WorldWideScience

Sample records for blind wide area

  1. The ALFALFA HI Absorption Pilot Survey: A Wide-Area Blind Damped Lyman Alpha System Survey of the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Darling, Jeremy; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a pilot survey for neutral hydrogen (HI) 21 cm absorption in the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) Survey. This project is a wide-area "blind" search for HI absorption in the local universe, spanning -650 km/s = 2x10^20 cm^-2) is Delta z = 7.0 (129 objects, assuming T_s = 100 K and covering fraction unity); for super-DLAs (N_HI >= 2x10^21 cm^-2) it is Delta z= 128.2 (2353 objects). We re-detect the intrinsic HI absorption line in UGC 6081 but detect no intervening absorption line systems. We compute a 95% confidence upper limit on the column density frequency distribution function f(N_HI,X) spanning four orders of magnitude in column density, 10^19 (T_s/100 K)(1/f) cm^-2 < N_HI < 10^23 (T_s/100 K)(1/f) cm^-2, that is consistent with previous redshifted optical damped Ly alpha surveys and the aggregate HI 21 cm emission in the local universe. The detection rate is in agreement with extant observations. This pilot survey suggests that an absorption line sear...

  2. The Effectiveness of Mid IR / Far IR Blind, Wide Area, Spectral Surveys in Breaking the Confusion Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Raymond, Gwenifer; Clements, Dave; Rykala, Adam; Pearson, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Source confusion defines a practical depth to which to take large-area extragalactic surveys. 3D imaging spectrometers with positional as well as spectral information, however, potentially provide a means by which to use line emission to break the traditional confusion limit. In this paper we present the results of our investigation into the effectiveness of mid/far infrared, wide-area spectroscopic surveys in breaking the confusion limit. We use SAFARI, a FIR imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer concept for the proposed JAXA-led SPICA mission, as a test case. We generate artificial skies representative of 100 SAFARI footprints and use a fully-automated redshift determination method to retrieve redshifts for both spatially and spectrally confused sources for bright-end and burst mode galaxy evolution models. We find we are able to retrieve accurate redshifts for 38/54% of the brightest spectrally confused sources, with continuum fluxes as much as an order of magnitude below the 120 $\\mu$m photometric confus...

  3. Wide area sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Nix, Tricia; Junker, Robert; Brentano, Josef; Khona, Dhiren

    2006-05-01

    The technical concept for this project has existed since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A host of Eastern European nations have developed countrywide grid of sensors to monitor airborne radiation. The objective is to build a radiological sensor network for real-time monitoring of environmental radiation levels in order to provide data for warning, and consequentially the assessment of a nuclear event. A network of radiation measuring equipment consisting of gamma, neutron, alpha, and beta counters would be distributed over a large area (preferably on fire station roof tops) and connected by a wireless network to the emergency response center. The networks would be deployed in urban environments and would supply first responders and federal augmentation teams (including those from the U.S. Departments of Energy, Defense, Justice, and Homeland Security) with detailed, accurate information regarding the transport of radioactive environmental contaminants, so the agencies can provide a safe and effective response. A networked sensor capability would be developed, with fixed sensors deployed at key locations and in sufficient numbers, to provide adequate coverage for early warning, and input to post-event emergency response. An overall system description and specification will be provided, including detector characteristics, communication protocols, infrastructure and maintenance requirements, and operation procedures. The system/network can be designed for a specifically identified urban area, or for a general urban area scalable to cities of specified size. Data collected via the network will be transmitted directly to the appropriate emergency response center and shared with multiple agencies via the Internet or an Intranet. The data collected will be managed using commercial off - the - shelf Geographical Information System (GIS). The data will be stored in a database and the GIS software will aid in analysis and management of the data. Unique features of the

  4. Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Blindness KidsHealth > For Kids > Blindness Print A A A ... help, are sometimes called "legally blind." What Causes Blindness? Vision problems can develop before a baby is ...

  5. Economics of area-wide pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Area-wide pest management is commonly practised throughout the world, probably much more so than is generally recognised (Lindquist 2000, Klassen 2000). Apart from highly publicised area-wide schemes such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) for fruit flies, pheromone disruption for cotton bollworms and classical biological control, there are many examples of actions such as concerted host plant eradication, enforced closed crop seasons, organised pesticide rotation for resistance management, coordination of resistant crop genotypes, etc., some going back several centuries, which should also be considered as area-wide practices. Each of these is faced with many of the economic issues generally associated with area-wide management which will be discussed below. In general, there are to be four major questions to answer in devising an area-wide pest management programme: 1) Should a particular pest be controlled locally or area-wide? 2) What is an appropriate area over which management should be attempted? 3) Within that area what form of control is most efficient? 4) What level of organisation should be used to get the job done? It should be noted that apart from clearly objective measures such as technical effectiveness (say, mortality) or cost efficiency (mortality per dollar), there are many subjective measures that come into the evaluation of area-wide control due to the element of risk (for example, in quarantine and eradication), the boundaries of externalities (for example, variable probabilities of pesticide drift under different conditions or target organism sensitivities) and time preferences for returns on capital investments (such as insect rearing facilities or research to develop pheromone technologies). As a result of these subjective components, it may sometimes be difficult to reach clearly agreed decisions based on objective economic analyses, even with a consensus on the data used. There are three general classes of economic problems in comparing

  6. Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  7. Detecting blind building façades from highly overlapping wide angle aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burochin, Jean-Pascal; Vallet, Bruno; Brédif, Mathieu; Mallet, Clément; Brosset, Thomas; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    This paper deals with the identification of blind building façades, i.e. façades which have no openings, in wide angle aerial images with a decimeter pixel size, acquired by nadir looking cameras. This blindness characterization is in general crucial for real estate estimation and has, at least in France, a particular importance on the evaluation of legal permission of constructing on a parcel due to local urban planning schemes. We assume that we have at our disposal an aerial survey with a relatively high stereo overlap along-track and across-track and a 3D city model of LoD 1, that can have been generated with the input images. The 3D model is textured with the aerial imagery by taking into account the 3D occlusions and by selecting for each façade the best available resolution texture seeing the whole façade. We then parse all 3D façades textures by looking for evidence of openings (windows or doors). This evidence is characterized by a comprehensive set of basic radiometric and geometrical features. The blindness prognostic is then elaborated through an (SVM) supervised classification. Despite the relatively low resolution of the images, we reach a classification accuracy of around 85% on decimeter resolution imagery with 60 × 40 % stereo overlap. On the one hand, we show that the results are very sensitive to the texturing resampling process and to vegetation presence on façade textures. On the other hand, the most relevant features for our classification framework are related to texture uniformity and horizontal aspect and to the maximal contrast of the opening detections. We conclude that standard aerial imagery used to build 3D city models can also be exploited to some extent and at no additional cost for facade blindness characterisation.

  8. Wide Area Security Region Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai; Guo, Xinxin; Gronquist, James; Du, Pengwei; Nguyen, Tony B.; Burns, J. W.

    2010-03-31

    This report develops innovative and efficient methodologies and practical procedures to determine the wide-area security region of a power system, which take into consideration all types of system constraints including thermal, voltage, voltage stability, transient and potentially oscillatory stability limits in the system. The approach expands the idea of transmission system nomograms to a multidimensional case, involving multiple system limits and parameters such as transmission path constraints, zonal generation or load, etc., considered concurrently. The security region boundary is represented using its piecewise approximation with the help of linear inequalities (so called hyperplanes) in a multi-dimensional space, consisting of system parameters that are critical for security analyses. The goal of this approximation is to find a minimum set of hyperplanes that describe the boundary with a given accuracy. Methodologies are also developed to use the security hyperplanes, pre-calculated offline, to determine system security margins in real-time system operations, to identify weak elements in the system, and to calculate key contributing factors and sensitivities to determine the best system controls in real time and to assist in developing remedial actions and transmission system enhancements offline . A prototype program that automates the simulation procedures used to build the set of security hyperplanes has also been developed. The program makes it convenient to update the set of security hyperplanes necessitated by changes in system configurations. A prototype operational tool that uses the security hyperplanes to assess security margins and to calculate optimal control directions in real time has been built to demonstrate the project success. Numerical simulations have been conducted using the full-size Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system model, and they clearly demonstrated the feasibility and the effectiveness of the developed

  9. Design of no blind area perimeter intrusion recognition system based on fisheye lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jun-jian; Han, Wen-bo

    2013-08-01

    The Perimeter intrusion recognition technology has slowly become an indispensable function in the intelligent video surveillance system. The existed always use the multiple video acquisition nodes to respectively control a monitoring area and each node alarm independently. However, the existed solutions are difficult to avoid the existence of monitoring blind area, and can't suitable for the perimeter environment with irregular outline, and at the same time, because of the too many nodes, it inevitably decreased the overall accuracy of intrusion recognition system and increased the cost of system. To avoid the above defects, this paper mainly talks about the following three aspects. Firstly, we used the fisheye lens as the optical system of video acquisition node, and it evidently enhances each node's information acquisition ability. And in this way, we just need to decorate a small amount of video acquisition node to get no blind area environmental information of the perimeter when against a larger monitoring situation. Secondly, due to the inexistence of blind area, the system will have enough video image information to generate the 360 degree panoramic image for monitoring environment, and finally the system server collected the wide-angle image information to splice into the panoramic video image. Finally, the system will use the panoramic image to complete the intrusion behavior recognition, thus we can effectively avoid the parallel computation in many nodes independently invasion of recognition, and this can greatly reduces the dependence for the multiple CPU operation platform and enhances the reliability of the system. The field test results show that, with the help of this paper's solution, the perimeter of the invasion of recognition system can effectively avoids the recognition of blind area. In the same recognition algorithm and same level delay premise, it greatly reduces the monitoring system server configuration requirements, especially for the

  10. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  11. 47 CFR 54.518 - Support for wide area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Support for wide area networks. 54.518 Section... area networks. To the extent that states, schools, or libraries build or purchase a wide area network to provide telecommunications services, the cost of such wide area networks shall not be eligible...

  12. Wide Area Thermal Processing of Light Emitting Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Joshi, Pooran C [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Angelini, Joseph Attilio [ORNL; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    Laboratory laser materials synthesis of wide bandgap materials has been successfully used to create white light emitting materials (LEMs). This technology development has progressed to the exploration on design and construction of apparatus for wide area doping and phase transformation of wide bandgap material substrates. The objective of this proposal is to develop concepts for wide area doping and phase transformation based on AppliCote Associates, LLC laser technology and ORNL high density pulsed plasma arc technology.

  13. Prevalence of increases in functional connectivity in visual, somatosensory and language areas in congenital blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizette eHeine

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence that congenitally blind individuals rely more strongly on non-visual information compared to sighted controls when interacting with the outside world. Although brain imaging studies indicate that congenitally blind individuals recruit occipital areas when performing various non-visual and cognitive tasks, it remains unclear through which pathways this is accomplished. To address this question, we compared resting state functional connectivity in a group of congenitally blind and matched sighted control subjects. We used a seed-based analysis with a priori specified regions-of-interest (ROIs within visual, somato-sensory, auditory and language areas. Between-group comparisons revealed increased functional connectivity within both the ventral and the dorsal visual streams in blind participants, whereas connectivity between the two streams was reduced. In addition, our data revealed stronger functional connectivity in blind participants between the visual ROIs and areas implicated in language and tactile (Braille processing such as the inferior frontal gyrus (Broca’s area, thalamus, supramarginal gyrus and cerebellum. The observed group differences underscore the extent of the cross-modal reorganisation in the brain and the supra-modal function of the occipital cortex in congenitally blind individuals.

  14. Prevalence of increases in functional connectivity in visual, somatosensory and language areas in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heine, Lizette; Bahri, Mohamed A; Cavaliere, Carlo;

    2015-01-01

    stronger functional connectivity in blind participants between the visual ROIs and areas implicated in language and tactile (Braille) processing such as the inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area), thalamus, supramarginal gyrus and cerebellum. The observed group differences underscore the extent of the cross...

  15. Increased functional connectivity between language and visually deprived areas in late and partial blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Norman; Authié, Colas N; Sanda, Nicolae; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Sahel, José-Alain; Safran, Avinoam B; Habas, Christophe; Amedi, Amir

    2016-08-01

    In the congenitally blind, language processing involves visual areas. In the case of normal visual development however, it remains unclear whether later visual loss induces interactions between the language and visual areas. This study compared the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of retinotopic and language areas in two unique groups of late visually deprived subjects: (1) blind individuals suffering from retinitis pigmentosa (RP), (2) RP subjects without a visual periphery but with preserved central "tunnel vision", both of whom were contrasted with sighted controls. The results showed increased FC between Broca's area and the visually deprived areas in the peripheral V1 for individuals with tunnel vision, and both the peripheral and central V1 for blind individuals. These findings suggest that FC can develop in the adult brain between the visual and language systems in the completely and partially blind. These changes start in the deprived areas and increase in size (involving both foveal and peripheral V1) and strength (from negative to positive FC) as the disease and sensory deprivation progress. These observations support the claim that functional connectivity between remote systems that perform completely different tasks can change in the adult brain in cases of total and even partial visual deprivation.

  16. Increased functional connectivity between language and visually deprived areas in late and partial blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Norman; Authié, Colas N; Sanda, Nicolae; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Sahel, José-Alain; Safran, Avinoam B; Habas, Christophe; Amedi, Amir

    2016-08-01

    In the congenitally blind, language processing involves visual areas. In the case of normal visual development however, it remains unclear whether later visual loss induces interactions between the language and visual areas. This study compared the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of retinotopic and language areas in two unique groups of late visually deprived subjects: (1) blind individuals suffering from retinitis pigmentosa (RP), (2) RP subjects without a visual periphery but with preserved central "tunnel vision", both of whom were contrasted with sighted controls. The results showed increased FC between Broca's area and the visually deprived areas in the peripheral V1 for individuals with tunnel vision, and both the peripheral and central V1 for blind individuals. These findings suggest that FC can develop in the adult brain between the visual and language systems in the completely and partially blind. These changes start in the deprived areas and increase in size (involving both foveal and peripheral V1) and strength (from negative to positive FC) as the disease and sensory deprivation progress. These observations support the claim that functional connectivity between remote systems that perform completely different tasks can change in the adult brain in cases of total and even partial visual deprivation. PMID:27143090

  17. A New Technique of Removing Blind Spots to Optimize Wireless Coverage in Indoor Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Reza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blind spots (or bad sampling points in indoor areas are the positions where no signal exists (or the signal is too weak and the existence of a receiver within the blind spot decelerates the performance of the communication system. Therefore, it is one of the fundamental requirements to eliminate the blind spots from the indoor area and obtain the maximum coverage while designing the wireless networks. In this regard, this paper combines ray-tracing (RT, genetic algorithm (GA, depth first search (DFS, and branch-and-bound method as a new technique that guarantees the removal of blind spots and subsequently determines the optimal wireless coverage using minimum number of transmitters. The proposed system outperforms the existing techniques in terms of algorithmic complexity and demonstrates that the computation time can be reduced as high as 99% and 75%, respectively, as compared to existing algorithms. Moreover, in terms of experimental analysis, the coverage prediction successfully reaches 99% and, thus, the proposed coverage model effectively guarantees the removal of blind spots.

  18. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Gungah, B.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.; Soonnoo, A.R., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries Reduit, Republic of Mauritius (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  19. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  20. The development of area wide traffic management scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zuylen, H.J.; Lu, S.; Li, J.; Yusen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic management in cities with congestion is a big challenge with still unused opportunities. Intersection control is a corner stone but this should be done in an area-wide context. The dominant traffic process on urban roads is the traffic flow on the intersections. Spill back is a most importan

  1. Area-wide pest management: Environmental and economic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Employing area-wide pest management practices best controls several major insect pests of crops and livestock. The screwworm fly that attacks several types of livestock, especially cattle, has been effectively controlled by utilising nuclear energy to sterilise the males. This pest was causing about USD 750 million in damages per year to US livestock. The cotton boll weevil and corn rootworm pests have been effectively controlled using area-wide pest management practices in some regions employing either insecticides or crop rotations. Timed crop planting of wide areas has provided effective against some wheat and rice pests in the USA and Asia. The major challenges facing pest management specialists is the invasion of foreign insect pests into crops, forests, and natural ecosystems. Approximately 40% of the insect and mite pests of the US crops are introduced species and they are causing about USD10 billion in damage and control costs each year. The most recent introductions are the long-horned beetle and the emerald ash-borer, both accidentally introduced from Asia by mistake. The long-horned beetle has become a threat to maple trees in the USA and Canada, while the emerald ash-borer is killing ash trees also in the same region. Area-wide control of these destructive pests is in progress because they are a major threat to valuable tree species in the North American forest ecosystems. (author)

  2. Compute and Storage Clouds Using Wide Area High Performance Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Robert L; Sabala, Michael; Zhang, Wanzhi

    2008-01-01

    We describe a cloud based infrastructure that we have developed that is optimized for wide area, high performance networks and designed to support data mining applications. The infrastructure consists of a storage cloud called Sector and a compute cloud called Sphere. We describe two applications that we have built using the cloud and some experimental studies.

  3. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moynihan, P.I. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  4. Pest management strategies: Area-wide and conventional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional Insect Control The usual approach to insect control is to treat the commodity only after a damaging population of insects has developed. In other words, the producer, home owner or casual gardener fights a defensive battle. He reacts to an insect attack. When he sees the enemy or the damage caused by the enemy, he loads up his sprayer with an insecticide and mounts a counter attack. Most insect control procedures are applied by an individual producer on his own relatively small production area. This conventional insect control approach encourages the producer to make his own decisions about whether or not any insect control is to be used, which insect control method or product to use, when to use it, how to use it, who applies it, etc. Advice to producers on insect control is usually available from government extension personnel, private insect control consultants or representatives of companies that sell insecticides or other insect control materials or methods. The conventional procedure results in great variability in the efficacy of insect control because each producer makes his own decisions. The objective of conventional insect control is to protect the commodity. This is usually accomplished by treating the commodity, be it cows or corn or rice in a warehouse. Conventional insect control requires virtually no planning to achieve results. The 'programme' is short-term, frequently measured in days until the next insecticide application is needed. It is reactive (defensive). Area-wide Insect Control Area-wide insect control is applied against an important insect pest over a relatively large area involving many individual producers of the same or similar crops. The 'area' is a combination of geography and the range of hosts of the target insect pest. The term 'area' in 'area-wide' refers to the area where the target insect population survives. The area is not limited to production of the major crop(s) to be protected. It is very likely that a large

  5. Widely Linear Blind Adaptive Equalization for Transmitter IQ-Imbalance/Skew Compensation in Multicarrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    Simple analytical widely linear complex-valued models for IQ-imbalance and IQ-skew effects in multicarrier transmitters are presented. To compensate for such effects, a 4×4 MIMO widely linear adaptive equalizer is proposed and experimentally validated....

  6. Split Architecture for Large Scale Wide Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    John, Wolfgang; Devlic, Alisa; Ding, Zhemin; Jocha, David; Kern, Andras; Kind, Mario; Köpsel, Andreas; Nordell, Viktor; Sharma, Sachin; Sköldström, Pontus; Staessens, Dimitri; Takacs, Attila; Topp, Steffen; Westphal, F. -Joachim; Woesner, Hagen

    2014-01-01

    This report defines a carrier-grade split architecture based on requirements identified during the SPARC project. It presents the SplitArchitecture proposal, the SPARC concept for Software Defined Networking (SDN) introduced for large-scale wide area networks such as access/aggregation networks, and evaluates technical issues against architectural trade-offs. First we present the control and management architecture of the proposed SplitArchitecture. Here, we discuss a recursive control archit...

  7. Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2009-05-29

    This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

  8. The development of area wide traffic management scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    van Zuylen, H.J.; Lu, S.; Li, J.; Yusen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic management in cities with congestion is a big challenge with still unused opportunities. Intersection control is a corner stone but this should be done in an area-wide context. The dominant traffic process on urban roads is the traffic flow on the intersections. Spill back is a most important cause of malfunctioning networks. The methodology described in this paper gives a structured approach to develop scenarios for dynamic traffic management. The detection of spillback can be done b...

  9. Development of Autonomous Magnetometer Rotorcraft For Wide Area Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. McKay; Matthew O. Anderson

    2011-08-01

    Large areas across the United States and internationally are potentially contaminated with unexploded ordinance (UXO), with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with (1) near 100% coverage and (2) near 100% detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 to 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys, resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre. In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide highresolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus there is a need for other systems, which can be used for effective data collection. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly

  10. SAR interferometry for DEM generation: wide-area error assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Daniel; Broquetas, Antoni; Pena, Ramon; Arbiol, Roman; Castillo, Manuel; Pala, Vincenc

    1998-11-01

    The present work consists on the generation of a DEM using ERS satellites interferometric data over a wide area (50 X 50 Km) with an error study using a high accuracy reference DEM, focusing on the atmosphere induced errors. The area is heterogeneous with flat and rough topography ranging from sea level up to 1200 m in the inland ranges. The ERS image has a 100 X 100 Km2 area and has been divided in four quarters to ease the processing. The phase unwrapping algorithm, which is a combination of region growing and least squares techniques, worked out successfully the rough topography areas. One quarter of the full scene was geocoded over a local datum ellipsoid to a UTM grid. The resulting DEM was compared to a reference one provided by the Institut Cartografic de Catalunya. Two types of atmospheric error or artifacts were found: a set of very localized spots, up to one phase cycle, which generated ghost hills up to 100, and a slow trend effect which added up to 50 m to some areas in the image. Besides of the atmospheric errors, the quality of the DEM was assessed. The quantitative error study was carried out locally at several areas with different topography.

  11. Multi Agent System Based Wide Area Protection against Cascading Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Leo;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-agent system based wide area protection scheme is proposed in order to prevent long term voltage instability induced cascading events. The distributed relays and controllers work as a device agent which not only executes the normal function automatically but also can...... the effectiveness of proposed protection strategy. The simulation results indicate that the proposed multi agent control system can effectively coordinate the distributed relays and controllers to prevent the long term voltage instability induced cascading events....... be modified to fulfill the extra function according to external requirements. The control center is designed as a highest level agent in MAS to coordinate all the lower agents to prevent the system wide voltage disturbance. A hybrid simulation platform with MATLAB and RTDS is set up to demonstrate...

  12. The Wide Area VISTA Extra-galactic Survey (WAVES)

    CERN Document Server

    Driver, Simon P; Meyer, Martin; Power, Chris; Robotham, Aaron S G; Baldry, Ivan K; Liske, Jochen; Norberg, Peder

    2015-01-01

    The "Wide Area VISTA Extra-galactic Survey" (WAVES) is a 4MOST Consortium Design Reference Survey which will use the VISTA/4MOST facility to spectroscopically survey ~2million galaxies to $r_{\\rm AB} < 22$ mag. WAVES consists of two interlocking galaxy surveys ("WAVES-Deep" and "WAVES-Wide"), providing the next two steps beyond the highly successful 1M galaxy Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 250k Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey. WAVES will enable an unprecedented study of the distribution and evolution of mass, energy, and structures extending from 1-kpc dwarf galaxies in the local void to the morphologies of 200-Mpc filaments at $z\\sim1$. A key aim of both surveys will be to compare comprehensive empirical observations of the spatial properties of galaxies, groups, and filaments, against state-of-the-art numerical simulations to distinguish between various Dark Matter models.

  13. Wide-area monitoring of interconnected power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Messina, Arturo Román

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a compact yet comprehensive treatment of advanced data-driven signal processing techniques for the analysis and characterization of both ambient power system data and transient oscillations resulting from major disturbances. Inspired by recent developments in multi-sensor data fusion, multi-temporal data assimilation techniques for power system monitoring are proposed and tested in the context of modern wide-area monitoring system architectures. Recent advances in understanding and modeling nonlinear, time-varying power system processes are reviewed and factors affecting the

  14. Bayes-Based Fault Discrimination in Wide Area Backup Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG, Z.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical analysis is an effective tool to finish the fault location for electric power system. In Bayesian discriminant analysis as a subbranch, by the research of several populations, one can calculate the conditional probability that some samples belong to these populations, and compare the corresponding probability. The sample will be classified as population with maximum probability. In this paper, based on Bayesian discriminant analysis principle, a great number of simulation examples have confirmed that the results of Bayesian fault discriminant in wide area backup protection are accurate and reliable.

  15. Area-wide population suppression of codling moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area-wide pest population control concept began with E.F. Knipling (1979) in the 1970s. Control of a pest population on individual fields does little to control the overall pest population because only a portion of the population is being affected. Expanding control tactics beyond individual farms tends to suppress the population on a wider scale and frequently results in suppression of the population for more than one year. The Agriculture Research Service (ARS) believes that this concept has not been addressed with the focus and support that it deserves. The ARS Administration made a conscious decision in 1994 to create a series of area-wide programmes funded out of ARS-based funds that had previously been used for pilot tests. These programmes involve a coordinated effort among ARS and university scientists, growers, and fieldmen for agriculture supply centres and fruit packing houses. The first area-wide programme supported by ARS was the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) suppression programme. The codling moth is the key pest of pome fruit throughout the western United States (Beers et al. 1993). About half of the insecticides applied on these crops are directed toward this pest. A non-insecticidal control technique, mating disruption (MD), is available to replace the organophosphates. Removal of the hard pesticides directed against this pest would do the most to allow natural enemies to survive and reproduce in the orchards, which in turn would have the effect of reducing secondary pests. Elimination of the pesticides would also remove much of the health risks to workers and would minimise buildup of pesticide resistance. The objectives of the Codling Moth Area-wide Program are to enhance the efficacy of the non-pesticide approach, to demonstrate that mating disruption will work if conducted properly, to develop biological technology to lower costs of control that complement mating disruption, to implement effective

  16. Concept definition of traffic flow wide-area surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.

    1994-07-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret large spatial projections of data originating from multiple sensor suites. The intent of the Wide-Area Surveillance (WAS) Project is to build upon this concept and define the operational specifications and characteristics of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functional capabilities of a TFWAS will be mapped onto an operational profile that is consistent with the Federal Highway Administration`s Intelligent Vehicle Highway System. This document provides the underlying foundation of this work by offering a concept definition for the TFWAS system. It concentrates on answering the question: ``What is the system?`` In doing so, the report develops a hierarchy of specialized definitions.

  17. Corn rootworm area-wide management across the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, northern corn rootworm, D. barberi Smith and Lawrence, and Mexican corn rootworm, D. virgifera zeae Krysan and Smith are among the most economically and environmentally important pests of United States maize (Zea mays L.) production systems (Metcalf 1986). Annually, 8 to 10 million hectares of maize are treated with soil applied insecticides to protect the crop from larval feeding damage. Crop rotation, however, is also widely used to minimise the need for soil insecticide applications. Insecticides for adult rootworm management are also frequently used. Numerous problems are currently associated with corn rootworm management approaches. Soil insecticides are normally used to protect maize roots from larval feeding damage. However, they are ineffective in controlling the management of corn rootworm populations (Gray et al. 1992, Sutter et al. 1991). It is not uncommon for large numbers of rootworms to develop within treated fields. Thus, when maize is grown in the same field year after year (continuous cropping), soil insecticide applications must be used to protect the plant. These applications are generally made without knowledge (prophylactic) of the rootworm population levels within the field due to the difficulty of sampling for immature life stages. Western corn rootworm resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides has been extensively documented (Ball and Weekman 1962). Recently, two distinct populations of western corn rootworms in Nebraska were found to be resistant to carbaryl and methyl parathion which are commonly used for adult control (Meinke et al. 1998). Although the occurrence of resistance has not spread outside of these areas, the potential for increased tolerance of western corn rootworm populations to carbamate and organophosphate insecticides across the region does exist. In response to many of the management problems discussed above, scientists with the USDA Agricultural

  18. Damping of Inter-Area Low Frequency Oscillation Using an Adaptive Wide-Area Damping Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wei; Jiang, L.; Fang, Jiakun;

    2013-01-01

    in each sampling interval. Case studies are undertaken on a two-area fourmachine power system and the New England 10-machine 39-bus power system, respectively. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive WADC not only can damp the inter-area oscillations effectively under a wide range of operation...

  19. Sharing waste management data over a wide area computer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors envision a time when waste management professionals from any institution will be able to access high quality data, regardless of where this data may actually be archived. They will not have to know anything about where the data actually resides or what format it is stored in. They will only have to specify the type of data and the workstation software will handle the rest of the details of finding them and accessing them. A method - now in use at the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University and several other institutions - of achieving this vision is described in this paper. Institutions make views of their databases publicly available to users of the wide-area network (e.g. Internet), using database serving software that runs on one of their computers. This software completely automates the process of finding out what kind of data are available and of retrieving them

  20. Area-wide IPM for commercial wheat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The USDA, Agricultural Research Service funded a demonstration project (1998-2003) for area-wide IPM for stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of researchers at the ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilised two elevator networks, one in each state, for a total of 28 grain elevators. These elevators stored approximately 843,682 metric tonnes of wheat, which was harvested from approximately 324,000 ha. During this study, thousands of grain samples were taken in concrete elevator bins. A vacuum-probe sampler was used to take ten 3-kg grain samples in the top 12 meters of each bin at grain elevators. Decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) was developed. This software interprets insect sampling data, and provides grain managers with a risk analysis report that describes which bins are at low, moderate or high risk for insect-caused economic losses. Recommended treatment strategies and economic analysis are presented to the manager. The area-wide IPM programme was superior to calendar-based management because it ensured that the grain in each bin was only treated when insect densities exceeded economic thresholds. This approach reduced the frequency of fumigation while maintaining high grain quality. Elevators that followed our recommendations reduced the number of bins they normally fumigated by at least 50%. A new grain-scouting company was started that is using SGA Pro and the sampling tools that were developed in this project. The company is in its second year and has over 30 commercial elevators on contract. (author)

  1. Development of autonomous magnetometer rotorcraft for wide area assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelof Versteeg; Matt Anderson; Les Beard; Eric Corban; Darryl Curley; Jeff Gamey; Ross Johnson; Dwight Junkin; Mark McKay; Jared Salzmann; Mikhail Tchernychev; Suraj Unnikrishnan; Scott Vinson

    2010-04-01

    Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. There is thus a need for other systems which can be used for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly characterization (through the use of

  2. Sympatric speciation revealed by genome-wide divergence in the blind mole rat Spalax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kexin; Hong, Wei; Jiao, Hengwu; Wang, Guo-Dong; Rodriguez, Karl A; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Zhao, Yang; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhao, Huabin

    2015-09-22

    Sympatric speciation (SS), i.e., speciation within a freely breeding population or in contiguous populations, was first proposed by Darwin [Darwin C (1859) On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection] and is still controversial despite theoretical support [Gavrilets S (2004) Fitness Landscapes and the Origin of Species (MPB-41)] and mounting empirical evidence. Speciation of subterranean mammals generally, including the genus Spalax, was considered hitherto allopatric, whereby new species arise primarily through geographic isolation. Here we show in Spalax a case of genome-wide divergence analysis in mammals, demonstrating that SS in continuous populations, with gene flow, encompasses multiple widespread genomic adaptive complexes, associated with the sharply divergent ecologies. The two abutting soil populations of S. galili in northern Israel habituate the ancestral Senonian chalk population and abutting derivative Plio-Pleistocene basalt population. Population divergence originated ∼0.2-0.4 Mya based on both nuclear and mitochondrial genome analyses. Population structure analysis displayed two distinctly divergent clusters of chalk and basalt populations. Natural selection has acted on 300+ genes across the genome, diverging Spalax chalk and basalt soil populations. Gene ontology enrichment analysis highlights strong but differential soil population adaptive complexes: in basalt, sensory perception, musculature, metabolism, and energetics, and in chalk, nutrition and neurogenetics are outstanding. Population differentiation of chemoreceptor genes suggests intersoil population's mate and habitat choice substantiating SS. Importantly, distinctions in protein degradation may also contribute to SS. Natural selection and natural genetic engineering [Shapiro JA (2011) Evolution: A View From the 21st Century] overrule gene flow, evolving divergent ecological adaptive complexes. Sharp ecological divergences abound in nature; therefore, SS appears to be an

  3. High Energy Wide Area Blunt Impact on Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrancisci, Gabriela K.

    The largest source of damage to commercial aircraft is caused by accidental contact with ground service equipment (GSE). The cylindrical bumper typically found on GSE distributes the impact load over a large contact area, possibly spanning multiple internal structural elements (frame bays) of a stiffened-skin fuselage. This type of impact can lead to damage that is widespread and difficult to detect visually. To address this problem, monolithic composite panels of various size and complexity have been modeled and tested quasi-statically and dynamically. The experimental observations have established that detectability is dependent on the impact location and immediately-adjacent internal structure of the panel, as well as the impactor geometry and total deformation of the panel. A methodology to model and predict damage caused by wide area blunt impact events was established, which was then applied to more general cases that were not tested in order to better understand the nature of this type of impact event and how it relates to the final damage state and visual detectability.

  4. Trade issues and area-wide pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food security and economic security are unarguably desirable objectives for all nations - indeed for the world. Equally important is the sustainability of designs that achieve these objectives without disadvantaging others or damaging the environment. Considering area-wide pest management in the context of these interrelated global policy forces is essential to fully understand its role in both the protection of plant resources and in facilitation of trade. The case for food security begins with the realisation that there are currently about 800 million people in the world who are suffering from malnutrition due to lack of food. The World Food Summit, convened in November 1996, urgently called for coordinated world-wide action to ensure 'food for all'. A key strategy for realising this goal is reducing losses due to plant pests. In this light, area-wide pest management can be viewed as a valuable addition to the toolbox of pest management strategies. It can also be one of the most sustainable and cost-effective options to consider for pest management. However, just as the problem of world hunger is not solved by a single farmer, area-wide pest management cannot be successful at the individual level. It requires commitment and cooperation to make it feasible - the same type of commitment and cooperation that was expressed at the World Food Summit. Where economic security is concerned, one need not look far to see a world of growing economic integration and widening circles of development. As the World Trade Organisation celebrates the 50th anniversary of the rules-based trading system which began with the GATT after World War II, it is clear that globalisation and the liberalisation of trade have become permanent fixtures in international policy formulation and are integral to the economic security of all nations. Now, more than ever before, the world's prosperity rests on maintaining an open international economy based on commonly agreed rules. The significance of

  5. Area-wide management of fruit flies in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    in Western Australia. On the other hand Queensland fruit fly is just as destructive but is restricted to the east coast of Australia. Programmes such as advice on cover sprays, correct use of pesticides, public education, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), the male annihilation technique (MAT) and fruit fly baiting and trapping are under way to reduce the impact of pest fruit flies on commercial and backyard horticulture. Due to trade and travel, both commercial and private, from Western Australia to the central areas of Australia (the State of South Australia and the Northern Territory) and the east (Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory) and from east to west, both Mediterranean fruit fly and Queensland fruit fly are serious threats to those other States. Mechanisms such as roadblocks, community awareness programmes, reduce the threat of these pests to horticultural production in areas free from these species. Codes of Practice for actions against both Queensland fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, which describe these conditions and actions, have been compiled and agreed upon by most States and some overseas trading partners. Apart from protecting fruit fly free-areas and regions with native species from non-endemic pest fruit flies from other regions within Australia we also protect our shores from exotic pest fruit fly species from regions outside Australia. The Australian Government has issued signage, pamphlets and compulsory quarantine declaration forms alerting travellers about the risk of bringing in fresh fruit and vegetables and the penalties for doing so. All commercial produce is inspected on arrival and samples taken for analysis of possible infestation. Some produce is prohibited from some countries due to the presence of quarantine pests while others are allowed following certification of area-freedom status or of the correct application of post-harvest quarantine treatment or area-wide management

  6. Robust Real-Time Wide-Area Differential GPS Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunck, Thomas P. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Lichten, Stephen M. (Inventor); Mannucci, Anthony J. (Inventor); Muellerschoen, Ronald J. (Inventor); Wu, Sien-Chong (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and a device for providing superior differential GPS positioning data. The system includes a group of GPS receiving ground stations covering a wide area of the Earth's surface. Unlike other differential GPS systems wherein the known position of each ground station is used to geometrically compute an ephemeris for each GPS satellite. the present system utilizes real-time computation of satellite orbits based on GPS data received from fixed ground stations through a Kalman-type filter/smoother whose output adjusts a real-time orbital model. ne orbital model produces and outputs orbital corrections allowing satellite ephemerides to be known with considerable greater accuracy than from die GPS system broadcasts. The modeled orbits are propagated ahead in time and differenced with actual pseudorange data to compute clock offsets at rapid intervals to compensate for SA clock dither. The orbital and dock calculations are based on dual frequency GPS data which allow computation of estimated signal delay at each ionospheric point. These delay data are used in real-time to construct and update an ionospheric shell map of total electron content which is output as part of the orbital correction data. thereby allowing single frequency users to estimate ionospheric delay with an accuracy approaching that of dual frequency users.

  7. Development of wide area environment accelerator operation and diagnostics method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Akito; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2015-08-01

    Remote operation and diagnostic systems for particle accelerators have been developed for beam operation and maintenance in various situations. Even though fully remote experiments are not necessary, the remote diagnosis and maintenance of the accelerator is required. Considering remote-operation operator interfaces (OPIs), the use of standard protocols such as the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is advantageous, because system-dependent protocols are unnecessary between the remote client and the on-site server. Here, we have developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force for Web-based systems, as a next-generation Web-based OPI using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System Channel Access protocol. As a result of this implementation, WebSocket-based client systems have become available for remote operation. Also, as regards practical application, the remote operation of an accelerator via a wide area network (WAN) faces a number of challenges, e.g., the accelerator has both experimental device and radiation generator characteristics. Any error in remote control system operation could result in an immediate breakdown. Therefore, we propose the implementation of an operator intervention system for remote accelerator diagnostics and support that can obviate any differences between the local control room and remote locations. Here, remote-operation Web-based OPIs, which resolve security issues, are developed.

  8. Trapping guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different traps and lures have been developed and used over decades to survey fruit fly populations. The first attractant for male fruit flies was methyl eugenol (ME) (for Bactrocera zonata, Howlett, 1912) followed by kerosene for Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, (medfly), Severin and Severin, 1913. In 1956, Angelica seed oil was used to trap medfly (Steiner et al, 1957). Beroza et al. (1961) discovered trimedlure (TML) to be effective for the same purpose. Beroza and Green, 1963, demonstrated cuelure to be an effective attractant for Bactrocera cucurbitae. Food baits based on protein solutions, fermenting sugar solutions, fruit juices, and vinegar have been used since 1918 for the capture of females of several species. The McPhail trap was the first device to be used with protein baits (McPhail, 1929). Steiner traps were developed in 1957 (Steiner et al., 1957) and Jackson traps in 1971 for TML (Harris et al., 1971). These traps are currently used in various countries for fruit fly surveys in support of control activities and eradication campaigns. The combination of a McPhail trap with a protein attractant, Jackson trap with TML, and the Steiner trap with ME or cuelure (CUE), has remained unchanged for several decades. Global trends in increasing food quality, revenue sources, and fruit and vegetable trade, has resulted in an increased worldwide movement of fruit fly species and requires refinement of survey systems. After years of validating trapping technology through coordinated research programmes (CRP's) and extensive technical assistance to member countries, the Joint Division FAO/IAEA proposes the use of proven technologies in improving trap sensitivity in area-wide fruit fly control programmes (IAEA 1996 and IAEA 1998). These proven technologies include the use of synthetic food lures such as female attractants that can be used for several species of Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Ceratitis. Other citations of information on these developments are

  9. Area-wide suppression of invasive fire ant populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    increases the susceptibility of fire ants to bait insecticide treatments. Field host range studies conducted in Argentina indicated that both T. solenopsae and V. invictae were specific to Solenopsis ants. A combination of chemical and biologically-based control could form the basis of an integrated management system to suppress fire ant populations over large areas, while possibly requiring less chemical control. Project proposal was funded by USDA/ARS Headquarters to demonstrate control of fire ant populations over large areas using integrated management methods. The objectives of this project are to: (1) maintain low fire ant populations using a combination of self-sustaining fire ant biological control agents (the phorid fly, P. tricuspis, and the pathogen, T. solenopsae) and bait toxicants, (2) assess the economic impact associated with fire ants and the benefits of area-wide fire ant control, (3) assess the environmental impact of fire ants and the effects of their control on native ant fauna, (4) develop educational materials for the public on fire ants and their control, and (5) a research component that focuses on new methodologies that can enhance bait and/or biocontrol effectiveness. The Project team includes USDA/ARS and APHIS personnel and state cooperators from Texas A and M University, Oklahoma State University, Clemson University, South Carolina, and the University of Florida. Control and treatment demonstration sites (120 ha + periphery) were set up in each of five states (Florida, Oklahoma, Texas, South Carolina, and Mississippi). The control site had bait applications, but no biocontrol around the periphery. The treatment site had bait applications plus biocontrol agents (phorid flies and T. solenopsae) were applied to the periphery around the bait treated areas, to prevent, limit, or slow reinfestation of the chemically treated area. Insecticide applications consisted of a combination of hydramethylnon and methoprene baits, chosen because they were

  10. Association Analysis of System Failure in Wide Area Backup Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yagang; Sun, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Wide area backup protection algorithm based on fault component identification is the heart of the whole wide area backup protection system, its validity and reliability is a problem which needs to be first considered in the engineering practice applications of wide area backup protection system. Wide are backup protection algorithm mainly use two kinds of wide area information to realize protection criterion, one is electrical quantity information, such as voltage, current, etc. Another one is protection action and circuit breaker information. The wide area backup protection algorithm based on electrical quantity information is mainly utilizing the significant change of electrical quantity to search fault component, and the primary means include current differential method of wide area multi-measuring points, the comparison method of calculation and measurement, the multiple statistics method. In this paper, a novel and effective association analysis of system failure in wide area backup protection system will be discussed carefully, and the analytical results are successful and reliable.

  11. Setting Up a Library Accessible Area for the Blind or Visually Impaired: Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Dawn

    1997-01-01

    Discusses library planning for services for blind and visually impaired users, including access needs of patrons, available library space, appropriate adaptive technology, equipment costs and budget resources, Internet access, and staff training. A list of pertinent resources is appended. (LRW)

  12. Wide-Area Thermal Processing of Light-Emitting Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, C.; Quick, N. (AppliCote Associates, LLC)

    2011-09-30

    Silicon carbide based materials and devices have been successfully exploited for diverse electronic applications. However, they have not achieved the same success as Si technologies due to higher material cost and higher processing temperatures required for device development. Traditionally, SiC is not considered for optoelectronic applications because it has an indirect bandgap. However, AppliCote Associates, LLC has developed a laser-based doping process which enables light emission in SiC through the creation of embedded p-n junctions. AppliCote laser irradiation of silicon carbide allows two different interaction mechanisms: (1) Laser conversion or induced phase transformation which creates carbon rich regions that have conductive properties. These conductive regions are required for interconnection to the light emitting semiconducting region. (2) Laser doping which injects external dopant atoms into the substrate that introduces deep level transition states that emit light when electrically excited. The current collaboration with AppliCote has focused on the evaluation of ORNL's unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technique as a replacement for laser processing. Compared to laser processing, Pulse Thermal Processing can deliver similar energy intensities (20-50 kW/cm2) over a much larger area (up to 1,000 cm2) at a lower cost and much higher throughput. The main findings of our investigation; which are significant for the realization of SiC based optoelectronic devices, are as follows: (1) The PTP technique is effective in low thermal budget activation of dopants in SiC similar to the laser technique. The surface electrical conductivity of the SiC samples improved by about three orders of magnitude as a result of PTP processing which is significant for charge injection in the devices; (2) The surface composition of the SiC film can be modified by the PTP technique to create a carbon-rich surface (increased local C:Si ratio from 1:1 to 2.9:1). This is

  13. Discovery of Nine Gamma-Ray Pulsars in Fermi Large Area Telescope Data Using a New Blind Search Method

    OpenAIRE

    Pletsch, H. J.; Guillemot, L.; Allen, B.; Kramer, M.; Aulbert, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Ray, P.S.; Barr, E. D.; Belfiore, A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Çelik, O; Champion, D. J.; Dormody, M.; Eatough, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of nine previously unknown gamma-ray pulsars in a blind search of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The pulsars were found with a novel hierarchical search method originally developed for detecting continuous gravitational waves from rapidly rotating neutron stars. Designed to find isolated pulsars spinning at up to kHz frequencies, the new method is computationally efficient and incorporates several advances, including a metric-based gridding of the sear...

  14. Short-term and area-wide evaluation of safety measures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    1982-01-01

    A background paper for the seminar on short-term and area-wide evaluation of safety measures is presented. The seminar is restricted to safety measures, thus only countermeasures that are intended to reduce accidents are regarded. The measures should be furthermore for the short-term and area-wide.

  15. 40 CFR 52.326 - Area-wide nitrogen oxides (NOX) exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area-wide nitrogen oxides (NOX... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.326 Area-wide nitrogen oxides (NOX) exemptions. The Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) submitted a NOX...

  16. Blindness - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - blindness ... The following organizations are good resources for information on blindness : American Foundation for the Blind -- www.afb.org Foundation Fighting Blindness -- www.blindness.org National Eye Institute -- ...

  17. Recruitment of the middle temporal area by tactile motion in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, Maurice; Matteau, Isabelle; Gjedde, Albert;

    2009-01-01

    We used positron emission tomography to investigate whether tactile motion discrimination activates the dorsal visual stream in congenitally blind (CB) participants compared with sighted controls. The tactile stimuli consisted of either static dots, dots moving coherently in one of two possible...... indicate that the dorsal visual pathway is activated by tactile motion stimuli in CB, therefore providing additional support for the cross-modal plasticity hypothesis....

  18. A Compact, Wide Area Surveillance 3D Imaging LIDAR Providing UAS Sense and Avoid Capabilities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Eye safe 3D Imaging LIDARS when combined with advanced very high sensitivity, large format receivers can provide a robust wide area search capability in a very...

  19. A distributed file system for a wide-area high performance computing infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Edward

    2009-01-01

    We describe our work in implementing a wide-area distributed file system for the NSF TeraGrid. The system, called XUFS, allows private distributed name spaces to be created for transparent access to personal files across over 9000 computer nodes. XUFS builds on many principles from prior distributed file systems research, but extends key design goals to support the workflow of computational science researchers. Specifically, XUFS supports file access from the desktop to the wide-area network ...

  20. Data Quality in Wide-Area Monitoring and Control Systems : PMU Data Latency, Completness, and Design of Wide-Area Damping Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    The strain on modern electrical power system operation has led to an ever increasing utilization of new Information Communication Technology (ICT) systems to enhance the reliability and efficiency of grid operation. Among these proposals, Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU)-based Wide-Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) systems have been recognized as one of the enablers of “Smart Grid”, particularly at the transmission level, due to their capability to improve the real-time situational awareness of...

  1. Area-wide control of insects with screwworm as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), are devastating pests of warm blooded animals. They have been eradicated from continental North America using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Proper implementation of SIT is an example of the requirements of area-wide control of insect pests. Area-...

  2. Adaptive Wide-Area Damping Control Scheme for Smart Grids with Consideration of Signal Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyou Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the smart grid, a wide-area measurement system (WAMS provides the key technical support for power system monitoring, protection and control. But 20 uncertainties in system parameters and signal transmission time delay could worsen the damping effect and deteriorate the system stability. In the presented study, the subspace system identification technique (SIT is used to firstly derive a low-order linear model of a power system from the measurements. Then, a novel adaptive wide-area damping control scheme for online tuning of the wide-area damping controller (WADC parameters using the residue method is proposed. In order to eliminate the effects of the time delay to the signal transmission, a simple and practical time delay compensation algorithm is proposed to compensate the time delay in each wide-area control signal. Detailed examples, inspired by the IEEE test system under various disturbance scenarios, have been used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive wide-area damping control scheme.

  3. Conceptual Model for Assessing the Minimum Size Area for an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual model was developed based on the two basic spatial elements of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM), a core area and a buffer zone, to determine the minimum size of the protected area for the program to be technically feasible and economically justifiable. The model consisted of a biological part (insect dispersal) and an economic part. The biological part used random walks and diffusion equations to describe insect dispersal and to determine the minimum width of the buffer zone required to protect the core area from immigration of pests from outside. In the economic part, the size of the core area was calculated to determine the point at which the revenues from the core area equal the control costs. This model will need to be calibrated and validated for each species and geographic location. Tsetse flies and the Mediterranean fruit fly are used as case studies to illustrate the model. (author)

  4. Voltage control and protection in electrical power systems from system components to wide-area control

    CERN Document Server

    Corsi, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Based on the author’s twenty years of experience, this book shows the practicality of modern, conceptually new, wide area voltage control in transmission and distribution smart grids, in detail. Evidence is given of the great advantages of this approach, as well as what can be gained by new control functionalities which modern technologies now available can provide. The distinction between solutions of wide area voltage regulation (V-WAR) and wide area voltage protection (V-WAP) are presented, demonstrating the proper synergy between them when they operate on the same power system as well as the simplicity and effectiveness of the protection solution in this case. The author provides an overview and detailed descriptions of voltage controls, distinguishing between generalities of underdeveloped, on-field operating applications and modern and available automatic control solutions, which are as yet not sufficiently known or perceived for what they are: practical, high-performance and reliable solutions. At th...

  5. SWIRE: The SIRTF Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Sebastian; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Smith, Harding E.; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Surace, Jason; Shupe, David; Xu, Cong; Padgett, Deborah; Fang, Fan; Conrow, Tim; Franceschini, Alberto; Gautier, Nick; Griffin, Matt; Hacking, Perry; Masci, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The SIRTF Wide-Area Infrared Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE), the largest SIRTF Legacy program, is a wide-area imaging survey to trace the evolution of dusty, star-forming galaxies, evolved stellar populations, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) as a function of environment, from redshifts to the current epoch. SWIRE will survey seven high-latitude fields, totaling 60–65 deg2 in all seven SIRTF bands: Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) 3.6, 4.5, 5.6, and 8 μm and Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF ...

  6. Field and long-term demonstration of a wide area quantum key distribution network

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; He, De-Yong; Li, Yu-Hu; Zhou, Zheng; Song, Xiao-Tian; Li, Fang-Yi; Wang, Dong; Chen, Hua; Han, Yun-Guang; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Jun-Fu; Hao, Peng-Lei; Li, Mo; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Liu, Dong; Liang, Wen-Ye; Miao, Chun-Hua; Wu, Ping; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-01-01

    A wide area quantum key distribution (QKD) network deployed on communication infrastructures provided by China Mobile Ltd. is demonstrated. Three cities and two metropolitan area QKD networks were linked up to form the Hefei-Chaohu-Wuhu wide area QKD network with over 150 kilometers coverage area, in which Hefei metropolitan area QKD network was a typical full-mesh core network to offer all-to-all interconnections, and Wuhu metropolitan area QKD network was a representative quantum access network with point-to-multipoint configuration. The whole wide area QKD network ran for more than 5000 hours, from 21 December 2011 to 19 July 2012, and part of the network stopped until last December. To adapt to the complex and volatile field environment, the Faraday-Michelson QKD system with several stability measures was adopted when we designed QKD devices. Through standardized design of QKD devices, resolution of symmetry problem of QKD devices, and seamless switching in dynamic QKD network, we realized the effective i...

  7. Field and long-term demonstration of a wide area quantum key distribution network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; He, De-Yong; Li, Yu-Hu; Zhou, Zheng; Song, Xiao-Tian; Li, Fang-Yi; Wang, Dong; Chen, Hua; Han, Yun-Guang; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Jun-Fu; Hao, Peng-Lei; Li, Mo; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Liu, Dong; Liang, Wen-Ye; Miao, Chun-Hua; Wu, Ping; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-09-01

    A wide area quantum key distribution (QKD) network deployed on communication infrastructures provided by China Mobile Ltd. is demonstrated. Three cities and two metropolitan area QKD networks were linked up to form the Hefei-Chaohu-Wuhu wide area QKD network with over 150 kilometers coverage area, in which Hefei metropolitan area QKD network was a typical full-mesh core network to offer all-to-all interconnections, and Wuhu metropolitan area QKD network was a representative quantum access network with point-to-multipoint configuration. The whole wide area QKD network ran for more than 5000 hours, from 21 December 2011 to 19 July 2012, and part of the network stopped until last December. To adapt to the complex and volatile field environment, the Faraday-Michelson QKD system with several stability measures was adopted when we designed QKD devices. Through standardized design of QKD devices, resolution of symmetry problem of QKD devices, and seamless switching in dynamic QKD network, we realized the effective integration between point-to-point QKD techniques and networking schemes. PMID:25321550

  8. Collection of entomological baseline data for tsetse area-wide integrated pest management programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Leak, Stephen G. A.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Ejigu, Dejene

    2015-01-01

    Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) entails the integration of different control tactics against an entire pest population within a circumscribed area, while given adequate attention to human health and the environment. For most insect pests including tsetse, AW-IPM results in more sustainable pest control and the concept has gained significantly in importance in the last decade. These guidelines provide, aside from some basic information on the biology of tsetse flies, guidance o...

  9. Wide area monitoring, protection and control systems the enabler for smarter grids

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccaro, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    This book is designed to give electrical and electronic engineers involved in the design, operation and maintenance of electrical power networks, the knowledge and skills necessary to deploy synchronised measurement technology (SMT) in Wide Area Monitoring, Protection And Control (WAMPAC) applications.

  10. Area-wide integration of lepidopteran F1 sterility and augmentative biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Area-wide pest management (APM) and integrated pest management (IPM) originated from two different efforts to combine two or more control techniques into programmes in which each method could synergise the effectiveness of others and thus create a level of pest control that was greater than that of a single technique (Perkins 1982). Since then, the concept of APM has evolved to include many aspects of IPM and often is now referred to as area-wide IPM. Still, the element of total population management is central to this approach of insect pest management. In support of APM, Knipling (1998) stated that of the insect pests that were of major concern to agriculture before the newer classes of insecticides were available, most are still pests today, the major exceptions being the screw-worm fly and the boll weevil in the southeastern US cotton growing region. Knipling also noted that both of these pest species were subjected to area-wide suppression programmes. In response to the USDA IPM Initiative (USDA 1993, 1994) which seeks to achieve the national goal of having 75% of the crop acres under IPM by the year 2000, the Agricultural Research Service developed an Area-wide IPM Programme. This programme combines environmentally-sound pest control techniques with the advantages of APM and develops partnerships with other federal, state, local and private sector entities. Technologies such as the integration of lepidopteran F1 sterility and augmentative biological control may be considered for future programmes

  11. 40 CFR 52.2351 - Area-wide nitrogen oxides (NOX) exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area-wide nitrogen oxides (NOX) exemption. 52.2351 Section 52.2351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... nitrogen oxides (NOX) exemption. On May 2, 1997, Ursula Trueman, Director, Division of Air Quality,...

  12. 40 CFR 52.992 - Area-wide nitrogen oxides exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area-wide nitrogen oxides exemptions. 52.992 Section 52.992 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... nitrogen oxides exemptions. (a) The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality submitted to the EPA...

  13. Area-wide integrated pest management of fruit flies in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are recognised as one of the most important pests of fruits and vegetables. The importance of an Integrated Pest Management approach to fruit fly suppression or eradication has been emphasized over the past 30 years. Integrated Pest Management has, in some instance, a narrow focus on the crop or the orchard or farm, but not adopting an area-wide approach, where much of the activity may be outside the crop or production unit. All of the techniques used to manage fruit flies at the on-farm level may be used on an area-wide basis, preferably in combination to maximise the impact of each technique. There are some techniques, which are better suited to the area-wide approach, but can be used on-farm as well. Techniques include physical control (e.g., bagging), cultural control (e.g., production when fly numbers are low, resistant varieties, crop hygiene, early harvesting, growing refuge crops), biological control, behavioral control (e.g., protein bait spray application technique and male annihilation technique), sterile insect technique, and chemical control. In adopting an area-wide approach, very effective collaboration between many stakeholders is essential. (author)

  14. On the design of a Radio Numerology for 5G Wide Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardinelli, Gilberto; Pedersen, Klaus Ingemann; Frederiksen, Frank;

    2015-01-01

    A 5th Generation (5G) radio access technology is expected to cope with the relentless increase of the data traffic demand and is meant to accommodate a plethora of services with different requirements. In this paper, we elaborate on the design of the radio numerology for a 5G wide area system...

  15. Crack-free AlGaN for solar-blind focal plane arrays through reduced area epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, E.; McClintock, R.; Vashaei, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Gautier, S.; Cho, C. Y.; Razeghi, M.

    2013-02-01

    We report on crack reduction for solar-blind ultraviolet detectors via the use of a reduced area epitaxy (RAE) method to regrow on patterned AlN templates. With the RAE method, a pre-deposited AlN template is patterned into isolated mesas in order to reduce the formation of cracks in the subsequently grown high Al-content AlxGa1-xN structure. By restricting the lateral dimensions of the epitaxial growth area, the biaxial strain is relaxed by the edges of the patterned squares, which resulted in ˜97% of the pixels being crack-free. After successful implementation of RAE method, we studied the optical characteristics, the external quantum efficiency, and responsivity of average pixel-sized detectors of the patterned sample increased from 38% and 86.2 mA/W to 57% and 129.4 mA/W, respectively, as the reverse bias is increased from 0 V to 5 V. Finally, we discussed the possibility of extending this approach for focal plane array, where crack-free large area material is necessary for high quality imaging.

  16. Study of the wide area of a lake with remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Maria A.; Karagianni, Aikaterini C.

    2016-08-01

    Water bodies are particularly important for environment and development issues. Their study requires multiple information. Remote sensing has been proven useful in the above study. This paper concerns the wide area of Lake Orestiada in the region of Western Macedonia in Greece. The area is of particular interest because Lake Orestiada is included in the Natura 2000 network and is surrounded by diverse landcovers as built up areas and agricultural land. Multispectral and thermal Landsat 5 satellite images of two time periods are being used. Their processing is being done by Erdas Imagine software. The general physiognomy of the area and the lake shore are examined after image enhancement techniques and image interpretation. Directions of the study concern geomorphological aspects, land covers, estimation of surface temperature as well as changes through time.

  17. An analysis of the wide area differential method of geostationary orbit satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI ChengLin; LI XiaoHui; WU HaiTao

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to obtain a wide area differential method for geostationary orbit (GEO) constellation. A comparison between the dilution of precision (DOP) of four-dimensional (4D) calculation including satellite clock errors and ephemeris errors and that of three-dimensional (3D) calculation only including ephemeris errors with the inverse positioning theory of GPS shows the conclusion that all the 3D PDOPs are greatly reduced. Based on this, a basic idea of correcting satellite clock errors and ephem-eris errors apart is put forward, and moreover, a specific method of separation is proposed. Satellite clock errors are separated in a master station with time synchronization, and all the remaining pseudo-range errors after the satellite clock errors have been deducted are used to work out ephemeris corrections of all GEO satellites. By a comparative analysis of user positioning accuracy before and after differential, the wide area differential method is verified to be quite valid for GEO constellation.

  18. MSAT wide-area fleet management: End-user requirements and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Allister

    1995-01-01

    MSAT (Mobile SATellite) Services will become a reality in North America in 1995. MSAT will provide wide-area voice, data and fax services to land, marine and aeronautical mobile users anywhere in North America including 200 nautical miles off the coasts and into the Arctic waters. MSAT will also convey GPS position information from mobiles to dispatch centers. One broad application of MSAT is Wide Area Fleet Management (WAFM). This paper defines WAFM, outlines end-user requirements and identifies potential applications of MSAT WAFM. The paper draws from information obtained in several preMSAT WAFM field trials in land, marine and aeronautical mobile environments. The paper concludes with an outline of the potential benefits of MSAT WAFM.

  19. Wide-area service water information management system; Koiki suido joho kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    A wide-area service water system is required to be more resistant to emergency situations, e.g., drought and hazards, and meet consumers' diversifying needs in each area, while stably supplying water at ordinary times by utilizing purification plants located in places within its system and piping networks in the water area. Fuji Electric is providing information management systems for wide-area service water systems, developed based on the company's abundant system know-hows accumulated for a long time and latest techniques. They are characterized by (1) Web monitoring, aided by an intranet system, (2) high-speed data transmission by a digital transmission system, (3) open network environments, and (4) emergency calling of the staff, and management of stock materials. The system allows to monitor operating conditions within the area on real time, needless to say, and business administration with civil minimum taken into consideration, e.g., stabilizing water quality by coordinating the purification plants within the system. (translated by NEDO)

  20. Multi-modal target detection for autonomous wide area search and surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckon, Toby P.; Gaszczak, Anna; Han, Jiwan; Eichner, Marcin L.; Barnes, Stuart E.

    2013-10-01

    Generalised wide are search and surveillance is a common-place tasking for multi-sensory equipped autonomous systems. Here we present on a key supporting topic to this task - the automatic interpretation, fusion and detected target reporting from multi-modal sensor information received from multiple autonomous platforms deployed for wide-area environment search. We detail the realization of a real-time methodology for the automated detection of people and vehicles using combined visible-band (EO), thermal-band (IR) and radar sensing from a deployed network of multiple autonomous platforms (ground and aerial). This facilities real-time target detection, reported with varying levels of confidence, using information from both multiple sensors and multiple sensor platforms to provide environment-wide situational awareness. A range of automatic classification approaches are proposed, driven by underlying machine learning techniques, that facilitate the automatic detection of either target type with cross-modal target confirmation. Extended results are presented that show both the detection of people and vehicles under varying conditions in both isolated rural and cluttered urban environments with minimal false positive detection. Performance evaluation is presented at an episodic level with individual classifiers optimized for maximal each object of interest (vehicle/person) detection over a given search path/pattern of the environment, across all sensors and modalities, rather than on a per sensor sample basis. Episodic target detection, evaluated over a number of wide-area environment search and reporting tasks, generally exceeds 90%+ for the targets considered here.

  1. High-Speed Optical Wide-Area Data-Communication Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacos, Steve P.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed fiber-optic wide-area network (WAN) for digital communication balances input and output flows of data with its internal capacity by routing traffic via dynamically interconnected routing planes. Data transmitted optically through network by wavelength-division multiplexing in synchronous or asynchronous packets. WAN implemented with currently available technology. Network is multiple-ring cyclic shuffle exchange network ensuring traffic reaches its destination with minimum number of hops.

  2. Camera Networks The Acquisition and Analysis of Videos over Wide Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2012-01-01

    As networks of video cameras are installed in many applications like security and surveillance, environmental monitoring, disaster response, and assisted living facilities, among others, image understanding in camera networks is becoming an important area of research and technology development. There are many challenges that need to be addressed in the process. Some of them are listed below: - Traditional computer vision challenges in tracking and recognition, robustness to pose, illumination, occlusion, clutter, recognition of objects, and activities; - Aggregating local information for wide

  3. Modeling and Estimation Techniques for Wide-Area Network Traffic with Atypical Components

    OpenAIRE

    Minton, Carl Edward

    2002-01-01

    A critical first step to improving existing and designing future wide-area networks is an understanding of the load placed on these networks. Efforts to model traffic are often confounded by atypical traffic - traffic particular to the observation site not ubiquitously applicable. The causes and characteristics of atypical traffic are explored in this thesis. Atypical traffic is found to interfere with parsimonious analytic traffic models. A detection and modeling tech...

  4. Wide-field retinotopy defines human cortical visual area v6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzalis, Sabrina; Galletti, Claudio; Huang, Ruey-Song; Patria, Fabiana; Committeri, Giorgia; Galati, Gaspare; Fattori, Patrizia; Sereno, Martin I

    2006-07-26

    The retinotopic organization of a newly identified visual area near the midline in the dorsalmost part of the human parieto-occipital sulcus was mapped using high-field functional magnetic resonance imaging, cortical surface-based analysis, and wide-field retinotopic stimulation. This area was found in all 34 subjects that were mapped. It represents the contralateral visual hemifield in both hemispheres of all subjects, with upper fields located anterior and medial to areas V2/V3, and lower fields medial and slightly anterior to areas V3/V3A. It contains a representation of the center of gaze distinct from V3A, a large representation of the visual periphery, and a mirror-image representation of the visual field. Based on similarity in position, visuotopic organization, and relationship with the neighboring extrastriate visual areas, we suggest it might be the human homolog of macaque area V6, and perhaps of area M (medial) or DM (dorsomedial) of New World primates.

  5. The Campi Flegrei Blind Test: Evaluating the Imaging Capability of Local Earthquake Tomography in a Volcanic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Priolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 1982–1984 bradyseismic crises in the Campi Flegrei area (Italy, the University of Wisconsin deployed a network of seismological stations to record local earthquakes. In order to analyse the potential of the recorded data in terms of tomographic imaging, a blind test was recently set up and carried out in the framework of a research project. A model representing a hypothetical 3D structure of the area containing the Campi Flegrei caldera was also set up, and a synthetic dataset of time arrivals was in turn computed. The synthetic dataset consists of several thousand P- and S-time arrivals, computed at about fourteen stations. The tomographic inversion was performed by four independent teams using different methods. The teams had no knowledge of either the input velocity model or the earthquake hypocenters used to create the synthetic dataset. The results obtained by the different groups were compared and analysed in light of the true model. This work provides a thorough analysis of the earthquake tomography potential of the dataset recording the seismic activity at Campi Flegrei in the 1982–1984 period. It shows that all the tested earthquake tomography methods provide reliable low-resolution images of the background velocity field of the Campi Flegrei area, but with some differences. However, none of them succeeds in detecting the hypothetical structure details (i.e. with a size smaller than about 1.5–2 km, such as a magmatic chamber 4 km deep and especially the smaller, isolated bodies, which represent possible magmatic chimneys and intrusions.

  6. Area-wide integrated pest management and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) focuses on the preventive management of pest populations throughout the ecosystem. It seeks to treat all habitats of the pest population so that none produces migrants to re-establish significant infestations in areas of concern. In contrast, the conventional strategy focuses narrowly on defending the valued entity (crop, livestock, people, buildings, etc.) from direct attack by pests. AW-IPM requires multiyear planning, and an organization dedicated exclusively to its implementation, whereas conventional pest management involves minimal forward planning, tends to be reactive, and is implemented independently by individual producers, businesses, or households. AW-IPM tends to utilize advanced technologies, whereas the conventional strategy tends to rely on traditional tactics and tools. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a species-specific form of birth control imposed on the pest population. It is a powerful tool for 'mopping up' sparse pest populations, and is most efficient when applied as a tactic in a system deployed on an area-wide basis. On environmental, economic and biological grounds, the case for the SIT is compelling. (author)

  7. A framework for activity detection in wide-area motion imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ruggiero, Christy E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morrison, Jack D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Wide-area persistent imaging systems are becoming increasingly cost effective and now large areas of the earth can be imaged at relatively high frame rates (1-2 fps). The efficient exploitation of the large geo-spatial-temporal datasets produced by these systems poses significant technical challenges for image and video analysis and data mining. In recent years there has been significant progress made on stabilization, moving object detection and tracking and automated systems now generate hundreds to thousands of vehicle tracks from raw data, with little human intervention. However, the tracking performance at this scale, is unreliable and average track length is much smaller than the average vehicle route. This is a limiting factor for applications which depend heavily on track identity, i.e. tracking vehicles from their points of origin to their final destination. In this paper we propose and investigate a framework for wide-area motion imagery (W AMI) exploitation that minimizes the dependence on track identity. In its current form this framework takes noisy, incomplete moving object detection tracks as input, and produces a small set of activities (e.g. multi-vehicle meetings) as output. The framework can be used to focus and direct human users and additional computation, and suggests a path towards high-level content extraction by learning from the human-in-the-loop.

  8. GNSS-based train positioning experiments with local and wide area augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X.; Schmidt, M.; Winter, J. [DaimlerChrysler Rail Systems (Signals) GmbH, Ulm (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Within the frame of the MAGNET Project ('Multimodal Approach for GNSS 1 in European Transport') of the Telematics Applications programme of the 4{sup th} Research Framework of the European Community (1994-1998), a GNSS-based Train Positioning Platform (TPP) has been developed and tested with the wide area augmentation system pre-EGNOS and a local differential GNSS system using a reference station. This paper presents the principle and the system architecture of the developed GNSS-based train positioning system and highlights the system performance achieved in field tests. The TPP consists of a GNSS core module with an EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service) decoding function, a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) data link for local GPS and GLONASS differential corrections, a digital route map and an interface to odometer. The first step to calculate the train position is to select either wide area or local area differential corrections depending on which are available. The position and velocity are then calculated and matched to the track by using the digital route map. Finally, the GNSS position and velocity data is integrated with odometer data in a sensor data fusion model. The integrated solution avoids the masking problem of GNSS signals and reduces odometer errors like drift and braking slip, so that a continuous positioning availability can be reached and the positioning accuracy can be improved to meter level. The achieved performance is being exploited for industrial applications. (orig.)

  9. A framework for activity detection in wide-area motion imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Reid; Ruggiero, Christy; Morrison, John D.

    2009-05-01

    As wide-area persistent imaging systems become cost effective, increasingly large areas of the earth can be imaged at relatively high frame rates. Efficient exploitation of the large geo-spatial-temporal datasets produced by these systems poses significant technical challenges for image and video analysis and for data mining. Significant progress in image stabilization, moving object detection and tracking, are allowing automated systems to generate hundreds to thousands of vehicle tracks from raw data, with little human intervention. However, tracking performance at this scale is unreliable, and average track length is much smaller than the average vehicle route. These are limiting factors for applications that depend heavily on track identity, i.e. tracking vehicles from their points of origin to their final destination. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a framework for wide-area motion imagery (WAMI) exploitation that minimizes the dependence on track identity. In its current form, this framework takes noisy, incomplete moving object detection tracks as input, and produces a small set of activities (e.g. multi-vehicle meetings) as output. The framework can be used to focus and direct human users and additional computation, and suggests a path towards high-level content extraction by learning from the human-in-the-loop.

  10. New trends in InSAR time series analysis for wide area deformation mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, R. F.; Caro Cuenca, M.; Hooper, A.; Mahapatra, P.; Arikan, M.; Bekaert, D.

    2012-04-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) is a remote sensing technique that is extensively used to measure deformation at the Earth's surface. Although it has proven very successful to estimate small-scale (up to tens of km) deformation phenomena, InSAR still has limitations when applied to study wide areas (hundreds of km). First, radar observations are affected by atmospheric delay and errors in sensor position (also referred to as orbital errors). Both of these translate into large scale signals in InSAR estimations that can be interpreted as a non-existing deformation phenomenon. Second, since InSAR produces deformation maps relative to an area (or pixel) that is part of the observed track, combination of adjacent tracks requires the connection of these relative measurements to a common area or reference point. This operation is, however, non-trivial and is preferably performed in combination with in situ data. In this contribution, we explore different case studies where we address the aforementioned limitations to measure deformation in wide areas. They include the whole country of the Netherlands, the area of El Guerrero in Mexico and the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey. Our initial strategy is to filter out atmospheric and orbital errors assuming they are uncorrelated in time. However, this assumption does not always hold. Therefore, ancillary data, such as GPS and leveling, is also used for a precise estimation of the large scale deformation signal. Furthermore, datum connection is performed with ancillary data as well where different radar tracks and other geodetic data are combined to obtain the final deformation map in a common reference system. We also explore how compact radar transponders can help to tackle the datum connection problem.

  11. A robust SMES controller design for stabilization of inter-area oscillations based on wide area synchronized phasor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngamroo, Issarachai; Ali Nanda, Cuk Supriyadi [Center of Excellence for Innovative Energy Systems, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Dechanupaprittha, Sanchai; Watanabe, Masayuki; Mitani, Yasunori [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    This paper proposes a robust power controller design of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) based on wide area synchronized phasor measurement units (PMUs) for stabilization of inter-area oscillation. The structure of active and reactive power controllers of SMES is the first-order lead/lag compensator. Assuming multiple PMUs are located in an interconnected power system, the steady state phasor data are obtained by applying the small load perturbation. Using the phasor data, the simplified oscillation model (SOM) included with SMES power controllers can be identified and applied to estimate the dominant inter-area oscillation modes. In the robust control design, unstructured system uncertainties such as various operating conditions, system parameters variation, etc., are represented by the inverse additive perturbation and included in the SOM. To enhance the system robust stability margin, the optimization of SMES control parameters is solved by genetic algorithm in the SOM. Simulation studies in the West Japan 6-machine power system confirm that the robustness of the proposed SMES is much superior to the conventional SMES against various operating conditions and fault locations. (author)

  12. Emerging Technologies and Techniques for Wide Area Radiological Survey and Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhao, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Technologies to survey and decontaminate wide-area contamination and process the subsequent radioactive waste have been developed and implemented following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant release and the breach of a radiological source resulting in contamination in Goiania, Brazil. These civilian examples of radioactive material releases provided the some of the first examples of urban radiological remediation. Many emerging technologies have recently been developed and demonstrated in Japan following the release of radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs- 134 and Cs-137) from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011. Information on technologies reported by several Japanese government agencies such as the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and the National Institute for Environmental Science (NIES), together with academic institutions and industry are summarized and compared to recently developed, deployed and available technologies in the United States. The technologies and techniques presented in this report may be deployed in response to a wide area contamination event in the United States. In some cases, additional research and testing is needed to adequately validate the technology effectiveness over wide areas. Survey techniques can be deployed on the ground or from the air, allowing a range of coverage rates and sensitivities. Survey technologies also include those useful in measuring decontamination progress and mapping contamination. Decontamination technologies and techniques range from non-destructive (e.g., high pressure washing) and minimally destructive (plowing), to fully destructive (surface removal or demolition). Waste minimization techniques can greatly impact the long-term the environmental consequences and cost following remediation efforts. Recommendations on technical improvements to address technology gaps are presented together with observations on remediation in Japan.

  13. Emerging Technologies and Techniques for Wide Area Radiological Survey and Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhao, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Technologies to survey and decontaminate wide-area contamination and process the subsequent radioactive waste have been developed and implemented following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant release and the breach of a radiological source resulting in contamination in Goiania, Brazil. These civilian examples of radioactive material releases provided some of the first examples of urban radiological remediation. Many emerging technologies have recently been developed and demonstrated in Japan following the release of radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011. Information on technologies reported by several Japanese government agencies, such as the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and the National Institute for Environmental Science (NIES), together with academic institutions and industry are summarized and compared to recently developed, deployed and available technologies in the United States. The technologies and techniques presented in this report may be deployed in response to a wide area contamination event in the United States. In some cases, additional research and testing is needed to adequately validate the technology effectiveness over wide areas. Survey techniques can be deployed on the ground or from the air, allowing a range of coverage rates and sensitivities. Survey technologies also include those useful in measuring decontamination progress and mapping contamination. Decontamination technologies and techniques range from non-destructive (e.g., high pressure washing) and minimally destructive (plowing), to fully destructive (surface removal or demolition). Waste minimization techniques can greatly impact the long-term environmental consequences and cost following remediation efforts. Recommendations on technical improvements to address technology gaps are presented together with observations on remediation in Japan.

  14. Communication Service Model for Wide Area Protection System Based on IEC 61850

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONG Wei; PAN Zhencun; GAO Zhanjun; ZENG Yuxiao; ZHAI Yunjuan

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of information exchange varieties and manners in wide area protection system, a communication service model based on IEC 61850 is proposed. This service model can realize communication consistency and cooperation between different types of devices. Furthermore, the communication reliability and time delay performance are guaranteed to meet the requirements of relay protection from the upper layer. Message structure of generic substation event (GSE) and its communication mechanism are discussed. General methods to communicate digital information by generic substation status event (GSSE) and communicate analog sampling information by sampling analog value (SAV) of GSE are proposed.

  15. Wide Area Protection Scheme Preventing Cascading Events based on Improved Impedance relay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun;

    2013-01-01

    Load flow transferring after an initial contingency is regarded as one of the main reasons of causing unexpected cascading trips. A multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper to predict the load flow transferring from the point of view of impedance relays......, and prevent the unexpected relay operations accordingly. The variations of node injections during the post fault transient period will be also considered in the prediction algorithm. The power system of Eastern Denmark modeled in real time digital simulator (RTDS) will be used to demonstrate the proposed...

  16. Wide area 2D/3D imaging development, analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Langmann, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Imaging technology is an important research area and it is widely utilized in a growing number of disciplines ranging from gaming, robotics and automation to medicine. In the last decade 3D imaging became popular mainly driven by the introduction of novel 3D cameras and measuring devices. These cameras are usually limited to indoor scenes with relatively low distances. Benjamin Langmann introduces medium and long-range 2D/3D cameras to overcome these limitations. He reports measurement results for these devices and studies their characteristic behavior. In order to facilitate the application o

  17. MPWide: a light-weight library for efficient message passing over wide area networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Groen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present MPWide, a light weight communication library which allows efficient message passing over a distributed network. MPWide has been designed to connect application running on distributed (supercomputing resources, and to maximize the communication performance on wide area networks for those without administrative privileges. It can be used to provide message-passing between application, move files, and make very fast connections in client-server environments. MPWide has already been applied to enable distributed cosmological simulations across up to four supercomputers on two continents, and to couple two different bloodflow simulations to form a multiscale simulation.

  18. Leaf Area Index (LAI Estimation of Boreal Forest Using Wide Optics Airborne Winter Photos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Stenberg

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new simple airborne method based on wide optics camera is developed for leaf area index (LAI estimation in coniferous forests. The measurements are carried out in winter, when the forest floor is completely snow covered and thus acts as a light background for the hemispherical analysis of the images. The photos are taken automatically and stored on a laptop during the flights. The R2 value of the linear regression of the airborne and ground based LAI measurements was 0.89.

  19. The Open Cloud Testbed: A Wide Area Testbed for Cloud Computing Utilizing High Performance Network Services

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Robert; Sabala, Michal; Bennet, Collin; Seidman, Jonathan; Mambratti, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a number of cloud platforms and services have been developed for data intensive computing, including Hadoop, Sector, CloudStore (formerly KFS), HBase, and Thrift. In order to benchmark the performance of these systems, to investigate their interoperability, and to experiment with new services based on flexible compute node and network provisioning capabilities, we have designed and implemented a large scale testbed called the Open Cloud Testbed (OCT). Currently the OCT has 120 nodes in four data centers: Baltimore, Chicago (two locations), and San Diego. In contrast to other cloud testbeds, which are in small geographic areas and which are based on commodity Internet services, the OCT is a wide area testbed and the four data centers are connected with a high performance 10Gb/s network, based on a foundation of dedicated lightpaths. This testbed can address the requirements of extremely large data streams that challenge other types of distributed infrastructure. We have also developed several utiliti...

  20. Development of wide area reaction system for Reel-to-Reel TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The previously developed numerical simulation method for the TFA-MOD process, which calculated the YBCO growth kinetics, gas element diffusion and gas flow, was applied to study the suitable gas flow mode for a multi-turning Reel-to-Reel tape conveyance system of a long YBCO coated conductors. The high YBCO production rate with uniform J c distribution among tape lines is desired in the system. It was found by the numerical simulation for the vertical gas flow onto the tape surface to realize the above demands even in a wider reaction area. We developed a new wide area reaction tube for the Reel-to-Reel TFA-MOD process according to the numerically designed gas flow configuration. The demand for the new tube was confirmed to be satisfied by experiments

  1. Influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation on genome wide expression of white blood cells: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hossein-nezhad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although there have been numerous observations of vitamin D deficiency and its links to chronic diseases, no studies have reported on how vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation affects broad gene expression in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D status and subsequent vitamin D supplementation on broad gene expression in healthy adults. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A randomized, double-blind, single center pilot trial was conducted for comparing vitamin D supplementation with either 400 IUs (n = 3 or 2000 IUs (n = 5 vitamin D3 daily for 2 months on broad gene expression in the white blood cells collected from 8 healthy adults in the winter. Microarrays of the 16 buffy coats from eight subjects passed the quality control filters and normalized with the RMA method. Vitamin D3 supplementation that improved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations was associated with at least a 1.5 fold alteration in the expression of 291 genes. There was a significant difference in the expression of 66 genes between subjects at baseline with vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD20 ng/ml. After vitamin D3 supplementation gene expression of these 66 genes was similar for both groups. Seventeen vitamin D-regulated genes with new candidate vitamin D response elements including TRIM27, CD83, COPB2, YRNA and CETN3 which have been shown to be important for transcriptional regulation, immune function, response to stress and DNA repair were identified. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that any improvement in vitamin D status will significantly affect expression of genes that have a wide variety of biologic functions of more than 160 pathways linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease with have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study reveals for the first time molecular finger prints that help explain the nonskeletal health

  2. Non-invasive, Cosmic Ray Neutrons Approach for Area Wide Soil Moisture Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of area wide soil moisture content is needed for a variety of applications such as large scale irrigation scheduling, yield forecasting and climate change studies. In past decades, measurement of area wide soil moisture has been a challenge since most devices are for small plots within the range of 0.05 to 1 m in diameter. As a result, a large number of measurements, which can be costly and time consuming, are required. The recent development of a cosmic ray neutrons approach represents a breakthrough in addressing this challenge (Zreda et al. 2008, Shuttleworth et al. 2010). Cosmic-ray neutrons monitor the background radiation in the air above the soil, the intensity of which depends primarily on soil moisture that was found to correlate with soil hydrogen content. The cosmic ray soil moisture probe integrates soil moisture content over an area of approximately 700 m in diameter to a depth of 70 cm, covering the rooting zones of most crops. As a result it can enhance point measurement devices to yield a reliable measure of area average soil moisture. The probe is insensitive to temperature, salinity, soil mineral chemistry and is non-invasive (Desilets et al. 2010), thus allowing measurements to be carried out under undisturbed soil conditions. The cosmic ray neutron probe responds to all forms of moisture, including liquid and frozen soil water, snow, and water in or on vegetation, allowing for the assessment of the total surface moisture. The probe will enable us to provide soil moisture readings at a large number of sites with different physical characteristics, from simple and easy (flat grasslands) to complex and difficult terrain.

  3. The wide area retrievals of temperature in life space from multi-data set fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. Y.

    2014-05-01

    Heat wave is one of the phenomena stemmed from abnormal climate caused by climate change. This phenomenon which occurs strongly and frequently worldwide has been threatening the heath-vulnerable classes in the urban and suburb area. To reduce the damage from the heat wave, the current research attempts to perform data assimilation between highresolution images and ground observation data based on middle infra-red satellite imagery. We use an integrated approach involving compilation of both spatial and non-spatial data from government agencies and institutions, application of spatial and temporal analyses using remote sensing data. The near real-time temperature retrievals of selected areas are performed and analyzed using thermal data from COMS, Landsat, and in-situ data. And, the computational complexity and storage were discussed. Seven major land-use categories (Built-up, Road, Agriculture (green house, paddy fields, and dry fields), Field of construction work, Vegetation (forests), Wasteland and Water bodies) frequently are used in Korea. The four land-uses were selected as the most strongly areas affected by heat waves according to the survey of National Emergency Management Agency. In the future, we will estimate the precise wide area temperature of life space and promote the application of the heat/health watch/warning system.

  4. Wide-area video exploitation (WAVE) joint data management (JDM) for layered sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Seetharaman, Guna; Russell, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Emerging technologies of high performance computing facilitate increased data collection for wide area sensing; however, joint data management concepts of operations (CONOPs) are important to fully realize system-level performance. Joint data management (JDM) includes the hardware (e.g. sensors/targets), software (e.g. processing/algorithms), entities (e.g. service-based collections), and operations (scenario-based environments) of data exchange that enable persistent surveillance in the context of a layered sensing or data-to-decision (D2D) information fusion enterprise. Key attributes of an information fusion enterprise system require pragmatic assessment of data and information management, distributed communications, knowledge representation as well as a sensor mix, algorithm choice, life-cycle data management, and human-systems interaction. In this paper, we explore the various issues surrounding Wide-Area Video Exploitation (WAVE) in a layered-sensing environment to include improvements in Joint Data Management such as (1) data collection, construction, and transformation, (2) feature generation, extraction and selection, and (3) information evaluation, presentation, and dissemination. Throughout the paper, we seek to describe the current technology, research directions, and metrics that instantiate a realizable JDM product. We develop the methods for joint data management for structured and unstructured WAVE data in the context of decision making. Discerning accurate track and identification target information from WAVE JDM provides a moving intelligence (MOVINT) capability.

  5. Communication Modeling for Wide-Area Relay Protection Based on IEC 61850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wide-area communication system is the information exchange supporting platform for wide-area relay protection (WARP, which includes not only visible physical communication equipment and links, but also communication protocols and other upper communication services. WARP communication had become an important issue in WARP practical applications, but it has not been described in IEC 61850 standard. To solve this issue, this paper firstly presents the general steps of WARP modeling according to the layer upon layer modeling methods of the IEC 61850 standard, then proposes a tree structure model of master station and affiliate stations with information interaction model between master station and affiliate stations following IEC 61850 by taking a 220kV smart substation and WARP algorithm based on fault voltage distribution for example, finally establishes a communication model of WARP that includes client/server transfer model, electrical value transmission model and logical status variables transmission model. The fundamental purpose of constructing the communication model is to implement the interoperability between WARP−IED (WARP−Intelligent Electronic Devices and other IEDs in a smart substation.

  6. Tsetse flies: their biology and control using area-wide integrated pest management approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreysen, Marc J B; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2013-03-01

    Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of 'sleeping sickness' or human African trypanosomosis (HAT) in humans and 'nagana' or African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in livestock in Sub-saharan Africa. Many consider HAT as one of the major neglected tropical diseases and AAT as the single greatest health constraint to increased livestock production. This review provides some background information on the taxonomy of tsetse flies, their unique way of reproduction (adenotrophic viviparity) making the adult stage the only one easily accessible for control, and how their ecological affinities, their distribution and population dynamics influence and dictate control efforts. The paper likewise reviews four control tactics (sequential aerosol technique, stationary attractive devices, live bait technique and the sterile insect technique) that are currently accepted as friendly to the environment, and describes their limitations and advantages and how they can best be put to practise in an IPM context. The paper discusses the different strategies for tsetse control i.e. localised versus area-wide and focusses thereafter on the principles of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) and the phased-conditional approach with the tsetse project in Senegal as a recent example. We argue that sustainable tsetse-free zones can be created on Africa mainland provided certain managerial and technical prerequisites are in place.

  7. Evaluating the role of gigabit speed wide-area networks in remote medical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Walid G.; Rodgers, James E.; Mun, Seong K.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Hansen, Mark; Cook, Jay F.; Popescu, George; Yun, David Y.; Garcia, Hong-Mei C.

    1995-05-01

    This paper assesses the utility of gigabit speed wide-area networks such as the ACTS (Advanced Communication Technology Satellite) in enabling the delivery of medical expertise and service to remote regions, providing radiation treatment planning with access to supercomputers, and conducting workload redistribution. The first part of this multi- institutional effort between the University of Hawaii, Georgetown University Medical Center (GUMC) and the Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC) uses a T1-VSAT (very small aperture terminal) for transmitting teleradiology images. The second part of the project uses high data rate (HDR) communications through the ACTS satellite at OC-3 transmission speeds (155 Mbps). This allows 3-D volume rendering of radiation therapy planning images between GUMC and OSC as well as the transmission of high-volume teleradiology loads between Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC) and GUMC. It is shown that while the bandwidth required to perform 3D interactive radiation treatment planning is around 300 Mbps, OC-3 rates can be adequate. Another important application is workload redistribution either for hospitals that need to reroute a certain percentage of their workload to other institutions of the same magnitude but with different subspecialties or for peak workload leveling. This paper shows that gigabit speed wide area networks such as the ACTS-HDR network are required in order to achieve effective remote treatment planning as well as high volume teleradiology for workload redistribution.

  8. A new mechanised cultural practice to reduce Ceratitis capitata Wied. populations in area-wide IPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chueca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae, affects most of the fruit species grown in temperate and tropical climate regions, causing significant economic damage. One of the classical cultural strategies against this pest is to gather and bury the remaining fruit after harvest, but this is economically unfeasible today. Wood shredders already available in current Spanish groves can be used to grind or crush fruits laying on the soil as an alternative to this practice and to the use of pesticides in area-wide integrated pest management (IPM. With the purpose of evaluating this alternative, the initial step of this study was to perform laboratory tests to assess the efficacy of crushing and grinding as a method for controlling medflies. The results showed that grinding was 78% effective against larval stages, while crushing resulted in a 17% efficacy, leading us to choose the first alternative. As a second step, the operational parameters (type of cutting tool, shaft rotation speed and tractor speed of the wood shredders were adjusted to efficiently carry out this practice under field conditions. Finally, the effect of the mechanised grinding of fallen fruit on C. capitata populations was evaluated for two consecutive years in commercial citrus orchards. The results showed a significant 27-46% reduction in C. capitata populations the following spring, thus demonstrating that the newly proposed mechanised alternative can be included in the current area-wide IPM of the pest in Spain.

  9. An analysis of the wide area differential method of geostationary orbit satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to obtain a wide area differential method for geostationary orbit (GEO) constellation. A comparison between the dilution of precision (DOP) of four-dimensional (4D) calculation including sa- tellite clock errors and ephemeris errors and that of three-dimensional (3D) calculation only including ephemeris errors with the inverse positioning theory of GPS shows the conclusion that all the 3D PDOPs are greatly reduced. Based on this, a basic idea of correcting satellite clock errors and ephem- eris errors apart is put forward, and moreover, a specific method of separation is proposed. Satellite clock errors are separated in a master station with time synchronization, and all the remaining pseu- do-range errors after the satellite clock errors have been deducted are used to work out ephemeris corrections of all GEO satellites. By a comparative analysis of user positioning accuracy before and after differential, the wide area differential method is verified to be quite valid for GEO constellation.

  10. Farmer education and organization in the Hawaii area-wide fruit fly pest management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical component of successful area wide pest management (AWPM) programs are organized, coordinated and comprehensive outreach educational programs. The Hawaii area wide fruit fly pest management (HAW-FLYPM) program's educational program, a part of a USDA AWPM program in Hawaii, utilized the 'logic model' approach to organize, plan, execute and evaluate farmer and community educational programs statewide. The logic model approach was an outcome-driven rather than activity based method that employed a linear sequence that developed relationships between program inputs, outputs and outcomes. This model was utilized extensively to transfer sustainable, science-based technologies to suppress tephritid fruit fly pests. HAW-FLYPM's educational program targeted growers and community door yard growers, three teaching curricula aimed at elementary through high school students, and a statewide awareness program for the pubic at large. Additional key components of the HAW-FLYPM education program was the development of implementation schedules used to track program progress, a comprehensive media matrix developed to ensure educational materials met the needs of target audience groups, and a sustainability calculator to assess the likelihood of program sustainability after the initial five year funding cycle. The model served as a 'blue print' for ensuring program elements were planned, delivered and executed on a timely basis. Utilization of the logic model to organize efforts and manage diverse, multi agency programs such as the HAW-FLYPM program has shown to be a successful method of program advancement and outcome achievement. (author)

  11. Extracting features for power system vulnerability assessment from wide-area measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamwa, I. [Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada). IREQ; Pradhan, A.; Joos, G. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Many power systems now operate close to their stability limits as a result of deregulation. Some utilities have chosen to install phason measurement units (PMUs) to monitor power system dynamics. The synchronized phasors of different areas of power systems available through a wide-area measurement system (WAMS) are expected to provide an effective security assessment tool as well as a stabilizing control action for inter-area oscillations and a system protection scheme (SPS) to evade possible blackouts. This paper presented tool extracting features for vulnerability assessment from WAMS-data. A Fourier-transform based technique was proposed for monitoring inter-area oscillations. FFT, wavelet transform and curve fitting approaches were investigated to analyze oscillatory signals. A dynamic voltage stability prediction algorithm was proposed for control action. An integrated framework was then proposed to assess a power system through extracted features from WAMS-data on first swing stability, voltage stability and inter-area oscillations. The centre of inertia (COI) concept was applied to the angle of voltage phasor. Prony analysis was applied to filtered signals to extract the damping coefficients. The minimum post-fault voltage of an area was considered for voltage stability, and an algorithm was used to monitor voltage stability issues. A data clustering technique was applied to classify the features in a group for improved system visualization. The overall performance of the technique was examined using a 67-bus system with 38 PMUs. The method used to extract features from both frequency and time domain analysis was provided. The test power system was described. The results of 4 case studies indicated that adoption of the method will be beneficial for system operators. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  12. KOLAM: a cross-platform architecture for scalable visualization and tracking in wide-area imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Joshua; Haridas, Anoop; Seetharaman, Guna; Rao, Raghuveer M.; Palaniappan, Kannappan

    2013-05-01

    KOLAM is an open, cross-platform, interoperable, scalable and extensible framework supporting a novel multi- scale spatiotemporal dual-cache data structure for big data visualization and visual analytics. This paper focuses on the use of KOLAM for target tracking in high-resolution, high throughput wide format video also known as wide-area motion imagery (WAMI). It was originally developed for the interactive visualization of extremely large geospatial imagery of high spatial and spectral resolution. KOLAM is platform, operating system and (graphics) hardware independent, and supports embedded datasets scalable from hundreds of gigabytes to feasibly petabytes in size on clusters, workstations, desktops and mobile computers. In addition to rapid roam, zoom and hyper- jump spatial operations, a large number of simultaneously viewable embedded pyramid layers (also referred to as multiscale or sparse imagery), interactive colormap and histogram enhancement, spherical projection and terrain maps are supported. The KOLAM software architecture was extended to support airborne wide-area motion imagery by organizing spatiotemporal tiles in very large format video frames using a temporal cache of tiled pyramid cached data structures. The current version supports WAMI animation, fast intelligent inspection, trajectory visualization and target tracking (digital tagging); the latter by interfacing with external automatic tracking software. One of the critical needs for working with WAMI is a supervised tracking and visualization tool that allows analysts to digitally tag multiple targets, quickly review and correct tracking results and apply geospatial visual analytic tools on the generated trajectories. One-click manual tracking combined with multiple automated tracking algorithms are available to assist the analyst and increase human effectiveness.

  13. Willed blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. A willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness enables us...... willed blindness focusing on the development of either a new moral vision of our obligations or new visions of what a good life is....

  14. Study of blind thrust faults underlying Tokyo and Osaka urban areas using a combination of high-resolution seismic reflection profiling and continuous coring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Miura

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We acquired high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and continuously cored boreholes to evaluate active flexures produced by major blind thrust fault systems within two densely populated Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary basins in Japan: the Fukaya Fault System near Tokyo in the Kanto Basin and the Uemachi Fault System in the Osaka Basin. The high-resolution seismic reflection survey made clear the length, geometry and growth history of fault-related folds, or flexures formed above the two blind thrusts. Continuously cored boreholes linked with high-resolution seismic profiles enabled us to estimate the uplift rate as defined by shallow stratigraphic horizons and constrain the age of the most recent growth of the flexures during earthquakes on the Fukaya and Uemachi fault systems. Even with the high quality of the data we collected, it is still not possible to exactly constrain the age of the most recent blind thrust earthquake recorded by flexure of these fault-related folds. Data presented in this paper form the basis for future efforts aimed at mechanical and kinematic models for fault growth to evaluate the activity of blind thrusts underlying urban areas.

  15. Color blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color blindness often have problems seeing reds and greens, too. The most severe form of color blindness is achromatopsia. This is a rare condition in which a person cannot see any color, only shades of gray. Most color blindness is due to ...

  16. Color Blindness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2007-01-01

    About one in 12 boys is color-blind, and one in every 400 girls, so in each school class there are likely to be at least one or two people who are color-blind. Because they are color- blind from birth, most people do not know that they are color-

  17. Wide-area littoral discreet observation: success at the tactical edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Susan; Hughes, William; Ladas, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    In June 2011, the United States Army Research Laboratory (ARL) participated in Empire Challenge 2011 (EC-11). EC-11 was United States Joint Forces Command's (USJFCOM) annual live, joint and coalition intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) interoperability demonstration under the sponsorship of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence (USD/I). EC-11 consisted of a series of ISR interoperability events, using a combination of modeling & simulation, laboratory and live-fly events. Wide-area Littoral Discreet Observation (WALDO) was ARL's maritime/littoral capability. WALDO met a USD(I) directive that EC-11 have a maritime component and WALDO was the primary player in the maritime scenario conducted at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The WALDO effort demonstrated the utility of a networked layered sensor array deployed in a maritime littoral environment, focusing on maritime surveillance targeting counter-drug, counter-piracy and suspect activity in a littoral or riverine environment. In addition to an embedded analytical capability, the sensor array and control infrastructure consisted of the Oriole acoustic sensor, iScout unattended ground sensor (UGS), OmniSense UGS, the Compact Radar and the Universal Distributed Management System (UDMS), which included the Proxy Skyraider, an optionally manned aircraft mounting both wide and narrow FOV EO/IR imaging sensors. The capability seeded a littoral area with riverine and unattended sensors in order to demonstrate the utility of a Wide Area Sensor (WAS) capability in a littoral environment focused on maritime surveillance activities. The sensors provided a cue for WAS placement/orbit. A narrow field of view sensor would be used to focus on more discreet activities within the WAS footprint. Additionally, the capability experimented with novel WAS orbits to determine if there are more optimal orbits for WAS collection in a littoral environment. The demonstration objectives for WALDO at EC-11 were

  18. Area-wide pest management programmes: Challenges and opportunities for regulatory plant protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) entered into force for all WTO Member countries in 2000. It states that measures to protect human, animal and plant health or life shall be based on international standards where possible. These measures shall be based on a scientific risk assessment and should be implemented only to the extent necessary to achieve an appropriate level of protection. The International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) is the international standard setting body for protecting plant health identified in the SPS Agreement. Both international treaties make provision for control of pests at regional levels (regionalisation) and for identification of pest free areas. The IPPC provides guidance to countries, in the form of international standards, on the implementation of pest free areas and pest risk analysis (including Systems Approaches and other risk management measures). The implementation of area-wide pest management programmes should meet IPPC standards. Countries meeting IPPC requirements can take advantage of liberalised trade while maintaining their phytosanitary security. (author)

  19. Management of area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective management of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) is key to success. Programme planning includes collection of baseline data and a feasibility assessment. The optimal management structure is where the programme can be implemented effectively and flexibly, independent of government politics, bureaucracy, and even corruption that impede timely goal achievement. Ideally, programmes include both public and private management, and require strong and steady financial support. Governments and donors are the most common sources of funds, but a mixture of public, community, and private funds is now the trend. Interrupted cash flow severely restrains programme performance. Physical support of programme operations must be reliable, and led by a maintenance professional. It is essential to have full-time, well-paid, and motivated staff led by a programme manger with technical and management experience. Programme failure is usually due to poor management and inadequate public support, and not to poor technology. (author)

  20. Multi Agent System Based Process Control in Wide Area Protection against Cascading Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun;

    2013-01-01

    In order to prevent long term voltage instability induced cascading events; a multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper. Due to some unexpected failures of control strategy execution or the consequent unexpected disturbance, the power system will face...... more complex emergent situation than planned. The process control strategy will be applied to improve the effectiveness and reliability of MAS based control strategy. The supervisory agent will help control center in the high level to manage not only the regular control process against the estimated...... emergent states, but also those unusual control process variations when unexpected situation is experienced. A hybrid simulation platform based on MATLAB/LabVIEW and real time digital simulator (RTDS) is set up to simulate a voltage collapse case in the power system of Eastern Denmark and demonstrate...

  1. Sensor-Aware Recognition and Tracking for Wide-Area Augmented Reality on Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Cao, Ruochen; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-01-01

    Wide-area registration in outdoor environments on mobile phones is a challenging task in mobile augmented reality fields. We present a sensor-aware large-scale outdoor augmented reality system for recognition and tracking on mobile phones. GPS and gravity information is used to improve the VLAD performance for recognition. A kind of sensor-aware VLAD algorithm, which is self-adaptive to different scale scenes, is utilized to recognize complex scenes. Considering vision-based registration algorithms are too fragile and tend to drift, data coming from inertial sensors and vision are fused together by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to achieve considerable improvements in tracking stability and robustness. Experimental results show that our method greatly enhances the recognition rate and eliminates the tracking jitters. PMID:26690439

  2. TWENTIES Project. Wind power for wide-area control of the grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Juan Carlos; Combarros, Clara; Veguillas, Roberto; Hermosa, Mikel Joseba [Iberdrola Renovables, Madrid (Spain); Rubio, David [Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion (Spain); Egido, Ignacio [Comillas Univ. (ES). Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica (IIT)

    2011-07-01

    Europe faces a great challenge with the 2020 scenario in which the renewable energy installed capacity in Europe should increase from its present value of approximately 80 GW to 230 GW in 2020. The future high penetration levels of wind and other renewable energies in the power system require decision makers and stakeholders of the electrical sector to work together to develop new ancillary services and to make the necessary changes to the grid infrastructure in Europe. This background is in line with the SYSERWIND demonstration lead by Iberdrola Renovables and included in the TWENTIES project, with three more partners taking part in this package: Red Electrica de Espana (REE), IIT and Gamesa Eolica. This paper introduces a first phase of preliminary work to define, install and test a Secondary Frequency Control and a Voltage Management System in a wide area, along a transport line. (orig.)

  3. Strategic options in using sterile insects for area-wide integrated pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The four strategic options, 'suppression', 'eradication', 'containment' and 'prevention', in which the sterile insect technique (SIT) can be deployed as part of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) interventions, are defined and described in relation to the contexts in which they are applied against exotic or naturally occurring major insect pests. Advantages and disadvantages of these strategic options are analysed, and examples of successful programmes provided. Considerations of pest status, biology and distribution affecting decision-making in relation to strategy selection are reviewed and discussed in terms of feasibility assessment, and programme planning and implementation. Unrealistic expectations are often associated with applying the SIT, resulting in high political costs to change a strategy during implementation. The choice of strategy needs to be assessed carefully, and considerable baseline data obtained to prepare for the selected strategy, before embarking on an AW-IPM programme with an SIT component. (author)

  4. Wide Area Protection Scheme Preventing Cascading Events Caused by Load Flow Transferring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun;

    2013-01-01

    Load flow transferring after an initial contingency is regarded as one of the main reasons of causing unexpected cascading trips. A multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper to predict the load flow transferring from the point of view of impedance relays......, and prevent the unexpected relay operations accordingly. The variations of node injections during the post fault transient period will be also considered in the prediction algorithm. The power system of Eastern Denmark modeled in real time digital simulator (RTDS) will be used to demonstrate the proposed...... strategy. The simulation results indicate this strategy can successfully predict and prevent the unexpected relay operation caused by load flow transferring....

  5. The Study on the Communication Network of Wide Area Measurement System in Electricity Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaorong, Cheng; Ying, Wang; Yangdan, Ni

    Wide area measurement system(WAMS) is a fundamental part of security defense in Smart Grid, and the communication system of WAMS is an important part of Electric power communication network. For a large regional network is concerned, the real-time data which is transferred in the communication network of WAMS will affect the safe operation of the power grid directly. Therefore, WAMS raised higher requirements for real-time, reliability and security to its communication network. In this paper, the architecture of WASM communication network was studied according to the seven layers model of the open systems interconnection(OSI), and the network architecture was researched from all levels. We explored the media of WAMS communication network, the network communication protocol and network technology. Finally, the delay of the network were analyzed.

  6. Sensor-Aware Recognition and Tracking for Wide-Area Augmented Reality on Mobile Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Cao, Ruochen; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-12-10

    Wide-area registration in outdoor environments on mobile phones is a challenging task in mobile augmented reality fields. We present a sensor-aware large-scale outdoor augmented reality system for recognition and tracking on mobile phones. GPS and gravity information is used to improve the VLAD performance for recognition. A kind of sensor-aware VLAD algorithm, which is self-adaptive to different scale scenes, is utilized to recognize complex scenes. Considering vision-based registration algorithms are too fragile and tend to drift, data coming from inertial sensors and vision are fused together by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to achieve considerable improvements in tracking stability and robustness. Experimental results show that our method greatly enhances the recognition rate and eliminates the tracking jitters.

  7. Evaluation of replacement protocols and modifications to TCP to enhance ASC Wide Area Network performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Randy L. Jr.

    2004-09-01

    Historically, TCP/IP has been the protocol suite used to transfer data throughout the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) community. However, TCP was developed many years ago for an environment very different from the ASC Wide Area Network (WAN) of today. There have been numerous publications that hint of better performance if modifications were made to the TCP algorithms or a different protocol was used to transfer data across a high bandwidth, high delay WAN. Since Sandia National Laboratories wants to maximize the ASC WAN performance to support the Thor's Hammer supercomputer, there is strong interest in evaluating modifications to the TCP protocol and in evaluating alternatives to TCP, such as SCTP, to determine if they provide improved performance. Therefore, the goal of this project is to test, evaluate, compare, and report protocol technologies that enhance the performance of the ASC WAN.

  8. High-speed wide area, data intensive computing: A Ten Year Retrospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, William E.

    1998-05-01

    Modern scientific computing involves organizing, moving, visualizing, and analyzing massive amounts of data from around the world, as well as employing large-scale computation. The distributed systems that solve large-scale problems will always involve aggregating and scheduling many resources. Data must be located and staged, cache and network capacity must be available at the same time as computing capacity, etc. Every aspect of such a system is dynamic: locating and scheduling resources, adapting running application systems to availability and congestion in the middleware and infrastructure, responding to human interaction, etc. The technologies, the middleware services, and the architectures that are used to build useful high-speed, wide area distributed systems, constitute the field of data intensive computing. This paper explores some of the history and future directions of that field.

  9. Reflectance of Biological Turbid Tissues under Wide Area Illumination: Single Backward Scattering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guennadi Saiko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various scenarios of light propagation paths in turbid media (single backward scattering, multiple backward scattering, banana shape are discussed and their contributions to reflectance spectra are estimated. It has been found that a single backward or multiple forward scattering quasi-1D paths can be the major contributors to reflected spectra in wide area illumination scenario. Such a single backward scattering (SBS approximation allows developing of an analytical approach which can take into account refractive index mismatched boundary conditions and multilayer geometry and can be used for real-time spectral processing. The SBS approach can be potentially applied for the distances between the transport and reduced scattering domains. Its validation versus the Kubelka-Munk model, path integrals, and diffusion approximation of the radiation transport theory is discussed.

  10. Cost-benefit analysis model: A tool for area-wide fruit fly management. Procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Generic Fruit Fly Cost-Benefit Analysis Model assists in economic decision making associated with area-wide fruit fly control options. The FRUIT FLY COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS PROGRAM (available on 1 CD-ROM from the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture) is an Excel 2000 Windows based program, for which all standard Windows and Excel conventions apply. The Model is user friendly and thus largely self-explanatory. Nevertheless, it includes a procedures manual that has been prepared to guide the user, and thus should be used together with the software. Please note that the table presenting the pest management options in the Introductory Page of the model is controlled by spin buttons and click boxes. These controls are linked to macros that hide non relevant tables and boxes. N.B. it is important that the medium level of security is selected from the Tools menu of Excel, to do this go to Tools|Macros|Security| and select Medium. When the file is opened a form will appear containing three buttons, click on the middle button, 'Enable Macros', so that the macros may be used. Ideally the model should be used as a support tool by working groups aiming at assessing the economic returns of different fruit fly control options (suppression, eradication, containment and prevention). The working group should include professionals in agriculture with experience in area-wide implementation of integrated pest management programmes, an economist or at least someone with basic knowledge in economics, and if relevant, an entomologist with some background in the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT)

  11. Wide area real time kinematic decimetre positioning with multiple carrier GNSS signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the technical basis for wide area real time decimetre positioning services using multiple carrier signals transmitted by future GNSS such as modernized GPS and Compass systems. The first step is to form two ionosphere-reduced extra-widelanes (EWL) that have the minimal total noise levels in cycles, considering the effects of the ionospheric and tropospheric delays, orbital error, and phase noise terms in various observational environments. The proposed three carrier ambiguity resolution approach can determine the integer ambiguities of the selected EWL signals with geometry-free and geometry- based estimations respectively over the distances of typically hundreds of kilometres. With two ambiguity-fixed EWL signals, the kinematic positioning solutions can be achieved in decimetre level accuracy. A semi-simulation method is employed to generate three frequency Compass data to demonstrate the above expected performance for decimetre positioning services. Both theoretical and experimental results have demonstrated the overall 3D root mean square accuracy of better than 15 cm obtained through with a phase smoothing process over 120 epochs. The dominating error factor in this positioning result is the residual tropospheric biases, which would become less correlated as the baselines grow beyond hundreds of kilometres. With respect to dual-frequency based precise point positioning and wide area differential positioning solutions, a major advantage of using the third frequency signals is the convergence time being shorten from tens of minutes to a few minutes. In addition, due to the instant ambiguity resolution capability, phase breaks or cycle slips no longer affect the continuity of the solutions. This reliable decimetre positioning capability introduces a significant improvement to safety-of-life, liability-critical and professional applications.

  12. The Wide-Area X-ray Survey in the Legacy Stripe 82 Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, S.; Urry, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Glikman, E.; Richards, G.; B"ohringer, H.

    2016-06-01

    We are carrying out a wide-area X-ray survey in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 field to uncover how luminous, obscured AGN evolve over cosmic time and the role they play in galaxy evolution. Stripe 82 is a legacy field with a high level of spectroscopic completeness and rich multi-wavelength coverage from the ultraviolet to far-infrared, including Spitzer and Herschel imaging. Our Stripe 82X survey currently reaches 31 deg^{2}, with ˜6200 X-ray point sources detected at ≥5σ level. I will review the characteristics of this survey, on-going programs to target obscured AGN candidates, and how we can use the lessons learned from the synergistic multi-wavelength coverage to develop strategic plans for future surveys and missions. Finally, I will comment on how extending the Stripe 82X survey area to 100 deg^{2} will provide unprecedented insight into the high-L (Lx > 10^{45} erg/s), high-z (z > 2) AGN population.

  13. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ioannides, Andreas A; Liu, Lichan; Poghosyan, Vahe;

    2013-01-01

    magnetoencephalography (MEG) data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified...

  14. Control of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) using the area-wide approach in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Management of codling moth (CM) is being conducted in southern Chile using an area-wide approach and integrating different tools such us Geographic Information System (GIS), classical biological control, inundative biological control and mating disruption. The total area covers 6,000 ha, and extends from the foothills of the Andes mountains and is bordered in the south and north by rivers. Vegetation cover is predominantly pastures, pine forests and berries, including six commercial apple orchards. Codling moth control in the commercial orchards is based on chemical insecticides, mating disruption or organic practices. Many alternative hosts for CM grow in this area, mainly as ornamentals, in abandoned orchards and in gardens for self-consumption. The most important species are noncommercial apple, pear, quince, walnut and apricot. Satellite images were obtained and every alternate host tree was georeferenced and drawn on these images. Pheromone traps are being used to identify main migrant sources and to quantify migration from sources to commercial orchards. Classical biological control includes importation and release of an egg/larval parasitoid (Ascogaster quadridentata) from USA to Chile. CM is reared on artificial diet and eggs are used to increase the A. quadridentata colony and allow field releases in the 2004-2005 growing season, especially in isolated and abandoned trees. Related to inundative biological control, several strains of entomopathogenic organisms have been collected and evaluated against CM, including the fungus (Beauveria bassiana) and nematodes. In addition, a Chilean species of trichogrammatid wasps, Trichogramma nerudai and Trichogramma caccociae, have been used under an inundative approach, especially in abandoned orchards. The Chilean species T. nerudai has shown similar or better preference and laboratory performance than introduced species such as T. bactrae, T. caccociae, T. dendrolimi and T. platneri. (author)

  15. Aerosol sampling methods for wide area environmental sampling (WAES). Finnish support to IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enrichment of uranium or reprocessing of nuclear fuel are expected to produce releases of non-natural radionuclides, that are carried away in air attached in airborne particles. Wide Area Environmental Sampling (WAES)-method utilises air samplers distributed in the monitored area to detect the possible releases. For reduction of expenses, the samplers located in remote areas should be able to operate long periods of time unattended. In this work, a high-volume (flow rate 150 m3/h) air sampler with an automatic filter changing system, Hunter MKII, was developed for WAES. The sampler can collect six one-week samples until it needs to be visited for unloading the used filters and loading the new ones. The device sends real-time state-of-health information to headquarters so that longtime loss of sampling can be avoided in case of malfunction. The state-of-health data also includes indication to prevent inconspicuous tampering of the unattended sampling process. Organic filter materials are used to collect particles due to their applicability to radiochemical analysis. Four filter materials were tested for collection efficiency and pressure drop. The material selected for current use (Petrianov FPP-15-1.5 used as two-layers one upon the other) can collect more than 90% of the 0.2 μm particles throughout the sampling period. If there is a large concentration of coarse particles in air (as is typically the case in desert conditions), the filter clogging rate can be significantly decreased by preceding it with a low-pressure-drop pre-filter that collects the coarse particles. The filter pressure drop is low enough to easily allow one-week sampling time in typical sampling conditions (a pre-filter may be needed in heavily dust laden desert air). (orig.)

  16. Ground Testing of Prototype Hardware and Processing Algorithms for a Wide Area Space Surveillance System (WASSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, N.; Dressler, R. A.; Richtsmeier, S. S.; McLean, J.; Dao, P. D.; Murray-Krezan, J.; Fulcoly, D. O.

    2013-09-01

    Recent ground testing of a wide area camera system and automated star removal algorithms has demonstrated the potential to detect, quantify, and track deep space objects using small aperture cameras and on-board processors. The camera system, which was originally developed for a space-based Wide Area Space Surveillance System (WASSS), operates in a fixed-stare mode, continuously monitoring a wide swath of space and differentiating celestial objects from satellites based on differential motion across the field of view. It would have greatest utility in a LEO orbit to provide automated and continuous monitoring of deep space with high refresh rates, and with particular emphasis on the GEO belt and GEO transfer space. Continuous monitoring allows a concept of change detection and custody maintenance not possible with existing sensors. The detection approach is equally applicable to Earth-based sensor systems. A distributed system of such sensors, either Earth-based, or space-based, could provide automated, persistent night-time monitoring of all of deep space. The continuous monitoring provides a daily record of the light curves of all GEO objects above a certain brightness within the field of view. The daily updates of satellite light curves offers a means to identify specific satellites, to note changes in orientation and operational mode, and to queue other SSA assets for higher resolution queries. The data processing approach may also be applied to larger-aperture, higher resolution camera systems to extend the sensitivity towards dimmer objects. In order to demonstrate the utility of the WASSS system and data processing, a ground based field test was conducted in October 2012. We report here the results of the observations made at Magdalena Ridge Observatory using the prototype WASSS camera, which has a 4×60° field-of-view , single camera pointed at the GEO belt provided a continuous night-long record of the intensity and location of more than 50 GEO objects

  17. Developing critical partnerships in area-wide pest management programmes: The Hawaii experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Aside from the technical issues that form the basis of any successful area-wide programme, significant attention must be made to programme organisation and development of partnerships that facilitate the large numbers of non-technical issues that must be addressed in a successful area-wide programme. The recent experience with the Hawaii area-wide fruit fly integrated pest management programme (HAW-FLYPM) is a recent example of the trials and tribulations that occur when one attempts to set up such a programme. In our example, USDA-ARS researchers (and their predecessors) from the US Pacific Basin Agr. Res. Center had developed much of overarching strategies that are used today for the detection, control and eradication of many tephritid fruit fly species, especially Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly and melon fly, all species that have become established in Hawaii over the last 100 years. Early researchers were responsible for such seminal technologies as the development of low cost diets for mass-rearing, attractants for several fruit fly species, early demonstrations of SIT against fruit flies and more recently development of augmentative biological control strategies against fruit flies. These early discoveries have been refined and improved by many USDA and non-USDA researchers over the subsequent decades but the basic technologies have remained the same. While credit must be given for those pioneers in Hawaii who set the stage for area-wide fruit fly control technologies, the presence of plantation agriculture in the form of sugarcane and pineapple overshadowed any strong movement to apply the Hawaii-based technologies in their backyard. Instead the application of these technologies was showcased outside the state of Hawaii. The decline of both sugar cane and pineapple in Hawaii has brought about a renewed interest in diversified ag in Hawaii and with it the resurgence of the fruit fly issue due to its impact on production, trade and

  18. Wide area network access to CMS data using the LustreTM filesystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. L.; Avery, P.; Brody, T.; Bourilkov, D.; Fu, Y.; Kim, B.; Prescott, C.; Wu, Y.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of the LustreTM cluster filesystem over the wide area network to access Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) data stored on physical devices located hundreds of kilometres away. We describe the experimental testbed and report on the I/O performance of applications writing and reading data on the distributed LustreTM filesystem established across the WAN. We compare the I/O performance of a CMS application to the performance obtained with IOzone, a standard benchmark tool. We then examine the I/O performance of the CMS application running multiple processes on a single server. And compare the Lustre results to results obtained on data stored on local filesystems. Our measurements reveal that the IOzone benchmark tool, accessing data sequentially, can saturate the Gbps network link that connects our Lustre client in Miami Florida to the Lustre storage located in Gainesville, Florida. We also find that the I/O rates of the CMS application is significantly less than what can be obtained with IOzone for sequential access to data.

  19. Time-Dependent Statistical Analysis of Wide-Area Time-Synchronized Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Messina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of spatial and temporal changes in the dynamic patterns of a nonstationary process is a problem of great theoretical and practical importance. On-line monitoring of large-scale power systems by means of time-synchronized Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs provides the opportunity to analyze and characterize inter-system oscillations. Wide-area measurement sets, however, are often relatively large, and may contain phenomena with differing temporal scales. Extracting from these measurements the relevant dynamics is a difficult problem. As the number of observations of real events continues to increase, statistical techniques are needed to help identify relevant temporal dynamics from noise or random effects in measured data. In this paper, a statistically based, data-driven framework that integrates the use of wavelet-based EOF analysis and a sliding window-based method is proposed to identify and extract, in near-real-time, dynamically independent spatiotemporal patterns from time synchronized data. The method deals with the information in space and time simultaneously, and allows direct tracking and characterization of the nonstationary time-frequency dynamics of oscillatory processes. The efficiency and accuracy of the developed procedures for extracting localized information of power system behavior from time-synchronized phasor measurements of a real event in Mexico is assessed.

  20. A double area detector system for simultaneous small and wide-angle X-ray scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Pokric, B; Ryan, A J; Fairclough, P; Dobson, B R; Derbyshire, G E; Helsby, W; Long, G; Moon, K

    2002-01-01

    A novel area detector has been designed for material science SR studies, capable of simultaneously collecting the diffraction data in two angular regimes. The detector for collecting wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) data consists of four taper-coupled CCDs arranged as a 2x2 mosaic with a central aperture about 40 mm in diameter, so permitting the inclusion of a distant on-axis CCD detector for small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The distance of the SAXS detector from the sample can be varied over the range 0.27 m to about 2 m. The overall aperture of WAXS detector is approximately 200x200 mm sup 2 allowing the measurement of the diffraction patterns from 5 deg. to 45 deg. with an average angular resolution of 0.05 deg. The parallax error for large angles is substantially reduced as the individual WAXS CCDs are tilted towards the specimen location. Both WAXS and SAXS diffraction data are simultaneously collected at 30 MB/s data rate, which is equivalent to 6 complete frames per second. Each pixel value is d...

  1. NFU-Enabled FASTA: moving bioinformatics applications onto wide area networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huadong

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in Internet technologies have allowed life science researchers to reach beyond the lab-centric research paradigm to create distributed collaborations. Of the existing technologies that support distributed collaborations, there are currently none that simultaneously support data storage and computation as a shared network resource, enabling computational burden to be wholly removed from participating clients. Software using computation-enable logistical networking components of the Internet Backplane Protocol provides a suitable means to accomplish these tasks. Here, we demonstrate software that enables this approach by distributing both the FASTA algorithm and appropriate data sets within the framework of a wide area network. Results For large datasets, computation-enabled logistical networks provide a significant reduction in FASTA algorithm running time over local and non-distributed logistical networking frameworks. We also find that genome-scale sizes of the stored data are easily adaptable to logistical networks. Conclusion Network function unit-enabled Internet Backplane Protocol effectively distributes FASTA algorithm computation over large data sets stored within the scaleable network. In situations where computation is subject to parallel solution over very large data sets, this approach provides a means to allow distributed collaborators access to a shared storage resource capable of storing the large volumes of data equated with modern life science. In addition, it provides a computation framework that removes the burden of computation from the client and places it within the network.

  2. Genetic methods for area-wide management of Lepidopterous pests with emphasis on F1 sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enormous losses in the production and marketing of food and fiber are caused by larvae of Lepidoptera. Currently, large quantities of insecticides are used to combat these pests. Insecticide resistance, increasing concern over pesticide pollution, and the desire to effectively manage lepidopteran pests on an area-wide basis have motivated scientists to identify and develop new pest management tactics that are compatible with current IPM. Genetic methods have emerged as a promising control strategy for lepidopteran pests. Genetic control as a practical means of pest management was first successfully implemented by Knipling and colleagues in the USA during the 1960's with the sterile insect technique (SIT) program for the screwworm fly. SIT is not a readily adapted for use against Lepidoptera as against Diptera. Radiation-induced inherited sterility (or F1 sterility) is generally considered the most promising genetic methods for large-scale suppression of lepidopteran populations. This papers discusses four genetic control methods that have been developed and the progress that has been made in integrating sterility with other IPM tactics. (author)

  3. Monitoring sterile and wild insects in area-wide integrated pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insect pest control programmes, which integrate the release of sterile insects, can be efficient only if the released insects have an optimal biological quality. Frequent monitoring of the quality of reared insects after being released in the field is an important but often neglected component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Parameters of sterile insects, which should be monitored regularly, are sexual competitiveness of the released insects, and related components, e.g. survival, mobility, dispersal characteristics, and spatial occupation of the habitat. A well-balanced monitoring programme will, at any given time, provide essential feedback on the progress being made. This information is prerequisite to efficient implementation of the release and cost-efficient use of sterile insects. The type of monitoring to be done will be determined largely by the particular biology of the target insect species. The most important parameter in relation to the release of sterile insects is the rate of sterility induced in the wild insect pest population; it will provide the best evidence that any observed changes, e.g. in the density of the target insect, are caused by the release of sterile insects. (author)

  4. Wide area measurement system for smart grid applications involving hybrid energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Mahmoud M.; Moussa, Heba B.; Mohammed, Osama A. [Florida International University, Energy Systems Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Miami, FL (United States)

    2012-03-15

    This paper presents a model and experimental verification for a complete scenario of a proposed wide area measurement system (WAMS) based on synchronized phasor measurement units (PMUs). The proposed system is feasible for hybrid smart ac/dc power networks; such as grid-connected PV-power plants. The purpose is to increase the overall system reliability for all power stages via significant dependence on WAMS as distributed intelligence agents with improved monitoring, protection, and control capabilities of the power networks. The developed system is simulated in the Matlab/Simulink environment. The system was tested under two different cases; normal operation and fault state. Furthermore, the proposed WAMS was experimentally validated with results obtained from a reduced scale setup which built and tested in the laboratory based on the Hardware-in-the-loop concept. It was verified that the power system status can be easily monitored and controlled in real time by using the measured bus data in real time. This improves the overall system reliability and avoids cascaded blackout during fault occurrence. The simulation and experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed WAMS technology for smart grid applications. (orig.)

  5. The challenge of determining the need for remediation following a wide-area biological release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Ellen

    2011-09-01

    Recovering from a biological attack is a complex process requiring the successful resolution of numerous challenges. The Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration program is one of the first multiagency efforts to develop strategies and tools that could be effective following a wide-area release of B. anthracis spores. Nevertheless, several key policy issues and associated science and technology issues still need to be addressed. For example, more refined risk assessment and management approaches are needed to help evaluate "true" public health risk. Once the risk is understood, that information can be considered along with the types of characterization activities deemed necessary to determine whether the cost and time of decontamination are actually warranted. This commentary offers 5 recommendations associated with decision making regarding decontamination and clearance options that should accompany a comprehensive risk analysis leading to more effective risk management decisions. It summarizes some of the most important technological gaps that still need to be addressed to help decision makers in their objective of reducing health risks to an acceptable level. The risk management approach described should enable decision makers to improve credibility and gain public acceptance, especially when an adequate science and technology base is available to support the required decisions. PMID:21882967

  6. Continuous wide area monitoring of fish shoaling behavior with acoustic waveguide sensing and bioclutter implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Nicholas C.; Ratilal, Purnima; Symonds, Deanelle T.; Nero, Redwood W.

    2001-05-01

    Field measurements are used to show that the detailed behavior of fish shoals can be continuously monitored at roughly 1-min intervals over wide areas spanning hundreds of square kilometers by long range acoustic waveguide sensing. The technique was used on the New Jersey Continental Shelf to produce unprecedented video images of shoal formation, fragmentation, and migration. Simultaneous line-transect measurements show the imaged shoals to contain pelagic fish with densities of at least one individual per meter3. The technique relies upon acoustic waveguide propagation in the continental shelf. Here, trapped modes dominate propagation and suffer only cylindrical spreading loss rather than the spherical loss suffered in free-space transmission or short-range propagation in the ocean. In contrast, standard methods for fish surveyance involve line transect measurements from slow moving research vessels that significantly under-sample fish distributions in time and space, leaving an incomplete behavioral picture. The implications of this bioclutter phenomenon on the Navy's long range active sonar operations in continental shelf environments are discussed.

  7. Frequency Monitoring and Control during Power System Restoration Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Nourizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency control during power system restoration has not been strongly addressed. Operators are often concerned with the offline sizing of load and generation steps, but, nowadays, the introduction of Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS makes it possible to monitor the stability of power system online. The constraints of WAMS operation result in some changes in power system frequency control. This paper proposes a novel methodology for frequency control and monitoring during the early steps of power system restoration based on WAMS. Detailed load modeling is achieved based on the static load modeling approach. Power generators' modeling is also accomplished utilizing the single machine equivalent of the power system based on PMU measurements. Simulation results of the presented methodology on the 39 bus New England power system clearly show the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed method. The simulation results show that the presented approach has a completely acceptable precision and an outstanding speed with less than 0.05% error. The outstanding speed of the presented approach along with the result precision will result in a great promotion in power system restoration methodologies.

  8. Fast scene recognition and camera relocalisation for wide area augmented reality systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Tao; Duan, Liya; Chen, Yongjian; Yu, Junqing

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on online scene learning and fast camera relocalisation which are two key problems currently limiting the performance of wide area augmented reality systems. Firstly, we propose to use adaptive random trees to deal with the online scene learning problem. The algorithm can provide more accurate recognition rates than traditional methods, especially with large scale workspaces. Secondly, we use the enhanced PROSAC algorithm to obtain a fast camera relocalisation method. Compared with traditional algorithms, our method can significantly reduce the computation complexity, which facilitates to a large degree the process of online camera relocalisation. Finally, we implement our algorithms in a multithreaded manner by using a parallel-computing scheme. Camera tracking, scene mapping, scene learning and relocalisation are separated into four threads by using multi-CPU hardware architecture. While providing real-time tracking performance, the resulting system also possesses the ability to track multiple maps simultaneously. Some experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the validity of our methods. PMID:22219700

  9. Fast Scene Recognition and Camera Relocalisation for Wide Area Augmented Reality Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Guan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on online scene learning and fast camera relocalisation which are two key problems currently limiting the performance of wide area augmented reality systems. Firstly, we propose to use adaptive random trees to deal with the online scene learning problem. The algorithm can provide more accurate recognition rates than traditional methods, especially with large scale workspaces. Secondly, we use the enhanced PROSAC algorithm to obtain a fast camera relocalisation method. Compared with traditional algorithms, our method can significantly reduce the computation complexity, which facilitates to a large degree the process of online camera relocalisation. Finally, we implement our algorithms in a multithreaded manner by using a parallel-computing scheme. Camera tracking, scene mapping, scene learning and relocalisation are separated into four threads by using multi-CPU hardware architecture. While providing real-time tracking performance, the resulting system also possesses the ability to track multiple maps simultaneously. Some experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the validity of our methods.

  10. Wide Area Network Access to CMS Data Using the Lustre Filesystem

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, J L; Prescott, C; Wu, Y; Kim, B; Fu, Y; Bourilkov, D; Avery, P

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of the Lustre cluster filesystem over the wide area network to access Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) data stored on physical devices located hundreds of kilometres away. We describe the experimental testbed and report on the I/O performance of applications writing and reading data on the distributed Lustre filesystem established across the WAN. We compare the I/O performance of a CMS application to the performance obtained with IOzone, a standard benchmark tool. We then examine the I/O performance of the CMS application running multiple processes on a single server. And compare the Lustre results to results obtained on data stored on local filesystems. Our measurements reveal that the IOzone benchmark tool, accessing data sequentially, can saturate the Gbps network link that connects our Lustre client in Miami Florida to the Lustre storage located in Gainesville, Florida. We also find that the I/O rates of the CMS application is significantly less than what can be obtained with ...

  11. Sterile insect technique. Principles and practice in area-wide integrated pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several major insect pests, the environment-friendly sterile insect technique (SIT) is being applied as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes. This technology, using radiation to sterilize insects, was first developed in the USA, and is currently applied on six continents. For four decades it has been a major subject for research and development in the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, involving both research and the transfer of this technology to Member States so that they can benefit from improved plant, animal and human health, cleaner environments, increased production of plants and animals in agricultural systems, and accelerated economic development. The socio-economic impacts of AW-IPM programmes that integrate the SIT have confirmed the usefulness of this technology. Numerous publications related to the integration of the SIT in pest management programmes, arising from research, coordinated research projects, field projects, symposia, meetings, and training activities have already provided much information to researchers, pest-control practitioners, programme managers, plant protection and animal health officers, and policy makers. However, by bringing together and presenting in a generic fashion the principles, practice, and global application of the SIT, this book will be a major reference source for all current and future users of the technology. The book will also serve as a textbook for academic courses on integrated pest management. Fifty subject experts from 19 countries contributed to the chapters, which were all peer reviewed before final editing

  12. Efficient feature extraction from wide-area motion imagery by MapReduce in Hadoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Erkang; Ma, Liya; Blaisse, Adam; Blasch, Erik; Sheaff, Carolyn; Chen, Genshe; Wu, Jie; Ling, Haibin

    2014-06-01

    Wide-Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) feature extraction is important for applications such as target tracking, traffic management and accident discovery. With the increasing amount of WAMI collections and feature extraction from the data, a scalable framework is needed to handle the large amount of information. Cloud computing is one of the approaches recently applied in large scale or big data. In this paper, MapReduce in Hadoop is investigated for large scale feature extraction tasks for WAMI. Specifically, a large dataset of WAMI images is divided into several splits. Each split has a small subset of WAMI images. The feature extractions of WAMI images in each split are distributed to slave nodes in the Hadoop system. Feature extraction of each image is performed individually in the assigned slave node. Finally, the feature extraction results are sent to the Hadoop File System (HDFS) to aggregate the feature information over the collected imagery. Experiments of feature extraction with and without MapReduce are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed Cloud-Enabled WAMI Exploitation (CAWE) approach.

  13. Wide-area decontamination in an urban environment after radiological dispersion: A review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael D; Lee, Sang Don; Magnuson, Matthew

    2016-03-15

    Nuclear or radiological terrorism in the form of uncontrolled radioactive contamination presents a unique challenge in the field of nuclear decontamination. Potential targets require an immediate decontamination response, or mitigation plan to limit the social and economic impact. To date, experience with urban decontamination of building materials - specifically hard, porous, external surfaces - is limited to nuclear weapon fallout and nuclear reactor accidents. Methods are lacking for performing wide-area decontamination in an urban environment so that in all release scenarios the area may be re-occupied without evaluation and/or restriction. Also lacking is experience in developing mitigation strategies, that is, methods of mitigating contamination and its resultant radiation dose in key areas during the immediate aftermath of an event and after lifesaving operations. To date, the tremendous strategy development effort primarily by the European community has focused on the recovery phase, which extends years beyond the release event. In this review, we summarize the methods and data collected over the past 70 years in the field of hard, external surface decontamination of radionuclide contaminations, with emphasis on methods suitable for response to radiological dispersal devices and their potentially unique physico-chemical characteristics. This review concludes that although a tremendous amount of work has been completed primarily by the European Community (EU) and the United Kingdom (UK), the few studies existing on each technique permit only very preliminary estimates of decontamination factors for various building materials and methods and extrapolation of those values for use in environments outside the EU and UK. This data shortage prevents us from developing an effective and detailed mitigation response plan and remediation effort. Perhaps most importantly, while the data available does include valuable information on the practical aspects of performing

  14. International assistance to intervention policies and implementation of area-wide tsetse and animal trypanosomiasis programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    agricultural development. The Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT) and the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) of the African Union jointly developed a set of criteria and guiding principles to assist tsetse-affected countries in the selection of priority areas for intervention against the AAT problem. The concept of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) has been designed to address geographically and ecologically well demarcated tsetse fly populations impacting seriously on SARD and to ensure efficiency of the intervention and sustainability of results. AW-IPM exploits favourable trends (entomological, agro-ecological, climatic, anthropogenic and epidemiological), which may assist in redressing the impact of the disease. Thus, substantial benefits from interventions are believed to result, particularly for the development of mixed-crop-livestock systems in the 'cotton-belt', a transfrontier area of Burkina Faso and Mali, and in the southern part of the Rift Valley in Ethiopia. With regards to HAT, priority countries for intervention, as far as WHO is concerned, include Angola, Chad, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea and Sudan. For HAT the next challenge is the development of tools, supporting the strategies for the elimination of the disease. Sets of measures against the HAT and the AAT problem, as part of overall efforts directed at improved public health and SARD, respectively, will necessitate an integration of technical, institutional, socio-economic, public health and agricultural development considerations. This integrated approach will, in turn, provide the supportive environment for emergency interventions in HAT foci, balanced investments in AAT programmes, amalgamated with the AW-IPM concept, as preliminary essential steps for technical success, anticipated SARD impact and sustainability. In the context of the described overall agricultural development and public health framework the

  15. A contribution towards simplifying area-wide tsetse surveys using medium resolution meteorological satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, G; Napala, A; Slingenbergh, J H; De Deken, R; Rogers, D J

    2001-10-01

    A raster or grid-based Geographic Information System with data on tsetse, trypanosomiasis, animal production, agriculture and land use has recently been developed in Togo. The area-wide sampling of tsetse fly, aided by satellite imagery, is the subject of two separate papers. This paper follows on a first paper, published in this journal, describing the generation of digital tsetse distribution and abundance maps and how these accord with the local climatic and agro-ecological setting. Such maps when combined with data on the disease, the hosts and their owners, should contribute to the knowledge of the spatial epidemiology of trypanosomiasis and assist planning of integrated control operations. Here we address the problem of generating tsetse distribution and abundance maps from remotely sensed data, using a restricted amount of field data. Different discriminant analysis models have been applied using contemporary tsetse data and remotely sensed, low resolution data acquired from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Meteosat platforms. The results confirm the potential of satellite data application and multivariate analysis for the prediction of the tsetse distribution and abundance. This opens up new avenues because satellite predictions and field data may be combined to strengthen and/or substitute one another. The analysis shows how the strategic incorporation of satellite imagery may minimize field collection of data. Field surveys may be modified and conducted in two stages, first concentrating on the expected fly distribution limits and thereafter on fly abundance. The study also shows that when applying satellite data, care should be taken in selecting the optimal number of predictor variables because this number varies with the amount of training data for predicting abundance and on the homogeneity of the distribution limits for predicting fly presence. Finally, it is suggested that in addition to the use of contemporary

  16. Positional accuracy of the Wide Area Augmentation System in consumer-grade GPS units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Lisa L.; Zandbergen, Paul A.

    2011-07-01

    Global Positioning System devices are increasingly being used for data collection in many fields. Consumer-grade GPS units without differential correction have a published horizontal positional accuracy of approximately 10-15 m (average positional accuracy). An attractive option for differential correction for these GPS units is the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). Most consumer-grade GPS units on the market are WAAS capable. According to the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA), the WAAS broadcast message provides integrity information about the GPS signal as well as accuracy improvements, which are reported to improve accuracy to 3-5 m. Limited empirical evidence has been published on the accuracy of WAAS-enabled GPS compared to autonomous GPS. An empirical study was conducted comparing the horizontal and vertical accuracy of WAAS-corrected GPS and autonomous GPS under ideal conditions using consumer-grade receivers. Data were collected for 30-min time spans over accurately surveyed control points. Metrics of median, 68th and 95th percentile, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), and average positional accuracy in the horizontal and vertical dimensions were computed and statistically compared. No statistically significant difference was found between WAAS and autonomous position fixes when using two different consumer-grade units. When using WAAS, a third unit type exhibited a statistically significant improvement in positional accuracy. Analysis of data collected for a 27-h time span indicates that while WAAS is altering the estimated position of a point compared to an autonomous position estimate, WAAS augmentation actually appears to decrease the positional accuracy.

  17. Collaborative 3D Target Tracking in Distributed Smart Camera Networks for Wide-Area Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenofon Koutsoukos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the evolution and fusion of wireless sensor network and embedded camera technologies, distributed smart camera networks have emerged as a new class of systems for wide-area surveillance applications. Wireless networks, however, introduce a number of constraints to the system that need to be considered, notably the communication bandwidth constraints. Existing approaches for target tracking using a camera network typically utilize target handover mechanisms between cameras, or combine results from 2D trackers in each camera into 3D target estimation. Such approaches suffer from scale selection, target rotation, and occlusion, drawbacks typically associated with 2D tracking. In this paper, we present an approach for tracking multiple targets directly in 3D space using a network of smart cameras. The approach employs multi-view histograms to characterize targets in 3D space using color and texture as the visual features. The visual features from each camera along with the target models are used in a probabilistic tracker to estimate the target state. We introduce four variations of our base tracker that incur different computational and communication costs on each node and result in different tracking accuracy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed trackers by comparing their performance to a 3D tracker that fuses the results of independent 2D trackers. We also present performance analysis of the base tracker along Quality-of-Service (QoS and Quality-of-Information (QoI metrics, and study QoS vs. QoI trade-offs between the proposed tracker variations. Finally, we demonstrate our tracker in a real-life scenario using a camera network deployed in a building.

  18. Potential for area-wide control or eradication of tsetse flies in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsetse flies (Glossina) are found in Africa over an area, estimated by various authors, of 7-11 million sq. km. The northern limit of this area corresponds closely to the southern edges of the Sahara and Somali Deserts, running along 14 deg. N and extending across the continent from Senegal in the west to Somalia in the east. The southern limit of tsetse distribution corresponds closely to the northern edges of the Kalahari and Namibian Deserts in the west and runs generally at 20-30 deg. S to the east of the continent (Ford and Katondo 1977). This tsetse fly belt covers the following 38 countries (listed below) in which the tsetse flies spread African trypanosomosis, a severe disease that affects man and his domestic livestock, and is among the factors responsible for limiting the pace and extent of development in those countries. The disease is of a major economic importance. Throughout the affected countries within the fly belt, areas that are heavily infested by the tsetse fly are virtually devoid of cattle and other species of domestic livestock. Distribution of livestock in all countries on the African continent where densely infested foci exist is almost exactly the reverse of the distribution of the fly (Finelle 1974, Brunhes et al. 1994). Attempts to control African trypanosomosis date back to the beginning of this century. Several different methods of control, some aimed at the disease-causing organism and other aimed at the vector, were employed (Nagel 1995, Jordan 1986). Until after the Second World War, when insecticides became available for use in tsetse control campaigns, the most widely used control measure against tsetse flies was habitat destruction (involving felling trees and bush-clearing), the elimination of host animals (involving killing of wild game) and, to a certain extent, the use of various trapping devices to catch the flies. The tsetse control campaigns mounted in the 40s, 50s and 60s were invariably extensive 'roll up the country

  19. The Impact of Ionospheric Storms on the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, T.

    2004-12-01

    In 2003, the FAA commissioned the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). This new navigation system is capable of guiding aircraft to within a few hundred feet of the ground. Although the system accuracy is typically better than 2 m (95% in the vertical direction), there exist rare fault modes that can create errors more than ten times as large. Because these rare faults may be unobservable, the system availability is limited to times when they can be guaranteed to be small. The dominant source of these errors is the ionosphere. The WAAS ground segment consists of 25 dual-frequency reference stations that sample the ionosphere at discrete locations throughout the service volume. The users, however, only have access to a single frequency and cannot estimate the ionosphere directly. The ionospheric delay that they experience must be estimated from the ground station measurements. More importantly, the uncertainty from each estimate must be rigidly bounded as these corrections are part of a safety-of-life system. In addition, the users may be anywhere within the service volume; WAAS needs to protect all possible ray paths based on its discrete samples. The vast majority of the time Total Electron Content (TEC) ionospheric delays are smoothly varying functions of time and space. Given even just a few measurements, the surrounding ionosphere can be predicted accurately for tens of minutes. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. During the last solar peak, several major storms were observed that created highly localized disturbances in the ionosphere. These disturbances are not easily modeled by the low bit rate message format used to communicate to the users. Even worse, they may not be sampled at all by the ground stations. Thus, during such storms users may suffer very large correction errors. WAAS therefore includes three protection factors against this threat: a storm detector, and spatial and temporal threat models. The storm detector is an internal consistency

  20. DISTANT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM for Tsunamis - A wide-area and multi-hazard approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, Martin; Lendholt, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    system and to extend the CCUI with hazard specific functionality. The presentation covers the DEWS project, the system architecture and the CCUI in conjunction with details of information logistics. The DEWS Wide Area Centre connecting national centres to allow the international communication and warning exchange is presented also. REFERENCES: [1] DEWS, www.dews-online.org [2] OGC, www.opengeospatial.org [3] SWE, www.opengeospatial.org/projects/groups/sensorweb [4] Eclipse RCP, www.eclipse.org/home/categories/rcp.php [5] uDig, udig.refractions.net [6] WMS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wms [7] WFS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wfs [8] WPS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wps [9] OASIS, www.oasis-open.org [10] CAP, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#capv1.1 [11] EDXL-DE, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#edxlde-v1.0 [12] SOAP, www.w3.org/TR/soap [13] GITEWS (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) is a project of the German Federal Government to aid the recon¬struction of the tsunami-prone Indian Ocean region, www.gitews.org [14] The Tsunami Service Bus is the GITEWS sensor system integration platform offering standardised services for the detection and monitoring of tsunamis

  1. A Statewide Private Microwave Wide Area Network for Real-time Natural Hazard Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. C.; Kent, G.; Smith, K. D.; Plank, G.; Slater, D.; Torrisi, J.; Presser, R.; Straley, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL) at the University of Nevada, Reno, operates the Nevada Seismic Network, a collection of ground motion instruments installed throughout Nevada and California, for the purposes of detecting, locating, and notifying the public of earthquakes in the state. To perform these tasks effectively, NSL has designed and built a statewide wireless microwave wide-area network (WAN) in order to receive ground motion data in near real-time. This network consists of radio access points, backhauls, and backbone communication sites transmitting time-series, images, and datalogger diagnostics to our data center servers in Reno. This privately managed communication network greatly reduces the dependence on third-party infrastructure (e.g. commercial cellular networks), and is vital for emergency management response and system uptime. Any individual seismograph or data collection device is networked through a wireless point-to-multipoint connection to a remote access point (AP) using a low-cost radio/routerboard combination. Additional point-to-point connections from AP's to radio backhauls and/or mountaintop backbone sites allow the Data Center in Reno to communicate with and receive data directly from each datalogger. Dataloggers, radios, and routers can be configured using tablets on-site, or via desktop computers at the Data Center. Redundant mountaintop links can be added to the network and facilitate the re-routing of data (similar to a meshed network) in the event of a faulty, failing, or noisy communication site. All routers, radios, and servers, including those at the Data Center, have redundant power and can operate independently in the event of a grid power or public Internet outage. A managed server room at the Data Center processes earthquake data for notifications and acts as a data source for remote users. Consisting of about 500 hosts, and spanning hundreds of miles, this WAN provides network operators access to each router and

  2. Protocol and Topology Issues for Wide-Area Satellite Interconnection of Terrestrial Optical LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraga, N.

    2002-01-01

    Apart from broadcasting, the satellite business is targeting niche markets. Wide area interconnection is considered as one of these niche markets, since it addresses operators and business LANs (B2B, business to business) in remote areas where terrestrial infrastructure is not available. These LANs - if high-speed - are typically based on optical networks such as SONET. One of the advantages of SONET is its architecture flexibility and capacity to transport all kind of applications including multimedia with a range of different transmission rates. The applications can be carried by different protocols among which the Internet Protocol (IP) or the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) are the most prominent ones. Thus, the question arises how these protocols can be interconnected via the satellite segment. The paper addresses several solutions for interworking with different protocols. For this investigation we distinguish first of all between the topology and the switching technology of the satellites. In case of a star network with transparent satellite, the satellite protocol consists of physical layer and data layer which can be directly interconnected with layer 2 interworking function to their terrestrial counterparts in the SONET backbone. For regenerative satellites the situation is more complex: here we need to distinguish the types of transport protocols being used in the terrestrial and satellite segment. Whereas IP, ATM, MPEG dominate in the terrestrial networks, satellite systems usually do not follow these standards. Some might employ minor additions (for instance, satellite specific packet headers), some might be completely proprietary. In general, interworking must be done for the data plane on top of layer 2 (data link layer), whereas for the signaling plane the interworking is on top of layer 3. In the paper we will discuss the protocol stacks for ATM, IP, and MPEG with a regenerative satellite system. As an example we will use the EuroSkyWay satellite

  3. Small Airborne Hyperspectral Wide Area Imager for Disaster Response and Earth Science Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed hyperspectral plus LWIR system will deliver high signal to noise performance, a wide spectral range, nominally 365 nm to 1.7 um, a single long wave IR...

  4. Cost-effective clinical uses of wide-area networks: electronic mail as telemedicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Worth, E. R.; Patrick, T. B.; Klimczak, J. C.; Reid, J C

    1995-01-01

    Electronic mail (E-mail) is widely used as a means of communication in the medical community. E-mail is clearly inexpensive when compared to two-way, fully interactive, real-time, video telemedicine. By content analysis of 200 consecutive messages, we show E-mail to be a low-cost use of computer networks, supporting a wide range of physician decision-making.

  5. Recent invasion of world-wide wheat growing areas by two aggressive strains of Puccinia striiformis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Ali, Sajid; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer;

    2012-01-01

    The ever more frequent and severe large-scale epidemics of wheat yellow/stripe rust disease (caused by Puccinia striiformis) pose a severe threat to the world’s wheat production (Hovmøller et al. 2010). The onset of a new series of world-wide wheat yellow rust epidemics in 2000 has been linked...

  6. Data fusion in multi sensor platforms for wide-area perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polychronopoulos, A.; Floudas, N.; Amditis, A.; Bank, D.; Broek, S.P. van den

    2006-01-01

    there is a strong belief that the improvement of preventive safety applications and the extension of their operative range will be achieved by the deployment of multiple sensors with wide fields of view (FOV). The paper contributes to the solution of the problem and introduces distributed sensor dat

  7. Implementing Virtual Private Networking for Enabling Lower Cost, More Secure Wide Area Communications at Sandia National Laboratories; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtual Private Networking is a new communications technology that promises lower cost, more secure wide area communications by leveraging public networks such as the Internet. Sandia National Laboratories has embraced the technology for interconnecting remote sites to Sandia's corporate network, and for enabling remote access users for both dial-up and broadband access

  8. Activity and function recognition for moving and static objects in urban environments from wide-area persistent surveillance inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Bobick, Aaron; Jones, Eric

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we describe results from experimental analysis of a model designed to recognize activities and functions of moving and static objects from low-resolution wide-area video inputs. Our model is based on representing the activities and functions using three variables: (i) time; (ii) space; and (iii) structures. The activity and function recognition is achieved by imposing lexical, syntactic, and semantic constraints on the lower-level event sequences. In the reported research, we have evaluated the utility and sensitivity of several algorithms derived from natural language processing and pattern recognition domains. We achieved high recognition accuracy for a wide range of activity and function types in the experiments using Electro-Optical (EO) imagery collected by Wide Area Airborne Surveillance (WAAS) platform.

  9. Performance of a Large-area GEM Detector Read Out with Wide Radial Zigzag Strips

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Aiwu; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Hansen, Eric; Hohlmann, Marcus; Khanal, Shreeya; Phipps, Michael; Starling, Elizabeth; Twigger, Jessie; Walton, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    A 1-meter-long trapezoidal Triple-GEM detector with wide readout strips was tested in hadron beams at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility in October 2013. The readout strips have a special zigzag geometry and run along the radial direction with an azimuthal pitch of 1.37 mrad to measure the azimuthal phi-coordinate of incident particles. The zigzag geometry of the readout reduces the required number of electronic channels by a factor of three compared to conventional straight readout strips while...

  10. A Large-Area Transferable Wide Band Gap 2D Silicon Dioxide Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Christin; Wang, Zhu-Jun; Burson, Kristen M; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Heyde, Markus; Schlögl, Robert; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2016-08-23

    An atomically smooth silica bilayer is transferred from the growth substrate to a new support via mechanical exfoliation at millimeter scale. The atomic structure and morphology are maintained perfectly throughout the process. A simple heating treatment results in complete removal of the transfer medium. Low-energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy show the success of the transfer steps. Excellent chemical and thermal stability result from the absence of dangling bonds in the film structure. By adding this wide band gap oxide to the toolbox of 2D materials, possibilities for van der Waals heterostructures will be broadened significantly.

  11. The South African fruit fly action plan: area-wide suppression and exotic species surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Brian N., E-mail: barnesb@arc.agric.z [ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Institute for Fruit, Vine and Wine, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Venter, Jan-Hendrik, E-mail: janhendrikv@nda.agric.z [Directorate Plant Health, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    Two species of tephritid fruit flies of economic importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann]) and Natal fruit fly (C. rosa Karsch) cause economic losses in the South African deciduous fruit industry of approximately US$3 million per annum. A third species, marula fruit fly, C. cosyra (Walker), causes damage to citrus and sub-tropical fruits in the north-eastern part of the country. In 1999 a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme against Medfly was initiated over 10,000 ha of table grapes with a goal of cost-effective, ecologically compatible suppression of Medfly. The SIT programme was extended to two other fruit production areas in 2004. Although results in all three SIT areas have been mixed, populations of wild Medflies, as well as associated pesticide usage and control costs, have been reduced since the start of sterile fly releases. Reasons for the partial degree of success and the relatively slow expansion of Medfly SIT to other areas include economic, operational and cultural factors, as well as certain fruit production practices. Before fruit fly-free areas can be created, deficiencies in the ability to mass-rear Natal fruit fly need to be overcome so that an SIT programme against this species can be initiated. Any fruit fly suppression or eradication campaign will be severely compromised by any introductions into South Africa of exotic fruit fly species. The risk of such introductions is increasing as trade with and travel to the country increases. A Plant Health Early Warning Systems Division has been initiated to formulate fruit fly detection and action plans. Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae [Coquillett]), Asian fruit fly (B. invadens Drew, Tsurutu and White) and peach fruit fly (B. zonata [Saunders]), which are all well established in parts of Africa and/or Indian Ocean islands, have been identified as presenting the highest risk for entering and becoming established in South Africa. An exotic fruit fly surveillance

  12. The South African fruit fly action plan: area-wide suppression and exotic species surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two species of tephritid fruit flies of economic importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann]) and Natal fruit fly (C. rosa Karsch) cause economic losses in the South African deciduous fruit industry of approximately US$3 million per annum. A third species, marula fruit fly, C. cosyra (Walker), causes damage to citrus and sub-tropical fruits in the north-eastern part of the country. In 1999 a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme against Medfly was initiated over 10,000 ha of table grapes with a goal of cost-effective, ecologically compatible suppression of Medfly. The SIT programme was extended to two other fruit production areas in 2004. Although results in all three SIT areas have been mixed, populations of wild Medflies, as well as associated pesticide usage and control costs, have been reduced since the start of sterile fly releases. Reasons for the partial degree of success and the relatively slow expansion of Medfly SIT to other areas include economic, operational and cultural factors, as well as certain fruit production practices. Before fruit fly-free areas can be created, deficiencies in the ability to mass-rear Natal fruit fly need to be overcome so that an SIT programme against this species can be initiated. Any fruit fly suppression or eradication campaign will be severely compromised by any introductions into South Africa of exotic fruit fly species. The risk of such introductions is increasing as trade with and travel to the country increases. A Plant Health Early Warning Systems Division has been initiated to formulate fruit fly detection and action plans. Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae [Coquillett]), Asian fruit fly (B. invadens Drew, Tsurutu and White) and peach fruit fly (B. zonata [Saunders]), which are all well established in parts of Africa and/or Indian Ocean islands, have been identified as presenting the highest risk for entering and becoming established in South Africa. An exotic fruit fly surveillance

  13. The role of GIS and spatial analysis within area-wide insect control programmes for disease control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The success of area-wide interventions aimed at suppressing or eradicating insect populations rests largely on appropriate project planning and implementation - and this is as true in the context of vector-borne diseases as it is within the wider context of pest management. In either context, a successful intervention programme requires accurate knowledge of preexisting distributions of insects (disease vectors) in time and space, on the appropriate design of insect suppression/replacement strategies, and on the development of suitable frameworks for monitoring and evaluation. 'Standard' disease control interventions, such as indoor residual spraying of insecticides or insecticide-treated bed nets for malaria, and the aerial application of insecticides or use of baited traps against human and animal trypanosomes, often include elements of area-wide planning because they target particular disease strata. Genetic control strategies (including SIT) are more intrinsically area-wide because they target specific vectors over large geographical areas delineated by biological criteria associated with colonisation or dispersal potential. In either case a strong geographical basis to planning and implementation is likely to improve the chances of programme success, as well as making more efficient use of resources and increasing cost-effectiveness. Geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), and remote sensing are allied technologies that together provide a means of gathering, integrating and analysing spatial data. To date, the application of these tools within traditional and area-wide programmes has been relatively limited, but this seems likely to change, particularly as GIS and GPS are already being used extensively in other areas of agroecological management and research. The tools themselves are becoming increasingly accessible to non-specialists, while increases in computing power now mean that even high-level GIS systems can be

  14. Projected impacts of climate change on a continent-wide protected area network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hole, David G; Willis, Stephen G; Pain, Deborah J;

    2009-01-01

    Despite widespread concern, the continuing effectiveness of networks of protected areas under projected 21st century climate change is uncertain. Shifts in species' distributions could mean these resources will cease to afford protection to those species for which they were originally established......, despite the likelihood of significant community disruption, we demonstrate that rigorously defined networks of protected areas can play a key role in mitigating the worst impacts of climate change on biodiversity....... species). Persistence of suitable climate space across the network as a whole, however, is notably high, with 88-92% of priority species retaining suitable climate space in >or= 1 IBA(s) in which they are currently found. Only 7-8 priority species lose climatic representation from the network. Hence...

  15. TeleMed: Wide-area, secure, collaborative object computing with Java and CORBA for healthcare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forslund, D.W.; George, J.E.; Gavrilov, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    Distributed computing is becoming commonplace in a variety of industries with healthcare being a particularly important one for society. The authors describe the development and deployment of TeleMed in a few healthcare domains. TeleMed is a 100% Java distributed application build on CORBA and OMG standards enabling the collaboration on the treatment of chronically ill patients in a secure manner over the Internet. These standards enable other systems to work interoperably with TeleMed and provide transparent access to high performance distributed computing to the healthcare domain. The goal of wide scale integration of electronic medical records is a grand-challenge scale problem of global proportions with far-reaching social benefits.

  16. Time Stamp Attack on Wide Area Monitoring System in Smart Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhenghao; Li, Husheng; Pei, Changxing

    2011-01-01

    Security becomes an extremely important issue in smart grid. To maintain the steady operation for smart power grid, massive measurement devices must be allocated widely among the power grid. Previous studies are focused on false data injection attack to the smart grid system. In practice, false data injection attack is not easy to implement, since it is not easy to hack the power grid data communication system. In this paper, we demonstrate that a novel time stamp attack is a practical and dangerous attack scheme for smart grid. Since most of measurement devices are equipped with global positioning system (GPS) to provide the time information of measurements, it is highly probable to attack the measurement system by spoofing the GPS. By employing the real measurement data in North American Power Grid, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the time stamp attack on smart grid.

  17. Blind Friendly Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Červenka, Petr; Břinda, Karel; Seifert, Radek; Hofman, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Space concept of the surrounding area is one of the most important preconditions of the independent mobility and orientation of the blind people. Tactile maps are considered to be the most appropriate source of spatial information. One of the main problems of the tactile maps usage is their problematic accessibility for the blind users since they are not available in time and with up-to-date content. The map production is a matter of tedious manual work and a result of expensive and time-cons...

  18. PSI Wide Area Product (WAP) for measuring Ground Surface Displacements at regional level for multi-hazards studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, Javier; Iglesias, Rubén; Blanco, Pablo; Albiol, David; Koudogbo, Fifamè

    2015-04-01

    The Wide Area Product (WAP) is a new interferometric product developed to provide measurement over large regions. Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) has largely proved their robust and precise performance in measuring ground surface deformation in different application domains. In this context, however, the accurate displacement estimation over large-scale areas (more than 10.000 km2) characterized by low magnitude motion gradients (3-5 mm/year), such as the ones induced by inter-seismic or Earth tidal effects, still remains an open issue. The main reason for that is the inclusion of low quality and more distant persistent scatterers in order to bridge low-quality areas, such as water bodies, crop areas and forested regions. This fact yields to spatial propagation errors on PSI integration process, poor estimation and compensation of the Atmospheric Phase Screen (APS) and the difficult to face residual long-wavelength phase patterns originated by orbit state vectors inaccuracies. Research work for generating a Wide Area Product of ground motion in preparation for the Sentinel-1 mission has been conducted in the last stages of Terrafirma as well as in other research programs. These developments propose technological updates for keeping the precision over large scale PSI analysis. Some of the updates are based on the use of external information, like meteorological models, and the employment of GNSS data for an improved calibration of large measurements. Usually, covering wide regions implies the processing over areas with a land use which is chiefly focused on livestock, horticulture, urbanization and forest. This represents an important challenge for providing continuous InSAR measurements and the application of advanced phase filtering strategies to enhance the coherence. The advanced PSI processing has been performed out over several areas, allowing a large scale analysis of tectonic patterns, and motion caused by multi-hazards as volcanic, landslide and

  19. Body area networks using IEEE 802156 implementing the ultra wide band physical layer

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Marco; Mucchi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The market of wearable wireless medical sensors is experiencing a rapid growth and the associated telecommunications services for the healthcare sector are forecast to further increase in the next years. Medical body area networks (MBANs) allow the mobility of patients and medical personnel by facilitating the remote monitoring of patients suffering from chronic or risky diseases. Currently, MBANs are being introduced in unlicensed frequency bands, where the risk of mutual interference with other electronic devices radiating in the same band can be high. Thus, coexistence is an issue on which

  20. Capability of a Portable Chromatic Unit for Monitoring Airborne Particles over Wide Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Aceves-Fernandez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations are described into the use of a compact, portable unit, using polychromatic scattered light, for the preliminary monitoring airborne PM 2–10 particulates over widespread urban areas subjected to vehicular traffic. The monitoring unit has been used at a city centre bus terminus, at sites along an urban bus corridor and outside a local school adjacent to an air quality monitoring station. Holistic results are presented which demonstrate the use of the unit for the preliminary identification of locations and conditions with elevated levels of PM 2–10 particles which can be investigated in greater detail with particle-specific, high-precision instruments.

  1. Wide area control concepts. A pre-study. Power transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this pre-study has been to assess technology and benefits related to new control concepts for power transmission systems. The objective is to provide basic results and information in order to prepare a main project proposal for further research activities in this area. The study has focused on recent developments in control and monitoring of power transmission systems and describes promising applications within the areas of voltage stability, angle stability (power oscillations) and system protection. Selected case studies have been performed in order to assess the technical possibility of increasing power transfer limits on critical transmission corridors in the Norwegian power system and to indicate the economic benefits involved. The case studies have mainly focused on voltage stability monitoring and power oscillation damping. One significant result from the study is related to the power export capacity on the ''Hasle'' interface, which is the main transmission corridor between Southern Norway and Sweden. The studies indicate a potential of reducing annual congestion costs on this interface in the order of 15-20 mill. NOK. It is shown that this can be achieved by increasing the export limit to 2000 MW and that this is technically possible from a security point of view through improved control and monitoring as illustrated by the case studies. The report also includes a number of proposed research activities and a layout for a main project proposal. (Author)

  2. Wide-Area Mapping of Forest with National Airborne Laser Scanning and Field Inventory Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnet, J.-M.; Ginzler, C.; Clivaz, J.-C.

    2016-06-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) remote sensing data are now available for entire countries such as Switzerland. Methods for the estimation of forest parameters from ALS have been intensively investigated in the past years. However, the implementation of a forest mapping workflow based on available data at a regional level still remains challenging. A case study was implemented in the Canton of Valais (Switzerland). The national ALS dataset and field data of the Swiss National Forest Inventory were used to calibrate estimation models for mean and maximum height, basal area, stem density, mean diameter and stem volume. When stratification was performed based on ALS acquisition settings and geographical criteria, satisfactory prediction models were obtained for volume (R2 = 0.61 with a root mean square error of 47 %) and basal area (respectively 0.51 and 45 %) while height variables had an error lower than 19%. This case study shows that the use of nationwide ALS and field datasets for forest resources mapping is cost efficient, but additional investigations are required to handle the limitations of the input data and optimize the accuracy.

  3. Performance of a large-area GEM detector read out with wide radial zigzag strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aiwu; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Hansen, Eric; Hohlmann, Marcus; Khanal, Shreeya; Phipps, Michael; Starling, Elizabeth; Twigger, Jessie; Walton, Kimberly

    2016-03-01

    A 1-meter-long trapezoidal Triple-GEM detector with wide readout strips was tested in hadron beams at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility in October 2013. The readout strips have a special zigzag geometry and run radially with an azimuthal pitch of 1.37 mrad to measure the azimuthal ϕ-coordinate of incident particles. The zigzag geometry of the readout reduces the required number of electronic channels by a factor of three compared to conventional straight readout strips while preserving good angular resolution. The average crosstalk between zigzag strips is measured to be an acceptable 5.5%. The detection efficiency of the detector is (98.4±0.2)%. When the non-linearity of the zigzag-strip response is corrected with track information, the angular resolution is measured to be (193±3) μrad, which corresponds to 14% of the angular strip pitch. Multiple Coulomb scattering effects are fully taken into account in the data analysis with the help of a stand-alone Geant4 simulation that estimates interpolated track errors.

  4. Performance of a Large-area GEM Detector Read Out with Wide Radial Zigzag Strip

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Aiwu; Hansen, Eric; Hohlmann, Marcus; Khanal, Shreeya; Phipps, Michael; Starling, Elizabeth; Twigger, Jessie; Walton, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    A 1-meter-long trapezoidal Triple-GEM detector with wide readout strips was tested in hadron beams at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility in October 2013. The readout strips have a special zigzag geometry and run along the radial direction with an azimuthal pitch of 1.37 mrad to measure the azimuthal phi-coordinate of incident particles. The zigzag geometry of the readout reduces the required number of electronic channels by a factor of three compared to conventional straight readout strips while preserving good angular resolution. The average crosstalk between zigzag strips is measured to be an acceptable 5.5%. The detection efficiency of the detector is (98.4+-0.2)%. When the non-linearity of the zigzag-strip response is corrected with track information, the angular resolution is measured to be (193+-3) urad, which corresponds to 14% of the angular strip pitch. Multiple Coulomb scattering effects are fully taken into account in the data analysis with the help of a stand-alone Geant4 simulation that estimates in...

  5. Estimating wide-area evapotranspiration at multiple scales using optical vegetation index methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E.; Jarchow, C.; Barreto-munoz, A.; Didan, K.; Nouri, H.; Anderson, S.; Doody, T.

    2015-12-01

    We provide three examples of remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) from our research using optical methods at different spatial scales and applied to (i) urban landscapes, (ii) riparian vegetation in Mexico in response to river flows, and (iii) riparian vegetation in Australia in response to different flood frequencies. In the first example, we will compare ground methods for estimating ET by horticultural plants with scaled estimates of ET using both WV2 NDVI imagery and MODIS EVI which were used to determine water requirements of urban gardens in Adelaide, South Australia. In the second example, we will present the impacts of a 2014 environmental flow, released to the Colorado River delta in Mexico, on vegetation greenness and estimated ET using Landsat and MODIS data. Lastly, we will show the results for scaling sap flow transpiration of Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and associated vegetation along the Murrumbidgee River (a tributary of the River Murray) to MODIS-based estimates of evapotranspiration in the wider riparian reaches along the river. These three applications range in spatial scales from a few hectares for urban gardens, to several thousand hectares for the riparian ecosystem in Mexico, to a regional scale of a hundred thousand hectares for the Red Gum forest in Australia. Remote sensing methods can produce accurate estimates of ET across wide temporal and spatial scales, limited mainly by the accuracy of the ground methods by which they are calibrated and validated.

  6. A Novel Wide-Area Backup Protection Based on Fault Component Current Distribution and Improved Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problems of the existing wide-area backup protection (WABP algorithms, the paper proposes a novel WABP algorithm based on the distribution characteristics of fault component current and improved Dempster/Shafer (D-S evidence theory. When a fault occurs, slave substations transmit to master station the amplitudes of fault component currents of transmission lines which are the closest to fault element. Then master substation identifies suspicious faulty lines according to the distribution characteristics of fault component current. After that, the master substation will identify the actual faulty line with improved D-S evidence theory based on the action states of traditional protections and direction components of these suspicious faulty lines. The simulation examples based on IEEE 10-generator-39-bus system show that the proposed WABP algorithm has an excellent performance. The algorithm has low requirement of sampling synchronization, small wide-area communication flow, and high fault tolerance.

  7. The G305 star forming complex: Wide-Area molecular mapping of NH3 and H2O masers

    OpenAIRE

    Hindson, L.; Thompson, M. A.; Urquhart, J. S.; Clark, J. S.; Davies, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present wide area radio (12 mm) Mopra Telescope observations of the complex and rich massive star forming region G305. Our goals are to determine the reservoir for star formation within G305 using NH3 to trace the dense molecular content, and thus, the gas available to form stars; estimate physical parameters of detected NH3 clumps (temperature, column density, mass etc); locate current areas of active star formation via the presence of H2O and methanol masers and the distribution of YSOs ...

  8. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  9. Targeted Cue-lure Trapping, Bait-spray, Sanitation, Sterile-male and Parasitoid Releases in an Area Wide Integrated Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Control Program in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: An area wide IPM approach to melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) suppression was undertaken as part of a Hawaii state-wide program funded by USDA-ARS Area Wide Initiative. Methods: A grid of 1 cuelure trap/ km2 over 40 km2 was established in Kamuela, HI to pinpoint ...

  10. Targeted Trapping, Bait-spray, Sanitation, Sterile-male and Parasitoid Releases in an Area Wide Integrated Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Control Program in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    An area wide integrated pest management approach to melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) suppression in Kamuela, Hawaii, was undertaken as part of a larger state-wide program by the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Area Wide Initiative. After a...

  11. Distributed Power-Line Outage Detection Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i high computational complexity; and (ii relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  12. Area-wide approaches to insect pest management: history and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World agriculture is now entering a very trying era because currently our numbers are expanding by more than 90 million additional people per year. Demographers project that our growth will not drop below 90 million people per year until about 2020 (United Nations 1993, Nygaard 1998). The challenge is to increase food production every three or four years sufficiently to feed an additional population equivalent to that of Western Europe or North America. The land available for agriculture on a per capita basis is becoming progressively more limited so than in 2010, on average, 1 hectare in developing countries will have to feed 5 people, and in South Asia, 1 hectare will have to feed 8 people (Alexandratos 1995, Klassen 1995). On an average, 66 percent of the additional food must come from increased yields, and in South Asia, fully 80 percent must come from increased yields. The balance will come from expanding the area cultivated and use of intensified cropping systems. However, this is not a simple matter since pest populations tend to be favoured by yield-boosting measures. Since population growth rates recede as people overcome poverty, and since increasing food production is the principal means of overcoming poverty in many countries, it is imperative that in the decades immediately ahead major improvements be made in reducing losses to pests and in other yield enhancing measures

  13. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Wide Area Blunt Impact Damage to Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi Ming

    Due to their high performance and weight efficiency, carbon fiber composites are increasingly being used in aircraft primary structure applications. Exposed composite structures (e.g., fuselage lower body) are susceptible accidental impacts by ground service equipment (GSE). The very high mass (over 10,000 kg) of GSE impact can involve high energy (over 1000 J) and thus can induce significant internal damage. Furthermore, the large contact area potentially involved with GSE impact can create significant internal delamination and fiber failure without leaving exterior-visible signs that any damage has occurred. The objectives of the research described herein are to: (1) conduct experimental investigation into the composite aircraft damage caused by GSE impact, (2) examine the small-scale failure modes in focused, element-level studies, (3) establish a finite element modeling methodology involving detailed simulation capability that is validated via small-scale tests, and (4) apply these modeling capabilities to accurately predict full-scale structural behavior without adjustment (e.g., tuning) of modeling input parameters.

  14. A novel wireless personal area network technology: ultra wide band technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Wei-hua; GUO Li-li; LIANG Zhi-guo

    2006-01-01

    Ultra Wideband (UWB) technology is promising for wireless personal area network (WPAN) applications due to its high data rate, low power requirement and short-range characteristics. Instead of exploring new unused frequency band, the UWB communication follows the overlay principle, i.e.,sharing the spectrum with existing systems and devices. This novel radio technology has been recently approved by the regulatory authorities in the United States and Canada, and is being considered for approval in Europe and Asia. In this paper, an overview of the UWB radio technology from the technical,economical, and regulatory perspectives is provided. Firstly, the definition of UWB by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is introduced, followed by a brief introduction to the history. The current status of the standardization process resulting from the FCC's recent decision to permit unlicensed operation in the [3.1-10.6] GHz band is discussed. Then, the reasons of considering UWB as a future solution for WLAN/WPAN applications are studied. In particular, the unique properties of UWB and its difference from other wireless technology alternatives are studied. Then, the benefits and challenges related to the commercial deployment of UWB for future applications are discussed. Finally,the research problems and challenges posed by the UWB technology are focused.

  15. Uni- and bidirectional wide angle CT colonography: effect on missed areas, surface visualization, viewing time and polyp conspicuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of field of view on mucosal visualisation and reader efficiency during three-dimensional endoluminal CT colonography (CTC) was investigated. Twenty CTC datasets were reviewed at standard 90-degree and ''wide'' 140-degree viewing angles using customised viewing software (V3D colon; Viatronix), which listed number and size of missed mucosal areas (''missed regions tool'') and percentage mucosal visualisation. We compared: (1) unidirectional and bidirectional flythrough using 140- versus 90-degree viewing angles; (2) reader analysis time comparing unidirectional 140-degree flythrough versus bidirectional 90-degree flythrough; (3) paired image snapshots of 12 polyps taken at each field of view were reviewed to assess conspicuity. All patients underwent conventional colonoscopy. Bidirectional 140-degree review reduced the numbers of missed areas by between eight- and 40-fold depending on size category, including those >1,000 mm2, compared with standard 90-degree bidirectional flythrough (P<0.001). Combined prone-supine unidirectional 140-degree flythrough and missed area review was 3.8 min faster than 90-degree bidirectional review (9.3 versus 5.5 min, P< 0.0001) for the same surface visualisation. When viewed as pairs, polyps were rated more conspicuous with a 90-degree field of view, P=0.03. Wide-angle (140-degree) CTC can reduce both numbers of missed areas and review times. However, this may be at the expense of polyp conspicuity. (orig.)

  16. Uni- and bidirectional wide angle CT colonography: effect on missed areas, surface visualization, viewing time and polyp conspicuity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, James E.; Saunders, Brian P. [St. Mark' s Hospital, Wolfson Unit for Endoscopy, London (United Kingdom); Boone, Darren; Halligan, Steve; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College Hospital, Department of Specialist Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Burling, David [St. Mark' s Hospital, Department of Intestinal Imaging, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    The effect of field of view on mucosal visualisation and reader efficiency during three-dimensional endoluminal CT colonography (CTC) was investigated. Twenty CTC datasets were reviewed at standard 90-degree and ''wide'' 140-degree viewing angles using customised viewing software (V3D colon; Viatronix), which listed number and size of missed mucosal areas (''missed regions tool'') and percentage mucosal visualisation. We compared: (1) unidirectional and bidirectional flythrough using 140- versus 90-degree viewing angles; (2) reader analysis time comparing unidirectional 140-degree flythrough versus bidirectional 90-degree flythrough; (3) paired image snapshots of 12 polyps taken at each field of view were reviewed to assess conspicuity. All patients underwent conventional colonoscopy. Bidirectional 140-degree review reduced the numbers of missed areas by between eight- and 40-fold depending on size category, including those >1,000 mm{sup 2}, compared with standard 90-degree bidirectional flythrough (P<0.001). Combined prone-supine unidirectional 140-degree flythrough and missed area review was 3.8 min faster than 90-degree bidirectional review (9.3 versus 5.5 min, P< 0.0001) for the same surface visualisation. When viewed as pairs, polyps were rated more conspicuous with a 90-degree field of view, P=0.03. Wide-angle (140-degree) CTC can reduce both numbers of missed areas and review times. However, this may be at the expense of polyp conspicuity. (orig.)

  17. Decadal region-wide and glacier-wide mass balances derived from multi-temporal ASTER satellite digital elevation models. Validation over the Mont-Blanc area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Etienne; Cabot, Vincent; Vincent, Christian; Six, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Since 2000, a vast archive of stereo-images has been built by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) satellite. Several studies already extracted glacier mass balances from multi-temporal ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs) but they lacked accurate independent data for validation. Here, we apply a linear regression to a time series of 3D-coregistered ASTER DEMs to estimate the rate of surface elevation changes (dh/dtASTER) and geodetic mass balances of Mont-Blanc glaciers (155 km²) between 2000 and 2014. Validation using field and spaceborne geodetic measurements reveals large errors at the individual pixel level (> 1 m a-1) and an accuracy of 0.2-0.3 m a-1 for dh/dtASTER averaged over areas larger than 1 km². For all Mont-Blanc glaciers, the ASTER region-wide mass balance (-1.05±0.37 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1) agrees remarkably with the one measured using Spot5 and Pléiades DEMs (-1.06±0.23 m w.e. a-1) over their common 2003-2012 period. This multi-temporal ASTER DEM strategy leads to smaller errors than the simple differencing of two ASTER DEMs. By extrapolating dh/dtASTER to mid-February 2000, we infer a mean penetration depth of about 9±3 m for the C-band Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) radar signal, with a strong altitudinal dependency (range 0-12 m). This methodology thus reveals the regional pattern of glacier surface elevation changes and improves our knowledge of the penetration of the radar signal into snow and ice.

  18. Wide-Area Landslide Deformation Mapping with Multi-Path ALOS PALSAR Data Stacks: A Case Study of Three Gorges Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuguo Shi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR has been adopted as a spaceborne geodetic tool to successfully measure surface deformation of a few well-known landslides in the Three Gorges area. In consideration of the fact that most events of slope failure happened at places other than those famous landslides since the reservoir impoundment in 2003, focusing on a limited number of slopes is insufficient to meet the requirements of regional-scale landslide disaster prevention and early warning. As a result, it has become a vital task to evaluate the overall stability of slopes across the vast area of Three Gorges using wide-coverage InSAR datasets. In this study, we explored the approach of carrying out joint analysis of multi-path InSAR data stacks for wide-area landslide deformation mapping. As an example, three ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data stacks of neighboring ascending paths covering the area along the Yangtze River from Fengjie to Zigui were analyzed. A key problem to be solved is the separation of the tropospheric signal from the interferometric phase, for which we employed a hybrid description model of the atmospheric phase screen (APS to improve APS estimation from time series interferograms. The estimated atmospheric phase was largely correlated with the seasonal rainfall in the temporal dimension. The experimental results show that about 30 slopes covering total areas of 48 km2 were identified to be landslides in active deformation and should be kept under routine surveillance. Analyses of time series displacement measurements revealed that most landslides in the mountainous area far away from Yangtze River suffered from linear deformation, whereas landslides located on the river bank were destabilized predominantly by the influences of reservoir water level fluctuation and rainfall.

  19. Practical design of SMES controller for improving power system stability based on wide area synchronized phasor measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechanupaprittha, S.; Watanabe, M.; Mitani, Y. [Kyushu Inst. of Technology, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan); Hongesombut, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo (Japan); Ngamroo, I. [King Mongkut' s Inst. of Technhology, Ladkrabang (Thailand)

    2007-07-01

    Various load demands with abrupt changes adversely affects power system operations and control, which can lead to significant problems such as system frequency oscillations due to insufficient system damping. In interconnected power systems, a local frequency control is needed in a given area. In addition, fluctuations of tie-line power flow should be stabilized. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) can be used as an effective device to exchange electrical energy with a power system. Wide area monitoring of power systems based on multiple synchronized phasor measurements such as the phasor measurement unit (PMU) using the global positioning system (GPS) offers the possibility of data synchronization at a common time reference. With the GPS, oscillation modes can be detected from measured data by modeling measured data as a coupled vibration model (CVM). This paper presented a practical design of a SMES controller based on wide area synchronized phasor measurement. The CVM can be used to represents an estimated power system model that is used for tuning SMES controller parameters. In addition, it can be used to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of the designed controller in the power system. For the desired damping performance, the controller parameters were optimally tuned using a heuristic optimization method, called a TABU search algorithm. A simulation study was then conducted in order to show and confirm the effectiveness of the design method on a two-area four machine power system. The paper explained the controller design methodology and discussed the application to a two-area, four-machine power system. The simulation revealed that the proposed design method could be implemented in a practical manner. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  20. Optimal sterile insect release for area-wide integrated pest management in a density regulated pest population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Luis F

    2014-06-01

    To determine optimal sterile insect release policies in area-wide integrated pest management is a challenge that users of this pest control method inevitably confront. In this note we provide approximations to best policies of release through the use of simulated annealing. The discrete time model for the population dynamics includes the effects of sterile insect release and density dependence in the pest population. Spatial movement is introduced through integrodifference equations, which allow the use of the stochastic search in cases where movement is described through arbitrary dispersal kernels. As a byproduct of the computations, an assessment of appropriate control zone sizes is possible. PMID:24506557

  1. Wide Area Measurement Based Security Assessment & Monitoring of Modern Power System: A Danish Power System Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe; Thøgersen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    monitoring of modern power system with large scale renewable energy penetration. Phasor measurement unit (PMU) based WAMS has been implemented in western Danish Power System to realize online security monitoring and assessment in power system control center. The proposed security monitoring system has been......Power System security has become a major concern across the global power system community. This paper presents wide area measurement system (WAMS) based security assessment and monitoring of modern power system. A new three dimensional security index (TDSI) has been proposed for online security...

  2. Error Analysis of Fast Moving Target Geo-location in Wide Area Surveillance Ground Moving Target Indication Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shi-chao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As an important mode in airborne radar systems, Wide Area Surveillance Ground Moving Target Indication (WAS-GMTI mode has the ability of monitoring a large area in a short time, and then the detected moving targets can be located quickly. However, in real environment, many factors introduce considerable errors into the location of moving targets. In this paper, a fast location method based on the characteristics of the moving targets in WAS-GMTI mode is utilized. And in order to improve the location performance, those factors that introduce location errors are analyzed and moving targets are relocated. Finally, the analysis of those factors is proved to be reasonable by simulation and real data experiments.

  3. Using Range-Wide Abundance Modeling to Identify Key Conservation Areas for the Micro-Endemic Bolson Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya A Ureña-Aranda

    Full Text Available A widespread biogeographic pattern in nature is that population abundance is not uniform across the geographic range of species: most occurrence sites have relatively low numbers, whereas a few places contain orders of magnitude more individuals. The Bolson tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus is endemic to a small region of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico, where habitat deterioration threatens this species with extinction. In this study we combined field burrows counts and the approach for modeling species abundance based on calculating the distance to the niche centroid to obtain range-wide abundance estimates. For the Bolson tortoise, we found a robust, negative relationship between observed burrows abundance and distance to the niche centroid, with a predictive capacity of 71%. Based on these results we identified four priority areas for the conservation of this microendemic and threatened tortoise. We conclude that this approach may be a useful approximation for identifying key areas for sampling and conservation efforts in elusive and rare species.

  4. Using Range-Wide Abundance Modeling to Identify Key Conservation Areas for the Micro-Endemic Bolson Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña-Aranda, Cinthya A; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Yáñez-Arenas, Carlos; Landgrave Ramírez, Rosario; Espinosa de los Monteros, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    A widespread biogeographic pattern in nature is that population abundance is not uniform across the geographic range of species: most occurrence sites have relatively low numbers, whereas a few places contain orders of magnitude more individuals. The Bolson tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus is endemic to a small region of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico, where habitat deterioration threatens this species with extinction. In this study we combined field burrows counts and the approach for modeling species abundance based on calculating the distance to the niche centroid to obtain range-wide abundance estimates. For the Bolson tortoise, we found a robust, negative relationship between observed burrows abundance and distance to the niche centroid, with a predictive capacity of 71%. Based on these results we identified four priority areas for the conservation of this microendemic and threatened tortoise. We conclude that this approach may be a useful approximation for identifying key areas for sampling and conservation efforts in elusive and rare species. PMID:26115482

  5. Design of wide-area time-delay supplementary controller for interconnected Network based on Hamilton function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailati, G.; Hu, Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    The transient stability of interconnected network with supplementary time-delay controller for generator excitations and static var compensator (SVC) has been investigated in this paper. Firstly, a delay-dependent stability criterion based on Hamilton function method is derived, and the criterion is in term of matrix inequalities. Secondly, a nonlinear time-delay Hamilton function model of interconnected network with SVCs is constructed. Thirdly, the wide-area time-delay supplementary controller (WATSC) for the interconnected network is designed and converted into the form of Hamiltonian system. The delay-dependent stability of the closed-loop power system is analysed. The gains of the WATSC are determined by using the theoretical analysis results. It is effective for the designed WATSC installed in the 16- machine, 68-bus power system for damping the inter-area modes. Then simulation results show that the method of the controller is effective.

  6. WIDE-AREA BASED ON COORDINATED TUNING OF FUZZY PSS AND FACTS CONTROLLER IN MULTI-MACHINE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Ebrahimian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper coordination of fuzzy power system stabilizer (FPSS and flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS have been considered in a multi-machine power system. The proposed model, has been applied for a wide-area power system. The proposed FPSS presented with local, nonlinear feedbacks, and the corresponding control synthesis conditions are given in terms of solutions to a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. For this model, in fuzzy control synthesis, the new proposed control design method is based on fewer fuzzy rules and less computational burden. Also, the parameters of FACTS controller have been evaluated by improved honey bee mating optimization (IHBMO. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been applied over two case studies of single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB and two areas four machine (TAFM Kundur’s power system. The obtained results demonstrate the superiority of proposed strategy.

  7. Distributed Cloud Computing Environment Enhanced With Capabilities for Wide-Area Migration and Replication Of Virtual Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chul Shim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When a network application is implemented as a virt ual machine on a cloud and is used by a large numbe r of users, the location of the virtual machine shoul d be selected carefully so that the response time experienced by users is minimized. As the user popu lation moves and/or increases, the virtual machine may need to be migrated to a new location or replicated on many locations over a wide-area network. Virtua l machine migration and replication have been studied extensively but in most cases are limited within a subnetwork to be able to maintain service continuit y. In this paper we introduce a distributed cloud computing environment which facilitates the migrati on and replication of a virtual machine over a wide area network. The mechanism is provided by an overl ay network of smart routers, each of which connects a cooperating data center to the Internet. The propos ed approach is analyzed and compared with related works.

  8. A Robust WLS Power System State Estimation Method Integrating a Wide-Area Measurement System and SCADA Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the development of modern society, the scale of the power system is rapidly increased accordingly, and the framework and mode of running of power systems are trending towards more complexity. It is nowadays much more important for the dispatchers to know exactly the state parameters of the power network through state estimation. This paper proposes a robust power system WLS state estimation method integrating a wide-area measurement system (WAMS and SCADA technology, incorporating phasor measurements and the results of the traditional state estimator in a post-processing estimator, which greatly reduces the scale of the non-linear estimation problem as well as the number of iterations and the processing time per iteration. This paper firstly analyzes the wide-area state estimation model in detail, then according to the issue that least squares does not account for bad data and outliers, the paper proposes a robust weighted least squares (WLS method that combines a robust estimation principle with least squares by equivalent weight. The performance assessment is discussed through setting up mathematical models of the distribution network. The effectiveness of the proposed method was proved to be accurate and reliable by simulations and experiments.

  9. The DOE Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) Project -- Demonstration of dynamic information technology for the future power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittelstadt, W.A. [Bonneville Power Administration (United States); Hauer, J.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Krause, P.E.; Wilson, R.E. [Western Power Administration (United States); Overholt, P.N. [USDOE (United States); Rizy, D.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In 1989 the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Power Administration (WAPA) joined the US Department of Energy (DOE) in an assessment of longer-term research and development needs for future electric power system operation. The effort produced a progressively sharper vision of a future power system in which enhanced control and operation are the primary means for serving new customer demands in an environment characterized by increased competition, a wider range of services and vendors, and much narrower operating margins. Technology and infrastructure for real time access to wide area dynamic information were identified as critical path elements in realizing that vision. In 1995 the DOE accordingly launched the Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) Project jointly with the two Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) to address these issues in a practical operating environment the western North America power system. The Project draws upon many years of PMA effort and related collaboration among the western utilities, plus an expanding infrastructure that includes regionally involved contractors, universities, and National Laboratories plus linkages to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

  10. Long-term and wide-area subsidence pattern from time series of Envisat Asar Data in Konya Basin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Aydin

    2016-04-01

    Konya Basin as a sub-part of Konya Closed Basin is dominated by the Neogene and Quaternary sediments that are largely fluvial and lacustrine characteristic. The wide plains cultivated over the last 10000 years are the remnants of the Pluvial lake basin during wet and humid climate environment after the last glacial period. With the form of isolated depression-block, the geomorphological landscape has been mainly driven by the neotectonic activity of striking normal fault systems of the region. Konya that has doubled in size over the last two and half decades is both expanding into the agricultural areas and increasing its building expansion in the city center. The level observations recorded at the monitoring stations indicate that groundwater resources have been exploited permanently or seasonally in some parts where water demand exceeds supply. In this study, a long-term and wide area subsidence pattern in Konya Basin has been analyzed by stacking the deformation interferograms for time series. The study area that covers approximately 7500 km squared was investigated through a large number of the raw images of Asar sensor onboard Envisat from December 2002 to October 2010. Almost a hundred SAR scenes imaged over three tracks in both ascending and descending modes have been used to create a set of 127 differential interferograms using GMTSAR processing system. A continuous deformation map on the basinwide scale has been produced by combining the stacked interferograms. The average contour map shows that the DInSAR detected line of sight subsidence (or uplift) rates vary between 0.6 and -3.3 cm/yr throughout 8 years. The subsidence pattern significantly is correlated with the land and groundwater use within the basin and it states that the anthropogenic effect is much greater than the identified geological and hydrogeological processes.

  11. The DOE Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) Project: Demonstration of dynamic information technology for the future power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittelstadt, W.A. [USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Krause, P.E.; Wilson, R.E. [USDOE Western Area Power Administration, Golden, CO (United States); Overholt, P.N. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Sobajic, D.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hauer, J.F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rizy, D.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-07-01

    In 1989 the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) joined the US Department of Energy (DOE) in an assessment of longer-term research and development needs for future electric power system operation. The effort produced a progressively sharper vision of a future power system in which enhanced control and operation are the primary means for serving new customer demands, in an environment where increased competition, a wider range of services and vendors, and much narrower operating margins all contribute to increased system efficiencies and capacity. Technology and infrastructure for real time access to wide area dynamic information were identified as critical path elements in realizing that vision. In 1995 the DOE accordingly launched the Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) Project jointly with the two Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) to address these issues in a practical operating environment--the western North America power system. The Project draws upon many years of PMA effort and related collaboration among the western utilities, plus an expanding infrastructure that includes regionally involved contractors, universities, and National Laboratories plus linkages to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The WAMS project also brings added focus and resources to the evolving Western System Dynamic Information Network, or WesDINet. This is a collective response of the Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC) member utilities to their shared needs for direct information about power system characteristics, model fidelity, and operational performance. The WAMS project is a key source of the technology and backbone communications needed to make WesDINet a well integrated, cost effective enterprise network demonstrating the role of dynamic information technology in the emerging utility environment.

  12. Human Matching Based on Block Fusion Features for Blind Areas%基于分块特征组合的视域盲区行人匹配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴盈; 陈恳; 吉培培

    2015-01-01

    The non⁃overlapping regions of different monitoring cameras,calledblind area of the camera,pose challenges to matching the humansamong the cameras.This paper presents a method of human matching based on block features fusionfor blind areas of multiple cameras.First the discriminative training component model trained by HOG features is used to detect humans within the field of view of a single camera,then COLOR,SIFT andLBP square block features are extracted from the Hue component of the detected target to find the best fusion features through experiments for matching the humans. Experiments show the proposed matching method with the best fusion features has higher speed than the method in the literature.%各相机间通常存在监控视域以外的非重叠区域,即相机视域盲区,它的存在对多相机多行人匹配带来了挑战性工作。提出了一种基于分块特征组合的多摄像机视域盲区行人匹配的方法。在单摄像机视域中首先通过 HOG特征训练而成的判别训练部件模型对行人进行检测,在其Hue分量上分别提取COLOR、SIFT 和 LBP 分块特征,从而通过实验找出最佳组合特征实现行人的匹配。提出的最佳组合特征和已有文献中的匹配方法进行比较,结果表明匹配速率有很大的提高。

  13. Wide Area Wetland Mapping in Semi-Arid Africa Using 250-Meter MODIS Metrics and Topographic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Dietz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in West Africa are among the most vulnerable ecosystems to climate change. West African wetlands are often freshwater transfer mechanisms from wetter climate regions to dryer areas, providing an array of ecosystem services and functions. Often wetland-specific data in Africa is only available on a per country basis or as point data. Since wetlands are challenging to map, their accuracies are not well considered in global land cover products. In this paper we describe a methodology to map wetlands using well-corrected 250-meter MODIS time-series data for the year 2002 and over a 360,000 km2 large study area in western Burkina Faso and southern Mali (West Africa. A MODIS-based spectral index table is used to map basic wetland morphology classes. The index uses the wet season near infrared (NIR metrics as a surrogate for flooding, as a function of the dry season chlorophyll activity metrics (as NDVI. Topographic features such as sinks and streamline areas were used to mask areas where wetlands can potentially occur, and minimize spectral confusion. 30-m Landsat trajectories from the same year, over two reference sites, were used for accuracy assessment, which considered the area-proportion of each class mapped in Landsat for every MODIS cell. We were able to map a total of five wetland categories. Aerial extend of all mapped wetlands (class “Wetland” is 9,350 km2, corresponding to 4.3% of the total study area size. The classes “No wetland”/“Wetland” could be separated with very high certainty; the overall agreement (KHAT was 84.2% (0.67 and 97.9% (0.59 for the two reference sites, respectively. The methodology described herein can be employed to render wide area base line information on wetland distributions in semi-arid West Africa, as a data-scarce region. The results can provide (spatially interoperable information feeds for inter-zonal as well as local scale water assessments.

  14. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments. PMID:25685516

  15. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments.

  16. The transmission of monetary shocks in the euro area: a V AR analysis based on euro-wide data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kakes

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Using area-wide data, we simulate the responses of inflation and real output following monetary shocks in the EMU. We find that short-term interest rate shocks have a significant impact on real activity, but hardly on prices. M3 shows a perverse short-term response to a monetary contraction, which should be taken into account when interpreting the reference value of money growth (the "first pillar" of the Eurosystem's monetary strategy. Shocks to the effective exchange rate have a rapid impact on prices, money growth and real activity. As the exchange rate itself is hardly affected by monetary policy shocks, though, there is little scope for an exchange rate policy. Rather, these findings underscore the important role that the exchange rate should play as an information variable within the "second pillar" of the monetary strategy.

  17. Public relations and political support in area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public relations component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) has a large impact on programme success. Full-time professionals should direct public relations activities and secure vital political support from governments and community organizations. Good communication among programme staff, and between programme staff and the public, is required to maintain participation and support, and to keep the work goal-oriented even when some programme activities are controversial. The media can be valuable and effective partners by informing the public about the real facts and activities of a programme, especially if this is done in a non-technical and straightforward way. Ongoing research support improves the programme technology, provides technical credibility on contentious issues, and solves operational problems. Programme failure can result from poor public relations and inadequate public support. (author)

  18. A wireless wide area network picture archiving and communication system based on open source code and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To build a set of inexpensive wireless wide area network PACS based on open source code. Methods: To improve the open source code MyFreePACS on Internet. Results: The basic function of PACS can be achieved in an economical way, using internet explorer to browse and deal with the DICOM Images, with the capability of such functions as displaying and managing of the pictures. It is possible to make rounds at patient bedside with wireless device and remote medical consultation with specialists through Internet. Conclusion: It is possible to utilize the free open source code MyFreePACS on the internet to construct an economical PACS on Web in the medium and small-scale hospital. (authors)

  19. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Calusi, S.; Castelli, L.; Carraresi, L.; Fedi, M. E.; Gelli, N.; Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P. A.; Mazzinghi, A.; Palla, L.; Romano, F. P.; Ruberto, C.; Taccetti, F.

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm2), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  20. A GIS-assisted approach to wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection for the state of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, M.C. [Brower & Company, Andover, MA (United States); Hurley, P. [RLA Consulting, Bothell, WA (United States); Simon, R. [Consulting Meteorologist, Mill Valley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the methodology and results of a wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection in Colorado. This was the first phase in a three-part assessment and monitoring program conducted for the State of Colorado Office of Energy Conservation and several collaborating utilities. The objective of this phase was to identify up to 20 candidate sites for evaluation and possible long-term monitoring. This was accomplished using a geographic information system (GIS), which takes into account such factors as topography, existing wind resource data, locations of transmission lines, land cover, and land use. The resulting list of sites recommended for evaluation in Phase 2 of the study includes locations throughout Colorado, but most are in the eastern plains. The GIS wind siting model may be modified and updated in the future as additional information becomes available. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Massi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Calusi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Castelli, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Fedi, M.E.; Gelli, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Palla, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Romano, F.P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali (IBAM), Via Biblioteca, 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), LNS, Via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  2. Use of attractant traps in area-wide control of vegetable insect pests in the Jiangxi province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Plutella xylostella (L.), Prodenia litura (Fabricius) and Laphyqma exiqua Huebner are main insect pests of vegetables in the Jiangxi province. The long-term use of pesticides to control these pests has caused serious problems such as resistance to pesticides and resurgence of pests as well as pollution to environment and vegetables. Sex attractants have been used for area-wide control of these pests to solve these problems and to produce pollution-free vegetables. Based on the principles of effective, economic and operational implementation, two types of traps made of used plastic cola bottles (1.25L) and oil bottles (2.5L), have been used in 2,250 ha of vegetables in 2001-2003. Traps have been baited with pest-specific attractants incorporated in a rubber wick and placed in vegetable fields at a density of 45 traps per ha. The area-wide use of sex attractants to control these pests has resulted in the decrease of densities of male adults, eggs and larva of these pests and the increase of vegetable yield. An average of 2.34, 2.1, 2.85 male P. xylostella (L.), P. litura (Fabricius) and L. exiqua Huebner was trapped per day respectively with the cola bottle trap, and 3.22, 0.63, 4.33 male P. xylostella (L.), P. litura (Fabricius) and L. exiqua Huebner was trapped per day respectively oil bottle trap. Comparing trap area with non-trap area, egg density of P. xylostella (L.) on radish plants and cabbage plants was decreased by 84.48% and 85.38%, respectively and larva density of P. xylostella (L.) on radish plants and cabbage plants was decreased by 89.62% and 89.93%, respectively. The egg and larva density of L. exiqua Huebner was reduced by 66.67% and 64.47%, respectively and the percent of damaged host plants and leaves was reduced by 83.48% and 75.85%, respectively. The larva density of P. litura (Fabricius) was reduced by 24.92% and the percent of damaged host plants was reduced by 35.52%. The vegetable yield per ha has been increased by 30% on average

  3. The G305 star forming complex: Wide-Area molecular mapping of NH3 and H2O masers

    CERN Document Server

    Hindson, L; Urquhart, J S; Clark, J S; Davies, B

    2010-01-01

    We present wide area radio (12 mm) Mopra Telescope observations of the complex and rich massive star forming region G305. Our goals are to determine the reservoir for star formation within G305 using NH3 to trace the dense molecular content, and thus, the gas available to form stars; estimate physical parameters of detected NH3 clumps (temperature, column density, mass etc); locate current areas of active star formation via the presence of H2O and methanol masers and the distribution of YSOs and ultra compact HII regions associated with this region. This paper details the NH3 (J,K), (1,1), (2,2) and (3,3) inversion transition and 22 GHz H2O maser observations. We observed a \\sim 1.5\\circ x 1\\circ region with \\sim 2' angular resolution and a sensitivity of \\sim 60 mK per 0.4 km s^-1 channel. We identify 15 NH3 (1,1), 12 NH3 (2,2) and 6 NH3 (3,3) clumps surrounding the central HII region. The sizes of the clumps vary between 10^4 M\\odot and find the total molecular mass of the complex to be \\sim 6x10^5 M\\odot....

  4. Area-wide control of fruit flies and other insect pests. Joint proceedings of the international conference on area-wide control of insect pests and the fifth international symposium on fruit flies of economic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the world population attaining the six billion mark, the urgency of increasing quality food production and reducing the spread of diseases transmitted by insects, without affecting our fragile environment, will be of paramount importance. Losses currently experienced in agricultural production, due to insect pests and through diseases transmitted by insect vectors, are very high especially in developing and poor countries. Many insect pests and vectors are of economic importance, and several such as fruit flies, mosquitoes and tsetse flies have attracted international concerns. Most pests are traditionally controlled through heavy reliance on pesticides which can cause environmental pollution, pesticide resistance, and pest resurgence. The control, management or eradication of insect pests and vectors with minimal adverse impact on our food quality, environment, health and well-being should be of great concern to many agriculturists, biological and physical scientists as well as to national and international agencies responsible for pest control. Steps taken by the various concerned agencies to improve and implement the area-wide control will hopefully lead us into the next millennium free from major insect pests and vectors while at the same time protect our precarious global environment. This volume is the culmination of proceedings conducted in two recent international meetings, FAO/IAEA International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, 28 May - 2 June 1998, and the Fifth International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 1-5 June 1998, held in Penang, Malaysia. Over three hundred papers (both oral contributions and posters) were presented at the two meetings. The manuscripts submitted by authors are divided according to broad topics into eighteen sections originally defined by the organisers as corresponding to the sessions of the meetings. The organisers identified one to several individuals in each of the sessions to deliver an

  5. Single-Network Wide-Area Persistent Scatterer Interferometry: Algorithms with Application to Sentinel-1 InSAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, K.; Shau, R.; Adam, N.

    2015-12-01

    Advanced InSAR techniques, for example, Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI), allow long term deformation time series analysis with millimeter accuracy. ESA's Sentinel-1 SAR mission employs the TOPS mode as the standard mode for acquiring InSAR data. It provides a continuous and large coverage at conventional resolution. The idea is to have a wide-area PSI for mapping countries and continents. Although PSI has been successfully demonstrated and validated in the past for various applications, there are some limitations for processing a large-scale dataset. First, PSI is most effective in urban areas which have a large number of stable scatterers. For large-scale PSI, even non-urban areas need to be processed; and this requires robust algorithms for scatterer selection, network construction and inversion, and atmospheric phase removal. Second, the computational load can be very high, due to which, the processing is usually divided into overlapping blocks and merged later. This can however lead to spatial error propagation. This paper presents algorithms which have been developed for a robust PSI reference network estimation, while mitigating error propagation. Instead of dividing the scene into overlapping blocks, a single network (i.e. arcs connecting the scatterers) is created for the full scene. The relative deformation and residual DEM are estimated for the arcs using the LAMBDA estimator. The relative measurements of the network are finally integrated via least-squares inversion. Here, the sparsity of the system of linear equations is exploited to deal with big data (e.g. 10,000,000 arcs for 500,000 scatterers is a typical configuration for Sentinel-1). A QR or LU parallelizable solver is used for fast inversion. Also, variances of the estimates are calculated using a selected parallel inversion method based on LDL decomposition. Demonstration of the algorithms for large-scale deformation monitoring is provided using available Sentinel-1 data for Germany.

  6. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Donald S; Halasa, Yara A; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A; Clark, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.

  7. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S Shepard

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY. The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008 and the intervention years (2009-2011 declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.

  8. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavender Tina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants ( Methods A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted during 2010. Healthy, term babies (n = 280, recruited within 48 hours of birth, were randomly assigned to have their napkin area cleansed with an alcohol-free baby wipe (140 babies or cotton wool and water (140 babies. Primary outcome was change in hydration from within 48 hours of birth to 4 weeks post-birth. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in trans-epidermal water loss, skin surface pH and erythema, presence of microbial skin contaminants/irritants at 4 weeks and napkin dermatitis reported by midwife at 4 weeks and mother during the 4 weeks. Results Complete hydration data were obtained for 254 (90.7 % babies. Wipes were shown to be equivalent to water and cotton wool in terms of skin hydration (intention-to-treat analysis: wipes 65.4 (SD 12.4 vs. water 63.5 (14.2, p = 0.47, 95 % CI -2.5 to 4.2; per protocol analysis: wipes 64.6 (12.4 vs. water 63.6 (14.3, p = 0.53, 95 % CI -2.4 to 4.2. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, except for maternal-reported napkin dermatitis, which was higher in the water group (p = 0.025 for complete responses. Conclusions Baby wipes had an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with cotton wool and water. We found no evidence of any adverse effects of using these wipes. These findings offer reassurance to parents who choose to use baby wipes and to health professionals who support their use. Trial registration Current Controlled

  9. Handheld and mobile hyperspectral imaging sensors for wide-area standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the investigation and analysis of targets in complex background with a high degree of autonomy. HSI is beneficial for the detection of threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Two HSI techniques that have proven to be valuable are Raman and shortwave infrared (SWIR) HSI. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have numerous size, weight, and power (SWaP) limitations that make their potential integration onto a handheld or field portable platform difficult. The systems that are field-portable do so by sacrificing system performance, typically by providing an inefficient area search rate, requiring close proximity to the target for screening, and/or eliminating the potential to conduct real-time measurements. To address these shortcomings, ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focused on sensor design and detection results.

  10. Building Large Area CZT Imaging Detectors for a Wide-Field Hard X-ray Telescope - ProtoEXIST1

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, J; Grindlay, J; Chammas, N; Barthelemy, S; Baker, R; Gehrels, N; Nelson, K E; Labov, S; Collins, J; Cook, W R; McLean, R; Harrison, F

    2009-01-01

    We have constructed a moderately large area (32 cm2), fine pixel (2.5 mm pixel, 5 mm thick) CZT imaging detector which constitutes the first section of a detector module (256 cm2) developed for a balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray telescope, ProtoEXIST1. ProtoEXIST1 is a prototype for the High Energy Telescope (HET) in the Energetic X-ray imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), a next generation space-borne multi-wavelength telescope. We have constructed a large (nearly gapless) detector plane through a modularization scheme by tiling of a large number of 2 cm x 2 cm CZT crystals. Our innovative packaging method is ideal for many applications such as coded-aperture imaging, where a large, continuous detector plane is desirable for the optimal performance. Currently we have been able to achieve an energy resolution of 3.2 keV (FWHM) at 59.6 keV on average, which is exceptional considering the moderate pixel size and the number of detectors in simultaneous operation. We expect to complete two modules (512 cm2) withi...

  11. Guidance for packing, shipping, holding and release of sterile flies in area-wide fruit fly control programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of experts, on the standard procedures for the packing, shipping, holding and release of mass reared and sterilized tephritid flies that are to be used in area-wide programmes that include the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The majority of the procedures were initially designed specifically for the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (or Medfly), but they are applicable, with minor modifications, for other tephritid species such as those in the genera Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Dacus. The guidance is designed to be a working document that can be subject to periodic updates due to technological developments and research contributions. Future editions will endeavour to include more specific recommendations for other species of fruit flies as the relevant data become available. The procedures described in this guidance will help ensure that released sterile fruit flies will be of optimal quality and that the resulting field density of these flies will be as closely aligned to the individual programme needs. It is hoped that this guidance will help to quickly identify and correct problems in programme effectiveness, resulting from less than optimal emergence and release conditions

  12. Enhanced heat discrimination in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, Hocine; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2015-01-01

    of the stimulated skin surface or magnitude of the temperature shift. Increasing the size of the stimulated skin area increased the response criterion in the blind (p=0.022) but not in the sighted. Together, these findings show that congenitally blind individuals have enhanced temperature discrimination accuracy...... trials (ΔT = 0°C) were also included to test for false positive responses. We used signal detection theory model to analyze the data. Our data revealed that blind participants have a higher accuracy than the sighted (d': Blind=2.4 ± 1.0, Sighted=1.8 ± 0.7, p=0.025), regardless of the size...

  13. Lessons learned from area-wide insect pest management programmes with an SIT component: an FAO/IAEA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approach, which entails the integration of various control tactics addressing an entire insect pest population within a circumscribed geographical area, is undoubtedly the most rational control strategy available against major insect pests of agricultural and medical/veterinary importance. The concept of interfering with the reproductive capacity of major insect pests (i.e. the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)) has considerably evolved since its original description by Knipling in the in the 1950's. To date, the SIT, which relies on the sequential release of sterile male insects in the target area, is increasingly being considered as one of many complementary methods to be integrated in an AW-IPM approach. Four major strategic options of area-wide IPM programmes with an SIT component can be distinguished and have been implemented successfully worldwide, leading to: (i) the eradication of the insect pest (e.g. the New World screwworm (NWS) in Libya; the Mediterranean fruit fly in Chile and in the Patagonia region of Argentina), (ii) its containment (e.g. the Mediterranean fruit fly containment programme in Guatemala and Mexico) and (iii) its prevention (e.g. the Mediterranean fruit fly preventative programme in California and Florida) or (iv) its suppression (e.g. the codling moth suppression programme in British Columbia, Canada or the suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Arava/Araba Valley of Israel/Jordan and in the Hex River Valley of the Western Cape, South Africa). These programmes have directly or indirectly benefited from support by the IAEA and the FAO through i.) Technical Cooperation projects with its Member States, ii.) the implementation of coordinated research and development (R and D) efforts, iii.) 'problem-solving' research and iv.) normative activities. This support often includes the development of local technical capacity for the economic assessment, the rearing of flies

  14. Designing and implementing a geographical information system: A guide for managers of area-wide pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past two decades, the use of computer software and mapping methods known as geographical information systems (GIS) has been adopted by an ever growing variety of professionals. Every activity that deals with location dependent information can use GIS, and agriculture is no exception. The potential of GIS and remote sensing (RS) to facilitate the planning and implementation of areawide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes is enormous but unfortunately, these methods are still much underused. AW-IPM programmes, especially those that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) with other surveillance and control methods, would benefit considerably by drawing on GIS/RS. These programmes are often implemented over large areas of even tens of thousands of square kilometres, where surveillance methods are deployed and large data sets are systematically generated on a daily basis. The acquisition of geo-referenced data sets on pest presence/absence, relative abundance, disease prevalence, crop damage, etc., that will allow accurate spatial and temporal analysis is important for proper and timely decision making to efficiently plan and implement any operational pest management programme. Animal health and plant protection officials and pest control programme managers might be intuitively aware of the importance of employing GIS as an analytical tool. However, they often lack a deeper understanding of its capabilities. Since GIS is a desk exercise using computers, data analysis is often left to the computer staff without proper directives from the programme managers on programmatic needs. This is unfortunate as it will usually NOT bring the desired GIS-processed information to the decision makers. This manual targets area-wide pest control programme administrators and managers of FAO and IAEA Member States in an attempt to demonstrate the type of data processing and spatial analysis that can be expected of GIS. The manual does not aim to provide

  15. Preparing the way for coming area wide integrated pest management projects against the new world screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, in MERCOSUR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fernandes, Thiago; Walder, Julio, E-mail: piaui@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Bezerra, Fernando [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Sertao Pernambucano (IFSERTAO-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The New World Screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, was eradicated from the USA, Central America to Panama, but in most tropical regions of Latin America, the NWS is still a serious threat to livestock, provoking estimated annual losses of US$ 1.8 billion in Brazil. Between January and May 2009, a pilot-project was performed at the Brazil-Uruguay border. As the results were positive, novel regional Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management projects are being planned. To set a mass-rearing center based in South America is strategic when considering long-term programs. In partnership with CENA/USP and the Biofactory MOSCAMED Brazil, a project to produce sterile NWS started on 2009. The project aimed to maintain a colony of a regional NWS strain, to develop a mass-rearing system and a sterilization protocol by X rays, and to study the sterility induction in regional strains. A colony was successfully established. The adults were kept in cages and fed on a diet (honey and spray dried egg). The larvae were reared in a medium made of spray dried blood, spray dried egg, milk, water, formalin and Ecogel. Egg hatch has been of 80 {+-} 10%. From F{sub 1} to F{sub 22}, the total amount of pupae produced was about 38 L ({approx} 315,400 pupae). The mean adult emergence and sex ratio were 86.7 {+-} 3% and 0.59 {+-} 0.08 respectively. The mean pupal weight was 47.1 {+-} 1.7 mg. The estimated X ray doses to induce 99% sterility in males and females were 43.7 Gy and 47.5 Gy, respectively. To produce 1.5 L of pupae, the current cost is about US$ 15.00. (author)

  16. Preparing the way for coming area wide integrated pest management projects against the new world screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, in MERCOSUR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New World Screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, was eradicated from the USA, Central America to Panama, but in most tropical regions of Latin America, the NWS is still a serious threat to livestock, provoking estimated annual losses of US$ 1.8 billion in Brazil. Between January and May 2009, a pilot-project was performed at the Brazil-Uruguay border. As the results were positive, novel regional Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management projects are being planned. To set a mass-rearing center based in South America is strategic when considering long-term programs. In partnership with CENA/USP and the Biofactory MOSCAMED Brazil, a project to produce sterile NWS started on 2009. The project aimed to maintain a colony of a regional NWS strain, to develop a mass-rearing system and a sterilization protocol by X rays, and to study the sterility induction in regional strains. A colony was successfully established. The adults were kept in cages and fed on a diet (honey and spray dried egg). The larvae were reared in a medium made of spray dried blood, spray dried egg, milk, water, formalin and Ecogel. Egg hatch has been of 80 ± 10%. From F1 to F22, the total amount of pupae produced was about 38 L (∼ 315,400 pupae). The mean adult emergence and sex ratio were 86.7 ± 3% and 0.59 ± 0.08 respectively. The mean pupal weight was 47.1 ± 1.7 mg. The estimated X ray doses to induce 99% sterility in males and females were 43.7 Gy and 47.5 Gy, respectively. To produce 1.5 L of pupae, the current cost is about US$ 15.00. (author)

  17. Scattering height estimation using scintillating Wide Area Augmentation System/Satellite Based Augmentation System and GPS satellite signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, A. P.; Ledvina, B. M.; Kintner, P. M.

    2006-12-01

    An experiment to measure equatorial amplitude scintillations on the geostationary Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) signal was conducted in Cachoeira Paulista (22.70°S, 45.01°W geographic coordinates; -17.74°N, 21.74°E geomagnetic coordinates), Brazil from December 2003 through February 2004. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the scattering height of the irregularities using the WAAS signal scintillations as compared to nearby Global Positioning System (GPS) signal scintillations. Estimating the scattering height is important because the calculated zonal drift velocity of the irregularities using the measured scintillation pattern velocity on the ground is height dependent. Accurate height estimation is also required if one wishes to develop phase screen scintillation models. The difference in the pattern velocities is due to the different signal puncture point velocities with respect to the ionospheric drift. Two east-west receivers are used to measure the scintillation pattern drift velocity and to compare the results of the geostationary WAAS satellite signal to that of a GPS satellite signal, which has a nonzero ionospheric signal puncture point velocity. By varying the assumed scattering height for the measurements from the nearby GPS signal, the zonal velocity measurements from the GPS scintillations can be matched to those of the WAAS scintillations, and a scattering height estimate can be made. When the puncture points have minimal separation, the inferred ionospheric irregularity zonal velocities should be equal. On the two nights for which data are available, scattering height estimates of 669 ± 209 km for the first night and 388 ± 139 km for the second night were obtained. On the second night, the reported mean hmF2 as calculated using a collocated Digisonde was 385 ± 17 km over the same period as the GPS/WAAS scattering height estimate. The geometry of this experiment was not optimal, but

  18. FAO/IAEA international conference on area-wide control of insect pests: Integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful implementation of area-wide pest control programmes integrating the use of sterile insects with other control technologies against a number of key veterinary, medical and plant insect pests, such as various fruit flies, moths, screwworms, and tsetse species, clearly demonstrates a peaceful application of nuclear technology. Over the last 40 years, FAO and IAEA have played, and they will continue to play, a critical role in supporting their Member States in the development and application of these environment-friendly pest control methods. The concept of area-wide integrated pest management, in which the total population of a pest in an area or region is targeted, is central to the effective application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and is increasingly being considered for related genetic, biological and other pest control technologies. Insect movement, occurring sometimes over long distances, is generally underestimated. As a consequence, most conventional pest control can be described as localized, un-coordinated action against segments of a pest population, resulting very often in an unsustainable spiral of insecticide application and eventual resistance. However, an area-wide integrated approach adopts a preventive rather than a reactive tactic, whereby all individuals of the pest population are targeted, requiring fewer inputs and resulting in more cost effective and sustainable control. In June 1998 FAO and IAEA sponsored the First International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques in Penang, Malaysia with the participation of almost 300 participants from 63 Member States and 5 international organizations. This Conference greatly increased awareness concerning the area-wide approach for insect pest control programmes. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced and a better regulatory framework is being developed for integrating SIT

  19. Blindness and cataract in children in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Gogate

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Blindness in children is considered a priority area for VISION 2020, as visually impaired children have a lifetime of blindness ahead of them. Various studies across the globe show that one-third to half of childhood blindness is either preventable or treatable1 and that cataract is the leading treatable cause of blindness in children.The 8th General Assembly of the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB provided an opportunity to be acquainted with recent research and programme development work in the prevention of childhood blindness.

  20. Does tree harvesting in riparian areas increase stream sedimentation and turbidity - world-wide experience relative to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, D.; Smethurst, P.; Petrone, K.

    2009-04-01

    A typical improved-pasture property in the high-rainfall zone of Australia contains 0.5-2.0 km of waterways per 100 ha. Nationwide, some 25-30 million ha of improved pasture contains about 100,000 km of streams, of which about 75% are currently un-buffered and contributing to soil and water degradation. Farmers and natural resource managers are considering ways to enhance environmental outcomes at farm and catchment scales using stream-side buffers of trees and other perennial vegetation. Benefits of buffers include improved water quality, biodiversity, carbon sequestration and aesthetics. Lack of sound information and funding for establishing and managing buffer zones is hindering wide-scale adoption of this practice. Stream-side areas of farms are generally highly productive (wet and nutrient-rich) and contain a high biodiversity, but they are also high-risk zones for soil and water values and stock safety. Development of options based on a balance between environmental and economic outcomes would potentially promote wider adoption. Australian codes of forest practice currently discourage or prevent harvesting of trees in streamside buffers. These codes were developed exclusively for large-scale native forests and industrial-scale plantations, and were applicable to farm forestry as now required. In countries including USA and Germany trees in stream-side buffers are harvested using Best Management Practices. Trees may grow at a faster rate in riparian zones and provide a commercial return, but the impacts of tree establishment and harvesting on water yield and quality must be evaluated. However, there have been few designed experiments investigating this problem. Australia has recently initiated studies to explore the use of high-value timber species and associated vegetation in riparian zones to improve water quality, particularly suspended sediment. Preliminary information from the Yan Yan Gurt Catchment in Victoria indicate that forested riparian strips can

  1. Area-wide implementation of integrated pest management in some scented rice-growing tracts of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scented rice, which is mostly cultivated in the north Indian states of Haryana, Punjab, Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh, fetches a high price in domestic and export markets. The yellow stem borer (Sciropophaga incertulas), leaf folder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis), white back plant hopper (Sogatella furcifera), some occasional pests and a few diseases are the main constraints in achieving the potential yield levels of scented rice cultivars. Farmers use pesticides to get rid of pest problems with meagre knowledge of proper time of application, quantity etc. and as a result they do not get desired control levels. Moreover, excessive use of insecticides often results in reduction of biodiversity of natural enemies, outbreaks of secondary pests and pesticides induced resurgence. The environmental pollution and residues in grains are the other hazards experienced with the indiscriminate use of pesticides. The holistic integrated pest management (IPM) strategy was developed and validated by the National Centre for IPM on some small farms during 1996-1999. This paper reports on the area-wide IPM implemented in two villages of Uttar Pradesh and Haryana states in a farmers' participatory mode during the years 2000 to 2003. Initially, a village namely Shikohpur in Uttar Pradesh was selected, which had a history of excessive and indiscriminate use of pesticides in which the cultivar Pusa Basmati 1 is popularly grown. The area under IPM was 300 ha during 2000, and 400 ha during 2001 and 2002. Another village i.e. Chhajpur in the state of Haryana was selected for IPM implementation during the crop season of 2002 (28 ha) and 2003 (80 ha) in another scented rice cultivar Taraori Local which has more export potential. The main components of the holistic IPM approach were: - Seed treatment to suppress seed borne diseases (no seed treatment in Farmers' Practices (FP)). - Planting of Sesbania aculeate for green manuring after the harvest of wheat crop to reduce dosage of nitrogenous

  2. Vision - night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003039.htm Vision - night blindness To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Night blindness is poor vision at night or in dim light. Considerations Night ...

  3. Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Parasites - Onchocerciasis (also known as River Blindness) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... infected Simulium blackfly. It is also called River Blindness because the fly that transmits infection breeds in ...

  4. Population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) between river basins in Burkina Faso : consequences for area-wide integrated pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyer, J.; Ravel, Sophie; Guerrini, L; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Sidibé, I.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Solano, Philippe; De Meeûs, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank are their major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their elimination will only be sustainable if control is exercised following area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) principles, i.e. the control effort is targeting an ...

  5. Use of geographic information systems and spatial analysis in area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages that geographic information systems (GIS) and associated technologies can offer, in terms of the design and implementation of area-wide programmes of insect and/or disease suppression, are becoming increasingly recognised, even if the realization of this potential has not been fully exploited and for some area-wide programmes adoption appears to be progressing slowly. This chapter provides a basic introduction to the science of GIS, Global Positioning System (GPS), and satellite remote sensing (RS), and reviews the principal ways in which these technologies can be used to assist various stages of development of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes - from the selection of project sites, and feasibility assessments and planning of pre-intervention surveys, to the monitoring and analysis of insect suppression programmes, and the release of sterile insects. Potential barriers to the successful deployment of GIS tools are also discussed. (author)

  6. Assertive Skills Training for the Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Gary; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The article describes how a rehabilitation center for the blind, aware that many clients were inept in dealing with society at large, instituted an assertive skills training program to improve client skills in this area. (Author/SBH)

  7. Developing the sterile insect technique for area-wide management of the invasive cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    : fertile) overflooding ratio inside large field-cages containing O. stricta host plants. Insects were allowed to mate and lay eggs and all egg sticks were collected daily. Percent egg hatch and reduction in F1 fertile larvae was used to ascertain the effectiveness of each release combination. In addition, we conducted limited field release-recapture experiments to examine the dispersal ability of untreated and treated cactus moth males. Results suggest that an overflooding ratio as low as 5:1 can effectively suppress C. cactorum in field-cages. Our data also suggests that releasing both genders together may be more effective than releasing males only. Finally, our results suggest that the dispersal ability of C. cactorum is not significantly affected by irradiating the adults with a dose of 200 Gy. An area-wide field trial currently is in progress to evaluate the ability of the SIT in combination with cultural controls to reduce C. cactorum populations near the leading edge of the expanding geographical range. (author)

  8. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of acquired blindness in Japan. One reason that it often leads to blindness is that it can continue to worsen even after effective medical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only evidence-based treatment. The limitations of current treatments make it critical to identify IOP-independent factors that can cause glaucoma and develop new drugs to target these factors. This is a challenging task, as the pathology of glaucoma is thought to be very complex, with different combinations of factors underlying its development and progression in different patients. Additionally, there is a deficiency in methods to efficiently perform clinical evaluations and reliably probe the state of the disease over relatively short periods. In addition, newly developed drugs need to be evaluated with clinical trials, for which human and financial resources are limited, before they can be widely used for treatment. Taking all these issues into consideration, it is evident that there are two urgent issues to consider: the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on its pathology, and the improvement of clinical evaluation methods. In this review, we discuss some of our efforts to develop new neuroprotective agents for glaucoma, with a focus on the following three areas: 1. Clinical research and development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP-independent factors, and the exploration of possibilities for the improvement of clinical evaluation of glaucoma. 2. Pathology-based research and development of new drugs for glaucoma, focusing on comprehensive gene expression analysis and the development of molecule-targeting drugs, using murine optic nerve crush as a disease model. 3. Development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities and the establishment of infrastructure enabling "big-data" analysis. First, we discuss our clinical research and the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP

  9. Analysis of ASAR Wide Swath Mode time series for the retrieval of soil moisture in mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greifeneder, Felix; Notarnicola, Claudia; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Spindler, Nadine; Bertoldi, Giacomo; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Stamenkovic, Jelena; Wagner, Wolgang

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is a key element in the global cycles of water, energy, and carbon. Knowledge on the spatial and temporal distribution of the soil moisture content (SMC) is therefore essential for a number of hydrological applications as well as earth sciences like meteorology or climatology (Heathman et al., 2003). In the last few years there has been an increasing interest towards the estimation of SMC at local scales using active microwave sensors (Barret et al., 2009). Compared to passive microwave sensors, SAR offers the potential to provide data at high spatial resolution (modern sensors can acquire images with up to approximately 1 m), which is particularly important in mountainous areas. So far, these areas have been considered only marginally in research and only pioneer studies can be found in the literature (Brocca et al., 2012; Bertoldi et al. 2013). In this work we analyzed the temporal and spatial dynamics of the surface SMC (0 - 5 cm depth) on the basis of ground data collected by fixed meteorological stations located in the emerging Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site Mazia Valley (Province of Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy), SAR data from ENVISATs ASAR sensor, wide swath (WS) mode (acquired between 2005 and 2012), and SMC estimates from the hydrological model GEOtop (Endrizzi et al., 2013). The SMC retrieval process was based on the support vector regression (SVR) method introduced by Pasolli et al. (2011). The training of the algorithm was based on data acquired in 2010. Furthermore, the SAR backscatter and derived SMC have been compared with time-series derived from the distributed hydrological model GEOtop. The differences in terms of temporal and spatial dynamic have been analyzed. The main goal of this work is to evaluate the spatial and temporal patterns of SAR derived SMC at field scale and to correlate them with ground information. This is a preparatory study to establish a methodology for the retrieval of SMC with high spatial and

  10. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of acquired blindness in Japan. One reason that it often leads to blindness is that it can continue to worsen even after effective medical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only evidence-based treatment. The limitations of current treatments make it critical to identify IOP-independent factors that can cause glaucoma and develop new drugs to target these factors. This is a challenging task, as the pathology of glaucoma is thought to be very complex, with different combinations of factors underlying its development and progression in different patients. Additionally, there is a deficiency in methods to efficiently perform clinical evaluations and reliably probe the state of the disease over relatively short periods. In addition, newly developed drugs need to be evaluated with clinical trials, for which human and financial resources are limited, before they can be widely used for treatment. Taking all these issues into consideration, it is evident that there are two urgent issues to consider: the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on its pathology, and the improvement of clinical evaluation methods. In this review, we discuss some of our efforts to develop new neuroprotective agents for glaucoma, with a focus on the following three areas: 1. Clinical research and development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP-independent factors, and the exploration of possibilities for the improvement of clinical evaluation of glaucoma. 2. Pathology-based research and development of new drugs for glaucoma, focusing on comprehensive gene expression analysis and the development of molecule-targeting drugs, using murine optic nerve crush as a disease model. 3. Development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities and the establishment of infrastructure enabling "big-data" analysis. First, we discuss our clinical research and the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP

  11. 1:750,000-scale hydrographic areas and basin-wide pumpage, recharge and interbasin flow estimates of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of the administrative hydrographic area (HA) boundaries for Nevada at 1:750,000-scale and estimates of natural recharge, artificial recharge,...

  12. Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

  13. 关于电力系统广域保护的评述%Review on Wide Area Protection of Electric Power Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛禹胜; 雷兴; 薛峰; 文福拴; Z. Y. Dong; G. Ledwich

    2012-01-01

    为有利于电力系统停电防御体系的进一步发展,讨论电力系统的广域保护,包括广域设备保护和广域系统保护的功能、控制方式及系统结构;回顾其信息采集、知识提取和控制决策方面的进展。从理论和应用相结合的观点剖析广域后备保护的可行性、困难和发展方向;指出需要在算法与受扰轨迹的知识提取上取得重大突破,并与数值仿真相结合,才能真正发挥相量测量单元在广域保护中的作用;强调按风险观点将广域保护与预防控制及传统保护协调的重要性。%For the further development of framework for defending blackouts,we discussed the functions,control modes and system structures of wide area protection of electric power systems,which include wide area equipment protection systems and wide area system protection systems,and reviewed recent developments in the information acquisition,knowledge extraction,and decision making of wide area protection systems.Moreover,from a viewpoint of combining both theory and application,we discussed the feasibility and further development of wide area backup protection.It is pointed out that major breakthroughs should be made in algorithms and knowledge extraction technologies from disturbed trajectories,and numerical simulations should be combined,so that the advantages of phasor measurement units can be fully utilized in wide area protection systems.It is also emphasized that wide area protection systems should be coordinated with preventive control and conventional protection from the viewpoint of risk management.

  14. 基于盲源分离的稀疏植被区土壤含盐量反演%Estimation of Soil Salt Content over Partially Vegetated Areas Based on Blind Source Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娅; 潘贤章; 石荣杰; 李燕丽; 王昌昆; 李志婷

    2016-01-01

    植被对土壤光谱的干扰是目前土壤盐渍化遥感监测的重要限制因素之一,探索消除稀疏植被覆盖区植被对光谱影响的方法,对提高土壤含盐量遥感反演精度具有重要意义。本文通过对189组不同植被覆盖度且不同盐渍化程度种植微区野外实测地表可见-近红外反射光谱进行分析,比较并评价了基于原始光谱和盲源分离(blind source separation,BSS)后光谱预测土壤含盐量的结果。结果表明:地表植被覆盖严重影响基于可见-近红外反射光谱的土壤含盐量反演精度。盲源分离方法,尤其是基于方程z=tanh(y)的独立分量分析(independent components analysis,ICA)算法,可有效分解植被和土壤的混合光谱,并提高植被覆盖下基于可见-近红外反射光谱的土壤含盐量反演精度。该方法为植被覆盖区大尺度土壤盐渍化遥感监测提供了方法指导。%The technology of image spectroscopy has been widely used in soil attribute mapping in the past few decades. However,vegetation cover seriously affects the acquisition of soil spectral information, leading to misestimating of soil attributes by visible and near-infrared(vis-NIR)spectroscopy. The traditional solution dealt with vegetation cover interfering soil spectra by masking out the areas with high vegetation coverage,thus resulting in absence of soil information for these areas. Some researchers also tried to use vegetation indices to estimate soil attributes,with results showing that the general applicability and transferability of these vegetation indices was limited by study areas and crop varieties. Therefore,how to remove the influence of vegetation on soil spectrum has become a crucial issue in estimating soil components, such as salt content over partially vegetated surfaces. The residual spectral unmixing method was previously used to separate different components of a mixed spectrum,however,the percentage of

  15. Area-Wide Ground Applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the Control of Aedes albopictus in Residential Neighborhoods: From Optimization to Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gregory M.; Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik; Healy, Sean P.; Farooq, Muhammad; Gaugler, Randy; Hamilton, George; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing range of Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, in the USA and the threat of chikungunya and dengue outbreaks vectored by this species have necessitated novel approaches to control this peridomestic mosquito. Conventional methods such as adulticiding provide temporary relief, but fail to manage this pest on a sustained basis. We explored the use of cold aerosol foggers and misting machines for area-wide applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (VectoBac WDG) as a larvicide targeting Aedes albopictus. During 2010–2013 we performed initially open field trials and then 19 operational area-wide applications in urban and suburban residential areas in northeastern USA to test three truck-mounted sprayers at two application rates. Area-wide applications of WDG in open field conditions at 400 and 800 g/ha killed on average 87% of tested larvae. Once techniques were optimized in residential areas, applications with a Buffalo Turbine Mist Sprayer at a rate of 800 g/ha, the best combination, consistently provided over 90% mortality. Importantly, there was no significant decrease in efficacy with distance from the spray line even in blocks of row homes with trees and bushes in the backyards. Under laboratory conditions Bti deposition in bioassay cups during the operational trials resulted in over 6 weeks of residual control. Our results demonstrate that area-wide truck mounted applications of WDG can effectively suppress Ae. albopictus larvae and should be used in integrated mosquito management approaches to control this nuisance pest and disease vector. PMID:25329314

  16. Area-wide ground applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the control of Aedes albopictus in residential neighborhoods: from optimization to operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gregory M; Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik; Healy, Sean P; Farooq, Muhammad; Gaugler, Randy; Hamilton, George; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    The increasing range of Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, in the USA and the threat of chikungunya and dengue outbreaks vectored by this species have necessitated novel approaches to control this peridomestic mosquito. Conventional methods such as adulticiding provide temporary relief, but fail to manage this pest on a sustained basis. We explored the use of cold aerosol foggers and misting machines for area-wide applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (VectoBac WDG) as a larvicide targeting Aedes albopictus. During 2010-2013 we performed initially open field trials and then 19 operational area-wide applications in urban and suburban residential areas in northeastern USA to test three truck-mounted sprayers at two application rates. Area-wide applications of WDG in open field conditions at 400 and 800 g/ha killed on average 87% of tested larvae. Once techniques were optimized in residential areas, applications with a Buffalo Turbine Mist Sprayer at a rate of 800 g/ha, the best combination, consistently provided over 90% mortality. Importantly, there was no significant decrease in efficacy with distance from the spray line even in blocks of row homes with trees and bushes in the backyards. Under laboratory conditions Bti deposition in bioassay cups during the operational trials resulted in over 6 weeks of residual control. Our results demonstrate that area-wide truck mounted applications of WDG can effectively suppress Ae. albopictus larvae and should be used in integrated mosquito management approaches to control this nuisance pest and disease vector. PMID:25329314

  17. Area-wide ground applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the control of Aedes albopictus in residential neighborhoods: from optimization to operation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M Williams

    Full Text Available The increasing range of Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, in the USA and the threat of chikungunya and dengue outbreaks vectored by this species have necessitated novel approaches to control this peridomestic mosquito. Conventional methods such as adulticiding provide temporary relief, but fail to manage this pest on a sustained basis. We explored the use of cold aerosol foggers and misting machines for area-wide applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (VectoBac WDG as a larvicide targeting Aedes albopictus. During 2010-2013 we performed initially open field trials and then 19 operational area-wide applications in urban and suburban residential areas in northeastern USA to test three truck-mounted sprayers at two application rates. Area-wide applications of WDG in open field conditions at 400 and 800 g/ha killed on average 87% of tested larvae. Once techniques were optimized in residential areas, applications with a Buffalo Turbine Mist Sprayer at a rate of 800 g/ha, the best combination, consistently provided over 90% mortality. Importantly, there was no significant decrease in efficacy with distance from the spray line even in blocks of row homes with trees and bushes in the backyards. Under laboratory conditions Bti deposition in bioassay cups during the operational trials resulted in over 6 weeks of residual control. Our results demonstrate that area-wide truck mounted applications of WDG can effectively suppress Ae. albopictus larvae and should be used in integrated mosquito management approaches to control this nuisance pest and disease vector.

  18. Range-wide network of priority areas for greater sage-grouse - a design for conserving connected distributions or isolating individual zoos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Michele R.; Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.

    2015-09-08

    The network of areas delineated in 11 Western States for prioritizing management of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) represents a grand experiment in conservation biology and reserve design. We used centrality metrics from social network theory to gain insights into how this priority area network might function. The network was highly centralized. Twenty of 188 priority areas accounted for 80 percent of the total centrality scores. These priority areas, characterized by large size and a central location in the range-wide distribution, are strongholds for greater sage-grouse populations and also might function as sources. Mid-ranking priority areas may serve as stepping stones because of their location between large central and smaller peripheral priority areas. The current network design and conservation strategy has risks. The contribution of almost one-half (n = 93) of the priority areas combined for less than 1 percent of the cumulative centrality scores for the network. These priority areas individually are likely too small to support viable sage-grouse populations within their boundary. Without habitat corridors to connect small priority areas either to larger priority areas or as a clustered group within the network, their isolation could lead to loss of sage-grouse within these regions of the network. 

  19. Stratified entomological sampling in preparation for an area-wide integrated pest management program: the example of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the Niayes of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, Jérémy; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Ndiaye, Elhadji Youssou; Guerrini, Laure; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2010-07-01

    The riverine tsetse species Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank 1949 (Diptera: Glossinidae) inhabits riparian forests along river systems in West Africa. The government of Senegal has embarked on a project to eliminate this tsetse species, and African animal trypanosomoses, from the Niayes area using an area-wide integrated pest management approach. A stratified entomological sampling strategy was therefore developed using spatial analytical tools and mathematical modeling. A preliminary phytosociological census identified eight types of suitable habitat, which could be discriminated from LandSat 7 ETM+ satellite images and denominated wet areas. At the end of March 2009, 683 unbaited Vavoua traps had been deployed, and the observed infested area in the Niayes was 525 km2. In the remaining area, a mathematical model was used to assess the risk that flies were present despite a sequence of zero catches. The analysis showed that this risk was above 0.05 in 19% of this area that will be considered as infested during the control operations. The remote sensing analysis that identified the wet areas allowed a restriction of the area to be surveyed to 4% of the total surface area (7,150 km2), whereas the mathematical model provided an efficient method to improve the accuracy and the robustness of the sampling protocol. The final size of the control area will be decided based on the entomological collection data. This entomological sampling procedure might be used for other vector or pest control scenarios. PMID:20695269

  20. Ten years left to eliminate blinding trachoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad D.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available n 1997, the World Health Organization formed the Global Alliance to Eliminate Blinding Trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020, a coalition of governmental, non-governmental, research, and pharmaceutical partners. In 1998, the World Health Assembly urged member states to map blinding trachoma in endemic areas, implement the SAFE strategy (which stands for surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, facial-cleanliness and environmental change, such as clean water and latrines and collaborate with the global alliance in its work to eliminate blinding trachoma.

  1. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  2. Wide-Area Landslide Deformation Mapping with Multi-Path ALOS PALSAR Data Stacks: A Case Study of Three Gorges Area, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xuguo Shi; Mingsheng Liao; Menghua Li; Lu Zhang; Cory Cunningham

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) has been adopted as a spaceborne geodetic tool to successfully measure surface deformation of a few well-known landslides in the Three Gorges area. In consideration of the fact that most events of slope failure happened at places other than those famous landslides since the reservoir impoundment in 2003, focusing on a limited number of slopes is insufficient to meet the requirements of regional-scale landslide disaster...

  3. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury VIII: A Wide-Area, High-Resolution Map of Dust Extinction in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Dalcanton, Julianne J; Hogg, David W; Lang, Dustin; Leroy, Adam K; Gordon, Karl D; Sandstrom, Karin; Weisz, Daniel R; Williams, Benjamin F; Bell, Eric F; Dong, Hui; Gilbert, Karoline M; Gouliermis, Dimitrious A; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Lauer, Tod R; Schruba, Andreas; Seth, Anil C; Skillman, Evan D

    2015-01-01

    We map the distribution of dust in M31 at 25pc resolution, using stellar photometry from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. We develop a new mapping technique that models the NIR color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of red giant branch (RGB) stars. The model CMDs combine an unreddened foreground of RGB stars with a reddened background population viewed through a log-normal column density distribution of dust. Fits to the model constrain the median extinction, the width of the extinction distribution, and the fraction of reddened stars. The resulting extinction map has >4 times better resolution than maps of dust emission, while providing a more direct measurement of the dust column. There is superb morphological agreement between the new map and maps of the extinction inferred from dust emission by Draine et al. 2014. However, the widely-used Draine & Li (2007) dust models overpredict the observed extinction by a factor of ~2.5, suggesting that M31's true dust mass is lower and that dust grains are sign...

  4. On-line monitoring of European frequency-swing behaviour; Online-Ueberwachung des europaeischen Netzpendelverhaltens. Wide-Area Monitoring als Massnahme zur Vermeidung von Netzpendelungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zima, M. [Atel Netz AG, Olten (Switzerland); Sattinger, W. [Swissgrid AG, Laufenburg (Switzerland); Korba, P.; Larsson, M. [ABB Schweiz AG, Forschungszentrum, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This article examines how wide-area monitoring can help avoid frequency-swings in the European electricity grid. Increasing power trading and the extension of the UCTE are discussed as the source of possible short-term frequency-swinging, which can occur when faults occur in the grid. Measures that can be taken to prevent such swinging are examined. A GPS-synchronised, wide-area monitoring and control system (WAM and C) is described that, since 2001, has monitored mains phase-shifts and other relevant data. Also a system operated since 2003 by Swissgrid is briefly described. A selection of curves used in the analysis of a frequency-swinging event in Switzerland are provided.

  5. Report of the workshop on strategic planning of area-wide tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis is a disease unique to Africa affecting both humans and animals. This disease occurs in about 10 million km2 in 37 sub-Saharan countries corresponding approximately to one-third of Africa's total land area, and threatens an estimated 50 million people, 48 million cattle and a countless population of other domestic animal species. Trypanosomiasis has a severe impact on African agriculture; estimated annual losses in cattle production alone are in the range of 1.0-1.2 billion dollars. To this, we have to add the indirect negative effects engendered by trypanosomiasis on total crop production. The disease influences where people decide to live, how they manage their livestock and the intensity of crop agriculture. The combined effects result in changes in land use, environment and affect human welfare and increase the vulnerability of agricultural activity. FAO has identified the reinforcement of agriculture as a key element in the fight against poverty and the improvement of food security in developing countries. The need to reduce poverty is particularly felt in tsetse infested areas of sub-Saharan Africa. In this region half of the population suffers from food insecurity. Approximately 85% of the poor are located in rural areas and more than 80% of the population depends on agricultural production for their livelihood. In order to respond to the need in the fight against tsetse and trypanosomiasis (T and T) in people as well as livestock, the Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT) was endorsed in November 1997 by the FAO Conference. The Programme seeks to combine the forces of FAO, IAEA, OAU/IBAR and WHO in order to: promote and co-ordinate international alliances and efforts assisting in harmonised interventions against T and T; effectively combat the disease in Africa; and delineate the polity framework, strategies and guiding pest management principles. This workshop was primarily concerned with the development of

  6. Area-Wide Ground Applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the Control of Aedes albopictus in Residential Neighborhoods: From Optimization to Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Gregory M.; Ary Faraji; Isik Unlu; Sean P Healy; Muhammad Farooq; Randy Gaugler; George Hamilton; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing range of Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, in the USA and the threat of chikungunya and dengue outbreaks vectored by this species have necessitated novel approaches to control this peridomestic mosquito. Conventional methods such as adulticiding provide temporary relief, but fail to manage this pest on a sustained basis. We explored the use of cold aerosol foggers and misting machines for area-wide applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (VectoBac WDG)...

  7. Calibration of a non-invasive cosmic-ray probe for wide area snow water equivalent measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigouin, Mark J. P.; Si, Bing C.

    2016-06-01

    Measuring snow water equivalent (SWE) is important for many hydrological purposes such as modelling and flood forecasting. Measurements of SWE are also crucial for agricultural production in areas where snowmelt runoff dominates spring soil water recharge. Typical methods for measuring SWE include point measurements (snow tubes) and large-scale measurements (remote sensing). We explored the potential of using the cosmic-ray soil moisture probe (CRP) to measure average SWE at a spatial scale between those provided by snow tubes and remote sensing. The CRP measures above-ground moderated neutron intensity within a radius of approximately 300 m. Using snow tubes, surveys were performed over two winters (2013/2014 and 2014/2015) in an area surrounding a CRP in an agricultural field in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The raw moderated neutron intensity counts were corrected for atmospheric pressure, water vapour, and temporal variability of incoming cosmic-ray flux. The mean SWE from manually measured snow surveys was adjusted for differences in soil water storage before snowfall between both winters because the CRP reading appeared to be affected by soil water below the snowpack. The SWE from the snow surveys was negatively correlated with the CRP-measured moderated neutron intensity, giving Pearson correlation coefficients of -0.90 (2013/2014) and -0.87 (2014/2015). A linear regression performed on the manually measured SWE and moderated neutron intensity counts for 2013/2014 yielded an r2 of 0.81. Linear regression lines from the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 manually measured SWE and moderated neutron counts were similar; thus differences in antecedent soil water storage did not appear to affect the slope of the SWE vs. neutron relationship. The regression equation obtained from 2013/2014 was used to model SWE using the moderated neutron intensity data for 2014/2015. The CRP-estimated SWE for 2014/2015 was similar to that of the snow survey, with an root

  8. Calibration of a non-invasive cosmic-ray probe for wide area snow water equivalent measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigouin, Mark J. P.; Si, Bing C.

    2016-06-01

    Measuring snow water equivalent (SWE) is important for many hydrological purposes such as modelling and flood forecasting. Measurements of SWE are also crucial for agricultural production in areas where snowmelt runoff dominates spring soil water recharge. Typical methods for measuring SWE include point measurements (snow tubes) and large-scale measurements (remote sensing). We explored the potential of using the cosmic-ray soil moisture probe (CRP) to measure average SWE at a spatial scale between those provided by snow tubes and remote sensing. The CRP measures above-ground moderated neutron intensity within a radius of approximately 300 m. Using snow tubes, surveys were performed over two winters (2013/2014 and 2014/2015) in an area surrounding a CRP in an agricultural field in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The raw moderated neutron intensity counts were corrected for atmospheric pressure, water vapour, and temporal variability of incoming cosmic-ray flux. The mean SWE from manually measured snow surveys was adjusted for differences in soil water storage before snowfall between both winters because the CRP reading appeared to be affected by soil water below the snowpack. The SWE from the snow surveys was negatively correlated with the CRP-measured moderated neutron intensity, giving Pearson correlation coefficients of -0.90 (2013/2014) and -0.87 (2014/2015). A linear regression performed on the manually measured SWE and moderated neutron intensity counts for 2013/2014 yielded an r2 of 0.81. Linear regression lines from the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 manually measured SWE and moderated neutron counts were similar; thus differences in antecedent soil water storage did not appear to affect the slope of the SWE vs. neutron relationship. The regression equation obtained from 2013/2014 was used to model SWE using the moderated neutron intensity data for 2014/2015. The CRP-estimated SWE for 2014/2015 was similar to that of the snow survey, with an root

  9. Facts About Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly diagnose specific types of color blindness. The Ishihara Color Test is the most common test for red-green ... red-green color blindness. The newer Cambridge Color Test uses a visual array similar to the Ishihara plates, except displayed on a computer monitor. The ...

  10. Blindness%失明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同良

    2009-01-01

    @@ There was a blind girl who hated herself because she was blind. She hated everyone,except her loving boyfriend who was always there for her. She told her boyfriend, "If I could only see the World, I will marry you."

  11. Blindness and Yoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Anthony David

    1974-01-01

    Evidence is presented to support the claims that, among many blind persons, physical inactivity leads to poor physical fitness; that a state of anxiety is often a concomitant of unguided blind mobility; and that Yogic practices offer a solution to both difficulties. (GW)

  12. The area-wide epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis and its impact on mixed farming in subhumid West Africa; a case study in Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, G; Napala, A; Dao, B; Batawui, K; Bastiaensen, P; De Deken, R; Vermeilen, A; Vercruysse, J; Slingenbergh, J H

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports on an area wide study of all major variables determining the expression of trypanosomosis in cattle in the subhumid eco-zone of West Africa, taking Togo as an example. To enable systematic area-wide sampling, the country was divided in 311 grid-squares of 0.125 x 0.125 sides. Cross-sectional surveys were then conducted to generate maps or digital layers on cattle density, herd structure, ownership and breed. These data layers, except for the breed data, were subjected to a cluster analysis in order to define spatial patterns in animal husbandry systems. This analysis revealed two main systems: one is oriented towards integration with crop-agriculture and a second towards investment in cattle. These two systems could be further characterised by incorporating breed data. Zebu cattle and their crossbreeds are more favoured in the second system. The breed distribution map shows the actual situation but also serves to predict the outcome of progressive crossbreeding. An area wide trypanosomosis survey allowed the production of prevalence maps for Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax and the associated packed cell volume (PCV) values. A simple curvi-linear relationship was established between vector density and disease prevalence. The regression between disease prevalence and PCV for taurine and zebu plus crossbreeds separately, revealed that taurine cattle maintain a comparatively high PCV level particularly in high prevalence scenarios. The relationship between the average herd PCV and cattle density suggests that herd PCV value may provide a mirror for the number of animals not kept because of the prevailing risk. The regression between agricultural intensity and cattle density subsequently in areas with decreasing herd PCV values reveals that the level of integration of cattle in crop production decreases with a decreasing PCV. Thus, despite the presence of taurine animals in Togo, the omnipresence of tsetse in particular Glossina tachinoides, remains

  13. Demonstration of a Novel Synchrophasor-based Situational Awareness System: Wide Area Power System Visualization, On-line Event Replay and Early Warning of Grid Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, A.

    2012-12-31

    Since the large North Eastern power system blackout on August 14, 2003, U.S. electric utilities have spent lot of effort on preventing power system cascading outages. Two of the main causes of the August 14, 2003 blackout were inadequate situational awareness and inadequate operator training In addition to the enhancements of the infrastructure of the interconnected power systems, more research and development of advanced power system applications are required for improving the wide-area security monitoring, operation and planning in order to prevent large- scale cascading outages of interconnected power systems. It is critically important for improving the wide-area situation awareness of the operators or operational engineers and regional reliability coordinators of large interconnected systems. With the installation of large number of phasor measurement units (PMU) and the related communication infrastructure, it will be possible to improve the operators’ situation awareness and to quickly identify the sequence of events during a large system disturbance for the post-event analysis using the real-time or historical synchrophasor data. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a novel synchrophasor-based comprehensive situational awareness system for control centers of power transmission systems. The developed system named WASA (Wide Area Situation Awareness) is intended to improve situational awareness at control centers of the power system operators and regional reliability coordinators. It consists of following main software modules: • Wide-area visualizations of real-time frequency, voltage, and phase angle measurements and their contour displays for security monitoring. • Online detection and location of a major event (location, time, size, and type, such as generator or line outage). • Near-real-time event replay (in seconds) after a major event occurs. • Early warning of potential wide-area stability problems. The system has been

  14. Models for the blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Jan-Eric

    2014-01-01

    background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material......When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind...... person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical...

  15. Change blindness images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Qian; Xu, Kun; Wong, Tien-Tsin; Jiang, Bi-Ye; Hu, Shi-Min

    2013-11-01

    Change blindness refers to human inability to recognize large visual changes between images. In this paper, we present the first computational model of change blindness to quantify the degree of blindness between an image pair. It comprises a novel context-dependent saliency model and a measure of change, the former dependent on the site of the change, and the latter describing the amount of change. This saliency model in particular addresses the influence of background complexity, which plays an important role in the phenomenon of change blindness. Using the proposed computational model, we are able to synthesize changed images with desired degrees of blindness. User studies and comparisons to state-of-the-art saliency models demonstrate the effectiveness of our model. PMID:24029902

  16. Blinded by Irrelevance: Pure Irrelevance Induced "Blindness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitam, Baruch; Yeshurun, Yaffa; Hassan, Kinneret

    2013-01-01

    To what degree does our representation of the immediate world depend solely on its relevance to what we are currently doing? We examined whether relevance per se can cause "blindness," even when there is no resource limitation. In a novel paradigm, people looked at a colored circle surrounded by a differently colored ring--the task relevance of…

  17. Research of the Exploitation of Human Resources in Blind Prevention and Primary Eye Care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingxianWei; YonglongZhao

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:This research studied how to establish a relatively advanced blindness prevention and eye care cause in economically underdeveloped countryside.Methods:Ophthalmic vocational schools and professional lectures were held to train“practical type”primary eye care workers for the coumtryside.Further study in high-level(above provincial)hospitals was taken to train blindness preention &eye care backbones and leaders.Results:In 1986,the ratio of the number of the eye care workers of all levels to the number of the whole population in the prefecture was1:26000.In1992,it roseto1:17000.Aneye care network of 222stations had been established in tb countryside.Ten in the 13county hospitals had a seperated ophthalmology ed- partment,in which 3were awarded“National advanced blindness prevention County”.Twenty one hospitals were appointed as the Unit of Surgical Vision-Rehabilitation of Cataract.Blindness prevention and eye care convered1000000population(eye care avaliable within 5kilometers),23.5%of the whol popula-tion.Conclusions:In a demographically large but economically underdexeloped country-side area,the key to wide-range blindness prevention and eye oare is to exploti human resources effectively.We should train“Practical type”primary eye care workers,and have a number of edpartment leaders who are authoritive,influential in this field and ready to sacrifice to this cause.

  18. Measurements of Urban Area-Wide CO2 and CH4 Fluxes as part of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepson, P.; Callahan, B.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Davis, K. J.; Hardesty, R.; Iraci, L. T.; Gurney, K. R.; Karion, A.; Lauvaux, T.; McGowan, L. E.; Miles, N. L.; Moser, B.; Newberger, T.; Possolo, A.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Richardson, S.; Samarov, D. V.; Sarmiento, D.; Stirm, B.; Sweeney, C.; Turnbull, J. C.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) was created in order to develop and evaluate methods for the measurement of greenhouse gas emission fluxes from urban environments. Such methods are important for a variety of reasons, including that more than half the global population now resides in cities, and because it is likely that many CO2 emissions reductions strategies will be implemented on local, largely urban, scales. INFLUX is using Indianapolis as a test case for measurements of urban scale greenhouse gas fluxes, because it is a fairly isolated urban environment with tractable meteorology, and a well-developed emission inventory (Vulcan/Hestia). INFLUX aims to quantify and reduce the uncertainty limits for such flux determinations, and to define the uncertainties for individual and combined approaches. The project currently combines a network of towers (currently 10 with 12 possible by the end of 2012) at which CO, CO2 and CH4 are measured, along with periodic flask sampling for 14CO2 and ~50 other trace gases and isotopes. Aircraft-based measurements of CO2, CH4 and H2O, along with flask samples for a variety of gases including 14CO2 are conducted from a light twin aircraft that enables flux measurements using the on-board turbulence/wind measurements via mass balance or eddy covariance methods. As of August of 2012 INFLUX has a Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) Fourier Transform Spectrometer at a downwind site, measuring column total CO2, CH4, H2O (and other greenhouse gases). The data from these tower, TCCON and aircraft measurements are then used in an inverse-modeling approach, using the Weather Research and Forecast model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LDPM) to yield estimates of the urban area flux at 1 km2 resolution. When aggregated these fluxes can be compared to estimates derived from aircraft mass-balance estimates, and the 14CO2 and CO data are used to extract the fossil fuel component of the

  19. The blind hens’ challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Hocking, Paul M.; Forkman, Björn;

    2014-01-01

    about breeding blind hens. But we also argue that alternative views, which (for example) claim that it is important to respect the telos or rights of an animal, do not offer a more convincing solution to questions raised by the possibility of disenhancing animals for their own benefit.......Animal ethicists have recently debated the ethical questions raised by disenhancing animals to improve their welfare. Here, we focus on the particular case of breeding blind hens for commercial egg-laying systems, in order to benefit their welfare. Many people find breeding blind hens intuitively...

  20. Static analysis for blinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    operation blinding. In this paper we study the theoretical foundations for one of the successful approaches to validating cryptographic protocols and we extend it to handle the blinding primitive. Our static analysis approach is based on Flow Logic; this gives us a clean separation between the specification...... of the analysis and its realisation in an automatic tool. We concentrate on the former in the present paper and provide the semantic foundation for our analysis of protocols using blinding - also in the presence of malicious attackers....

  1. Blind Collective Signature Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Moldovyan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the digital signature (DS scheme specified by Belarusian DS standard there are designed the collective and blind collective DS protocols. Signature formation is performed simultaneously by all of the assigned signers, therefore the proposed protocols can be used also as protocols for simultaneous signing a contract. The proposed blind collective DS protocol represents a particular implementation of the blind multisignature schemes that is a novel type of the signature schemes. The proposed protocols are the first implementations of the multisignature schemes based on Belarusian signature standard.

  2. Blind loop syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... operations for extreme obesity As a complication of inflammatory bowel disease Diseases such as diabetes or scleroderma may slow down movement in a segment of the intestine, leading to blind loop syndrome.

  3. A Blind Date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话:A: Talking about girls, I still remember my first time to meet my girlfriend. Iwas so clumsy and very nervous.B: That’s the same case with me. I had the jitters at my blind date, too.A: Did you also meet your girlfriend at a blind date?B: Yeah. I was actually very shy of speaking to girls, you know?

  4. Models for the Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Eric Olsén

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material objects are rarely used as historical testimonies for the simple reason that they, unlike archival material, do not present historians with written documents that can be held as evidence of the past. However, as I point out, certain historical questions of which archives remain silent could be approached by other means such as the use of material objects. Rather than delivering concrete methodological suggestions, this second part reflects upon the historical use of material objects - both their possibilities and their limits - within the context of blindness.

  5. Recent trends on sterile insect technique and area-wide integrated pest management. Economic feasibility, control projects, farmer organization and Bactrocera dorsalis complex control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have invited professional papers from over the world, including Okinawa, for compilation of recent trends on Sterile Insect Techniques and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management to further pursue environment friendly pest insects control measures in agricultural production in the Asia-Pacific region. Pest insects such as the tephritid fruit flies have long been and are still today causing serious damage to agricultural products in the Asia-Pacific region and farmers in the region apply such insecticides that are no longer allowed or being subjected to strict usage control in Japan. This, in return, may endanger the health of the very farmers, food safety and the ecosystem itself. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to clarify keys for technology transfer of so called SIT/AWIPM to potential recipients engaged in agricultural production in the region. This report focused on several topics, which make up important parts for the effective Sterile Insect Technique and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management: economic feasibility; pest insects control projects; farmers' education; research progress in Bactrocera dorsalis complex issues specific to the Asia-Pacific region. The 12 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. Outcomes-based planning and implementation led to the success of the Hawaii fruit fly suppression programme: Implications to adoption of area-wide programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A critical component of successful area-wide pest management (AWPM) programmes are organised, coordinated and comprehensive outreach educational programmes. The Hawaii area-wide fruit fly pest management (HAW-FLYPM) programme's educational programme, a part of a USDA AWPM programme in Hawaii, utilised the 'logic model' approach to organise, plan, execute and evaluate farmer and community educational programmes statewide. The logic model approach was an outcome-driven rather than activity based method that employed a linear sequence that developed relationships between programme inputs, outputs and outcomes. This model was utilised extensively to transfer sustainable, science-based technologies to suppress tephritid fruit fly pests. HAW-FLYPM's educational programme targeted growers and community door yard growers, three teaching curricula aimed at elementary through high school students, and a statewide awareness programme for the public at large. Additional key components of the HAW-FLYPM education programme was the development of implementation schedules used to track programme progress, a comprehensive media matrix developed to ensure educational materials met the needs of target audience groups, and a sustainability calculator to assess the likelihood of programme sustainability after the initial five year funding cycle. The model served as a 'blue print' for ensuring programme elements were planned, delivered and executed on a timely basis. Utilisation of the logic model to organise efforts and manage diverse, multi agency programmes such as the HAW-FLYPM programme has shown to be a successful method of programme advancement and outcome achievement. (author)

  7. Blind Analysis in Particle Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Roodman, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of "experimenter's bias" and the advantages of a blind analysis are described. Three distinct kinds of blind analysis in particle physics are presented in detail. Finally, the BABAR collaboration's experience with the blind analysis technique is discussed.

  8. FAO/IAEA international conference on area-wide control of insect pests integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. Programme book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organization of this International Conference on the Areawide Approach to the Control of Insect Pests is appropriate and timely. There is increasing interest in the holistic approach to dealing with major insect pest problems. This interest has been prompted by the steady progress scientists have made in the development of the sterile insect technique for eliminating the screwworm from North America, the melon fly from Okinawa, the elimination and containment of the medfly in various countries and the progress that scientists have made in eradicating tsetse fly populations from isolated areas. Increased interest has also been shown by agriculturalists because of the realization that the farm-to-farm reactive method of insect control is only a temporary solution to problems and that pests continue to be about as numerous as ever from year-to-year. In the meantime, there is increasing public concern over the environmental hazards created by the use of broad-spectrum insecticides to deal with insect pest problems. The sterile insect technique provides a feasible way to manage total insect pest populations. However, other techniques and strategies appropriately integrated into management programs can increase the effectiveness and efficiency of area-wide management programs. These include the augmentation of massproduced biological organisms and the use of semiochemicals such as the insect sex pheromones. This conference will give pest management scientists from many countries the opportunity to exchange information on the area-wide approach to insect pest management - an approach that if fully developed can be highly effective, low in cost and at the same time make a major contribution to alleviating the environmental concerns associated with primary reliance on broad-spectrum insecticides for controlling insect pests. This document contains 200 abstracts of papers presented at the conference

  9. PIGC™ - A low cost fugitive emissions and methane detection system using advanced gas filter correlation techniques for local and wide area monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, R. L.; Gordley, L. L.; Marshall, B. T.; Fisher, J.; Paxton, G.; Gubeli, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Currently there is no efficient and affordable way to monitor gas releases over small to large areas. We have demonstrated the ability to accurately measure key greenhouse and pollutant gasses with low cost solar observations using the breakthrough sensor technology called the "Pupil Imaging Gas Correlation", PIGC™, which provides size and complexity reduction while providing exceptional resolution and coverage for various gas sensing applications. It is a practical implementation of the well-known Gas Filter Correlation Radiometry (GFCR) technique used for the HALOE and MOPITT satellite instruments that were flown on successful NASA missions in the early 2000s. This strong space heritage brings performance and reliability to the ground instrument design. A methane (CH4) abundance sensitivity of 0.5% or better of ambient column with uncooled microbolometers has been demonstrated with 1 second direct solar observations. These under $10 k sensors can be deployed in precisely balanced autonomous grids to monitor the flow of chosen gasses, and infer their source locations. Measureable gases include CH4, 13CO2, N2O, NO, NH3, CO, H2S, HCN, HCl, HF, HDO and others. A single instrument operates in a dual operation mode, at no additional cost, for continuous (real-time 24/7) local area perimeter monitoring for the detection of leaks for safety & security needs, looking at an artificial light source (for example a simple 60 W light bulb placed 100 m away), while simultaneously allowing solar observation for quasi-continuous wide area total atmospheric column scanning (3-D) for environmental monitoring (fixed and mobile configurations). The second mode of operation continuously quantifies the concentration and flux of specific gases over different ground locations, determined the amount of targeted gas being released from the area or getting into the area from outside locations, allowing better tracking of plumes and identification of sources. This paper reviews the

  10. A Smart Infrared Microcontroller-Based Blind Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjed S. Al-Fahoum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness is a state of lacking the visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors. The partial blindness represents the lack of integration in the growth of the optic nerve or visual centre of the eye, and total blindness is the full absence of the visual light perception. In this work, a simple, cheap, friendly user, smart blind guidance system is designed and implemented to improve the mobility of both blind and visually impaired people in a specific area. The proposed work includes a wearable equipment consists of head hat and mini hand stick to help the blind person to navigate alone safely and to avoid any obstacles that may be encountered, whether fixed or mobile, to prevent any possible accident. The main component of this system is the infrared sensor which is used to scan a predetermined area around blind by emitting-reflecting waves. The reflected signals received from the barrier objects are used as inputs to PIC microcontroller. The microcontroller is then used to determine the direction and distance of the objects around the blind. It also controls the peripheral components that alert the user about obstacle's shape, material, and direction. The implemented system is cheap, fast, and easy to use and an innovative affordable solution to blind and visually impaired people in third world countries.

  11. Area-wide pest management of locusts and grasshoppers: The striking similarities of problems and solutions in Africa and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasshoppers and locusts are among the most devastating pests of human agriculture. These insects cause serious damage to crops and forage on every arable continent, and their depredations have become the basis for legends, myths, and (in recent times) complex political and economic programmes. No pest problem spans such immense areas, with up to 8 million ha treated for rangeland grasshoppers during outbreaks in the US and 16 million km2 prone to outbreaks of the Desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forskal, alone. The traditional management approach has involved extensive, regionalised control programmes, but recent trends suggest a decentralised future for grasshopper and locust management. Hence, we have a dynamic situation that presents the opportunity for a comparative analysis of the costs and benefits of an area-wide approach to pest management at different scales. As political, cultural, and communication barriers between scientists dissolve, the possibility of learning from one another's experiences (both failures and successes) promises to dramatically accelerate the rate of innovation, progress and discovery in pest management. For example, the recent advances in Reduced Agent-Area Treatments (RAAT, in which insecticide is applied to swaths, separated by untreated swaths or buffers) for management of rangeland grasshoppers in the US (Lockwood and Schell 1997) are based on the adaptation of tactics developed by African, Australian, Asian, and European scientists (Rachadi and Foucart 1996, Musuna and Mugisha 1997, Scherer and Celestin 1997, Wilps and Diop 1997, Launois and Rachadi 1997). The key to successful adaptation of management methods must begin with intellectual modesty and nationalistic humility so that the insights of non-scientists and experts from outside one's country are given respect and serious consideration. It is subsequently necessary to recognise the essential similarities and differences between land use systems and understand the

  12. Large Area One-Step Facile Processing of Microstructured Elastomeric Dielectric Film for High Sensitivity and Durable Sensing over Wide Pressure Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sujie; Zhuo, Bengang; Guo, Xiaojun

    2016-08-10

    Once the requirement of sensitivity has been met, to enable a flexible pressure sensor technology to be widely adopted as an economic and convenient way for sensing diverse human body motions, critical factors need to be considered including low manufacturing cost, a large pressure detection range, and low power consumption. In this work, a facile approach is developed for one-step processing of a large area microstructured elastomer film with high density microfeatures of air voids, which can be seamlessly integrated into the process flow for fabricating flexible capacitive sensors. The fabricated sensors exhibit fast response and high sensitivity in the low pressure range to be able to detect very weak pressure down to 1 Pa and perform reliable wrist pulse monitoring. Compared to previous work, more advantageous features of this sensor are relatively high sensitivity being maintained in a wide pressure range up to 250 kPa and excellent durability under heavy load larger than 1 MPa, attributed to the formed dense air voids inside the film. A smart insole made with the sensor can accurately monitor the real-time walking or running behaviors and even a small weight change less than 1 kg under a heavy load of a 70 kg adult. For both application examples of wrist pulse monitoring and smart insole, the sensors are operated in a 3.3 V electronic system powered by a Li-ion battery, showing the potential for power-constrained wearable applications. PMID:27427977

  13. BioSense/SR-BioSpectra demonstrations of wide area/early warning for bioaerosol threats: program description and early test and evaluation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Jean-Robert; Buteau, Sylvie; Lahaie, Pierre; Mathieu, Pierre; Roy, Gilles; Nadeau, Denis; McFee, John; Ho, Jim; Rowsell, Susan; Ho, Nicolas; Babin, François; Cantin, Daniel; Healey, Dave; Robinson, Jennifer; Wood, Scott; Hsu, Jack

    2011-11-01

    Threats associated with bioaerosol weapons have been around for several decades and have been mostly associated with terrorist activities or rogue nations. Up to the turn of the millennium, defence concepts against such menaces relied mainly on point or in-situ detection technologies. Over the last 10 years, significant efforts have been deployed by multiple countries to supplement the limited spatial coverage of a network of one or more point bio-detectors using lidar technology. The addition of such technology makes it possible to detect within seconds suspect aerosol clouds over area of several tens of square kilometers and track their trajectories. These additional capabilities are paramount in directing presumptive ID missions, mapping hazardous areas, establishing efficient counter-measures and supporting subsequent forensic investigations. In order to develop such capabilities, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) and the Chemical, Biological, Radiological-Nuclear, and Explosives Research and Technology Initiative (CRTI) have supported two major demonstrations based on spectrally resolved Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) lidar: BioSense, aimed at defence military missions in wide open spaces, and SR-BioSpectra, aimed at surveillance of enclosed or semienclosed wide spaces common to defence and public security missions. This article first reviews briefly the modeling behind these demonstration concepts. Second, the lidar-adapted and the benchtop bioaerosol LIF chambers (BSL1), developed to challenge the constructed detection systems and to accelerate the population of the library of spectral LIF properties of bioaerosols and interferents of interest, will be described. Next, the most recent test and evaluation (T&E) results obtained with SR-BioSpectra and BioSense are reported. Finally, a brief discussion stating the way ahead for a complete defence suite is provided.

  14. Research of cache technology in wide area sensor database%广域传感器数据库中的缓存技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄绪路

    2015-01-01

    广域传感器数据库是当前国际上备受关注的由多学科高度交叉的新兴热点研究领域。广域传感器数据库具有巨大的应用价值,应用前景十分广阔。基于缓存技术和预取技术,提出了一种缓存技术与预取技术相结合的体系结构。对体系结构中各个模块的功能和实现算法进行了详细阐述,对算法进行了复杂性和实例分析,有效地解决了广域传感器数据库系统中,低频结点数据进入缓存替换出高频结点数据所造成的缓存命中率低和系统资源浪费问题。%Wide area sensor database is the current international concerns and the interdisciplinary emerging hot research field, it has very broad application prospect and great application value. Based on combination of the caching with prefetching technology, a system structure is put forward, the function and the algorithm of each module in the system structure is set forth,and the complexity of the algorithm is analysed with the example. The problem of low hit ratio and the waste of system resources in wide area sensor database, that is caused by the high frequency node data be replaced when the low frequency node data get into the cache, is effectively solved.

  15. Population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) between river basins in Burkina Faso: consequences for area-wide integrated pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, Jérémy; Ravel, Sophie; Guerrini, Laure; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Sidibé, Issa; Vreysen, Marc J B; Solano, Philippe; De Meeûs, Thierry

    2010-03-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank are their major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their elimination will only be sustainable if control is exercised following area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) principles, i.e. the control effort is targeting an entire tsetse population within a circumscribed area. In the present study, genetic variation at microsatellite DNA loci was used to examine the population structure of G. p. gambiensis inhabiting two adjacent river basins, i.e. the Comoé and the Mouhoun River basins in Burkina Faso. A remote sensing analysis revealed that the woodland savannah habitats between the river basins have remained unchanged during the last two decades. In addition, genetic variation was studied in two populations that were separated by a man-made lake originating from a dam built in 1991 on the Comoé. Low genetic differentiation was observed between the samples from the Mouhoun and the Comoé River basins and no differentiation was found between the samples separated by the dam. The data presented indicate that the overall genetic differentiation of G. p. gambiensis populations inhabiting two adjacent river basins in Burkina Faso is low (F(ST)=0.016). The results of this study suggest that either G. p. gambiensis populations from the Mouhoun are not isolated from those of the Comoé, or that the isolation is too recent to be detected. If elimination of the G. p. gambiensis population from the Mouhoun River basin is the selected control strategy, re-invasion from adjacent river basins may need to be prevented by establishing a buffer zone between the Mouhoun and the other river basin(s). PMID:20060501

  16. Potentials of Rubella Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin F.

    Potentials of three classifications of rubella deaf blind children are discussed. Potentials for children at the middle trainable level and below are discussed for the areas of communication skills, daily living skills, mobility and orientation, vocational effort, and self-control and social interaction. For children in the upper trainable through…

  17. CI-TAB: View for the Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Ken

    1979-01-01

    The article describes the development and content of a comprehensive career education program for blind elementary and secondary students. Eight areas are explored in the program: job search skills, job behavior, hygiene and grooming, purchase habits, budgeting, banking, home management, and health care. (CL)

  18. Models for the Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Eric Olsén

    2014-01-01

    When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in n...

  19. Area-wide integrated control of oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) and Guava Fruit Fly (Bactrocera correcta) in Thailand using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Two tephritid species, Bactrocera dorsalis and B. correcta are the major insect pests of fruit production in Thailand, causing yield loss and quality degradation. This leads to quarantine restrictions from importing countries. After one decade of effective cooperation between IAEA and Thailand, DOAE an area-wide integrated fruit fly management programme has been established with a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) component. This is underway in two distinctive pilot areas in Ratchaburi (western) and Pichit (northern) provinces, approximately 70 km2. The ongoing programme is aimed at controlling, Bactrocera dorsalis and B. correcta, the key pests of mango. Both species are mass-reared and sterilised at the facility located in the Pathumthani province following standard operational procedures. Currently sterilised pupae, 20 million B. dorsalis and 10 million B. correcta, are transported to the pilot areas, held until adult emergence and ground released. Quality control of the release is monitored through use of a trapping network to monitor the distribution and abundance of wild and sterile flies whilst success of the control is monitored using periodic fruit sampling to assess the percentage of fruit infested. The integrated approach has been effective in controlling fruit flies by reducing damage from over 80% to an average of less than 5% in Ratchaburi province in the past three years. Meanwhile in Pichit province, which has been under a control programme for 2 years, the percentage of infestation has been reduced from 43% to 16%. We also address the use of public relations, grower cooperation and integration of multidisciplinary research for the field operations. (author)

  20. Wide-area estimates of stand structure and water use of tamarix spp. on the lower colorado river: Implications for restoration and water management projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.; Didan, K.; Osterberg, J.; Jordan, F.; Cunningham, J.

    2008-01-01

    Tamarix spp. removal has been proposed to salvage water and allow native vegetation to recolonize western U.S. riparian corridors. We conducted wide-area studies on the Lower Colorado River to answer some of the scientific questions about Tamarix water use and the consequences of removal, combining ground surveys with remote sensing methods. Tamarix stands had moderate rates of evapotranspiration (ET), based on remote sensing estimates, averaging 1.1 m/yr, similar to rates determined for other locations on the river and other rivers. Leaf area index values were also moderate, and stands were relatively open, with areas of bare soil interspersed within stands. At three Tamarix sites in the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge, groundwater salinity at the site nearest to the river (200 m) was relatively low (circa 2,250 mg/L) and was within 3 m of the surface. However, 750 and 1,500 m from the river, the groundwater salinity was 5,000-10,000 mg/L due to removal of water by the Tamarix stands. Despite the high groundwater salinity, the sites away from the river did not have saline surface soils. Only 1% of the mean annual river flow is lost to Tamarix ET on the Lower Colorado River in the United States, and the opportunities for water salvage through Tamarix removal are constrained by its modest ET rates. A possible alternative to Tamarix removal is to intersperse native plants among the stands to improve the habitat value of the riparian zone. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  1. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Written by: Shirley Dang Apr. 03, 2014 New ... shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  2. Oplysningens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  3. Oplysnigens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  4. The Hawaii Fruit Fly Area-Wide Pest Management Programme: Influence of a good education and partnerships in a successful programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: In 1999, USDA-ARS launched the 'Hawaii Fruit Fly Area-Wide Pest Management (AWPM) Program' as a 5-yr programme to suppress fruit flies below economic thresholds while reducing the use of organophosphate insecticides. The programme involved developing and integrating biologically-based pest technologies into a comprehensive management package that will be economically viable, environmentally sensitive and sustainable. Technologies included: 1) field sanitation, 2) protein bait sprays and/or traps, 3) male annihilation with male lures and attractants, and if needed, 4) augmentative parasitoid releases and 5) sterile insect releases. Many of these technologies were developed by ARS in Hawaii; however, they had never been packaged and transferred to Hawaiian farmers. Education: A critical component of successful area-wide pest management (AWPM) programmes is an organised, coordinated and comprehensive outreach educational programme. The Hawaii area-wide fruit fly pest management (HAW-FLYPM) programme's educational programme, utilised the 'logic model' approach to organise, plan, execute and evaluate farmer and community educational programmes statewide. The logic model approach was an outcome-driven rather than activity-based method that employed a linear sequence that developed relationships between programme inputs, outputs and outcomes. This model was utilised extensively to transfer sustainable, science-based technologies to suppress tephritid fruit fly pests. HAW-FLYPM's educational programme targeted growers and community door yard growers, three teaching curricula aimed at elementary through high school students, and a statewide awareness programme for the public at large. Additional key components of the HAWFLYPM education programme was the development of implementation schedules used to track programme progress, a comprehensive media matrix developed to ensure educational materials met the needs of target audience groups, and a

  5. Corneal blindness and xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Vladimir; Hara, Hidetaka; Mammen, Alex; Dhaliwal, Deepinder; Cooper, David K C

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 39 million people are blind worldwide, with an estimated 285 million visually impaired. The developing world shoulders 90% of the world's blindness, with 80% of causative diseases being preventable or treatable. Blindness has a major detrimental impact on the patient, community, and healthcare spending. Corneal diseases are significant causes of blindness, affecting at least 4 million people worldwide. The prevalence of corneal disease varies between parts of the world. Trachoma, for instance, is the second leading cause of blindness in Africa, after cataracts, but is rarely found today in developed nations. When preventive strategies have failed, corneal transplantation is the most effective treatment for advanced corneal disease. The major surgical techniques for corneal transplantation include penetrating keratoplasty (PK), anterior lamellar keratoplasty, and endothelial keratoplasty (EK). Indications for corneal transplantation vary between countries, with Fuchs' dystrophy being the leading indication in the USA and keratoconus in Australia. With the exception of the USA, where EK will soon overtake PK as the most common surgical procedure, PK is the overwhelming procedure of choice. Success using corneal grafts in developing nations, such as Nepal, demonstrates the feasibility of corneal transplantation on a global scale. The number of suitable corneas from deceased human donors that becomes available will never be sufficient, and so research into various alternatives, for example stem cells, amniotic membrane transplantation, synthetic and biosynthetic corneas, and xenotransplantation, is progressing. While each of these has potential, we suggest that xenotransplantation holds the greatest potential for a corneal replacement. With the increasing availability of genetically engineered pigs, pig corneas may alleviate the global shortage of corneas in the near future.

  6. Genome-wide association study for rib eye muscle area in a Large White×Minzhu F2 pig resource population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yun-yan; ZHANG Long-chao; WANG Li-xian; LIU Wen-zhong

    2015-01-01

    Rib eye muscle area (REMA) is an economicaly important trait and one of the main selection criteria for breeding in the swine industry. In the genome-wide association study (GWAS), the Ilumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip containing 62163 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used to genotype 557 pigs from a porcine Large White×Minzhu intercross population. The REMA (at the 5th–6th, 10th–11th and the last ribs) was measured after slaughtered at the age of (240±7) d for each animal. Association tests between REMA trait and SNPs were performedvia the Genome-Wide Rapid Asso-ciation using the Mixed Model and Regression-Genomic Control (GRAMMAR-GC) approach. From the Ensembl porcine database, SNP annotation was implemented usingSus scrofa Build 10.2. Thirty-three SNPs on SSC12 and 3 SNPs on SSC2 showed signiifcant association with REMA at the last rib at the chromosome-wide signiifcance level. None of the SNPs of REMA at the 5th–6th rib and only a few numbers of the SNPs of REMA at the 10th–11th ribs were found in this study. The Haploview V3.31 program and the Haplo.Stats R package were used to detect and visualize haplotype blocks and to analyze the association of the detected haplotype blocks with REMA at the last rib. A linkage analysis revealed that 4 haplotype blocks contained 4, 4, 2, and 4 SNPs, respectively. Annotations from pig reference genome suggested 2 genes (NOS2,NLK) in block 1 (266 kb), one gene (TMIGD1) in block 2 (348 kb), and one gene (MAP2K4) in block 3 (453 kb). A functional analysis indicated thatMYH3andMYH13 genes are the potential genes controling REMA at the last rib. We screened several candidate intervals and genes based on the SNPs location and the gene function, and inferred thatNOS2 and NLK genes maybe the main genes of REMA at the last ribs.

  7. On R-W1 as A Diagnostic to Discover Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei in Wide-area X-Ray Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Civano, Francesca; Brusa, Marcella; Stern, Daniel; Glikman, Eilat; Gallagher, Sarah; Urry, C. Meg; Cales, Sabrina; Cappelluti, Nico; Cardamone, Carolin; Comastri, Andrea; Farrah, Duncan; Greene, Jenny E.; Komossa, S.; Merloni, Andrea; Mroczkowski, Tony; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Richards, Gordon; Salvato, Mara; Schawinski, Kevin; Treister, Ezequiel

    2016-02-01

    Capitalizing on the all-sky coverage of WISE and the 35% and 50% sky coverage from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Pan-STARRS, respectively, we explore the efficacy of mR (optical) - {m}3.4μ {{m}} (mid-infrared), hereafter R-W1, as a color diagnostic to identify obscured supermassive black hole accretion in wide-area X-ray surveys. We use the ˜16.5 deg2 Stripe 82 X-ray survey data as a test bed to compare R-W1 with R - K, an oft-used obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) selection criterion, and examine where different classes of objects lie in this parameter space. Most stars follow a well-defined path in R - K versus R-W1 space. We demonstrate that optically normal galaxies hosting X-ray AGNs at redshifts 0.5\\lt z\\lt 1 can be recovered with an R-W1\\gt 4 color cut, while they typically are not selected as AGNs based on their W1-W2 colors. Additionally, different observed X-ray luminosity bins favor different regions in R-W1 parameter space: moderate-luminosity AGNs (1043 erg {{{s}}}-1\\lt {L}0.5-10{keV}\\lt {10}44 erg s-1) tend to have red colors, while the highest-luminosity AGNs ({L}0.5-10{keV}\\gt {10}45 erg s-1) have bluer colors; higher spectroscopic completeness of the Stripe 82X sample is needed to determine whether this is a selection effect or an intrinsic property. Finally, we parameterize X-ray obscuration of Stripe 82X AGNs by calculating their hardness ratios (HRs) and find no clear trends between HR and optical reddening. Our results will help inform best-effort practices in following up obscured AGN candidates in current and future wide-area, shallow X-ray surveys, including the all-sky eROSITA mission.

  8. 基于随机无线信号择优关联的灾区通信盲区车辆定位模型%Based on Random Preferred Associated Areas of The Wireless Signal Communication Blind Zone Model of The Vehicle Positioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤云

    2013-01-01

    提出一种基于随机无线信号择优关联的灾区通信盲区车辆定位模型,分析无线传感网络发射功率对灾区通信盲区的影响,利用灰色系统原理分析灾区通信盲区中随机无线信号间的关联度,依据随机无线信号的关联度大小,排出灾区无线通信盲区信号的优劣次序,将最优的随机无线信号输入灾区车辆定位算法,采用优化的三边测量法获取待定位车辆的位置信息。实验结果说明,该种模型可以对灾区通信盲区的车辆进行准确定位,具有较高的定位效率和鲁棒性,达到了预期的定位要求。%Put forward a kind of wireless signal based on stochastic optimal associated disaster area communication blind zone vehicle positioning model, analysis of wireless sensor network transmission power to the disaster area communication blind area and the effect of using the grey system principle analysis of the disaster area communication blind zone in the wireless signal, the correlation between random based on random wireless signal correlation size, discharge the pros wireless communication signal blind area in the disaster areas, will be the most optimal random wireless signal input in the disaster areas the vehicle localization algorithm, the optimization of the trilateral measurement method is adopted for pending the location information of the vehicle. The result of the experiment shows that this model can be accurate to the disaster area communication blind area of the vehicle positioning, has high efficiency and robustness, has reached the expected requirement.

  9. Blind Source Separation: the Sparsity Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bobin, J.; Starck, Jean-Luc; Moudden, Y.; Fadili, Jalal M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few years, the development of multi-channel sensors motivated interest in methods for the coherent processing of multivariate data. Some specific issues have already been addressed as testified by the wide literature on the so-called blind source separation (BSS) problem. In this context, as clearly emphasized by previous work, it is fundamental that the sources to be retrieved present some quantitatively measurable diversity. Recently, sparsity and morphological diversity have ...

  10. Identification of QTL for UV-protective eye area pigmentation in cattle by progeny phenotyping and genome-wide association analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Pausch

    Full Text Available Pigmentation patterns allow for the differentiation of cattle breeds. A dominantly inherited white head is characteristic for animals of the Fleckvieh (FV breed. However, a minority of the FV animals exhibits peculiar pigmentation surrounding the eyes (ambilateral circumocular pigmentation, ACOP. In areas where animals are exposed to increased solar ultraviolet radiation, ACOP is associated with a reduced susceptibility to bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma (BOSCC, eye cancer. Eye cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumour affecting cattle. Selection for animals with ACOP rapidly reduces the incidence of BOSCC. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL underlying ACOP, we performed a genome-wide association study using 658,385 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The study population consisted of 3579 bulls of the FV breed with a total of 320,186 progeny with phenotypes for ACOP. The proportion of progeny with ACOP was used as a quantitative trait with high heritability (h(2 = 0.79. A variance component based approach to account for population stratification uncovered twelve QTL regions on seven chromosomes. The identified QTL point to MCM6, PAX3, ERBB3, KITLG, LEF1, DKK2, KIT, CRIM1, ATRN, GSDMC, MITF and NBEAL2 as underlying genes for eye area pigmentation in cattle. The twelve QTL regions explain 44.96% of the phenotypic variance of the proportion of daughters with ACOP. The chromosomes harbouring significantly associated SNPs account for 54.13% of the phenotypic variance, while another 19.51% of the phenotypic variance is attributable to chromosomes without identified QTL. Thus, the missing heritability amounts to 7% only. Our results support a polygenic inheritance pattern of ACOP in cattle and provide the basis for efficient genomic selection of animals that are less susceptible to serious eye diseases.

  11. Full-Waveform, Wide-Swath Lidar Imaging of Forested and Urban Areas in Leaf-On Conditions: Development, Results and Future Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, James B.; Hofton, M.; Rabine, David; Welch, Wayne; Ramos, Luis; Padden, Phillip

    2003-01-01

    Full-Waveform lidar measurements provide unprecedented views of the vertical and horizontal structure of vegetation and the topography of the Earth s surface. Utilizing a high signal-to-noise ratio lidar system, larger than typical laser footprints (10-20 m), and the recorded time history of interaction between a short-duration (approx. 10 ns) pulse of laser light and the surface of the Earth, full-waveform lidar is able to simultaneously image sub-canopy topography as well as the vertical structure of any overlying vegetation. These data reveal the true 3-D vegetation structure in leaf-on conditions enabling important biophysical parameters such as above-ground biomass to be estimated with unprecedented accuracy. An airborne lidar mission was conducted July-August 2003 in support of the North America Carbon Program. NASA s Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) was used to image approximately 2,000 km$^2$ in Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Maryland. Areas with available ground and other data were included (e.g., experimental forests, FLUXNET sites) in order to facilitate as many bio- and geophysical investigations as possible. Data collected included ground elevation and canopy height measurements for each laser footprint, as well as the vertical distribution of intercepted surfaces. Data will be publicly distributed within 6- 12 months of collection. Further details of the mission, including the lidar system technology, the locations of the mapped areas, and examples of the numerous data products that can be derived from the return waveform data products will be presented. Future applications including detection of ground and vegetation canopy changes and a spaceborne implementation of wide-swath, full-waveform imaging lidar will also be discussed.

  12. Drawing in the blind and the sighted as a probe of cortical reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likova, Lora T.

    2010-02-01

    In contrast to other arts, such as music, there is a very little neuroimaging research on visual art and in particular - on drawing. Drawing - from artistic to technical - involves diverse aspects of spatial cognition, precise sensorimotor planning and control as well as a rich set of higher cognitive functions. A new method for learning the drawing skill in the blind that we have developed, and the technological advances of a multisensory MR-compatible drawing system, allowed us to run for the first time a comparative fMRI study on drawing in the blind and the sighted. In each population, we identified widely distributed cortical networks, extending from the occipital and temporal cortices, through the parietal to the frontal lobe. This is the first neuroimaging study of drawing in blind novices, as well as the first study on the learning to draw in either population. We sought to determine the cortical reorganization taking place as a result of learning to draw, despite the lack of visual input to the brains of the blind. Remarkably, we found massive recruitment of the visual cortex on learning to draw, although our subjects had no previous experience, but only a short training with our new drawing method. This finding implies a rapid, learning-based plasticity mechanism. We further proposed that the functional level of the brain reorganization in the blind may still differ from that in the sighted even in areas that overlap between the two populations, such as in the visual cortex. We tested this idea in the framework of saccadic suppression. A methodological innovation allowed us to estimate the retinotopic regions locations in the blind brain. Although the visual cortex of both groups was greatly recruited, only the sighted experienced dramatic suppression in hMT+ and V1, while there was no sign of an analogous process in the blind. This finding has important implications and suggests that the recruitment of the visual cortex in the blind does not assure a

  13. A Proxy Blind Signature Scheme Based on ECDLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHaiyan; WANGRuchuan

    2005-01-01

    While proxy signature scheme enables an original signer to fully authorize a proxy to sign a message on his or her behalf legally and undeniably, blind signature scheme keeps the message blind from the signer so that the signer cannot make a linkage between the signature and the identity of requester (receiver). Both schemes have been widely applied in the electronic business. A new ECDLP (Elliptic curve discrete problem)-based proxy blind signature scheme is to be proposed in this paper by integrating the security properties of both schemes.

  14. Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Yara A; Shepard, Donald S; Wittenberg, Eve; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean; Gaugler, Randy; Strickman, Daniel; Clark, Gary G

    2012-09-01

    Using contingent valuation we estimated the perceived value of an area-wide integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. We estimated residents' maximum willingness-to-pay and perceived monetary benefits (willingness-to-pay excluding residents who protested all types of payments) and payment modality through a telephone survey of 51 randomly selected households. The mean (+/- SE) perceived monetary benefits for an enhanced mosquito abatement program was $9.54 +/- 2.90 per capita per year. Most respondents would have been willing to pay through taxes (35%) or charitable donations (6%) starting then, or through one of these approaches in the future (43%), whereas 16% were completely unwilling to pay any additional costs whatsoever. We projected that the perceived monetary benefits to the counties' 1.01 million residents for an enhanced mosquito control program would be $9.61 million annually. Thus, collectively residents perceived monetary benefits of 3.67 times the combined 2008 annual operating costs of the counties' existing mosquito control programs of $2.61 million.

  15. On R-W1 as A Diagnostic to Discover Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei in Wide-Area X-ray Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    LaMassa, Stephanie M; Brusa, Marcella; Stern, Daniel; Glikman, Eilat; Gallagher, Sarah; Urry, C Meg; Cales, Sabrina; Cappelluti, Nico; Cardamone, Carolin; Comastri, Andrea; Farrah, Duncan; Greene, Jenny E; Komossa, S; Merloni, Andrea; Mroczkowski, Tony; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Richards, Gordon; Salvato, Mara; Schawinski, Kevin; Treister, Ezequiel

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing on the all-sky coverage of {\\it WISE}, and the 35\\% and 50\\% sky coverage from SDSS and Pan-STARRS, respectively, we explore the efficacy of $m_{R}$ (optical) - $m_{3.4 \\mu m}$ (mid-infrared), hereafter $R-W1$, as a color diagnostic to identify obscured supermassive black hole accretion in wide-area X-ray surveys. We use the $\\sim$16.5 deg$^2$ Stripe 82 X-ray survey data as a test-bed to compare $R-W1$ with $R-K$, an oft-used obscured AGN selection criterion, and examine where different classes of objects lie in this parameter space. Most stars follow a well-defined path in $R-K$ vs. $R-W1$ space. We demonstrate that optically normal galaxies hosting X-ray AGN at redshifts $0.54$ color-cut, while they typically are not selected as AGN based on their $W1-W2$ colors. Additionally, different observed X-ray luminosity bins favor different regions in $R-W1$ parameter space: moderate luminosity AGN ($10^{43}$ erg s$^{-1} 10^{45}$ erg s$^{-1}$) have bluer colors; higher spectroscopic completeness of th...

  16. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  17. Blindness in designing intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    New investigations of the foundations of artificial intelligence are challenging the hypothesis that problem solving is the cornerstone of intelligence. New distinctions among three domains of concern for humans--description, action, and commitment--have revealed that the design process for programmable machines, such as expert systems, is based on descriptions of actions and induces blindness to nonanalytic action and commitment. Design processes focusing in the domain of description are likely to yield programs like burearcracies: rigid, obtuse, impersonal, and unable to adapt to changing circumstances. Systems that learn from their past actions, and systems that organize information for interpretation by human experts, are more likely to be successful in areas where expert systems have failed.

  18. Blindness as A Challenging Medical and Social Problem in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixing Hu

    2002-01-01

    China, a country with about one fifth of the world' s population, has been gaining a rapideconomic growth since 1980s. This country has around 5 million blind people, accountingfor 18% of the blind in the world. The major causes of blindness include cataract,corneal diseases, trachoma, glaucoma, vitreoretinopathy and a number of factorscontributing to blindness in children. The principal cause of blindness in China was nolonger trachoma but cataracts. Vitamin A deficiency remains a public health problem inthe under-developed areas.Age-related conditions in China, such as vision loss due tocataract and retinal disorders, will increase accordingly if no preventive meaunes aretaken. Glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy appear to be predominant induction of thedevastating blind. In this fast developing country blindness is not only a medical orhealth, but also a social problem. Developed strategies have been adopted simultaneouslyby national efforts under the leadership of the government, international agencies,nongovernmental organizations, as well as private sectors in their every-day work toprevent and treat blindness.

  19. Data Processing of Hadoop-based Wide Area Measurement System%基于Hadoop的广域测量系统数据处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲朝阳; 朱莉; 张士林

    2013-01-01

    To solve the wide area measurement system (WAMS) mass data processing problems such as data redundancy and low processing efficiency, a cloud computing platform based on Hadoop is designed and implemented.The structure of this platform is described first.Then, a WAMS mass data loading method is designed based on Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) and parallel data extraction-transformation-loading (ETL) for multiple file processing by using MapReduce.MPApriori data mining algorithm combined with MapReduce is proposed to discover the interplay of power sites when cascading failures occurred.Finally, through the regional network WAMS actual data processing, the effectiveness of mass data processing on Hadoop is proven.This platform is suitable for mass power grid files data mining by high performance local area network connection of a computer cluster.%为解决目前广域测量系统(WAMS)海量数据处理中存在的数据冗余、处理效率低等问题,设计并实现了一个基于Hadoop的WAMS数据处理云计算平台.首先,给出了平台的体系结构.其次,设计了基于Hadoop分布式文件系统(HDFS)存储的WAMS海量数据加载方法和利用MapReduce模型实现多个文件数据的并行抽取、转换和加载(ETL)操作流程.提出了结合MapReduce的MPApriori数据挖掘算法,用于高效地挖掘出连锁故障时各站点之间的相互影响.最后,通过对区域电网WAMS实际数据进行处理,验证了Hadoop处理海量数据的高效性.所述平台适用于高性能局域网络连接的计算机集群对海量电网数据进行文件数据处理.

  20. Standoff detection of bioaerosols over wide area using a newly developed sensor combining a cloud mapper and a spectrometric LIF lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Sylvie; Simard, Jean-Robert; Roy, Gilles; Lahaie, Pierre; Nadeau, Denis; Mathieu, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    A standoff sensor called BioSense was developed to demonstrate the capacity to map, track and classify bioaerosol clouds from a distant range and over wide area. The concept of the system is based on a two steps dynamic surveillance: 1) cloud detection using an infrared (IR) scanning cloud mapper and 2) cloud classification based on a staring ultraviolet (UV) Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) interrogation. The system can be operated either in an automatic surveillance mode or using manual intervention. The automatic surveillance operation includes several steps: mission planning, sensor deployment, background monitoring, surveillance, cloud detection, classification and finally alarm generation based on the classification result. One of the main challenges is the classification step which relies on a spectrally resolved UV LIF signature library. The construction of this library relies currently on in-chamber releases of various materials that are simultaneously characterized with the standoff sensor and referenced with point sensors such as Aerodynamic Particle Sizer® (APS). The system was tested at three different locations in order to evaluate its capacity to operate in diverse types of surroundings and various environmental conditions. The system showed generally good performances even though the troubleshooting of the system was not completed before initiating the Test and Evaluation (T&E) process. The standoff system performances appeared to be highly dependent on the type of challenges, on the climatic conditions and on the period of day. The real-time results combined with the experience acquired during the 2012 T & E allowed to identify future ameliorations and investigation avenues.

  1. Experimental Demonstration of Blind Quantum Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Barz, Stefanie; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to provide the possibility of preserving the privacy of a computation. Here we show the first such experimental demonstration of blind quantum computation where the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. We demonstrate various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover algorithms. Remarkably, the client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for future unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  2. Sociocultural theory and blind taste-tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Paul Gee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his entertaining 1986 book, The Real Coke, the Real Story, Thomas Oliver tells the story of the now infamous “New Coke”, a story retold in Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005 best-seller Blink. In the early 1980s, Pepsi began running commercials in which people took a sip from two glasses, not knowing which was Coke and which Pepsi. The majority preferred Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company replicated these blind taste-tests and found the same result. Losing market share, Coke—long the dominant brand—changed its old formula and came out with “New Coke”, a soda made to a new formula, one that in a new round of blind taste-tests came out above Pepsi. But New Coke was a disaster.Consumers hated it. Coke not only returned to its old formula, but Pepsi never did overtake Coke, which remains today the dominant brand world-wide.

  3. Noise blind test

    OpenAIRE

    H. Cadet

    2006-01-01

    In the aim of characterizing site condition for seismic risk, the microtremor or ambient noise studies have been developed. The main objective of this blind test is to check of the reliability of results, to observe the user subjectivity (array choice, parameters that are user depend) in the noise recordings analyze. Noise records were analysed on single-station with H/V method and with several sensors for array method to determine the dispersion characteristics of the surface-wave part of th...

  4. FLIPPS for the Blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothe, Hans-Heinrich; Al-Hamdani, Sermed

    2010-01-01

    The idea of FLIPPS is to design, implement, and evaluate a vibro-tactile device that is composed of a photo diode, vibro-tactile stimulator, microcontroller and power supply. The stimulator is attached to the finger tip and activated when light illumination exceeds a defined threshold. The subject...... (blind person) receives the reflected light from the objects and, based on brain plasticity principles, can interactively learn to construct a mental image of the objects and of the scenery. The FLIPPS idea is based on sensory substitution theory; here, substituting visual inputs by haptic vibrations....

  5. Making Visual Maps Accessible to the Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Buzzi, Maria Claudia; Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara; Martusciello, Loredana

    2011-01-01

    Visual maps deliver content in a simple and effective way. They can be useful for various purposes in areas such as street guidance, surrounding information, and education. However, sightless persons are unable to explore visual maps and risk being cut off from several multimedia Web applications. In this paper, starting from accessibility issues of map-based applications, we discuss possible interaction modalities and devices to use for truly achieving usage perspectives desired by blind peo...

  6. The whole story behind blind adaptive equalizers/blind deconvolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pinchas, Monika

    2012-01-01

    This e-book covers a variety of blind deconvolution/equalization methods based on both cost functions and Bayes rules where simulation results are supplied to support the theory - including Maximum Entropy density approximation technique and the Edgeworth Expansion approach used in various blind equalizers.

  7. 高地震烈度地区大跨度桥梁桩基础设计%The Pile Disign of Wide- span Bridge for High- intensity Earthquake Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈国

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces the speciality of the pile disign of wide - span bridge in high - intensity earthquake area base on one wide -span cable -stayed bridge and give some suggestion.%结合某大跨度斜拉桥工程,介绍了高地震烈度地区大跨度桥梁桩基础设计的特殊性,提出合理建议。

  8. POSTERIOR SEGMENT CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN IN BLIND SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is estimated that there are 1.4 million irreversibly blind children in the world out of which 1 million are in Asia alone. India has the highest number of blind children than any other country. Nearly 70% of the childhood blindness is avoidable. There i s paucity of data available on the causes of childhood blindness. This study focuses on the posterior segment causes of blindness among children attending blind schools in 3 adjacent districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a cross sectiona l study conducted among 204 blind children aged 6 - 16 years age. Detailed eye examination was done by the same investigator to avoid bias. Posterior segment examination was done using a direct and/or indirect ophthalmoscope after dilating pupil wherever nec essary. The standard WHO/PBL for blindness and low vision examination protocol was used to categorize the causes of blindness. A major anatomical site and underlying cause was selected for each child. The study was carried out during July 2014 to June 2015 . The results were analyzed using MS excel software and Epi - info 7 software version statistical software. RESULTS: Majority of the children was found to be aged 13 - 16 years (45.1% and males (63.7%. Family history of blindness was noted in 26.0% and consa nguinity was reported in 29.9% cases. A majority of them were belonged to fulfill WHO grade of blindness (73.0% and in majority of the cases, the onset of blindness was since birth (83.7%. The etiology of blindness was unknown in majority of cases (57.4% while hereditary causes constituted 25.4% cases. Posterior segment causes were responsible in 33.3% cases with retina being the most commonly involved anatomical site (19.1% followed by optic nerve (14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for mandatory oph thalmic evaluation, refraction and assessment of low vision prior to admission into blind schools with periodic evaluation every 2 - 3 years

  9. Crossmodal Recruitment of the Ventral Visual Stream in Congenital Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ptito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used functional MRI (fMRI to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform a tactile-form recognition task with the tongue display unit (TDU. Both groups learned the task at the same rate. In line with our hypothesis, the fMRI data showed that during nonhaptic shape recognition, blind subjects activated large portions of the ventral visual stream, including the cuneus, precuneus, inferotemporal (IT, cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv, and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic tactile shape discrimination. The activation of LOtv by nonhaptic tactile shape processing in blind and sighted subjects adds further support to the notion that this area subserves an abstract or supramodal representation of shape. Together with our previous findings, our data suggest that the segregation of the efferent projections of the primary visual cortex into a dorsal and ventral visual stream is preserved in individuals blind from birth.

  10. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    It may seem that deaf-blindness refers to a total inability to see or hear. However, in reality deaf-blindness is a condition in which the combination of hearing and visual losses in children cause "such severe communication and other develop mental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for…

  11. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O . Oduntan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent review of the causes and prevalence of low vision and blindness world wide is lack-ing. Such review is important for highlighting the causes and prevalence of visual impairment in the different parts of the world. Also, it is important in providing information on the types and magnitude of eye care programs needed in different parts of the world. In this article, the causes and prevalence of low vision and blind-ness in different parts of the world are reviewed and  the  socio-economic  and  psychological implications are briefly discussed. The review is based on an extensive review of the litera-ture using computer data bases combined with review of available national, regional and inter-national journals. Low vision and blindness are more prevalent in the developing countries than in the developed ones. Generally, the causes and prevalence of the conditions vary widely in different parts of the world and even within the same country. World wide, cataract is the most common cause of blindness and low vision among adults and elderly. Infectious diseases such as trachoma and onchocerciasis result-ing in low vision and blindness are peculiar to Africa, Asia and South America. Hereditary and congenital conditions are the most common causes of low vision and blindness among chil-dren worldwide.

  12. National Center On Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Profile Logout Menu NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness Help ... Collaborate Project Staff Service Provider Family Member State Deaf-Blind Projects Click on a state on the ...

  13. Real world navigation independence in the early blind correlates with differential brain activity associated with virtual navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halko, Mark A; Connors, Erin C; Sánchez, Jaime; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2014-06-01

    Navigating is a complex cognitive task that places high demands on spatial abilities, particularly in the absence of sight. Significant advances have been made in identifying the neural correlates associated with various aspects of this skill; however, how the brain is able to navigate in the absence of visual experience remains poorly understood. Furthermore, how neural network activity relates to the wide variability in navigational independence and skill in the blind population is also unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural correlates of audio-based navigation within a large scale, indoor virtual environment in early profoundly blind participants with differing levels of spatial navigation independence (assessed by the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale). Performing path integration tasks in the virtual environment was associated with activation within areas of a core network implicated in navigation. Furthermore, we found a positive relationship between Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scores and activation within right temporal parietal junction during the planning and execution phases of the task. These findings suggest that differential navigational ability in the blind may be related to the utilization of different brain network structures. Further characterization of the factors that influence network activity may have important implications regarding how this skill is taught in the blind community.

  14. Blind Known Interference Cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates interference-cancellation schemes at the receiver, in which the original data of the interference is known a priori. Such a priori knowledge is common in wireless relay networks. For example, a transmitting relay could be relaying data that was previously transmitted by a node, in which case the interference received by the node now is actually self information. Besides the case of self information, the node could also have overheard or received the interference data in a prior transmission by another node. Directly removing the known interference requires accurate estimate of the interference channel, which may be difficult in many situations. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme, Blind Known Interference Cancellation (BKIC), to cancel known interference without interference channel information. BKIC consists of two steps. The first step combines adjacent symbols to cancel the interference, exploiting the fact that the channel coefficients are almost the same between successive sy...

  15. Sensing Structures Inspired by Blind Cave Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Michael E.; Chen, Nannan; Lu, David; Anderson, Kyle D.; Hu, Huan; Liu, Chang; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-03-01

    Blind cave fish, with degenerated non-functioning eyes, have evolved to ``see'' their hydrodynamic environment by using the flow receptors of the lateral line system. The hair-cell receptors are encapsulated in a hydrogel-like material, called a cupula, which increases the sensitivity of the hair-cell receptors by coupling their motion to the surrounding flowing media. We characterized the viscoelastic properties and of blind cave fish cupulae by using colloidal-probe spectroscopy in fluid. A photo-patternable hydrogel with similar properties was developed to mimic the fish receptor coupling structure. Flow-based measurements indicated that the hydrogels enhance drag through increased surface area, but also inherent material properties. These bio-inspired structures endowed micro-fabricated flow sensors with sensitivities rivaling that of fish.

  16. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saichin Isipradit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB study in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA <20/400, severe visual impairment (VA <20/200 but ≥20/400, and moderate visual impairment (VA <20/70 but ≥20/200 were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8, 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.6, 12.6% (95% CI: 10.8-14.5. There was no significant difference among the four regions of Thailand. Cataract was the main cause of vision loss accounted for 69.7% of blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. CONCLUSION: Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  17. Computer Simulation to Detect the Blind Spots in Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem (moh'd Said Hatamleh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During driving Changing lanes can be very hazardous on a busy highway. There is region called "blind spot" which is a problem for every car driver since its not covered by the drivers mirrors. Relying solely on the mirrors while changing lane can lead to a collision with another vehicle. This paper focuses on this situation by ensuring that the blind spots of the vehicle are clear prior to the driver attempt to change lanes. This computer simulation incorporates the need for detection and warning of objects present within the blind spot on either side of the vehicle to the driver along with distance measurement of the object relative to the vehicle, incase the driver decides to change lanes. This simulation is constructed using the theory of embedded systems and will alert the driver if there is another car on the blind area.

  18. Morphometric changes of the corpus callosum in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D Louis;

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender. There was no...... overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12......% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus...

  19. Neural correlates of olfactory processing in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, R; Beaulieu-Lefebvre, M; Schneider, F C;

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive neuroplastic changes have been well documented in congenitally blind individuals for the processing of tactile and auditory information. By contrast, very few studies have investigated olfactory processing in the absence of vision. There is ample evidence that the olfactory system...... is highly plastic and that blind individuals rely more on their sense of smell than the sighted do. The olfactory system in the blind is therefore likely to be susceptible to cross-modal changes similar to those observed for the tactile and auditory modalities. To test this hypothesis, we used functional...... subjects more strongly activated primary (right amygdala) and secondary (right orbitofrontal cortex and bilateral hippocampus) olfactory areas. In addition, widespread task-related activations were found throughout the whole extent of the occipital cortex in blind but not in sighted participants...

  20. The willed blindness of humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. It is a willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness...... enables us to see ourselves as moral beings although our lack of reaction to the effects of our actions tells another story. The consequences, especially to animal welfare are outlined and it is briefly discussed whether a solution lies in a new moral vision of our obligations or a new vision of what...

  1. Blind prediction of interfacial water positions in CAPRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Marc F.; Moal, Iain H.; Bates, Paul A.; Kastritis, Panagiotis L.; Melquiond, Adrien S. J.; Karaca, Ezgi; Schmitz, Christophe; van Dijk, Marc; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.; Eisenstein, Miriam; Jimenez-Garcia, Brian; Grosdidier, Solene; Solernou, Albert; Perez-Cano, Laura; Pallara, Chiara; Fernandez-Recio, Juan; Xu, Jianqing; Muthu, Pravin; Kilambi, Krishna Praneeth; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Grudinin, Sergei; Derevyanko, Georgy; Mitchell, Julie C.; Wieting, John; Kanamori, Eiji; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Murakami, Yoichi; Sarmiento, Joy; Standley, Daron M.; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nakamura, Haruki; Chavent, Matthieu; Ritchie, David W.; Park, Hahnbeom; Ko, Junsu; Lee, Hasup; Seok, Chaok; Shen, Yang; Kozakov, Dima; Vajda, Sandor; Kundrotas, Petras J.; Vakser, Ilya A.; Pierce, Brian G.; Hwang, Howook; Vreven, Thom; Weng, Zhiping; Buch, Idit; Farkash, Efrat; Wolfson, Haim J.; Zacharias, Martin; Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Huang, Shen-You; Zou, Xiaoqin; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Kleanthous, Colin; Wodak, Shoshana J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first assessment of blind predictions of water positions at protein-protein interfaces, performed as part of the critical assessment of predicted interactions (CAPRI) community-wide experiment. Groups submitting docking predictions for the complex of the DNase domain of colicin E2 and

  2. Security considerations in blinded exposure experiments using electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christian

    2008-12-01

    Whether exposure to electromagnetic fields well below accepted exposure limits has a cytogenetic effect on human cells has long been debated. It is widely published and generally accepted that the exposure unit invariably used in these experiments is capable of providing blinded exposure conditions. The following short report illustrates, however, that exposure conditions might not always be as effectively masked as is generally assumed.

  3. An experimental study on the environmental performance of the automated blind in summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun [Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Daewoo Engineering and Construction Co., Ltd., 60, Songjuk-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-210 (Korea); Park, Young-Joon; Yeo, Myoung-Souk; Kim, Kwang-Woo [Department of Architecture, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea)

    2009-07-15

    Blinds are used widely in numerous buildings to conserve energy and provide for occupants' comfort in the perimeter zone. However, manual or motorized blinds are limited in their ability to reduce energy consumption and to provide comfort because occupants themselves must operate blinds to block direct solar radiation. Thus, the use of automated blinds would more fully exploit the full benefits of blinds. This study aims to find out whether the environmental performance of a building can be improved by the application of an automated Venetian blind in comparison to a manual or motorized Venetian blind and whether occupants may feel discomfort by the application of an automated Venetian blind in the summer season. This study also aims to find out the insufficiency of the automatic control algorithm of that automated Venetian blind for future study of the development of that algorithm. Through this study, the potential energy savings and the comfort enhancement when using the automated blind was confirmed and the insufficiency of the automatic control algorithm of that was also found out. (author)

  4. LOVE IS COLOR BLIND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦扬

    2013-01-01

    <正>看完这部电影,突然想起小时候看完《辛德勒的名单》后,问过母亲一个问题:"为什么有些人要嘲笑和歧视那些与众不同的人?"母亲告诉我:"我们都是一样的,没有人应当受到责备,每个人都应当为自己而活,要始终坚信‘Love is color blind(爱无定界)’。"爱究竟有无定界?有太多故事让我们相信这句话并非纸上谈兵。《汤姆叔叔的小屋》、《美国往事》、《为黛西小姐开车》……是的,"Love"是"Listen(倾听)",是无条件无偏见地倾听对方的需求,并予以协助;是"Obligate(感恩)",需要不断地感恩,付出爱来灌

  5. Laboratory Techniques for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombaugh, Dorothy

    1972-01-01

    Describes modifications of laboratory procedures for the BSCS Green Version biology, including dissection, microbiology, animal behavior, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics that make the methods suitable for direct experimentation by blind students. Discusses models as substitutes for microscopy. (AL)

  6. Student Art for Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanda, Kay

    1982-01-01

    Describes a project in which high school student volunteers designed art activities for blind children. Students incorporated the sensation of motion and texture into their designs for toys, puzzles, games, and story illustrations. (AM)

  7. American Foundation for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... celebrate and support a workforce that is fully inclusive of people who are blind or visually impaired. 5 great ways to celebrate National Disability Employment Awareness Month College Bound? Transitioning to college and ...

  8. Crossmodal Processing of Haptic Inputs in Sighted and Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Patrice; Alary, Flamine; Lazzouni, Latifa; Chapman, C. E.; Goldstein, Rachel; Bourgoin, Pierre; Lepore, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In a previous behavioral study, it was shown that early blind individuals were superior to sighted ones in discriminating two-dimensional (2D) tactile angle stimuli. The present study was designed to assess the neural substrate associated with a haptic 2D angle discrimination task in both sighted and blind individuals. Subjects performed tactile angle size discriminations in order to investigate whether the pattern of crossmodal occipital recruitment was lateralized as a function of the stimulated hand. Task-elicited activations were also compared across different difficulty levels to ascertain the potential modulatory role of task difficulty on crossmodal processing within occipital areas. We show that blind subjects had more widespread activation within the right lateral and superior occipital gyri when performing the haptic discrimination task. In contrast, the sighted activated the left cuneus and lingual gyrus more so than the blind when performing the task. Furthermore, activity within visual areas was shown to be predictive of tactile discrimination thresholds in the blind, but not in the sighted. Activity within parietal and occipital areas was modulated by task difficulty, where the easier angle comparison elicited more focal occipital activity along with bilateral posterior parietal activity, whereas the more difficult comparison produced more widespread occipital activity combined with reduced parietal activation. Finally, we show that crossmodal reorganization within the occipital cortex of blind individuals was primarily right lateralized, regardless of the stimulated hand, supporting previous evidence for a right-sided hemispheric specialization of the occipital cortex of blind individuals for the processing of tactile and haptic inputs. PMID:27531974

  9. Design and evaluation of area-efficient and wide-range impedance analysis circuit for multichannel high-quality brain signal recording system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Takuma; Tani, Takaharu; Ito, Keita; Nishino, Satoru; Harashima, Takuya; Kino, Hisashi; Kiyoyama, Koji; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2016-04-01

    To enable chronic and stable neural recording, we have been developing an implantable multichannel neural recording system with impedance analysis functions. One of the important things for high-quality neural signal recording is to maintain well interfaces between recording electrodes and tissues. We have proposed an impedance analysis circuit with a very small circuit area, which is implemented in a multichannel neural recording and stimulating system. In this paper, we focused on the design of an impedance analysis circuit configuration and the evaluation of a minimal voltage measurement unit. The proposed circuit has a very small circuit area of 0.23 mm2 designed with 0.18 µm CMOS technology and can measure interface impedances between recording electrodes and tissues in ultrawide ranges from 100 Ω to 10 MΩ. In addition, we also successfully acquired interface impedances using the proposed circuit in agarose gel experiments.

  10. A Blind Robust Watermarking Scheme Based on SVD and Circulant Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noui Oussama

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia security has been the aim point of consi derable research activity because of its wide application area. The major technology to achieve c opyright protection, content authentication, access control and multimedia security is watermark ing which is the process of embedding data into a multimedia element such as image or audio, t his embedded data can later be extracted from, or detected in the embedded element for diffe rent purposes. In this work, a blind watermarking algorithm based on SVD and circulant m atrices has been presented. Every circulant matrix is associated with a matrix for wh ich the SVD decomposition coincides with the spectral decomposition. This leads to improve the C handra algorithm [1], our presentation will include a discussion on the data hiding capacity, w atermark transparency and robustness against a wide range of common image processing att acks.

  11. Blinded trials taken to the test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Forfang, E; Haahr, M T;

    2007-01-01

    Blinding can reduce bias in randomized clinical trials, but blinding procedures may be unsuccessful. Our aim was to assess how often randomized clinical trials test the success of blinding, the methods involved and how often blinding is reported as being successful....

  12. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What It's Like to Be Color Blind KidsHealth > For Kids > What It's Like to Be Color Blind Print A A ... blind. But some people really are color blind. It doesn't mean they can't see any ...

  13. Experiences in management of area-wide control of Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Ghana using bait technology and releases of sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghana is infested with ten species of morsitans, palpalis and fusca groups of tsetse fly in approximately 37% of the country including areas where mixed farming is practiced, hence making animal trypanosomiasis a major constraint to rural agricultural production and other socioeconomic development. There have been many tsetse and trypanosomiasis control schemes implemented since the 1920s using a variety of methods. In the control of animal trypanosomiasis, the country has relied mainly on chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis regimes using homidium chloride (Novidium), diaminazene aceturate (Berenil) and isometamidium chloride (Samorin) in cattle, goats and sheep, keeping of trypanotolerant cattle and game elimination. Methods for tsetse control include discriminate bush clearance, settlements and land use, insecticidal dips, ground spraying of tsetse habitats with insecticides, use of traps of various designs, insecticide-impregnated biconical traps, screens and targets and pour-ons. Despite successes in the various control programmes, the magnitude of the tsetse and trypanosomiasis problem is increasing due to the advance of tsetse flies into previously uninfested areas and development of drug resistance by trypanosome parasites to different types of trypanocidal drugs in use in Ghana. Sustainable tsetse and trypanosomiasis control require the use of appropriate strategies which take into account the environmental and socioeconomic considerations to facilitate adequate community participation. In the 1983 Ghana entered into a Technical Assistance Cooperation Programme with IAEA to provide technical support for the control of riverine tsetse flies in critical cattle-rearing areas in the northern sector of the country

  14. Assessment of blinding success among dental implant clinical trials: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is widely believed that blinding is a cornerstone of randomized clinical trials and that significant bias may result from unsuccessful blinding. However, it is not enough to claim that a clinical trial is single- or double-blinded and that assessment of the success of blinding is ideal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of assessment of blinding success among dental implant clinical trials and to introduce methods of blinding assessment to the implant research community. Methods: In November 2014, PubMed was searched by blinded and experienced researchers with the query "implant AND (blindFNx01 OR maskFNx01" using the following filters: (1 Article type: clinical trial; (2 Journal categories: dental journals; (3 Field: title/abstract. Consequently, title/abstract was reviewed in all relevant articles to find any attempt to assess the success of blinding in dental implant clinical trials. Results: The PubMed search results yielded 86 clinical trials. The point of interest is that when "blindFNx01 OR maskFNx01" was deleted from the query, the number of results increased to 1688 clinical trials. This shows that only 5% of dental implant clinical trials tried to use blinding. Disappointingly, we could not find any dental implant clinical trial reporting any attempt to assess the success of blinding. Conclusion: The current status of turning a blind eye to unblinding in dental implant clinical trials is not tolerable and needs to be improved. Researchers, protocol reviewers, local ethical committees, journal reviewers, and editors should make a concerted effort to incorporate, report, and publish such information to understand its potential impact on study results.

  15. Blind Recognition Algorithm of Turbo Codes for Communication Intelligence Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Naseri; Omid Azmoon; Samad Fazeli

    2011-01-01

    Turbo codes are widely used in land and space radio communication systems, and because of complexity of structure, are custom in military communication systems. In electronic warfare, COMINT systems make attempt to recognize codes by blind ways. In this Paper, the algorithm is proposed for blind recognition of turbo code parameters like code kind, code-word length, code rate, length of interleaver and delay blocks number of convolution code. The algorithm calculations volume is0.5L3+1.25L, th...

  16. A Robust Algorithm for Blind Total Variation Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xu; Qian-shun Chang

    2008-01-01

    Image restoration is a fundamental problem in image processing. Blind image restoration has a great value in its practical application. However, it is not an easy problem to solve due to its complexity and difficulty. In this paper, we combine our robust algorithm for known blur operator with an alternating minimization implicit iterative scheme to deal with blind deconvolution problem, recover the image and identify the point spread function(PSF). The only assumption needed is satisfy the practical physical sense. Numerical experiments demonstrate that this minimization algorithm is efficient and robust over a wide range of PSF and have almost the same results compared with known PSF algorithm.

  17. Blind Recognition Algorithm of Turbo Codes for Communication Intelligence Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Naseri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Turbo codes are widely used in land and space radio communication systems, and because of complexity of structure, are custom in military communication systems. In electronic warfare, COMINT systems make attempt to recognize codes by blind ways. In this Paper, the algorithm is proposed for blind recognition of turbo code parameters like code kind, code-word length, code rate, length of interleaver and delay blocks number of convolution code. The algorithm calculations volume is0.5L3+1.25L, therefore it is suitable for real time systems.

  18. Crustal structure across the Three Gorges area of the Yangtze platform, central China, from seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Bai, Z.; Mooney, W.; Wang, C.; Chen, X.; Wang, E.; Teng, J.; Okaya, N.

    2009-01-01

    We present active-source seismic data recorded along a 300??km-long profile across the Three Gorges area of the western Yangtze platform, central China. From west to east, the profile crosses the Zigui basin, Huangling dome and Jianghan basin. The derived crustal P-wave velocity structure changes significantly across the Tongchenghe fault that lies at the transition from the Huangling dome to the Jianghan basin. West of the Tongchenghe fault, beneath the Zigui basin and the Huangling dome, we observe a ~ 42??km thick crust of relatively low average velocity (6.3-6.4??km/s). In contrast, east of the Tongchenghe fault, beneath the Jianghan basin, the crust is only 30??km thick and has a high average velocity (6.6-6.7??km/s). A west-east variation in crustal composition along the Tongchenghe fault is also inferred. West of the fault, P-wave velocities suggest a felsic composition with an intermediate layer at the base of the crust, whilst, east of the fault, felsic, intermediate, and mafic crustal layers are apparent. Our results suggest that the crust beneath the Jianghan basin has been thinned by rifting, accompanied by intrusion of the lower crust by mafic dikes and sills. The west-to-east division of the crust in the Three Gorges area coincides with first-order geophysical contrasts in gravity, topography, crustal and lithospheric thickness. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Multiframe Blind Super Resolution Imaging Based on Blind Deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元伟; 张立毅

    2016-01-01

    As an ill-posed problem, multiframe blind super resolution imaging recovers a high resolution image from a group of low resolution images with some degradations when the information of blur kernel is limited. Note that the quality of the recovered image is influenced more by the accuracy of blur estimation than an advanced regularization. We study the traditional model of the multiframe super resolution and modify it for blind deblurring. Based on the analysis, we proposed two algorithms. The first one is based on the total variation blind deconvolution algorithm and formulated as a functional for optimization with the regularization of blur. Based on the alternating minimization and the gradient descent algorithm, the high resolution image and the unknown blur kernel are esti-mated iteratively. By using the median shift and add operator, the second algorithm is more robust to the outlier influence. The MSAA initialization simplifies the interpolation process to reconstruct the blurred high resolution image for blind deblurring and improves the accuracy of blind super resolution imaging. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority and accuracy of our novel algorithms.

  20. Management and Area-wide Evaluation of Water Conservation Zones in Agricultural Catchments for Biomass Production, Water Quality and Food Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global land and water resources are under threat from both the agricultural and urban development to meet increased demand for food and from the resulting degradation of the environment. Poor crop yields due to water stress is one of the main reasons for the prevailing hunger and rural poverty in parts of the world. The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s particularly in Latin America and Asia resulted in increased agricultural production and depended partly on water management. In the future, most food will still need to come from rain-fed agriculture. Water conservation zones in agricultural catchments, particularly in rainfed areas, play an important role in the capture and storage of water and nutrients from farmlands and wider catchments, and help improve crop production in times of need in these areas. Water conservation zones are considered to be an important part of water resource management strategies that have been developed to prevent reservoir siltation, reduce water quality degradation, mitigate flooding, enhance groundwater recharge and provide water for farming. In addition to making crop production possible in dry areas, water conservation zones minimize soil erosion, improve soil moisture status through capillary rise and enhance soil fertility and quality. These water conservation zones include natural and constructed wetlands (including riparian wetlands), farm ponds and riparian buffer zones. The management of water conservation zones has been a challenge due to the poor understanding of the relationship between upstream land use and the functions of these zones and their internal dynamics. Knowledge of sources and sinks of water and redefining water and nutrient budgets for water conservation zones are important for optimizing the capture, storage and use of water and nutrients in agricultural landscapes. The overall objective of this coordinated research project (CRP) was to assess and enhance ecosystem services provided by wetlands, ponds

  1. Widely tunable alloy composition and crystal structure in catalyst-free InGaAs nanowire arrays grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, J.; Speckbacher, M.; Saller, K.; Morkötter, S.; Döblinger, M.; Xu, X.; Riedl, H.; Abstreiter, G.; Finley, J. J.; Koblmüller, G.

    2016-02-01

    We delineate the optimized growth parameter space for high-uniformity catalyst-free InGaAs nanowire (NW) arrays on Si over nearly the entire alloy compositional range using selective area molecular beam epitaxy. Under the required high group-V fluxes and V/III ratios, the respective growth windows shift to higher growth temperatures as the Ga-content x(Ga) is tuned from In-rich to Ga-rich InGaAs NWs. Using correlated x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy, we identify structural defects to govern luminescence linewidths in In-rich (x(Ga) 0.6) NWs, whereas limitations at intermediate Ga-content (0.4 blue-shifted to red-shifted photoluminescence emission relative to the band edge emission of the bulk ZB InGaAs phase.

  2. Widely tunable alloy composition and crystal structure in catalyst-free InGaAs nanowire arrays grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treu, J., E-mail: Julian.Treu@wsi.tum.de, E-mail: Gregor.Koblmueller@wsi.tum.de; Speckbacher, M.; Saller, K.; Morkötter, S.; Xu, X.; Riedl, H.; Abstreiter, G.; Finley, J. J.; Koblmüller, G., E-mail: Julian.Treu@wsi.tum.de, E-mail: Gregor.Koblmueller@wsi.tum.de [Walter Schottky Institut, Physik Department, Center of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, Garching 85748 (Germany); Döblinger, M. [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Butenandtstr. 5-13, Munich 81377 (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    We delineate the optimized growth parameter space for high-uniformity catalyst-free InGaAs nanowire (NW) arrays on Si over nearly the entire alloy compositional range using selective area molecular beam epitaxy. Under the required high group-V fluxes and V/III ratios, the respective growth windows shift to higher growth temperatures as the Ga-content x(Ga) is tuned from In-rich to Ga-rich InGaAs NWs. Using correlated x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy, we identify structural defects to govern luminescence linewidths in In-rich (x(Ga) < 0.4) and Ga-rich (x(Ga) > 0.6) NWs, whereas limitations at intermediate Ga-content (0.4 < x(Ga) < 0.6) are mainly due to compositional inhomogeneities. Most remarkably, the catalyst-free InGaAs NWs exhibit a characteristic transition in crystal structure from wurtzite to zincblende (ZB) dominated phase near x(Ga) ∼ 0.4 that is further reflected in a cross-over from blue-shifted to red-shifted photoluminescence emission relative to the band edge emission of the bulk ZB InGaAs phase.

  3. 20 CFR 416.983 - How we evaluate statutory blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we evaluate statutory blindness. 416.983... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.983 How we evaluate statutory blindness. We will find that you are blind if you are statutorily blind within the meaning...

  4. 20 CFR 416.982 - Blindness under a State plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blindness under a State plan. 416.982 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.982 Blindness under a State... plan because of your blindness for the month of December 1973; and (c) You continue to be blind...

  5. Wide-area estimates of evapotranspiration by red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and associated vegetation in the Murray-Darling River Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Doody, Tanya M.; Glenn, Edward P.; Jarchow, Christopher J; Barreto-Munoz, Armando; Didan, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    Floodplain red gum forests (Eucalyptus camaldulensis plus associated grasses, reeds and sedges) are sites of high biodiversity in otherwise arid regions of southeastern Australia. They depend on periodic floods from rivers, but dams and diversions have reduced flood frequencies and volumes, leading to deterioration of trees and associated biota. There is a need to determine their water requirements so environmental flows can be administered to maintain or restore the forests. Their water requirements include the frequency and extent of overbank flooding, which recharges the floodplain soils with water, as well as the actual amount of water consumed in evapotranspiration (ET). We estimated the flooding requirements and ET for a 38 134 ha area of red gum forest fed by the Murrumbidgee River in Yanga National Park, New South Wales. ET was estimated by three methods: sap flux sensors placed in individual trees; a remote sensing method based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index from MODIS satellite imagery and a water balance method based on differences between river flows into and out of the forest. The methods gave comparable estimates yet covered different spatial and temporal scales. We estimated flood frequency and volume requirements by comparing Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values from Landsat images with flood history from 1995 to 2014, which included both wet periods and dry periods. ET during wet years is about 50% of potential ET but is much less in dry years because of the trees' ability to control stomatal conductance. Based on our analyses plus other studies, red gum trees at this location require environmental flows of 2000 GL yr−1 every other year, with peak flows of 20 000 ML d−1, to produce flooding sufficient to keep them in good condition. However, only about 120–200 GL yr−1 of river water is consumed in ET, with the remainder flowing out of the forest where it enters the Murray River system.

  6. Access to Mathematics by Blind Students: A Global Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur I. Karshmer; Daryoush D. Farsi

    2007-01-01

    The issue of blindness and legally blind is becoming a global issue. Based on the last statistics from American Foundation for the blind, there are approximately 10 million blind and visually impaired people in the United States alone. Over 45 million people around the world are completely blind. 180 million more people are legally blind, and approximately 7 million people are diagnosed as blind or legally blind every year. One of the greatest stumbling blocks in the ability of the blind to e...

  7. 基于果蝇优化算法的广域阻尼控制器设计%Design method of wide-area damping controller based on FOA algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇凯; 胡志坚; 索江镭; 陈珍

    2014-01-01

    针对大规模互联电网区间低频振荡问题,提出了基于果蝇优化算法(Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm, FOA)的广域阻尼控制器设计方法。以标准16机68节点系统为例,对系统进行线性化,并进行模态分析,找出系统区间振荡模式及阻尼比。根据区域低频振荡模式下参与因子选择广域反馈信号。分析了广域控制器结构,并采用FOA算法对其参数进行优化。仿真结果表明,提出的广域控制器方法能有效地提高区间振荡阻尼比,为电力系统低频振荡优化控制提供了新的思路。%With regard to the inter-area low-frequency oscillation problems in large-scale interconnected power system, a design method based on Fruit fly Optimization Algorithm (FOA) for the wide-area damping controller is proposed. The 16-machine 68-bus power system is employed to validate the effectiveness of the method presented. The system is linearized at first, and modal analysis is conducted to find out the interval oscillation modes and corresponding damping ratios, under which the rotor speed participation factors are obtained. Through the participation factors the wide-area feedback signal is selected appropriately. Afterwards, the structure of the wide-area controller is analyzed and the FOA algorithm is adopted to optimize the parameters. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed design method of wide-area controller can better improve the inter-area oscillation damping ratios, which provides a new thought for the optimal control of low-frequency oscillation.

  8. New treatments of hereditary blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Rosenberg, Thomas; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life and a structura......Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life and a...... structurally intact retinal tissue to adult life with a complete loss of photoreceptors. It must be assumed that some of the trials will succeed in producing new therapies and action must be taken to refine and accelerate diagnostics and to preserve therapeutic potential in blind people....

  9. PROXY BLIND SIGNATURE BASED ON ECDLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATARUPA PRADHAN,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Proxy blind signature combines the properties of both proxy signature and blind signature. In a proxy signature scheme, a signer delegates his signing power to a proxy, who signs a message on behalf of the original signer. In a blind signature scheme, the signer cannot link the relationship between the blind message and the signature of the chosen message. Therefore, it is very suitable for electronic commerceapplication. In this paper, a proxy blind signature scheme based on ECDLP (Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem has been proposed, which satisfy the security properties of both the blind signature and the proxy signature. Analysis shows that our scheme is secure and efficient.

  10. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  11. [The punishment of blinding and the life of the blind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Jan Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with a group of people who were deprived of their eyesight by private acts of force or by executions of lawful sentences. In early medieval texts blinding is frequently mentioned in connection with popes, kings, princes or bishops. However, since the High Middle Ages these dignitaries were increasingly spared the loss of their eyes. It may be said that on the whole, from the eighth to the twelfth century, blinding was overwhelmingly used to dispose of political adversaries, but did then rapidly turn into a criminal punishment. In the earliest 'Landfriedensordnungen' of the late eleventh century, the loss of the perpetrator's eyes crops up as punishment for breach of the peace, while later it was applied to a variety of more or less serious offences. The destiny of the blinded in the early Middle Ages is only highlighted by sketches of a few individual cases; for the High and late Middle Ages--apart from a few notable exceptions--it is only possible to reflect on the general situation of blind people in society, since the sources usually do not differentiate between those having lost their sight through human violence or due to other causes. PMID:20506724

  12. Blinding in randomized clinical trials: imposed impartiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I

    2011-01-01

    Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations...

  13. The Concept and Operations of Blind Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Yan-jun; LIU Kai-di; ZHANG Bo-wen

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the definition and operations of blind number, and discusses its operationproperties. Blind number is a mathematical tool to express and deal with complex information with severalkinds of uncertainty.

  14. Elliptic Curve Blind Digital Signature Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOULin; YANGYixian; WENQiaoyan

    2003-01-01

    Blind signature schemes are important cryptographic protocols in guaranteeing the privacy or anonymity of the users.Three new blind signature schemes and their corresponding generalizations are pro-posed. Moreover, their securities are simply analyzed.

  15. Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160254.html Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans Losing vision would ... 4, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Blindness is what many Americans fear most, a new ...

  16. Blinding in randomized clinical trials: imposed impartiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I

    2011-01-01

    Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations and...

  17. Convolutive Blind Source Separation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Larsen, Jan; Kjems, Ulrik;

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, much attention has been given to the separation of mixed sources, in particular for the blind case where both the sources and the mixing process are unknown and only recordings of the mixtures are available. In several situations it is desirable to recover all sources fro...

  18. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reading lip-reading speech Along with nonverbal and verbal conversations, a child who is deaf-blind needs a reliable routine of meaningful activities, and some way or ways that this routine can be communicated to her or him. Touch cues, gestures, and use of object symbols are some ...

  19. Vesicouterine fistula and blind vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of vesicouterine fistula with blind vagina following cesarean section for obstructed labor is presented. It was surgically treated by fistulectomy, cervicoplasty and maintenance of bladder and cervical potency by catheterization. Intrauterine synechiae formation was prevented by copper T insertion and oral contraceptive pills. The patient is making uneventful a symptomatic progress planning to conceive. (author)

  20. Tactile maze solving in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C;

    2010-01-01

    Vision is undoubtedly important for navigation although not essential as blind individuals outperform their blindfolded seeing counterparts in a variety of navigational tasks. It is believed that the blind's superior performance is because of their efficient use of proprioceptive signals and envi......Vision is undoubtedly important for navigation although not essential as blind individuals outperform their blindfolded seeing counterparts in a variety of navigational tasks. It is believed that the blind's superior performance is because of their efficient use of proprioceptive signals...

  1. ICPP digital wide area portal monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portal montior is described which is used to check personnel for contamination. The monitor is extremely sensitive. In addition to personnel contamination control, it serves as an extremely effective SNM detector capable of detecting U-235 in half the quantities specified in Federal Standards

  2. Wide Area Wind Field Monitoring Status & Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Marchant; Jed Simmons

    2011-09-30

    Volume-scanning elastic has been investigated as a means to derive 3D dynamic wind fields for characterization and monitoring of wind energy sites. An eye-safe volume-scanning lidar system was adapted for volume imaging of aerosol concentrations out to a range of 300m. Reformatting of the lidar data as dynamic volume images was successfully demonstrated. A practical method for deriving 3D wind fields from dynamic volume imagery was identified and demonstrated. However, the natural phenomenology was found to provide insufficient aerosol features for reliable wind sensing. The results of this study may be applicable to wind field measurement using injected aerosol tracers.

  3. Area Wide Road User Charging in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildebogaard, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of a distance based road user charging scheme and the research programme FORTRIN at DTU is introduced.......The paper presents the concept of a distance based road user charging scheme and the research programme FORTRIN at DTU is introduced....

  4. Color Blindness Defect and Medical Laboratory Technologists: Unnoticed Problems and the Care for Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dargahi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "nColor -blindness is the inability to perceive differences between some color that other people can distinguish. Using a literature search , the results indicate the prevalence of color vision deficiency in the medical profession and its on medical skills. Medical laboratory technicians and technologists employees should also screen for color blindness. This research aimed to study color blindness prevalence among Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees and Students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS. A cross- sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 633 TUMS Clinical Laboratory Sciences' Students and Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees to detect color - blindness problems by Ishihara Test. The tests were first screened with certain pictures, then compared to the Ishihara criteria to be possible color defective were tested further with other plates to determine color - blindness defects. The data was saved using with SPSS software and analyzed by statistical methods. This is the first study to determine the prevalence of color - blindness in Clinical Laboratory Sciences' Students and Employees. 2.4% of TUMS Medical Laboratory Sciences Students and Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees are color- blind. There is significant correlation between color - blindness and sex and age. But the results showed that there is not significant correlation between color -blindness defect and exposure to chemical agents, type of job , trauma and surgery history, history of familial defect and race. It would be a wide range of difficulties by color blinded students and employees in their practice of laboratory diagnosis and techniques with a potentially of errors. We suggest color blindness as a medical conditions should restrict employment choices for medical laboratory technicians and technologists job in Iran.

  5. Resources for Visually Impaired or Blind Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Suggests resources for school librarians who need materials for visually impaired or blind students. Highlights include the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped; Louis Database of Accessible Materials for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired; Braille books; large print books, audio books; assistive technology; and…

  6. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  7. 45 CFR 233.70 - Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blindness. 233.70 Section 233.70 Public Welfare... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.70 Blindness. (a) State plan requirements. A State plan under title X or XVI of the Social Security Act must: (1) Contain a definition of blindness in terms of...

  8. BLIND ADAPTIVE XPIC BASED ON HOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Haiyang; Yang Longxiang; Peng Jianglong

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new blind XPIC and a new adaptive blind deconvolutional algorithm based on HOS processing, which separates and equalizes the signals in real time. The simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed adaptive blind algorithm,compared with the conventional algorithms, is outstanding with the feature of feasibility, stability and fast convergence rate.

  9. A semiotic approach to blind wayfinding: some primary conceptual standpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers from a wide variety of disciplines, such as philosophy, art, education or psychology, have over the years sustained the idea that blind persons are incapable or nearly incapable of formulating complex mental diagrammatic representations, which are schema based on the similarities found within internal logical relations between sign and object.Contrary to this widely accepted opinion, we will present an alternative approach in this paper: Our main idea is that blind and visually impaired people relying upon tact as a main knowledge source are capable of diagrammatic reasoning very well, but use a different method for this purpose, namely the method of inductive reasoning. Such method can effectively provide the mind with the data necessary to the elaboration of mental maps. Therefore, wayfinding as a semiotic process in which a route is planned and executed from marks or navigation indexes, is also enabled by tact.

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF COLOR-BLIND AID SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruki Harwahyu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Color-blind is a physical defect causing patient loses the ability to recognize colors either particular or the whole of them. This disability is problematic in daily life, moreover in some specific areas that require carefulness eyesight. We propose a vision aid kit with improved user experience, such as finger pointer and voice command-and-response. Our work proofs the design and implementation of color-blind aid system for embedded and mobile device. This study used Windows Embedded Standard 2009, Windows Phone 7, Speech API library, Open CV library and EmguCV wrapper. The performance of each functionality is evaluated. From various testing that are conducted, the system can best detect color samples with precision level of 90.67% on embedded device implementation and 95.33% on mobile device implementation. The best fingertip detection rate attained is 89.6% with normal lighting condition. The voice command works with detection rate of 75.87%, meanwhile for the synthesized speech response, 88, 33% respondents can understood the words well.

  11. Sparsity and Morphological Diversity in Blind Source Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Bobin, Jérome; Starck, Jean-Luc; Fadili, Jalal M.; Moudden, Yassir

    2007-01-01

    Over the last few years, the development of multichannel sensors motivated interest in methods for the coherent processing of multivariate data. Some specific issues have already been addressed as testified by the wide literature on the so-caIled blind source separation (BSS) problem. In this context, as clearly emphasized by previous work, it is fundamental that the sources to be retrieved present some quantitatively measurable diversity. Recently, sparsity and morphological diversity have e...

  12. From" Televised Blind Date” to" Televised Half-blind Wedding”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates” , arranged by a television station. It is interesting to see how a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding” to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that 1 think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out.

  13. From "Televised Blind Date" to "Televised Half-blind Wedding"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates", arranged by a television station, It is interesting to see bow a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding" to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that I think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out. In the beginning, the directors of FOX put ads in newspapers, openly asking the public: "Who wants to marry a multi-millionaire?" It did not cost much time or

  14. Blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils at schools for the blind in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Ruhagaze; Kahaki Kimani Margaret Njuguna; Lévi Kandeke; Paul Courtright

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils attending schools for the blind in Burundi in order to assist planning for services in the country. Materials and Methods: All pupils attending three schools for the blind in Burundi were examined. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision was used to record the findings. Data was analyzed for those who became blind or severely visually impaired be...

  15. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in Western Rwanda: Blindness in a Postconflict Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Wanjiku Mathenge; John Nkurikiye; Hans Limburg; Hannah Kuper

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. VISION 2020, a global initiative that aims to eliminate avoidable blindness, has estimated that 75% of blindness worldwide is treatable or preventable. The WHO estimates that in Africa, around 9% of adults aged over 50 are blind. Some data suggest that people living in regions affected by violent conflict are more likely to be blind than those living in unaffected regions. Currently no data exist on the likely prevalence of blindness in Rwanda, a central African c...

  16. Plant based insect repellent and insecticide treated bed nets to protect against malaria in areas of early evening biting vectors: double blind randomised placebo controlled clinical trial in the Bolivian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, N.; Lenglet, A; Arnéz, A M; Carneiro, I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness in reducing malaria of combining an insect repellent with insecticide treated bed nets compared with the nets alone in an area where vector mosquitoes feed in the early evening.

  17. 基于正序故障分量方向比较原理的广域继电保护算法%A Wide-area Relaying Protection Algorithm Based on Positive Sequence Power Direction Comparison Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金恩淑; 张译丹; 汪有成

    2016-01-01

    To deeply research direction longitudinal wide-area protection algorithm,get a wide-area relay protection al-gorithm, the principle of the algorithm is of positive sequence fault direction, use of intelligent electronic devices posi-tioning,will line,busbar IED correlation domain. In the system failure,through the IED in correlation domain of fail-ure information collection and sharing, combined with the definition of fault principle, you can find the fault location. By setting up corresponding strategy of IED,quick troubleshooting.%对广域方向纵联保护算法进行深入研究,得到一种广域继电保护算法,该算法的原理是对正序故障方向进行比较:利用智能电子设备IED (Intelligent Electric Device,IED)的定位,将线路、母线组成IED关联域。在这个系统出现故障时,通过IED在关联域内对故障信息的采集和共享,结合文中定义的故障判别原则,可以得出发生故障的位置。通过IED设定的相应策略,快速排除故障。

  18. The effect of display timing on change blindness in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbranson, Walter T; Davis, Eva T

    2016-01-01

    Change blindness is a phenomenon in which even obvious changes in a visual scene may go unnoticed. Recent research has indicated that this phenomenon may not be exclusive to humans. Two experiments investigated change blindness in pigeons, using a variant of the widely-used flicker task to investigate the influence of display timing on change blindness. Results indicate that the duration of time during which a stimulus display is visible influences change detection accuracy, with the effect due to additional search time. The results are discussed in relation to the value of comparative cognition and cross-species investigations of behavior.

  19. 基于广域测量系统的暂态失稳判别方法适应性研究%Adaptability Study on Wide Area Measurement System Based Transient Instability Detection Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖永; 金小明; 付超; 门锟; 徐梅梅; 陈建斌

    2015-01-01

    分析了在广泛应用相量测量单元( phasor measurement unit, PMU)和广域测量系统( wide area measurement sys-tem, WAMS)的情况下,电力系统的受扰轨迹规律,研究了基于WAMS的暂态稳定判别技术,分析了状态量门槛值判别方法、基于相平面轨迹凹凸性判别方法、基于单机能量函数判别方法及基于实测轨迹的扩展等面积准则( extended equal area criteria, EEAC)判别方法等的原理及特点。以2012年南方电网丰大计算数据为基础,以实际系统为研究平台,通过仿真分析验证,从准确性、快速性及对测量的要求等方面,对比分析了暂态失稳判据的优缺点及适用性,为工程化应用提供了重要参考。%With consideration of the wide application of phasor measurement unit ( PMU ) and wide area measurement system ( WAMS) in power system, the disturbed track pattern of the power system is analyzed. By studying the WAMS based transient stabil-ity detection technology, the principles and characteristics of several detection methods are studied including status threshold value de-tection, concave and convex trajectory of phase detection, generator energy function detection, and measured trajectory based extended equal area criteria ( EEAC) detection. Based on a practical system with actual 2012 CSG heavy load mode data, simulation analysis is carried out on accuracy, speediness and measurement requirements of these detection methods, the merits and faults and applicability of these detection methods are compared to provide reference for engineering application.

  20. Brain mapping in a patient with congenital blindness – a case for multimodal approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarod L Roland

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in basic neuroscience research across a wide range of methodologies have contributed significantly to our understanding of human cortical electrophysiology and functional brain imaging. Translation of this research into clinical neurosurgery has opened doors for advanced mapping of functionality that previously was prohibitively difficult, if not impossible. Here we present the case of a unique individual with congenital blindness and medically refractory epilepsy who underwent neurosurgical treatment of her seizures. Pre-operative evaluation presented the challenge of accurately and robustly mapping the cerebral cortex for an individual with a high probability of significant cortical re-organization. Additionally, a blind individual has unique priorities in one’s ability to read Braille by touch and sense the environment primarily by sound than the non-vision impaired person. For these reasons we employed additional measures to map sensory, motor, speech, language, and auditory perception by employing a number of cortical electrophysiologic mapping and functional magnetic resonance imaging methods. Our data show promising results in the application of these adjunctive methods in the pre-operative mapping of otherwise difficult to localize, and highly variable, functional cortical areas.

  1. Detecting Signage and Doors for Blind Navigation and Wayfinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuihua; Yang, Xiaodong; Tian, Yingli

    2013-07-01

    Signage plays a very important role to find destinations in applications of navigation and wayfinding. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to detect doors and signage to help blind people accessing unfamiliar indoor environments. In order to eliminate the interference information and improve the accuracy of signage detection, we first extract the attended areas by using a saliency map. Then the signage is detected in the attended areas by using a bipartite graph matching. The proposed method can handle multiple signage detection. Furthermore, in order to provide more information for blind users to access the area associated with the detected signage, we develop a robust method to detect doors based on a geometric door frame model which is independent to door appearances. Experimental results on our collected datasets of indoor signage and doors demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method.

  2. Evaluation of children in six blind schools of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornby Stella

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: 1.To determine the anatomical site and underlying causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in special education in Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. To compare the causes of blindness in two different regions in the state. 3. To evaluate improvement with correction of refractive error and low-vision devices (LVDs Methods: Children in 6 schools for the blind and in 3 integrated education programmes were examined by one ophthalmologist, and were refracted and assessed for LVDs by an optometrist. The major anatomical site and underlying aetiology of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL; <6/60 in the better eye were recorded using the standardised WHO reporting form. Results: Two hundred and ninety one students under 16 years were examined, and after refraction, 267 (91.7% were classified as being severely visually impaired or blind. The most common anatomical sites of SVI/BL were retina in 31.1% children; cornea in 24.3%; and whole globe in 20.2%. The aetiology was unknown in 38.2%, hereditary in 34.8% and childhood causes in 24%. 114 children (39.2% had functional low vision (i.e. visual acuity <6/18 to light perception with navigational vision. In this group, 36 children improved with spectacles and 16 benefited by LVDs. 41 children (15.4% were able to read N10 point though they were studying Braille. Conclusion: Overall 37.4% of children had "avoidable" causes of blindness. The major avoidable causes were vitamin-A deficiency and cataract. Vitamin-A deficiency and congenital anomalies were more common in the dry plateau areas of the state. One in seven children could read normal print with optical support.

  3. Use dependent limb dominence and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs in the congenitally blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayananda Giriyappa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Vision has been considered as the dominant modality in the human multi-sensory perception of the surroundings. The congenitally blind individuals use cortical areas that are normally reserved for vision during Braille reading. Use-dependent reorganization and neural plasticity changes occur as a consequence of many events, including the normal development and maturation of the organism, the acquisition of new skills. The research was designed to study the effect of blindness on SEPs in the dominant hand (Braille reading hand compared to the non dominant (non Braille reading hand in the congenitally blind. Material and methods: SEPs were recorded in 15 Braille reading congenitally blind females and compared with 15 age matched normal sighted females following right and left index finger stimulation. Latency and amplitudes of SEP waveforms (N9, N13, and N20 were measured. Results: The SEP-N20 amplitude was significantly increased in the congenitally blind (p < 0.0001 for right index finger and p < 0.005 for left index finger. There is a very large effect of blindness (3.11 on right index finger. Conclusions: The congenitally blind individuals have larger N20 amplitude, which is suggestive of greater somatosensory cortical activity. Effect of blindness and Braille reading skills is greater on SEPs recorded from the dominant and preferred hand. A varied contribution from Basic mechanisms in plasticity like neurogenesis, activity-dependent synaptic and neuronal plasticity may be involved.

  4. Influence of play on the psycho-physical development of the adult blind.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemkina V.I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of correction of the motor areas of adults blind tools of the game. The study used grounds teaching conditions correct motor areas of adults with acquired blindness. To study the practice of correctional work with adult blind and its effectiveness has been used methods of observation and testing. Determination of the effectiveness of the developed pedagogical conditions of correction of the motor areas of adults with acquired blindness means game activities was provided by pedagogical experiment. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of empirical data was carried out by methods of mathematical statistics. This paper provides theoretical and methodological generalizations and scientific problem solving new correction motor areas of adults aged 22-35 years blind means playing activity that appears in the scientific substantiation of the complex pedagogical conditions of correction of the motor areas of adults with acquired blindness means game activities. It is shown that the systematic use of motor activity enhances mobility of those who engaged in it, and provides a complete assimilation of vital movements, the development of motor skills and ability to orientation in space.

  5. “一网双平面”--一种新的广域骨干网络架构①%“One Network Double Plane”-A New Wide-Area Backbone Network Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海波

    2013-01-01

      “一网双平面”架构是广域骨干承载平台架构的一种。通过将广域骨干承载平台的骨干网络划分为两个逻辑独立的环网,形成“一个骨干网络、两个平面(转发平面和控制平面)”的一种新的网络架构。%“A net double plane”architecture is a wide-area backbone bearing platform architecture. The backbone of the bearing platform through the wan backbone network is divided into two logical independent ring networks, forming“a backbone network, two planes (the forwarding plane and control plane)”of a new kind of network architecture.

  6. A Survey on Research of Power System Transient Stability Based on Wide-Area Measurement Information%基于广域量测信息的电力系统暂态稳定研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴为; 汤涌; 孙华东; 徐式蕴

    2012-01-01

    暂态稳定是电力系统研究的重要内容,一直以来受到人们的关注.近年来,随着基于相量测量装置的广域测量系统日趋完善,实时获取全网动态响应数据成为可能,这为暂态稳定研究提供了新手段.文章从暂态稳定传统分析方法的改进、快速暂态稳定判据的研究、暂态稳定趋势预测以及暂态稳定控制4个方面,对广域量测信息在电力系统暂态稳定研究中的应用进行了综述,指出基于广域量测信息进行暂态稳定研究是未来的发展方向.%Transient stability is an important issue in power system study to which special attentions are paid. In recent years along with the perfection of wide-area measurement system (WAMS) based on phasor measuring units (PMU) it is possible to acquire dynamic response data of the entire power system, so WAMS provides are new measure for the research on transient stability. In four aspects, I.e., the improvement of traditional analysis method for transient stability, the research on fast transient stability criteria, prediction of transient stability and control of transient stability, the application status of WAMS in the research on power system transient stability is summarized, and it is pointed out that it is the development trend of the research on transient stability based on wide-area measurement information in the future.

  7. Provably secure robust threshold partial blind signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhenfu; ZHU Haojin; LU Rongxing

    2006-01-01

    Threshold digital signature and blind signature are playing important roles in cryptography as well as in practical applications such as e-cash and e-voting systems.Over the past few years, many cryptographic researchers have made considerable headway in this field. However, to our knowledge, most of existing threshold blind signature schemes are based on the discrete logarithm problem. In this paper, we propose a new robust threshold partial blind signature scheme based on improved RSA cryptosystem.This scheme is the first threshold partial blind signature scheme based on factoring, and the robustness of threshold partial blind signature is also introduced. Moreover, in practical application, the proposed scheme will be especially suitable for blind signature-based voting systems with multiple administrators and secure electronic cash systems to prevent their abuse.

  8. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  9. Blindness. [prosthetic devices and sensory aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudenz, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    The possibilities are considered that modern electronics and engineering have to offer the individual with a damaged or disordered nervous system, especially the blind person. Discussed are the incidence and principal causes of blindness, past research activities, and a capsule review of some of the more interesting programs designed to provide the blind with the ability to be mobile in their environment and to read printed matter.

  10. CERTIFICATELESS SIGNATURE AND BLIND SIGNATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lei; Zhang Futai

    2008-01-01

    Certificateless public key cryptography is a new paradigm introduced by AI-Riyami and Paterson. It eliminates the need of the certificates in traditional public key cryptosystems and the key escrow problem in IDentity-based Public Key Cryptography (ID-PKC). Due to the advantages of the certificateless public key cryptography,a new efficient certificateless pairing-based signature scheme is presented,which has some advantages over previous constructions in computational cost. Based on this new signature scheme,a certificateless blind signature scheme is proposed. The security of our schemes is proven based on the hardness of computational Diffie-Hellman problem.

  11. Blind detection of duplicate regions in digital images

    OpenAIRE

    Čargo, Boštjan

    2009-01-01

    This work refers to the research area of digital image processing. Its main purpose is to elucidate the field of automatic digital forgery detection and, within its scope, describe a particular algorithm for blind detection of duplicated image regions: the so-called Duplicate Region Detector (DRD). The algorithm is based on principal component analysis, reduction of image blocks representations, and their lexicographical comparison. Our java implementation was tested on a population with posi...

  12. Rapid, Robust, and Reliable Blind Deconvolution via Nonconvex Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaodong; Ling, Shuyang; Strohmer, Thomas; Wei, Ke

    2016-01-01

    We study the question of reconstructing two signals $f$ and $g$ from their convolution $y = f\\ast g$. This problem, known as {\\em blind deconvolution}, pervades many areas of science and technology, including astronomy, medical imaging, optics, and wireless communications. A key challenge of this intricate non-convex optimization problem is that it might exhibit many local minima. We present an efficient numerical algorithm that is guaranteed to recover the exact solution, when the number of ...

  13. Application of Behavior Modification to Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Charles S.; Weinhouse, Ellen

    1978-01-01

    Research and application of principles of behavior modification with visually impaired and blind children are reviewed with particular attention to lower functioning multiply impaired children. (Author)

  14. Blindness and Insight in King Lear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳元玉

    2008-01-01

    This paper intends to explore how William Shakespeare illustrates the theme of blindness and insight in his great tragedy "King Lear".Four characters’ deeds and their fate are used as a case study to examine what blindness is,what insight is,and the relationship between the two.The writer finds that by depicting the characters’ deeds and their fate in a double plot,Shakespeare renders the folly of blindness,the transition from blindness to insight,and the use of reason and thought to understand the truth.

  15. 42 CFR 436.531 - Determination of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of blindness. 436.531 Section 436.531... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.531 Determination of blindness. In determining blindness... determine on behalf of the agency— (1) Whether the individual meets the definition of blindness; and...

  16. Impaired intestinal sodium and chloride transport in the blind loop syndrome of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzke, J D; Fromm, M; Menge, H; Riecken, E O

    1987-03-01

    Self-filling blind loops of rat jejunum were used as a model for the blind loop syndrome in humans. Electrical resistance, short circuit current, and unidirectional sodium and chloride fluxes were measured using the Ussing technique. Whereas net fluxes for sodium and chloride did not differ significantly from zero in the blind loop or in the control, unidirectional fluxes of either direction were decreased and electrical resistance was increased, indicating an increase in the tightness of the intestinal wall. Measurements of alternating current impedance and micropuncture experiments revealed that this was due to an increase in epithelial resistance from 9 +/- 1 omega X cm2 (n = 15, results of both methods) to 27 +/- 4 omega X cm2 (n = 15) and in subepithelial resistance from 40 +/- 2 omega X cm2 (n = 15) to 76 +/- 7 omega X cm2 (n = 15). As the ratio of epithelial to subepithelial resistance was similar in the blind loop and in the control, lower transport rates in the blind loop are indicative of impaired epithelial transport function. Subsequently, two different transport systems were characterized. First, the 3-o-methyl-glucose-induced, phlorizin-reversible increase in short circuit current, representing glucose-coupled sodium absorption, showed a 77% decrease in maximum velocity in the blind loop and no change in Km. Second, the chloride-induced, bumetanide-reversible increase in short circuit current in tissues stimulated simultaneously by prostaglandin E1 and theophylline, representing rheogenic chloride secretion, also showed a decrease in maximum velocity (of 83%) and no change in Km. A morphometric analysis revealed that the crypt surface area increased by 100% in the blind loop, whereas the villous surface area was not significantly different between blind loops and controls. We conclude that the jejunal self-filling blind loop is characterized by impaired active ion transport processes and an increase in epithelial and subepithelial resistance.

  17. A comparison of wide field electromagnetic method with CSAMT method in strong interferential mining area%强干扰矿区中广域电磁法与CSAMT探测效果对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帝铨; 胡艳芳

    2015-01-01

    Because of the severe electromagnetic interference and the human interference in a copper mine in Anhui Province, the tra⁃ditional electromagnetic method is unable to obtain valid data. CSAMT method has stronger anti⁃interference capability, but the mean square relative error of CSAMT checkpoints data reaches 53.6% and the exploration effect is poorer. In this paper, wide field electro⁃magnetic method was applied to the mining area and led to the obtaining of the high quality data, with the average relative mean square error being 5.6%. Compared with the inversion result of CSAMT method, wide⁃area electromagnetic inversion result is in accordance with the geological data, the depth error is less than 10%, and the position of the orebody is consistent with the drilling information. The test results show that wide field electromagnetic method has stronger anti⁃interference capability and can be used in strong interfer⁃ence field detection.%安徽某铜矿区由于电磁、人文干扰严重,传统的电磁法无法取得有效的数据,抗干扰能力较强的CSAMT法在该区检查点数据均方相对误差达到了53.6%,勘探效果较差。将广域电磁法应用到该矿区,取得了质量较高的数据,平均相对均方误差为5.6%。与相同剖面上的CSAMT法反演结果相比,广域电磁法的反演结果与地质资料吻合,深度误差小于10%,矿体的位置与钻孔信息相符。试验结果表明,广域电磁法具有较强的抗干扰能力,可用于强干扰矿区探测。

  18. 75 FR 47304 - Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who Are Blind, Deaf-Blind, or Have Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... COMMISSION Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who Are Blind, Deaf- Blind, or Have Low Vision AGENCY... accessible for people who are blind, have vision loss, or are deaf-blind and the extent to which gaps in...--that are accessible to people who are blind or have vision loss; technical obstacles, if any, to...

  19. Automated blind control to maximize the benefits of daylight in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, So Young; Yeo, Myoung Souk; Kim, Kwang Woo [Department of Architecture, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea)

    2010-06-15

    Venetian blinds are a common type of shading device and are increasingly operated automatically to overcome the limitations of manual operation. Automated blinds need to be controlled to maximize benefits of daylight in the point of occupant comfort and energy consumption. However, the previous control methods are focused on minimizing negative impacts of daylight, so they might fail to maximize positive impacts of daylight. They may often overpredict a blind's position, resulting in the undesirable blockage of daylight. In this paper, we propose a new control method for automated venetian blinds to maximize occupant comfort. The proposed control method can not only protect occupants from direct solar glare but also maximize daylight penetration into buildings based on occupants' preferences on daylight. The proposed control method is designed to allow the occupants to define the zone they want protected from direct sunlight. It can control the blinds to protect only the defined zone; therefore, more daylight can be introduced to the other areas, excluding the predetermined zone. A control method for the case of one blind with one zone was developed and then extended for the case of multiple blinds with multiple zones. (author)

  20. Blavigator: a navigation aid for blind persons

    OpenAIRE

    José, João; MORENO, M; Pinilla-Dutoit, J.; Rodrigues, J. M. F.; du Buf, J. M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Blavigator (blind navigator) is a vision aid for blind and visuaIIy impaired persons. It supports local navigation by detecting waIkable paths in the immediate vicinity of the user. It guides the user for centering on the path.

  1. Front blind spot crashes in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuk Ki; Wong, Koon Hung; Tao, Chi Hang; Tam, Cheok Ning; Tam, Yiu Yan; Tsang, Cheuk Nam

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014, our laboratory had investigated a total of 9 suspected front blind spot crashes, in which the medium and heavy goods vehicles pulled away from rest and rolled over the pedestrians, who were crossing immediately in front of the vehicles. The drivers alleged that they did not see any pedestrians through the windscreens or the front blind spot mirrors. Forensic assessment of the goods vehicles revealed the existence of front blind spot zones in 3 out of these 9 accident vehicles, which were attributed to the poor mirror adjustments or even the absence of a front blind spot mirror altogether. In view of this, a small survey was devised involving 20 randomly selected volunteers and their goods vehicles and 5 out of these vehicles had blind spots at the front. Additionally, a short questionnaire was conducted on these 20 professional lorry drivers and it was shown that most of them were not aware of the hazards of blind spots immediately in front of their vehicles, and many did not use the front blind spot mirrors properly. A simple procedure for quick measurements of the coverage of front blind spot mirrors using a coloured plastic mat with dimensional grids was also introduced and described in this paper.

  2. Economic burden of blindness in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamanna B

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis is one way to determine the allocation of scarce resources for health-care programs. The initial step in this process is to estimate in economic terms the burden of diseases and the benefit from interventions for prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this paper, the direct and indirect economic loss due to blindness in India is calculated on the basis of certain assumptions. The cost of treating cataract blindness in India is estimated at current prices. The economic burden of blindness in India for the year 1997 based on our assumptions is Rs. 159 billion (US$ 4.4 billion, and the cumulative loss over lifetime of the blind is Rs. 2,787 billion (US$ 77.4 billion. Childhood blindness accounts for 28.7% of this lifetime loss. The cost of treating all cases of cataract blindness in India is Rs. 5.3 billion (US$ 0.15 billion. Similar estimates for causes of blindness other than cataract have to be made in order to develop a comprehensive approach to deal with blindness in India.

  3. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  4. Mentoring Transition-Age Youth with Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a mentoring project designed for transition-age youth (ages 16-26) who are persons with legal blindness. Youth were matched with adult mentors who were also persons with blindness but who have achieved academic and career success. Results demonstrate that youth who participated in the project for 2 years had significant…

  5. Blind Equalization Based on Evolution Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongYu; ZhangXianda; 等

    1997-01-01

    Conventional blind equalization algorithms suffer from ill convergence to local minima and slow convergence speed.This paper proposes a novel blind equalization algorithm.using random search methods-evolution strategies and existing cost functions,Simulation results verify the fast and global convergence of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Asymmetrical Color Filling-in From the Nasal to the Temporal Side of the Blind Spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eLi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The physiological blind spot, corresponding to the optic disk in the retina, is a relatively large (6x8 deg area in the visual field that receives no retinal input. However, we rarely notice the existence of it in daily life. This is because the blind spot fills in with the brightness, color, texture, and motion of the surround. The study of filling-in enables us to better understand the creative nature of the visual system, which generates perceptual information where there is none. Is there any retinotopic rule in the color filling-in of the blind spot? To find out, we used mono-colored and bi-colored annuli hugging the boundary of the blind spot. We found that mono-colored annuli filled in the blind spot uniformly. By contrast, bi-colored annuli, where one half had a given color, while the other half had a different one, filled in the blind spot asymmetrically. Specifically, the color surrounding the nasal half typically filled in about 75% of the blind spot area, whereas the color surrounding the temporal half filled in only about 25%. This asymmetry was dependent on the relative size of the half rings, but not the two colors used, and was absent when the bi-colored annulus was rotated by 90 deg. Here, the two colors on the upper and lower sides of the blind spot filled in the enclosed area equally. These results suggest that the strength of filling-in decreases with distance from the fovea consistent with the decrease of the cortical magnification factor.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stationary night blindness autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked congenital stationary night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stationary night blindness X-linked congenital stationary night blindness Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description X-linked congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  9. User-centered Technologies For Blind Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review, summarize, and illustrate research work involving four audio-based games created within a user-centered design methodology through successive usability tasks and evaluations. These games were designed by considering the mental model of blind children and their styles of interaction to perceive and process data and information. The goal of these games was to enhance the cognitive development of spatial structures, memory, haptic perception, mathematical skills, navigation and orientation, and problem solving of blind children. Findings indicate significant improvements in learning and cognition from using audio-based tools specially tailored for the blind. That is, technologies for blind children, carefully tailored through user-centered design approaches, can make a significant contribution to cognitive development of these children. This paper contributes new insight into the design and implementation of audio-based virtual environments to facilitate learning and cognition in blind children.

  10. An ECC-Based Blind Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuh-Gwo Jeng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is increasingly applied to the E-commerce world, especially to the untraceable payment system and the electronic voting system. Protocols for these systems strongly require the anonymous digital signature property, and thus a blind signature strategy is the answer to it. Chaum stated that every blind signature protocol should hold two fundamental properties, blindness and intractableness. All blind signature schemes proposed previously almost are based on the integer factorization problems, discrete logarithm problems, or the quadratic residues, which are shown by Lee et al. that none of the schemes is able to meet the two fundamental properties above. Therefore, an ECC-based blind signature scheme that possesses both the above properties is proposed in this paper.

  11. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  12. MAGNITUDE AND CAUSES OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AND BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN ATTENDING PAEDIATRIC EYE CLINIC AT SANTHIRAM MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeeva Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The number of blind years resulting from blindness in children is alarmingly high. Blindness in children can have a significant impact on their performance at school as well as their social interaction and future employment as visually impaired children have a long lifetime of blindness ahead of them. The consequences of visual impairment and blindness in children are an important public health issues with greater impact in developing countries, where 80% of the blindness in children occurs. The control of blindness in children is considered a high priority area within the World Health Organization’s VISION 2020 initiative. However many developing countries do not have the accurate information about the magnitude and causes of visual impairment and blindness in children, from which the scope and priorities for prevention and treatment can be identified. To date the established Pediatric Eye Clinic, which works as a Tertiary Eye Centre does not have baseline data on the magnitude and causes of visual impairment and blindness in children.

  13. Blind reconstruction of linear scrambler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xie; Fenghua Wang; Zhitao Huang

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm based on eigenanalysis technique and Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT) is proposed. The algorithm contains two steps. Firstly, the received sequence is divided into temporal windows, and a covariance matrix is computed. The li-near feedback shift register (LFSR) sequence is reconstructed from the first eigenvector of this matrix. Secondly, equations ac-cording to the recovered LFSR sequence are constructed, and the Walsh spectrum corresponding to the equations is computed. The feedback polynomial of LFSR is estimated from the Walsh spec-trum. The validity of the algorithm is verified by the simulation result. Final y, case studies are presented to il ustrate the perfor-mance of the blind reconstruction method.

  14. BLIND DIFFERENTIAL ADAPTIVE MULTIUSER DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a new blind equalization cost function, termed differential mean output energy (DMOE), was presented, and a new multiuser detection algorithm with variable step size was designed. It is shown through simulation results for a co-channel system involving severe MAI that the DMOE algorithm gives significantly enhanced signal to interference ratio (SIR) performance and converges rapidly to the optimum MMSE detector, together with a low computational complexity requirement relative to the recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. Thus, it is not necessary to switch to the decision-directed mode. Moreover, it also exhibits global convergence, and can be used in different interference environment without the requirement of estimating and restricting the surplus energy.

  15. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  16. Robust and Blind Watermarking of Relational Database Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Haj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Digital multimedia watermarking technology was suggested in the last decade to embed copyright information in digital objects such images, audio and video. However, the increasing use of relational database systems in many real-life applications created an ever increasing need for watermarking database systems. As a result, watermarking relational database systems is now merging as a research area that deals with the legal issue of copyright protection of database systems. Approach: In this study, we proposed an efficient database watermarking algorithm based on inserting binary image watermarks in non-numeric mutli-word attributes of selected database tuples. Results: The algorithm is robust as it resists attempts to remove or degrade the embedded watermark and it is blind as it does not require the original database in order to extract the embedded watermark. Conclusion: Experimental results demonstrated blindness and the robustness of the algorithm against common database attacks.

  17. Nasa Unveils Cosmic Images Book in Braille for Blind Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    at NASA Headquarters, Washington. "About 10 million visually impaired people live in the United States," Grice said. "I hope this book will be a unique resource for people who are sighted or blind to better understand the part of the universe that is invisible to all of us." The book will be available to the public through a wide variety of sources, including NASA libraries, the National Federation of the Blind, Library of Congress repositories, schools for the blind, libraries, museums, science centers and Ozone Publishing. "We wanted to show that the beauty and complexity of the universe goes far beyond what we can see with our eyes!" Daou said. "The study of the universe is a detective story, a cosmic 'CSI,' where clues to the inner workings of the universe are revealed by the amazing technology of modern telescopes," Steel said. "This book invites everyone to join in the quest to unlock the secrets of the cosmos." "One of the greatest challenges faced by blind students who are interested in scientific study is that certain kinds of information are not available to them in a non-visual form," said Marc Maurer, president of the National Federation of the Blind. "Books like this one are an invaluable resource because they allow the blind access to information that is normally presented through visual observation and media. Given access to this information, blind students can study and compete in scientific fields as well as their sighted peers." The prototype for this book was funded by an education grant from the Chandra mission and production was a collaborative effort by the NASA space science missions, which provide the images, and other agency sources.

  18. Daylight and luminaire control in a perimeter zone using an automated venetian blind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, B.; Tzempelikos, A.; Athienitis, A. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering]|[Concordia University Solar Buildings Research Network, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Many commercial buildings with glazed facades require solar shading devices to protect occupants from direct glare. In this study, the light transmittance of a window-venetian blind system was modelled in order to measure controlled system performance and reductions in electric lighting power consumption. The system used a control algorithm designed to maximize the transmittance of daylight into the occupied space. Slat angles were positioned to a cut-off angle as a function of slat geometry, so that direct luminance could not pass through the venetian blind. Blind control was carried out only when exterior solar radiation levels exceeded a certain threshold. An experiment to validate the system was conducted at a university building in Montreal. The venetian blind covered the entire glazing unit, and was actuated by a 24 VDC powered motor which spooled the strings joining the slats. Measurements were taken with photometric sensors placed on the exterior and interior of the facade. The blind was controlled using solid state relays of a data acquisition and control unit. The ratio of interior illuminance to exterior illuminance was used for the diffuse transmittance of the glazing. A simplified radiosity model was used to simulate the transmittance of the venetian blinds. Exterior diffuse vertical illuminance and direct normal beam illuminance were estimated using a Clear Sky model. A dimmable fluorescent luminaire with an integrated photocell was also installed in the test area in order to measure corresponding reduction in power consumption. The model showed good agreement with the experimental study. It was concluded that the model-based control can be implemented so that the blind angle is positioned to allow the minimum required daylight transmittance, while reducing solar heat gains by maintaining the blinds at higher tilt angles. By using the blind control to maximize daylight transmittance, energy consumption due to artificial lighting was reduced by 67 per

  19. Quantum broadcasting multiple blind signature with constant size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Min; Li, Zhenli

    2016-06-01

    Using quantum homomorphic signature in quantum network, we propose a quantum broadcasting multiple blind signature scheme. Different from classical signature and current quantum signature schemes, the multi-signature proposed in our scheme is not generated by simply putting the individual signatures together, but by aggregating the individual signatures based on homomorphic property. Therefore, the size of the multi-signature is constant. Furthermore, based on a wide range of investigation for the security of existing quantum signature protocols, our protocol is designed to resist possible forgery attacks against signature and message from the various attack sources and disavowal attacks from participants.

  20. Quantum broadcasting multiple blind signature with constant size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Min; Li, Zhenli

    2016-09-01

    Using quantum homomorphic signature in quantum network, we propose a quantum broadcasting multiple blind signature scheme. Different from classical signature and current quantum signature schemes, the multi-signature proposed in our scheme is not generated by simply putting the individual signatures together, but by aggregating the individual signatures based on homomorphic property. Therefore, the size of the multi-signature is constant. Furthermore, based on a wide range of investigation for the security of existing quantum signature protocols, our protocol is designed to resist possible forgery attacks against signature and message from the various attack sources and disavowal attacks from participants.

  1. D-InSAR技术在库区滑坡监测上的实例分析%Application of D-InSAR technique to landslide monitoring in wide reservoir area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂杰; 谢谟文; 柴小庆; 王立伟; 董晨曦

    2011-01-01

    基于微波遥感的差分干涉合成孔径雷达(Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry,D-InSAR)技术,可以获得连续大面积区域上非常小的地表形变,具有高精度、高分辨率、大面积、全天候、监测成本低,以及能够监测人员无法进入的区域等优点,是非常具有潜力的地面活动辨识和监测技术.目前,已成为滑坡、沉降、地震、火山等地质灾害活动调查监测实践应用的研究热点.本文采用 ALOS 卫星 PALSAR 传感器获取的5景 SAR 数据,利用 D-InSAR 技术对金沙江下游乌东德水电站库区附近大面积区域内的滑坡活动进行了辨识和分析,利用 D-InSAR 技术的两轨和三轨法获得了研究区域内从2007-07-12到2008-07-14的368d及2008-01-12到2008-04-13的92 d的详细滑动位移图,表明了研究期间内研究区域各个位置的位移滑动状态.通过两个不同时间期间滑动位移图的比较和分析,确定了研究区域潜在的滑坡滑动区域和危险区域.并对研究区域正处活动状态的L1R-6号滑坡进行了详细的分析和研究,确定了滑坡的风险区域,并将其监测结果与 GPS 监测进行了比较研究,得出其整体形变和运动趋势基本相一致的结果.%Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (D-InSAR), which allows to analysis very small ground movement and to cover in continuity large areas, and with the advantage of high-accuracy, high-resolution, all-weather, low-cost and covered inaccessible area, has turned out to be a very useful technique for detecting of ground movement.Therefore, it has been widely used for geological hazard investigating on subsidence, landslide, earthquake and volcanic activity.In this paper, D-lnSAR techniques has been used to identify and monitor the landslide moving in wide area of certain hydropower reservoir in Jinsha river.Five SAR acquisitions (L-band, HH-polarized) are acquired from PALSAR Sensor of ALOS satellite.Two-Pass and

  2. A comparative study of simple auditory reaction time in blind (congenitally and sighted subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritesh Hariprasad Gandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reaction time is the time interval between the application of a stimulus and the appearance of appropriate voluntary response by a subject. It involves stimulus processing, decision making, and response programming. Reaction time study has been popular due to their implication in sports physiology. Reaction time has been widely studied as its practical implications may be of great consequence e.g., a slower than normal reaction time while driving can have grave results. Objective: To study simple auditory reaction time in congenitally blind subjects and in age sex matched sighted subjects. To compare the simple auditory reaction time between congenitally blind subjects and healthy control subjects. Materials and Methods: Study had been carried out in two groups: The 1 st of 50 congenitally blind subjects and 2 nd group comprises of 50 healthy controls. It was carried out on Multiple Choice Reaction Time Apparatus, Inco Ambala Ltd. (Accuracy΁0.001 s in a sitting position at Government Medical College and Hospital, Bhavnagar and at a Blind School, PNR campus, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India. Observations / Results: Simple auditory reaction time response with four different type of sound (horn, bell, ring, and whistle was recorded in both groups. According to our study, there is no significant different in reaction time between congenital blind and normal healthy persons. Conclusion: Blind individuals commonly utilize tactual and auditory cues for information and orientation and they reliance on touch and audition, together with more practice in using these modalities to guide behavior, is often reflected in better performance of blind relative to sighted participants in tactile or auditory discrimination tasks, but there is not any difference in reaction time between congenitally blind and sighted people.

  3. 基于互联网技术的电力系统广域保护通信系统探究%Power system wide area protection communication system based on Internet technology research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林钢

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,our country electric power industry is changing the traditional mode of production to a new stage of development,smart grid,and the implementation of the new strategy such as green power makes the reliability of the power grid in our country and therefore has been greatly improved,accordingly its operation control difficulty is also ris ing.This article in view of the wide area protection communication system is put forward an improved the worst case,a new weighted fair queue scheduling algorithm,thus making all kinds of information in power system integrated information transmission business service quality guaranteed.%近年来,我国电力工业正在改变传统的生产方式向新的发展阶段转变,智能电网、绿色发电等新战略的实施使得我国电网的可靠性也因此得到了极大的提高,相应地其运行控制难度也在增大。本文针对广域保护的通信系统提出了一种改进的最坏情况下一种新的加权公平队列调度算法,从而使得电力系统信息综合传输中各种信息业务的服务质量得到保证。

  4. Blind image deconvolution methods and convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Rameshan, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Blind deconvolution is a classical image processing problem which has been investigated by a large number of researchers over the last four decades. The purpose of this monograph is not to propose yet another method for blind image restoration. Rather the basic issue of deconvolvability has been explored from a theoretical view point. Some authors claim very good results while quite a few claim that blind restoration does not work. The authors clearly detail when such methods are expected to work and when they will not. In order to avoid the assumptions needed for convergence analysis in the

  5. Blind extraction of exoplanetary spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giuseppe; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade, remote sensing spectroscopy enabled characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Transmission and emission spectra of tens of transiting exoplanets have been measured with multiple instruments aboard Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes as well as ground-based facilities, revealing the presence of atomic, ionic and molecular species in their atmospheres, and constraining their temperature and pressure profiles.Early analyses were somehow heuristic both in measuring the spectra and in their interpretation, leading to some controversies in the literature.A photometric precision of 0.01% is necessary to detect the atmospheric spectral modulations. Current observatories, except Kepler, were not designed to achieve this precision. Data reduction is necessary to minimize the effect of instrument systematics in order to achieve the target precision. In the past, parametric models have extensively been used by most teams to remove correlated noise with the aid of auxiliary information of the instrument, the so-called optical state vectors (OSVs). Such OSVs can include inter- and intra-pixel position of the star or its spectrum, instrument temperatures and inclinations, and/or other parameters. In some cases, different parameterizations led to discrepant results.We recommend the use of blind non-parametric data detrending techniques to overcome those issues. In particular, we adopt Independent Component Analysis (ICA), i.e. a blind source separation (BSS) technique to disentangle the multiple instrument systematics and astrophysical signals in transit/eclipse light curves. ICA does not require a model for the systematics, and for this reason, it can be applied to any instrument with little changes, if any. ICA-based algorithms have been applied to Spitzer/IRAC and synthetic observations in photometry (Morello et al. 2014, 2015, 2016; Morello 2015) and to Hubble/NICMOS and Spitzer/IRS in spectroscopy (Waldmann 2012, 2014, Waldmann et al. 2013

  6. Wide-area Power System Stabilizer Design Based on Joint Geometric Index%基于综合几何指标的广域电力系统稳定器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 程林; 孙元章; Anjan BOSE

    2013-01-01

    选择适当的控制器落点和反馈信号是广域电力系统稳定器(WPSS)设计的一个关键步骤.而作为应用最为广泛的留数法,在面对多种不同类型备选信号时会因为不同类型信号幅值比例问题而失效.文中采用基于系统可观性和可控性的综合几何指标来选择控制器的落点和反馈信号,能够有效克服留数法的缺陷.重点讨论了在考虑实际电网量测和通信要求条件下的广域反馈信号选择问题,把反馈输入备选信号范围扩大到线路功率、母线频率偏差、区域惯性中心角差、机端功率及发电机角频率等.研究表明,联络线有功功率最适合作为WPSS的反馈输入信号.最后,结合设计控制器参数的留数相位补偿法完成WPSS的设计.2区4机系统算例详细说明了WPSS的设计过程,表明所提出的方法能够从不同类型的反馈信号中选择最优的信号.数值仿真结果表明,按照该方法设计的WPSS能够有效提高电网稳定性,抑制区间模式低频振荡.%The selection of control locations and feedback signals is a key step in designing wide-area power system stabilizers (WPSSs). The residue method, which is the most commonly used method to select locations and feedback signals, suffers a scaling problem when comparing different signals. The joint observability/controllability geometric index is used to select the most effective stabilizing signals and control locations. The observability of different types of signals such as tieline active power flows, bus voltage angle differences, center-of-inertia (COI) difference between areas, generator output powers and generator rotor speeds are considered in this method. The tie-line active powers are found to be the most effective input signals, considering the requirement of measurement devices and communication channels in actual power systems. Taking a 2-area power system as case study, the joint geometric index based WPSS design procedure is

  7. Compressed Blind De-convolution

    CERN Document Server

    Saligrama, V

    2009-01-01

    Suppose the signal x is realized by driving a k-sparse signal u through an arbitrary unknown stable discrete-linear time invariant system H. These types of processes arise naturally in Reflection Seismology. In this paper we are interested in several problems: (a) Blind-Deconvolution: Can we recover both the filter $H$ and the sparse signal $u$ from noisy measurements? (b) Compressive Sensing: Is x compressible in the conventional sense of compressed sensing? Namely, can x, u and H be reconstructed from a sparse set of measurements. We develop novel L1 minimization methods to solve both cases and establish sufficient conditions for exact recovery for the case when the unknown system H is auto-regressive (i.e. all pole) of a known order. In the compressed sensing/sampling setting it turns out that both H and x can be reconstructed from O(k log(n)) measurements under certain technical conditions on the support structure of u. Our main idea is to pass x through a linear time invariant system G and collect O(k lo...

  8. Iterated Gate Teleportation and Blind Quantum Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Delgado, Carlos A; Fitzsimons, Joseph F

    2015-06-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a user to delegate a computation to an untrusted server while keeping the computation hidden. A number of recent works have sought to establish bounds on the communication requirements necessary to implement blind computation, and a bound based on the no-programming theorem of Nielsen and Chuang has emerged as a natural limiting factor. Here we show that this constraint only holds in limited scenarios, and show how to overcome it using a novel method of iterated gate teleportations. This technique enables drastic reductions in the communication required for distributed quantum protocols, extending beyond the blind computation setting. Applied to blind quantum computation, this technique offers significant efficiency improvements, and in some scenarios offers an exponential reduction in communication requirements. PMID:26196609

  9. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? Do fish have eyelids? ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how ...

  10. Brain Plasticity in Blind Subjects Centralizes Beyond the Modal Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Terán, Laura; Ortiz, Tomás; Perez, David L.; Aragón, Jose Ignacio; Diez, Ibai; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Sepulcre, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the human brain reorganizes following sensory deprivations. In blind individuals, visual processing regions including the lateral occipital cortex (LOC) are activated by auditory and tactile stimuli as demonstrated by neurophysiological and neuroimaging investigations. The mechanisms for such plasticity remain unclear, but shifts in connectivity across existing neural networks appear to play a critical role. The majority of research efforts to date have focused on neuroplastic changes within visual unimodal regions, however we hypothesized that neuroplastic alterations may also occur in brain networks beyond the visual cortices including involvement of multimodal integration regions and heteromodal cortices. In this study, two recently developed graph-theory based functional connectivity analyses, interconnector analyses and local and distant connectivity, were applied to investigate functional reorganization in regional and distributed neural-systems in late-onset blind (LB) and congenitally blind (CB) cohorts each compared to their own group of sighted controls. While functional network alterations as measured by the degree of differential links (DDL) occurred in sensory cortices, neuroplastic changes were most prominent within multimodal and association cortices. Subjects with LB showed enhanced multimodal integration connections in the parieto-opercular, temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and ventral premotor (vPM) regions, while CB individuals exhibited increased superior parietal cortex (SPC) connections. This study reveals the critical role of recipient multi-sensory integration areas in network reorganization and cross-modal plasticity in blind individuals. These findings suggest that aspects of cross-modal neuroplasticity and adaptive sensory-motor and auditory functions may potentially occur through reorganization in multimodal integration regions. PMID:27458350

  11. Brain Plasticity in Blind Subjects Centralizes Beyond the Modal Cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Terán, Laura; Ortiz, Tomás; Perez, David L; Aragón, Jose Ignacio; Diez, Ibai; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Sepulcre, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the human brain reorganizes following sensory deprivations. In blind individuals, visual processing regions including the lateral occipital cortex (LOC) are activated by auditory and tactile stimuli as demonstrated by neurophysiological and neuroimaging investigations. The mechanisms for such plasticity remain unclear, but shifts in connectivity across existing neural networks appear to play a critical role. The majority of research efforts to date have focused on neuroplastic changes within visual unimodal regions, however we hypothesized that neuroplastic alterations may also occur in brain networks beyond the visual cortices including involvement of multimodal integration regions and heteromodal cortices. In this study, two recently developed graph-theory based functional connectivity analyses, interconnector analyses and local and distant connectivity, were applied to investigate functional reorganization in regional and distributed neural-systems in late-onset blind (LB) and congenitally blind (CB) cohorts each compared to their own group of sighted controls. While functional network alterations as measured by the degree of differential links (DDL) occurred in sensory cortices, neuroplastic changes were most prominent within multimodal and association cortices. Subjects with LB showed enhanced multimodal integration connections in the parieto-opercular, temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and ventral premotor (vPM) regions, while CB individuals exhibited increased superior parietal cortex (SPC) connections. This study reveals the critical role of recipient multi-sensory integration areas in network reorganization and cross-modal plasticity in blind individuals. These findings suggest that aspects of cross-modal neuroplasticity and adaptive sensory-motor and auditory functions may potentially occur through reorganization in multimodal integration regions. PMID:27458350

  12. From Perception to Metacognition: Auditory and Olfactory Functions in Early Blind, Late Blind, and Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina; Arshamian, Artin; Nilsson, Mats E.; Larsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15), late blind (n = 15), and sighted (n = 30) participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity. PMID:27729884

  13. Blind Signature Scheme Based on Chebyshev Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswara Rao Valluri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A blind signature scheme is a cryptographic protocol to obtain a valid signature for a message from a signer such that signer’s view of the protocol can’t be linked to the resulting message signature pair. This paper presents blind signature scheme using Chebyshev polynomials. The security of the given scheme depends upon the intractability of the integer factorization problem and discrete logarithms ofChebyshev polynomials.

  14. Haptic graphs for blind computer users

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, W; Ramloll, R.; Brewster, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the design of computer-based haptic graphs for blind and visually impaired people with the support of our preliminary experimental results. Since visual impairment makes data visualisation techniques inappropriate for blind people, we are developing a system that can make graphs accessible through haptic and audio media. The disparity between human haptic perception and the sensation simulated by force feedback devices is discussed. Our strategies to tackle technical ...

  15. New Certificateless Blind Ring Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Sun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new certificateless blind ring signature scheme was proposed in this paper. The scheme could not only avoid the problem of certificate management of public key certificate cryptography, but also overcome the inherent key-escrow problem of identity-based public key cryptography. In the last, by using bilinear pairing technique, it was proved that this scheme satisfied the security of existential unforgeability, blindness and unconditional anonymity.

  16. Blind source separation dependent component analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yang, Zuyuan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers a complete and self-contained set of knowledge about dependent source separation, including the latest development in this field. The book gives an overview on blind source separation where three promising blind separation techniques that can tackle mutually correlated sources are presented. The book further focuses on the non-negativity based methods, the time-frequency analysis based methods, and the pre-coding based methods, respectively.

  17. Can acupuncture treatment be double-blinded?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari;

    2015-01-01

    and acupuncturists were asked about perceived treatment allocation at the end of the study. To test if there were clues which led to identification of the treatment, deep dull pain associated with needle application and rotation (termed "de qi" in East Asian medicine), and patients' pain levels were assessed...... is the only needle that allows some degree of practitioner blinding. The study raises questions about alternatives to double-blind randomized clinical trials in the assessment of acupuncture treatment....

  18. Blind Alley Aware ACO Routing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masaya; Otani, Kazuo

    2010-10-01

    The routing problem is applied to various engineering fields. Many researchers study this problem. In this paper, we propose a new routing algorithm which is based on Ant Colony Optimization. The proposed algorithm introduces the tabu search mechanism to escape the blind alley. Thus, the proposed algorithm enables to find the shortest route, even if the map data contains the blind alley. Experiments using map data prove the effectiveness in comparison with Dijkstra algorithm which is the most popular conventional routing algorithm.

  19. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data......-related obstacles when shopping for food, cooking and eating out, all of which contribute to underexpose the gustatory system to a larger variety of taste stimuli....

  20. 42 CFR 435.530 - Definition of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of blindness. 435.530 Section 435.530... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Blindness § 435.530 Definition of blindness. (a) Definition. The agency must use the same definition of blindness as used under SSI,...

  1. 42 CFR 436.530 - Definition of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of blindness. 436.530 Section 436.530... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.530 Definition of blindness. (a) Definition. The agency must use the definition of blindness that is used in the State plan for AB or AABD. (b) State...

  2. 基于广域测量系统的电压稳定指标%A On-Line Voltage Stability Index Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩伟峥; 房鑫炎

    2011-01-01

    综述和比较了多种基于广域测量的在线电压静态稳定指标,通过理论分析指出了这几种指标的理论缺陷和使用限制.利用同步测量的母线电压相量、线路潮流等电气量,根据线路潮流电压方程计算比较线路两侧电压水平,提出了一种新的电压稳定性指标Ivs,指示被监测线路或母线的电压稳定情况.通过系统等效的方法解耦多机系统的线路电压耦合性,可将该指标推广到多机系统.在单机单负荷系统和IEEE 14节点系统的仿真表明,Ivs可以准确快速地判断系统线路电压稳定情况,预测线路电压失稳点,且适用于所有种类的线路.与之前的电压静态稳定指标相比,Ivs具有无需判断线路电阻,物理概念清晰,适用范围广,线性度好等优点,有利于实现在线电压稳定监测和评估.%On-line steady state voltage stability indices based on wide area measurement system (WAMS) are summarized and compared. Based on theoretical analysis, the theoretical defects and usage limitations of these indices are pointed out. Utilizing synchronously measured electric quantities such as bus voltage phasors and line power flows and according to the comparison results of voltage levels, which are calculated by power flow and voltage equations of transmission line, at both terminals oftransmission lines, a new voltage stability index Ivs is proposed to indicate the voltage stability condition of monitored bus or transmission line. By means of system equivalence, the coupling of line voltage in multi-machine power system is decoupled, thus the proposed voltage stability index can be applied to multi-machine power system. Simulation results fiom single-machine single-load system and IEEE 14-bus system show that voltage stability condition of transmission line can be rapidly judged and the voltage instability point can be predicted by the proposed index IVS, and the proposed index is suitable to all kinds of transmission

  3. Wide HI profile galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brosch, Noah; Zitrin, Adi

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the nature of objects in a complete sample of 28 galaxies selected from the first sky area fully covered by ALFALFA, being well-detected and having HI profiles wider than 550 km/s. The selection does not use brightness, morphology, or any other property derived from optical or other spectral bands. We investigate the degree of isolation, the morphology, and other properties gathered or derived from open data bases and show that some objects have wide HI profiles probably because they are disturbed or are interacting, or might be confused in the ALFALFA beam. We identify a sub-sample of 14 galaxies lacking immediate interacting neighbours and showing regular, symmetric, two-horned HI profiles that we propose as candidate high-mass disk systems (CHMDs). We measure the net-Halpha emission from the CHMDs and combine this with public multispectral data to model the global star formation (SF) properties of each galaxy. The Halpha observations show SFRs not higher than a few solar masses per year. Sim...

  4. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied.On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up,and the calculation boundary conditions were analyzed.According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics software.The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained.The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimization.The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were obtained.The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed,which provided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer,the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency,provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  5. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied. On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up, and the calculation boundary condi-tions were analyzed. According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics soft-ware. The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained. The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimiza-tion. The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were ob-tained. The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed, which pro-vided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer, the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency, provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  6. Newly blind persons using virtual environment system in a traditional orientation and mobility rehabilitation program: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orly; Schloerb, David W; Srinivasan, Mandayam A

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a virtual reality system (the BlindAid) developed for orientation and mobility training of people who are newly blind. The BlindAid allows users to interact with different virtual structures and objects via auditory and haptic feedback. This case study aims to examine if and how the BlindAid, in conjunction with a traditional rehabilitation programme, can help people who are newly blind develop new orientation and mobility methods. Follow-up research based on this study, with a large experiment and control group, could contribute to the area of orientation and mobility rehabilitation training for the newly blind. The case study research focused on A., a woman who is newly blind, for 17 virtual sessions spanning ten weeks, during the 12 weeks of her traditional orientation and mobility rehabilitation programme. The research was implemented by using virtual environment (VE) exploration and orientation tasks in VE and physical spaces. The research methodology used both qualitative and quantitative methods, including interviews, questionnaire, videotape recording, and user computer logs. The results of this study helped elucidate several issues concerning the contribution of the BlindAid system to the exploration strategies and learning processes experienced by the participant in her encounters with familiar and unfamiliar physical surroundings. [Box: see text]. PMID:22112148

  7. 基于负序功率方向比较原理的广域继电保护算法%A wide-area relaying protection algorithm based on negative sequence power direction comparison principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金恩淑; 汪有成; 王红艳; 陈喜峰; 王星棋

    2013-01-01

    A wide area protection algorithm based on negative sequence power direction comparison is proposed. The special associated intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) zones which contain buses and transmission lines are created according to the installation location of the IEDs. When a fault occurs in power network, combining the fault information collecting and sharing from associated zones with the fault discrimination principle defined in the paper, the IEDs can identify the fault position and cut the fault according to the predetermined action strategy. This algorithm can be used as a primary protection for quick action after a system fault, while possessing the back-up protection function. The results of case study show that the proposed algorithm can achieve the primary protection and back-up protection function perfectly, verifying the effectiveness of the algorithm.%提出一种基于负序功率方向比较原理的广域继电保护算法。根据智能电子设备(Intelligent Electric Device,IED)的安装位置,形成包含有母线及线路在内的IED关联域。系统发生故障后,通过IED在关联域内对故障信息的采集和共享,结合定义的故障判别原则,确定故障的位置;并根据IED预定的动作策略,快速地切除故障。该算法既能做系统发生故障后快速动作的主保护,同时又兼顾后备保护的功能。通过仿真验证了该算法的有效性,表明该算法可以很好地实现主保护和后备保护的功能。

  8. Method of wave propagation forecasting in 3D wide area with PE model%基于 PE 模型的三维广域电波传播预测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖金光; 周新力; 宋斌斌; 张烨

    2015-01-01

    为进行三维电磁环境电波传播的计算、应用和分析,提出一种基于抛物方程(PE)模型的三维广域电波传播预测和应用方法。基于数字高程模型抓取地形剖面数据并进行地面类型和大气折射率剖面的配伍,给出 PE 模型中获得任意位置电磁数据的方法,批处理并行运算各二维剖面的电波传播,提出剖面上和剖面间任意空间点场强数据的生成方法,基于等价门限实现雷达、通信、电磁干扰等应用的作用区域预报。利用 FORTRAN 在科学计算、MATLAB 在数据分析和可视化上的优势,设计软件流程,数值实验验证了该方法的正确性和可行性。%To compute,apply and analyze the wave propagation in 3D electromagnetic environment,a method of wave propaga-tion forecasting and applying in 3D wide area with parabolic equation (PE)model was presented.Terrain profiles were snatched from digital elevation model (DEM)and configured with ground composition type and refractivity profile.A method of field com-putation at arbitrary distance and height with PE was resolved.Wave propagation computation in 2D profiles was carried out using batch parallel algorithm.Creation of field at arbitrary position on a profile or that between profiles was proposed.Functional region forecasting based on equipollent bounds was achieved in radar,communication,and electromagnetic interference and so on.The software flow was designed using FORTRAN’s virtue in scientific computation and MATLAB’s virtue in data analysis and visualization.Correctness and validity of the method were verified by numerical experiments.

  9. 基于可信计算的广域保护与变电站通信安全防御策略%Proactive Defense Strategies for Wide-area Protection and Substation Communication Based on Trusted Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童晓阳

    2011-01-01

    A kind of hierarchical and distributed multi-agent proactive security defense framework based on trusted computing is proposed by combining information security with an analysis of business and algorithm.First,the characteristics of network attack and the causes of security threats are analyzed.Then the structure of the security defense framework is given,including the transport layer,access authority layer,platform authentication layer and advanced trusted behavior analysis layer.Some key techniques and strategies are studied,such as the check of user access authority,digital association,behavior analysis of network and business.The trusted system provides control for the suppression of network attacks and other suspicious events.A preliminary security design is implemented for a kind of wide-area backup protection system.The tests on the processing time for encryption algorithms are performed.%将信息安全与系统自身业务及算法相结合,运用可信计算理论,提出了分层分布多Agent主动型通信安全防御框架。首先分析了网络攻击的特点和安全威胁的原因,给出了该防御框架的结构,研究其关键技术和策略,包括加密、签名、用户身份认证、访问权限与角色检查、平台认证、网络可信连接、可疑网络行为检查、加强型数字关联、与业务相关的容错处理和恶意行为分析等不同层次的可信模块。针对一种广域后备保护系统,给出了初步的安全设计,对变电站中多种加密算法的运行性能进行了测试。

  10. Prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment among school children in south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaiyeoba, A I; Isawumi, M A; Adeoye, A O; Oluleye, T S

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and identify the causes of blindness and visual impairment in school children of Ilesa-East Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. A total of 1144 school children in primary and secondary schools were selected using a 2-stage random sampling method and examined to determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment. A total of 17 (1.48%) children were blind or visually impaired. These comprised of 11 (0.96%) children who were visually impaired and 4 (0.3%) who were severely visually impaired. Only 2 (0.15%) school children were blind. The causes of visual impairment were refractive error 10 (0.87%) and immature cataract 1 (0.08%), causes of severe visual impairment included corneal opacities 2 (0.2%), amblyopia leading to squint 1 (0.08%) and 1 cataract 1 (0.08%). The causes of blindness in school children were corneal scars presumed to be due to vitamin A deficiency 1 (0.08%) and keratoconus 1 (0.08%). Causes of blindness and visual impairment in children attending regular schools in Nigeria were treatable. Prevention, early recognition and prompt treatment of these diseases by regular screening of school children would definitely reduce unnecessary visual handicap in Nigerian school children so that they can attain their full potential in the course of their education. Also, information from this study is relevant for the purpose of planning eye care programmes for the prevention of blindness in Nigerian school children. This will go a long way in the prevention of unnecessary blindness and visual impairment in school children. PMID:17200795

  11. The Blinds Shop Company Limited Brand Identity Project

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The Blinds Shop offers made to measure window blinds catering to all markets across Ireland. The Blinds Shop required a clean, bold and modern logo using fresh colours and imagery. Peter Dee - Strategic Design and Marketing Consultant, was responsible for the design and development of the brand identity for the The Blinds Shop Company Limited which was used on business cards, letterhead, promotional information, uniforms, advertising and e-Commerce website. The Blinds Shop is a retailer...

  12. The Prevention of Blindness-Past, Present and Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira; Nakajima

    1992-01-01

    Prevention of blindness is the most important aim of ophthalmology. Prevention of blindness is related to many factors. It is related to many factors, such as science and technology, economy and social behavior. There are worldwide activities by WHO, NGOs and other functions to promote the prevention of blindness in the world. More than 90% of blind population lives in developing world. Cataract is the top causes of blindness which is curable. Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in west Africa and cent...

  13. Blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils at schools for the blind in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ruhagaze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils attending schools for the blind in Burundi in order to assist planning for services in the country. Materials and Methods: All pupils attending three schools for the blind in Burundi were examined. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision was used to record the findings. Data was analyzed for those who became blind or severely visually impaired before the age of 16 years. Results: Overall, 117 pupils who became visually impaired before 16 years of age were examined. Of these, 109 (93.2% were blind or severely visually impaired. The major anatomical cause of blindness or severe visual impairment was cornea pathology/phthisis (23.9%, followed by lens pathology (18.3%, uveal lesions (14.7% and optic nerve lesions (11.9%. In the majority of pupils with blindness or severe visual impairment, the underlying etiology of visual loss was unknown (74.3%. More than half of the pupils with lens related blindness had not had surgery; among those who had surgery, outcomes were generally poor. Conclusion: The causes identified indicate the importance of continuing preventive public health strategies, as well as the development of specialist pediatric ophthalmic services in the management of childhood blindness in Burundi. The geographic distribution of pupils at the schools for the blind indicates a need for community-based programs to identify and refer children in need of services.

  14. Improved Multi-channel Blind Image Restoration Algorithm for UWB Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-jiang

    2009-01-01

    The imaging problem of low signal to noise ratio (SNR) echo is very important for ultra-wide band (UWB) through-wall radar.An improved multi-channel blind image restoration algorithm based on sub-space and constrained least square (CLS) is presented and applied to UWB radar system to deal with this issue.The high resolution of radar image is equivalent to multi-channel blind image restoration based on the improved model of the through-wall radar echo.And a new cost function is proposed to the multi-channel blind image restoration by considering the concept of sub-space as the limitation of blur identification.The proposed algorithm has all advantages of CLS and sub-space,and converts the image estimation to alternating-minimizing the two cost functions.Experimental results prove that the proposed algorithm is effective at improving the resolution of radar image even at low SNR.

  15. Tactile Sensitivity and Braille Reading in People with Early Blindness and Late Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Kensuke; Arai, Tetsuya; Ichihara, Shigeru; Nakano, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The inability to read quickly can be a disadvantage throughout life. This study focused on the associations of braille reading fluency and individual factors, such as the age at onset of blindness and number of years reading braille, and the tactile sensitivity of people with early and late blindness. The relationship between reading…

  16. 配电网广域监测及故障定位信息集成方案%An Information Integrated Scheme for Distribution Network Wide Area Monitoring and Fault Location

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩笑; 宋丽群; 朱冬力

    2013-01-01

    An information integrated scheme consisting of the fault circuit indicator (FCI) with synchronization measurement function, local information merge and control unit (LIMCU) and distribution automation system (DAS) is proposed. The wide area measurement and control technology is applied in the distribution network. The functional characteristics and program flow chart of the novel FCI are described. The functional characteristics of LIMCU and the communication style between LIMCU and FCI are briefly treated. Conventional monitoring function improved methods using FCI and LIMCU are proposed. New diagnosing methods involve phase to phase short circuit, inrush current, shock loading, automatic reclosing, open-conductor, transmission line standby. The new methods of locating single phase to ground fault section through the LIMCU to analyze the transient electric information and estimate the fault direction is also proposed. The research results show that the information integrated scheme can realize local diagnosis of fault and the abnormal operation states of the distribution network. The scheme can appreciably enhance the local data processing ability and information interaction ability of the distribution automation system.%提出了由具有同步测量功能的故障指示器、就地信息合并控制单元以及配电自动化系统构成的信息集成方案.该方案将广域测量与控制技术应用于配电网络.介绍了新型故障指示器的功能特征、程序流程.说明了就地信息合并控制单元的功能特征以及其与故障指示器之间的通信方式.提出了利用故障指示器与就地信息合并控制单元进行相间短路故障、励磁涌流、负荷冲击、重合闸、线路断线、退出运行等馈线运行状态的常规监测功能的改进方案.提出了通过就地信息合并控制单元利用暂态电气量进行单相故障方向判别的故障区段定位新方法.研究结果表

  17. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Neena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness provides valid estimates in a short period of time to assess the magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness. The study determined magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness in India in 2007 among the 50+ population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixteen randomly selected districts where blindness surveys were undertaken 7 to 10 years earlier were identified for a follow up survey. Stratified cluster sampling was used and 25 clusters (20 rural and 5 urban were randomly picked in each district.. After a random start, 100 individuals aged 50+ were enumerated and examined sequentially in each cluster. All those with presenting vision = 50 years were enumerated, and 94.7% examined. Based on presenting vision,, 4.4% (95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 4.1,4.8 were severely visually impaired (vision<6/60 to 3/60 in the better eye and 3.6% (95% CI: 3.3,3.9 were blind (vision<3/60 in the better eye. Prevalence of low vision (<6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye was 16.8% (95% CI: 16.0,17.5. Prevalence of blindness and severe visual impairment (<6/60 in the better eye was higher among rural residents (8.2%; 95% CI: 7.9,8.6 compared to urban (7.1%; 95% CI: 5.0, 9.2, among females (9.2%; 95% CI: 8.6,9.8 compared to males (6.5%; 95% CI: 6.0,7.1 and people above 70 years (20.6%; 95% CI: 19.1,22.0 compared to people aged 50-54 years (1.3%; 95% CI: 1.1,1.6. Of all blindness, 88.2% was avoidable. of which 81.9% was due to cataract and 7.1% to uncorrected refractive errors/uncorrected aphakia. CONCLUSIONS: Cataract and refractive errors are major causes of blindness and low vision and control strategies should prioritize them. Most blindness and low vision burden is avoidable.

  18. Euler: Genius Blind Astronomer Mathematician

    OpenAIRE

    Musielak, Dora

    2014-01-01

    Leonhard Euler, the most prolific mathematician in history, contributed to advance a wide spectrum of topics in celestial mechanics. At the Saint Petersburg Observatory, Euler observed sunspots and tracked the movements of the Moon. Combining astronomical observations with his own mathematical genius, he determined the orbits of planets and comets. Euler laid the foundations of the methods of planetary perturbations and solved many of the Newtonian mechanics problems of the eighteenth century...

  19. Turning the tide of corneal blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Oliva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world′s largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind.

  20. Turning the tide of corneal blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Matthew S; Schottman, Tim; Gulati, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world's largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind.

  1. Brief mindfulness induction reduces inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Creswell, J David; Denson, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Prior research has linked mindfulness to improvements in attention, and suggested that the effects of mindfulness are particularly pronounced when individuals are cognitively depleted or stressed. Yet, no studies have tested whether mindfulness improves declarative awareness of unexpected stimuli in goal-directed tasks. Participants (N=794) were either depleted (or not) and subsequently underwent a brief mindfulness induction (or not). They then completed an inattentional blindness task during which an unexpected distractor appeared on the computer monitor. This task was used to assess declarative conscious awareness of the unexpected distractor's presence and the extent to which its perceptual properties were encoded. Mindfulness increased awareness of the unexpected distractor (i.e., reduced rates of inattentional blindness). Contrary to predictions, no mindfulness×depletion interaction emerged. Depletion however, increased perceptual encoding of the distractor. These results suggest that mindfulness may foster awareness of unexpected stimuli (i.e., reduce inattentional blindness).

  2. Non-blind watermarking of network flows

    CERN Document Server

    Houmansadr, Amir; Borisov, Nikita

    2012-01-01

    Linking network flows is an important problem in intrusion detection as well as anonymity. Passive traffic analysis can link flows but requires long periods of observation to reduce errors. Active traffic analysis, also known as flow watermarking, allows for better precision and is more scalable. Previous flow watermarks introduce significant delays to the traffic flow as a side effect of using a blind detection scheme; this enables attacks that detect and remove the watermark, while at the same time slowing down legitimate traffic. We propose the first non-blind approach for flow watermarking, called RAINBOW, that improves watermark invisibility by inserting delays hundreds of times smaller than previous blind watermarks, hence reduces the watermark interference on network flows. We derive and analyze the optimum detectors for RAINBOW as well as the passive traffic analysis under different traffic models by using hypothesis testing. Comparing the detection performance of RAINBOW and the passive approach we o...

  3. Educational Methods for Deaf-Blind and Severely Handicapped Students. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Special Education.

    The book presents 17 papers originally presented at a 1978 Texas conference on educational methods for deaf-blind and severely handicapped students, covering the areas of motor development, auditory assessment and hearing loss, communication, cognition, prevocational training, and functional living skills. Titles and authors include "An Overview…

  4. Socio-Emotional Effects of the Transition from Sight to Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Mhairi; Thurston, Allen; McLeod, John

    2010-01-01

    The research examined the socio-emotional impact of sight loss on a sample of 18 blind and partially sighted adults from the east coast of Scotland (average age 64). The impact of sight loss in four core areas (mood, self-concept, social connectedness and loss) was explored. Data were collected using the mental health and social functioning…

  5. Touching Textures in Different Tasks by a Woman with Congenital Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Marleen J.; Huisman, Mark; Van Dijk, Jan P. M.; Ruijssenaars, Wied A. J. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how persons with congenital deaf-blindness use hand movements efficiently for exploring different objects with different textures in different tasks. More knowledge in this area would contribute to the adaptations of educational strategies for encouraging touch and tactile exploration. The study presented in this article…

  6. Three Blind Men and the Elephant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J S

    2007-02-13

    Just like the blind men in the popular story of perceiving the elephant, the three major constituencies participating in the energy debate have greatly different perceptions of the problem. The constituency that is worried about climate change believes the energy problem is caused by profligate use of fossil fuel that has dramatically changed our atmosphere. The energy security group sees dangerous reliance on foreign sources of oil increasingly held by countries hostile to the US. The economic vitality group sees high energy prices and their effect on the economy and our life-style. Just like the blind men, each of the three constituencies perceives a different problem. And just as with the blind men, while each perspective is right as a piece of the elephant, it takes all the perspectives together to actually solve the problem. Environmentalists focus on solutions responding to the scientific consensus that greenhouse gases are creating rapid climate change. The tipping point has come: it is now a consensus position among scientists the global warming is being affected by anthropogenic activity to 90% certainty according to the last IPCC report. Although they still struggle with the prediction of how much global temperatures will rise if we do nothing--is it 5 deg or 10 under BAU? This group believes that we cannot afford to take a chance because we get only one chance. We can not afford to do this kind of experiment with the Earth. Any choice which decreases our CO{sub 2} footprint is favored, even if it means a decrease in standard of living. The energy security constituency sees the geo-politics of oil becoming increasingly dire. They look at oil money being used to fund anti-American activities of groups such as the Wahabis in Saudi Arabia, Hezbollah in Lebanon and the infamous Al Qaeda. They quip that the Iraq war is the first war where we are paying for both sides. They note Iran and the Shia throughout the Middle East seeing the possibility of controlling

  7. Transform domain steganography with blind source separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouny, Ismail

    2015-05-01

    This paper applies blind source separation or independent component analysis for images that may contain mixtures of text, audio, or other images for steganography purposes. The paper focuses on separating mixtures in the transform domain such as Fourier domain or the Wavelet domain. The study addresses the effectiveness of steganography when using linear mixtures of multimedia components and the ability of standard blind sources separation techniques to discern hidden multimedia messages. Mixing in the space, frequency, and wavelet (scale) domains is compared. Effectiveness is measured using mean square error rate between original and recovered images.

  8. Blind source separation theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xianchuan; Xu, Jindong

    2013-01-01

    A systematic exploration of both classic and contemporary algorithms in blind source separation with practical case studies    The book presents an overview of Blind Source Separation, a relatively new signal processing method.  Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the subject, the book has been written so as to appeal to an audience from very different backgrounds. Basic mathematical skills (e.g. on matrix algebra and foundations of probability theory) are essential in order to understand the algorithms, although the book is written in an introductory, accessible style. This book offers

  9. Increased BOLD Variability in the Parietal Cortex and Enhanced Parieto-Occipital Connectivity during Tactile Perception in Congenitally Blind Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Leo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in early blind individuals posited a possible role of parieto-occipital connections in conveying nonvisual information to the visual occipital cortex. As a consequence of blindness, parietal areas would thus become able to integrate a greater amount of multimodal information than in sighted individuals. To verify this hypothesis, we compared fMRI-measured BOLD signal temporal variability, an index of efficiency in functional information integration, in congenitally blind and sighted individuals during tactile spatial discrimination and motion perception tasks. In both tasks, the BOLD variability analysis revealed many cortical regions with a significantly greater variability in the blind as compared to sighted individuals, with an overlapping cluster located in the left inferior parietal/anterior intraparietal cortex. A functional connectivity analysis using this region as seed showed stronger correlations in both tasks with occipital areas in the blind as compared to sighted individuals. As BOLD variability reflects neural integration and processing efficiency, these cross-modal plastic changes in the parietal cortex, even if described in a limited sample, reinforce the hypothesis that this region may play an important role in processing nonvisual information in blind subjects and act as a hub in the cortico-cortical pathway from somatosensory cortex to the reorganized occipital areas.

  10. Increased BOLD variability in the parietal cortex and enhanced parieto-occipital connectivity during tactile perception in congenitally blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Andrea; Bernardi, Giulio; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bonino, Daniela; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Pietrini, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies in early blind individuals posited a possible role of parieto-occipital connections in conveying nonvisual information to the visual occipital cortex. As a consequence of blindness, parietal areas would thus become able to integrate a greater amount of multimodal information than in sighted individuals. To verify this hypothesis, we compared fMRI-measured BOLD signal temporal variability, an index of efficiency in functional information integration, in congenitally blind and sighted individuals during tactile spatial discrimination and motion perception tasks. In both tasks, the BOLD variability analysis revealed many cortical regions with a significantly greater variability in the blind as compared to sighted individuals, with an overlapping cluster located in the left inferior parietal/anterior intraparietal cortex. A functional connectivity analysis using this region as seed showed stronger correlations in both tasks with occipital areas in the blind as compared to sighted individuals. As BOLD variability reflects neural integration and processing efficiency, these cross-modal plastic changes in the parietal cortex, even if described in a limited sample, reinforce the hypothesis that this region may play an important role in processing nonvisual information in blind subjects and act as a hub in the cortico-cortical pathway from somatosensory cortex to the reorganized occipital areas.

  11. Manipulation detection and preference alterations in a choice blindness paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Taya

    Full Text Available It is commonly believed that individuals make choices based upon their preferences and have access to the reasons for their choices. Recent studies in several areas suggest that this is not always the case. In choice blindness paradigms, two-alternative forced-choice in which chosen-options are later replaced by the unselected option, individuals often fail to notice replacement of their chosen option, confabulate explanations for why they chose the unselected option, and even show increased preferences for the unselected-but-replaced options immediately after choice (seconds. Although choice blindness has been replicated across a variety of domains, there are numerous outstanding questions. Firstly, we sought to investigate how individual- or trial-factors modulated detection of the manipulations. Secondly, we examined the nature and temporal duration (minutes vs. days of the preference alterations induced by these manipulations.Participants performed a computerized choice blindness task, selecting the more attractive face between presented pairs of female faces, and providing a typewritten explanation for their choice on half of the trials. Chosen-face cue manipulations were produced on a subset of trials by presenting the unselected face during the choice explanation as if it had been selected. Following all choice trials, participants rated the attractiveness of each face individually, and rated the similarity of each face pair. After approximately two weeks, participants re-rated the attractiveness of each individual face online.Participants detected manipulations on only a small proportion of trials, with detections by fewer than half of participants. Detection rates increased with the number of prior detections, and detection rates subsequent to first detection were modulated by the choice certainty. We show clear short-term modulation of preferences in both manipulated and non-manipulated explanation trials compared to choice-only trials

  12. Determining daylight and view preferences from the use of blinds in apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    2015-01-01

    Present research focuses on the use of blinds and curtains in apartments and inhabitants’ operation of them. The objective of the present research is to develop a better understanding of how curtains and blinds are operated by the inhabitants in apartments and the possible consequences it has...... directions. The observations took place during the course of 6 months and were done approximately every second week. There were no strict protocol for the photographs, though all of them were taken around noon. All images were analysed and the use of blinds were manually assessed from the images where three...... for the inhabitants, as the façade towards the busy street is much more closed off than the one to the recreational area. Present pilot study indicates that the window preferences changes according to view, which is supported by previous research within office spaces and that the lack of understanding of window...

  13. Analytic study of the Tadoma method: language abilities of three deaf-blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, C

    1986-09-01

    This study reports on the linguistic abilities of 3 adult deaf-blind subjects. The subjects perceive spoken language through touch, placing a hand on the face of the speaker and monitoring the speaker's articulatory motions, a method of speechreading known as Tadoma. Two of the subjects, deaf-blind since infancy, acquired language and learned to speak through this tactile system; the third subject has used Tadoma since becoming deaf-blind at age 7. Linguistic knowledge and productive language are analyzed, using standardized tests and several tests constructed for this study. The subjects' language abilities prove to be extensive, comparing favorably in many areas with hearing individuals. The results illustrate a relatively minor effect of limited language exposure on eventual language achievement. The results also demonstrate the adequacy of the tactile sense, in these highly trained Tadoma users, for transmitting information about spoken language sufficient to support the development of language and learning to produce speech.

  14. Blind prediction exercise on modeling of PHWR fuel at extended burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A blind prediction exercise was organised on Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) fuel to investigate the predictive capability of existing codes for their application at extended burnup and to identify areas of improvement. The blind problem for this exercise was based on a PHWR fuel bundle irradiated in Kakrapar Atomic Power Station-I (KAPS-I) up to about 15 000 MWd/tU and subjected to detailed post-irradiation examination (PIE) in the hot cells facility at BARC. Eleven computer codes from seven countries participated in this exercise. The participants provided blind predictions of fuel temperature, fission gas release, internal gas pressure and other performance parameters for the fuel pins. The predictions were compared with the experimental PIE data which included fuel temperature derived from fuel restructuring, fission gas release measured by fuel pin puncturing, internal gas pressure in pin, cladding oxidation and fuel microstructural data. The details of the blind problem and an analysis of the results of blind predictions by the codes vis-a-vis measured data are provided in this paper

  15. Change Blindness in Pigeons (Columba livia: the Effects of Change Salience and Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Troy Herbranson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with one or more line features on a single key differing between consecutive displays. Change salience was manipulated by varying the number of line features that changed on the critical response key. Results indicated that change blindness is reduced if a change is made more salient, and this matches previous human results. Furthermore, accuracy patterns indicate that pigeons’ effective search area expanded over the course of a trial to encompass a larger portion of the stimulus environment. Thus, the data indicate two important aspects of temporal cognition. First, the timing of a change has a profound influence on whether or not that change will be perceived. Second, pigeons appear to engage in a serial search for changes, in which additional time is required to search additional locations.

  16. Change blindness in pigeons (Columba livia): the effects of change salience and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbranson, Walter T

    2015-01-01

    Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with one or more line features on a single key differing between consecutive displays. Change salience was manipulated by varying the number of line features that changed on the critical response key. Results indicated that change blindness is reduced if a change is made more salient, and this matches previous human results. Furthermore, accuracy patterns indicate that pigeons' effective search area expanded over the course of a trial to encompass a larger portion of the stimulus environment. Thus, the data indicate two important aspects of temporal cognition. First, the timing of a change has a profound influence on whether or not that change will be perceived. Second, pigeons appear to engage in a serial search for changes, in which additional time is required to search additional locations.

  17. Change blindness in pigeons (Columba livia): the effects of change salience and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbranson, Walter T

    2015-01-01

    Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with one or more line features on a single key differing between consecutive displays. Change salience was manipulated by varying the number of line features that changed on the critical response key. Results indicated that change blindness is reduced if a change is made more salient, and this matches previous human results. Furthermore, accuracy patterns indicate that pigeons' effective search area expanded over the course of a trial to encompass a larger portion of the stimulus environment. Thus, the data indicate two important aspects of temporal cognition. First, the timing of a change has a profound influence on whether or not that change will be perceived. Second, pigeons appear to engage in a serial search for changes, in which additional time is required to search additional locations. PMID:26284021

  18. Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness By Sharon Reynolds Posted January 23, 2014 An ... group of conditions that can result in irreversible blindness. This vision loss can be reduced if glaucoma ...

  19. Warming Endotracheal Tube in Blind Nasotracheal Intubation throughout Maxillofacial Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Hosseinzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, our study showed that using an endotracheal tube softened by warm water could reduce the incidence and severity of epistaxis during blind nasotracheal intubation; however it could not facilitate blind nasotracheal intubation.

  20. Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Category All Advocacy Assessment/Evaluation Audio, Braille or ... Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Browse All Search Categories About the Directory Request ...