). Adverse events occurred in 96 patients (65.3 %) in the quetiapine XR group and 72 (49.0 %) in the placebo group. The incidence of serious adverse events did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.247). This study, which is the first to evaluate 300 mg/day quetiapine XR monotherapy for depression in Chinese patients with bipolar disorders, found that this drug was superior to the placebo. Quetiapine XR was generally safe and well tolerated (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01256177).

  7. Efficacy and safety of loxapine for inhalation in the treatment of agitation in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael H; Feifel, David; Lesem, Michael D; Zimbroff, Daniel L; Ross, Ruth; Munzar, Patrik; Spyker, Daniel A; Cassella, James V

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of inhaled loxapine in the treatment of agitation in patients with psychotic disorders. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 129 agitated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were randomized to receive in a clinical or hospital setting a single inhalation of 5 or 10 mg of loxapine or placebo administered using the Staccato loxapine for inhalation device. The inhalation device delivered thermally generated drug aerosol to the deep lung for rapid absorption. The primary efficacy measure was change on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-excited component (PANSS-EC) 2 hours following treatment. Secondary outcomes included the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale (CGI-I), Behavioral Activity Rating Scale (BARS), and time to first rescue medication. The study was conducted between September 2006 and January 2007. Differences were statistically significant (P serious adverse events occurred at least 6 days after treatment, but none were judged related to study treatment. The most common adverse events were sedation and dysgeusia (22% and 17%, respectively, in the 10-mg group, and 14% and 9%, respectively, in the placebo group). Inhaled loxapine was generally safe and well tolerated and produced rapid improvement in agitated patients with psychotic disorders. Statistically significant differences in efficacy were found for the 10-mg dose compared with placebo, with results suggesting 5 mg may be effective. The delivery of loxapine by inhalation may provide a rapid, well-tolerated option for treating acute psychotic agitation that allows patients to avoid the aversive effects and loss of autonomy often associated with use of intramuscular medications. Further investigation of this new loxapine formulation is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00369577. © Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Efficacy of vitamins C, E, and their combination for treatment of restless legs syndrome in hemodialysis patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi; Dormanesh, Banafshe; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Kazem; Akbari, Hamideh; Sohrabi Nazari, Sahar; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Behzadi, Saeed

    2012-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common disorder in hemodialysis patients that leads to insomnia and impaired quality of life. Because high oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of RLS, we sought to evaluate the efficacy of vitamins C and E and their combination in reducing the severity of RLS symptoms in hemodialysis patients in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-arm parallel trial. Sixty stable hemodialysis patients who had all four diagnostic criteria for RLS developed by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Group with no acute illness or history of renal stone were randomly allocated to four fifteen-patient parallel groups to receive vitamin C (200 mg) and vitamin E (400 mg), vitamin C (200 mg) and placebo, vitamin E (400 mg) and placebo, and double placebo daily for eight weeks. International Restless Legs Scale (IRLS) scores were measured for all patients at baseline and at the end of treatment phase. The primary outcome was absolute change in IRLS sum score from baseline to the end of treatment phase. Means of IRLS sum score decreased significantly in the vitamins C and E (10.3 ± 5.3, 95% CI: 7.4-13.3), vitamin C and placebo (10 ± 3.5, 95% CI: 8.1-11.9), and vitamin E and placebo groups (10.1 ± 6, 95% CI: 6.8-13.5) compared with the double placebo group (3.1 ± 3, 95% CI: 1.5-4.8), (PVitamins C and E and their combination are safe and effective treatments for reducing the severity of RLS in hemodialysis patients over the short-term. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) and/or cryotherapy in skeletal muscle restitution, what is better? A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Paulo Roberto Vicente; Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Johnson, Douglas Scott; Vanin, Adriane Aver; Albuquerque-Pontes, Gianna Móes; Machado, Caroline Dos Santos Monteiro; Casalechi, Heliodora Leão; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto

    2016-12-01

    Cryotherapy for post-exercise recovery remains widely used despite the lack of quality evidence. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) studies (with both low-level laser therapy and light-emitting diode therapy) have demonstrated positive scientific evidence to suggest its use. The study aims to evaluate PBMT and cryotherapy as a single or combined treatment on skeletal muscle recovery after eccentric contractions of knee extensors. Fifty healthy male volunteers were recruited and randomized into five groups (PBMT, cryotherapy, cryotherapy + PBMT, PMBT + cryotherapy, or placebo) for a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial that evaluated exercise performance (maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and muscle damage (creatine kinase (CK)). Assessments were performed at baseline; immediately after; and at 1, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Comparator treatments was performed 3 min after exercise and repeated at 24, 48, and 72 h. PBMT was applied employing a cordless, portable GameDay ™ device (combination of 905 nm super-pulsed laser and 875- and 640-nm light-emitting diodes (LEDs); manufactured by Multi Radiance Medical ™ , Solon - OH, USA), and cryotherapy by flexible rubber ice packs. PBMT alone was optimal for post-exercise recovery with improved MVC, decreased DOMS, and CK activity (p cryotherapy, and cryotherapy + PBMT. In the PBMT + cryotherapy group, the effect of PBMT was decreased (p > 0.05) but demonstrated significant improvement in MVC, decreased DOMS, and CK activity (p Cryotherapy as single treatment and cryotherapy + PBMT were similar to placebo (p > 0.05). We conclude that PBMT used as single treatment is the best modality for enhancement of post-exercise restitution, leading to complete recovery to baseline levels from 24 h after high-intensity eccentric contractions.

  10. Transdermal Buprenorphine Relieves Neuropathic Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled Trial in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard W; Wlodarczyk, John H

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transdermal buprenorphine in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP). This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial enrolled patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and stable glycemic control who had been experiencing moderate to severe DPNP for at least 6 months on maximal tolerated conventional therapy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive buprenorphine (5 μg/h) or placebo patches. The dose was titrated to effect to a maximum of 40 μg/h. Paracetamol was available as rescue analgesia. The severity of pain and other symptoms of DPNP were assessed daily in a patient diary and at clinic visits. One hundred eight-six patients were enrolled, with 93 randomized to either buprenorphine or placebo. A high proportion of patients did not complete the study (buprenorphine 37 of 93, placebo 24 of 93). The main reason for premature withdrawal in the buprenorphine group was adverse events commonly due to untreated nausea and/or vomiting. Among the per-protocol population, more patients in the buprenorphine group (86.3%) experienced a 30% reduction in average versus baseline pain at week 12 than those in the placebo group (56.6%, P buprenorphine group within the intention-to-treat analysis of the same end point (51.7% vs. 41.3%, P = 0.175). Transdermal buprenorphine, when tolerated, is an effective therapy for DPNP and provides another option to manage this challenging painful condition. Nausea and constipation need to be managed proactively to optimize treatment outcomes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  11. The Therapeutic Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin in Treating Scleroderma-Associated Raynaud's Phenomenon: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Ricardo J; Cooney, Carisa M; Melamed, Eitan; Follmar, Keith; Yenokyan, Gayane; Leatherman, Gwendolyn; Shah, Ami A; Wigley, Fredrick M; Hummers, Laura K; Lifchez, Scott D

    2017-08-01

    To assess the therapeutic efficacy of local injections of botulinum toxin type A (Btx-A) in improving blood flow to the hands of patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) secondary to scleroderma. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, patients with scleroderma-associated RP received Btx-A (50 units in 2.5 ml sterile saline) in one randomly selected hand and sterile saline (2.5 ml) in the opposite hand. Follow-up at 1 and 4 months postinjection included laser Doppler imaging of hands, patient-reported outcomes, and physical examination. We compared outcomes using paired t-tests and population-average generalized models with generalized estimating equations. Of 40 patients enrolled, 25 had limited scleroderma and 15 had diffuse scleroderma. From baseline to 1-month follow-up, there was a greater reduction in average blood flow in Btx-A-treated hands compared to placebo-treated hands. The model estimated that this difference was statistically significant (average difference -30.08 flux units [95% confidence interval -56.19, -3.98], P for interaction = 0.024). This difference was mainly influenced by patients with longstanding RP and diffuse scleroderma. Change in blood flow at 4-month follow-up was not significantly different between groups. Clinical measures (QuickDASH, McCabe Cold Sensitivity Score, pain on a visual analog scale, and Raynaud's Condition Score) improved slightly for Btx-A-treated hands. Our laboratory-based laser Doppler imaging flow data do not support using Btx-A to treat RP in all scleroderma patients. The secondary clinical outcomes suggest some positive effect, but its clinical meaningfulness is questionable. The role of Btx-A in treating RP should be further studied with more homogeneous patient populations and in unique clinical situations such as acute digital ischemia. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  12. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of eszopiclone for the treatment of insomnia in patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Harold W; Preud'homme, Xavier A; Krystal, Andrew D

    2014-06-01

    Insomnia, which is very common in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP), has long been viewed as a pain symptom that did not merit specific treatment. Recent data suggest that adding insomnia therapy to pain-targeted treatment should improve outcome; however, this has not been empirically tested in LBP or in any pain condition treated with a standardized pain medication regimen. We sought to test the hypothesis that adding insomnia therapy to pain-targeted treatment might improve sleep and pain in LBP. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, 1-mo trial. Duke University Medical Center Outpatient Sleep Clinic. Fifty-two adult volunteers with LBP of at least 3 mo duration who met diagnostic criteria for insomnia (mean age: 42.5 y; 63% females). Subjects were randomized to eszopiclone (ESZ) 3 mg plus naproxen 500 mg BID or matching placebo plus naproxen 500 mg twice a day. ESZ SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED TOTAL SLEEP TIME (MEAN INCREASE: ESZ, 95 min; placebo, 9 min) (primary outcome) and nearly all sleep measures as well as visual analog scale pain (mean decrease: ESZ, 17 mm; placebo, 2 mm) (primary pain outcome), and depression (mean Hamilton Depression Rating Scale improvement ESZ, 3.8; placebo, 0.4) compared with placebo. Changes in pain ratings were significantly correlated with changes in sleep. The addition of insomnia-specific therapy to a standardized naproxen pain regimen significantly improves sleep, pain, and depression in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). The findings indicate the importance of administering both sleep and pain-directed therapies to patients with LBP in clinical practice and provide strong evidence that improving sleep disturbance may improve pain. clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00365976.

  13. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a traditional herbal formula, Yukmijihwang-tang in elderly subjects with xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gajin; Ko, Seok-Jae; Kim, Juyeon; Oh, Ja-Young; Park, Jae-Woo; Kim, Jinsung

    2016-04-22

    Yukmijihwang-tang (YMJ) is a typical herbal formula to treat Yin-deficiency (YD) syndrome by enriching the fluid-humor of the body. YMJ has been used to treat dry mouth symptoms for hundreds of years in traditional East Asian medicine. Xerostomia, a subjective oral dryness, is common in the elderly and results in impaired quality of life. Many conventional treatments for xerostomia provide only temporary symptom relief, and have side effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of YMJ for the treatment of xerostomia in the elderly. This study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, two center trial. Ninety-six subjects aged 60-80 years who had experienced xerostomia for at least 3 months and presented with score>40 on the visual analog scale (VAS) for subjective oral dryness were recruited and randomly allocated to YMJ and placebo groups. YMJ or placebo was administered to each group for 8 weeks (3g of YMJ or placebo, three times per day). The primary outcome was change of VAS for xerostomia from 0 to 8 weeks. VAS for xerostomia was decreased by 22.04±22.76 in the YMJ group and 23.58±23.04 in the placebo group. YMJ had no effect on xerostomia. However, participants with BMIs lower than 29.37kg/m(2) showed improvement of xerostomia after 8 weeks of treatment with YMJ compared to placebo. In addition, YMJ improved oral moisture, which is associated with subjective oral dryness in the YMJ group, and the relationship between VAS for xerostomia and YD was significant. A trend was observed in which YMJ improved oral moisture status and subjective oral dryness in elderly subjects with lower BMI and greater tendency toward YD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of scapular mobilization in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytar, Aydan; Baltaci, Gul; Uhl, Tim L; Tuzun, Handan; Oztop, Pinar; Karatas, Metin

    2015-05-01

    To determine the effects of scapular mobilization on function, pain, range of motion, and satisfaction in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. University hospital clinics in Turkey. 66 participants (mean ± SD age 52.06 ± 3.71 y) with SAIS. Participants were randomized into 3 groups: scapular mobilization, sham scapular mobilization, and supervised exercise. Before the interventions transcutaneous electrical stimulation and hot pack were applied to all groups. Total intervention duration for all groups was 3 wk with a total of 9 treatment sessions. Shoulder function and pain intensity were primary outcome measures; range of motion and participant satisfaction were secondary outcome measures. Shoulder function was assessed with the short form of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH). A visual analog scale was used to evaluate pain severity. Active range of motion was measured with a universal goniometer. A 7-point Likert scale was used to evaluate satisfaction. Outcome measurements were performed at baseline, before visits 5 and 10, 4 wk after visit 9, and 8 wk after visit 9. There was no group difference for DASH score (P = .75), pain at rest (P = .41), pain with activity (P = .45), pain at night (P = .74), and shoulder flexion (P = .65), external rotation (P = .63), and internal rotation (P = .19). There was a significant increase in shoulder motion and function and a significant decrease in pain across time when all groups were combined (P .05). There was not a significant advantage of scapular mobilization for shoulder function, pain, range of motion, and satisfaction compared with sham or supervised-exercise groups in patients with SAIS.

  15. Oral spherical adsorptive carbon for the treatment of intractable anal fistulas in Crohn's disease: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Takazoe, Masakazu; Sugita, Akira; Kosaka, Tadashi; Kinjo, Fukunori; Otani, Yoshimasa; Fujii, Hisao; Koganei, Kazutaka; Makiyama, Kazuya; Nakamura, Toshio; Suda, Takeyasu; Yamamoto, Shojiro; Ashida, Toshifumi; Majima, Akira; Morita, Norikazu; Murakami, Kazunari; Oshitani, Nobuhide; Takahama, Kazuya; Tochihara, Masahiro; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Makoto

    2008-07-01

    Anal fistulas are common in individuals with Crohn's disease (CD). We sought to evaluate the efficacy of oral spherical adsorptive carbon (AST-120) (Kremezin; Kureha Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) for the treatment of intractable anal fistulas in patients with CD. In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with CD and at least one active anal fistula under treatment were assigned to receive either AST-120 or placebo for 8 wk. Improvement was defined as a reduction of 50% or more from baseline in the number of draining fistulas observed at both 4 and 8 wk. Remission was defined by closure of all draining fistulas at both 4 and 8 wk. The Perianal Disease Activity Index (PDAI) and Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) were also assessed. In total, 62 patients were randomized, of whom 57 received AST-120 (N = 27) or placebo (N = 30). The improvement rate in the AST-120 group (37.0%) was significantly greater than that in the placebo group (10.0%) (P= 0.025). The corresponding remission rates were 29.6% and 6.7%, respectively (P= 0.035). PDAI significantly improved at both 4 and 8 wk with AST-120, compared to placebo (P= 0.004 and P= 0.005, respectively). CDAI was also significantly improved at both 4 and 8 wk in the AST-120 group, compared to the placebo group (P= 0.007 and P= 0.001, respectively). AST-120 treatment was well tolerated and no life-threatening adverse events were observed. AST-120 is useful for the control of intractable anal fistulas in CD patients.

  16. Efficacy of a polyphenolic extract from silver fir (Abies alba) bark on psoriasis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorko, M Starbek; Štrukelj, B; Švajger, U; Kreft, S; Lunder, T

    2018-01-02

    Silver fir (Abies alba) bark extract contains a mixture of bioactive polyphenols. We tested their effectiveness in the treatment of psoriasis in order to further investigate the potential topical anti-inflammatory activity of polyphenols by means of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled add-on clinical trial, after having examined their ability to downregulate the expression of IL-1β cytokine in monocyte/macrophage primary cell culture. 61 patients with mild psoriasis met the inclusion criteria and were willing to comply with protocol requirements, were enrolled in the study. The severity of the disease was measured by psoriasis area severity index (PASI). Treatment efficacy was evaluated by assessing erythema (E, 0 to 4-point scale), desquamation (D, 0 to 4-point scale) and induration (I, 0 to 4-point scale) of lesions before and after the treatment. All patients enrolled in the study had symmetrical psoriasis plaques on the skin. All patients received O/V ointment with 2% of silver fir bark extract and/or placebo, respectively. We compared medications by right/left intra-patient comparison, so that the control group was always contralateral of the tested one. Location of the tested or control site was randomised, using a computer-generated randomisation schedule. Silver fir extract was well-tolerated. A superiority of active treatment above placebo, based on the clinical investigational PASI score system was observed by 15 % in all volunteers and in 40% regarding the improvement of psoriasis on elbows. However, statistical analysis showed no significant differences between placebo and active treatment with the extract from silver fir bark (p < 0.05).

  17. A first-choice combined oral contraceptive influences general well-being in healthy women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zethraeus, Niklas; Dreber, Anna; Ranehill, Eva; Blomberg, Liselott; Labrie, Fernand; von Schoultz, Bo; Johannesson, Magnus; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether there is a causal effect of oral contraceptive (OC) treatment on general well-being and depressed mood in healthy women. Double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial. University hospital. Three hundred and forty healthy women aged 18-35 years randomized to treatment, of whom 332 completed the data collection at follow-up evaluation. A combined OC (150 μg levonorgestrel and 30 μg ethinylestradiol) or placebo for 3 months of treatment. Primary outcome measures: global score of Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); secondary outcome measures: six separate dimensions of the PGWBI. The OC treatment statistically significantly decreased general well-being compared with placebo -4.12 (95% CI, -7.18 to -1.06). Furthermore, OC decreased the following PGWBI dimensions compared with placebo: positive well-being -3.90 (95% CI, -7.78 to -0.01), self-control -6.63 (95% CI, -11.20 to -2.06), and vitality -6.84 (95% CI, -10.80 to -2.88). The effect of OC on depressive symptoms and on the PGWBI dimension depressed mood were not statistically significant. This study demonstrates a statistically significant reduction in general well-being by a first-choice OC in comparison with placebo in healthy women. We found no statistically significant effects on depressive symptoms. A reduction in general well-being should be of clinical importance. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields for Postsurgical Pain Management in Women Undergoing Cesarean Section: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khooshideh, Maryam; Latifi Rostami, Seyedeh Sakineh; Sheikh, Mahdi; Ghorbani Yekta, Batool; Shahriari, Ali

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) in relation to reducing postoperative pain, analgesic use, and wound healing in patients undergoing Cesarean section (C-section). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated 72 women who underwent elective C-section. Thirty-six patients were assigned to the active-PEMF and 36 to the sham-PEMF groups. The participants were asked to report their pain intensity on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours and 2, 4, and 7 days after surgery. The amount of analgesics used was recorded. The surgical site was evaluated to assess the wound-healing process on the seventh postoperative day. Postoperative pain VAS scores were significantly lower in the active-PEMF group in all the measured periods within the early and the late postoperative periods. Fewer women in the active-PEMF group experienced severe postoperative pain within 24 hours postoperatively (36% vs. 72%, P=0.002). Analgesic use during the first 24 hours after C-section was 1.9-times lower in the active-PEMF group (1.6±0.7 vs. 3.1±1.2, PPEMF group than in the sham group (1.7±0.7 vs. 3.7±1.1, PPEMF group had better wound healing with no exudate, erythema, or edema (P=0.02). PEMF treatment after C-section decreases postsurgical pain, analgesic use, and surgical wound exudate and edema significantly, and is associated with a high level of patient satisfaction.

  19. Curcuma longa extract reduces inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in osteoarthritis of knee: a four-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shobhit; Saksena, Anil K; Khattri, Sanjay; Kumar, Santosh; Dagur, Raghubendra Singh

    2016-12-01

    Curcuma longa L. (CL), an Indian herb, has been used to treat many disorders because of its wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. It has been shown to exhibit anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and is being used as herbal remedy since ancient times. Osteoarthritis of knee (KOA) is a chronic painful disorder in which prolong use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or steroids may result into many serious side effects; hence, there is a need to develop herbal drugs, having good analgesia without side effects. Therefore, we planned to evaluate the efficacy of CL in KOA. The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients of KOA. After obtaining ethical clearance and written informed consent, a total of 160 patients of KOA were randomly enrolled into two groups to receive either CL extract or placebo along with the standard drug regimen. The patients were assessed on day 0, day 60, and day 120. On the days of their visit, the clinical prognosis was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis index. On these days, the radiographs were also taken for Kellgren and Lawrence grading and blood samples were collected for assessing the changes in levels of IL-1β and biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde (MDA). Over all significant improvement was observed in the patients of CL extract group as compared to placebo group. Clinically, the VAS and WOMAC scores became better, and simultaneously, the levels of biomarkers, viz., IL-1β, ROS, and MDA, were also significantly (p < 0.05) improved. It may be concluded that on chronic administration, CL suppresses inflammation and brings clinical improvement in patients of KOA, which may be observed by decreased level of IL-1β and VAS/WOMAC scores, respectively. At the same time, CL decreases the oxidative stress also.

  20. Effects of low-level laser therapy applied before or after plyometric exercise on muscle damage markers: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Carolina Gassen; Dornelles, Maurício Pinto; Severo-Silveira, Lucas; Marques, Vanessa Bernardes; Rosso, Isabele de Albuquerque; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2016-12-01

    Promising effects of phototherapy on markers of exercise-induced muscle damage has been already demonstrated in constant load or isokinetic protocols. However, its effects on more functional situations, such as plyometric exercises, and when is the best moment to apply this treatment (pre- or post-exercise) remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) before or after plyometric exercise on quadriceps muscle damage markers. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 24 healthy men, 12 at pre-exercise treatment group and 12 at post-exercise treatment group. Placebo and LLLT (810 nm, 200 mW per diode, 6 J per diode, 240 J per leg) were randomly applied on right/left knee extensor muscles of each volunteer before/after a plyometric exercise protocol. Muscular echo intensity (ultrasonography images), soreness (visual analogue scale - VAS), and strength impairment (maximal voluntary contraction - MVC) were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise. Legs treated with LLLT before or after exercise presented significantly smaller increments of echo intensity (values up to 1 %) compared to placebo treatments (increased up to ∼7 %). No significant treatment effect was found for VAS and MVC, although a trend toward better results on LLLT legs have been found for VAS (mean values up to 30 % lesser than placebo leg). In conclusion, LLLT applied before or after plyometric exercise reduces the muscle echo intensity response and possibly attenuates the muscle soreness. However, these positive results were not observed on strength impairment.

  1. Effects of a Gentle, Self-Administered Stimulation of Perineal Skin for Nocturia in Elderly Women: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Crossover Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Iimura

    Full Text Available Somatic afferent nerve stimuli are used for treating an overactive bladder (OAB, a major cause of nocturia in the elderly. Clinical evidence for this treatment is insufficient because of the lack of appropriate control stimuli. Recent studies on anesthetized animals show that gentle stimuli applied to perineal skin with a roller could inhibit micturition contractions depending on the roller's surface material. We examined the efficacy of gentle skin stimuli for treating nocturia.The study was a cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized clinical study using two rollers with different effects on micturition contractions. Participants were elderly women (79-89 years with nocturia. Active (soft elastomer roller or placebo (hard polystyrene roller stimuli were applied to perineal skin by participants for 1 min at bedtime. A 3-day baseline assessment period was followed by 3-day stimulation and 4-day resting periods, after which the participants were subjected to other stimuli for another 3 days. The primary outcome was change in the frequency of nighttime urination, for which charts were maintained during each 3-day period.Twenty-four participants were randomized, of which 22 completed all study protocols. One participant discontinued treatment because of an adverse event (abdominal discomfort. In participants with OAB (n = 9, change from baseline in the mean frequency of urination per night during the active stimuli period (mean ± standard deviation, -0.74 ± 0.7 times was significantly greater than that during placebo stimuli periods (-0.15 ± 0.8 times [p < 0.05]. In contrast, this difference was not observed in participants without OAB (n = 13.These results suggest that gentle perineal stimulation with an elastomer roller is effective for treating OAB-associated nocturia in elderly women. Here the limitation was a study period too short to assess changes in the quality of sleep and life.UMIN Clinical Trial Registry (CTR UMIN

  2. The Effect of Intravenous Acetaminophen on Postoperative Pain and Narcotic Consumption After Vaginal Reconstructive Surgery: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Catrina C; Khan, Madiha; Lambers, Donna L; Westermann, Lauren B; Mazloomdoost, Donna M; Yeung, Jennifer J; Kleeman, Steven D; Pauls, Rachel N

    This study aimed to determine the effect of intravenous acetaminophen versus placebo on postoperative pain, satisfaction with pain control, and narcotic use after vaginal reconstructive surgery. This was an institutional review board-approved, double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Women scheduled for reconstructive surgery including vaginal hysterectomy and vaginal vault suspension were enrolled. Subjects received 1000 mg of intravenous acetaminophen or 100 mL placebo every 6 hours for 24 hours. Pain and satisfaction with pain control were assessed using visual analog scales and a numeric rating scale. Visual analog scales were collected at 18 and 24 hours postoperatively and at discharge. A sample size calculation determined 90 subjects would be required to detect a 30% reduction in postoperative narcotic use with 80% power and significance level of 0.05. One hundred subjects were enrolled. There were no differences in demographics or surgical data and no difference in narcotic consumption at multiple evaluation points. At 18 hours postoperative, median pain scores at rest were 27.0 (interquartile range, 35.0) for acetaminophen and 35.0 (interquartile range, 44.5) for placebo, finding no difference (P = 0.465). Furthermore, pain with activity and numeric rating scale-assessed pain scales were similar (P = 0.328; P = 0.597). Although satisfaction with pain control was high overall (91.5), no difference was noted. Patients undergoing vaginal reconstructive surgery receiving perioperative intravenous acetaminophen did not experience a decrease in narcotic requirements or postoperative pain when compared with placebo. Reassuringly, pain scores were low and satisfaction with pain control was high for all subjects. The general use of this medication is not supported in these surgical patients.

  3. Single bolus low-dose of ketamine does not prevent postpartum depression: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Li, Yuantao; Huang, Xiaolei; Chen, Daili; She, Baozuan; Ma, Daqing

    2017-05-01

    Postpartum depression is a common complication of childbirth. In the last decade, it has been suggested that subdissociative-dose ketamine is a fast-acting antidepressant. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of low-dose ketamine administered during caesarean section in preventing postpartum depression. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 330 parturients who were scheduled to undergo caesarean section were enrolled in this trial. The parturients were randomly assigned to receive intravenous ketamine (0.25 mg/kg diluted to 10 mL with 0.9% saline) or placebo (10 mL of 0.9% saline) within 5 min following clamping of the neonatal umbilical cord. The primary outcome was the degree of depression, which was evaluated using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) (a threshold of 9/10 was used) at 3 days and 6 weeks after delivery. The secondary outcome was the numeric rating scale score of pain at 3 day and 6 week postpartum. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of postpartum depression between the two groups at 3 days and 6 weeks after delivery. The pain scores measured at 3 days postoperatively were not significantly different between the groups, whereas the scores measured at 6 week postpartum were significantly reduced in the treatment group compared with the saline group (P = 0.014). Intra-operative low-dose ketamine (0.25 mg/kg) does not have a preventive effect on postpartum depression.

  4. L-Carnitine Supplementation for the Management of Fatigue in Patients With Cancer: An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, Ricardo A.; Zhang, Jenny J.; Manola, Judith; Cella, David; Ansari, Bilal; Fisch, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose L-carnitine, a popular complementary and alternative medicine product, is used by patients with cancer for the treatment of fatigue, the most commonly reported symptom in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation as a treatment for fatigue in patients with cancer. Patients and Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with invasive malignancies and fatigue were randomly assigned to either 2 g/d of L-carnitine oral supplementation or matching placebo. The primary end point was the change in average daily fatigue from baseline to week 4 using the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI). Results Three hundred seventy-six patients were randomly assigned to treatment with L-carnitine supplementation or placebo. L-carnitine supplementation resulted in significant carnitine plasma level increase by week 4. The primary outcome, fatigue, measured using the BFI, improved in both arms compared with baseline (L-carnitine: −0.96, 95% CI, −1.32 to −0.60; placebo: −1.11, 95% CI −1.44 to −0.78). There were no statistically significant differences between arms (P = .57). Secondary outcomes, including fatigue measured by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Fatigue instrument, depression, and pain, did not show significant difference between arms. A separate analysis of patients who were carnitine-deficient at baseline did not show statistically significant improvement in fatigue or other outcomes after L-carnitine supplementation. Conclusion Four weeks of 2 g of L-carnitine supplementation did not improve fatigue in patients with invasive malignancies and good performance status. PMID:22987089

  5. GLP-1-Based Therapies Have No Microvascular Effects in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Acute and 12-Week Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Mark M; Tonneijck, Lennart; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Hoekstra, Trynke; Kramer, Mark H H; Diamant, Michaela; Serné, Erik H; van Raalte, Daniël H

    2016-10-01

    To assess the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1-based therapies (ie, GLP-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors) on microvascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We studied 57 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (mean±SD age: 62.8±6.9 years; body mass index: 31.8±4.1 kg/m(2); HbA1c [glycated hemoglobin] 7.3±0.6%) in an acute and 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial conducted at the Diabetes Center of the VU University Medical Center. In the acute study, the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide (therapeutic concentrations) or placebo (saline 0.9%) was administered intravenously. During the 12-week study, patients received the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide (1.8 mg daily), the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin (100 mg daily), or matching placebos. Capillary perfusion was assessed by nailfold skin capillary videomicroscopy and vasomotion by laser Doppler fluxmetry, in the fasting state and after a high-fat mixed meal. In neither study, treatment affected fasting or postprandial capillary perfusion compared with placebo (P>0.05). In the fasting state, acute exenatide infusion increased neurogenic vasomotion domain power, while reducing myogenic domain power (both P2-week study, no effects on vasomotion were observed. Despite modest changes in vasomotion, suggestive of sympathetic nervous system activation and improved endothelial function, acute exenatide infusion does not affect skin capillary perfusion in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Twelve-week treatment with liraglutide or sitagliptin has no effect on capillary perfusion or vasomotion in these patients. Our data suggest that the effects of GLP-1-based therapies on glucose are not mediated through microvascular responses. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Dexamethasone versus ondansetron in combination with dexamethasone for the prophylaxis of postoperative vomiting in pediatric outpatients: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Orange, Flávia A; Marques, Jaime; Flores, Marília; Borges, Paulo S G N

    2012-09-01

    To determine the frequency of postoperative vomiting (POV) in children submitted to outpatient surgery and to compare the efficacy of antiemetic drugs in preventing this complication. Nausea and vomiting are common in the immediate postoperative period following anesthetic and surgical procedures. Compared to adults, pediatric patients are more likely to develop postoperative nausea and vomiting, the incidence of which ranges from 8.9% to 42%. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial included 129 children. The participants were randomized into three prophylactic treatment groups: dexamethasone (n = 43), ondansetron in combination with dexamethasone (n = 44), and placebo (n = 42). The variables studied were the frequency of POV and the incidence of vomiting after the patient had been discharged from hospital, the need for antiemetic rescue therapy in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), need for hospitalization, and the time the patient remained in the PACU. A significance level of 5% was adopted. Postoperative vomiting occurred in 12.4% of the children, with no statistically significant difference between the groups: 6.8% in the group receiving ondansetron combined with dexamethasone, 14.3% in the placebo group, and 14% in the group that received dexamethasone alone (P = 0.47). Furthermore, no significant difference was found between the groups with respect to the time the children remained in the PACU, and only five patients reported having vomited following discharge from hospital. The prophylactic use of antiemetic drugs failed to reduce the incidence of POV in pediatric outpatient surgery with a low emetic potential; therefore, routine prophylaxis may be unnecessary. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Recovery of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in tonsil tissue after oral administration: randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpu, Minna; Swanljung, Elisa; Tynkkynen, Soile; Hatakka, Katja; Kekkonen, Riina A; Järvenpää, Salme; Korpela, Riitta; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2013-06-28

    The present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine whether consumption of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) would lead to the recovery of GG in tonsil tissue. After 3 weeks’ daily consumption of GG as a single strain (n 20), GG as a part of a multispecies combination (n 17) or placebo (n 20), tonsil tissue samples were collected from fifty-seven young adults during tonsillectomy due to chronic or recurrent tonsillitis. Strain-specific real-time PCR was used to detect GG in the tonsil tissue. GG was recovered in the tonsil sample of 40% of the subjects in the GG group, 41% in the multispecies group and 30% in the placebo group (P value between groups 0.79). In all subjects with positive recovery of GG in the tonsil tissue, GG was also recovered in the faecal sample taken at the start of the intervention and at the time of the tissue sample collection, which indicates more persistent adherence of the probiotic. To conclude, GG can be recovered from tonsil tissue after oral administration as a singlestrain probiotic or as a part of a multispecies probiotic combination. The present results suggest that individual variation exists in the ability of GG to adhere to tonsil tissue. Persistence of GG appears to be high in tonsil tissue as well, in addition to persistence in faecal samples, which has been demonstrated previously. Further clinical trials are warranted to evaluate whether probiotic adherence in the tonsil tissue could have a role in respiratory symptom prevalence.

  8. Xenotransplantation of Human Cardiomyocyte Progenitor Cells Does Not Improve Cardiac Function in a Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure. Results from a Randomized, Blinded, Placebo Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne J Jansen of Lorkeers

    Full Text Available Recently cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs were successfully isolated from fetal and adult human hearts. Direct intramyocardial injection of human CMPCs (hCMPCs in experimental mouse models of acute myocardial infarction significantly improved cardiac function compared to controls.Here, our aim was to investigate whether xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of fetal hCMPCs in a pig model of chronic myocardial infarction is safe and efficacious, in view of translation purposes.We performed a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled trial. Four weeks after ischemia/reperfusion injury by 90 minutes of percutaneous left anterior descending artery occlusion, pigs (n = 16, 68.5 ± 5.4 kg received intracoronary infusion of 10 million fetal hCMPCs or placebo. All animals were immunosuppressed by cyclosporin (CsA. Four weeks after infusion, endpoint analysis by MRI displayed no difference in left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end diastolic and left ventricular end systolic volumes between both groups. Serial pressure volume (PV-loop and echocardiography showed no differences in functional parameters between groups at any timepoint. Infarct size at follow-up, measured by late gadolinium enhancement MRI showed no difference between groups. Intracoronary pressure and flow measurements showed no signs of coronary obstruction 30 minutes after cell infusion. No premature death occurred in cell treated animals.Xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of hCMPCs is feasible and safe, but not associated with improved left ventricular performance and infarct size compared to placebo in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction.

  9. Effect of melatonin on depressive symptoms and anxiety in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Melissa V; Andersen, Lærke T; Madsen, Michael T; Hageman, Ida; Rasmussen, Lars S; Bokmand, Susanne; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2014-06-01

    Depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances are known problems in patients with breast cancer. The effect of melatonin as an antidepressant in humans with cancer has not been investigated. We investigated whether melatonin could lower the risk of depressive symptoms in women with breast cancer in a three-month period after surgery and assessed the effect of melatonin on subjective parameters: anxiety, sleep, general well-being, fatigue, pain and sleepiness. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial undertaken from July 2011 to December 2012 at a department of breast surgery in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women, 30-75 years, undergoing surgery for breast cancer and without signs of depression on Major Depression Inventory (MDI) were included 1 week before surgery and received 6 mg oral melatonin or placebo for 3 months. The primary outcome was the incidence of depressive symptoms measured by MDI. The secondary outcomes were area under the curve (AUC) for the subjective parameters. 54 patients were randomized to melatonin (n = 28) or placebo (n = 26) and 11 withdrew from the study (10 placebo group and 1 melatonin group, P = 0.002). The risk of developing depressive symptoms was significantly lower with melatonin than with placebo (3 [11 %] of 27 vs. 9 [45 %] of 20; relative risk 0.25 [95 % CI 0.077-0.80]), giving a NNT of 3.0 [95 % CI 1.7-11.0]. No significant differences were found between AUC for the subjective parameters. No differences in side effects were found (P = 0.78). Melatonin significantly reduced the risk of depressive symptoms in women with breast cancer during a three-month period after surgery.

  10. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase II trial of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with radiation-induced breast induration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, Sonja; Martin, Susan; Pearson, Ann; Bagchi, Debasis; Earl, Judith; Gothard, Lone; Hall, Emma; Porter, Lucy; Yarnold, John

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tissue hardness (induration), pain and tenderness are common late adverse effects of curative radiotherapy for early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with tissue induration after high-dose radiotherapy for early breast cancer in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase II trial. Patients and methods: Sixty-six eligible research volunteers with moderate or marked breast induration at a mean 10.8 years since radiotherapy for early breast cancer were randomised to active drug (n=44) or placebo (n=22). All patients were given grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) 100 mg three times a day orally, or corresponding placebo capsules, for 6 months. The primary endpoint was percentage change in surface area (cm 2 ) of palpable breast induration measured at the skin surface 12 months after randomisation. Secondary endpoints included change in photographic breast appearance and patient self-assessment of breast hardness, pain and tenderness. Results: At 12 months post-randomisation, ≥50% reduction in surface area (cm 2 ) of breast induration was recorded in13/44 (29.5%) GSPE and 6/22 (27%) placebo group patients (NS). At 12 months post-randomisation, there was no significant difference between treatment and control groups in terms of external assessments of tissue hardness, breast appearance or patient self-assessments of breast hardness, pain or tenderness. Conclusions: The study failed to show efficacy of orally-adminstered GSPE in patients with breast induration following radiotherapy for breast cancer

  11. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) in women with anxiety disorder due to menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsterdam, Jay D; Yao, Yubing; Mao, Jun James; Soeller, Irene; Rockwell, Kenneth; Shults, Justine

    2009-10-01

    We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial of the efficacy and tolerability of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) extract for the treatment of anxiety disorder due to menopause. We hypothesized that black cohosh would be superior to placebo in reducing anxiety symptoms of menopause, with a comparable tolerability profile to placebo. Subjects were randomized to therapy with either pharmaceutical-grade black cohosh extract (n = 15) or placebo (n = 13) for up to 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was changed over time in total Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) scores. Secondary outcomes included a change in scores on the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Green Climacteric Scale (GCS), and Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI) and the proportion of patients with a change of 50% or higher in baseline HAM-A scores. There was neither a significant group difference in change over time in total HAM-A scores (P = 0.294) nor a group difference in the proportion of subjects with a reduction of 50% or higher in baseline HAM-A scores at study end point (P = 0.79). There was a significantly greater reduction in the total GCS scores during placebo (vs black cohosh; P = 0.035) but no group difference in change over time in the GCS subscale scores or in the PGWBI (P = 0.140). One subject (3.6%) taking black cohosh discontinued treatment because of adverse events. We found no statistically significant anxiolytic effect of black cohosh (vs placebo). However, small sample size, choice of black cohosh preparation, and dosage used may have been limiting factors producing negative results.

  12. Objective approach for fending off the sublingual immunotherapy placebo effect in subjects with pollenosis: double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralimarkova, Tanya Z; Popov, Todor A; Staevska, Maria; Mincheva, Roxana; Lazarova, Cvetelina; Racheva, Rumyana; Mustakov, Tihomir B; Filipova, Violina; Koleva, Margarita; Bacheva, Kalina; Dimitrov, Vasil D

    2014-07-01

    Symptom scoring for the assessment of allergen immunotherapy is associated with a substantial placebo effect. To assess the ability of exhaled breath temperature (EBT), a putative marker of airway inflammation, to evaluate objectively the efficacy of grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy in a proof-of-concept study. This was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 56 subjects (mean ± SD 30 ± 12 years old, 33 men) sensitized to grass pollen. The objective measurements were EBT, spirometry, and periostin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in blood. Overall discomfort scored on a visual analog scale was used as a proxy for subjective symptoms. Evaluations were performed before, during, and after the grass pollen season. Fifty-one subjects (25 and 26 in the active treatment and placebo groups, respectively) were assessed before and during the pollen season. The mean pre- vs in-season increase in EBT was significantly smaller (by 59.1%) in the active treatment than in the placebo group (P = .030). Of the other objective markers, only the blood periostin level increased significantly during the pollen season (P = .047), but without intergroup differences. Subjectively, the mean pre- vs in-season increase in the visual analog scale score was 32.3% smaller in the active treatment than in the placebo group, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (P = .116). These results suggest that the efficacy of grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy can be assessed by EBT, a putative quantitative measurement of airway inflammation, which is superior in its power to discriminate between active and placebo treatment than a subjective assessment of symptoms assessed on a visual analog scale. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01785394. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of eltrombopag on platelet counts and bleeding during treatment of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussel, James B; Provan, Drew; Shamsi, Tahir; Cheng, Gregory; Psaila, Bethan; Kovaleva, Lidia; Salama, Abdulgabar; Jenkins, Julian M; Roychowdhury, Debasish; Mayer, Bhabita; Stone, Nicole; Arning, Michael

    2009-02-21

    Eltrombopag is an oral, non-peptide, thrombopoietin-receptor agonist that stimulates thrombopoiesis, leading to increased platelet production. This study assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of once daily eltrombopag 50 mg, and explored the efficacy of a dose increase to 75 mg. In this phase III, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, adults from 63 sites in 23 countries with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), platelet counts less than 30 000 per muL of blood, and one or more previous ITP treatment received standard care plus once-daily eltrombopag 50 mg (n=76) or placebo (n=38) for up to 6 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio of eltrombopag:placebo by a validated randomisation system. After 3 weeks, patients with platelet counts less than 50 000 per microL could increase study drug to 75 mg. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving platelet counts 50 000 per microL or more at day 43. All participants who received at least one dose of their allocated treatment were included in the analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00102739. 73 patients in the eltrombopag group and 37 in the placebo group were included in the efficacy population and were evaluable for day-43 analyses. 43 (59%) eltrombopag patients and six (16%) placebo patients responded (ie, achieved platelet counts >/=50 000 per microL; odds ratio [OR] 9.61 [95% CI 3.31-27.86]; pevents during treatment (eltrombopag, two [3%]; placebo, one [3%]) and adverse events leading to study discontinuation (eltrombopag, three [4%]; placebo, two [5%]), were similar in both groups. Eltrombopag is an effective treatment for managment of thrombocytopenia in chronic ITP.

  14. Efficacy of a Russian-backbone live attenuated influenza vaccine among children in Senegal: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, John C; Lewis, Kristen D C; Diallo, Aldiouma; Niang, Mbayame N; Diarra, Bou; Dia, Ndongo; Ortiz, Justin R; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Feser, Jodi; Hoagland, Rebecca; Emery, Shannon L; Lafond, Kathryn E; Neuzil, Kathleen M

    2016-12-01

    Live attenuated influenza vaccines have been shown to significantly reduce influenza in diverse populations of children, but no efficacy studies have been done in resource-poor tropical settings. In Senegal, we assessed the efficacy and safety of a live attenuated influenza vaccine based on Russian-derived master donor viruses and licensed as a single dose. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, single-centre trial done near Niakhar, Senegal, generally healthy children aged 2-5 years were randomly allocated (2:1) to receive a single intranasal dose of masked trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine or placebo. The allocation sequence was computer-generated by PATH with block sizes of three. The manufacturer provided vaccine and placebo in coded vials to preserve blinding. Participants were monitored through the predictable influenza season in Senegal for adverse events and signs and symptoms of influenza using weekly home visits and surveillance in clinics. The primary outcome was symptomatic laboratory-confirmed influenza caused by any strain and occurring from 15 days post-vaccination to the end of the study. The primary analysis was per protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01854632. Between May 23, and July 1, 2013, 1761 children were randomly assigned, 1174 to receive live attenuated influenza vaccine and 587 to receive placebo. The per-protocol set included 1173 vaccinees and 584 placebo recipients followed up to Dec 20, 2013. Symptomatic influenza was laboratory-confirmed in 210 (18%) of 1173 recipients of live attenuated influenza vaccine and 105 (18%) of placebo recipients, giving a vaccine efficacy of 0·0% (95% CI -26·4 to 20·9). Adverse events were balanced between the study groups. Two girls who had received live attenuated influenza vaccine died, one due to anasarca 12 days postvaccination and one due to malnutrition 70 days postvaccination. Live attenuated influenza vaccine was well tolerated in

  15. Efficacy and safety of premedication with single dose of oral pregabalin in children with dental anxiety: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Eskandarian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental anxiety is a relatively frequent problem that can lead to more serious problems such as a child entering a vicious cycle as he/she becomes reluctant to accept the required dental treatments. The aim of this randomized double-blind clinical trial study was to evaluate the anxiolytic and sedative effect of pregabalin in children. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five children were randomized to a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Two visits were scheduled for each patient. At the first visit, 75 mg pregabalin or placebo was given randomly, and the alternative was administered at the next visit. Anxiolytic and sedative effects were measured using the visual analogue scale. The child′s behavior was rated with the Frankl behavioral rating scale and the sedation level during the dental procedure was scored using the Ramsay sedation scale. The unpaired, two-tailed Student′s t-test was used to compare the mean changes of visual analog scale (VAS for anxiety in the pregabalin group with that of the placebo group. A repeated measures MANOVA model was used to detect differences in sedation level in the pregabalin and placebo groups regarding the interaction of 3-time measurements; sub-group analysis was performed using Student′s t-test. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to analyze the nonparametric data of the Frankl and Ramsay scales. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The reduction of the VAS-anxiety score from 2 h post-dose was statistically significant in the pregabalin group. From 2 h to 4 h post-dose, the VAS-sedation score increased significantly in the pregabalin group. The child′s behavior rating was not significantly different between the groups. The number of "successful" treatment visits was higher in the pregabalin group compared to the placebo group. Conclusion: Significant anxiolytic and sedative effects can be anticipated 2 h after oral administration of pregabalin without serious

  16. The effect of three-monthly albendazole treatment on malarial parasitemia and allergy: a household-based cluster-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

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    Aprilianto E Wiria

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth infections are proposed to have immunomodulatory activities affecting health outcomes either detrimentally or beneficially. We evaluated the effects of albendazole treatment, every three months for 21 months, on STH, malarial parasitemia and allergy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A household-based cluster-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in an area in Indonesia endemic for STH. Using computer-aided block randomization, 481 households (2022 subjects and 473 households (1982 subjects were assigned to receive placebo and albendazole, respectively, every three months. The treatment code was concealed from trial investigators and participants. Malarial parasitemia and malaria-like symptoms were assessed in participants older than four years of age while skin prick test (SPT to allergens as well as reported symptoms of allergy in children aged 5-15 years. The general impact of treatment on STH prevalence and body mass index (BMI was evaluated. Primary outcomes were prevalence of malarial parasitemia and SPT to any allergen. Analysis was by intention to treat. At 9 and 21 months post-treatment 80.8% and 80.1% of the study subjects were retained, respectively. The intensive treatment regiment resulted in a reduction in the prevalence of STH by 48% in albendazole and 9% in placebo group. Albendazole treatment led to a transient increase in malarial parasitemia at 6 months post treatment (OR 4.16(1.35-12.80 and no statistically significant increase in SPT reactivity (OR 1.18(0.74-1.86 at 9 months or 1.37 (0.93-2.01 21 months. No effect of anthelminthic treatment was found on BMI, reported malaria-like- and allergy symptoms. No adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that intensive community treatment of 3 monthly albendazole administration for 21 months over two years leads to a reduction in STH. This degree of reduction appears safe without any increased risk of malaria or allergies

  17. The efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream for dry skin and itch relief: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial--study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyo; Seo, Eun-Sung; Hong, Jin-Tae; Lee, Gang-Tai; You, Young-Kyoung; Lee, Kun-Kook; Jo, Ga-Won; Kim, Nam-Kwen

    2013-11-25

    Moisturisers prevent and treat dry skin. They can also protect sensitive skin, improve skin tone and texture, and mask imperfections. Herbal medicines or their extracts have been available as topical formulations and cosmetics. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) has been used to treat inflammatory disorders and various skin problems. It could be a candidate herbal medicine for treating dry skin condition.This study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract, which has been approved by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for use in cosmetics. This study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with two parallel groups (proposed herbal moisturising cream vs. placebo cream). We will recruit 66 he