WorldWideScience

Sample records for blind wide area

  1. The ALFALFA HI Absorption Pilot Survey: A Wide-Area Blind Damped Lyman Alpha System Survey of the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Darling, Jeremy; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a pilot survey for neutral hydrogen (HI) 21 cm absorption in the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) Survey. This project is a wide-area "blind" search for HI absorption in the local universe, spanning -650 km/s = 2x10^20 cm^-2) is Delta z = 7.0 (129 objects, assuming T_s = 100 K and covering fraction unity); for super-DLAs (N_HI >= 2x10^21 cm^-2) it is Delta z= 128.2 (2353 objects). We re-detect the intrinsic HI absorption line in UGC 6081 but detect no intervening absorption line systems. We compute a 95% confidence upper limit on the column density frequency distribution function f(N_HI,X) spanning four orders of magnitude in column density, 10^19 (T_s/100 K)(1/f) cm^-2 < N_HI < 10^23 (T_s/100 K)(1/f) cm^-2, that is consistent with previous redshifted optical damped Ly alpha surveys and the aggregate HI 21 cm emission in the local universe. The detection rate is in agreement with extant observations. This pilot survey suggests that an absorption line sear...

  2. Emergence of Blind Areas in Information Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zi-Ke; Han, Xiao-Pu; Liu, Chuang

    2013-01-01

    Recently, contagion-based (disease, information, etc.) spreading on social networks has been extensively studied. In this paper, other than traditional full interaction, we propose a partial interaction based spreading model, considering that the informed individuals would transmit information to only a certain fraction of their neighbors due to the transmission ability in real-world social networks. Simulation results on three representative networks (BA, ER, WS) indicate that the spreading efficiency is highly correlated with the network heterogeneity. In addition, a special phenomenon, namely \\emph{Information Blind Areas} where the network is separated by several information-unreachable clusters, will emerge from the spreading process. Furthermore, we also find that the size distribution of such information blind areas obeys power-law-like distribution, which has very similar exponent with that of site percolation. Detailed analyses show that the critical value is decreasing along with the network heterog...

  3. Wide Area Security Region Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai; Guo, Xinxin; Gronquist, James; Du, Pengwei; Nguyen, Tony B.; Burns, J. W.

    2010-03-31

    This report develops innovative and efficient methodologies and practical procedures to determine the wide-area security region of a power system, which take into consideration all types of system constraints including thermal, voltage, voltage stability, transient and potentially oscillatory stability limits in the system. The approach expands the idea of transmission system nomograms to a multidimensional case, involving multiple system limits and parameters such as transmission path constraints, zonal generation or load, etc., considered concurrently. The security region boundary is represented using its piecewise approximation with the help of linear inequalities (so called hyperplanes) in a multi-dimensional space, consisting of system parameters that are critical for security analyses. The goal of this approximation is to find a minimum set of hyperplanes that describe the boundary with a given accuracy. Methodologies are also developed to use the security hyperplanes, pre-calculated offline, to determine system security margins in real-time system operations, to identify weak elements in the system, and to calculate key contributing factors and sensitivities to determine the best system controls in real time and to assist in developing remedial actions and transmission system enhancements offline . A prototype program that automates the simulation procedures used to build the set of security hyperplanes has also been developed. The program makes it convenient to update the set of security hyperplanes necessitated by changes in system configurations. A prototype operational tool that uses the security hyperplanes to assess security margins and to calculate optimal control directions in real time has been built to demonstrate the project success. Numerical simulations have been conducted using the full-size Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system model, and they clearly demonstrated the feasibility and the effectiveness of the developed

  4. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  5. Emerging standards suite for wide-area ISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenner, Paul F.

    2012-06-01

    The last decade has seen the emergence of Wide Area ISR systems such as Gorgon Stare and ARGUS. Wide Area ISR sensor systems have many times the pixel count of a high definition Full Motion Video (FMV) sensor. Besides the effect of data overload, the scale of Wide Area systems has exposed a need for scale sensitive standards. Presented here is a survey of the current state of Wide Area system standards in the areas of data / file format, archive query interface, streaming, and live sensor control. Areas of standardization success and areas for further improvement are identified.

  6. Tactile perception recruits functionally related visual areas in the late-blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Manu S; Hansen, Peter J; Blakemore, Colin B

    2006-09-18

    When blind people touch Braille characters, blood flow increases in visual areas, leading to speculation that visual circuitry assists tactile discrimination in the blind. We tested this hypothesis in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study designed to reveal activation appropriate to the nature of tactile stimulation. In late-blind individuals, hMT/V5 and fusiform face area activated during visual imagery of moving patterns or faces. When they touched a doll's face, right fusiform face area was again activated. Equally, hMT/V5 was activated when objects moved over the skin. We saw no difference in hMT/V5 or fusiform face area activity during motion or face perception in the congenitally blind. We conclude that specialized visual areas, once established through visual experience, assist equivalent tactile identification tasks years after the onset of blindness.

  7. Wide Area Thermal Processing of Light Emitting Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Joshi, Pooran C [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Angelini, Joseph Attilio [ORNL; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    Laboratory laser materials synthesis of wide bandgap materials has been successfully used to create white light emitting materials (LEMs). This technology development has progressed to the exploration on design and construction of apparatus for wide area doping and phase transformation of wide bandgap material substrates. The objective of this proposal is to develop concepts for wide area doping and phase transformation based on AppliCote Associates, LLC laser technology and ORNL high density pulsed plasma arc technology.

  8. Prevalence of increases in functional connectivity in visual, somatosensory and language areas in congenital blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizette eHeine

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence that congenitally blind individuals rely more strongly on non-visual information compared to sighted controls when interacting with the outside world. Although brain imaging studies indicate that congenitally blind individuals recruit occipital areas when performing various non-visual and cognitive tasks, it remains unclear through which pathways this is accomplished. To address this question, we compared resting state functional connectivity in a group of congenitally blind and matched sighted control subjects. We used a seed-based analysis with a priori specified regions-of-interest (ROIs within visual, somato-sensory, auditory and language areas. Between-group comparisons revealed increased functional connectivity within both the ventral and the dorsal visual streams in blind participants, whereas connectivity between the two streams was reduced. In addition, our data revealed stronger functional connectivity in blind participants between the visual ROIs and areas implicated in language and tactile (Braille processing such as the inferior frontal gyrus (Broca’s area, thalamus, supramarginal gyrus and cerebellum. The observed group differences underscore the extent of the cross-modal reorganisation in the brain and the supra-modal function of the occipital cortex in congenitally blind individuals.

  9. Prevalence of increases in functional connectivity in visual, somatosensory and language areas in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heine, Lizette; Bahri, Mohamed A; Cavaliere, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    There is ample evidence that congenitally blind individuals rely more strongly on non-visual information compared to sighted controls when interacting with the outside world. Although brain imaging studies indicate that congenitally blind individuals recruit occipital areas when performing various...... non-visual and cognitive tasks, it remains unclear through which pathways this is accomplished. To address this question, we compared resting state functional connectivity in a group of congenital blind and matched sighted control subjects. We used a seed-based analysis with a priori specified regions......-of-interest (ROIs) within visual, somato-sensory, auditory and language areas. Between-group comparisons revealed increased functional connectivity within both the ventral and the dorsal visual streams in blind participants, whereas connectivity between the two streams was reduced. In addition, our data revealed...

  10. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Gungah, B.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.; Soonnoo, A.R., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries Reduit, Republic of Mauritius (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  11. Increased functional connectivity between language and visually deprived areas in late and partial blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Norman; Authié, Colas N; Sanda, Nicolae; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Sahel, José-Alain; Safran, Avinoam B; Habas, Christophe; Amedi, Amir

    2016-08-01

    In the congenitally blind, language processing involves visual areas. In the case of normal visual development however, it remains unclear whether later visual loss induces interactions between the language and visual areas. This study compared the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of retinotopic and language areas in two unique groups of late visually deprived subjects: (1) blind individuals suffering from retinitis pigmentosa (RP), (2) RP subjects without a visual periphery but with preserved central "tunnel vision", both of whom were contrasted with sighted controls. The results showed increased FC between Broca's area and the visually deprived areas in the peripheral V1 for individuals with tunnel vision, and both the peripheral and central V1 for blind individuals. These findings suggest that FC can develop in the adult brain between the visual and language systems in the completely and partially blind. These changes start in the deprived areas and increase in size (involving both foveal and peripheral V1) and strength (from negative to positive FC) as the disease and sensory deprivation progress. These observations support the claim that functional connectivity between remote systems that perform completely different tasks can change in the adult brain in cases of total and even partial visual deprivation.

  12. The development of area wide traffic management scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zuylen, H.J.; Lu, S.; Li, J.; Yusen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic management in cities with congestion is a big challenge with still unused opportunities. Intersection control is a corner stone but this should be done in an area-wide context. The dominant traffic process on urban roads is the traffic flow on the intersections. Spill back is a most importan

  13. A New Technique of Removing Blind Spots to Optimize Wireless Coverage in Indoor Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Reza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blind spots (or bad sampling points in indoor areas are the positions where no signal exists (or the signal is too weak and the existence of a receiver within the blind spot decelerates the performance of the communication system. Therefore, it is one of the fundamental requirements to eliminate the blind spots from the indoor area and obtain the maximum coverage while designing the wireless networks. In this regard, this paper combines ray-tracing (RT, genetic algorithm (GA, depth first search (DFS, and branch-and-bound method as a new technique that guarantees the removal of blind spots and subsequently determines the optimal wireless coverage using minimum number of transmitters. The proposed system outperforms the existing techniques in terms of algorithmic complexity and demonstrates that the computation time can be reduced as high as 99% and 75%, respectively, as compared to existing algorithms. Moreover, in terms of experimental analysis, the coverage prediction successfully reaches 99% and, thus, the proposed coverage model effectively guarantees the removal of blind spots.

  14. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moynihan, P.I. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  15. The Evolving Wide Area Network Infrastructure in the LHC era

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The global network is more than ever taking its role as the great "enabler" for many branches of science and research. Foremost amongst such science drivers is of course the LHC/LCG programme, although there are several other sectors with growing demands of the network. Common to all of these is the realisation that a straightforward over provisioned best efforts wide area IP service is probably not enough for the future. This talk will summarise the needs of several science sectors, and the advances being made to exploit the current best efforts infrastructure. It will then describe current projects aimed as provisioning "better than best efforts" services (such bandwidth on demand), the global optical R&D testbeds and the strategy of the research network providers to move towards hybrid multi-service networks for the next generation of the global wide area production network.

  16. Architecture and Performance of a Tag Switching Wide Area Netwotk

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, T; Vistoli, C

    1999-01-01

    Tag switching and MPLS (MultiProtocol Label Switching) combine IP routing exibility with the efficiency of cell switching techniques to address the need of scalable infrastructures, of a wider range of services and of the support $9 of advanced applications. We present the model and the configuration of several tag switching networks in the local and wide area. In particular, we focus on the design of a scalable IP architecture and its application in a wide area $9 testbed based on tag switching, a MPLS implementation by CISCO.The protocol and the network performance have been analysed in terms of functionality, software stability, round trip time, route recovery time and throughput.Results $9 show that tag switching is a promising and viable technique for the implementation of scalable and integrated networks.

  17. Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2009-05-29

    This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

  18. Wide-area traffic: The failure of Poisson modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxson, V.; Floyd, S.

    1994-08-01

    Network arrivals are often modeled as Poisson processes for analytic simplicity, even though a number of traffic studies have shown that packet interarrivals are not exponentially distributed. The authors evaluate 21 wide-area traces, investigating a number of wide-area TCP arrival processes (session and connection arrivals, FTPDATA connection arrivals within FTP sessions, and TELNET packet arrivals) to determine the error introduced by modeling them using Poisson processes. The authors find that user-initiated TCP session arrivals, such as remote-login and file-transfer, are well-modeled as Poisson processes with fixed hourly rates, but that other connection arrivals deviate considerably from Poisson; that modeling TELNET packet interarrivals as exponential grievously underestimates the burstiness of TELNET traffic, but using the empirical Tcplib[DJCME92] interarrivals preserves burstiness over many time scales; and that FTPDATA connection arrivals within FTP sessions come bunched into ``connection bursts``, the largest of which are so large that they completely dominate FTPDATA traffic. Finally, they offer some preliminary results regarding how the findings relate to the possible self-similarity of wide-area traffic.

  19. Development of Autonomous Magnetometer Rotorcraft For Wide Area Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. McKay; Matthew O. Anderson

    2011-08-01

    Large areas across the United States and internationally are potentially contaminated with unexploded ordinance (UXO), with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with (1) near 100% coverage and (2) near 100% detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 to 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys, resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre. In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide highresolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus there is a need for other systems, which can be used for effective data collection. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly

  20. Widely Linear Blind Adaptive Equalization for Transmitter IQ-Imbalance/Skew Compensation in Multicarrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    Simple analytical widely linear complex-valued models for IQ-imbalance and IQ-skew effects in multicarrier transmitters are presented. To compensate for such effects, a 4×4 MIMO widely linear adaptive equalizer is proposed and experimentally validated.......Simple analytical widely linear complex-valued models for IQ-imbalance and IQ-skew effects in multicarrier transmitters are presented. To compensate for such effects, a 4×4 MIMO widely linear adaptive equalizer is proposed and experimentally validated....

  1. Strategies for reducing visual impairment and blindness in rural and remote areas of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan O. Oduntan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of visual impairment (VI and blindness in Africa is one of the highest in the world; a large proportion of the causes are preventable. The prevalence is particularly high in rural and remote areas, where many of the continent’s inhabitants live. This is of great concern because of the low number and poor distribution of primary eye care practitioners, as well as poor eye care infrastructure services in those areas. Uncorrected refractive errors are a major cause of avoidable VI and blindness, and optometrists play a major role in refractive error correction on the continent. However, as with other healthcare providers in Africa, optometrists are few and tend to be mainly in major cities. This paper highlights possible strategies, in alignment with the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, that can reduce VI in rural and remote areas of the continent. The strategies include increasing the eye care workforce, attracting them to rural areas and retaining them there, improving the eye care infrastructure, service improvement such as equitable distribution of eye care practitioners, implementing preventive measures such as vision screening and affordable spectacles, and eye health education such as eye health promotions, school health programmes and eye care awareness campaigns. Such strategies could drastically reduce the prevalence of VI and blindness in rural and remote areas of Africa.

  2. Multi Agent System Based Wide Area Protection against Cascading Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Leo;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-agent system based wide area protection scheme is proposed in order to prevent long term voltage instability induced cascading events. The distributed relays and controllers work as a device agent which not only executes the normal function automatically but also can...... the effectiveness of proposed protection strategy. The simulation results indicate that the proposed multi agent control system can effectively coordinate the distributed relays and controllers to prevent the long term voltage instability induced cascading events....... be modified to fulfill the extra function according to external requirements. The control center is designed as a highest level agent in MAS to coordinate all the lower agents to prevent the system wide voltage disturbance. A hybrid simulation platform with MATLAB and RTDS is set up to demonstrate...

  3. The Wide Area VISTA Extra-galactic Survey (WAVES)

    CERN Document Server

    Driver, Simon P; Meyer, Martin; Power, Chris; Robotham, Aaron S G; Baldry, Ivan K; Liske, Jochen; Norberg, Peder

    2015-01-01

    The "Wide Area VISTA Extra-galactic Survey" (WAVES) is a 4MOST Consortium Design Reference Survey which will use the VISTA/4MOST facility to spectroscopically survey ~2million galaxies to $r_{\\rm AB} < 22$ mag. WAVES consists of two interlocking galaxy surveys ("WAVES-Deep" and "WAVES-Wide"), providing the next two steps beyond the highly successful 1M galaxy Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 250k Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey. WAVES will enable an unprecedented study of the distribution and evolution of mass, energy, and structures extending from 1-kpc dwarf galaxies in the local void to the morphologies of 200-Mpc filaments at $z\\sim1$. A key aim of both surveys will be to compare comprehensive empirical observations of the spatial properties of galaxies, groups, and filaments, against state-of-the-art numerical simulations to distinguish between various Dark Matter models.

  4. Large-area, wide-angle, spectrally selective plasmonic absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chihhui; John, Jeremy; Milder, Andrew; Zollars, Byron; Savoy, Steve; Shvets, Gennady

    2011-01-01

    A simple metamaterial-based wide-angle plasmonic absorber is introduced, fabricated, and experimentally characterized using angle-resolved infrared spectroscopy. The metamaterials are prepared by nano-imprint lithography, an attractive low-cost technology for making large-area samples. The matching of the metamaterial's impedance to that of vacuum is responsible for the observed spectrally selective "perfect" absorption of infrared light. The impedance is theoretically calculated in the single-resonance approximation, and the responsible resonance is identified as a short-range surface plasmon. The spectral position of the absorption peak (which is as high as 95%) is experimentally shown to be controlled by the metamaterial's dimensions. The persistence of "perfect" absorption with variable metamaterial parameters is theoretically explained. The wide-angle nature of the absorber can be utilized for sub-diffraction-scale infrared pixels exhibiting spectrally selective absorption/emissivity.

  5. Wide-area monitoring of interconnected power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Messina, Arturo Román

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a compact yet comprehensive treatment of advanced data-driven signal processing techniques for the analysis and characterization of both ambient power system data and transient oscillations resulting from major disturbances. Inspired by recent developments in multi-sensor data fusion, multi-temporal data assimilation techniques for power system monitoring are proposed and tested in the context of modern wide-area monitoring system architectures. Recent advances in understanding and modeling nonlinear, time-varying power system processes are reviewed and factors affecting the

  6. Concept definition of traffic flow wide-area surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.

    1994-07-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret large spatial projections of data originating from multiple sensor suites. The intent of the Wide-Area Surveillance (WAS) Project is to build upon this concept and define the operational specifications and characteristics of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functional capabilities of a TFWAS will be mapped onto an operational profile that is consistent with the Federal Highway Administration`s Intelligent Vehicle Highway System. This document provides the underlying foundation of this work by offering a concept definition for the TFWAS system. It concentrates on answering the question: ``What is the system?`` In doing so, the report develops a hierarchy of specialized definitions.

  7. Wide-Area Emergency Control in Power Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Andreas Søndergaard

    This thesis concerns the development of new emergency control algorithms for electric power transmission systems. Diminishing global resources and climate concerns forces operators to change production away from fossil fuels and towards distributed renewable energy sources. Along with the change...... on production side measures must be taken on the demand side to maintain power balance. Due to these changes, the operating point of the power system will be less predictable. Traditionally, emergency controls are designed off-line by extensive simulations. The future power system is expected to fluctuate more......, thus making the behaviour less predictable, suggesting the need for new intelligent wide-area emergency control algorithms. The fluctuating nature of the future power system calls for new methods of calculating remedial actions that are able to adapt to changing conditions. As part of this thesis...

  8. Development of autonomous magnetometer rotorcraft for wide area assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelof Versteeg; Matt Anderson; Les Beard; Eric Corban; Darryl Curley; Jeff Gamey; Ross Johnson; Dwight Junkin; Mark McKay; Jared Salzmann; Mikhail Tchernychev; Suraj Unnikrishnan; Scott Vinson

    2010-04-01

    Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. There is thus a need for other systems which can be used for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly characterization (through the use of

  9. Brave New World or Blind Alley? American History on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Michael; Rosenzweig, Roy

    1997-01-01

    Offers a preliminary assessment of the possibilities and limitations, allures, and dangers, of the World Wide Web for those interested in presenting, teaching, and learning United States history. Reviews Internet search tools, online libraries and archives, and museums and commercial sites. Discusses how to create an online archive. (DSK)

  10. Damping of Inter-Area Low Frequency Oscillation Using an Adaptive Wide-Area Damping Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wei; Jiang, L.; Fang, Jiakun

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive wide-area damping controller (WADC) based on generalized predictive control (GPC) and model identification for damping the inter-area low frequency oscillations in large-scale inter-connected power system. A recursive least-squares algorithm (RLSA) with a varying...... forgetting factor is applied to identify online the reduced-order linearlized model which contains dominant inter-area low frequency oscillations. Based on this linearlized model, the generalized predictive control scheme considering control output constraints is employed to obtain the optimal control signal...... in each sampling interval. Case studies are undertaken on a two-area fourmachine power system and the New England 10-machine 39-bus power system, respectively. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive WADC not only can damp the inter-area oscillations effectively under a wide range of operation...

  11. High Energy Wide Area Blunt Impact on Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrancisci, Gabriela K.

    The largest source of damage to commercial aircraft is caused by accidental contact with ground service equipment (GSE). The cylindrical bumper typically found on GSE distributes the impact load over a large contact area, possibly spanning multiple internal structural elements (frame bays) of a stiffened-skin fuselage. This type of impact can lead to damage that is widespread and difficult to detect visually. To address this problem, monolithic composite panels of various size and complexity have been modeled and tested quasi-statically and dynamically. The experimental observations have established that detectability is dependent on the impact location and immediately-adjacent internal structure of the panel, as well as the impactor geometry and total deformation of the panel. A methodology to model and predict damage caused by wide area blunt impact events was established, which was then applied to more general cases that were not tested in order to better understand the nature of this type of impact event and how it relates to the final damage state and visual detectability.

  12. Large scale track analysis for wide area motion imagery surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, C. J.; van Huis, J. R.; Baan, J.

    2016-10-01

    Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) enables image based surveillance of areas that can cover multiple square kilometers. Interpreting and analyzing information from such sources, becomes increasingly time consuming as more data is added from newly developed methods for information extraction. Captured from a moving Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), the high-resolution images allow detection and tracking of moving vehicles, but this is a highly challenging task. By using a chain of computer vision detectors and machine learning techniques, we are capable of producing high quality track information of more than 40 thousand vehicles per five minutes. When faced with such a vast number of vehicular tracks, it is useful for analysts to be able to quickly query information based on region of interest, color, maneuvers or other high-level types of information, to gain insight and find relevant activities in the flood of information. In this paper we propose a set of tools, combined in a graphical user interface, which allows data analysts to survey vehicles in a large observed area. In order to retrieve (parts of) images from the high-resolution data, we developed a multi-scale tile-based video file format that allows to quickly obtain only a part, or a sub-sampling of the original high resolution image. By storing tiles of a still image according to a predefined order, we can quickly retrieve a particular region of the image at any relevant scale, by skipping to the correct frames and reconstructing the image. Location based queries allow a user to select tracks around a particular region of interest such as landmark, building or street. By using an integrated search engine, users can quickly select tracks that are in the vicinity of locations of interest. Another time-reducing method when searching for a particular vehicle, is to filter on color or color intensity. Automatic maneuver detection adds information to the tracks that can be used to find vehicles based on their

  13. A Wireless Sensor Network Based Personnel Positioning Scheme in Coal Mines with Blind Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Geng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel personnel positioning scheme for a tunnel network with blind areas, which compared with most existing schemes offers both low-cost and high-precision. Based on the data models of tunnel networks, measurement networks and mobile miners, the global positioning method is divided into four steps: (1 calculate the real time personnel location in local areas using a location engine, and send it to the upper computer through the gateway; (2 correct any localization errors resulting from the underground tunnel environmental interference; (3 determine the global three-dimensional position by coordinate transformation; (4 estimate the personnel locations in the blind areas. A prototype system constructed to verify the positioning performance shows that the proposed positioning system has good reliability, scalability, and positioning performance. In particular, the static localization error of the positioning system is less than 2.4 m in the underground tunnel environment and the moving estimation error is below 4.5 m in the corridor environment. The system was operated continuously over three months without any failures.

  14. Sympatric speciation revealed by genome-wide divergence in the blind mole rat Spalax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kexin; Hong, Wei; Jiao, Hengwu; Wang, Guo-Dong; Rodriguez, Karl A; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Zhao, Yang; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhao, Huabin

    2015-09-22

    Sympatric speciation (SS), i.e., speciation within a freely breeding population or in contiguous populations, was first proposed by Darwin [Darwin C (1859) On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection] and is still controversial despite theoretical support [Gavrilets S (2004) Fitness Landscapes and the Origin of Species (MPB-41)] and mounting empirical evidence. Speciation of subterranean mammals generally, including the genus Spalax, was considered hitherto allopatric, whereby new species arise primarily through geographic isolation. Here we show in Spalax a case of genome-wide divergence analysis in mammals, demonstrating that SS in continuous populations, with gene flow, encompasses multiple widespread genomic adaptive complexes, associated with the sharply divergent ecologies. The two abutting soil populations of S. galili in northern Israel habituate the ancestral Senonian chalk population and abutting derivative Plio-Pleistocene basalt population. Population divergence originated ∼0.2-0.4 Mya based on both nuclear and mitochondrial genome analyses. Population structure analysis displayed two distinctly divergent clusters of chalk and basalt populations. Natural selection has acted on 300+ genes across the genome, diverging Spalax chalk and basalt soil populations. Gene ontology enrichment analysis highlights strong but differential soil population adaptive complexes: in basalt, sensory perception, musculature, metabolism, and energetics, and in chalk, nutrition and neurogenetics are outstanding. Population differentiation of chemoreceptor genes suggests intersoil population's mate and habitat choice substantiating SS. Importantly, distinctions in protein degradation may also contribute to SS. Natural selection and natural genetic engineering [Shapiro JA (2011) Evolution: A View From the 21st Century] overrule gene flow, evolving divergent ecological adaptive complexes. Sharp ecological divergences abound in nature; therefore, SS appears to be an

  15. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ioannides, Andreas A; Liu, Lichan; Poghosyan, Vahe

    2013-01-01

    areas (BA) 7 and 40, which compared to lower frequencies, were substantially more pronounced in the blind than the sighted subjects. Critically, at frequencies from α-band up to 100 Hz we found clear, strong, and widespread responses in the visual cortex of the blind subject, which increased...... with the intensity of the somatosensory stimuli. Time-delayed mutual information (MI) revealed that in blind subject the stimulus information is funneled from the early somatosensory to visual cortex through posterior parietal BA 7 and 40, projecting first to visual areas V5 and V3, and eventually V1. The flow...... evidence from MEG that in blind subjects, tactile information is routed from primary somatosensory to occipital cortex via the posterior parietal cortex....

  16. Association Analysis of System Failure in Wide Area Backup Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yagang; Sun, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Wide area backup protection algorithm based on fault component identification is the heart of the whole wide area backup protection system, its validity and reliability is a problem which needs to be first considered in the engineering practice applications of wide area backup protection system. Wide are backup protection algorithm mainly use two kinds of wide area information to realize protection criterion, one is electrical quantity information, such as voltage, current, etc. Another one is protection action and circuit breaker information. The wide area backup protection algorithm based on electrical quantity information is mainly utilizing the significant change of electrical quantity to search fault component, and the primary means include current differential method of wide area multi-measuring points, the comparison method of calculation and measurement, the multiple statistics method. In this paper, a novel and effective association analysis of system failure in wide area backup protection system will be discussed carefully, and the analytical results are successful and reliable.

  17. Integrated geomorphic and geodynamic modeling of a potential blind thrust in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Courtney B.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Kirby, Eric

    2009-06-01

    Geometries and slip budgets of the faults in the San Francisco Bay area imply previously unrecognized fault linkages, including examples of blind thrust structures that appear to connect segments of strike-slip faults and accommodate along-strike variations in slip rate along these structures. Displacement along linking faults may be associated with the development of topography and also may serve as earthquake sources. In Marin County, California, systematic spatial patterns in landscape topography and geomorphic indices suggest that the region north of Mt. Tamalpais is experiencing differential rock uplift. We suggest that a blind thrust underlies the elevated area, creating the observed topography and possibly resolving a slip discrepancy between the Hayward and San Andreas Fault in this region. We have developed and implemented an integrative approach that combines observations from tectonic deformation and geomorphic properties to identify a potential blind thrust beneath Marin County. Elastic displacement modeling has been tested for compatibility with the blind thrust hypothesis and to assess the sensitivity of observables to fault geometry and orientation; from this, a set of plausible blind thrust structures are defined. We use a range of empirical relationships between channel steepness index and erosion rate to estimate spatial variations in erosion rate along Bolinas Ridge. By coupling these erosion estimates with elastic displacement fault modeling, we can use the resulting topographic envelopes to constrain the rate and duration of deformation. These constraints, along with spatial bounds on the possible fault models, are used to calculate potential seismic moment and moment magnitude. With an assumed recurrence interval of ~ 100 years, such blind thrusts can produce a Mw ~ 6.3 earthquake, while a longer recurrence time (~ 1000 years) results in a maximum Mw ~ 7.0 earthquake. Although such events are not likely to be catastrophic, they are large

  18. A Unified Model for BDS Wide Area and Local Area Augmentation Positioning Based on Raw Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Tu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a unified model for BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS wide area and local area augmentation positioning based on raw observations has been proposed. Applying this model, both the Real-Time Kinematic (RTK and Precise Point Positioning (PPP service can be realized by performing different corrections at the user end. This algorithm was assessed and validated with the BDS data collected at four regional stations from Day of Year (DOY 080 to 083 of 2016. When the users are located within the local reference network, the fast and high precision RTK service can be achieved using the regional observation corrections, revealing a convergence time of about several seconds and a precision of about 2–3 cm. For the users out of the regional reference network, the global broadcast State-Space Represented (SSR corrections can be utilized to realize the global PPP service which shows a convergence time of about 25 min for achieving an accuracy of 10 cm. With this unified model, it can not only integrate the Network RTK (NRTK and PPP into a seamless positioning service, but also recover the ionosphere Vertical Total Electronic Content (VTEC and Differential Code Bias (DCB values that are useful for the ionosphere monitoring and modeling.

  19. Wide-Area Thermal Processing of Light-Emitting Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, C.; Quick, N. (AppliCote Associates, LLC)

    2011-09-30

    Silicon carbide based materials and devices have been successfully exploited for diverse electronic applications. However, they have not achieved the same success as Si technologies due to higher material cost and higher processing temperatures required for device development. Traditionally, SiC is not considered for optoelectronic applications because it has an indirect bandgap. However, AppliCote Associates, LLC has developed a laser-based doping process which enables light emission in SiC through the creation of embedded p-n junctions. AppliCote laser irradiation of silicon carbide allows two different interaction mechanisms: (1) Laser conversion or induced phase transformation which creates carbon rich regions that have conductive properties. These conductive regions are required for interconnection to the light emitting semiconducting region. (2) Laser doping which injects external dopant atoms into the substrate that introduces deep level transition states that emit light when electrically excited. The current collaboration with AppliCote has focused on the evaluation of ORNL's unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technique as a replacement for laser processing. Compared to laser processing, Pulse Thermal Processing can deliver similar energy intensities (20-50 kW/cm2) over a much larger area (up to 1,000 cm2) at a lower cost and much higher throughput. The main findings of our investigation; which are significant for the realization of SiC based optoelectronic devices, are as follows: (1) The PTP technique is effective in low thermal budget activation of dopants in SiC similar to the laser technique. The surface electrical conductivity of the SiC samples improved by about three orders of magnitude as a result of PTP processing which is significant for charge injection in the devices; (2) The surface composition of the SiC film can be modified by the PTP technique to create a carbon-rich surface (increased local C:Si ratio from 1:1 to 2.9:1). This is

  20. Setting Up a Library Accessible Area for the Blind or Visually Impaired: Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Dawn

    1997-01-01

    Discusses library planning for services for blind and visually impaired users, including access needs of patrons, available library space, appropriate adaptive technology, equipment costs and budget resources, Internet access, and staff training. A list of pertinent resources is appended. (LRW)

  1. Short-term and area-wide evaluation of safety measures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    1982-01-01

    A background paper for the seminar on short-term and area-wide evaluation of safety measures is presented. The seminar is restricted to safety measures, thus only countermeasures that are intended to reduce accidents are regarded. The measures should be furthermore for the short-term and area-wide.

  2. An implementation and test platform for wide area stability assessment methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittrock, Martin Lindholm; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur

    2013-01-01

    scenario and automatically generating synthetic PMU snapshots of the system conditions. To demonstrate the platform’s potential for supporting research and development of wide area algorithms, a method to detect voltage instability is implemented and tested, giving results consistent with results from......This paper presents a software platform developed in MatLab with the purpose of supporting research, Development and testing of wide area algorithms for stability assessment and control. The development and testing process of algorithms exploiting real time wide area data from Phasor Measurement...

  3. Recruitment of the middle temporal area by tactile motion in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, Maurice; Matteau, Isabelle; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    We used positron emission tomography to investigate whether tactile motion discrimination activates the dorsal visual stream in congenitally blind (CB) participants compared with sighted controls. The tactile stimuli consisted of either static dots, dots moving coherently in one of two possible...

  4. A Compact, Wide Area Surveillance 3D Imaging LIDAR Providing UAS Sense and Avoid Capabilities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Eye safe 3D Imaging LIDARS when combined with advanced very high sensitivity, large format receivers can provide a robust wide area search capability in a very...

  5. Blind system identification

    OpenAIRE

    Abed-Meriam, Karim; Qui, Wanzhi; Hua, Yingbo

    1997-01-01

    Blind system identification (BSI) is a fundamental signal processing technology aimed at retrieving a system's unknown information from its output only. This technology has a wide range of possible applications such as mobile communications, speech reverberation cancellation, and blind image restoration. This paper reviews a number of recently developed concepts and techniques for BSI, which include the concept of blind system identifiability in a deterministic framework, the blind techniques...

  6. Voltage control and protection in electrical power systems from system components to wide-area control

    CERN Document Server

    Corsi, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Based on the author’s twenty years of experience, this book shows the practicality of modern, conceptually new, wide area voltage control in transmission and distribution smart grids, in detail. Evidence is given of the great advantages of this approach, as well as what can be gained by new control functionalities which modern technologies now available can provide. The distinction between solutions of wide area voltage regulation (V-WAR) and wide area voltage protection (V-WAP) are presented, demonstrating the proper synergy between them when they operate on the same power system as well as the simplicity and effectiveness of the protection solution in this case. The author provides an overview and detailed descriptions of voltage controls, distinguishing between generalities of underdeveloped, on-field operating applications and modern and available automatic control solutions, which are as yet not sufficiently known or perceived for what they are: practical, high-performance and reliable solutions. At th...

  7. Field and long-term demonstration of a wide area quantum key distribution network

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; He, De-Yong; Li, Yu-Hu; Zhou, Zheng; Song, Xiao-Tian; Li, Fang-Yi; Wang, Dong; Chen, Hua; Han, Yun-Guang; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Jun-Fu; Hao, Peng-Lei; Li, Mo; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Liu, Dong; Liang, Wen-Ye; Miao, Chun-Hua; Wu, Ping; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-01-01

    A wide area quantum key distribution (QKD) network deployed on communication infrastructures provided by China Mobile Ltd. is demonstrated. Three cities and two metropolitan area QKD networks were linked up to form the Hefei-Chaohu-Wuhu wide area QKD network with over 150 kilometers coverage area, in which Hefei metropolitan area QKD network was a typical full-mesh core network to offer all-to-all interconnections, and Wuhu metropolitan area QKD network was a representative quantum access network with point-to-multipoint configuration. The whole wide area QKD network ran for more than 5000 hours, from 21 December 2011 to 19 July 2012, and part of the network stopped until last December. To adapt to the complex and volatile field environment, the Faraday-Michelson QKD system with several stability measures was adopted when we designed QKD devices. Through standardized design of QKD devices, resolution of symmetry problem of QKD devices, and seamless switching in dynamic QKD network, we realized the effective i...

  8. On the design of a Radio Numerology for 5G Wide Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardinelli, Gilberto; Pedersen, Klaus Ingemann; Frederiksen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A 5th Generation (5G) radio access technology is expected to cope with the relentless increase of the data traffic demand and is meant to accommodate a plethora of services with different requirements. In this paper, we elaborate on the design of the radio numerology for a 5G wide area system ope...

  9. Wide Area Protection Scheme Preventing Cascading Events Caused by Load Flow Transferring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun;

    2013-01-01

    Load flow transferring after an initial contingency is regarded as one of the main reasons of causing unexpected cascading trips. A multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper to predict the load flow transferring from the point of view of impedance relays...

  10. Wide Area Protection Scheme Preventing Cascading Events based on Improved Impedance relay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun;

    2013-01-01

    Load flow transferring after an initial contingency is regarded as one of the main reasons of causing unexpected cascading trips. A multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper to predict the load flow transferring from the point of view of impedance relays...

  11. Wide area monitoring, protection and control systems the enabler for smarter grids

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccaro, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    This book is designed to give electrical and electronic engineers involved in the design, operation and maintenance of electrical power networks, the knowledge and skills necessary to deploy synchronised measurement technology (SMT) in Wide Area Monitoring, Protection And Control (WAMPAC) applications.

  12. Fault Identification Algorithm Based on Zone-Division Wide Area Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the power grid becomes more magnified and complicated, wide-area protection system in the practical engineering application is more and more restricted by the communication level. Based on the concept of limitedness of wide-area protection system, the grid with complex structure is divided orderly in this paper, and fault identification and protection action are executed in each divided zone to reduce the pressure of the communication system. In protection zone, a new wide-area protection algorithm based on positive sequence fault components directional comparison principle is proposed. The special associated intelligent electronic devices (IEDs zones which contain buses and transmission lines are created according to the installation location of the IEDs. When a fault occurs, with the help of the fault information collecting and sharing from associated zones with the fault discrimination principle defined in this paper, the IEDs can identify the fault location and remove the fault according to the predetermined action strategy. The algorithm will not be impacted by the load changes and transition resistance and also has good adaptability in open phase running power system. It can be used as a main protection, and it also can be taken into account for the back-up protection function. The results of cases study show that, the division method of the wide-area protection system and the proposed algorithm are effective.

  13. Research, demonstration, and extension: the ARS area-wide ecologically based invasive plant management project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Area-wide project is a collaborative five year effort funded in 2008 by USDA-ARS that has brought together scientists with the USDA-ARS, universities, land managers, and policy makers throughout the Great Basin. A primary goal of the project is to develop and implement a comprehensive, regional...

  14. Integration of the White Sands Complex into a Wide Area Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Phillip Larry; Horan, Sheila, B.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Complex (WSC) satellite communications facility consists of two main ground stations, an auxiliary ground station, a technical support facility, and a power plant building located on White Sands Missile Range. When constructed, terrestrial communication access to these facilities was limited to copper telephone circuits. There was no local or wide area communications network capability. This project incorporated a baseband local area network (LAN) topology at WSC and connected it to NASA's wide area network using the Program Support Communications Network-Internet (PSCN-I). A campus-style LAN is configured in conformance with the International Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnect (ISO) model. Ethernet provides the physical and data link layers. Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) are used for the network and transport layers. The session, presentation, and application layers employ commercial software packages. Copper-based Ethernet collision domains are constructed in each of the primary facilities and these are interconnected by routers over optical fiber links. The network and each of its collision domains are shown to meet IEEE technical configuration guidelines. The optical fiber links are analyzed for the optical power budget and bandwidth allocation and are found to provide sufficient margin for this application. Personal computers and work stations attached to the LAN communicate with and apply a wide variety of local and remote administrative software tools. The Internet connection provides wide area network (WAN) electronic access to other NASA centers and the world wide web (WWW). The WSC network reduces and simplifies the administrative workload while providing enhanced and advanced inter-communications capabilities among White Sands Complex departments and with other NASA centers.

  15. Study of the wide area of a lake with remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Maria A.; Karagianni, Aikaterini C.

    2016-08-01

    Water bodies are particularly important for environment and development issues. Their study requires multiple information. Remote sensing has been proven useful in the above study. This paper concerns the wide area of Lake Orestiada in the region of Western Macedonia in Greece. The area is of particular interest because Lake Orestiada is included in the Natura 2000 network and is surrounded by diverse landcovers as built up areas and agricultural land. Multispectral and thermal Landsat 5 satellite images of two time periods are being used. Their processing is being done by Erdas Imagine software. The general physiognomy of the area and the lake shore are examined after image enhancement techniques and image interpretation. Directions of the study concern geomorphological aspects, land covers, estimation of surface temperature as well as changes through time.

  16. Orthographic Perspective Mappings for Consistent Wide-Area Motion Feature Maps from Multiple Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Lawrence; Yang, Guang

    2016-04-15

    Spatiotemporal activity maps have been used to visualize where activity occurs over time, and are often displayed as pseudo-color heat maps. Our multi-dimensional activity map includes the following motion features: density, direction, bi-direction, velocity, and dwell. The primary contribution of this paper is to describe a set of mappings that will transform activity maps captured from cameras of different perspectives to ones from a single orthographic perspective. The purpose of this is to be able to view and compare multiple activity maps from different cameras views over a wide area with consistently comparable data. A second contribution is that most mappings are based upon statistically learned camera perspectives, to minimize manual camera calibration. We demonstrate mapping results with multiple video datasets and describe applications for visualization and wide-area spatial probability estimation.

  17. An analysis of the wide area differential method of geostationary orbit satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI ChengLin; LI XiaoHui; WU HaiTao

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to obtain a wide area differential method for geostationary orbit (GEO) constellation. A comparison between the dilution of precision (DOP) of four-dimensional (4D) calculation including satellite clock errors and ephemeris errors and that of three-dimensional (3D) calculation only including ephemeris errors with the inverse positioning theory of GPS shows the conclusion that all the 3D PDOPs are greatly reduced. Based on this, a basic idea of correcting satellite clock errors and ephem-eris errors apart is put forward, and moreover, a specific method of separation is proposed. Satellite clock errors are separated in a master station with time synchronization, and all the remaining pseudo-range errors after the satellite clock errors have been deducted are used to work out ephemeris corrections of all GEO satellites. By a comparative analysis of user positioning accuracy before and after differential, the wide area differential method is verified to be quite valid for GEO constellation.

  18. Wide-Area Robust Decentralized Coordinated Control of HVDC Power System Based on Polytopic System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyun Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes a hierarchical wide-area decentralized coordinated control framework for HVDC power system that is robust to multiple operating conditions. The upper level wide-area coordinated controller is designed in the form of dynamic output feedback control that coordinates the lower level HVDC supplementary controller, PSS, and SVC. In order to enhance the robustness of the designed controller under various operating conditions, the polytopic model is introduced such that the closed-loop control system can be operated under strong damping mode in virtue of the stability criterion based on damping ratio. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controller design algorithm is capable of enhancing the system damping over four different conditions.

  19. Wide-area Gigabit networking: Los Alamos HIPPI-SONET Gateway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. John, W.B.; DuBois, D.H.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a HIPPI-SONET Gateway which has been designed by members of the Computer Network Engineering Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Gateway has been used in the CASA Gigabit Testbed at Caltech, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the San Diego Supercomputer Center to provide communications between the sites. This paper will also make some qualitative statements as to lessons learned during the deployment and maintenance of this wide area network. We report record throughput for transmission of data across a wide area network. We have sustained data rates using the TCP/IP protocol of 550 Mbits/second and the rate of 792 Mbits/second for raw HIPPI data transfer over the 2,000 kilometers from the San Diego Supercomputer Center to the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  20. MSAT wide-area fleet management: End-user requirements and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Allister

    1995-01-01

    MSAT (Mobile SATellite) Services will become a reality in North America in 1995. MSAT will provide wide-area voice, data and fax services to land, marine and aeronautical mobile users anywhere in North America including 200 nautical miles off the coasts and into the Arctic waters. MSAT will also convey GPS position information from mobiles to dispatch centers. One broad application of MSAT is Wide Area Fleet Management (WAFM). This paper defines WAFM, outlines end-user requirements and identifies potential applications of MSAT WAFM. The paper draws from information obtained in several preMSAT WAFM field trials in land, marine and aeronautical mobile environments. The paper concludes with an outline of the potential benefits of MSAT WAFM.

  1. Wide-area service water information management system; Koiki suido joho kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    A wide-area service water system is required to be more resistant to emergency situations, e.g., drought and hazards, and meet consumers' diversifying needs in each area, while stably supplying water at ordinary times by utilizing purification plants located in places within its system and piping networks in the water area. Fuji Electric is providing information management systems for wide-area service water systems, developed based on the company's abundant system know-hows accumulated for a long time and latest techniques. They are characterized by (1) Web monitoring, aided by an intranet system, (2) high-speed data transmission by a digital transmission system, (3) open network environments, and (4) emergency calling of the staff, and management of stock materials. The system allows to monitor operating conditions within the area on real time, needless to say, and business administration with civil minimum taken into consideration, e.g., stabilizing water quality by coordinating the purification plants within the system. (translated by NEDO)

  2. Multi-modal target detection for autonomous wide area search and surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckon, Toby P.; Gaszczak, Anna; Han, Jiwan; Eichner, Marcin L.; Barnes, Stuart E.

    2013-10-01

    Generalised wide are search and surveillance is a common-place tasking for multi-sensory equipped autonomous systems. Here we present on a key supporting topic to this task - the automatic interpretation, fusion and detected target reporting from multi-modal sensor information received from multiple autonomous platforms deployed for wide-area environment search. We detail the realization of a real-time methodology for the automated detection of people and vehicles using combined visible-band (EO), thermal-band (IR) and radar sensing from a deployed network of multiple autonomous platforms (ground and aerial). This facilities real-time target detection, reported with varying levels of confidence, using information from both multiple sensors and multiple sensor platforms to provide environment-wide situational awareness. A range of automatic classification approaches are proposed, driven by underlying machine learning techniques, that facilitate the automatic detection of either target type with cross-modal target confirmation. Extended results are presented that show both the detection of people and vehicles under varying conditions in both isolated rural and cluttered urban environments with minimal false positive detection. Performance evaluation is presented at an episodic level with individual classifiers optimized for maximal each object of interest (vehicle/person) detection over a given search path/pattern of the environment, across all sensors and modalities, rather than on a per sensor sample basis. Episodic target detection, evaluated over a number of wide-area environment search and reporting tasks, generally exceeds 90%+ for the targets considered here.

  3. A Flexible 5G Wide Area Solution for TDD with Asymmetric Link Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus I.; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Frederiksen, Frank;

    2017-01-01

    A flexible multi-service 5G wide area (WA) solution for time division duplex (TDD) operation is outlined in this article. In particular, the Associated frame design is in focus. Given the fundamental tradeoffs between capacity, coverage, latency, and reliability, a flexible solution that allows...... grants. Performance results for the proposed 5G WA TDD solution show clear benefits over current LTE, for example, reduced latency and more scalable control overhead to better support users with different QoS requirements....

  4. Internet-based Wide Area Measurement Applications in Deregulated Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib, Abdel Rahman Amin

    2002-01-01

    Internet-Based Wide Area Measurement Applications in Deregulated Power Systems Abdel-Rahman Amin Khatib Abstract Since the deregulation of power systems was started in 1989 in the UK, many countries have been motivated to undergo deregulation. The United State started deregulation in the energy sector in California back in 1996. Since that time many other states have also started the deregulation procedures in different utilities. Most of the deregulation market in the United St...

  5. High-Speed Optical Wide-Area Data-Communication Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacos, Steve P.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed fiber-optic wide-area network (WAN) for digital communication balances input and output flows of data with its internal capacity by routing traffic via dynamically interconnected routing planes. Data transmitted optically through network by wavelength-division multiplexing in synchronous or asynchronous packets. WAN implemented with currently available technology. Network is multiple-ring cyclic shuffle exchange network ensuring traffic reaches its destination with minimum number of hops.

  6. Camera Networks The Acquisition and Analysis of Videos over Wide Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2012-01-01

    As networks of video cameras are installed in many applications like security and surveillance, environmental monitoring, disaster response, and assisted living facilities, among others, image understanding in camera networks is becoming an important area of research and technology development. There are many challenges that need to be addressed in the process. Some of them are listed below: - Traditional computer vision challenges in tracking and recognition, robustness to pose, illumination, occlusion, clutter, recognition of objects, and activities; - Aggregating local information for wide

  7. Structure-symptom relationship with wide-area ultrasound scanning of knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlipská, Jana; Koski, Juhani M.; Kaukinen, Päivi; Haapea, Marianne; Tervonen, Osmo; Arokoski, Jari P.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2017-01-01

    The aetiology of knee pain in osteoarthritis (OA) is heterogeneous and its relationship with structural changes and function is unclear. Our goal was to determine the prevalence of wide-area scanned ultrasound-defined knee OA structural features and their association with pain and functional impairment in 79 symptomatic and 63 asymptomatic subjects. All subjects underwent ultrasound knee wide-area scanning and the severity of articular cartilage degeneration, the presence and size of osteophytes, and meniscal extrusion were evaluated. Subjects filled in a self-administrated questionnaire on present knee pain, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) on clinical symptoms and function over the past week. Cartilage changes were the most prevalent followed by lateral meniscal extrusion, osteophytes and medial meniscal extrusion. The global femoral cartilage grade associated strongly with pain and the WOMAC index. Site-specifically, early medial cartilage changes and thinning in sulcus and lateral site were associated with symptoms. The presence of femoral lateral osteophytes was also associated with both outcomes. Using the novel wide-area ultrasound scanning technique, we were able to confirm the negative impact of femoral cartilage OA changes on clinical symptoms. Presence, not necessarily size, of lateral femoral osteophytes was also associated with increased pain and disability. PMID:28295049

  8. Multiagents-based wide area protection with best-effort adaptive strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yongli; Wang, Dewen [North China Electric Power University, Baoding (China); Song, Shaoqun [Fuzhou Electric Power Industry Bureau, Fujian Province (China)

    2009-02-15

    Abstract - Multi-trips of circuit breakers often occur within a short period in a severe blackout, and the tripping usually relates to relays' mal-operations. In fact, when two ore more electric primary devices are isolated by circuit breakers, the settings of most relays to protect their power system are getting infeasible and uncoordinated. Adaptive settings are needed to prevent them from wrong operation. This paper presents an adaptive protection scheme based on wide area information with best-effort protection strategy, and the outline of multiagents and WAN Based Adaptive Protection System (MAWAPS). In the scheme, the best-effort adaptive strategy is used to guarantee the adaptive settings to operate safely and effectively in most situations. The IP/SDH-based wide area network (WAN) is used to realize real-time wide area information exchange in the proposed protection scheme. Adaptive setting algorithms for the second stage zero-sequence current and phase overcurrent relays are proposed, which can provide larger line coverage than traditional relays. Moreover, multiagent techniques and IEC 61850 are employed to realize the fast communication between different agents, and MMS plays a prominent role in real-time remote communication. A simulating system has been developed according to the above ideas and approaches, and the experimental results show that the proposed adaptive protection scheme is feasible from the view of protective performance including the executing time. (author)

  9. Wide-field retinotopy defines human cortical visual area v6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzalis, Sabrina; Galletti, Claudio; Huang, Ruey-Song; Patria, Fabiana; Committeri, Giorgia; Galati, Gaspare; Fattori, Patrizia; Sereno, Martin I

    2006-07-26

    The retinotopic organization of a newly identified visual area near the midline in the dorsalmost part of the human parieto-occipital sulcus was mapped using high-field functional magnetic resonance imaging, cortical surface-based analysis, and wide-field retinotopic stimulation. This area was found in all 34 subjects that were mapped. It represents the contralateral visual hemifield in both hemispheres of all subjects, with upper fields located anterior and medial to areas V2/V3, and lower fields medial and slightly anterior to areas V3/V3A. It contains a representation of the center of gaze distinct from V3A, a large representation of the visual periphery, and a mirror-image representation of the visual field. Based on similarity in position, visuotopic organization, and relationship with the neighboring extrastriate visual areas, we suggest it might be the human homolog of macaque area V6, and perhaps of area M (medial) or DM (dorsomedial) of New World primates.

  10. Flexible drive allows blind machining and welding in hard-to-reach areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, D. E.; Rohrberg, R. G.

    1966-01-01

    Flexible power and control unit performs welding and machining operations in confined areas. A machine/weld head is connected to the unit by a flexible transmission shaft, and a locking- indexing collar is incorporated onto the head to allow it to be placed and held in position.

  11. A framework for activity detection in wide-area motion imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ruggiero, Christy E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morrison, Jack D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Wide-area persistent imaging systems are becoming increasingly cost effective and now large areas of the earth can be imaged at relatively high frame rates (1-2 fps). The efficient exploitation of the large geo-spatial-temporal datasets produced by these systems poses significant technical challenges for image and video analysis and data mining. In recent years there has been significant progress made on stabilization, moving object detection and tracking and automated systems now generate hundreds to thousands of vehicle tracks from raw data, with little human intervention. However, the tracking performance at this scale, is unreliable and average track length is much smaller than the average vehicle route. This is a limiting factor for applications which depend heavily on track identity, i.e. tracking vehicles from their points of origin to their final destination. In this paper we propose and investigate a framework for wide-area motion imagery (W AMI) exploitation that minimizes the dependence on track identity. In its current form this framework takes noisy, incomplete moving object detection tracks as input, and produces a small set of activities (e.g. multi-vehicle meetings) as output. The framework can be used to focus and direct human users and additional computation, and suggests a path towards high-level content extraction by learning from the human-in-the-loop.

  12. GNSS-based train positioning experiments with local and wide area augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X.; Schmidt, M.; Winter, J. [DaimlerChrysler Rail Systems (Signals) GmbH, Ulm (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Within the frame of the MAGNET Project ('Multimodal Approach for GNSS 1 in European Transport') of the Telematics Applications programme of the 4{sup th} Research Framework of the European Community (1994-1998), a GNSS-based Train Positioning Platform (TPP) has been developed and tested with the wide area augmentation system pre-EGNOS and a local differential GNSS system using a reference station. This paper presents the principle and the system architecture of the developed GNSS-based train positioning system and highlights the system performance achieved in field tests. The TPP consists of a GNSS core module with an EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service) decoding function, a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) data link for local GPS and GLONASS differential corrections, a digital route map and an interface to odometer. The first step to calculate the train position is to select either wide area or local area differential corrections depending on which are available. The position and velocity are then calculated and matched to the track by using the digital route map. Finally, the GNSS position and velocity data is integrated with odometer data in a sensor data fusion model. The integrated solution avoids the masking problem of GNSS signals and reduces odometer errors like drift and braking slip, so that a continuous positioning availability can be reached and the positioning accuracy can be improved to meter level. The achieved performance is being exploited for industrial applications. (orig.)

  13. Emerging Technologies and Techniques for Wide Area Radiological Survey and Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhao, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Technologies to survey and decontaminate wide-area contamination and process the subsequent radioactive waste have been developed and implemented following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant release and the breach of a radiological source resulting in contamination in Goiania, Brazil. These civilian examples of radioactive material releases provided some of the first examples of urban radiological remediation. Many emerging technologies have recently been developed and demonstrated in Japan following the release of radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011. Information on technologies reported by several Japanese government agencies, such as the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and the National Institute for Environmental Science (NIES), together with academic institutions and industry are summarized and compared to recently developed, deployed and available technologies in the United States. The technologies and techniques presented in this report may be deployed in response to a wide area contamination event in the United States. In some cases, additional research and testing is needed to adequately validate the technology effectiveness over wide areas. Survey techniques can be deployed on the ground or from the air, allowing a range of coverage rates and sensitivities. Survey technologies also include those useful in measuring decontamination progress and mapping contamination. Decontamination technologies and techniques range from non-destructive (e.g., high pressure washing) and minimally destructive (plowing), to fully destructive (surface removal or demolition). Waste minimization techniques can greatly impact the long-term environmental consequences and cost following remediation efforts. Recommendations on technical improvements to address technology gaps are presented together with observations on remediation in Japan.

  14. MPWide: a light-weight library for efficient message passing over wide area networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Groen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present MPWide, a light weight communication library which allows efficient message passing over a distributed network. MPWide has been designed to connect application running on distributed (supercomputing resources, and to maximize the communication performance on wide area networks for those without administrative privileges. It can be used to provide message-passing between application, move files, and make very fast connections in client-server environments. MPWide has already been applied to enable distributed cosmological simulations across up to four supercomputers on two continents, and to couple two different bloodflow simulations to form a multiscale simulation.

  15. Leaf Area Index (LAI Estimation of Boreal Forest Using Wide Optics Airborne Winter Photos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Stenberg

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new simple airborne method based on wide optics camera is developed for leaf area index (LAI estimation in coniferous forests. The measurements are carried out in winter, when the forest floor is completely snow covered and thus acts as a light background for the hemispherical analysis of the images. The photos are taken automatically and stored on a laptop during the flights. The R2 value of the linear regression of the airborne and ground based LAI measurements was 0.89.

  16. Communication Service Model for Wide Area Protection System Based on IEC 61850

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONG Wei; PAN Zhencun; GAO Zhanjun; ZENG Yuxiao; ZHAI Yunjuan

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of information exchange varieties and manners in wide area protection system, a communication service model based on IEC 61850 is proposed. This service model can realize communication consistency and cooperation between different types of devices. Furthermore, the communication reliability and time delay performance are guaranteed to meet the requirements of relay protection from the upper layer. Message structure of generic substation event (GSE) and its communication mechanism are discussed. General methods to communicate digital information by generic substation status event (GSSE) and communicate analog sampling information by sampling analog value (SAV) of GSE are proposed.

  17. Multi Agent System Based Process Control in Wide Area Protection against Cascading Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun;

    2013-01-01

    In order to prevent long term voltage instability induced cascading events; a multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper. Due to some unexpected failures of control strategy execution or the consequent unexpected disturbance, the power system will face...... emergent states, but also those unusual control process variations when unexpected situation is experienced. A hybrid simulation platform based on MATLAB/LabVIEW and real time digital simulator (RTDS) is set up to simulate a voltage collapse case in the power system of Eastern Denmark and demonstrate...

  18. Wide-area scanner for high-speed atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Hiroki; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Kobashi, Toshihide; Shibata, Mikihiro; Nishiyama, Jun; Yasuda, Ryohei; Ando, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) has recently been established. The dynamic processes and structural dynamics of protein molecules in action have been successfully visualized using HS-AFM. However, its maximum scan ranges in the X- and Y-directions have been limited to ∼1 μm and ∼4 μm, respectively, making it infeasible to observe the dynamics of much larger samples, including live cells. Here, we develop a wide-area scanner with a maximum XY scan range of ∼46 × 46 μm2 by magnifyin...

  19. Applied Techniques for High Bandwidth Data Transfers across Wide Area Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JasonLee; BillAllcock; 等

    2001-01-01

    Large distributed systems such as Computational/Data Grids require large amounts of data to be co-located with the computing facilities for processing.From our work develogpin a scalable distributed network cache.we have gained experience with techniques necessary to achieve high data throughput over high bandwidth Wide Area Networks(WAN).In this paper,we discuss several hardware and software dsign techniques,and then describe their application to an implementation of an enhanced FTP protocol called GridFTP,We describe results from the Supercomputing 2000 conference.

  20. Multiagent System-Based Wide-Area Protection and Control Scheme against Cascading Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection and control scheme is proposed to deal with the long term voltage instability induced cascading trips. Based on sensitivity analysis between the relay operation margin and power system state variables, an optimal emergency contr...... strategy. A hybrid simulation platform based on LabVIEW and real time digital simulator (RTDS) is set up to simulate a blackout case in the power system of Eastern Denmark and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MAS based protection strategy....

  1. Wide area 2D/3D imaging development, analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Langmann, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Imaging technology is an important research area and it is widely utilized in a growing number of disciplines ranging from gaming, robotics and automation to medicine. In the last decade 3D imaging became popular mainly driven by the introduction of novel 3D cameras and measuring devices. These cameras are usually limited to indoor scenes with relatively low distances. Benjamin Langmann introduces medium and long-range 2D/3D cameras to overcome these limitations. He reports measurement results for these devices and studies their characteristic behavior. In order to facilitate the application o

  2. TCP/IP optimization over wide area networks: implications for teleradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Steve G; French, Todd; Segovis, Colin

    2011-04-01

    Radiology examinations are large. The advent of fast volume imaging is making that statement truer every year. PACS are based on the assumption of fast local networking and just-in-time image pull to the desktop. On the other hand, teleradiology has been developed on a push model to accommodate the challenges of moderate bandwidth, high-latency wide area networks (WANs). Our group faced the challenging task of creating a PACS environment that felt local, while pulling images across a 3,000-mile roundtrip WAN link. Initial tests showed WAN performance lagging local area network (LAN) performance by a factor of 30 times. A 16-month journey of explorations pulled the WAN value down to only 1.5 times slower than the LAN.

  3. The Open Cloud Testbed: A Wide Area Testbed for Cloud Computing Utilizing High Performance Network Services

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Robert; Sabala, Michal; Bennet, Collin; Seidman, Jonathan; Mambratti, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a number of cloud platforms and services have been developed for data intensive computing, including Hadoop, Sector, CloudStore (formerly KFS), HBase, and Thrift. In order to benchmark the performance of these systems, to investigate their interoperability, and to experiment with new services based on flexible compute node and network provisioning capabilities, we have designed and implemented a large scale testbed called the Open Cloud Testbed (OCT). Currently the OCT has 120 nodes in four data centers: Baltimore, Chicago (two locations), and San Diego. In contrast to other cloud testbeds, which are in small geographic areas and which are based on commodity Internet services, the OCT is a wide area testbed and the four data centers are connected with a high performance 10Gb/s network, based on a foundation of dedicated lightpaths. This testbed can address the requirements of extremely large data streams that challenge other types of distributed infrastructure. We have also developed several utiliti...

  4. The Campi Flegrei Blind Test: Evaluating the Imaging Capability of Local Earthquake Tomography in a Volcanic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Priolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 1982–1984 bradyseismic crises in the Campi Flegrei area (Italy, the University of Wisconsin deployed a network of seismological stations to record local earthquakes. In order to analyse the potential of the recorded data in terms of tomographic imaging, a blind test was recently set up and carried out in the framework of a research project. A model representing a hypothetical 3D structure of the area containing the Campi Flegrei caldera was also set up, and a synthetic dataset of time arrivals was in turn computed. The synthetic dataset consists of several thousand P- and S-time arrivals, computed at about fourteen stations. The tomographic inversion was performed by four independent teams using different methods. The teams had no knowledge of either the input velocity model or the earthquake hypocenters used to create the synthetic dataset. The results obtained by the different groups were compared and analysed in light of the true model. This work provides a thorough analysis of the earthquake tomography potential of the dataset recording the seismic activity at Campi Flegrei in the 1982–1984 period. It shows that all the tested earthquake tomography methods provide reliable low-resolution images of the background velocity field of the Campi Flegrei area, but with some differences. However, none of them succeeds in detecting the hypothetical structure details (i.e. with a size smaller than about 1.5–2 km, such as a magmatic chamber 4 km deep and especially the smaller, isolated bodies, which represent possible magmatic chimneys and intrusions.

  5. Wide-area thin film metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors for lidar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Charles B.; Glinz, Andreas P.; Zhu, Zheng; Bechtel, James H.; Frimel, Steven M.; Roenker, Kenneth P.

    1998-04-01

    Novel interdigitated metal-semiconductor-metal structures offer new approaches for the development of broad-area, high-speed photodetectors to be used in optical free space communications and light detection and ranging applications. Inherent advantages include: lower capacitance than typical p-i-n structures, a wide dynamic range, and ease of fabrication. We have constructed broad area metal- semiconductor-metal photodetectors (MSM-PDs) by means of epitaxial liftoff and grafting technologies. Two computer models have been used to examine the effects of design parameters on the performance of broad-area, high-speed MSM- PD devices. The first model indicates that inverting the membrane so that the electrodes are placed between the non- conducting host substrate and the semiconductor material improves the signal-to-noise ration of the device, expanding its dynamic range. This model suggests that processing of the backside of the semiconductor material with antireflection coatings further improves device performance. Carrier collection behavior described by the second model suggests new electrode configurations for improved high speed operation which can only be applied to an inverted MSM-PD carried on a thin film membrane. A number of different fully passivated large area MSM-PD configurations have been fabricated and tested. Initial dark current data are compared favorably to published results.

  6. A new mechanised cultural practice to reduce Ceratitis capitata Wied. populations in area-wide IPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chueca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae, affects most of the fruit species grown in temperate and tropical climate regions, causing significant economic damage. One of the classical cultural strategies against this pest is to gather and bury the remaining fruit after harvest, but this is economically unfeasible today. Wood shredders already available in current Spanish groves can be used to grind or crush fruits laying on the soil as an alternative to this practice and to the use of pesticides in area-wide integrated pest management (IPM. With the purpose of evaluating this alternative, the initial step of this study was to perform laboratory tests to assess the efficacy of crushing and grinding as a method for controlling medflies. The results showed that grinding was 78% effective against larval stages, while crushing resulted in a 17% efficacy, leading us to choose the first alternative. As a second step, the operational parameters (type of cutting tool, shaft rotation speed and tractor speed of the wood shredders were adjusted to efficiently carry out this practice under field conditions. Finally, the effect of the mechanised grinding of fallen fruit on C. capitata populations was evaluated for two consecutive years in commercial citrus orchards. The results showed a significant 27-46% reduction in C. capitata populations the following spring, thus demonstrating that the newly proposed mechanised alternative can be included in the current area-wide IPM of the pest in Spain.

  7. Wide-area scanner for high-speed atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroki; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Kobashi, Toshihide; Shibata, Mikihiro; Nishiyama, Jun; Yasuda, Ryohei; Ando, Toshio

    2013-05-01

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) has recently been established. The dynamic processes and structural dynamics of protein molecules in action have been successfully visualized using HS-AFM. However, its maximum scan ranges in the X- and Y-directions have been limited to ~1 μm and ~4 μm, respectively, making it infeasible to observe the dynamics of much larger samples, including live cells. Here, we develop a wide-area scanner with a maximum XY scan range of ~46 × 46 μm(2) by magnifying the displacements of stack piezoelectric actuators using a leverage mechanism. Mechanical vibrations produced by fast displacement of the X-scanner are suppressed by a combination of feed-forward inverse compensation and the use of triangular scan signals with rounded vertices. As a result, the scan speed in the X-direction reaches 6.3 mm/s even for a scan size as large as ~40 μm. The nonlinearity of the X- and Y-piezoelectric actuators' displacements that arises from their hysteresis is eliminated by polynomial-approximation-based open-loop control. The interference between the X- and Y-scanners is also eliminated by the same technique. The usefulness of this wide-area scanner is demonstrated by video imaging of dynamic processes in live bacterial and eukaryotic cells.

  8. An analysis of the wide area differential method of geostationary orbit satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to obtain a wide area differential method for geostationary orbit (GEO) constellation. A comparison between the dilution of precision (DOP) of four-dimensional (4D) calculation including sa- tellite clock errors and ephemeris errors and that of three-dimensional (3D) calculation only including ephemeris errors with the inverse positioning theory of GPS shows the conclusion that all the 3D PDOPs are greatly reduced. Based on this, a basic idea of correcting satellite clock errors and ephem- eris errors apart is put forward, and moreover, a specific method of separation is proposed. Satellite clock errors are separated in a master station with time synchronization, and all the remaining pseu- do-range errors after the satellite clock errors have been deducted are used to work out ephemeris corrections of all GEO satellites. By a comparative analysis of user positioning accuracy before and after differential, the wide area differential method is verified to be quite valid for GEO constellation.

  9. A Scalable Resource Management Architecture for Wide-Area Industrial Measurement Collaboration on Grids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Deng-pan; HE Ling-song; YANG Hong

    2007-01-01

    Research on Web measurement and industrial collaboration in measurement fields in a wide-area and across-organizationally is accepted globally. This paper proposes a novel, scalable management architecture of measurement resources for the resource organization and resource access of the current wide-area collaborative measurement applications in the context of a grid. The complexity of the measurement management on a grid arises from the scale, dynamism, autonomy, heterogeneity, and distribution of the measurement systems and the relative data systems. This paper mainly discusses the interconnection, collaboration, and transparent access of the multi-measurement resources based on the proposed management architecture in the context of complexity. We first discuss the logical architecture used in the measurement fields, and then the resource management system is put at a high premium with layered architecture. Finally, the problems such as resource interconnection, sharing and collaboration are studied in the context of the proposed management environment. The typical applying instance is given to show the advancement of the proposed approach.

  10. Tsetse flies: their biology and control using area-wide integrated pest management approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreysen, Marc J B; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2013-03-01

    Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of 'sleeping sickness' or human African trypanosomosis (HAT) in humans and 'nagana' or African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in livestock in Sub-saharan Africa. Many consider HAT as one of the major neglected tropical diseases and AAT as the single greatest health constraint to increased livestock production. This review provides some background information on the taxonomy of tsetse flies, their unique way of reproduction (adenotrophic viviparity) making the adult stage the only one easily accessible for control, and how their ecological affinities, their distribution and population dynamics influence and dictate control efforts. The paper likewise reviews four control tactics (sequential aerosol technique, stationary attractive devices, live bait technique and the sterile insect technique) that are currently accepted as friendly to the environment, and describes their limitations and advantages and how they can best be put to practise in an IPM context. The paper discusses the different strategies for tsetse control i.e. localised versus area-wide and focusses thereafter on the principles of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) and the phased-conditional approach with the tsetse project in Senegal as a recent example. We argue that sustainable tsetse-free zones can be created on Africa mainland provided certain managerial and technical prerequisites are in place.

  11. Communication Modeling for Wide-Area Relay Protection Based on IEC 61850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wide-area communication system is the information exchange supporting platform for wide-area relay protection (WARP, which includes not only visible physical communication equipment and links, but also communication protocols and other upper communication services. WARP communication had become an important issue in WARP practical applications, but it has not been described in IEC 61850 standard. To solve this issue, this paper firstly presents the general steps of WARP modeling according to the layer upon layer modeling methods of the IEC 61850 standard, then proposes a tree structure model of master station and affiliate stations with information interaction model between master station and affiliate stations following IEC 61850 by taking a 220kV smart substation and WARP algorithm based on fault voltage distribution for example, finally establishes a communication model of WARP that includes client/server transfer model, electrical value transmission model and logical status variables transmission model. The fundamental purpose of constructing the communication model is to implement the interoperability between WARP−IED (WARP−Intelligent Electronic Devices and other IEDs in a smart substation.

  12. Extracting features for power system vulnerability assessment from wide-area measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamwa, I. [Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada). IREQ; Pradhan, A.; Joos, G. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Many power systems now operate close to their stability limits as a result of deregulation. Some utilities have chosen to install phason measurement units (PMUs) to monitor power system dynamics. The synchronized phasors of different areas of power systems available through a wide-area measurement system (WAMS) are expected to provide an effective security assessment tool as well as a stabilizing control action for inter-area oscillations and a system protection scheme (SPS) to evade possible blackouts. This paper presented tool extracting features for vulnerability assessment from WAMS-data. A Fourier-transform based technique was proposed for monitoring inter-area oscillations. FFT, wavelet transform and curve fitting approaches were investigated to analyze oscillatory signals. A dynamic voltage stability prediction algorithm was proposed for control action. An integrated framework was then proposed to assess a power system through extracted features from WAMS-data on first swing stability, voltage stability and inter-area oscillations. The centre of inertia (COI) concept was applied to the angle of voltage phasor. Prony analysis was applied to filtered signals to extract the damping coefficients. The minimum post-fault voltage of an area was considered for voltage stability, and an algorithm was used to monitor voltage stability issues. A data clustering technique was applied to classify the features in a group for improved system visualization. The overall performance of the technique was examined using a 67-bus system with 38 PMUs. The method used to extract features from both frequency and time domain analysis was provided. The test power system was described. The results of 4 case studies indicated that adoption of the method will be beneficial for system operators. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  13. 超声衍射时差法检测表面盲区分析及盲区内缺陷的超声爬波检测工艺和应用%Analysis on the Surface Blind Area of Time of Flight Diffraction and the Technology and Application of Ultrasonic Creeping Wave Testing in Surface Blind Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘礼良; 郑晖; 邬冠华

    2013-01-01

    This paper researches on the blind area of the time of flight diffraction (TOFD) by theoretically analyzing the surface blind area and by the experiment on TOFD detection block,and it shows that one of major limitations of TOFD is the flaw top tip located in a blind area.Thus,other testing methods are needed to cover the blind area.Experiments and comparisons among three methods (Ultrasonic Pulse Echo,Magnetic Particle and Ultrasonic Creeping Wave testing) are carried out to get a decent detection performance.The results presented in this paper indicate that creeping wave testing technique can effectively detect overweight defect in the blind area of TOFD as a complemented method.%通过超声衍射时差法检测(TOFD)表面盲区理论分析,在TOFD检测试块上进行试验验证表明TOFD检测方法存在表面盲区.采用超声脉冲反射检测、磁粉检测及超声爬波检测,较好地检测了TOFD上表面盲区超标缺陷,得出超声爬波检测法是TOFD表面盲区检测中一种有效的补充检测方法.

  14. KOLAM: a cross-platform architecture for scalable visualization and tracking in wide-area imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Joshua; Haridas, Anoop; Seetharaman, Guna; Rao, Raghuveer M.; Palaniappan, Kannappan

    2013-05-01

    KOLAM is an open, cross-platform, interoperable, scalable and extensible framework supporting a novel multi- scale spatiotemporal dual-cache data structure for big data visualization and visual analytics. This paper focuses on the use of KOLAM for target tracking in high-resolution, high throughput wide format video also known as wide-area motion imagery (WAMI). It was originally developed for the interactive visualization of extremely large geospatial imagery of high spatial and spectral resolution. KOLAM is platform, operating system and (graphics) hardware independent, and supports embedded datasets scalable from hundreds of gigabytes to feasibly petabytes in size on clusters, workstations, desktops and mobile computers. In addition to rapid roam, zoom and hyper- jump spatial operations, a large number of simultaneously viewable embedded pyramid layers (also referred to as multiscale or sparse imagery), interactive colormap and histogram enhancement, spherical projection and terrain maps are supported. The KOLAM software architecture was extended to support airborne wide-area motion imagery by organizing spatiotemporal tiles in very large format video frames using a temporal cache of tiled pyramid cached data structures. The current version supports WAMI animation, fast intelligent inspection, trajectory visualization and target tracking (digital tagging); the latter by interfacing with external automatic tracking software. One of the critical needs for working with WAMI is a supervised tracking and visualization tool that allows analysts to digitally tag multiple targets, quickly review and correct tracking results and apply geospatial visual analytic tools on the generated trajectories. One-click manual tracking combined with multiple automated tracking algorithms are available to assist the analyst and increase human effectiveness.

  15. Effect analysis of quartz-lamp holder blind area of radiation heater to heat flux field%辐射加热器灯头盲区对热流场影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      石英灯已广泛应用于结构热试验辐射加热器中,但是由于石英灯灯头安装处工作温度较低,因此在两列石英灯连接部位形成灯头盲区,从而使试验件相应区域热流产生明显下降。通过蒙特卡罗方法开展了灯头盲区对热流场的影响分析,获得了灯头盲区尺寸、灯阵与试件距离对热流波谷的影响规律,提出并讨论了改善灯头盲区的方法。研究结果为指导加热器布局设计、提升结构热试验模拟精度具有积极意义。%Quartz lamps are widely used as the radiation heater in thermal testing. But, because of the lower working temperature of the lamp holder, the blind area would appear at the junction of two quartz lamps so that the heat flux on the relative areas of samples would be declined. Based on Monte Carlo method, both the effects of the blind area size and the distance between lamp-array and sample on heat flux field of sample were investigated, and the means to improve the heat flux field under the influence of blind area was proposed. The research could be used for the design of heater layout;thereby the performance of the thermal testing will be improved.

  16. Evaluation of replacement protocols and modifications to TCP to enhance ASC Wide Area Network performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Randy L. Jr.

    2004-09-01

    Historically, TCP/IP has been the protocol suite used to transfer data throughout the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) community. However, TCP was developed many years ago for an environment very different from the ASC Wide Area Network (WAN) of today. There have been numerous publications that hint of better performance if modifications were made to the TCP algorithms or a different protocol was used to transfer data across a high bandwidth, high delay WAN. Since Sandia National Laboratories wants to maximize the ASC WAN performance to support the Thor's Hammer supercomputer, there is strong interest in evaluating modifications to the TCP protocol and in evaluating alternatives to TCP, such as SCTP, to determine if they provide improved performance. Therefore, the goal of this project is to test, evaluate, compare, and report protocol technologies that enhance the performance of the ASC WAN.

  17. Sensor-Aware Recognition and Tracking for Wide-Area Augmented Reality on Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wide-area registration in outdoor environments on mobile phones is a challenging task in mobile augmented reality fields. We present a sensor-aware large-scale outdoor augmented reality system for recognition and tracking on mobile phones. GPS and gravity information is used to improve the VLAD performance for recognition. A kind of sensor-aware VLAD algorithm, which is self-adaptive to different scale scenes, is utilized to recognize complex scenes. Considering vision-based registration algorithms are too fragile and tend to drift, data coming from inertial sensors and vision are fused together by an extended Kalman filter (EKF to achieve considerable improvements in tracking stability and robustness. Experimental results show that our method greatly enhances the recognition rate and eliminates the tracking jitters.

  18. Sensor-Aware Recognition and Tracking for Wide-Area Augmented Reality on Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Cao, Ruochen; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-01-01

    Wide-area registration in outdoor environments on mobile phones is a challenging task in mobile augmented reality fields. We present a sensor-aware large-scale outdoor augmented reality system for recognition and tracking on mobile phones. GPS and gravity information is used to improve the VLAD performance for recognition. A kind of sensor-aware VLAD algorithm, which is self-adaptive to different scale scenes, is utilized to recognize complex scenes. Considering vision-based registration algorithms are too fragile and tend to drift, data coming from inertial sensors and vision are fused together by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to achieve considerable improvements in tracking stability and robustness. Experimental results show that our method greatly enhances the recognition rate and eliminates the tracking jitters. PMID:26690439

  19. Reflectance of Biological Turbid Tissues under Wide Area Illumination: Single Backward Scattering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guennadi Saiko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various scenarios of light propagation paths in turbid media (single backward scattering, multiple backward scattering, banana shape are discussed and their contributions to reflectance spectra are estimated. It has been found that a single backward or multiple forward scattering quasi-1D paths can be the major contributors to reflected spectra in wide area illumination scenario. Such a single backward scattering (SBS approximation allows developing of an analytical approach which can take into account refractive index mismatched boundary conditions and multilayer geometry and can be used for real-time spectral processing. The SBS approach can be potentially applied for the distances between the transport and reduced scattering domains. Its validation versus the Kubelka-Munk model, path integrals, and diffusion approximation of the radiation transport theory is discussed.

  20. Sensor-Aware Recognition and Tracking for Wide-Area Augmented Reality on Mobile Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Cao, Ruochen; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-12-10

    Wide-area registration in outdoor environments on mobile phones is a challenging task in mobile augmented reality fields. We present a sensor-aware large-scale outdoor augmented reality system for recognition and tracking on mobile phones. GPS and gravity information is used to improve the VLAD performance for recognition. A kind of sensor-aware VLAD algorithm, which is self-adaptive to different scale scenes, is utilized to recognize complex scenes. Considering vision-based registration algorithms are too fragile and tend to drift, data coming from inertial sensors and vision are fused together by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to achieve considerable improvements in tracking stability and robustness. Experimental results show that our method greatly enhances the recognition rate and eliminates the tracking jitters.

  1. Getting routers out of the core: Building an optical wide area network with "multipaths"

    CERN Document Server

    Cuda, Davide; Rouzic, Esther Le; Roberts, James

    2011-01-01

    We propose an all-optical networking solution for a wide area network (WAN) based on the notion of multipoint-to-multipoint lightpaths that, for short, we call "multipaths". A multipath concentrates the traffic of a group of source nodes on a wavelength channel using an adapted MAC protocol and multicasts this traffic to a group of destination nodes that extract their own data from the confluent stream. The proposed network can be built using existing components and appears less complex and more efficient in terms of energy consumption than alternatives like OPS and OBS. The paper presents the multipath architecture and compares its energy consumption to that of a classical router-based ISP network. A flow-aware dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm is proposed and shown to have excellent performance in terms of throughput and delay.

  2. Secure wide area network access to CMS analysis data using the Lustre filesystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourilkov, D.; Avery, P.; Cheng, M.; Fu, Y.; Kim, B.; Palencia, J.; Budden, R.; Benninger, K.; Rodriquez, J. L.; Dilascio, J.; Dykstra, D.; Seenu, N.

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports the design and implementation of a secure, wide area network (WAN), distributed filesystem by the ExTENCI project (Extending Science Through Enhanced National CyberInfrastructure), based on the Lustre filesystem. The system is used for remote access to analysis data from the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and from the Lattice Quantum ChromoDynamics (LQCD) project. Security is provided by Kerberos authentication and authorization with additional fine grained control based on Lustre ACLs (Access Control List) and quotas. We investigate the impact of using various Kerberos security flavors on the I/O rates of CMS applications on client nodes reading and writing data to the Lustre filesystem, and on LQCD benchmarks. The clients can be real or virtual nodes. We are investigating additional options for user authentication based on user certificates.

  3. TWENTIES Project. Wind power for wide-area control of the grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Juan Carlos; Combarros, Clara; Veguillas, Roberto; Hermosa, Mikel Joseba [Iberdrola Renovables, Madrid (Spain); Rubio, David [Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion (Spain); Egido, Ignacio [Comillas Univ. (ES). Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica (IIT)

    2011-07-01

    Europe faces a great challenge with the 2020 scenario in which the renewable energy installed capacity in Europe should increase from its present value of approximately 80 GW to 230 GW in 2020. The future high penetration levels of wind and other renewable energies in the power system require decision makers and stakeholders of the electrical sector to work together to develop new ancillary services and to make the necessary changes to the grid infrastructure in Europe. This background is in line with the SYSERWIND demonstration lead by Iberdrola Renovables and included in the TWENTIES project, with three more partners taking part in this package: Red Electrica de Espana (REE), IIT and Gamesa Eolica. This paper introduces a first phase of preliminary work to define, install and test a Secondary Frequency Control and a Voltage Management System in a wide area, along a transport line. (orig.)

  4. Wide area real time kinematic decimetre positioning with multiple carrier GNSS signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the technical basis for wide area real time decimetre positioning services using multiple carrier signals transmitted by future GNSS such as modernized GPS and Compass systems. The first step is to form two ionosphere-reduced extra-widelanes (EWL) that have the minimal total noise levels in cycles, considering the effects of the ionospheric and tropospheric delays, orbital error, and phase noise terms in various observational environments. The proposed three carrier ambiguity resolution approach can determine the integer ambiguities of the selected EWL signals with geometry-free and geometry- based estimations respectively over the distances of typically hundreds of kilometres. With two ambiguity-fixed EWL signals, the kinematic positioning solutions can be achieved in decimetre level accuracy. A semi-simulation method is employed to generate three frequency Compass data to demonstrate the above expected performance for decimetre positioning services. Both theoretical and experimental results have demonstrated the overall 3D root mean square accuracy of better than 15 cm obtained through with a phase smoothing process over 120 epochs. The dominating error factor in this positioning result is the residual tropospheric biases, which would become less correlated as the baselines grow beyond hundreds of kilometres. With respect to dual-frequency based precise point positioning and wide area differential positioning solutions, a major advantage of using the third frequency signals is the convergence time being shorten from tens of minutes to a few minutes. In addition, due to the instant ambiguity resolution capability, phase breaks or cycle slips no longer affect the continuity of the solutions. This reliable decimetre positioning capability introduces a significant improvement to safety-of-life, liability-critical and professional applications.

  5. Blind Pre-School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Billie, Comp.

    Articles pertinent to aiding the pre-school blind child are collected in this publication. Topics include discussion of attitudes and emotional reactions important for parents and teachers of blind children, and optimal development in regard to early motor behavior and emotional and social needs. Common areas of parental concern such as discipline…

  6. Influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation on genome wide expression of white blood cells: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hossein-nezhad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although there have been numerous observations of vitamin D deficiency and its links to chronic diseases, no studies have reported on how vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation affects broad gene expression in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D status and subsequent vitamin D supplementation on broad gene expression in healthy adults. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A randomized, double-blind, single center pilot trial was conducted for comparing vitamin D supplementation with either 400 IUs (n = 3 or 2000 IUs (n = 5 vitamin D3 daily for 2 months on broad gene expression in the white blood cells collected from 8 healthy adults in the winter. Microarrays of the 16 buffy coats from eight subjects passed the quality control filters and normalized with the RMA method. Vitamin D3 supplementation that improved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations was associated with at least a 1.5 fold alteration in the expression of 291 genes. There was a significant difference in the expression of 66 genes between subjects at baseline with vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD20 ng/ml. After vitamin D3 supplementation gene expression of these 66 genes was similar for both groups. Seventeen vitamin D-regulated genes with new candidate vitamin D response elements including TRIM27, CD83, COPB2, YRNA and CETN3 which have been shown to be important for transcriptional regulation, immune function, response to stress and DNA repair were identified. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that any improvement in vitamin D status will significantly affect expression of genes that have a wide variety of biologic functions of more than 160 pathways linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease with have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study reveals for the first time molecular finger prints that help explain the nonskeletal health

  7. THE WIDE-AREA ENERGY STORAGE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PHASE II Final Report - Flywheel Field Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Makarov, Yuri V.; Weimar, Mark R.; Rudolph, Frank; Murthy, Shashikala; Arseneaux, Jim; Loutan, Clyde; Chowdhury, S.

    2010-08-31

    This research was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operated for the U.S. department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), California Institute for Energy and Environment (CIEE) and California Energy Commission (CEC). A wide-area energy management system (WAEMS) is a centralized control system that operates energy storage devices (ESDs) located in different places to provide energy and ancillary services that can be shared among balancing authorities (BAs). The goal of this research is to conduct flywheel field tests, investigate the technical characteristics and economics of combined hydro-flywheel regulation services that can be shared between Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and California Independent System Operator (CAISO) controlled areas. This report is the second interim technical report for Phase II of the WAEMS project. This report presents: 1) the methodology of sharing regulation service between balancing authorities, 2) the algorithm to allocate the regulation signal between the flywheel and hydro power plant to minimize the wear-and-tear of the hydro power plants, 3) field results of the hydro-flywheel regulation service (conducted by the Beacon Power), and 4) the performance metrics and economic analysis of the combined hydro-flywheel regulation service.

  8. The Wide-Area X-ray Survey in the Legacy Stripe 82 Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, S.; Urry, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Glikman, E.; Richards, G.; B"ohringer, H.

    2016-06-01

    We are carrying out a wide-area X-ray survey in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 field to uncover how luminous, obscured AGN evolve over cosmic time and the role they play in galaxy evolution. Stripe 82 is a legacy field with a high level of spectroscopic completeness and rich multi-wavelength coverage from the ultraviolet to far-infrared, including Spitzer and Herschel imaging. Our Stripe 82X survey currently reaches 31 deg^{2}, with ˜6200 X-ray point sources detected at ≥5σ level. I will review the characteristics of this survey, on-going programs to target obscured AGN candidates, and how we can use the lessons learned from the synergistic multi-wavelength coverage to develop strategic plans for future surveys and missions. Finally, I will comment on how extending the Stripe 82X survey area to 100 deg^{2} will provide unprecedented insight into the high-L (Lx > 10^{45} erg/s), high-z (z > 2) AGN population.

  9. Enabling technologies to improve area-wide integrated pest management programmes for the control of screwworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A S; Vreysen, M J B; Hendrichs, J; Feldmann, U

    2009-06-01

    The economic devastation caused in the past by the New World screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to the livestock industry in the U.S.A., Mexico and the rest of Central America was staggering. The eradication of this major livestock pest from North and Central America using the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme was a phenomenal technical and managerial accomplishment with enormous economic implications. The area is maintained screwworm-free by the weekly release of 40 million sterile flies in the Darien Gap in Panama, which prevents migration from screwworm-infested areas in Columbia. However, the species is still a major pest in many areas of the Caribbean and South America and there is considerable interest in extending the eradication programme to these countries. Understanding New World screwworm fly populations in the Caribbean and South America, which represent a continuous threat to the screwworm-free areas of Central America and the U.S.A., is a prerequisite to any future eradication campaigns. The Old World screwworm fly Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has a very wide distribution ranging from Southern Africa to Papua New Guinea and, although its economic importance is assumed to be less than that of its New World counterpart, it is a serious pest in extensive livestock production and a constant threat to pest-free areas such as Australia. In the 1980s repeated introductions and an expansion of Old World screwworm populations were reported in the Middle East; in the 1990s it invaded Iraq and since late 2007 it has been reported in Yemen, where a severe outbreak of myiasis occurred in 2008. Small-scale field trials have shown the potential of integrating the SIT in the control of this pest and various international organizations are considering using the release of sterile insects as part of an AW-IPM approach on a much wider scale

  10. Transient stability enhancement of modern power grid using predictive Wide-Area Monitoring and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefian, Reza

    This dissertation presents a real-time Wide-Area Control (WAC) designed based on artificial intelligence for large scale modern power systems transient stability enhancement. The WAC using the measurements available from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) at generator buses, monitors the global oscillations in the system and optimally augments the local excitation system of the synchronous generators. The complexity of the power system stability problem along with uncertainties and nonlinearities makes the conventional modeling non-practical or inaccurate. In this work Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm on the benchmark of Neural Networks (NNs) is used to map the nonlinearities of the system in real-time. This method different from both the centralized and the decentralized control schemes, employs a number of semi-autonomous agents to collaborate with each other to perform optimal control theory well-suited for WAC applications. Also, to handle the delays in Wide-Area Monitoring (WAM) and adapt the RL toward the robust control design, Temporal Difference (TD) is proposed as a solver for RL problem or optimal cost function. However, the main drawback of such WAC design is that it is challenging to determine if an offline trained network is valid to assess the stability of the power system once the system is evolved to a different operating state or network topology. In order to address the generality issue of NNs, a value priority scheme is proposed in this work to design a hybrid linear and nonlinear controllers. The algorithm so-called supervised RL is based on mixture of experts, where it is initialized by linear controller and as the performance and identification of the RL controller improves in real-time switches to the other controller. This work also focuses on transient stability and develops Lyapunov energy functions for synchronous generators to monitor the stability stress of the system. Using such energies as a cost function guarantees the convergence

  11. Fast, Large-Area, Wide-Bandgap UV Photodetector for Cherenkov Light Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Due to limited resources available for power and space for payloads, miniaturizing and integrating instrumentation is a high priority for addressing the challenges of manned and unmanned deep space missions to high Earth orbit (HEO), near Earth objects (NEOs), Lunar and Martian orbits and surfaces, and outer planetary systems, as well as improvements to high-altitude aircraft safety. New, robust, and compact detectors allow future instrumentation packages more options in satisfying specific mission goals. A solid-state ultraviolet (UV) detector was developed with a theoretical fast response time and large detection area intended for application to Cherenkov detectors. The detector is based on the wide-bandgap semiconductor zinc oxide (ZnO), which in a bridge circuit can detect small, fast pulses of UV light like those required for Cherenkov detectors. The goal is to replace the role of photomultiplier tubes in Cherenkov detectors with these solid-state devices, saving on size, weight, and required power. For improving detection geometry, a spherical detector to measure high atomic number and energy (HZE) ions from any direction has been patented as part of a larger space radiation detector system. The detector will require the development of solid-state UV photodetectors fast enough (2 ns response time or better) to detect the shockwave of Cherenkov light emitted as the ions pass through a quartz, sapphire, or acrylic ball. The detector must be small enough to fit in the detector system structure, but have an active area large enough to capture enough Cherenkov light from the sphere. The detector is fabricated on bulk single-crystal undoped ZnO. Inter - digitated finger electrodes and contact pads are patterned via photolithography, and formed by sputtered metal of silver, platinum, or other high-conductivity metal.

  12. Efficient feature extraction from wide-area motion imagery by MapReduce in Hadoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Erkang; Ma, Liya; Blaisse, Adam; Blasch, Erik; Sheaff, Carolyn; Chen, Genshe; Wu, Jie; Ling, Haibin

    2014-06-01

    Wide-Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) feature extraction is important for applications such as target tracking, traffic management and accident discovery. With the increasing amount of WAMI collections and feature extraction from the data, a scalable framework is needed to handle the large amount of information. Cloud computing is one of the approaches recently applied in large scale or big data. In this paper, MapReduce in Hadoop is investigated for large scale feature extraction tasks for WAMI. Specifically, a large dataset of WAMI images is divided into several splits. Each split has a small subset of WAMI images. The feature extractions of WAMI images in each split are distributed to slave nodes in the Hadoop system. Feature extraction of each image is performed individually in the assigned slave node. Finally, the feature extraction results are sent to the Hadoop File System (HDFS) to aggregate the feature information over the collected imagery. Experiments of feature extraction with and without MapReduce are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed Cloud-Enabled WAMI Exploitation (CAWE) approach.

  13. Time-Dependent Statistical Analysis of Wide-Area Time-Synchronized Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Messina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of spatial and temporal changes in the dynamic patterns of a nonstationary process is a problem of great theoretical and practical importance. On-line monitoring of large-scale power systems by means of time-synchronized Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs provides the opportunity to analyze and characterize inter-system oscillations. Wide-area measurement sets, however, are often relatively large, and may contain phenomena with differing temporal scales. Extracting from these measurements the relevant dynamics is a difficult problem. As the number of observations of real events continues to increase, statistical techniques are needed to help identify relevant temporal dynamics from noise or random effects in measured data. In this paper, a statistically based, data-driven framework that integrates the use of wavelet-based EOF analysis and a sliding window-based method is proposed to identify and extract, in near-real-time, dynamically independent spatiotemporal patterns from time synchronized data. The method deals with the information in space and time simultaneously, and allows direct tracking and characterization of the nonstationary time-frequency dynamics of oscillatory processes. The efficiency and accuracy of the developed procedures for extracting localized information of power system behavior from time-synchronized phasor measurements of a real event in Mexico is assessed.

  14. Frequency Monitoring and Control during Power System Restoration Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Nourizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency control during power system restoration has not been strongly addressed. Operators are often concerned with the offline sizing of load and generation steps, but, nowadays, the introduction of Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS makes it possible to monitor the stability of power system online. The constraints of WAMS operation result in some changes in power system frequency control. This paper proposes a novel methodology for frequency control and monitoring during the early steps of power system restoration based on WAMS. Detailed load modeling is achieved based on the static load modeling approach. Power generators' modeling is also accomplished utilizing the single machine equivalent of the power system based on PMU measurements. Simulation results of the presented methodology on the 39 bus New England power system clearly show the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed method. The simulation results show that the presented approach has a completely acceptable precision and an outstanding speed with less than 0.05% error. The outstanding speed of the presented approach along with the result precision will result in a great promotion in power system restoration methodologies.

  15. A double area detector system for simultaneous small and wide-angle X-ray scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Pokric, B; Ryan, A J; Fairclough, P; Dobson, B R; Derbyshire, G E; Helsby, W; Long, G; Moon, K

    2002-01-01

    A novel area detector has been designed for material science SR studies, capable of simultaneously collecting the diffraction data in two angular regimes. The detector for collecting wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) data consists of four taper-coupled CCDs arranged as a 2x2 mosaic with a central aperture about 40 mm in diameter, so permitting the inclusion of a distant on-axis CCD detector for small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The distance of the SAXS detector from the sample can be varied over the range 0.27 m to about 2 m. The overall aperture of WAXS detector is approximately 200x200 mm sup 2 allowing the measurement of the diffraction patterns from 5 deg. to 45 deg. with an average angular resolution of 0.05 deg. The parallax error for large angles is substantially reduced as the individual WAXS CCDs are tilted towards the specimen location. Both WAXS and SAXS diffraction data are simultaneously collected at 30 MB/s data rate, which is equivalent to 6 complete frames per second. Each pixel value is d...

  16. Automatic Registration of Wide Area Motion Imagery to Vector Road Maps by Exploiting Vehicle Detections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliethy, Ahmed; Sharma, Gaurav

    2016-11-01

    To enrich large-scale visual analytics applications enabled by aerial wide area motion imagery (WAMI), we propose a novel methodology for accurately registering a geo-referenced vector roadmap to WAMI by using the locations of detected vehicles and determining a parametric transform that aligns these locations with the network of roads in the roadmap. Specifically, the problem is formulated in a probabilistic framework, explicitly allowing for spurious detections that do not correspond to on-road vehicles. The registration is estimated via the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm as the planar homography that minimizes the sum of weighted squared distances between the homography-mapped detection locations and the corresponding closest point on the road network, where the weights are estimated posterior probabilities of detections being on-road vehicles. The weighted distance minimization is efficiently performed using the distance transform with the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least-squares minimization procedure, and the fraction of spurious detections is estimated within the EM framework. The proposed method effectively sidesteps the challenges of feature correspondence estimation, applies directly to different imaging modalities, is robust to spurious detections, and is also more appropriate than feature matching for a planar homography. Results over three WAMI data sets captured by both visual and infrared sensors indicate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology: both visual comparison and numerical metrics for the registration accuracy are significantly better for the proposed method as compared with the existing alternatives.

  17. Wide area measurement system for smart grid applications involving hybrid energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Mahmoud M.; Moussa, Heba B.; Mohammed, Osama A. [Florida International University, Energy Systems Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Miami, FL (United States)

    2012-03-15

    This paper presents a model and experimental verification for a complete scenario of a proposed wide area measurement system (WAMS) based on synchronized phasor measurement units (PMUs). The proposed system is feasible for hybrid smart ac/dc power networks; such as grid-connected PV-power plants. The purpose is to increase the overall system reliability for all power stages via significant dependence on WAMS as distributed intelligence agents with improved monitoring, protection, and control capabilities of the power networks. The developed system is simulated in the Matlab/Simulink environment. The system was tested under two different cases; normal operation and fault state. Furthermore, the proposed WAMS was experimentally validated with results obtained from a reduced scale setup which built and tested in the laboratory based on the Hardware-in-the-loop concept. It was verified that the power system status can be easily monitored and controlled in real time by using the measured bus data in real time. This improves the overall system reliability and avoids cascaded blackout during fault occurrence. The simulation and experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed WAMS technology for smart grid applications. (orig.)

  18. Continuous wide area monitoring of fish shoaling behavior with acoustic waveguide sensing and bioclutter implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Nicholas C.; Ratilal, Purnima; Symonds, Deanelle T.; Nero, Redwood W.

    2001-05-01

    Field measurements are used to show that the detailed behavior of fish shoals can be continuously monitored at roughly 1-min intervals over wide areas spanning hundreds of square kilometers by long range acoustic waveguide sensing. The technique was used on the New Jersey Continental Shelf to produce unprecedented video images of shoal formation, fragmentation, and migration. Simultaneous line-transect measurements show the imaged shoals to contain pelagic fish with densities of at least one individual per meter3. The technique relies upon acoustic waveguide propagation in the continental shelf. Here, trapped modes dominate propagation and suffer only cylindrical spreading loss rather than the spherical loss suffered in free-space transmission or short-range propagation in the ocean. In contrast, standard methods for fish surveyance involve line transect measurements from slow moving research vessels that significantly under-sample fish distributions in time and space, leaving an incomplete behavioral picture. The implications of this bioclutter phenomenon on the Navy's long range active sonar operations in continental shelf environments are discussed.

  19. Wide area network access to CMS data using the LustreTM filesystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. L.; Avery, P.; Brody, T.; Bourilkov, D.; Fu, Y.; Kim, B.; Prescott, C.; Wu, Y.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of the LustreTM cluster filesystem over the wide area network to access Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) data stored on physical devices located hundreds of kilometres away. We describe the experimental testbed and report on the I/O performance of applications writing and reading data on the distributed LustreTM filesystem established across the WAN. We compare the I/O performance of a CMS application to the performance obtained with IOzone, a standard benchmark tool. We then examine the I/O performance of the CMS application running multiple processes on a single server. And compare the Lustre results to results obtained on data stored on local filesystems. Our measurements reveal that the IOzone benchmark tool, accessing data sequentially, can saturate the Gbps network link that connects our Lustre client in Miami Florida to the Lustre storage located in Gainesville, Florida. We also find that the I/O rates of the CMS application is significantly less than what can be obtained with IOzone for sequential access to data.

  20. Wide area network access to CMS data using the Lustre{sup TM} filesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J L; Brody, T [Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Avery, P; Bourilkov, D; Fu, Y; Kim, B; Wu, Y [Department of Physics, Florida University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Prescott, C [High Performance Computing Center University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of the Lustre{sup TM} cluster filesystem over the wide area network to access Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) data stored on physical devices located hundreds of kilometres away. We describe the experimental testbed and report on the I/O performance of applications writing and reading data on the distributed Lustre{sup TM} filesystem established across the WAN. We compare the I/O performance of a CMS application to the performance obtained with IOzone, a standard benchmark tool. We then examine the I/O performance of the CMS application running multiple processes on a single server. And compare the Lustre results to results obtained on data stored on local filesystems. Our measurements reveal that the IOzone benchmark tool, accessing data sequentially, can saturate the Gbps network link that connects our Lustre client in Miami Florida to the Lustre storage located in Gainesville, Florida. We also find that the I/O rates of the CMS application is significantly less than what can be obtained with IOzone for sequential access to data.

  1. NFU-Enabled FASTA: moving bioinformatics applications onto wide area networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huadong

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in Internet technologies have allowed life science researchers to reach beyond the lab-centric research paradigm to create distributed collaborations. Of the existing technologies that support distributed collaborations, there are currently none that simultaneously support data storage and computation as a shared network resource, enabling computational burden to be wholly removed from participating clients. Software using computation-enable logistical networking components of the Internet Backplane Protocol provides a suitable means to accomplish these tasks. Here, we demonstrate software that enables this approach by distributing both the FASTA algorithm and appropriate data sets within the framework of a wide area network. Results For large datasets, computation-enabled logistical networks provide a significant reduction in FASTA algorithm running time over local and non-distributed logistical networking frameworks. We also find that genome-scale sizes of the stored data are easily adaptable to logistical networks. Conclusion Network function unit-enabled Internet Backplane Protocol effectively distributes FASTA algorithm computation over large data sets stored within the scaleable network. In situations where computation is subject to parallel solution over very large data sets, this approach provides a means to allow distributed collaborators access to a shared storage resource capable of storing the large volumes of data equated with modern life science. In addition, it provides a computation framework that removes the burden of computation from the client and places it within the network.

  2. An Alternative Wearable Tracking System Based on a Low-Power Wide-Area Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Garcia, Raul; Gil, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an alternative wearable tracking system based on a low-power wide area network. A complete GPS receiver was integrated with a textile substrate, and the latitude and longitude coordinates were sent to the cloud by means of the SIM-less SIGFOX network. To send the coordinates over SIGFOX protocol, a specific codification algorithm was used and a customized UHF antenna on jeans fabric was designed, simulated and tested. Moreover, to guarantee the compliance to international regulations for human body exposure to electromagnetic radiation, the electromagnetic specific absorption rate of this antenna was analyzed. A specific remote server was developed to decode the latitude and longitude coordinates. Once the coordinates have been decoded, the remote server sends this information to the open source data viewer SENTILO to show the location of the sensor node in a map. The functionality of this system has been demonstrated experimentally. The results guarantee the utility and wearability of the proposed tracking system for the development of sensor nodes and point out that it can be a low cost alternative to other commercial products based on GSM networks. PMID:28335424

  3. Willed blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. A willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness enables us...... blindness focusing on the development of either a new moral vision of our obligations or new visions of what a good life is....

  4. Color Blindness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2007-01-01

    About one in 12 boys is color-blind, and one in every 400 girls, so in each school class there are likely to be at least one or two people who are color-blind. Because they are color- blind from birth, most people do not know that they are color-

  5. Color blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color blindness often have problems seeing reds and greens, too. The most severe form of color blindness is achromatopsia. This is a rare condition in which a person cannot see any color, only shades of gray. Most color blindness is due to ...

  6. Collaborative 3D Target Tracking in Distributed Smart Camera Networks for Wide-Area Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenofon Koutsoukos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the evolution and fusion of wireless sensor network and embedded camera technologies, distributed smart camera networks have emerged as a new class of systems for wide-area surveillance applications. Wireless networks, however, introduce a number of constraints to the system that need to be considered, notably the communication bandwidth constraints. Existing approaches for target tracking using a camera network typically utilize target handover mechanisms between cameras, or combine results from 2D trackers in each camera into 3D target estimation. Such approaches suffer from scale selection, target rotation, and occlusion, drawbacks typically associated with 2D tracking. In this paper, we present an approach for tracking multiple targets directly in 3D space using a network of smart cameras. The approach employs multi-view histograms to characterize targets in 3D space using color and texture as the visual features. The visual features from each camera along with the target models are used in a probabilistic tracker to estimate the target state. We introduce four variations of our base tracker that incur different computational and communication costs on each node and result in different tracking accuracy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed trackers by comparing their performance to a 3D tracker that fuses the results of independent 2D trackers. We also present performance analysis of the base tracker along Quality-of-Service (QoS and Quality-of-Information (QoI metrics, and study QoS vs. QoI trade-offs between the proposed tracker variations. Finally, we demonstrate our tracker in a real-life scenario using a camera network deployed in a building.

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of an area-wide pest management program to control Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito), which limit outdoor activities. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis for an AWPM in Mercer and Monmouth counties, New Jersey, as part of a controlled design with matched area...

  8. Sustained, area-wide control of Aedes aegypti using CDC autocidal gravid ovitraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Acevedo, Verónica; Hemme, Ryan R; Félix, Gilberto

    2014-12-01

    We have shown that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) autocidal gravid ovitraps (AGO trap) reduced the Aedes aegypti population and prevented mosquito outbreaks in southern Puerto Rico. After showing treatment efficacy for 1 year, we deployed three traps per home in an area that formerly did not have traps and in a site that served as the intervention area. Two new areas were selected as reference sites to compare the density of Ae. aegypti without traps. We monitored mosquitoes and weather every week in all four sites. The hypotheses were the density of Ae. aegypti in the former reference area converges to the low levels observed in the intervention area, and mosquito density in both areas having control traps is lower than in the new reference areas. Mosquito density in the former reference area decreased 79% and mosquito density in the new reference areas was 88% greater than in the intervention areas.

  9. A Statewide Private Microwave Wide Area Network for Real-time Natural Hazard Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. C.; Kent, G.; Smith, K. D.; Plank, G.; Slater, D.; Torrisi, J.; Presser, R.; Straley, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL) at the University of Nevada, Reno, operates the Nevada Seismic Network, a collection of ground motion instruments installed throughout Nevada and California, for the purposes of detecting, locating, and notifying the public of earthquakes in the state. To perform these tasks effectively, NSL has designed and built a statewide wireless microwave wide-area network (WAN) in order to receive ground motion data in near real-time. This network consists of radio access points, backhauls, and backbone communication sites transmitting time-series, images, and datalogger diagnostics to our data center servers in Reno. This privately managed communication network greatly reduces the dependence on third-party infrastructure (e.g. commercial cellular networks), and is vital for emergency management response and system uptime. Any individual seismograph or data collection device is networked through a wireless point-to-multipoint connection to a remote access point (AP) using a low-cost radio/routerboard combination. Additional point-to-point connections from AP's to radio backhauls and/or mountaintop backbone sites allow the Data Center in Reno to communicate with and receive data directly from each datalogger. Dataloggers, radios, and routers can be configured using tablets on-site, or via desktop computers at the Data Center. Redundant mountaintop links can be added to the network and facilitate the re-routing of data (similar to a meshed network) in the event of a faulty, failing, or noisy communication site. All routers, radios, and servers, including those at the Data Center, have redundant power and can operate independently in the event of a grid power or public Internet outage. A managed server room at the Data Center processes earthquake data for notifications and acts as a data source for remote users. Consisting of about 500 hosts, and spanning hundreds of miles, this WAN provides network operators access to each router and

  10. DISTANT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM for Tsunamis - A wide-area and multi-hazard approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, Martin; Lendholt, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    system and to extend the CCUI with hazard specific functionality. The presentation covers the DEWS project, the system architecture and the CCUI in conjunction with details of information logistics. The DEWS Wide Area Centre connecting national centres to allow the international communication and warning exchange is presented also. REFERENCES: [1] DEWS, www.dews-online.org [2] OGC, www.opengeospatial.org [3] SWE, www.opengeospatial.org/projects/groups/sensorweb [4] Eclipse RCP, www.eclipse.org/home/categories/rcp.php [5] uDig, udig.refractions.net [6] WMS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wms [7] WFS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wfs [8] WPS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wps [9] OASIS, www.oasis-open.org [10] CAP, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#capv1.1 [11] EDXL-DE, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#edxlde-v1.0 [12] SOAP, www.w3.org/TR/soap [13] GITEWS (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) is a project of the German Federal Government to aid the recon¬struction of the tsunami-prone Indian Ocean region, www.gitews.org [14] The Tsunami Service Bus is the GITEWS sensor system integration platform offering standardised services for the detection and monitoring of tsunamis

  11. Protocol and Topology Issues for Wide-Area Satellite Interconnection of Terrestrial Optical LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraga, N.

    2002-01-01

    Apart from broadcasting, the satellite business is targeting niche markets. Wide area interconnection is considered as one of these niche markets, since it addresses operators and business LANs (B2B, business to business) in remote areas where terrestrial infrastructure is not available. These LANs - if high-speed - are typically based on optical networks such as SONET. One of the advantages of SONET is its architecture flexibility and capacity to transport all kind of applications including multimedia with a range of different transmission rates. The applications can be carried by different protocols among which the Internet Protocol (IP) or the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) are the most prominent ones. Thus, the question arises how these protocols can be interconnected via the satellite segment. The paper addresses several solutions for interworking with different protocols. For this investigation we distinguish first of all between the topology and the switching technology of the satellites. In case of a star network with transparent satellite, the satellite protocol consists of physical layer and data layer which can be directly interconnected with layer 2 interworking function to their terrestrial counterparts in the SONET backbone. For regenerative satellites the situation is more complex: here we need to distinguish the types of transport protocols being used in the terrestrial and satellite segment. Whereas IP, ATM, MPEG dominate in the terrestrial networks, satellite systems usually do not follow these standards. Some might employ minor additions (for instance, satellite specific packet headers), some might be completely proprietary. In general, interworking must be done for the data plane on top of layer 2 (data link layer), whereas for the signaling plane the interworking is on top of layer 3. In the paper we will discuss the protocol stacks for ATM, IP, and MPEG with a regenerative satellite system. As an example we will use the EuroSkyWay satellite

  12. Small Airborne Hyperspectral Wide Area Imager for Disaster Response and Earth Science Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed hyperspectral plus LWIR system will deliver high signal to noise performance, a wide spectral range, nominally 365 nm to 1.7 um, a single long wave IR...

  13. Transmission Performance Analysis of Digital Wire and Wireless Optical Links in Local and Wide Areas Optical Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed, Abd El Naser A; Rashed, Ahmed Nabih Zaki; Nabawy, Amina E M El

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, the transmission performance analysis of digital wire and wireless optical links in local and wide areas optical networks have been modeled and parametrically investigated over wide range of the affecting parameters. Moreover, we have analyzed the basic equations of the comparative study of the performance of digital fiber optic links with wire and wireless optical links. The development of optical wireless communication systems is accelerating as a high cost effective to wire fiber optic links. The optical wireless technology is used mostly in wide bandwidth data transmission applications. Finally, we have investigated the maximum transmission distance and data transmission bit rates that can be achieved within digital wire and wireless optical links for local and wide areas optical network applications.

  14. Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management System to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Yang, Bo; DeSteese, John G.

    2009-01-01

    (CAISO) areas. The proposed wide area energy management system (WAEMS) addresses these additional balancing requirements through energy exchange between the participat-ing control areas and through the use of energy storage and other generation resources. For the BPA and CAISO control areas, the new...... energy storage technologies for the pro-posed application include flywheel energy storage devices (ESD), pumped or conventional hydro power plants, and so-dium sulfur or nickel cadmium batteries. A preferred WAEMS architecture was selected as an aggregation of a flywheel ESD and a pumped storage (or...

  15. [Cortical blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, S

    2014-02-01

    Cortical blindness refers to a visual loss induced by a bilateral occipital lesion. The very strong cooperation between psychophysics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology and neuropsychology these latter twenty years as well as recent progress in cerebral imagery have led to a better understanding of neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness. It thus becomes possible now to propose an earlier diagnosis of cortical blindness as well as new perspectives for rehabilitation in children as well as in adults. On the other hand, studying complex neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness is a way to infer normal functioning of the visual system.

  16. Recent invasion of world-wide wheat growing areas by two aggressive strains of Puccinia striiformis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Ali, Sajid; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer

    2012-01-01

    The ever more frequent and severe large-scale epidemics of wheat yellow/stripe rust disease (caused by Puccinia striiformis) pose a severe threat to the world’s wheat production (Hovmøller et al. 2010). The onset of a new series of world-wide wheat yellow rust epidemics in 2000 has been linked...

  17. Data fusion in multi sensor platforms for wide-area perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polychronopoulos, A.; Floudas, N.; Amditis, A.; Bank, D.; Broek, S.P. van den

    2006-01-01

    there is a strong belief that the improvement of preventive safety applications and the extension of their operative range will be achieved by the deployment of multiple sensors with wide fields of view (FOV). The paper contributes to the solution of the problem and introduces distributed sensor dat

  18. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Knowledge Enhancement Events: Waste Management Workshop After Action Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    and surrounding area. Agent has generated a downwind vapor hazard. Approx. contamination = over 5 miles o Several high value properties ...Background Agent YELLOW, which is a mixture of the chemical warfare agents Sulfur Mustard and Lewisite, is a liquid with a garlic -like odor. Sulfur...infrastructure, commercial, military & private property . Approx. contamination = 2 areas of 10 sq. miles each o Hundreds of buildings contaminated

  19. Wide-Area Soil Moisture Estimation Using the Propagation of Lightning Generated Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Signals 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land surface moisture measurements are central to our understanding of the earth’s water system, and are needed to produce accurate model-based weather/climate predictions. Currently, there exists no in-situ network capable of estimating wide-area soil moisture. In this paper, we explore an alterna...

  20. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and ...

  1. Economic evaluation of area-wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus, which limit outdoor activities. While several evaluations of effectiveness exist, information on costs is lacking. Economic evaluation of such a program is important to help inform policy makers an...

  2. SEMI-BLIND SOURCE SEPARATION FOR ESTIMATION OF CLAY CONTENT OVER SEMI-VEGETATED AREAS, FROM VNIR/SWIR HYPERSPECTRAL AIRBORNE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ouerghemmi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of Visible, Near-Infrared and Short Wave Infrared (VNIR/SWIR hyperspectral imagery for soil property mapping decreases when surfaces are partially covered by vegetation. The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate a methodology based on the “double-extraction” technique, for clay content estimation over semi-vegetated surfaces using VNIR/SWIR hyperspectral airborne data. The “double-extraction” technique initially proposed by Ouerghemmi et al. (2011 consists of 1 an extraction of a soil reflectance spectrum ssoil from semi-vegetated spectra using a Blind Source Separation technique, and 2 an extraction of clay content from the soil reflectance spectrum ssoil, using a multivariate regression method. In this paper, the Source Separation approach is Semi-Blind thanks to the integration of field knowledge in Source Separation model. And the multivariate regression method is a partial least squares regression (PLSR model. This study employed VNIR/SWIR HyMap airborne data acquired in a French Mediterranean region over an area of 24 km2. Our results showed that our methodology based on the “double-extraction” technique is accurate for clay content estimation when applied to pixels under a specific Cellulose Absorption Index threshold. Finally the clay content can be estimated over around 70% of the semi-vegetated pixels of our study area, which may offer an extension of soil properties mapping, at the moment restricted to bare soils.

  3. A Large-Area Transferable Wide Band Gap 2D Silicon Dioxide Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Christin; Wang, Zhu-Jun; Burson, Kristen M; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Heyde, Markus; Schlögl, Robert; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2016-08-23

    An atomically smooth silica bilayer is transferred from the growth substrate to a new support via mechanical exfoliation at millimeter scale. The atomic structure and morphology are maintained perfectly throughout the process. A simple heating treatment results in complete removal of the transfer medium. Low-energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy show the success of the transfer steps. Excellent chemical and thermal stability result from the absence of dangling bonds in the film structure. By adding this wide band gap oxide to the toolbox of 2D materials, possibilities for van der Waals heterostructures will be broadened significantly.

  4. Wide Area UXO Screening with the Multi-Sensor Fixed-Wing Airborne System MARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Personnel may be exposed to physical hazards, such as severe heat stress; excessive noise levels; and slip , trip, and fall hazards. Engineering...area. Thermal socks , long cotton or thermal underwear, hard-hat liners, and other cold-weather gear can help prevent hypothermia. Blankets, warm drinks

  5. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Hazardous Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    focus on both the most relevant exposure pathways and on the areas most difficult to decontaminate. The IC/UC may also elect to utilize an...a layer of pavement or cement over 137Cs gamma emanation that may have become fixed in place by sorbing onto the street and sidewalks . This may be

  6. Wide-area image restoration using a new iterative registration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Donald; Lambert, Andrew J.

    2000-11-01

    Over a wide field of view (e.g., 100 arcsec in optical astronomy) the point spread function due to atmospheric effects is found to be far form position invariant, and appears as a combination of local warping and local blurring. Recently, we discussed a method in which the first step in restoration is to register all points in every frame of a movie sequence to the corresponding points in a prototype image. After registration, each frame is de- warped and summed to form an average, motion-blur corrected result. Previously, we applied a hierarchical, windowed cross correlation process to obtain local x and y registration information, similar to common methods in stereo cartography. We discuss a new approach to image registration for this purpose. Suppose two images to be registered differ mainly in varying random, but spatially coherent warping (such as occurs as one effect of a slowly varying wavefront tip-tilt over a wide field of vies). Imagine that one image, the reference image, is represented by a solid surface corresponding to its intensity distribution. Imagine that the second image is also represented by a surface, but in the form of a flexible, rubber mold. If the two images are identical, then the mold fits the solid like a glove. If one image includes local warping relative to the other, then the mold or glove must be forced to fit though local distortions.

  7. The South African fruit fly action plan: area-wide suppression and exotic species surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Brian N., E-mail: barnesb@arc.agric.z [ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Institute for Fruit, Vine and Wine, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Venter, Jan-Hendrik, E-mail: janhendrikv@nda.agric.z [Directorate Plant Health, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    Two species of tephritid fruit flies of economic importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann]) and Natal fruit fly (C. rosa Karsch) cause economic losses in the South African deciduous fruit industry of approximately US$3 million per annum. A third species, marula fruit fly, C. cosyra (Walker), causes damage to citrus and sub-tropical fruits in the north-eastern part of the country. In 1999 a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme against Medfly was initiated over 10,000 ha of table grapes with a goal of cost-effective, ecologically compatible suppression of Medfly. The SIT programme was extended to two other fruit production areas in 2004. Although results in all three SIT areas have been mixed, populations of wild Medflies, as well as associated pesticide usage and control costs, have been reduced since the start of sterile fly releases. Reasons for the partial degree of success and the relatively slow expansion of Medfly SIT to other areas include economic, operational and cultural factors, as well as certain fruit production practices. Before fruit fly-free areas can be created, deficiencies in the ability to mass-rear Natal fruit fly need to be overcome so that an SIT programme against this species can be initiated. Any fruit fly suppression or eradication campaign will be severely compromised by any introductions into South Africa of exotic fruit fly species. The risk of such introductions is increasing as trade with and travel to the country increases. A Plant Health Early Warning Systems Division has been initiated to formulate fruit fly detection and action plans. Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae [Coquillett]), Asian fruit fly (B. invadens Drew, Tsurutu and White) and peach fruit fly (B. zonata [Saunders]), which are all well established in parts of Africa and/or Indian Ocean islands, have been identified as presenting the highest risk for entering and becoming established in South Africa. An exotic fruit fly surveillance

  8. Projected impacts of climate change on a continent-wide protected area network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hole, David G; Willis, Stephen G; Pain, Deborah J;

    2009-01-01

    Despite widespread concern, the continuing effectiveness of networks of protected areas under projected 21st century climate change is uncertain. Shifts in species' distributions could mean these resources will cease to afford protection to those species for which they were originally established......, despite the likelihood of significant community disruption, we demonstrate that rigorously defined networks of protected areas can play a key role in mitigating the worst impacts of climate change on biodiversity....... species). Persistence of suitable climate space across the network as a whole, however, is notably high, with 88-92% of priority species retaining suitable climate space in >or= 1 IBA(s) in which they are currently found. Only 7-8 priority species lose climatic representation from the network. Hence...

  9. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Decon-13 Subject Matter Expert Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    higher activity levels from blast zone or onsite concentration efforts) 3. LLRW with Asbestos (i.e., Old steam pipes from Clemo buildings) 4...ion Technologies : Cleaning agents, acids , foams: Reduce radiation; do not eliminate radiation Most effective on non- porous surfaces or areas...documentation, shipping, and/or treatment of all wastes generated or collected on-site during ESF-10 activities including radiological waste, solid

  10. Wide-Area Cooperative Biometric Tagging, Tracking and Locating in a Multimodal Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    a group. In some cases, subjects would split from one group and join another group. In addition, multiple unknown persons trafficked the data...22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply...b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area

  11. CROSS-MODAL PLASTICITY OF TACTILE PERCEPTION IN BLINDNESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathian, K.; Stilla, Randall

    2011-01-01

    This review focusses on cross-modal plasticity resulting from visual deprivation. This is viewed against the background of task-specific visual cortical recruitment that is routine during tactile tasks in the sighted and that may depend in part on visual imagery. Superior tactile perceptual performance in the blind may be practice-related, although there are unresolved questions regarding the effects of Braille-reading experience and the age of onset of blindness. While visual cortical areas are clearly more involved in tactile microspatial processing in the blind than in the sighted, it still remains unclear how to reconcile these tactile processes with the growing literature implicating visual cortical activity in a wide range of cognitive tasks in the blind, including those involving language, or with studies of short-term, reversible visual deprivation in the normally sighted that reveal plastic changes even over periods of hours or days. PMID:20404414

  12. TeleMed: Wide-area, secure, collaborative object computing with Java and CORBA for healthcare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forslund, D.W.; George, J.E.; Gavrilov, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    Distributed computing is becoming commonplace in a variety of industries with healthcare being a particularly important one for society. The authors describe the development and deployment of TeleMed in a few healthcare domains. TeleMed is a 100% Java distributed application build on CORBA and OMG standards enabling the collaboration on the treatment of chronically ill patients in a secure manner over the Internet. These standards enable other systems to work interoperably with TeleMed and provide transparent access to high performance distributed computing to the healthcare domain. The goal of wide scale integration of electronic medical records is a grand-challenge scale problem of global proportions with far-reaching social benefits.

  13. Time Stamp Attack on Wide Area Monitoring System in Smart Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhenghao; Li, Husheng; Pei, Changxing

    2011-01-01

    Security becomes an extremely important issue in smart grid. To maintain the steady operation for smart power grid, massive measurement devices must be allocated widely among the power grid. Previous studies are focused on false data injection attack to the smart grid system. In practice, false data injection attack is not easy to implement, since it is not easy to hack the power grid data communication system. In this paper, we demonstrate that a novel time stamp attack is a practical and dangerous attack scheme for smart grid. Since most of measurement devices are equipped with global positioning system (GPS) to provide the time information of measurements, it is highly probable to attack the measurement system by spoofing the GPS. By employing the real measurement data in North American Power Grid, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the time stamp attack on smart grid.

  14. Research on Wide Area Protection with Controller Area Network Bus%采用CAN总线的广域保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丹宁; 杨青松; 吴华仁

    2015-01-01

    分布式电源和微电网的接入,给配电网继电保护提出了新的要求.为了缩短故障切除时间,保证动作的选择性和快速性,研发了基于DSP的广域保护装置,探索了CAN总线在广域保护中的应用.广域保护中不同位置的保护装置通过CAN总线交换信息,能够快速确定故障区域,明显缩短故障切除时间.对广域保护样机进行了实验研究,实验结果表明,CAN总线用于广域保护能提高继电保护性能.%The distributed generation and microgrid access make power distribution network protective relaying have new requirements. In order to shorten the time for clearing faults and to ensure selectivity and rapidity of trip, this paper developed a wide area protection device based on digital signal processor (DSP) and researched the application of controller area network (CAN) bus in wide area protection. The protection devices of different positions in wide area protection exchanged messages by CAN bus to determine the fault zone quickly, which distinctly shortened the time for clearing faults. A prototype of wide area protection was tested. The testing results indicate that the CAN bus can improve the protection quality.

  15. Body area networks using IEEE 802156 implementing the ultra wide band physical layer

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Marco; Mucchi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The market of wearable wireless medical sensors is experiencing a rapid growth and the associated telecommunications services for the healthcare sector are forecast to further increase in the next years. Medical body area networks (MBANs) allow the mobility of patients and medical personnel by facilitating the remote monitoring of patients suffering from chronic or risky diseases. Currently, MBANs are being introduced in unlicensed frequency bands, where the risk of mutual interference with other electronic devices radiating in the same band can be high. Thus, coexistence is an issue on which

  16. Wide-Area Mapping of Forest with National Airborne Laser Scanning and Field Inventory Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnet, J.-M.; Ginzler, C.; Clivaz, J.-C.

    2016-06-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) remote sensing data are now available for entire countries such as Switzerland. Methods for the estimation of forest parameters from ALS have been intensively investigated in the past years. However, the implementation of a forest mapping workflow based on available data at a regional level still remains challenging. A case study was implemented in the Canton of Valais (Switzerland). The national ALS dataset and field data of the Swiss National Forest Inventory were used to calibrate estimation models for mean and maximum height, basal area, stem density, mean diameter and stem volume. When stratification was performed based on ALS acquisition settings and geographical criteria, satisfactory prediction models were obtained for volume (R2 = 0.61 with a root mean square error of 47 %) and basal area (respectively 0.51 and 45 %) while height variables had an error lower than 19%. This case study shows that the use of nationwide ALS and field datasets for forest resources mapping is cost efficient, but additional investigations are required to handle the limitations of the input data and optimize the accuracy.

  17. A Novel Wide-Area Backup Protection Based on Fault Component Current Distribution and Improved Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problems of the existing wide-area backup protection (WABP algorithms, the paper proposes a novel WABP algorithm based on the distribution characteristics of fault component current and improved Dempster/Shafer (D-S evidence theory. When a fault occurs, slave substations transmit to master station the amplitudes of fault component currents of transmission lines which are the closest to fault element. Then master substation identifies suspicious faulty lines according to the distribution characteristics of fault component current. After that, the master substation will identify the actual faulty line with improved D-S evidence theory based on the action states of traditional protections and direction components of these suspicious faulty lines. The simulation examples based on IEEE 10-generator-39-bus system show that the proposed WABP algorithm has an excellent performance. The algorithm has low requirement of sampling synchronization, small wide-area communication flow, and high fault tolerance.

  18. Performance of a Large-area GEM Detector Read Out with Wide Radial Zigzag Strip

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Aiwu; Hansen, Eric; Hohlmann, Marcus; Khanal, Shreeya; Phipps, Michael; Starling, Elizabeth; Twigger, Jessie; Walton, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    A 1-meter-long trapezoidal Triple-GEM detector with wide readout strips was tested in hadron beams at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility in October 2013. The readout strips have a special zigzag geometry and run along the radial direction with an azimuthal pitch of 1.37 mrad to measure the azimuthal phi-coordinate of incident particles. The zigzag geometry of the readout reduces the required number of electronic channels by a factor of three compared to conventional straight readout strips while preserving good angular resolution. The average crosstalk between zigzag strips is measured to be an acceptable 5.5%. The detection efficiency of the detector is (98.4+-0.2)%. When the non-linearity of the zigzag-strip response is corrected with track information, the angular resolution is measured to be (193+-3) urad, which corresponds to 14% of the angular strip pitch. Multiple Coulomb scattering effects are fully taken into account in the data analysis with the help of a stand-alone Geant4 simulation that estimates in...

  19. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (15)Great Advances in Power System Stabilizing Technology triggered by the Wide-area Outage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Masanao

    On July 23, 1987, a very hot day, the largest wide-area power outage occurred in Kanto-Area, Japan. The cause was a voltage collapse on the bulk power network of Tokyo Electric Power Company, due to the abnormal rate of demand rising following resume after lunch break. Aggressive studies on voltage collapse throughout industry and university have led to great advances in power system stability. This essay describes the detail record of the outage, the applied countermeasures, and the inside story when the multiple voltage solutions of power flow on actual power system were found out for the first time.

  20. Blind Masseurs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Guan Enming and his wife Hao Dejuan, a blind couple, vowed to "never become a burden for society." The couple retired from the QJngdao Massotherapy Hospital in 1992, and thereafter opened a private clinic with assistance from their

  1. Truck-mounted Area-wide Application of Pyriproxyfen Targeting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Northeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    larval control , Aedes aegypti , Aedes albopictus INTRODUCTION Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Asian tiger mosquito) and Ae. aegypti (L.) (yellow fever...Bull Fla Mosq Control Assoc 9:48– 52. Seng CM, Setha T, Nealon J, Socheat D, Nathan MB. 2008. Six months of Aedes aegypti control with a novel...TRUCK-MOUNTED AREA-WIDE APPLICATION OF PYRIPROXYFEN TARGETING AEDES AEGYPTI AND AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA1 CARL W. DOUD,2,3 ANTHONY M

  2. Very-large-mode-area photonic bandgap Bragg fiber polarizing in a wide spectral range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshkina, Svetlana S; Likhachev, Mikhail E; Pryamikov, Andrey D; Gaponov, Dmitry A; Denisov, Alexandr N; Bubnov, Mikhail M; Salganskii, Mikhail Yu; Laptev, Alexandr Yu; Guryanov, Aleksei N; Uspenskii, Yurii A; Popov, Nikolay L; Février, Sébastien

    2011-09-15

    A design of a polarizing all-glass Bragg fiber with a microstructure core has been proposed for the first time. This design provides suppression of high-order modes and of one of the polarization states of the fundamental mode. The polarizing fiber was fabricated by a new, simple method based on a combination of the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process and the rod-in-tube technique. The mode field area has been found to be about 870 μm² near λ=1064 nm. The polarization extinction ratio better than 13 dB has been observed over a 33% wavelength range (from 1 to 1.4 μm) after propagation in a 1.7 m fiber piece bent to a radius of 70 cm.

  3. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  4. Cryogenic Wide-Area Light Detectors for Neutrino and Dark Matter Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domizio, S.; Bagni, R.; Battistelli, E. S.; Bellini, F.; Bucci, C.; Calvo, M.; Cardani, L.; Castellano, M. G.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; D'Addabbo, A.; de Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Pinci, D.; Vignati, M.

    2014-09-01

    Large-mass arrays of bolometers proved to be good detectors for neutrinoless double beta decay (0DBD) and dark matter searches. CUORE and LUCIFER are bolometric 0DBD experiments that will start to take data in 2015 at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy. The sensitivity of CUORE could be increased by removing the background due to particles, by detecting the small amount of Čerenkov light (100 eV) emitted by the s' signal and not by s. LUCIFER could be extended to detect also dark matter, provided that the background from / particles (100 eV of scintillation light) is discriminated from nuclear recoils of about 10 keV energy (no light). We have recently started to develop light detectors for CUORE, LUCIFER and similar bolometric experiments. The aim is to obtain detectors with an active area of (the face of bolometric crystals), operating at 10 mK, and with an energy resolution at the baseline below 20 eV RMS. We have chosen to develop phonon-mediated detectors with KID sensors. We are currently testing the first prototypes.

  5. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Wide Area Blunt Impact Damage to Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi Ming

    Due to their high performance and weight efficiency, carbon fiber composites are increasingly being used in aircraft primary structure applications. Exposed composite structures (e.g., fuselage lower body) are susceptible accidental impacts by ground service equipment (GSE). The very high mass (over 10,000 kg) of GSE impact can involve high energy (over 1000 J) and thus can induce significant internal damage. Furthermore, the large contact area potentially involved with GSE impact can create significant internal delamination and fiber failure without leaving exterior-visible signs that any damage has occurred. The objectives of the research described herein are to: (1) conduct experimental investigation into the composite aircraft damage caused by GSE impact, (2) examine the small-scale failure modes in focused, element-level studies, (3) establish a finite element modeling methodology involving detailed simulation capability that is validated via small-scale tests, and (4) apply these modeling capabilities to accurately predict full-scale structural behavior without adjustment (e.g., tuning) of modeling input parameters.

  6. Distributed Power-Line Outage Detection Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i high computational complexity; and (ii relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  7. Distributed power-line outage detection based on wide area measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Song, Wen-Zhan

    2014-07-21

    In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i) high computational complexity; and (ii) relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  8. A novel wireless personal area network technology: ultra wide band technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Wei-hua; GUO Li-li; LIANG Zhi-guo

    2006-01-01

    Ultra Wideband (UWB) technology is promising for wireless personal area network (WPAN) applications due to its high data rate, low power requirement and short-range characteristics. Instead of exploring new unused frequency band, the UWB communication follows the overlay principle, i.e.,sharing the spectrum with existing systems and devices. This novel radio technology has been recently approved by the regulatory authorities in the United States and Canada, and is being considered for approval in Europe and Asia. In this paper, an overview of the UWB radio technology from the technical,economical, and regulatory perspectives is provided. Firstly, the definition of UWB by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is introduced, followed by a brief introduction to the history. The current status of the standardization process resulting from the FCC's recent decision to permit unlicensed operation in the [3.1-10.6] GHz band is discussed. Then, the reasons of considering UWB as a future solution for WLAN/WPAN applications are studied. In particular, the unique properties of UWB and its difference from other wireless technology alternatives are studied. Then, the benefits and challenges related to the commercial deployment of UWB for future applications are discussed. Finally,the research problems and challenges posed by the UWB technology are focused.

  9. Uni- and bidirectional wide angle CT colonography: effect on missed areas, surface visualization, viewing time and polyp conspicuity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, James E.; Saunders, Brian P. [St. Mark' s Hospital, Wolfson Unit for Endoscopy, London (United Kingdom); Boone, Darren; Halligan, Steve; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College Hospital, Department of Specialist Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Burling, David [St. Mark' s Hospital, Department of Intestinal Imaging, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    The effect of field of view on mucosal visualisation and reader efficiency during three-dimensional endoluminal CT colonography (CTC) was investigated. Twenty CTC datasets were reviewed at standard 90-degree and ''wide'' 140-degree viewing angles using customised viewing software (V3D colon; Viatronix), which listed number and size of missed mucosal areas (''missed regions tool'') and percentage mucosal visualisation. We compared: (1) unidirectional and bidirectional flythrough using 140- versus 90-degree viewing angles; (2) reader analysis time comparing unidirectional 140-degree flythrough versus bidirectional 90-degree flythrough; (3) paired image snapshots of 12 polyps taken at each field of view were reviewed to assess conspicuity. All patients underwent conventional colonoscopy. Bidirectional 140-degree review reduced the numbers of missed areas by between eight- and 40-fold depending on size category, including those >1,000 mm{sup 2}, compared with standard 90-degree bidirectional flythrough (P<0.001). Combined prone-supine unidirectional 140-degree flythrough and missed area review was 3.8 min faster than 90-degree bidirectional review (9.3 versus 5.5 min, P< 0.0001) for the same surface visualisation. When viewed as pairs, polyps were rated more conspicuous with a 90-degree field of view, P=0.03. Wide-angle (140-degree) CTC can reduce both numbers of missed areas and review times. However, this may be at the expense of polyp conspicuity. (orig.)

  10. The design of delay-dependent wide-area DOFC with prescribed degree of stability α for damping inter-area low-frequency oscillations in power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miaoping; Nian, Xiaohong; Dai, Liqiong; Guo, Hua

    2017-03-24

    In this paper, the delay-dependent wide-area dynamic output feedback controller (DOFC) with prescribed degree of stability is proposed for interconnected power system to damp inter-area low-frequency oscillations. Here, the prescribed degree of stability α is used to maintain all the poles on the left of s=-α in the s-plane. Firstly, residue approach is adopted to select input-output control signals and the schur balanced truncation model reduction method is utilized to obtain the reduced power system model. Secondly, based on Lyapunov stability theory and transformation operation in complex plane, the sufficient condition of asymptotic stability for closed-loop power system with prescribed degree of stability α is derived. Then, a novel method based on linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) is presented to obtain the parameters of DOFC and calculate delay margin of the closed-loop system considering the prescribed degree of stability α. Finally, case studies are carried out on the two-area four-machine system, which is controlled by classical wide-area power system stabilizer (WAPSS) in reported reference and our proposed DOFC respectively. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are verified by the simulation results under different operating conditions.

  11. Wide-Area Landslide Deformation Mapping with Multi-Path ALOS PALSAR Data Stacks: A Case Study of Three Gorges Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuguo Shi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR has been adopted as a spaceborne geodetic tool to successfully measure surface deformation of a few well-known landslides in the Three Gorges area. In consideration of the fact that most events of slope failure happened at places other than those famous landslides since the reservoir impoundment in 2003, focusing on a limited number of slopes is insufficient to meet the requirements of regional-scale landslide disaster prevention and early warning. As a result, it has become a vital task to evaluate the overall stability of slopes across the vast area of Three Gorges using wide-coverage InSAR datasets. In this study, we explored the approach of carrying out joint analysis of multi-path InSAR data stacks for wide-area landslide deformation mapping. As an example, three ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data stacks of neighboring ascending paths covering the area along the Yangtze River from Fengjie to Zigui were analyzed. A key problem to be solved is the separation of the tropospheric signal from the interferometric phase, for which we employed a hybrid description model of the atmospheric phase screen (APS to improve APS estimation from time series interferograms. The estimated atmospheric phase was largely correlated with the seasonal rainfall in the temporal dimension. The experimental results show that about 30 slopes covering total areas of 48 km2 were identified to be landslides in active deformation and should be kept under routine surveillance. Analyses of time series displacement measurements revealed that most landslides in the mountainous area far away from Yangtze River suffered from linear deformation, whereas landslides located on the river bank were destabilized predominantly by the influences of reservoir water level fluctuation and rainfall.

  12. Decadal region-wide and glacier-wide mass balances derived from multi-temporal ASTER satellite digital elevation models. Validation over the Mont-Blanc area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Etienne; Cabot, Vincent; Vincent, Christian; Six, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Since 2000, a vast archive of stereo-images has been built by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) satellite. Several studies already extracted glacier mass balances from multi-temporal ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs) but they lacked accurate independent data for validation. Here, we apply a linear regression to a time series of 3D-coregistered ASTER DEMs to estimate the rate of surface elevation changes (dh/dtASTER) and geodetic mass balances of Mont-Blanc glaciers (155 km²) between 2000 and 2014. Validation using field and spaceborne geodetic measurements reveals large errors at the individual pixel level (> 1 m a-1) and an accuracy of 0.2-0.3 m a-1 for dh/dtASTER averaged over areas larger than 1 km². For all Mont-Blanc glaciers, the ASTER region-wide mass balance (-1.05±0.37 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1) agrees remarkably with the one measured using Spot5 and Pléiades DEMs (-1.06±0.23 m w.e. a-1) over their common 2003-2012 period. This multi-temporal ASTER DEM strategy leads to smaller errors than the simple differencing of two ASTER DEMs. By extrapolating dh/dtASTER to mid-February 2000, we infer a mean penetration depth of about 9±3 m for the C-band Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) radar signal, with a strong altitudinal dependency (range 0-12 m). This methodology thus reveals the regional pattern of glacier surface elevation changes and improves our knowledge of the penetration of the radar signal into snow and ice.

  13. PDCI Wide-Area Damping Control: PSLF Simulations of the 2016 Open and Closed Loop Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilches Bernal, Felipe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pierre, Brian Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Elliott, Ryan Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schoenwald, David A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Byrne, Raymond H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trudnowski, Daniel J. [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States); Donnelly, Matthew K. [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2017-03-01

    To demonstrate and validate the performance of the wide-are a damping control system, the project plans to conduct closed-loop tests on the PDCI in summer/fall 2016. A test plan details the open and closed loop tests to be conducted on the P DCI using the wide-area damping control system. To ensure the appropriate level of preparedness, simulations were performed in order to predict and evaluate any possible unsafe operations before hardware experiments are attempted. This report contains the result s from these simulations using the power system dynamics software PSLF (Power System Load Flow, trademark of GE). The simulations use the WECC (Western Electricity Coordinating Council) 2016 light summer and heavy summer base cases.

  14. Wide Area Measurement Based Security Assessment & Monitoring of Modern Power System: A Danish Power System Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe; Thøgersen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Power System security has become a major concern across the global power system community. This paper presents wide area measurement system (WAMS) based security assessment and monitoring of modern power system. A new three dimensional security index (TDSI) has been proposed for online security...... monitoring of modern power system with large scale renewable energy penetration. Phasor measurement unit (PMU) based WAMS has been implemented in western Danish Power System to realize online security monitoring and assessment in power system control center. The proposed security monitoring system has been...

  15. Optimal sterile insect release for area-wide integrated pest management in a density regulated pest population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Luis F

    2014-06-01

    To determine optimal sterile insect release policies in area-wide integrated pest management is a challenge that users of this pest control method inevitably confront. In this note we provide approximations to best policies of release through the use of simulated annealing. The discrete time model for the population dynamics includes the effects of sterile insect release and density dependence in the pest population. Spatial movement is introduced through integrodifference equations, which allow the use of the stochastic search in cases where movement is described through arbitrary dispersal kernels. As a byproduct of the computations, an assessment of appropriate control zone sizes is possible.

  16. Design of wide-area time-delay supplementary controller for interconnected Network based on Hamilton function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailati, G.; Hu, Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    The transient stability of interconnected network with supplementary time-delay controller for generator excitations and static var compensator (SVC) has been investigated in this paper. Firstly, a delay-dependent stability criterion based on Hamilton function method is derived, and the criterion is in term of matrix inequalities. Secondly, a nonlinear time-delay Hamilton function model of interconnected network with SVCs is constructed. Thirdly, the wide-area time-delay supplementary controller (WATSC) for the interconnected network is designed and converted into the form of Hamiltonian system. The delay-dependent stability of the closed-loop power system is analysed. The gains of the WATSC are determined by using the theoretical analysis results. It is effective for the designed WATSC installed in the 16- machine, 68-bus power system for damping the inter-area modes. Then simulation results show that the method of the controller is effective.

  17. Using Range-Wide Abundance Modeling to Identify Key Conservation Areas for the Micro-Endemic Bolson Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya A Ureña-Aranda

    Full Text Available A widespread biogeographic pattern in nature is that population abundance is not uniform across the geographic range of species: most occurrence sites have relatively low numbers, whereas a few places contain orders of magnitude more individuals. The Bolson tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus is endemic to a small region of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico, where habitat deterioration threatens this species with extinction. In this study we combined field burrows counts and the approach for modeling species abundance based on calculating the distance to the niche centroid to obtain range-wide abundance estimates. For the Bolson tortoise, we found a robust, negative relationship between observed burrows abundance and distance to the niche centroid, with a predictive capacity of 71%. Based on these results we identified four priority areas for the conservation of this microendemic and threatened tortoise. We conclude that this approach may be a useful approximation for identifying key areas for sampling and conservation efforts in elusive and rare species.

  18. Error Analysis of Fast Moving Target Geo-location in Wide Area Surveillance Ground Moving Target Indication Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shi-chao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As an important mode in airborne radar systems, Wide Area Surveillance Ground Moving Target Indication (WAS-GMTI mode has the ability of monitoring a large area in a short time, and then the detected moving targets can be located quickly. However, in real environment, many factors introduce considerable errors into the location of moving targets. In this paper, a fast location method based on the characteristics of the moving targets in WAS-GMTI mode is utilized. And in order to improve the location performance, those factors that introduce location errors are analyzed and moving targets are relocated. Finally, the analysis of those factors is proved to be reasonable by simulation and real data experiments.

  19. WIDE-AREA BASED ON COORDINATED TUNING OF FUZZY PSS AND FACTS CONTROLLER IN MULTI-MACHINE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Ebrahimian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper coordination of fuzzy power system stabilizer (FPSS and flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS have been considered in a multi-machine power system. The proposed model, has been applied for a wide-area power system. The proposed FPSS presented with local, nonlinear feedbacks, and the corresponding control synthesis conditions are given in terms of solutions to a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. For this model, in fuzzy control synthesis, the new proposed control design method is based on fewer fuzzy rules and less computational burden. Also, the parameters of FACTS controller have been evaluated by improved honey bee mating optimization (IHBMO. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been applied over two case studies of single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB and two areas four machine (TAFM Kundur’s power system. The obtained results demonstrate the superiority of proposed strategy.

  20. Blind Ambition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    No matter how dedicated they may be, some teachers are daunted by extreme challenges. Carol Agler, music director at the Ohio State School for the Blind (OSSB), is not one of those teachers. Since joining the OSSB staff 11 years ago, Agler has revived the school's long-dormant band program and created its first marching band. Next January, she…

  1. Distributed Cloud Computing Environment Enhanced With Capabilities for Wide-Area Migration and Replication Of Virtual Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chul Shim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When a network application is implemented as a virt ual machine on a cloud and is used by a large numbe r of users, the location of the virtual machine shoul d be selected carefully so that the response time experienced by users is minimized. As the user popu lation moves and/or increases, the virtual machine may need to be migrated to a new location or replicated on many locations over a wide-area network. Virtua l machine migration and replication have been studied extensively but in most cases are limited within a subnetwork to be able to maintain service continuit y. In this paper we introduce a distributed cloud computing environment which facilitates the migrati on and replication of a virtual machine over a wide area network. The mechanism is provided by an overl ay network of smart routers, each of which connects a cooperating data center to the Internet. The propos ed approach is analyzed and compared with related works.

  2. A Robust WLS Power System State Estimation Method Integrating a Wide-Area Measurement System and SCADA Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the development of modern society, the scale of the power system is rapidly increased accordingly, and the framework and mode of running of power systems are trending towards more complexity. It is nowadays much more important for the dispatchers to know exactly the state parameters of the power network through state estimation. This paper proposes a robust power system WLS state estimation method integrating a wide-area measurement system (WAMS and SCADA technology, incorporating phasor measurements and the results of the traditional state estimator in a post-processing estimator, which greatly reduces the scale of the non-linear estimation problem as well as the number of iterations and the processing time per iteration. This paper firstly analyzes the wide-area state estimation model in detail, then according to the issue that least squares does not account for bad data and outliers, the paper proposes a robust weighted least squares (WLS method that combines a robust estimation principle with least squares by equivalent weight. The performance assessment is discussed through setting up mathematical models of the distribution network. The effectiveness of the proposed method was proved to be accurate and reliable by simulations and experiments.

  3. Long-term and wide-area subsidence pattern from time series of Envisat Asar Data in Konya Basin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Aydin

    2016-04-01

    Konya Basin as a sub-part of Konya Closed Basin is dominated by the Neogene and Quaternary sediments that are largely fluvial and lacustrine characteristic. The wide plains cultivated over the last 10000 years are the remnants of the Pluvial lake basin during wet and humid climate environment after the last glacial period. With the form of isolated depression-block, the geomorphological landscape has been mainly driven by the neotectonic activity of striking normal fault systems of the region. Konya that has doubled in size over the last two and half decades is both expanding into the agricultural areas and increasing its building expansion in the city center. The level observations recorded at the monitoring stations indicate that groundwater resources have been exploited permanently or seasonally in some parts where water demand exceeds supply. In this study, a long-term and wide area subsidence pattern in Konya Basin has been analyzed by stacking the deformation interferograms for time series. The study area that covers approximately 7500 km squared was investigated through a large number of the raw images of Asar sensor onboard Envisat from December 2002 to October 2010. Almost a hundred SAR scenes imaged over three tracks in both ascending and descending modes have been used to create a set of 127 differential interferograms using GMTSAR processing system. A continuous deformation map on the basinwide scale has been produced by combining the stacked interferograms. The average contour map shows that the DInSAR detected line of sight subsidence (or uplift) rates vary between 0.6 and -3.3 cm/yr throughout 8 years. The subsidence pattern significantly is correlated with the land and groundwater use within the basin and it states that the anthropogenic effect is much greater than the identified geological and hydrogeological processes.

  4. Saint Ioannis Lampadistis, the first possible case of blindness due to organic mercury poisoning in history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, Kleonikos A

    2016-09-29

    Saint Ioannis Lampadistis is a Cypriot saint of the Greek Orthodox Church, widely venerated in his island of origin. He lived during the 11th century and was blinded by ingesting contaminated fish in the mountainous area of Galata, withdrew from civil life when he was 18, and died at the age of 22. The reason for his blindness remains unknown, though it is widely attributed to an unknown poison related to the copper mines of the region. As fish is the end reservoir of organic mercury, it is quite possible that his blindness was the result of heavy metal toxicity. Organic mercury is associated with CNS atrophy and hypoplasia, and blindness is a frequent presenting symptom. While not much is known about the saint's clinical symptoms (as his ecclestiastical biography focuses on his example and miracles), organic mercury poisoning could explain his sudden loss of vision, thus possibly making him the first-recorded case of organic mercury poisoning in history.

  5. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments.

  6. Turbo-FSK, a physical layer for low-power wide-area networks: Analysis and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Yoann; Doré, Jean-Baptiste; Ros, Laurent; Berg, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    As the Internet-of-Things is becoming a reality, the need for a new Low-Power Wide-Area (LPWA) network emerged in the last few years. Numerous low-cost devices will be connected, and this requires an optimization of the link budget: the physical layer needs to be designed highly energy efficient. The combination of M-ary orthogonal Frequency-Shift-Keying (M-FSK) modulation and coding in the same process has been shown to be a promising candidate when associated with an iterative receiver (turbo principle). In this work, we study this new digital transmission scheme, called Turbo-FSK. An EXtrinsic Information Transfer (EXIT) chart analysis is realized. The influence of the packet length is investigated, and the scheme is shown to stay energy efficiency even with short packet sizes. Comparison with LPWA current technologies is performed, showing the potential of this technology. xml:lang="fr"

  7. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Massi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Calusi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Castelli, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Fedi, M.E.; Gelli, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Palla, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Romano, F.P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali (IBAM), Via Biblioteca, 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), LNS, Via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  8. A GIS-assisted approach to wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection for the state of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, M.C. [Brower & Company, Andover, MA (United States); Hurley, P. [RLA Consulting, Bothell, WA (United States); Simon, R. [Consulting Meteorologist, Mill Valley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the methodology and results of a wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection in Colorado. This was the first phase in a three-part assessment and monitoring program conducted for the State of Colorado Office of Energy Conservation and several collaborating utilities. The objective of this phase was to identify up to 20 candidate sites for evaluation and possible long-term monitoring. This was accomplished using a geographic information system (GIS), which takes into account such factors as topography, existing wind resource data, locations of transmission lines, land cover, and land use. The resulting list of sites recommended for evaluation in Phase 2 of the study includes locations throughout Colorado, but most are in the eastern plains. The GIS wind siting model may be modified and updated in the future as additional information becomes available. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Calusi, S.; Castelli, L.; Carraresi, L.; Fedi, M. E.; Gelli, N.; Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P. A.; Mazzinghi, A.; Palla, L.; Romano, F. P.; Ruberto, C.; Taccetti, F.

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm2), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  10. The transmission of monetary shocks in the euro area: a V AR analysis based on euro-wide data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kakes

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Using area-wide data, we simulate the responses of inflation and real output following monetary shocks in the EMU. We find that short-term interest rate shocks have a significant impact on real activity, but hardly on prices. M3 shows a perverse short-term response to a monetary contraction, which should be taken into account when interpreting the reference value of money growth (the "first pillar" of the Eurosystem's monetary strategy. Shocks to the effective exchange rate have a rapid impact on prices, money growth and real activity. As the exchange rate itself is hardly affected by monetary policy shocks, though, there is little scope for an exchange rate policy. Rather, these findings underscore the important role that the exchange rate should play as an information variable within the "second pillar" of the monetary strategy.

  11. Off-axis sparse aperture imaging using phase optimization techniques for application in wide-area imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalanobis, Abhijit; Neifeld, Mark; Bhagavatula, Vijaya Kumar; Haberfelde, Thomas; Brady, David

    2009-10-01

    Sparse apertures find imaging applications in diverse fields such as astronomy and medicine. We are motivated by the design of a wide-area imaging system where sparse apertures can be used to construct novel and efficient optical designs. Specifically, we investigate the use of sparse apertures for off-axis imaging at infrared wavelengths while combating the effects of chromaticity to preserve resolution. In principle, several such sparse apertures can be interleaved within a common aperture to simultaneously image in multiple directions. This can ultimately lead to the design of wide-area imaging systems that require considerably less optical and electronic hardware. The resolution achievable using a sparse aperture is the same as that of a fully open aperture. In the case of off-axis imaging, however, the point spread function (PSF) introduces a blur due to chromaticity that degrades the resolution of the system. Of course, the blur can be eliminated by imaging at a single wavelength. However the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is poor, which ultimately degrades image quality. To improve SNR, it is necessary to widen the band of wavelengths, which of course degrades resolution due to chromaticity. Hence there is a fundamental trade between the SNR and the resolution as a function of bandwidth. We show that by using a combination of microprisms and phase optimized micropistons it is possible to reduce the chromatic blur over a band of wavelengths and improve the PSF considerably to restore the resolution of the image. The concepts are validated by means of simulations and verified with experimental data to demonstrate the advantages of phase optimized micropistons in off-axis sparse aperture imaging systems.

  12. The analysis of prevention and cure the blind for 20 years in sanlin community of pudong new area%浦东新区三林社区防盲治盲20年分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋惠芳; 金美华; 张文权; 孙伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the two or three grade hospitals how to cooperate with the community health service center to create the blindness prevention model community,and reduce the prevalence of blindness.Methods:Department of Ophthalmology of two or three grade hospital,eye protection center cooperated with Sanlin community health service center to carry out the work of prevention and cure blindness,the intervention objects were residents in sanlin community of pudong new area.Results:The prevention and cure for blind showed that,sustainable development of the work of prevention and cure for blindness can reduce the prevalence of blindness.2014 survey shows that DR and macular degeneration had gradually become important causes of blindness.Conclusion:Department of Ophthalmology of two or three grade hospital,eye protection center cooperated with community health service center to carry out the work of prevention and cure blindness can promote the prevention of blindness and penetration depth,and reverse the increasing trend.%目的:探讨城市二、三级医院如何与社区卫生服务中心合作,创建防盲治盲模范社区,降低盲目患病率。方法:城市二、三级医院眼科,眼病防治中心与三林社区卫生服务中心合作,开展防盲治盲工作,干预对象为浦东新区三林社区居民。结果:防盲治盲项目评价表明,持续开展防盲治盲工作可降低盲目的患病率。2014年的调查表明,糖尿病视网膜病变(DR)和黄斑病变已逐步成为致盲的重要原因。结论:城市二、三级医院眼科、眼防中心、社区卫生服务中心与防盲治盲工作密切结合,可促进防盲治盲工作的深入和普及,逆转盲人增加的趋势。

  13. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Knowledge Enhancement Events: Unmet Needs - Long-Term Recovery After Action Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    SCENARIO National Planning Scenario #5: Chemical Attack – Blister Agent Blister agent attack on a packed Coors Field (Downtown Denver). 95 fatalities...large blisters on exposed skin. Lewisite is a blister agent that contains arsenic, a poisonous element. Skin irritation from sulfur mustard...gradually turns into large blisters filled with yellow fluid wherever the agent contacted the skin. Temporary blindness can occur if a victim’s eyes are

  14. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Knowledge Enhancement Events: Behavioral Health Working Group After Action Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    CHEMICAL SCENARIO National Planning Scenario #5: Chemical Attack – Blister Agent • Blister agent attack on a packed Coors Field (Downtown Denver...ability to form large blisters on exposed skin. Lewisite is a blister agent that contains arsenic, a poisonous element. Skin irritation from...sulfur mustard gradually turns into large blisters filled with yellow fluid wherever the agent contacted the skin. Temporary blindness can occur if a

  15. The G305 star forming complex: Wide-Area molecular mapping of NH3 and H2O masers

    CERN Document Server

    Hindson, L; Urquhart, J S; Clark, J S; Davies, B

    2010-01-01

    We present wide area radio (12 mm) Mopra Telescope observations of the complex and rich massive star forming region G305. Our goals are to determine the reservoir for star formation within G305 using NH3 to trace the dense molecular content, and thus, the gas available to form stars; estimate physical parameters of detected NH3 clumps (temperature, column density, mass etc); locate current areas of active star formation via the presence of H2O and methanol masers and the distribution of YSOs and ultra compact HII regions associated with this region. This paper details the NH3 (J,K), (1,1), (2,2) and (3,3) inversion transition and 22 GHz H2O maser observations. We observed a \\sim 1.5\\circ x 1\\circ region with \\sim 2' angular resolution and a sensitivity of \\sim 60 mK per 0.4 km s^-1 channel. We identify 15 NH3 (1,1), 12 NH3 (2,2) and 6 NH3 (3,3) clumps surrounding the central HII region. The sizes of the clumps vary between 10^4 M\\odot and find the total molecular mass of the complex to be \\sim 6x10^5 M\\odot....

  16. Single-Network Wide-Area Persistent Scatterer Interferometry: Algorithms with Application to Sentinel-1 InSAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, K.; Shau, R.; Adam, N.

    2015-12-01

    Advanced InSAR techniques, for example, Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI), allow long term deformation time series analysis with millimeter accuracy. ESA's Sentinel-1 SAR mission employs the TOPS mode as the standard mode for acquiring InSAR data. It provides a continuous and large coverage at conventional resolution. The idea is to have a wide-area PSI for mapping countries and continents. Although PSI has been successfully demonstrated and validated in the past for various applications, there are some limitations for processing a large-scale dataset. First, PSI is most effective in urban areas which have a large number of stable scatterers. For large-scale PSI, even non-urban areas need to be processed; and this requires robust algorithms for scatterer selection, network construction and inversion, and atmospheric phase removal. Second, the computational load can be very high, due to which, the processing is usually divided into overlapping blocks and merged later. This can however lead to spatial error propagation. This paper presents algorithms which have been developed for a robust PSI reference network estimation, while mitigating error propagation. Instead of dividing the scene into overlapping blocks, a single network (i.e. arcs connecting the scatterers) is created for the full scene. The relative deformation and residual DEM are estimated for the arcs using the LAMBDA estimator. The relative measurements of the network are finally integrated via least-squares inversion. Here, the sparsity of the system of linear equations is exploited to deal with big data (e.g. 10,000,000 arcs for 500,000 scatterers is a typical configuration for Sentinel-1). A QR or LU parallelizable solver is used for fast inversion. Also, variances of the estimates are calculated using a selected parallel inversion method based on LDL decomposition. Demonstration of the algorithms for large-scale deformation monitoring is provided using available Sentinel-1 data for Germany.

  17. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S Shepard

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY. The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008 and the intervention years (2009-2011 declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.

  18. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Donald S; Halasa, Yara A; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A; Clark, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.

  19. Handheld and mobile hyperspectral imaging sensors for wide-area standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the investigation and analysis of targets in complex background with a high degree of autonomy. HSI is beneficial for the detection of threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Two HSI techniques that have proven to be valuable are Raman and shortwave infrared (SWIR) HSI. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have numerous size, weight, and power (SWaP) limitations that make their potential integration onto a handheld or field portable platform difficult. The systems that are field-portable do so by sacrificing system performance, typically by providing an inefficient area search rate, requiring close proximity to the target for screening, and/or eliminating the potential to conduct real-time measurements. To address these shortcomings, ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focused on sensor design and detection results.

  20. Wide area stabilization of a magnetic bearing using exact linearization; Genmitsuna senkeika ni yoru jiki jikuuke no koiki anteika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, F.; Namerigawa, T.; Murata, T. [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    An active magnetic bearing (AMB) is a bearing to suspend a rotor by magnetic forces without any contact. Feedback control is indispensable for a magnetic bearing, because it is essentially an unstable system. To design a feedback control system, a linear mathematical model of the plant is convenient, however the force of electromagnet is highly nonlinear. Then usually a linear approximation around the operating point is employed, but the obtained linearized model can not express the exact behavior of the system at any other operating points. In this paper, we discuss the wide area stabilization of magnetic bearing using exact linearization approach. At first, we derive a nonlinear mathematical model for a magnetic bearing, then we show this nonlinear system is belong to a class of exactly linearizable nonlinear systems. Next, by using exact linearization method, we transfer the nonlinear model of a magnetic bearing to a linear time invariant state model in spite of change of the operating point and the rotational speed of the rotor. Then we construct the state feedback control system by conventional LQ method. Finally, we evaluate the validity of our proposed method by experiment. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Aedes albopictus: it's invasion, expansion of range, and the use of an area wide management project to control its population in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus invaded the U.S.A. between 1983-85. It has become a widely distributed nuisance pest. A n ARS-sponsored 5 year Area Wide Pest Management cooperative program between USDA-ARS, Mosquito and Fly Research Unit (Florida), Rutgers University (New Jersey) and Brandeis University (Massach...

  2. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavender Tina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants ( Methods A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted during 2010. Healthy, term babies (n = 280, recruited within 48 hours of birth, were randomly assigned to have their napkin area cleansed with an alcohol-free baby wipe (140 babies or cotton wool and water (140 babies. Primary outcome was change in hydration from within 48 hours of birth to 4 weeks post-birth. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in trans-epidermal water loss, skin surface pH and erythema, presence of microbial skin contaminants/irritants at 4 weeks and napkin dermatitis reported by midwife at 4 weeks and mother during the 4 weeks. Results Complete hydration data were obtained for 254 (90.7 % babies. Wipes were shown to be equivalent to water and cotton wool in terms of skin hydration (intention-to-treat analysis: wipes 65.4 (SD 12.4 vs. water 63.5 (14.2, p = 0.47, 95 % CI -2.5 to 4.2; per protocol analysis: wipes 64.6 (12.4 vs. water 63.6 (14.3, p = 0.53, 95 % CI -2.4 to 4.2. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, except for maternal-reported napkin dermatitis, which was higher in the water group (p = 0.025 for complete responses. Conclusions Baby wipes had an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with cotton wool and water. We found no evidence of any adverse effects of using these wipes. These findings offer reassurance to parents who choose to use baby wipes and to health professionals who support their use. Trial registration Current Controlled

  3. High-resolution area-wide sea-floor mapping: The paleo Elbe valley (S North Sea) revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenmeier, Svenja; Hass, H. Christian

    2014-05-01

    The North Sea Basin is shaped by multiple glacial advances and retreats that left complex sequences of glacio-fluvial and sub-glacial deposits, cut by sub-glacial tunnel valleys. Today, the submerged valley of the Elbe forms one of the most prominent structures of the southern North Sea. Flanked by huge moraine deposits of older glacials, the valley developed to its present form during the Weichselian sea-level lowstand (-130 m below present). Melt waters that discharged in north-westerly directions along the Scandinavian Ice Sheet fed the paleo Elbe at that time. During the Holocene the valley drowned in the rising sea. Here we present an area-wide high-resolution map of the seafloor and high-resolution shallow seismic data covering 1,600 km2 of the paleo Elbe valley (PEV) including its eastern levee. The data allow to shed new light on the PEV development including the historical process of sedimentary infill with the successive Holocene sea level rise in detail. Shallow seismic data with transect distances of 400 m and several cross sections allow 3-D visualization. The eastern flank of the valley is characterized by a relatively steep slope with one or more terraces. At its levee a significant sediment change is present on the modern sea floor, representing moraine and marine deposits. High resolution sidescan sonar data of this area show a much higher heterogeneity and complexity in sediment and habitat distribution as assumed before. Holocene marine sediments form a patchy and thin drape east of the valley floor. The western slip-off slope of the valley slope is much smoother than the eastern undercut slope. As yet, significant sedimentological changes at the present seafloor are not known for the western side of the PEV. Shallow seismic data show the base of the PEV. There are conspicuous internal seismic reflectors above the base, inclined in northeastern direction. They indicate a sedimentary infill of the valley from the southwest when the southern part

  4. Preparing the way for coming area wide integrated pest management projects against the new world screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, in MERCOSUR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fernandes, Thiago; Walder, Julio, E-mail: piaui@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Bezerra, Fernando [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Sertao Pernambucano (IFSERTAO-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The New World Screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, was eradicated from the USA, Central America to Panama, but in most tropical regions of Latin America, the NWS is still a serious threat to livestock, provoking estimated annual losses of US$ 1.8 billion in Brazil. Between January and May 2009, a pilot-project was performed at the Brazil-Uruguay border. As the results were positive, novel regional Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management projects are being planned. To set a mass-rearing center based in South America is strategic when considering long-term programs. In partnership with CENA/USP and the Biofactory MOSCAMED Brazil, a project to produce sterile NWS started on 2009. The project aimed to maintain a colony of a regional NWS strain, to develop a mass-rearing system and a sterilization protocol by X rays, and to study the sterility induction in regional strains. A colony was successfully established. The adults were kept in cages and fed on a diet (honey and spray dried egg). The larvae were reared in a medium made of spray dried blood, spray dried egg, milk, water, formalin and Ecogel. Egg hatch has been of 80 {+-} 10%. From F{sub 1} to F{sub 22}, the total amount of pupae produced was about 38 L ({approx} 315,400 pupae). The mean adult emergence and sex ratio were 86.7 {+-} 3% and 0.59 {+-} 0.08 respectively. The mean pupal weight was 47.1 {+-} 1.7 mg. The estimated X ray doses to induce 99% sterility in males and females were 43.7 Gy and 47.5 Gy, respectively. To produce 1.5 L of pupae, the current cost is about US$ 15.00. (author)

  5. Effectiveness of the area wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey: evidence from a household survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquito species. Beginning in 2009, an area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Ae. Albopictus was implemented in 6 areas in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. Including other activities, the project focused on increa...

  6. Effectiveness of the Area-wide Pest Management Program to Control Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey: Evidence from a Household Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquitos. Beginning in 2009, a comprehensive area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Aedes albopictus was implemented in 4 areas in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey. Including other activities, the project f...

  7. Does tree harvesting in riparian areas increase stream sedimentation and turbidity - world-wide experience relative to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, D.; Smethurst, P.; Petrone, K.

    2009-04-01

    A typical improved-pasture property in the high-rainfall zone of Australia contains 0.5-2.0 km of waterways per 100 ha. Nationwide, some 25-30 million ha of improved pasture contains about 100,000 km of streams, of which about 75% are currently un-buffered and contributing to soil and water degradation. Farmers and natural resource managers are considering ways to enhance environmental outcomes at farm and catchment scales using stream-side buffers of trees and other perennial vegetation. Benefits of buffers include improved water quality, biodiversity, carbon sequestration and aesthetics. Lack of sound information and funding for establishing and managing buffer zones is hindering wide-scale adoption of this practice. Stream-side areas of farms are generally highly productive (wet and nutrient-rich) and contain a high biodiversity, but they are also high-risk zones for soil and water values and stock safety. Development of options based on a balance between environmental and economic outcomes would potentially promote wider adoption. Australian codes of forest practice currently discourage or prevent harvesting of trees in streamside buffers. These codes were developed exclusively for large-scale native forests and industrial-scale plantations, and were applicable to farm forestry as now required. In countries including USA and Germany trees in stream-side buffers are harvested using Best Management Practices. Trees may grow at a faster rate in riparian zones and provide a commercial return, but the impacts of tree establishment and harvesting on water yield and quality must be evaluated. However, there have been few designed experiments investigating this problem. Australia has recently initiated studies to explore the use of high-value timber species and associated vegetation in riparian zones to improve water quality, particularly suspended sediment. Preliminary information from the Yan Yan Gurt Catchment in Victoria indicate that forested riparian strips can

  8. 1:750,000-scale hydrographic areas and basin-wide pumpage, recharge and interbasin flow estimates of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of the administrative hydrographic area (HA) boundaries for Nevada at 1:750,000-scale and estimates of natural recharge, artificial recharge,...

  9. Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

  10. Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated Pest Managment Program to control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using contingent valuation, the perceived value of an area-wide, integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey, was estimated. The residents’ maximum willingness-to-pay (WTP) and payment modality was estimat...

  11. Fluorescence resonance-energy-transfer in systems of Rhodamine 6G with ionic liquid showing emissions by excitation at wide wavelength areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Hironori; Wakizono, Satoshi; Kadokawa, Jun-ichi

    2010-09-14

    Fluorescence resonance-energy-transfer occurred in a solution of Rhodamine 6G in an ionic liquid by excitation at wide wavelength areas owing to specific fluorescent behavior of the ionic liquid to show emissions at each excitation wavelength, which was also observed in the guar gum/ionic liquid gel material containing Rhodamine 6G.

  12. 关于电力系统广域保护的评述%Review on Wide Area Protection of Electric Power Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛禹胜; 雷兴; 薛峰; 文福拴; Z. Y. Dong; G. Ledwich

    2012-01-01

    为有利于电力系统停电防御体系的进一步发展,讨论电力系统的广域保护,包括广域设备保护和广域系统保护的功能、控制方式及系统结构;回顾其信息采集、知识提取和控制决策方面的进展。从理论和应用相结合的观点剖析广域后备保护的可行性、困难和发展方向;指出需要在算法与受扰轨迹的知识提取上取得重大突破,并与数值仿真相结合,才能真正发挥相量测量单元在广域保护中的作用;强调按风险观点将广域保护与预防控制及传统保护协调的重要性。%For the further development of framework for defending blackouts,we discussed the functions,control modes and system structures of wide area protection of electric power systems,which include wide area equipment protection systems and wide area system protection systems,and reviewed recent developments in the information acquisition,knowledge extraction,and decision making of wide area protection systems.Moreover,from a viewpoint of combining both theory and application,we discussed the feasibility and further development of wide area backup protection.It is pointed out that major breakthroughs should be made in algorithms and knowledge extraction technologies from disturbed trajectories,and numerical simulations should be combined,so that the advantages of phasor measurement units can be fully utilized in wide area protection systems.It is also emphasized that wide area protection systems should be coordinated with preventive control and conventional protection from the viewpoint of risk management.

  13. Blindness and cataract in children in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Gogate

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Blindness in children is considered a priority area for VISION 2020, as visually impaired children have a lifetime of blindness ahead of them. Various studies across the globe show that one-third to half of childhood blindness is either preventable or treatable1 and that cataract is the leading treatable cause of blindness in children.The 8th General Assembly of the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB provided an opportunity to be acquainted with recent research and programme development work in the prevention of childhood blindness.

  14. Range-wide network of priority areas for greater sage-grouse - a design for conserving connected distributions or isolating individual zoos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Michele R.; Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.

    2015-09-08

    The network of areas delineated in 11 Western States for prioritizing management of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) represents a grand experiment in conservation biology and reserve design. We used centrality metrics from social network theory to gain insights into how this priority area network might function. The network was highly centralized. Twenty of 188 priority areas accounted for 80 percent of the total centrality scores. These priority areas, characterized by large size and a central location in the range-wide distribution, are strongholds for greater sage-grouse populations and also might function as sources. Mid-ranking priority areas may serve as stepping stones because of their location between large central and smaller peripheral priority areas. The current network design and conservation strategy has risks. The contribution of almost one-half (n = 93) of the priority areas combined for less than 1 percent of the cumulative centrality scores for the network. These priority areas individually are likely too small to support viable sage-grouse populations within their boundary. Without habitat corridors to connect small priority areas either to larger priority areas or as a clustered group within the network, their isolation could lead to loss of sage-grouse within these regions of the network. 

  15. Area-Wide Ground Applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the Control of Aedes albopictus in Residential Neighborhoods: From Optimization to Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gregory M.; Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik; Healy, Sean P.; Farooq, Muhammad; Gaugler, Randy; Hamilton, George; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing range of Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, in the USA and the threat of chikungunya and dengue outbreaks vectored by this species have necessitated novel approaches to control this peridomestic mosquito. Conventional methods such as adulticiding provide temporary relief, but fail to manage this pest on a sustained basis. We explored the use of cold aerosol foggers and misting machines for area-wide applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (VectoBac WDG) as a larvicide targeting Aedes albopictus. During 2010–2013 we performed initially open field trials and then 19 operational area-wide applications in urban and suburban residential areas in northeastern USA to test three truck-mounted sprayers at two application rates. Area-wide applications of WDG in open field conditions at 400 and 800 g/ha killed on average 87% of tested larvae. Once techniques were optimized in residential areas, applications with a Buffalo Turbine Mist Sprayer at a rate of 800 g/ha, the best combination, consistently provided over 90% mortality. Importantly, there was no significant decrease in efficacy with distance from the spray line even in blocks of row homes with trees and bushes in the backyards. Under laboratory conditions Bti deposition in bioassay cups during the operational trials resulted in over 6 weeks of residual control. Our results demonstrate that area-wide truck mounted applications of WDG can effectively suppress Ae. albopictus larvae and should be used in integrated mosquito management approaches to control this nuisance pest and disease vector. PMID:25329314

  16. Outcomes from the USDA/ARS area-wide project for management of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, became established in the continental US in 1985 and now infests 30 states. In 2007 the USDA Agricultural Research Service funded an “area-wide” project focused on the management of this species. The project was a unique federal, state, local collaborati...

  17. Can benthic foraminifera be used as bio-indicators of pollution in areas with a wide range of physicochemical variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria Virgínia Alves; Pinto, Anita Fernandes Souza; Frontalini, Fabrizio; da Fonseca, Maria Clara Machado; Terroso, Denise Lara; Laut, Lazaro Luiz Mattos; Zaaboub, Noureddine; da Conceição Rodrigues, Maria Antonieta; Rocha, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    The Ria de Aveiro, a lagoon located in the NW coast of Portugal, presents a wide range of changes to the natural hydrodynamical and physicochemical conditions induced for instance by works of port engineering and pollution. In order to evaluate the response of living benthic foraminifera to the fluctuations in physicochemical parameters and pollution (metals and TOC), eight sediment samples were collected from canals and salt pans within the Aveiro City, in four different sampling events. During the sampling events, salinity showed the most significant fluctuations among the physicochemical parameters with the maximum range of variation at Troncalhada and Santiago salt pans. Species such as Haynesina germanica, Trochammina inflata and Entzia macrescens were found inhabiting these hypersaline environments with the widest fluctuations of physicochemical parameters. In contrast, Ammonia tepida dominated zones with high concentrations of metals and organic matter and in lower salinity waters. Parameters related to benthic foraminiferal assemblages (i.e., diversity and evenness) were found to significantly decline in stations polluted by metals and characterized by higher TOC content. Foraminiferal density reduced significantly in locations with a wide range of physicochemical temporal variability. This work shows that, even under extreme conditions caused by highly variable physicochemical parameters, benthic foraminiferal assemblages might be used as valuable bioindicators of environmental stress.

  18. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2016-12-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  19. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  20. 基于盲源分离的稀疏植被区土壤含盐量反演%Estimation of Soil Salt Content over Partially Vegetated Areas Based on Blind Source Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娅; 潘贤章; 石荣杰; 李燕丽; 王昌昆; 李志婷

    2016-01-01

    植被对土壤光谱的干扰是目前土壤盐渍化遥感监测的重要限制因素之一,探索消除稀疏植被覆盖区植被对光谱影响的方法,对提高土壤含盐量遥感反演精度具有重要意义。本文通过对189组不同植被覆盖度且不同盐渍化程度种植微区野外实测地表可见-近红外反射光谱进行分析,比较并评价了基于原始光谱和盲源分离(blind source separation,BSS)后光谱预测土壤含盐量的结果。结果表明:地表植被覆盖严重影响基于可见-近红外反射光谱的土壤含盐量反演精度。盲源分离方法,尤其是基于方程z=tanh(y)的独立分量分析(independent components analysis,ICA)算法,可有效分解植被和土壤的混合光谱,并提高植被覆盖下基于可见-近红外反射光谱的土壤含盐量反演精度。该方法为植被覆盖区大尺度土壤盐渍化遥感监测提供了方法指导。%The technology of image spectroscopy has been widely used in soil attribute mapping in the past few decades. However,vegetation cover seriously affects the acquisition of soil spectral information, leading to misestimating of soil attributes by visible and near-infrared(vis-NIR)spectroscopy. The traditional solution dealt with vegetation cover interfering soil spectra by masking out the areas with high vegetation coverage,thus resulting in absence of soil information for these areas. Some researchers also tried to use vegetation indices to estimate soil attributes,with results showing that the general applicability and transferability of these vegetation indices was limited by study areas and crop varieties. Therefore,how to remove the influence of vegetation on soil spectrum has become a crucial issue in estimating soil components, such as salt content over partially vegetated surfaces. The residual spectral unmixing method was previously used to separate different components of a mixed spectrum,however,the percentage of

  1. Comparison of the New LEAF Area INDEX (LAI 3G) with the Kazahstan-Wide LEAF Area INDEX DATA SET (GGRS-LAI) over Central ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappas, M.; Propastin, P.; Degener, J.; Renchin, T.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term global data sets of Leaf Area Index (LAI) are important for monitoring global vegetation dynamics. LAI indicating phenological development of vegetation is an important state variable for modeling land surface processes. The comparison of long-term data sets is based on two recently available data sets both derived from AVHRR time series. The LAI 3g data set introduced by Zaichun Zhu et al. (2013) is developed from the new improved third generation Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g) and best-quality MODIS LAI data. The second long-term data set is based on the 8 km spatial resolution GIMMS-AVHRR data (GGRS-data set by Propastin et al. 2012). The GGRS-LAI product uses a three-dimensional physical radiative transfer model which establishes relationship between LAI, vegetation fractional cover and given patterns of surface reflectance, view-illumination conditions and optical properties of vegetation. The model incorporates a number of site/region specific parameters, including the vegetation architecture variables such as leaf angle distribution, clumping index, and light extinction coefficient. For the application of the model to Kazakhstan, the vegetation architecture variables were computed at the local (pixel) level based on extensive field surveys of the biophysical properties of vegetation in representative grassland areas of Kazakhstan. The comparison of both long-term data sets will be used to interpret their quality for scientific research in other disciplines. References:Propastin, P., Kappas, M. (2012). Retrieval of coarse-resolution leaf area index over the Republic of Kazakhstan using NOAA AVHRR satellite data and ground measurements," Remote Sensing, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 220-246. Zaichun Zhu, Jian Bi, Yaozhong Pan, Sangram Ganguly, Alessandro Anav, Liang Xu, Arindam Samanta, Shilong Piao, Ramakrishna R. Nemani and Ranga B. Myneni (2013). Global Data Sets of Vegetation Leaf Area

  2. On-line monitoring of European frequency-swing behaviour; Online-Ueberwachung des europaeischen Netzpendelverhaltens. Wide-Area Monitoring als Massnahme zur Vermeidung von Netzpendelungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zima, M. [Atel Netz AG, Olten (Switzerland); Sattinger, W. [Swissgrid AG, Laufenburg (Switzerland); Korba, P.; Larsson, M. [ABB Schweiz AG, Forschungszentrum, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This article examines how wide-area monitoring can help avoid frequency-swings in the European electricity grid. Increasing power trading and the extension of the UCTE are discussed as the source of possible short-term frequency-swinging, which can occur when faults occur in the grid. Measures that can be taken to prevent such swinging are examined. A GPS-synchronised, wide-area monitoring and control system (WAM and C) is described that, since 2001, has monitored mains phase-shifts and other relevant data. Also a system operated since 2003 by Swissgrid is briefly described. A selection of curves used in the analysis of a frequency-swinging event in Switzerland are provided.

  3. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury VIII: A Wide-Area, High-Resolution Map of Dust Extinction in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Dalcanton, Julianne J; Hogg, David W; Lang, Dustin; Leroy, Adam K; Gordon, Karl D; Sandstrom, Karin; Weisz, Daniel R; Williams, Benjamin F; Bell, Eric F; Dong, Hui; Gilbert, Karoline M; Gouliermis, Dimitrious A; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Lauer, Tod R; Schruba, Andreas; Seth, Anil C; Skillman, Evan D

    2015-01-01

    We map the distribution of dust in M31 at 25pc resolution, using stellar photometry from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. We develop a new mapping technique that models the NIR color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of red giant branch (RGB) stars. The model CMDs combine an unreddened foreground of RGB stars with a reddened background population viewed through a log-normal column density distribution of dust. Fits to the model constrain the median extinction, the width of the extinction distribution, and the fraction of reddened stars. The resulting extinction map has >4 times better resolution than maps of dust emission, while providing a more direct measurement of the dust column. There is superb morphological agreement between the new map and maps of the extinction inferred from dust emission by Draine et al. 2014. However, the widely-used Draine & Li (2007) dust models overpredict the observed extinction by a factor of ~2.5, suggesting that M31's true dust mass is lower and that dust grains are sign...

  4. Area-wide suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Kamuela, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Mau, Ronald F L; Jang, Eric B; Klungness, Lester M; McInnis, Donald O; Harris, Ernest B; McQuate, Grant T; Bautista, Renato C; Wong, Lyle

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service initiated an area-wide fruit fly management program in Hawaii in 2000. The first demonstration site was established in Kamuela, Hawaii, USA. This paper documents suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a 40 km2 area containing urban, rural and agricultural zones during a 6 year period. The suppression techniques included sanitation, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait sprays, male annihilation, Biolure traps, and parasitoids against C. capitata and B. dorsalis. In addition, small numbers of sterile males were released against B. dorsalis. Substantial reductions in fruit infestation levels were achieved for both species (90.7 and 60.7% for C. capitata and B. dorsalis, respectively) throughout the treatment period. Fruit fly captures in the 40 km2 treatment area were significantly lower during the 6 year period than those recorded in three non-treated areas. The strategy of combining suppression techniques in an area-wide approach is discussed.

  5. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of acquired blindness in Japan. One reason that it often leads to blindness is that it can continue to worsen even after effective medical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only evidence-based treatment. The limitations of current treatments make it critical to identify IOP-independent factors that can cause glaucoma and develop new drugs to target these factors. This is a challenging task, as the pathology of glaucoma is thought to be very complex, with different combinations of factors underlying its development and progression in different patients. Additionally, there is a deficiency in methods to efficiently perform clinical evaluations and reliably probe the state of the disease over relatively short periods. In addition, newly developed drugs need to be evaluated with clinical trials, for which human and financial resources are limited, before they can be widely used for treatment. Taking all these issues into consideration, it is evident that there are two urgent issues to consider: the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on its pathology, and the improvement of clinical evaluation methods. In this review, we discuss some of our efforts to develop new neuroprotective agents for glaucoma, with a focus on the following three areas: 1. Clinical research and development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP-independent factors, and the exploration of possibilities for the improvement of clinical evaluation of glaucoma. 2. Pathology-based research and development of new drugs for glaucoma, focusing on comprehensive gene expression analysis and the development of molecule-targeting drugs, using murine optic nerve crush as a disease model. 3. Development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities and the establishment of infrastructure enabling "big-data" analysis. First, we discuss our clinical research and the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP

  6. [Detection of TBEV RNA in ticks as a tool for valuation of endemic area wide and sensitivity of TBE surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makówka, Agata; Gut, Włodzimierz; Rogalska, Justyna; Michalik, Jerzy; Wodecka, Beata; Rymaszewska, Anna; Stefanoff, Paweł

    2009-01-01

    In this study we present the nested RT-PCR strategy designed for detection of TBEV RNA in ticks Ixodes ricinus. The presented nested RT-PCR method using 2 different primer pairs specific primers for NS5 gene provides specific TBEV cDNA detectable by electroforesis in agarose gel. Of the 177 polls of ticks investigated, TBEV RNA was detected in 14, which accounts for 7.9% of all pools. We confront the PCR results of tested ticks to routine surveillance data. The obtained results showed that the TBEV RNA is detectable in ticks collected in areas in Poland, which are defined as an non-endemic. The nested RT-PCR method can be used as a tool of epidemiological surveillance as well as for screening of occurrence of circulating TBEV.

  7. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. VIII. A WIDE-AREA, HIGH-RESOLUTION MAP OF DUST EXTINCTION IN M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hogg, David W. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Pl #424, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Lang, Dustin [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Gordon, Karl D.; Gilbert, Karoline M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sandstrom, Karin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dong, Hui; Lauer, Tod R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Gouliermis, Dimitrios A. [Max Planck Institute für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Guhathakurta, Puragra [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Schruba, Andreas [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Skillman, Evan D., E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We map the distribution of dust in M31 at 25 pc resolution using stellar photometry from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury survey. The map is derived with a new technique that models the near-infrared color–magnitude diagram (CMD) of red giant branch (RGB) stars. The model CMDs combine an unreddened foreground of RGB stars with a reddened background population viewed through a log-normal column density distribution of dust. Fits to the model constrain the median extinction, the width of the extinction distribution, and the fraction of reddened stars in each 25 pc cell. The resulting extinction map has a factor of ≳4 times better resolution than maps of dust emission, while providing a more direct measurement of the dust column. There is superb morphological agreement between the new map and maps of the extinction inferred from dust emission by Draine et al. However, the widely used Draine and Li dust models overpredict the observed extinction by a factor of ∼2.5, suggesting that M31's true dust mass is lower and that dust grains are significantly more emissive than assumed in Draine et al. The observed factor of ∼2.5 discrepancy is consistent with similar findings in the Milky Way by the Plank Collaboration et al., but we find a more complex dependence on parameters from the Draine and Li dust models. We also show that the the discrepancy with the Draine et al. map is lowest where the current interstellar radiation field has a harder spectrum than average. We discuss possible improvements to the CMD dust mapping technique, and explore further applications in both M31 and other galaxies.

  8. Calibration of a non-invasive cosmic-ray probe for wide area snow water equivalent measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigouin, Mark J. P.; Si, Bing C.

    2016-06-01

    Measuring snow water equivalent (SWE) is important for many hydrological purposes such as modelling and flood forecasting. Measurements of SWE are also crucial for agricultural production in areas where snowmelt runoff dominates spring soil water recharge. Typical methods for measuring SWE include point measurements (snow tubes) and large-scale measurements (remote sensing). We explored the potential of using the cosmic-ray soil moisture probe (CRP) to measure average SWE at a spatial scale between those provided by snow tubes and remote sensing. The CRP measures above-ground moderated neutron intensity within a radius of approximately 300 m. Using snow tubes, surveys were performed over two winters (2013/2014 and 2014/2015) in an area surrounding a CRP in an agricultural field in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The raw moderated neutron intensity counts were corrected for atmospheric pressure, water vapour, and temporal variability of incoming cosmic-ray flux. The mean SWE from manually measured snow surveys was adjusted for differences in soil water storage before snowfall between both winters because the CRP reading appeared to be affected by soil water below the snowpack. The SWE from the snow surveys was negatively correlated with the CRP-measured moderated neutron intensity, giving Pearson correlation coefficients of -0.90 (2013/2014) and -0.87 (2014/2015). A linear regression performed on the manually measured SWE and moderated neutron intensity counts for 2013/2014 yielded an r2 of 0.81. Linear regression lines from the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 manually measured SWE and moderated neutron counts were similar; thus differences in antecedent soil water storage did not appear to affect the slope of the SWE vs. neutron relationship. The regression equation obtained from 2013/2014 was used to model SWE using the moderated neutron intensity data for 2014/2015. The CRP-estimated SWE for 2014/2015 was similar to that of the snow survey, with an root

  9. Demonstration of a Novel Synchrophasor-based Situational Awareness System: Wide Area Power System Visualization, On-line Event Replay and Early Warning of Grid Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, A.

    2012-12-31

    Since the large North Eastern power system blackout on August 14, 2003, U.S. electric utilities have spent lot of effort on preventing power system cascading outages. Two of the main causes of the August 14, 2003 blackout were inadequate situational awareness and inadequate operator training In addition to the enhancements of the infrastructure of the interconnected power systems, more research and development of advanced power system applications are required for improving the wide-area security monitoring, operation and planning in order to prevent large- scale cascading outages of interconnected power systems. It is critically important for improving the wide-area situation awareness of the operators or operational engineers and regional reliability coordinators of large interconnected systems. With the installation of large number of phasor measurement units (PMU) and the related communication infrastructure, it will be possible to improve the operators’ situation awareness and to quickly identify the sequence of events during a large system disturbance for the post-event analysis using the real-time or historical synchrophasor data. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a novel synchrophasor-based comprehensive situational awareness system for control centers of power transmission systems. The developed system named WASA (Wide Area Situation Awareness) is intended to improve situational awareness at control centers of the power system operators and regional reliability coordinators. It consists of following main software modules: • Wide-area visualizations of real-time frequency, voltage, and phase angle measurements and their contour displays for security monitoring. • Online detection and location of a major event (location, time, size, and type, such as generator or line outage). • Near-real-time event replay (in seconds) after a major event occurs. • Early warning of potential wide-area stability problems. The system has been

  10. The technology of reduce the detection blind area depth andincrease the detection depth of transient electromagnetic method%瞬变电磁法探测盲区深度减少和探测深度增加技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈魁奎; 王心义

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that the detection blind area and the detection depth of the transient electromagnetic method to detect the underground,according to the working principle of the transient electromagnetic method,the technology of reduce the detection blind area depth and increase the detection depth of transient electromagnetic method is studied.According to the principle of least square method,it is used the Matlab to fit the induction potential decay curves on the basis of the early signal,then dealing with the software of YCS40 (A) to stack,it can get the ideal results after forth fitting that can effectively reduce the blind area depth to 18 m.Compared and analyzed the coil size,emission frequency and depth coefficient of transient electromagnetic instrument,it found that using the 2 m transmitter coil with high current,adjusting the minimum transmission frequency and increaseing deep conversion coefficient can increase the TEM detection depth.The results can guide the application of the transient electromagnetic method,and has the significance to ensure safe production of coal mining enterprises.%为解决瞬变电磁法在井下探测时存在探测盲区和探测深度受限等问题,根据瞬变电磁法工作原理,对瞬变电磁法盲区深度减少技术和探测深度增加技术进行研究.在早期信号的基础上,根据最小二乘法原理,将感应电位的衰减曲线借助Matlab工具进行拟合,并在YCS40(A)的软件处理中进行叠加,经4次拟合后,结果较为理想,可减少盲区深度至18 m;通过对瞬变电磁仪线圈边长大小、发射频率和深度系数的对比分析发现,采用2 m发射线圈,通以大电流,调节最低发射频率,提高时深转换系数,可增加TEM探测深度.研究结果可指导井下瞬变电磁法的应用,对确保煤矿企业安全生产具有重要意义.

  11. 无模型自适应广域阻尼控制设计方法%Design of Model-Free Adaptive Wide Area Damping Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建; 赵艺; 陆超; 庞晓艳

    2014-01-01

    电力系统的运行方式和结构的时变特性越来越突出,传统广域阻尼控制器(conventional wide-area power system stabilizer,CWAPSS)由于参数固定,无法保证系统在不同运行状态下的控制效果。为此,文章采用无模型自适应控制(model free adaptive control,MFAC)算法实现了具有自适应功能的广域阻尼控制器的设计。首先讨论了 MFAC 算法的基本原理;然后通过分析比较WAPSS和MFAC算法参数之间的关系,给出了 MFAC 算法的参数设置方法;最后,通过四机两区系统的仿真验证了 MFAC 算法的有效性。仿真结果表明在系统结构发生变化时,无模型自适应广域阻尼控制器能够在线调整控制器参数,控制效果优于CWAPSS。%The time-varying characteristics of power grid operating modes and structure become more and more conspicuous, and due to fixed parameters of traditional wide-area power system stabilizer (WAPSS) the control effect of power grid under various operating conditions could not be ensured. Utilizing model-free adaptive control (MFAC) algorithm the authors implement the design of adaptive wide-area damping controller. Firstly, basic principle of MFAC is discussed; then the relationship between parameters of WAPSS and those of MFAC are analyzed and compared and the method of parameter setting of MFAC algorithm is given; finally, through simulation of a 4-machine 2-area system the effectiveness of MFAC algorithm is validated. Simulation results show that during the change of power system structure the online adjustment of parameters of the model-free adaptive wide-area damping controller can be implemented, and its control effect is better than WAPSS.

  12. Ten years left to eliminate blinding trachoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad D.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available n 1997, the World Health Organization formed the Global Alliance to Eliminate Blinding Trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020, a coalition of governmental, non-governmental, research, and pharmaceutical partners. In 1998, the World Health Assembly urged member states to map blinding trachoma in endemic areas, implement the SAFE strategy (which stands for surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, facial-cleanliness and environmental change, such as clean water and latrines and collaborate with the global alliance in its work to eliminate blinding trachoma.

  13. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  14. Prevalence and causes of blindness in an urban area of Paraguay Prevalência e causas de cegueira em uma população urbana do Paraguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Yaacov-Peña

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness in Piribebuy, Paraguay. METHODS: A population based study was conducted from September to November 2007 in Piribebuy, Paraguay. Based on the city map, seven clusters were randomly selected, containing 22 to 36 squares (423 to 578 houses each, where all subjects > 40 years old who agreed to participate were included in the study. Presenting vision acuity (VA was obtained for each eye, with 'E' Snellen charts 6 meters far from the patient with appropriate light. Eyes with VAOBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e causas de cegueira em Piribebuy, Paraguay. MÉTODOS: Um estudo populational foi conduzido de setembro a novembro de 2007 em Piribebuy, Paraguay. Baseado no mapa da cidade, sete agrupamentos foramaleatoriamente selecionados, contendo 22 a 36 quarteirões (423 a 578 casas cada, onde todos os indivíduos > 40 anos de idade, que concordaram em participar, foram incluídos no estudo. A acuidade visual (AV conforme apresentada foi obtida para cada olho, com Tabela de Snellen a 6 metros do paciente, com luz apropriada. Olhos com AV<20/60 também foram testados com orifício estenopeico. Refrações objetiva e subjetiva foram realizadas, seguido de avaliação da câmara anterior sob lâmpada de fenda, tonometria de aplanação de Goldmann e dilatação pupilar com tropicamida a 0.5% e fenilefrina a 0.5%, seguido de avaliação do polo posterior. A melhor acuidade visual corrigida foi usada para classificar os pacientes nos seguintes grupos: cegueira foi definida como acuidade visual do melhor olho <20/400, baixa visão como 20/400Blindness", em pacientes que apresentaram mais de uma doença ocular igualmente contribuindo com perda visual, apenas a causa mais facilmente tratável ou prevenível foi considerada. RESULTADOS: 402 indivíduos foram submetidos à avaliação oftalmológica (92

  15. AWideAreaMeasurementandControlSystemforSmartDistributionGridsandItsProtectionandControlApplications%A Wide Area Measurement and Control System for Smart Distribution Grids and Its Protection and Control Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    With the massive integration of distributed generators (DGs) and the ever-increasing demand on power supply quality and system efficiency, the protection and control of the distribution network is facing new challenges. The traditional centralized and local measurement based protection and control methods have either slow responses or poor performance due to limited information inputs. A wide area measuring and control system (WAMCS) able to support all kinds of centralized, local and distributed intelligence (DI) control methods and provide a unified and open platform for monitoring, protection and control applications of the smart distribution grid is proposed. DI based applications in WAMCS, such as DGs interconnection control, wide area protection, fast fault isolation and the service restoration and self-healing solutions for earth faults in a non-effectively earthed network, are presented. With further progress and improvement of the technologies, the WAMCS and its applications will provide a solid foundation for the development of smart distribution grids.

  16. Reversible cortical blindness after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knower, Mark T; Pethke, Scott D; Valentine, Vincent G

    2003-06-01

    Cyclosporine (CYA) is a calcineurin inhibitor widely used in immunosuppressive regimens after organ transplantation. Several neurologic side effects are frequently associated with CYA use; however, reversible cortical blindness is a rare manifestation of CYA toxicity traditionally seen after liver and bone marrow transplantation. This report presents a case of reversible cortical blindness after lung transplantation, then details the risk factors and clinical course of 28 previously well-documented cases of CYA-induced cortical blindness after transplantation. Identification of known risk factors, clinical clues, and typical radiographic findings may aid in the diagnosis of CYA-induced cortical blindness, since reduction in CYA dose or cessation of CYA therapy usually permits resolution of the neurologic effects.

  17. Wide-Area Chemical Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    2014www.ll.mit.edu The detection and localization of gas releases such as methane from leaking natural gas pipelines or nitrogen oxides from failing electrical...reference gas cells, such as methane buffered by nitro- gen, and a low-concentration gas cell that contains the target species to calibrate the...self-referencing technique employed by WACS is particularly suited to detecting chemical agents composed of primarily small molecules— methane , various

  18. Effects of Reiki on Pain and Vital Signs When Applied to the Incision Area of the Body After Cesarean Section Surgery: A Single-Blinded, Randomized, Double-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagkal Midilli, Tulay; Ciray Gunduzoglu, Nazmiye

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Reiki on pain and vital signs when applied for 15 minutes to the incision area of the body after cesarean section surgery. The study was single-blinded, randomized, and double-controlled (Reiki, sham Reiki, and control groups). Forty-five patients, equalized by age and number of births, were randomly assigned to the Reiki, sham Reiki, and control groups. The treatment, which was applied to the patients in these 3 groups, was applied for 15 minutes to the incision area of body in the first 24 and 48 hours after the operation within 4 to 8 hours of the application of standard analgesics. The study data were collected using a patient follow-up form and a visual analog scale. Mean visual analog scale measurement values were significantly different from each other according to groups and times (P Reiki group patients between day 1 pre-tx and after application on the second day (day 2 post-tx) measurements. Mean breathing rate and systolic blood pressure measurement values were significantly different from each other according to groups (P Reiki group was observed to use fewer analgesics throughout the study and to need them after a longer time than the sham Reiki and control groups (P Reiki applied for 15 minutes to the incision area after a cesarean operation had the expected effects on pain and the need for the use of analgesics, but it had no effect on vital signs.

  19. Blindness and vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... means you cannot see anything and DO NOT see light. (Most people who use the term "blindness" mean ... the vision loss. For long-term vision loss, see a low-vision specialist, who can help you learn to care for yourself and ... of vision; No light perception (NLP); Low vision; Vision loss and blindness ...

  20. Blindness%失明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同良

    2009-01-01

    @@ There was a blind girl who hated herself because she was blind. She hated everyone,except her loving boyfriend who was always there for her. She told her boyfriend, "If I could only see the World, I will marry you."

  1. Blindness and Yoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Anthony David

    1974-01-01

    Evidence is presented to support the claims that, among many blind persons, physical inactivity leads to poor physical fitness; that a state of anxiety is often a concomitant of unguided blind mobility; and that Yogic practices offer a solution to both difficulties. (GW)

  2. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  3. Research of the Exploitation of Human Resources in Blind Prevention and Primary Eye Care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingxianWei; YonglongZhao

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:This research studied how to establish a relatively advanced blindness prevention and eye care cause in economically underdeveloped countryside.Methods:Ophthalmic vocational schools and professional lectures were held to train“practical type”primary eye care workers for the coumtryside.Further study in high-level(above provincial)hospitals was taken to train blindness preention &eye care backbones and leaders.Results:In 1986,the ratio of the number of the eye care workers of all levels to the number of the whole population in the prefecture was1:26000.In1992,it roseto1:17000.Aneye care network of 222stations had been established in tb countryside.Ten in the 13county hospitals had a seperated ophthalmology ed- partment,in which 3were awarded“National advanced blindness prevention County”.Twenty one hospitals were appointed as the Unit of Surgical Vision-Rehabilitation of Cataract.Blindness prevention and eye care convered1000000population(eye care avaliable within 5kilometers),23.5%of the whol popula-tion.Conclusions:In a demographically large but economically underdexeloped country-side area,the key to wide-range blindness prevention and eye oare is to exploti human resources effectively.We should train“Practical type”primary eye care workers,and have a number of edpartment leaders who are authoritive,influential in this field and ready to sacrifice to this cause.

  4. Models for the blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Jan-Eric

    2014-01-01

    When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind...... person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical...... background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material...

  5. PIGC™ - A low cost fugitive emissions and methane detection system using advanced gas filter correlation techniques for local and wide area monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, R. L.; Gordley, L. L.; Marshall, B. T.; Fisher, J.; Paxton, G.; Gubeli, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Currently there is no efficient and affordable way to monitor gas releases over small to large areas. We have demonstrated the ability to accurately measure key greenhouse and pollutant gasses with low cost solar observations using the breakthrough sensor technology called the "Pupil Imaging Gas Correlation", PIGC™, which provides size and complexity reduction while providing exceptional resolution and coverage for various gas sensing applications. It is a practical implementation of the well-known Gas Filter Correlation Radiometry (GFCR) technique used for the HALOE and MOPITT satellite instruments that were flown on successful NASA missions in the early 2000s. This strong space heritage brings performance and reliability to the ground instrument design. A methane (CH4) abundance sensitivity of 0.5% or better of ambient column with uncooled microbolometers has been demonstrated with 1 second direct solar observations. These under $10 k sensors can be deployed in precisely balanced autonomous grids to monitor the flow of chosen gasses, and infer their source locations. Measureable gases include CH4, 13CO2, N2O, NO, NH3, CO, H2S, HCN, HCl, HF, HDO and others. A single instrument operates in a dual operation mode, at no additional cost, for continuous (real-time 24/7) local area perimeter monitoring for the detection of leaks for safety & security needs, looking at an artificial light source (for example a simple 60 W light bulb placed 100 m away), while simultaneously allowing solar observation for quasi-continuous wide area total atmospheric column scanning (3-D) for environmental monitoring (fixed and mobile configurations). The second mode of operation continuously quantifies the concentration and flux of specific gases over different ground locations, determined the amount of targeted gas being released from the area or getting into the area from outside locations, allowing better tracking of plumes and identification of sources. This paper reviews the

  6. Enhanced heat discrimination in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, Hocine; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that congenitally blind individuals perform better than normally sighted controls in a variety of auditory, tactile and olfactory discrimination tasks. However, little is known about the capacity of blind individuals to make fine discriminatory judgments in the thermal...... discrimination. Thermal stimuli were delivered with either a 2.56 or 9 cm(2) Peltier-based thermode. We applied for 5-8s lasting non-painful thermal stimuli to the forearm and asked participants to detect small increments in temperature (ΔT = 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 or 1.6°C) that occurred at random time intervals. Blank...... of the stimulated skin surface or magnitude of the temperature shift. Increasing the size of the stimulated skin area increased the response criterion in the blind (p=0.022) but not in the sighted. Together, these findings show that congenitally blind individuals have enhanced temperature discrimination accuracy...

  7. Development of a Geographical Information System (GIS for the Integration of Solar Energy in the Energy Planning of a Wide Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelamaria Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy planning has become one of the most powerful tools for urban planning even if several constraints, (i.e., aesthetic, archaeological, landscape and technological (low diffusion of Renewable Energy Sources, RES reduce its spreading. An efficient and sustainable urban planning process should be based on detailed energy issues, such as: (i the effective energetic characteristics and needs of the area like urban density and energy consumption, (ii the integration of different RES and (iii the diffusion of high efficiency technologies for energy production like cogeneration and district heating. The above-mentioned energetic issues and constraints must be constantly updated, in order to evaluate the consequences on environment and landscape due to new distributed generation technologies. Moreover, energy strategies and policies must be adapted to the actual evolution of the area. In this paper the authors present a Geographical Information Database System (GIS DB based on: (i the availability of land use (Land Capability Classification, LCC to evaluate the productive potential; (ii the estimation of residential energy consumptions (e.g., electricity, (iii the integration of RES. The GIS DB model has been experimented in a wide area of Central Italy, considering exclusively the solar energy source for energy generation.

  8. BioSense/SR-BioSpectra demonstrations of wide area/early warning for bioaerosol threats: program description and early test and evaluation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Jean-Robert; Buteau, Sylvie; Lahaie, Pierre; Mathieu, Pierre; Roy, Gilles; Nadeau, Denis; McFee, John; Ho, Jim; Rowsell, Susan; Ho, Nicolas; Babin, François; Cantin, Daniel; Healey, Dave; Robinson, Jennifer; Wood, Scott; Hsu, Jack

    2011-11-01

    Threats associated with bioaerosol weapons have been around for several decades and have been mostly associated with terrorist activities or rogue nations. Up to the turn of the millennium, defence concepts against such menaces relied mainly on point or in-situ detection technologies. Over the last 10 years, significant efforts have been deployed by multiple countries to supplement the limited spatial coverage of a network of one or more point bio-detectors using lidar technology. The addition of such technology makes it possible to detect within seconds suspect aerosol clouds over area of several tens of square kilometers and track their trajectories. These additional capabilities are paramount in directing presumptive ID missions, mapping hazardous areas, establishing efficient counter-measures and supporting subsequent forensic investigations. In order to develop such capabilities, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) and the Chemical, Biological, Radiological-Nuclear, and Explosives Research and Technology Initiative (CRTI) have supported two major demonstrations based on spectrally resolved Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) lidar: BioSense, aimed at defence military missions in wide open spaces, and SR-BioSpectra, aimed at surveillance of enclosed or semienclosed wide spaces common to defence and public security missions. This article first reviews briefly the modeling behind these demonstration concepts. Second, the lidar-adapted and the benchtop bioaerosol LIF chambers (BSL1), developed to challenge the constructed detection systems and to accelerate the population of the library of spectral LIF properties of bioaerosols and interferents of interest, will be described. Next, the most recent test and evaluation (T&E) results obtained with SR-BioSpectra and BioSense are reported. Finally, a brief discussion stating the way ahead for a complete defence suite is provided.

  9. Static analysis for blinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    operation blinding. In this paper we study the theoretical foundations for one of the successful approaches to validating cryptographic protocols and we extend it to handle the blinding primitive. Our static analysis approach is based on Flow Logic; this gives us a clean separation between the specification...... of the analysis and its realisation in an automatic tool. We concentrate on the former in the present paper and provide the semantic foundation for our analysis of protocols using blinding - also in the presence of malicious attackers....

  10. Region-wide glacier mass budgets and area changes for the Central Tien Shan between ~ 1975 and 1999 using Hexagon KH-9 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczonka, Tino; Bolch, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    The meltwater released by the glaciers in the Central Tien Shan feeds in particular the Tarim River which is the main artery for the oases at the northern margin of the Taklamakan desert. The correct assessment of the contribution of the glaciers' meltwater to the total runoff is hampered by the lack of long-term measurements of glacier mass budgets. Digital terrain models (DTMs) for the different regions in the Central Tien Shan were generated based on ~ 1975 KH-9 Hexagon imagery and compared to the SRTM3 DTM acquired in February 2000. Moreover, glacier area changes for the period ~ 1975-2008 have been measured by means of multi-temporal optical satellite imagery. The geodetic mass budget estimates for a glacierized area of 5000 km2 revealed increasing mass loss east to west and from the inner to the outer ranges. Highest mass loss accompanied by the most pronounced glacier retreat was found for the Ak-Shirak massif with a region-wide mass balance of - 0.51 ± 0.36 m w.e. a- 1 and a rate of area change of - 0.27 ± 0.15% a- 1, whilst moderate mass loss was observed for the Inylchek (0.20 ± 0.44 m w.e. a- 1) and Tomur area (0.33 ± 0.30 m w.e. a- 1) despite partly debris cover. These latter regions also revealed the lowest glacier shrinkage within the entire Central Tien Shan. The total glacier mass loss of 0.35 ± 0.34 m w.e. a- 1 is, however, within the global average whilst the glacier area shrinkage is comparatively low. On average, the investigated glacierized area of ~ 6600 km2 shrank by 0.11 ± 0.15% a- 1 only. We could also identify several surge-type glaciers. The results are consistent with in-situ mass balance measurements for Karabatkak Glacier and previously published results of the Ak-Shirak range proving the suitability of declassified imagery for glacier change investigations. The contribution to the runoff of Aksu River, the largest tributary of the Tarim River, due to glacier imbalance has been determined at ~ 20% for the 1975-2000 period.

  11. High-speed monitoring of the crystallinity change in poly(lactic acid) during photodegradation by using a newly developed wide area NIR imaging system (Compovision).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Daitaro; Furukawa, Daiki; Wei, Tseng Tsai; Reddy, Kummetha Raghunatha; Motomura, Asako; Igarashi, Yoko; Sato, Harumi; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to achieve wide area rapid monitoring of the crystallinity change in poly(lactic acid) (PLA) during photodegradation caused by ultraviolet (UV) light by using a newly developed near-infrared (NIR) camera (Compovison). Several kinds of PLA samples with different crystallinities and their blends with poly[(3)-(R)-hydroxybutyrate] were prepared. Their two-dimensional NIR spectra in the 1,000-2,350-nm region were measured by Compovision at a 5-min interval during photolysis. An intensity decrease of the band in the 1,900-1,925-nm region due to the second overtone of the C = O stretching vibration of PLA was observed during photolysis. This suggests that an anhydride carbonyl is produced during photolysis. The NIR image of the crystallinity change monitored by the band at 1,917 nm in the standard normal variate spectra clearly shows the inhomogeneity of crystal evolution. A logarithmic increase was observed for all identified areas in the PLA film; however, the time to reach the maximum crystallinity was slightly different according to the initial crystallinity of the sample. It is likely that the initial crystallinity of the sample influences the degradation speed more than the degradation amount. These imaging results have provided fundamental chemical insights into the photolytic process for PLA, and at the same time they have demonstrated that the two-dimensional spectral data obtained by Compovision are useful for process monitoring of polymers.

  12. Vision - night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People with night blindness often have trouble seeing stars on a clear night or walking through a ... certain drugs Vitamin A deficiency (rare) Nontreatable causes: Birth defects Retinitis pigmentosa

  13. Blind Loop Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more commonly result from other conditions such as short bowel syndrome or chronic pancreatitis. Small intestine aspirate and fluid ... people with severe blind loop syndrome resulting in short bowel syndrome. References Townsend CM Jr, et al. Sabiston Textbook ...

  14. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  15. Blind loop syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the stomach) and operations for extreme obesity As a complication of inflammatory bowel disease Diseases such as diabetes or scleroderma may slow down movement in a segment of the intestine, leading to blind loop syndrome.

  16. Wide-area estimates of stand structure and water use of tamarix spp. on the lower colorado river: Implications for restoration and water management projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.; Didan, K.; Osterberg, J.; Jordan, F.; Cunningham, J.

    2008-01-01

    Tamarix spp. removal has been proposed to salvage water and allow native vegetation to recolonize western U.S. riparian corridors. We conducted wide-area studies on the Lower Colorado River to answer some of the scientific questions about Tamarix water use and the consequences of removal, combining ground surveys with remote sensing methods. Tamarix stands had moderate rates of evapotranspiration (ET), based on remote sensing estimates, averaging 1.1 m/yr, similar to rates determined for other locations on the river and other rivers. Leaf area index values were also moderate, and stands were relatively open, with areas of bare soil interspersed within stands. At three Tamarix sites in the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge, groundwater salinity at the site nearest to the river (200 m) was relatively low (circa 2,250 mg/L) and was within 3 m of the surface. However, 750 and 1,500 m from the river, the groundwater salinity was 5,000-10,000 mg/L due to removal of water by the Tamarix stands. Despite the high groundwater salinity, the sites away from the river did not have saline surface soils. Only 1% of the mean annual river flow is lost to Tamarix ET on the Lower Colorado River in the United States, and the opportunities for water salvage through Tamarix removal are constrained by its modest ET rates. A possible alternative to Tamarix removal is to intersperse native plants among the stands to improve the habitat value of the riparian zone. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  17. A Blind Date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话:A: Talking about girls, I still remember my first time to meet my girlfriend. Iwas so clumsy and very nervous.B: That’s the same case with me. I had the jitters at my blind date, too.A: Did you also meet your girlfriend at a blind date?B: Yeah. I was actually very shy of speaking to girls, you know?

  18. Models for the Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Eric Olsén

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material objects are rarely used as historical testimonies for the simple reason that they, unlike archival material, do not present historians with written documents that can be held as evidence of the past. However, as I point out, certain historical questions of which archives remain silent could be approached by other means such as the use of material objects. Rather than delivering concrete methodological suggestions, this second part reflects upon the historical use of material objects - both their possibilities and their limits - within the context of blindness.

  19. Genome-wide association study for rib eye muscle area in a Large White×Minzhu F2 pig resource population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yun-yan; ZHANG Long-chao; WANG Li-xian; LIU Wen-zhong

    2015-01-01

    Rib eye muscle area (REMA) is an economicaly important trait and one of the main selection criteria for breeding in the swine industry. In the genome-wide association study (GWAS), the Ilumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip containing 62163 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used to genotype 557 pigs from a porcine Large White×Minzhu intercross population. The REMA (at the 5th–6th, 10th–11th and the last ribs) was measured after slaughtered at the age of (240±7) d for each animal. Association tests between REMA trait and SNPs were performedvia the Genome-Wide Rapid Asso-ciation using the Mixed Model and Regression-Genomic Control (GRAMMAR-GC) approach. From the Ensembl porcine database, SNP annotation was implemented usingSus scrofa Build 10.2. Thirty-three SNPs on SSC12 and 3 SNPs on SSC2 showed signiifcant association with REMA at the last rib at the chromosome-wide signiifcance level. None of the SNPs of REMA at the 5th–6th rib and only a few numbers of the SNPs of REMA at the 10th–11th ribs were found in this study. The Haploview V3.31 program and the Haplo.Stats R package were used to detect and visualize haplotype blocks and to analyze the association of the detected haplotype blocks with REMA at the last rib. A linkage analysis revealed that 4 haplotype blocks contained 4, 4, 2, and 4 SNPs, respectively. Annotations from pig reference genome suggested 2 genes (NOS2,NLK) in block 1 (266 kb), one gene (TMIGD1) in block 2 (348 kb), and one gene (MAP2K4) in block 3 (453 kb). A functional analysis indicated thatMYH3andMYH13 genes are the potential genes controling REMA at the last rib. We screened several candidate intervals and genes based on the SNPs location and the gene function, and inferred thatNOS2 and NLK genes maybe the main genes of REMA at the last ribs.

  20. Cataract related blindness in India & its social implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angra, S K; Murthy, G V; Gupta, S K; Angra, V

    1997-10-01

    The prevalence of blindness in India is 14.9 per 1000. Eighty per cent of this blindness is due to cataract alone. Most of the cataract blinds in the country are in the rural areas while the surgical service delivery network is concentrated in the urban areas. Thus a large proportion of patients in the rural areas continue to remain blind. This situation has many social implications. There is loss of productivity, breakdown of interpersonal relationships, depressive manifestations, loss of self esteem and most patients lead an isolated humiliating life. Patients lack information on the available services and continue to remain blind for years even after being diagnosed as operable. This is unfortunate because cataract surgery is one of the most cost effective health interventions known and most operated patients, irrespective of the surgical technique, are immensely satisfied with the level of visual rehabilitation after surgery.

  1. Identification of QTL for UV-protective eye area pigmentation in cattle by progeny phenotyping and genome-wide association analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Pausch

    Full Text Available Pigmentation patterns allow for the differentiation of cattle breeds. A dominantly inherited white head is characteristic for animals of the Fleckvieh (FV breed. However, a minority of the FV animals exhibits peculiar pigmentation surrounding the eyes (ambilateral circumocular pigmentation, ACOP. In areas where animals are exposed to increased solar ultraviolet radiation, ACOP is associated with a reduced susceptibility to bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma (BOSCC, eye cancer. Eye cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumour affecting cattle. Selection for animals with ACOP rapidly reduces the incidence of BOSCC. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL underlying ACOP, we performed a genome-wide association study using 658,385 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The study population consisted of 3579 bulls of the FV breed with a total of 320,186 progeny with phenotypes for ACOP. The proportion of progeny with ACOP was used as a quantitative trait with high heritability (h(2 = 0.79. A variance component based approach to account for population stratification uncovered twelve QTL regions on seven chromosomes. The identified QTL point to MCM6, PAX3, ERBB3, KITLG, LEF1, DKK2, KIT, CRIM1, ATRN, GSDMC, MITF and NBEAL2 as underlying genes for eye area pigmentation in cattle. The twelve QTL regions explain 44.96% of the phenotypic variance of the proportion of daughters with ACOP. The chromosomes harbouring significantly associated SNPs account for 54.13% of the phenotypic variance, while another 19.51% of the phenotypic variance is attributable to chromosomes without identified QTL. Thus, the missing heritability amounts to 7% only. Our results support a polygenic inheritance pattern of ACOP in cattle and provide the basis for efficient genomic selection of animals that are less susceptible to serious eye diseases.

  2. Full-Waveform, Wide-Swath Lidar Imaging of Forested and Urban Areas in Leaf-On Conditions: Development, Results and Future Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, James B.; Hofton, M.; Rabine, David; Welch, Wayne; Ramos, Luis; Padden, Phillip

    2003-01-01

    Full-Waveform lidar measurements provide unprecedented views of the vertical and horizontal structure of vegetation and the topography of the Earth s surface. Utilizing a high signal-to-noise ratio lidar system, larger than typical laser footprints (10-20 m), and the recorded time history of interaction between a short-duration (approx. 10 ns) pulse of laser light and the surface of the Earth, full-waveform lidar is able to simultaneously image sub-canopy topography as well as the vertical structure of any overlying vegetation. These data reveal the true 3-D vegetation structure in leaf-on conditions enabling important biophysical parameters such as above-ground biomass to be estimated with unprecedented accuracy. An airborne lidar mission was conducted July-August 2003 in support of the North America Carbon Program. NASA s Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) was used to image approximately 2,000 km$^2$ in Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Maryland. Areas with available ground and other data were included (e.g., experimental forests, FLUXNET sites) in order to facilitate as many bio- and geophysical investigations as possible. Data collected included ground elevation and canopy height measurements for each laser footprint, as well as the vertical distribution of intercepted surfaces. Data will be publicly distributed within 6- 12 months of collection. Further details of the mission, including the lidar system technology, the locations of the mapped areas, and examples of the numerous data products that can be derived from the return waveform data products will be presented. Future applications including detection of ground and vegetation canopy changes and a spaceborne implementation of wide-swath, full-waveform imaging lidar will also be discussed.

  3. A Smart Infrared Microcontroller-Based Blind Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjed S. Al-Fahoum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness is a state of lacking the visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors. The partial blindness represents the lack of integration in the growth of the optic nerve or visual centre of the eye, and total blindness is the full absence of the visual light perception. In this work, a simple, cheap, friendly user, smart blind guidance system is designed and implemented to improve the mobility of both blind and visually impaired people in a specific area. The proposed work includes a wearable equipment consists of head hat and mini hand stick to help the blind person to navigate alone safely and to avoid any obstacles that may be encountered, whether fixed or mobile, to prevent any possible accident. The main component of this system is the infrared sensor which is used to scan a predetermined area around blind by emitting-reflecting waves. The reflected signals received from the barrier objects are used as inputs to PIC microcontroller. The microcontroller is then used to determine the direction and distance of the objects around the blind. It also controls the peripheral components that alert the user about obstacle's shape, material, and direction. The implemented system is cheap, fast, and easy to use and an innovative affordable solution to blind and visually impaired people in third world countries.

  4. On R-W1 as A Diagnostic to Discover Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei in Wide-Area X-ray Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    LaMassa, Stephanie M; Brusa, Marcella; Stern, Daniel; Glikman, Eilat; Gallagher, Sarah; Urry, C Meg; Cales, Sabrina; Cappelluti, Nico; Cardamone, Carolin; Comastri, Andrea; Farrah, Duncan; Greene, Jenny E; Komossa, S; Merloni, Andrea; Mroczkowski, Tony; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Richards, Gordon; Salvato, Mara; Schawinski, Kevin; Treister, Ezequiel

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing on the all-sky coverage of {\\it WISE}, and the 35\\% and 50\\% sky coverage from SDSS and Pan-STARRS, respectively, we explore the efficacy of $m_{R}$ (optical) - $m_{3.4 \\mu m}$ (mid-infrared), hereafter $R-W1$, as a color diagnostic to identify obscured supermassive black hole accretion in wide-area X-ray surveys. We use the $\\sim$16.5 deg$^2$ Stripe 82 X-ray survey data as a test-bed to compare $R-W1$ with $R-K$, an oft-used obscured AGN selection criterion, and examine where different classes of objects lie in this parameter space. Most stars follow a well-defined path in $R-K$ vs. $R-W1$ space. We demonstrate that optically normal galaxies hosting X-ray AGN at redshifts $0.54$ color-cut, while they typically are not selected as AGN based on their $W1-W2$ colors. Additionally, different observed X-ray luminosity bins favor different regions in $R-W1$ parameter space: moderate luminosity AGN ($10^{43}$ erg s$^{-1} 10^{45}$ erg s$^{-1}$) have bluer colors; higher spectroscopic completeness of th...

  5. A Real-Time High Performance Computation Architecture for Multiple Moving Target Tracking Based on Wide-Area Motion Imagery via Cloud and Graphic Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first attempt at combining Cloud with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs in a complementary manner within the framework of a real-time high performance computation architecture for the application of detecting and tracking multiple moving targets based on Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI. More specifically, the GPU and Cloud Moving Target Tracking (GC-MTT system applied a front-end web based server to perform the interaction with Hadoop and highly parallelized computation functions based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA©. The introduced multiple moving target detection and tracking method can be extended to other applications such as pedestrian tracking, group tracking, and Patterns of Life (PoL analysis. The cloud and GPUs based computing provides an efficient real-time target recognition and tracking approach as compared to methods when the work flow is applied using only central processing units (CPUs. The simultaneous tracking and recognition results demonstrate that a GC-MTT based approach provides drastically improved tracking with low frame rates over realistic conditions.

  6. A Real-Time High Performance Computation Architecture for Multiple Moving Target Tracking Based on Wide-Area Motion Imagery via Cloud and Graphic Processing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kui; Wei, Sixiao; Chen, Zhijiang; Jia, Bin; Chen, Genshe; Ling, Haibin; Sheaff, Carolyn; Blasch, Erik

    2017-02-12

    This paper presents the first attempt at combining Cloud with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) in a complementary manner within the framework of a real-time high performance computation architecture for the application of detecting and tracking multiple moving targets based on Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI). More specifically, the GPU and Cloud Moving Target Tracking (GC-MTT) system applied a front-end web based server to perform the interaction with Hadoop and highly parallelized computation functions based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA©). The introduced multiple moving target detection and tracking method can be extended to other applications such as pedestrian tracking, group tracking, and Patterns of Life (PoL) analysis. The cloud and GPUs based computing provides an efficient real-time target recognition and tracking approach as compared to methods when the work flow is applied using only central processing units (CPUs). The simultaneous tracking and recognition results demonstrate that a GC-MTT based approach provides drastically improved tracking with low frame rates over realistic conditions.

  7. Distributed Large Data-Object Environments: End-to-End Performance Analysis of High Speed Distributed Storage Systems in Wide Area ATM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William; Tierney, Brian; Lee, Jason; Hoo, Gary; Thompson, Mary

    1996-01-01

    We have developed and deployed a distributed-parallel storage system (DPSS) in several high speed asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) wide area networks (WAN) testbeds to support several different types of data-intensive applications. Architecturally, the DPSS is a network striped disk array, but is fairly unique in that its implementation allows applications complete freedom to determine optimal data layout, replication and/or coding redundancy strategy, security policy, and dynamic reconfiguration. In conjunction with the DPSS, we have developed a 'top-to-bottom, end-to-end' performance monitoring and analysis methodology that has allowed us to characterize all aspects of the DPSS operating in high speed ATM networks. In particular, we have run a variety of performance monitoring experiments involving the DPSS in the MAGIC testbed, which is a large scale, high speed, ATM network and we describe our experience using the monitoring methodology to identify and correct problems that limit the performance of high speed distributed applications. Finally, the DPSS is part of an overall architecture for using high speed, WAN's for enabling the routine, location independent use of large data-objects. Since this is part of the motivation for a distributed storage system, we describe this architecture.

  8. A Real-Time High Performance Computation Architecture for Multiple Moving Target Tracking Based on Wide-Area Motion Imagery via Cloud and Graphic Processing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kui; Wei, Sixiao; Chen, Zhijiang; Jia, Bin; Chen, Genshe; Ling, Haibin; Sheaff, Carolyn; Blasch, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the first attempt at combining Cloud with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) in a complementary manner within the framework of a real-time high performance computation architecture for the application of detecting and tracking multiple moving targets based on Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI). More specifically, the GPU and Cloud Moving Target Tracking (GC-MTT) system applied a front-end web based server to perform the interaction with Hadoop and highly parallelized computation functions based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA©). The introduced multiple moving target detection and tracking method can be extended to other applications such as pedestrian tracking, group tracking, and Patterns of Life (PoL) analysis. The cloud and GPUs based computing provides an efficient real-time target recognition and tracking approach as compared to methods when the work flow is applied using only central processing units (CPUs). The simultaneous tracking and recognition results demonstrate that a GC-MTT based approach provides drastically improved tracking with low frame rates over realistic conditions. PMID:28208684

  9. Ambient air quality measurements from a continuously moving mobile platform: Estimation of area-wide, fuel-based, mobile source emission factors using absolute principal component scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Timothy; Gould, Timothy; Riley, Erin A.; Austin, Elena; Fintzi, Jonathan; Sheppard, Lianne; Yost, Michael; Simpson, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    We have applied the absolute principal component scores (APCS) receptor model to on-road, background-adjusted measurements of NOx, CO, CO2, black carbon (BC), and particle number (PN) obtained from a continuously moving platform deployed over nine afternoon sampling periods in Seattle, WA. Two Varimax-rotated principal component features described 75% of the overall variance of the observations. A heavy-duty vehicle feature was correlated with black carbon and particle number, whereas a light-duty feature was correlated with CO and CO2. NOx had moderate correlation with both features. The bootstrapped APCS model predictions were used to estimate area-wide, average fuel-based emission factors and their respective 95% confidence limits. The average emission factors for NOx, CO, BC and PN (14.8, 18.9, 0.40 g/kg, and 4.3 × 1015 particles/kg for heavy duty vehicles, and 3.2, 22.4, 0.016 g/kg, and 0.19 × 1015 particles/kg for light-duty vehicles, respectively) are consistent with previous estimates based on remote sensing, vehicle chase studies, and recent dynamometer tests. Information on the spatial distribution of the concentrations contributed by these two vehicle categories relative to background during the sampling period was also obtained.

  10. Glacial lakes in the Indian Himalayas--from an area-wide glacial lake inventory to on-site and modeling based risk assessment of critical glacial lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Glacial lake hazards and glacial lake distributions are investigated in many glaciated regions of the world, but comparably little attention has been given to these topics in the Indian Himalayas. In this study we present a first area-wide glacial lake inventory, including a qualitative classification at 251 glacial lakes >0.01 km(2). Lakes were detected in the five states spanning the Indian Himalayas, and lake distribution pattern and lake characteristics were found to differ significantly between regions. Three glacial lakes, from different geographic and climatic regions within the Indian Himalayas were then selected for a detailed risk assessment. Lake outburst probability, potential outburst magnitudes and associated damage were evaluated on the basis of high-resolution satellite imagery, field assessments and through the use of a dynamic model. The glacial lakes analyzed in the states of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh were found to present moderate risks to downstream villages, whereas the lake in Sikkim severely threatens downstream locations. At the study site in Sikkim, a dam breach could trigger drainage of ca. 16×10(6)m(3) water and generate maximum lake discharge of nearly 7000 m(3) s(-). The identification of critical glacial lakes in the Indian Himalayas and the detailed risk assessments at three specific sites allow prioritizing further investigations and help in the definition of risk reduction actions.

  11. Performance of a Genetically Modified Strain of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) for Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management With the Sterile Insect Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Santos, Edwin M; Rendón, Pedro; Ruiz-Montoya, Lorena; Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-12-23

    The genetically modified strain of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) VIENNA 8 1260 has two morphological markers that exhibit fluorescence in body and sperm. To assess the feasibility of its use in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs using the sterile insect technique, its rearing performance and quality control profile under small, medium, and large scales was evaluated, as well as in field cages. The VIENNA 8 1260 strain had a lower yield than the control strains, VIENNA 8 with D53 inversion (VIENNA 8) and without D53 inversion (VIENNA 8 D53-). At mass-rearing scale, yield gradually increased in three generations without reaching the control strain values. The VIENNA 8 1260 strain was stable in the genetic sexing mechanism (>99.9%) and expression of fluorescence (100%). In field cages, the VIENNA 8 1260 males reduced the mating potential of wild males in the same magnitude as the VIENNA 8, when evaluated in independent cage tests. However, the relative sterility index and the strain male relative performance index of VIENNA 8 1260 males were significantly lower than those of the VIENNA 8. There were no significant differences in longevity of these strains. The potential application of the VIENNA 8 1260 in AW-IPM programs is further discussed.

  12. Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Yara A; Shepard, Donald S; Wittenberg, Eve; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean; Gaugler, Randy; Strickman, Daniel; Clark, Gary G

    2012-09-01

    Using contingent valuation we estimated the perceived value of an area-wide integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. We estimated residents' maximum willingness-to-pay and perceived monetary benefits (willingness-to-pay excluding residents who protested all types of payments) and payment modality through a telephone survey of 51 randomly selected households. The mean (+/- SE) perceived monetary benefits for an enhanced mosquito abatement program was $9.54 +/- 2.90 per capita per year. Most respondents would have been willing to pay through taxes (35%) or charitable donations (6%) starting then, or through one of these approaches in the future (43%), whereas 16% were completely unwilling to pay any additional costs whatsoever. We projected that the perceived monetary benefits to the counties' 1.01 million residents for an enhanced mosquito control program would be $9.61 million annually. Thus, collectively residents perceived monetary benefits of 3.67 times the combined 2008 annual operating costs of the counties' existing mosquito control programs of $2.61 million.

  13. Nuclear and non-nuclear techniques for area-wide assessment of water use efficiency and ecohydrology outcomes among mixed land uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, S. S. O.; Nguyen, M. L.

    2009-04-01

    Managing water use efficiency and ecohydrology is important for providing food, water and essential ecosystem services. Many agricultural, ecological, atmospheric and hydrological processes cannot be meaningfully managed without an area-wide or catchment-level perspective. However a vast number of factors, including mixed land uses are incorporated at such scales. There is a need for integrative, mobile and adaptable techniques to make water related measurements over large areas and mixed land uses. Nuclear techniques and analogous non-nuclear techniques may be deployed in a number of spheres within the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (e.g. rhizosphere and above-canopy microclimate) with nuclear techniques having a distinct contribution owing to their unique ability to trace biogeochemical processes including the movement and transformation of water, nutrients and agrochemicals. 1) Soils. Isotopes can be used to trace water sources to understand groundwater dependence, rooting depth, etc. but not at all sites: early success in central USA studies has not always been repeatable in climates which produce more uniform isotopic signatures in various water sources. Soil water resources available to crops can also be studied using neutron moisture meters, but training, transport and safety issues argue for stringent management and inclusion of electrical capacitance probes for routine or automated applications. Results from capacitance probes can benefit from benchmarking against neutron probe measurements, which remain more powerful for sampling larger volumes in cases of heterogenous soils or where salinity levels are problematic. Because interpretation of soil water content in terms of plant available water also requires knowledge of soil organic matter characteristics, 13C and compound specific stable isotopes can help to identify changes in soil organic matter composition and hence water and plant nutrient availability. 2) Plants. Analysis of carbon isotope

  14. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Western Rwanda: blindness in a postconflict setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjiku Mathenge

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization estimates that there were 37 million blind people in 2002 and that the prevalence of blindness was 9% among adults in Africa aged 50 years or older. Recent surveys indicate that this figure may be overestimated, while a survey from southern Sudan suggested that postconflict areas are particularly vulnerable to blindness. The aim of this study was to conduct a Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness to estimate the magnitude and causes of visual impairment in people aged > or = 50 y in the postconflict area of the Western Province of Rwanda, which includes one-quarter of the population of Rwanda. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Clusters of 50 people aged > or = 50 y were selected through probability proportionate to size sampling. Households within clusters were selected through compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA was measured with a tumbling "E" chart, and those with VA below 6/18 in either eye were examined by an ophthalmologist. The teams examined 2,206 people (response rate 98.0%. The unadjusted prevalence of bilateral blindness was 1.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2%-2.4%, 1.3% (0.8%-1.7% for severe visual impairment, and 5.3% (4.2%-6.4% for visual impairment. Most bilateral blindness (65% was due to cataract. Overall, the vast majority of cases of blindness (80.0%, severe visual impairment (67.9%, and visual impairment (87.2% were avoidable (i.e.. due to cataract, refractive error, aphakia, trachoma, or corneal scar. The cataract surgical coverage was moderate; 47% of people with bilateral cataract blindness (VA < 3/60 had undergone surgery. Of the 29 eyes that had undergone cataract surgery, nine (31% had a best-corrected poor outcome (i.e., VA < 6/60. Extrapolating these estimates to Rwanda's Western Province, among the people aged 50 years or above 2,565 are expected to be blind, 1,824 to have severe visual impairment, and 8,055 to have visual impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of

  15. Potentials of Rubella Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin F.

    Potentials of three classifications of rubella deaf blind children are discussed. Potentials for children at the middle trainable level and below are discussed for the areas of communication skills, daily living skills, mobility and orientation, vocational effort, and self-control and social interaction. For children in the upper trainable through…

  16. Models for the Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Eric Olsén

    2014-01-01

    When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in n...

  17. 3D Wide FOV Scanning Measurement System Based on Multiline Structured-Light Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Structured-light three-dimensional (3D) vision measurement is currently one of the most common approaches to obtain 3D surface data. However, the existing structured-light scanning measurement systems are primarily constructed on the basis of single sensor, which inevitably generates three obvious problems: limited measurement range, blind measurement area, and low scanning efficiency. To solve these problems, we developed a novel 3D wide FOV scanning measurement system which adopted two mult...

  18. Data Processing of Hadoop-based Wide Area Measurement System%基于Hadoop的广域测量系统数据处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲朝阳; 朱莉; 张士林

    2013-01-01

    To solve the wide area measurement system (WAMS) mass data processing problems such as data redundancy and low processing efficiency, a cloud computing platform based on Hadoop is designed and implemented.The structure of this platform is described first.Then, a WAMS mass data loading method is designed based on Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) and parallel data extraction-transformation-loading (ETL) for multiple file processing by using MapReduce.MPApriori data mining algorithm combined with MapReduce is proposed to discover the interplay of power sites when cascading failures occurred.Finally, through the regional network WAMS actual data processing, the effectiveness of mass data processing on Hadoop is proven.This platform is suitable for mass power grid files data mining by high performance local area network connection of a computer cluster.%为解决目前广域测量系统(WAMS)海量数据处理中存在的数据冗余、处理效率低等问题,设计并实现了一个基于Hadoop的WAMS数据处理云计算平台.首先,给出了平台的体系结构.其次,设计了基于Hadoop分布式文件系统(HDFS)存储的WAMS海量数据加载方法和利用MapReduce模型实现多个文件数据的并行抽取、转换和加载(ETL)操作流程.提出了结合MapReduce的MPApriori数据挖掘算法,用于高效地挖掘出连锁故障时各站点之间的相互影响.最后,通过对区域电网WAMS实际数据进行处理,验证了Hadoop处理海量数据的高效性.所述平台适用于高性能局域网络连接的计算机集群对海量电网数据进行文件数据处理.

  19. Abnormal selective area growth of irregularly-shaped GaN structures on the apex of GaN pyramids and its application for wide spectral emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yeon Su; Lee, Jun Hyeong; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yang, Min

    2014-12-01

    We report on the growth and the characterization of three-dimensional randomly-shaped InGaN/GaN structures selectively grown on the apex of GaN pyramids for the purpose of enlarging the emission spectral range. We found that the variations in the shape and the size of the three-dimensional GaN structures depend on the growth temperature and the surface area for selective growth under intentional turbulence in the gas stream. The selectively grown GaN structures grown at 1020 °C have irregular shape, while the samples grown at 1100 °C have rather uniform hexagonal pyramidal shapes. Irregularly shaped GaN structures were also obtained on the apex of GaN pyramids when the SiO2 mask was removed to 1/10 of the total height of the underlying GaN pyramid. When only 1/5 of the SiO2 mask was removed, however, the selectively grown GaN structures had similar hexagonal pyramidal shapes resembling those of the underlying GaN pyramids. The CL (Cathodoluminescence) spectra of the InGaN layers grown on the randomly shaped GaN structures showed a wide emission spectral range from 388 to 433 nm due to the non-uniform thickness and spatially inhomogeneous indium composition of the InGaN layers. This new selective growth method might have great potential for applications of non-phosphor white light emitting diodes (LEDs) with optimized growth conditions for InGaN active layers of high indium composition and with optimum process for fabrication of electrodes for electrical injection.

  20. Standoff detection of bioaerosols over wide area using a newly developed sensor combining a cloud mapper and a spectrometric LIF lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Sylvie; Simard, Jean-Robert; Roy, Gilles; Lahaie, Pierre; Nadeau, Denis; Mathieu, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    A standoff sensor called BioSense was developed to demonstrate the capacity to map, track and classify bioaerosol clouds from a distant range and over wide area. The concept of the system is based on a two steps dynamic surveillance: 1) cloud detection using an infrared (IR) scanning cloud mapper and 2) cloud classification based on a staring ultraviolet (UV) Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) interrogation. The system can be operated either in an automatic surveillance mode or using manual intervention. The automatic surveillance operation includes several steps: mission planning, sensor deployment, background monitoring, surveillance, cloud detection, classification and finally alarm generation based on the classification result. One of the main challenges is the classification step which relies on a spectrally resolved UV LIF signature library. The construction of this library relies currently on in-chamber releases of various materials that are simultaneously characterized with the standoff sensor and referenced with point sensors such as Aerodynamic Particle Sizer® (APS). The system was tested at three different locations in order to evaluate its capacity to operate in diverse types of surroundings and various environmental conditions. The system showed generally good performances even though the troubleshooting of the system was not completed before initiating the Test and Evaluation (T&E) process. The standoff system performances appeared to be highly dependent on the type of challenges, on the climatic conditions and on the period of day. The real-time results combined with the experience acquired during the 2012 T & E allowed to identify future ameliorations and investigation avenues.

  1. Improving the sterile sperm identification method for its implementation in the Area-wide Sterile Insect Technique Program against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Blasco, M; Urbaneja, A; San Andrés, V; Castañera, P; Sabater-Muñoz, B

    2013-12-01

    The success of sterile males in area-wide sterile insect technique (aw-SIT) programs against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is currently measured by using indirect methods as the wild:sterile male ratio captured in monitoring traps. In the past decade, molecular techniques have been used to improve these methods. The development of a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism-based method to identify the transfer of sterile sperm to wild females, the target of SIT, was considered a significant step in this direction. This method relies on identification of sperm by detecting the presence of Y chromosomes in spermathecae DNA extract complemented by the identification of the genetic origin of this sperm: Vienna-8 males or wild haplotype. However, the application of this protocol to aw-SIT programs is limited by handling time and personnel cost. The objective of this work was to obtain a high-throughput protocol to facilitate the routine measurement in a pest population of sterile sperm presence in wild females. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism markers previously developed were validated in Mediterranean fruit fly samples collected from various locations worldwide. A laboratory protocol previously published was modified to allow for the analysis of more samples at the same time. Preservation methods and preservation times commonly used for Mediterranean fruit fly female samples were assessed for their influence on the correct molecular detection of sterile sperm. This high-throughput methodology, as well as the results of sample management presented here, provide a robust, efficient, fast, and economical sterile sperm identification method ready to be used in all Mediterranean fruit fly SIT programs.

  2. A Weak Quantum Blind Signature with Entanglement Permutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhigang; Guo, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Motivated by the permutation encryption algorithm, a weak quantum blind signature (QBS) scheme is proposed. It involves three participants, including the sender Alice, the signatory Bob and the trusted entity Charlie, in four phases, i.e., initializing phase, blinding phase, signing phase and verifying phase. In a small-scale quantum computation network, Alice blinds the message based on a quantum entanglement permutation encryption algorithm that embraces the chaotic position string. Bob signs the blinded message with private parameters shared beforehand while Charlie verifies the signature's validity and recovers the original message. Analysis shows that the proposed scheme achieves the secure blindness for the signer and traceability for the message owner with the aid of the authentic arbitrator who plays a crucial role when a dispute arises. In addition, the signature can neither be forged nor disavowed by the malicious attackers. It has a wide application to E-voting and E-payment system, etc.

  3. Reserch on Network Covering Without Blind Area in Mine Roadway Based on IEEE802.11 Protocol%基于IEEE802.11协议的巷道网络无盲区覆盖研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史岩岩; 丁恩杰; 奚锦锦; 张耀

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Infrastructure mode of the Wifi communication system,in combination with the cross section size and the geometric shape of the mine roadway,the paper had a study on the layout location of AP(Access Point) affected to the network covering in the mine roadway.An analysis was conducted on two conventional AP layout locations in the mine roadway.The min AP covering radius and the optimized distance between the AP required in the two plans were obtained.Thus,under the two conditions,there would be an overlap between the AP covering areas.The overlap area would be min and could meet the covering requirement of the network blind area.Therefore the service quality of the network could be improved.In combination with the above parameters,a comparison was conducted on the two layout modes from the cost point and an optimized layout plan was obtained.%基于WiFi通信系统Infrastructure模式,结合矿井巷道截面大小和几何形状,研究了网络桥接器AP的放置位置对巷道中网络覆盖的影响。对2种常用的煤矿巷道中AP的布置位置进行分析,分别得出2种方案所需要AP的最小覆盖半径以及AP之间的最佳距离,使得2种情况下AP覆盖区域之间有重叠,并且重叠区域最小,满足网络的无盲区覆盖要求,进而提高了网络的服务质量。结合以上参数,对2种布置方式从成本的角度进行了比较,得出最佳布置方案。

  4. Oplysningens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  5. Oplysnigens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  6. The blind hens’ challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Hocking, Paul M.; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    repellent, yet 'welfare-only' positions appear to be committed to endorsing this possibility if it produces welfare gains. We call this the 'Blind Hens' Challenge'. In this paper, we argue that there are both empirical and theoretical reasons why even those adopting 'welfare-only' views should be concerned...

  7. Range-wide connectivity of priority areas for Greater Sage-Grouse: Implications for long-term conservation from graph theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Michele R.; Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.

    2017-01-01

    The delineation of priority areas in western North America for managing Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) represents a broad-scale experiment in conservation biology. The strategy of limiting spatial disturbance and focusing conservation actions within delineated areas may benefit the greatest proportion of Greater Sage-Grouse. However, land use under normal restrictions outside priority areas potentially limits dispersal and gene flow, which can isolate priority areas and lead to spatially disjunct populations. We used graph theory, representing priority areas as spatially distributed nodes interconnected by movement corridors, to understand the capacity of priority areas to function as connected networks in the Bi-State, Central, and Washington regions of the Greater Sage-Grouse range. The Bi-State and Central networks were highly centralized; the dominant pathways and shortest linkages primarily connected a small number of large and centrally located priority areas. These priority areas are likely strongholds for Greater Sage-Grouse populations and might also function as refugia and sources. Priority areas in the Central network were more connected than those in the Bi-State and Washington networks. Almost 90% of the priority areas in the Central network had ≥2 pathways to other priority areas when movement through the landscape was set at an upper threshold (effective resistance, ER12). At a lower threshold (ER4), 83 of 123 priority areas in the Central network were clustered in 9 interconnected subgroups. The current conservation strategy has risks; 45 of 61 priority areas in the Bi-State network, 68 of 123 in the Central network, and all 4 priority areas in the Washington network had ≤1 connection to another priority area at the lower ER4threshold. Priority areas with few linkages also averaged greater environmental resistance to movement along connecting pathways. Without maintaining corridors to larger priority areas or a clustered group

  8. Corneal blindness and xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Vladimir; Hara, Hidetaka; Mammen, Alex; Dhaliwal, Deepinder; Cooper, David K C

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 39 million people are blind worldwide, with an estimated 285 million visually impaired. The developing world shoulders 90% of the world's blindness, with 80% of causative diseases being preventable or treatable. Blindness has a major detrimental impact on the patient, community, and healthcare spending. Corneal diseases are significant causes of blindness, affecting at least 4 million people worldwide. The prevalence of corneal disease varies between parts of the world. Trachoma, for instance, is the second leading cause of blindness in Africa, after cataracts, but is rarely found today in developed nations. When preventive strategies have failed, corneal transplantation is the most effective treatment for advanced corneal disease. The major surgical techniques for corneal transplantation include penetrating keratoplasty (PK), anterior lamellar keratoplasty, and endothelial keratoplasty (EK). Indications for corneal transplantation vary between countries, with Fuchs' dystrophy being the leading indication in the USA and keratoconus in Australia. With the exception of the USA, where EK will soon overtake PK as the most common surgical procedure, PK is the overwhelming procedure of choice. Success using corneal grafts in developing nations, such as Nepal, demonstrates the feasibility of corneal transplantation on a global scale. The number of suitable corneas from deceased human donors that becomes available will never be sufficient, and so research into various alternatives, for example stem cells, amniotic membrane transplantation, synthetic and biosynthetic corneas, and xenotransplantation, is progressing. While each of these has potential, we suggest that xenotransplantation holds the greatest potential for a corneal replacement. With the increasing availability of genetically engineered pigs, pig corneas may alleviate the global shortage of corneas in the near future.

  9. The willed blindness of humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. It is a willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness...

  10. A Proxy Blind Signature Scheme Based on ECDLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHaiyan; WANGRuchuan

    2005-01-01

    While proxy signature scheme enables an original signer to fully authorize a proxy to sign a message on his or her behalf legally and undeniably, blind signature scheme keeps the message blind from the signer so that the signer cannot make a linkage between the signature and the identity of requester (receiver). Both schemes have been widely applied in the electronic business. A new ECDLP (Elliptic curve discrete problem)-based proxy blind signature scheme is to be proposed in this paper by integrating the security properties of both schemes.

  11. [The blindness in the literature-Jose Saramago: blindness and Albert Bang: the blind witness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permin, H; Norn, M

    2001-01-01

    Two novels with different aspects of blindness seen through the doctors eyes. The Portuguese Nobel-prize winner José Saramago's story of a city struck by an epidemic of "white blindness", where the truth is what we cannot bear to see. The Danish author and unskilled labourer Albert Bang's (synonym with Karl E. Rasmussen) crime novel describes a blind or pretend to be blind butcher, who is a witness to a murder. Both novels are lyric, thought-provoking and insightful.

  12. 高地震烈度地区大跨度桥梁桩基础设计%The Pile Disign of Wide- span Bridge for High- intensity Earthquake Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈国

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces the speciality of the pile disign of wide - span bridge in high - intensity earthquake area base on one wide -span cable -stayed bridge and give some suggestion.%结合某大跨度斜拉桥工程,介绍了高地震烈度地区大跨度桥梁桩基础设计的特殊性,提出合理建议。

  13. Functional rehabilitation of partial cortical blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoerig, Petra

    2008-01-01

    The current doctrine regards fields of partial cortical blindness as permanent once a temporally restricted window for spontaneous recovery has passed. Accordingly, neuropsychological rehabilitation mainly applies compensatory procedures that train patients to make better use of their sighted field. The more ambitious goal of functional recovery depends on the survival of pathways that continue to transmit retinal information from the blind field. Although wide-spread antero- and retrograde degeneration follows lesions that destroy or denervate the primary visual cortex and cause partial cortical blindness, several retinofugal pathways survive in cats, monkeys, and humans. In all three species, they subserve a variety of visual functions which develop and improve with practice. Post lesion plasticity is greater when the lesion occurs early in life, but changes in behavioural performance and brain responses have also been demonstrated in late lesion subjects. Although the extent of functional improvement is variable, and the most effective approaches still need to be established across cohorts, the evidence for perceptual learning in fields of cortical blindness indicates that the visual processes mediated by the surviving parts of the visual system can be harnessed to improve functional outcome.

  14. Unconditionally verifiable blind computation

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzsimons, Joseph F

    2012-01-01

    Blind Quantum Computing (BQC) allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for them such that the client's input, output and computation remain private. Recently the authors together with Broadbent proposed a universal unconditionally secure BQC scheme where the client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits in separable states randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. A desirable property for any BQC protocol is verification, whereby the client can verify with high probability whether the server has followed the instructions of the protocol, or if there has been some deviation resulting in a corrupted output state. A verifiable BQC protocol can be viewed as an interactive proof system leading to consequences for complexity theory. In this paper we extend the BQC protocol presented in [Broadbent, Fitzsimons and Kashefi, FOCS 2009 p517] with new functionality allowing blind computational basis m...

  15. Blind Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, P; Arrighi, Pablo; Salvail, Louis

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input. Say Alice wants Bob to compute some well-known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x. The situation arises for instance if client Alice has limited computational resources in comparison with mistrusted server Bob, or if x is an inherently mobile piece of data. Could there be a protocol whereby Bob is forced to compute f(x) "blindly", i.e. without observing x? We provide such a blind computation protocol for the class of functions which admit an efficient procedure to generate random input-output pairs, e.g. factorization. The setting is quantum, the security is unconditional, the eavesdropper is as malicious as can be. Keywords: Secure Circuit Evaluation, Secure Two-party Computation, Information Hiding, Information gain vs disturbance.

  16. Color Blind Affirmative Action

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for understanding the consequences of the widespread adoption of race-neutral alternatives' to conventional racial affirmative action policies in college admissions. A simple model of applicant competition with endogenous effort is utilized to show that, in comparison to color-conscious affirmative action, these color-blind alternatives can significantly lower the efficiency of the student selection process in equilibrium. We examine data on matricul...

  17. Postpartum cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Shakeel Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    A 30-years-old third gravida with previous normal pregnancies and an unremarkable prenatal course had an emergency lower segment caesarean section at a periphery hospital for failure of labour to progress. She developed bilateral cortical blindness immediately after recovery from anesthesia due to cerebral angiopathy shown by CT and MR scan as cortical infarct cerebral angiopathy, which is a rare complication of a normal pregnancy.

  18. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  19. Blindness as A Challenging Medical and Social Problem in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixing Hu

    2002-01-01

    China, a country with about one fifth of the world' s population, has been gaining a rapideconomic growth since 1980s. This country has around 5 million blind people, accountingfor 18% of the blind in the world. The major causes of blindness include cataract,corneal diseases, trachoma, glaucoma, vitreoretinopathy and a number of factorscontributing to blindness in children. The principal cause of blindness in China was nolonger trachoma but cataracts. Vitamin A deficiency remains a public health problem inthe under-developed areas.Age-related conditions in China, such as vision loss due tocataract and retinal disorders, will increase accordingly if no preventive meaunes aretaken. Glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy appear to be predominant induction of thedevastating blind. In this fast developing country blindness is not only a medical orhealth, but also a social problem. Developed strategies have been adopted simultaneouslyby national efforts under the leadership of the government, international agencies,nongovernmental organizations, as well as private sectors in their every-day work toprevent and treat blindness.

  20. Sociocultural theory and blind taste-tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Paul Gee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his entertaining 1986 book, The Real Coke, the Real Story, Thomas Oliver tells the story of the now infamous “New Coke”, a story retold in Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005 best-seller Blink. In the early 1980s, Pepsi began running commercials in which people took a sip from two glasses, not knowing which was Coke and which Pepsi. The majority preferred Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company replicated these blind taste-tests and found the same result. Losing market share, Coke—long the dominant brand—changed its old formula and came out with “New Coke”, a soda made to a new formula, one that in a new round of blind taste-tests came out above Pepsi. But New Coke was a disaster.Consumers hated it. Coke not only returned to its old formula, but Pepsi never did overtake Coke, which remains today the dominant brand world-wide.

  1. Experimental Demonstration of Blind Quantum Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Barz, Stefanie; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to provide the possibility of preserving the privacy of a computation. Here we show the first such experimental demonstration of blind quantum computation where the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. We demonstrate various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover algorithms. Remarkably, the client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for future unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  2. Crossmodal recruitment of the ventral visual stream in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, Maurice; Matteau, Isabelle; Zhi Wang, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform...... a tactile-form recognition task with the tongue display unit (TDU). Both groups learned the task at the same rate. In line with our hypothesis, the fMRI data showed that during nonhaptic shape recognition, blind subjects activated large portions of the ventral visual stream, including the cuneus, precuneus......, inferotemporal (IT), cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv), and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic...

  3. Fighting blindness with microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrenner, Eberhart

    2013-11-06

    There is no approved cure for blindness caused by degeneration of the photoreceptor cells of the retina. However, there has been encouraging progress with attempts to restore vision using microelectronic retinal implant devices. Yet many questions remain to be addressed. Where is the best location to implant multielectrode arrays? How can spatial and temporal resolution be improved? What are the best ways to ensure the safety and longevity of these devices? Will color vision be possible? This Perspective discusses the current state of the art of retinal implants and attempts to address some of the outstanding questions.

  4. Curing water scarcity blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenmark, M

    1991-01-01

    Natural resources experts, ecologists and agricultural specialists from temperate zones have a peculiar bias when addressing the problems of the drought-prone Sahel region of Africa. These limited viewpoints are evident in use of the term "decertification," rather than climate-related vulnerability; the project-related approach of mere technological challenge; the notion that water can be found for temporary relief. Even the Brundtland Commission on Environment and Development of 1987 limited its discussion of the problem to food distribution rather than increasing food production. A World Bank proposal suggested food rationing and pricing schemes. It is vital to realize that the problem is that of a climate with an immense evaporative demand and a wide annual variability in rainfall. Therefore intermittent droughts and famines are a constant feature. Provision of dry technologies such as light tractors and fertilizer will not produce sustainable increases in crop yields. Population growth, lifestyle and land use in the aggregate will determine whether development of the area is sustainable. Rather than the current approach of increased use of natural resources and non-sustainable technology, sustainable use of available natural resources, development of human resources, and reduction of waste are essential.

  5. Deaf, blind or deaf-blind: Is touch enhanced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, Costanza; Cecchetto, Carlo; Pisoni, Alberto; Bolognini, Nadia

    2016-02-01

    When someone looses one type of sensory input, s/he may compensate by using the sensory information conveyed by other senses. To verify whether loosing a sense or two has consequences on a spared sensory modality, namely touch, and whether these consequences depend on the type of sensory loss, we investigated the effects of deafness and blindness on temporal and spatial tactile tasks in deaf, blind and deaf-blind people. Deaf and deaf-blind people performed the spatial tactile task better than the temporal one, while blind and controls showed the opposite pattern. Deaf and deaf-blind participants were impaired in temporal discrimination as compared to controls, while deaf-blind individuals outperformed blind participants in the spatial tactile task. Overall, sensory-deprived participants did not show an enhanced tactile performance. We speculate that discriminative touch is not so relevant in humans, while social touch is. Probably, more complex tactile tasks would have revealed an increased performance in sensory-deprived people.

  6. Crossmodal Recruitment of the Ventral Visual Stream in Congenital Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ptito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used functional MRI (fMRI to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform a tactile-form recognition task with the tongue display unit (TDU. Both groups learned the task at the same rate. In line with our hypothesis, the fMRI data showed that during nonhaptic shape recognition, blind subjects activated large portions of the ventral visual stream, including the cuneus, precuneus, inferotemporal (IT, cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv, and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic tactile shape discrimination. The activation of LOtv by nonhaptic tactile shape processing in blind and sighted subjects adds further support to the notion that this area subserves an abstract or supramodal representation of shape. Together with our previous findings, our data suggest that the segregation of the efferent projections of the primary visual cortex into a dorsal and ventral visual stream is preserved in individuals blind from birth.

  7. POSTERIOR SEGMENT CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN IN BLIND SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is estimated that there are 1.4 million irreversibly blind children in the world out of which 1 million are in Asia alone. India has the highest number of blind children than any other country. Nearly 70% of the childhood blindness is avoidable. There i s paucity of data available on the causes of childhood blindness. This study focuses on the posterior segment causes of blindness among children attending blind schools in 3 adjacent districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a cross sectiona l study conducted among 204 blind children aged 6 - 16 years age. Detailed eye examination was done by the same investigator to avoid bias. Posterior segment examination was done using a direct and/or indirect ophthalmoscope after dilating pupil wherever nec essary. The standard WHO/PBL for blindness and low vision examination protocol was used to categorize the causes of blindness. A major anatomical site and underlying cause was selected for each child. The study was carried out during July 2014 to June 2015 . The results were analyzed using MS excel software and Epi - info 7 software version statistical software. RESULTS: Majority of the children was found to be aged 13 - 16 years (45.1% and males (63.7%. Family history of blindness was noted in 26.0% and consa nguinity was reported in 29.9% cases. A majority of them were belonged to fulfill WHO grade of blindness (73.0% and in majority of the cases, the onset of blindness was since birth (83.7%. The etiology of blindness was unknown in majority of cases (57.4% while hereditary causes constituted 25.4% cases. Posterior segment causes were responsible in 33.3% cases with retina being the most commonly involved anatomical site (19.1% followed by optic nerve (14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for mandatory oph thalmic evaluation, refraction and assessment of low vision prior to admission into blind schools with periodic evaluation every 2 - 3 years

  8. Use of human remains detection dogs for wide area search after wildfire: a new experience for TexasTask Force 1 Search and Rescue resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migala, Alexandre F; Brown, Susann E

    2012-12-01

    In September 2011, wildfires in Bastrop County, TX, were the most destructive in the state's history, consuming more than 34000 acres (13759 hectares) and more than 1600 homes in the process. The wildfires began by consuming more than 30 homes across 2 miles (3.2 km) in 17 minutes, raising the fear that local residents may not have had sufficient time to escape the conflagration. Texas Task Force 1 deployed for a new mission, the search and recovery of human remains. Although there have been other larger and more widespread fires in the past, it was the speed at which this fire spread that created the environment requiring such a search. The mission was focused primarily on human detection, searching an area almost 72 square miles (186 km(2)) between September 7 and 11, 2011. To our knowledge, never before have human remains detection dogs been tasked with such an undertaking. Lessons learned from this event will educate all levels of government agencies, emergency medical services, fire departments, law enforcement, utilities, veterinary services, and search and rescue/recovery activities in the future. The utilization of human remains detection canines integrated with search teams trained in larger scale events is one such area that will benefit from this experience, with a final area searched of 15 598 acres (6312 hectares).

  9. Real world navigation independence in the early blind correlates with differential brain activity associated with virtual navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halko, Mark A; Connors, Erin C; Sánchez, Jaime; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2014-06-01

    Navigating is a complex cognitive task that places high demands on spatial abilities, particularly in the absence of sight. Significant advances have been made in identifying the neural correlates associated with various aspects of this skill; however, how the brain is able to navigate in the absence of visual experience remains poorly understood. Furthermore, how neural network activity relates to the wide variability in navigational independence and skill in the blind population is also unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural correlates of audio-based navigation within a large scale, indoor virtual environment in early profoundly blind participants with differing levels of spatial navigation independence (assessed by the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale). Performing path integration tasks in the virtual environment was associated with activation within areas of a core network implicated in navigation. Furthermore, we found a positive relationship between Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scores and activation within right temporal parietal junction during the planning and execution phases of the task. These findings suggest that differential navigational ability in the blind may be related to the utilization of different brain network structures. Further characterization of the factors that influence network activity may have important implications regarding how this skill is taught in the blind community.

  10. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O . Oduntan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent review of the causes and prevalence of low vision and blindness world wide is lack-ing. Such review is important for highlighting the causes and prevalence of visual impairment in the different parts of the world. Also, it is important in providing information on the types and magnitude of eye care programs needed in different parts of the world. In this article, the causes and prevalence of low vision and blind-ness in different parts of the world are reviewed and  the  socio-economic  and  psychological implications are briefly discussed. The review is based on an extensive review of the litera-ture using computer data bases combined with review of available national, regional and inter-national journals. Low vision and blindness are more prevalent in the developing countries than in the developed ones. Generally, the causes and prevalence of the conditions vary widely in different parts of the world and even within the same country. World wide, cataract is the most common cause of blindness and low vision among adults and elderly. Infectious diseases such as trachoma and onchocerciasis result-ing in low vision and blindness are peculiar to Africa, Asia and South America. Hereditary and congenital conditions are the most common causes of low vision and blindness among chil-dren worldwide.

  11. An IEC 61850 Based Communication Model of Wide-Area Relay Protection%基于IEC61850的广域继电保护通信建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国炎; 张哲; 尹项根

    2012-01-01

    目前IEC61850标准未对广域继电保护通信模型进行描述,为此以区域主站集中式广域继电保护系统结构为研究对象,根据IEC61850标准层层包含的建模方法,给出了广域继电保护IED建模的一般步骤。然后,以220kV数字化变电站和基于故障电压分布的广域继电保护算法为例,给出了遵循IEC61850标准的广域继电保护主站和子站的树型结构模型,以及主站与子站的消息流交互过程。最后建立了通信服务模型,包括:客户端/服务器传输模型、模拟值传输模型和开关量传输模型。构建该通信模型的根本目的是实现广域继电保护IED与数字化变电站内其他IED问的互操作性。%At present, the model for wide-area relay protection is not yet described in IEC 61850 standards. For this reason, the paper takes the structure of concentrated wide-area relay protection system as research object, and according to the layer-on-layer modeling method of IEC 61850 standards, the paper presents generalized IED modeling procedures about wide-area relay protection system. Secondly, the paper takes the digital 220kV substation and the algorithm of wide-area relay protection based on fault voltage distribution for examples, master station's and slave stations' tree structure of wide-area relay protection and the interactive process model of message flow between master station and slave stations are given following the principles of IEC 61850 standards. Finally, the paper establishes communication service models, including the clients and server transmission model, the analog values transmission model, and the switching values transmission model. The essential purpose of constructing such communication model is to achieve the interoperability between the IEDs of wide-area relay protection system and other IEDs in digital substations.

  12. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build relationships and become the eventual basis for language learning. As the child who is deaf-blind becomes ... those near them, deaf-blindness fosters opportunities for learning and mutual ... M. (Eds.), (1993). Second edition. A model service delivery system for persons ...

  13. The incidence of color blindness among some school children of Pokhara, Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroula, D R; Saha, C G

    2010-03-01

    The incidence of color blindness varies from race to race and different in different geographical area. Since, there is no such report about the prevalence of color blindness in the western part of Nepal, the present study had been conducted to find out the incidence of color blindness among school children of Pokhara city, western Nepal. Participant's (n=964, 474 boys, 490 girls, age group 10 to 19 years) color vision was tested by using Ishihara chart (38 plates). Among 474 boys, 18 boys were color blind with the prevalence of 3.8%. None of girls were found to be color blind. Out of 18 color blind boys, nine, six and three boys were the victims of deuteranopia, deuteranomaly and protanomaly respectively. The incidence of color blindness were more amongst the Darji (14.3%) and Newar (9.1%) ethnic groups.

  14. National Center On Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Profile Logout Menu NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness Help ... Collaborate Project Staff Service Provider Family Member State Deaf-Blind Projects Click on a state on the ...

  15. Sensing Structures Inspired by Blind Cave Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Michael E.; Chen, Nannan; Lu, David; Anderson, Kyle D.; Hu, Huan; Liu, Chang; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-03-01

    Blind cave fish, with degenerated non-functioning eyes, have evolved to ``see'' their hydrodynamic environment by using the flow receptors of the lateral line system. The hair-cell receptors are encapsulated in a hydrogel-like material, called a cupula, which increases the sensitivity of the hair-cell receptors by coupling their motion to the surrounding flowing media. We characterized the viscoelastic properties and of blind cave fish cupulae by using colloidal-probe spectroscopy in fluid. A photo-patternable hydrogel with similar properties was developed to mimic the fish receptor coupling structure. Flow-based measurements indicated that the hydrogels enhance drag through increased surface area, but also inherent material properties. These bio-inspired structures endowed micro-fabricated flow sensors with sensitivities rivaling that of fish.

  16. Blind Cognitive MAC Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Mehanna, Omar; Gamal, Hesham El

    2008-01-01

    We consider the design of cognitive Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols enabling an unlicensed (secondary) transmitter-receiver pair to communicate over the idle periods of a set of licensed channels, i.e., the primary network. The objective is to maximize data throughput while maintaining the synchronization between secondary users and avoiding interference with licensed (primary) users. No statistical information about the primary traffic is assumed to be available a-priori to the secondary user. We investigate two distinct sensing scenarios. In the first, the secondary transmitter is capable of sensing all the primary channels, whereas it senses one channel only in the second scenario. In both cases, we propose MAC protocols that efficiently learn the statistics of the primary traffic online. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed blind protocols asymptotically achieve the throughput obtained when prior knowledge of primary traffic statistics is available.

  17. Crustal structure across the Three Gorges area of the Yangtze platform, central China, from seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Bai, Z.; Mooney, W.; Wang, C.; Chen, X.; Wang, E.; Teng, J.; Okaya, N.

    2009-01-01

    We present active-source seismic data recorded along a 300??km-long profile across the Three Gorges area of the western Yangtze platform, central China. From west to east, the profile crosses the Zigui basin, Huangling dome and Jianghan basin. The derived crustal P-wave velocity structure changes significantly across the Tongchenghe fault that lies at the transition from the Huangling dome to the Jianghan basin. West of the Tongchenghe fault, beneath the Zigui basin and the Huangling dome, we observe a ~ 42??km thick crust of relatively low average velocity (6.3-6.4??km/s). In contrast, east of the Tongchenghe fault, beneath the Jianghan basin, the crust is only 30??km thick and has a high average velocity (6.6-6.7??km/s). A west-east variation in crustal composition along the Tongchenghe fault is also inferred. West of the fault, P-wave velocities suggest a felsic composition with an intermediate layer at the base of the crust, whilst, east of the fault, felsic, intermediate, and mafic crustal layers are apparent. Our results suggest that the crust beneath the Jianghan basin has been thinned by rifting, accompanied by intrusion of the lower crust by mafic dikes and sills. The west-to-east division of the crust in the Three Gorges area coincides with first-order geophysical contrasts in gravity, topography, crustal and lithospheric thickness. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  18. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saichin Isipradit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB study in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA <20/400, severe visual impairment (VA <20/200 but ≥20/400, and moderate visual impairment (VA <20/70 but ≥20/200 were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8, 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.6, 12.6% (95% CI: 10.8-14.5. There was no significant difference among the four regions of Thailand. Cataract was the main cause of vision loss accounted for 69.7% of blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. CONCLUSION: Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  19. Morphometric changes of the corpus callosum in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D Louis

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender....... There was no overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12......% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus...

  20. Neural correlates of olfactory processing in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, R; Beaulieu-Lefebvre, M; Schneider, F C

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive neuroplastic changes have been well documented in congenitally blind individuals for the processing of tactile and auditory information. By contrast, very few studies have investigated olfactory processing in the absence of vision. There is ample evidence that the olfactory system...... is highly plastic and that blind individuals rely more on their sense of smell than the sighted do. The olfactory system in the blind is therefore likely to be susceptible to cross-modal changes similar to those observed for the tactile and auditory modalities. To test this hypothesis, we used functional....... The stronger recruitment of the occipital cortex during odor detection demonstrates a preferential access of olfactory stimuli to this area when vision is lacking from birth. This finding expands current knowledge about the supramodal function of the visually deprived occipital cortex in congenital blindness...

  1. Corneal blindness: prevention, treatment and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Burton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Blindness from corneal disease is a major ophthalmic public health problem. There are three important elements to addressing corneal blindness: prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation.

  2. Widely tunable alloy composition and crystal structure in catalyst-free InGaAs nanowire arrays grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treu, J., E-mail: Julian.Treu@wsi.tum.de, E-mail: Gregor.Koblmueller@wsi.tum.de; Speckbacher, M.; Saller, K.; Morkötter, S.; Xu, X.; Riedl, H.; Abstreiter, G.; Finley, J. J.; Koblmüller, G., E-mail: Julian.Treu@wsi.tum.de, E-mail: Gregor.Koblmueller@wsi.tum.de [Walter Schottky Institut, Physik Department, Center of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, Garching 85748 (Germany); Döblinger, M. [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Butenandtstr. 5-13, Munich 81377 (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    We delineate the optimized growth parameter space for high-uniformity catalyst-free InGaAs nanowire (NW) arrays on Si over nearly the entire alloy compositional range using selective area molecular beam epitaxy. Under the required high group-V fluxes and V/III ratios, the respective growth windows shift to higher growth temperatures as the Ga-content x(Ga) is tuned from In-rich to Ga-rich InGaAs NWs. Using correlated x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy, we identify structural defects to govern luminescence linewidths in In-rich (x(Ga) < 0.4) and Ga-rich (x(Ga) > 0.6) NWs, whereas limitations at intermediate Ga-content (0.4 < x(Ga) < 0.6) are mainly due to compositional inhomogeneities. Most remarkably, the catalyst-free InGaAs NWs exhibit a characteristic transition in crystal structure from wurtzite to zincblende (ZB) dominated phase near x(Ga) ∼ 0.4 that is further reflected in a cross-over from blue-shifted to red-shifted photoluminescence emission relative to the band edge emission of the bulk ZB InGaAs phase.

  3. Security considerations in blinded exposure experiments using electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christian

    2008-12-01

    Whether exposure to electromagnetic fields well below accepted exposure limits has a cytogenetic effect on human cells has long been debated. It is widely published and generally accepted that the exposure unit invariably used in these experiments is capable of providing blinded exposure conditions. The following short report illustrates, however, that exposure conditions might not always be as effectively masked as is generally assumed.

  4. Blind prediction of interfacial water positions in CAPRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Marc F.; Moal, Iain H.; Bates, Paul A.; Kastritis, Panagiotis L.; Melquiond, Adrien S. J.; Karaca, Ezgi; Schmitz, Christophe; van Dijk, Marc; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.; Eisenstein, Miriam; Jimenez-Garcia, Brian; Grosdidier, Solene; Solernou, Albert; Perez-Cano, Laura; Pallara, Chiara; Fernandez-Recio, Juan; Xu, Jianqing; Muthu, Pravin; Kilambi, Krishna Praneeth; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Grudinin, Sergei; Derevyanko, Georgy; Mitchell, Julie C.; Wieting, John; Kanamori, Eiji; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Murakami, Yoichi; Sarmiento, Joy; Standley, Daron M.; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nakamura, Haruki; Chavent, Matthieu; Ritchie, David W.; Park, Hahnbeom; Ko, Junsu; Lee, Hasup; Seok, Chaok; Shen, Yang; Kozakov, Dima; Vajda, Sandor; Kundrotas, Petras J.; Vakser, Ilya A.; Pierce, Brian G.; Hwang, Howook; Vreven, Thom; Weng, Zhiping; Buch, Idit; Farkash, Efrat; Wolfson, Haim J.; Zacharias, Martin; Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Huang, Shen-You; Zou, Xiaoqin; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Kleanthous, Colin; Wodak, Shoshana J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first assessment of blind predictions of water positions at protein-protein interfaces, performed as part of the critical assessment of predicted interactions (CAPRI) community-wide experiment. Groups submitting docking predictions for the complex of the DNase domain of colicin E2 and

  5. Wide-area estimates of evapotranspiration by red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and associated vegetation in the Murray-Darling River Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Doody, Tanya M.; Glenn, Edward P.; Jarchow, Christopher J; Barreto-Munoz, Armando; Didan, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    Floodplain red gum forests (Eucalyptus camaldulensis plus associated grasses, reeds and sedges) are sites of high biodiversity in otherwise arid regions of southeastern Australia. They depend on periodic floods from rivers, but dams and diversions have reduced flood frequencies and volumes, leading to deterioration of trees and associated biota. There is a need to determine their water requirements so environmental flows can be administered to maintain or restore the forests. Their water requirements include the frequency and extent of overbank flooding, which recharges the floodplain soils with water, as well as the actual amount of water consumed in evapotranspiration (ET). We estimated the flooding requirements and ET for a 38 134 ha area of red gum forest fed by the Murrumbidgee River in Yanga National Park, New South Wales. ET was estimated by three methods: sap flux sensors placed in individual trees; a remote sensing method based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index from MODIS satellite imagery and a water balance method based on differences between river flows into and out of the forest. The methods gave comparable estimates yet covered different spatial and temporal scales. We estimated flood frequency and volume requirements by comparing Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values from Landsat images with flood history from 1995 to 2014, which included both wet periods and dry periods. ET during wet years is about 50% of potential ET but is much less in dry years because of the trees' ability to control stomatal conductance. Based on our analyses plus other studies, red gum trees at this location require environmental flows of 2000 GL yr−1 every other year, with peak flows of 20 000 ML d−1, to produce flooding sufficient to keep them in good condition. However, only about 120–200 GL yr−1 of river water is consumed in ET, with the remainder flowing out of the forest where it enters the Murray River system.

  6. 基于果蝇优化算法的广域阻尼控制器设计%Design method of wide-area damping controller based on FOA algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇凯; 胡志坚; 索江镭; 陈珍

    2014-01-01

    针对大规模互联电网区间低频振荡问题,提出了基于果蝇优化算法(Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm, FOA)的广域阻尼控制器设计方法。以标准16机68节点系统为例,对系统进行线性化,并进行模态分析,找出系统区间振荡模式及阻尼比。根据区域低频振荡模式下参与因子选择广域反馈信号。分析了广域控制器结构,并采用FOA算法对其参数进行优化。仿真结果表明,提出的广域控制器方法能有效地提高区间振荡阻尼比,为电力系统低频振荡优化控制提供了新的思路。%With regard to the inter-area low-frequency oscillation problems in large-scale interconnected power system, a design method based on Fruit fly Optimization Algorithm (FOA) for the wide-area damping controller is proposed. The 16-machine 68-bus power system is employed to validate the effectiveness of the method presented. The system is linearized at first, and modal analysis is conducted to find out the interval oscillation modes and corresponding damping ratios, under which the rotor speed participation factors are obtained. Through the participation factors the wide-area feedback signal is selected appropriately. Afterwards, the structure of the wide-area controller is analyzed and the FOA algorithm is adopted to optimize the parameters. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed design method of wide-area controller can better improve the inter-area oscillation damping ratios, which provides a new thought for the optimal control of low-frequency oscillation.

  7. Crossmodal Processing of Haptic Inputs in Sighted and Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Patrice; Alary, Flamine; Lazzouni, Latifa; Chapman, C. E.; Goldstein, Rachel; Bourgoin, Pierre; Lepore, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In a previous behavioral study, it was shown that early blind individuals were superior to sighted ones in discriminating two-dimensional (2D) tactile angle stimuli. The present study was designed to assess the neural substrate associated with a haptic 2D angle discrimination task in both sighted and blind individuals. Subjects performed tactile angle size discriminations in order to investigate whether the pattern of crossmodal occipital recruitment was lateralized as a function of the stimulated hand. Task-elicited activations were also compared across different difficulty levels to ascertain the potential modulatory role of task difficulty on crossmodal processing within occipital areas. We show that blind subjects had more widespread activation within the right lateral and superior occipital gyri when performing the haptic discrimination task. In contrast, the sighted activated the left cuneus and lingual gyrus more so than the blind when performing the task. Furthermore, activity within visual areas was shown to be predictive of tactile discrimination thresholds in the blind, but not in the sighted. Activity within parietal and occipital areas was modulated by task difficulty, where the easier angle comparison elicited more focal occipital activity along with bilateral posterior parietal activity, whereas the more difficult comparison produced more widespread occipital activity combined with reduced parietal activation. Finally, we show that crossmodal reorganization within the occipital cortex of blind individuals was primarily right lateralized, regardless of the stimulated hand, supporting previous evidence for a right-sided hemispheric specialization of the occipital cortex of blind individuals for the processing of tactile and haptic inputs. PMID:27531974

  8. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy.

  9. LOVE IS COLOR BLIND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦扬

    2013-01-01

    <正>看完这部电影,突然想起小时候看完《辛德勒的名单》后,问过母亲一个问题:"为什么有些人要嘲笑和歧视那些与众不同的人?"母亲告诉我:"我们都是一样的,没有人应当受到责备,每个人都应当为自己而活,要始终坚信‘Love is color blind(爱无定界)’。"爱究竟有无定界?有太多故事让我们相信这句话并非纸上谈兵。《汤姆叔叔的小屋》、《美国往事》、《为黛西小姐开车》……是的,"Love"是"Listen(倾听)",是无条件无偏见地倾听对方的需求,并予以协助;是"Obligate(感恩)",需要不断地感恩,付出爱来灌

  10. Blinded trials taken to the test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Forfang, E; Haahr, M T

    2007-01-01

    Blinding can reduce bias in randomized clinical trials, but blinding procedures may be unsuccessful. Our aim was to assess how often randomized clinical trials test the success of blinding, the methods involved and how often blinding is reported as being successful....

  11. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What It's Like to Be Color Blind KidsHealth > For Kids > What It's Like to Be Color Blind Print A A ... blind. But some people really are color blind. It doesn't mean they can't see any ...

  12. Blind Recognition Algorithm of Turbo Codes for Communication Intelligence Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Naseri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Turbo codes are widely used in land and space radio communication systems, and because of complexity of structure, are custom in military communication systems. In electronic warfare, COMINT systems make attempt to recognize codes by blind ways. In this Paper, the algorithm is proposed for blind recognition of turbo code parameters like code kind, code-word length, code rate, length of interleaver and delay blocks number of convolution code. The algorithm calculations volume is0.5L3+1.25L, therefore it is suitable for real time systems.

  13. A Robust Algorithm for Blind Total Variation Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xu; Qian-shun Chang

    2008-01-01

    Image restoration is a fundamental problem in image processing. Blind image restoration has a great value in its practical application. However, it is not an easy problem to solve due to its complexity and difficulty. In this paper, we combine our robust algorithm for known blur operator with an alternating minimization implicit iterative scheme to deal with blind deconvolution problem, recover the image and identify the point spread function(PSF). The only assumption needed is satisfy the practical physical sense. Numerical experiments demonstrate that this minimization algorithm is efficient and robust over a wide range of PSF and have almost the same results compared with known PSF algorithm.

  14. Blindness in children: a worldwide perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Gilber

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Many of the causes of childhood blindness are avoidable, being either preventable or treatable. Only three per cent of the world's blind population are children. However, because children have a lifetime of blindness ahead of them, the number of ‘blind person years’ resulting from blindness starting in childhood is second only to cataract. Controlling blindness in children is a priority of VISION 20203,4; however, as its causes differ from that of blindness in adults, different strategies, personnel, infrastructure, and equipment are required to combat it. There is also a greater urgency when managing children, as delays in treatment can lead to amblyopia (lazy eye.

  15. 应对连锁故障的广域协同预控制系统研究%Research on Wide Area Cooperative Precontrol System for Cascading Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许婧; 白晓民; 黄镔

    2013-01-01

    Major blackouts caused by cascading failure experienced an observable process of equipment outages. Blackout could be avoided if reasonable control measures were taken during that period. Started from the experience of electric power construction in China for many years and used multi-Agent system theory for reference, a wide area cooperative precontrol system framework based on off-line analysis of cross-section power transfer limit is presented in this paper, which is feasible for engineering practice. Case study shows that the wide area cooperative precontrol system can prevent grid instability triggered by cascading failure occurring in local area.%由连锁故障导致的大停电多数经历了一个明显的故障发生发展的过程,在此期间如采取合理控制措施,有可能避免大停电的发生.从我国多年电力建设的经验出发,借鉴多智能体系统理论,提出了具有工程实践意义的,基于“离线断面功率传输极限分析”的广域协同预控制系统框架.算例结果表明,该系统对局部区域连锁故障可能导致的全网失稳起到预防的作用.

  16. Multiframe Blind Super Resolution Imaging Based on Blind Deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元伟; 张立毅

    2016-01-01

    As an ill-posed problem, multiframe blind super resolution imaging recovers a high resolution image from a group of low resolution images with some degradations when the information of blur kernel is limited. Note that the quality of the recovered image is influenced more by the accuracy of blur estimation than an advanced regularization. We study the traditional model of the multiframe super resolution and modify it for blind deblurring. Based on the analysis, we proposed two algorithms. The first one is based on the total variation blind deconvolution algorithm and formulated as a functional for optimization with the regularization of blur. Based on the alternating minimization and the gradient descent algorithm, the high resolution image and the unknown blur kernel are esti-mated iteratively. By using the median shift and add operator, the second algorithm is more robust to the outlier influence. The MSAA initialization simplifies the interpolation process to reconstruct the blurred high resolution image for blind deblurring and improves the accuracy of blind super resolution imaging. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority and accuracy of our novel algorithms.

  17. The utility of microsatellite DNA markers for the evaluation of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT for the fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), control programs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Orankanok, Watchreeporn; Guglielmino, Carmela Rosalba; Franz, Gerald; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2011-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a key pest that causes reduction of the crop yield within the international fruit market. Fruit flies have been suppressed by two Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management programs in Thailand using Sterile Insect Technique (AW-IPM-SIT) since the late 1980s and the early 2000s. The projects' planning and evaluation usually rely on information from pest status, distribution, and fruit infestation. However, the collected data sometimes does not provide enough detail to answer management queries and public concerns, such as the long term sterilization efficacy of the released fruit fly, skepticism about insect migration or gene flow across the buffer zone, and the re-colonisation possibility of the fruit fly population within the core area. Established microsatellite DNA markers were used to generate population genetic data for the analysis of the fruit fly sampling from several control areas, and non-target areas, as well as the mass-rearing facility. The results suggested limited gene flow (m flies in the control areas and flies captured outside. In addition, no genetic admixture was revealed from the mass-reared colony flies from the flies within the control area, which supports the effectiveness of SIT. The control pests were suppressed to low density and showed weak bottleneck footprints although they still acquired a high degree of genetic variation. Potential pest resurgence from fragmented micro-habitats in mixed fruit orchards rather than pest incursion across the buffer zone has been proposed. Therefore, a suitable pest control effort, such as the SIT program, should concentrate on the hidden refuges within the target area.

  18. Area Wide Road User Charging in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildebogaard, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of a distance based road user charging scheme and the research programme FORTRIN at DTU is introduced.......The paper presents the concept of a distance based road user charging scheme and the research programme FORTRIN at DTU is introduced....

  19. Wide Area Wind Field Monitoring Status & Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Marchant; Jed Simmons

    2011-09-30

    Volume-scanning elastic has been investigated as a means to derive 3D dynamic wind fields for characterization and monitoring of wind energy sites. An eye-safe volume-scanning lidar system was adapted for volume imaging of aerosol concentrations out to a range of 300m. Reformatting of the lidar data as dynamic volume images was successfully demonstrated. A practical method for deriving 3D wind fields from dynamic volume imagery was identified and demonstrated. However, the natural phenomenology was found to provide insufficient aerosol features for reliable wind sensing. The results of this study may be applicable to wind field measurement using injected aerosol tracers.

  20. Sensor fusion for wide-area surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold H.; Garcia, Joseph P.

    1996-03-01

    The Gabor transform (GT) is applied to the super-resolution of noisy dot image on the infrared focal plane array (FPA) for the remote surveillance of aircraft or missiles. A unique solution of this kind of ill-posed problem is possible because we have incorporated the measured or a priori known size information of the engine/nozzle. Yet noise makes the super-resolution ill- conditioned. We surmount this difficulty by incorporating the GT into a modified Papoulis- Gerchberg iteration algorithm. This is possible because the GT is a local Fourier transform (FT), it matches the localized object signal (object size one unit) but mismatches the global nature of noise. In a practical case of a photon-limited signal having a signal to noise ratio as low as 1.3, our approach recognizes a simulated missile plume. We also show additional resolution can be gained if the radar backscattering from the nozzle and other scatterers is fused with the spatially resolved single image pixel.

  1. The spatiotopic 'visual' cortex of the blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likova, Lora

    2012-03-01

    Visual cortex activity in the blind has been shown in sensory tasks. Can it be activated in memory tasks? If so, are inherent features of its organization meaningfully employed? Our recent results in short-term blindfolded subjects imply that human primary visual cortex (V1) may operate as a modality-independent 'sketchpad' for working memory (Likova, 2010a). Interestingly, the spread of the V1 activation approximately corresponded to the spatial extent of the images in terms of their angle of projection to the subject. We now raise the questions of whether under long-term visual deprivation V1 is also employed in non-visual memory task, in particular in congenitally blind individuals, who have never had visual stimulation to guide the development of the visual area organization, and whether such spatial organization is still valid for the same paradigm that was used in blindfolded individuals. The outcome has implications for an emerging reconceptualization of the principles of brain architecture and its reorganization under sensory deprivation. Methods: We used a novel fMRI drawing paradigm in congenitally and late-onset blind, compared with sighted and blindfolded subjects in three conditions of 20s duration, separated by 20s rest-intervals, (i) Tactile Exploration: raised-line images explored and memorized; (ii) Tactile Memory Drawing: drawing the explored image from memory; (iii) Scribble: mindless drawing movements with no memory component. Results and Conclusions: V1 was strongly activated for Tactile Memory Drawing and Tactile Exploration in these totally blind subjects. Remarkably, after training, even in the memory task, the mapping of V1 activation largely corresponded to the angular projection of the tactile stimuli relative to the ego-center (i.e., the effective visual angle at the head); beyond this projective boundary, peripheral V1 signals were dramatically reduced or even suppressed. The matching extent of the activation in the congenitally blind

  2. Access to Mathematics by Blind Students: A Global Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Karshmer, Arthur I.; Daryoush D. Farsi

    2007-01-01

    The issue of blindness and legally blind is becoming a global issue. Based on the last statistics from American Foundation for the blind, there are approximately 10 million blind and visually impaired people in the United States alone. Over 45 million people around the world are completely blind. 180 million more people are legally blind, and approximately 7 million people are diagnosed as blind or legally blind every year. One of the greatest stumbling blocks in the ability of the blind to e...

  3. MIMO model free adaptive wide area power system stabilizer design%多输入多输出无模型自适应广域阻尼控制器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艺; 陆超; 韩英铎

    2013-01-01

    随着电网的快速发展,系统结构和运行方式不断发生变化,传统广域阻尼控制器(wide area power system stabilizer,WAPSS)不能保证其在各种运行状态下控制效果;此外,互联系统在投入多台WAPSS时,各控制器之间面临相互协调问题.该文将无模型自适应控制(model free adaptive control,MFAC)应用于多输入多输出(multi-input multioutput,MIMO)的WAPSS设计中,给出了适用于MIMO广域阻尼控制的MFAC改进算法,并讨论了MFAC改进控制算法参数设置方法.在川渝和华中电网互联系统中测试改进算法的控制效果,仿真结果表明:MIMO-MFAC-WAPSS能适应系统变化,有效抑制多个区间低频振荡模式,并实现了多个控制器之间的相互协调.%Since the structure and operating conditions of power systems change with time,wide-area power system stabilizers (WAPSS) with fixed parameters cannot perform well for all conditions.In addition,when several WAPSSs are installed in a system,they must be well coordinated.This paper describes a model free adaptive control method (MFAC) multi-input multi-output (MIMO) WAPSS designs.An MFAC method for MIMO wide area damping control is given with the relevant parameter settings.Simulation results in local and large scale power grids show that this MIMO-MFAC-WAPSS system can adapt to system changes,efficiently damp inter-area oscillations and coordinate multiple controllers.

  4. New treatments of hereditary blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Rosenberg, Thomas; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life and a structura......Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life...... and a structurally intact retinal tissue to adult life with a complete loss of photoreceptors. It must be assumed that some of the trials will succeed in producing new therapies and action must be taken to refine and accelerate diagnostics and to preserve therapeutic potential in blind people....

  5. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  6. Deep Blind Compressed Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Shikha; Singhal, Vanika; Majumdar, Angshul

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of extracting deeply learned features directly from compressive measurements. There has been no work in this area. Existing deep learning tools only give good results when applied on the full signal, that too usually after preprocessing. These techniques require the signal to be reconstructed first. In this work we show that by learning directly from the compressed domain, considerably better results can be obtained. This work extends the recently proposed fram...

  7. Wide-area Backup Protection Algorithm Based on Multi-source Data of Protection Elements and Phasor Measurement Units%基于保护元件与PMU数据多源的广域后备保护算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童晓阳; 王睿; 孙明蔚

    2012-01-01

    为了提高广域后备保护的准确性与容错性,提出了一种同时利用传统保护元件和相量测量单元(PMU)数据的广域后备保护算法。将实时获得的广域保护动作加权,得到综合判断值,然后采用高斯函数获得对应的故障概率。同时,根据统计数据,由正序电压幅值、线路两侧正序电流相角差,计算得到PMU数据对应的故障概率,再将两种故障概率加权综合。在理论上定量地分析了广域保护容错的极限位数。在IEEE 14节点系统上的多组案例实验结果表明,该算法对多个保护误动与拒动有较高的容错性,并且能够检测多重故障。%In order to improve the correctness and fault-tolerance of wide-area backup protection, a novel wide-area protection algorithm using traditional protection components and phasor measurement unit (PMU) data is proposed. Firstly, the online obtained protection components are weighed to get the comprehensive judgment value. Then a Gaussian function is used to get the fault probability. At the same time, using the amplitude of positive sequence voltage and phase angle difference of positive- sequence currents within a line, the probability from PMU is also obtained. These two probabilities are weighted comprehensive to find the fault component. The limit digit number of wide-area backup protection is analyzed theoretically. The simulation tests based on IEEE 14-bus system illustrate the effectiveness and high fault-tolerance capability of the algorithm with the mis-operation and refuse-operation of multiple protections, as well as the detection of multiple faults.

  8. Specifics of psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyněk Janečka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenesis of the psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children has its own specifics. Visual defect is influenced by many things. In the period from birth to two years of age occur in children, significant changes in cognitive, psychomotor and social development. Compared with the normal sighted population go the development of congenital blind children in all these areas slower. Visual deprivation also influenced on development of body posture. More important is whether the development proceeds in stages that correspond to the development of normal vision child. If development proceeds in the right direction is the temporal aspect criterion rather orientation. For blind children is also important to strengthen the ability to correctly identify their own body through somatognosy. Stereognosy in turn determines the degree of contact with the outer world and focus it in relation to the physical schema.

  9. Iterative surface construction for blind deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenchuan; Graves, Logan R.; Huang, Run; Song, Weihong; Kim, DaeWook

    2016-09-01

    Freeform optics provide excellent performance for a wide variety of applications. However, obtaining an accurate freeform surface measurement is highly challenging due to its large aspheric/freeform departure. It has been proven that SCOTS (Software Configurable Optical Test System), an advanced deflectometry system developed at the University of Arizona, can measure the departure of a freeform surface from the desired shape with nanometer accuracy. Here, a new data processing technique was used to measure a freeform surface without any prior knowledge of the shape of the surface. Knowing only the geometry of one point on the test surface, this method can take a blind measurement of a freeform surface and arrive at the true surface through iterative construction.

  10. Elliptic Curve Blind Digital Signature Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOULin; YANGYixian; WENQiaoyan

    2003-01-01

    Blind signature schemes are important cryptographic protocols in guaranteeing the privacy or anonymity of the users.Three new blind signature schemes and their corresponding generalizations are pro-posed. Moreover, their securities are simply analyzed.

  11. The Concept and Operations of Blind Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Yan-jun; LIU Kai-di; ZHANG Bo-wen

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the definition and operations of blind number, and discusses its operationproperties. Blind number is a mathematical tool to express and deal with complex information with severalkinds of uncertainty.

  12. Blinding in randomized clinical trials: imposed impartiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I

    2011-01-01

    Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations...

  13. American Foundation for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Research Navigator: A Series on Research in Blindness and Visual Impairment Stay Involved Enter your e-mail address to receive AFB eNews: Helen Keller A Driving Force Behind AFB Learn more about Helen Keller Visit the Helen Keller Kids Museum Directory of Services Find Local Services: Select a ...

  14. Convolutive Blind Source Separation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Larsen, Jan; Kjems, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, much attention has been given to the separation of mixed sources, in particular for the blind case where both the sources and the mixing process are unknown and only recordings of the mixtures are available. In several situations it is desirable to recover all sources fro...

  15. The Blind as "Ordinary People".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Saul

    1978-01-01

    Based on a paper presented at the 1977 Western Social Science Association Meeting in Denver, Colorado, the article reports on a study that compared major demographic features of a sample of 70 legally blind adults with the sighted adult sample studied in the 1975 National Opinion Research Center General Social Survey. (Author/DLS)

  16. The Blind Learning Aptitude Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, T. Ernest

    A Blind Learning Aptitude Test (BLAT) was developed on the basis of sense of touch rather than on conventional experience, fine sensory discrimination, or verbal competency. From a pool of about 350 items, most of them used in testing intelligence in the sighted, a pool of 94 was selected and embossed after the manner of braille. A residual pool…

  17. 天津软土地区宽大基坑围护结构型式选择研究%Research on Choosing Structure Pattern of Wide Foundation Ditch Containment in Soft Soil Area of Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董伟成

    2012-01-01

    Combining features of foundation ditch project of Tianjin Railway Construction Building, the author introduced structure patterns of wide foundation ditch containment which were suitable for Tianjin soft soil area, and compared features of containment methods of interlocking bored concrete pile and common bored concrete pile with water proof curtain containment.%结合天津铁建大厦基坑工程的特点,介绍了适用于天津软土地区的几种基坑围护结构型式,并对钻孔咬合灌注桩与普通钻孔灌注桩+止水帷幕两种围护型式各自特点进行了详细的对比分析。

  18. 广义Hamilton多机电力系统的广域时滞阻尼控制%Wide-area Time-delay Damping Control of Generalized Hamilton Multi-machine Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古丽扎提·海拉提; 王杰

    2014-01-01

    随着跨区送电量的需求增加,大量功率需要进行远距离传输,因而抑制区域间的功率振荡仅靠局部反馈信号设计的控制器已难以保证整个系统的稳定运行。因此,含有时滞影响的广域控制器的分析和设计是近年来互联电网研究的热点之一。基于Hamilton系统理论,建立对应的广域测量电力系统的非线性时滞广义Hamilton模型,并以此模型为基础,给出相应的 Lyapunov-Krasovskii 泛函并推导出以矩阵不等式为形式的时滞依赖稳定性判据,注意到控制输入含有时滞信号的影响,设计出相应的广域阻尼控制器(wide-area damping controller,WADC),实现了含有时滞的广域反馈控制,并计算出能使闭环电力系统稳定的时滞裕度,权衡WADC的阻尼性能与时滞裕度之间的关系,从而给出对应的WADC控制参数。最后以16机68节点系统为例,用时域仿真的结果来说明所提时滞控制方法的有效性。%Large amount of power is required for long-distance transmission with the increase of cross-transmission of electricity demand, thus it is difficult to inhibit the power oscillation between the regions to guarantee the stable operation of the whole power system which only relies on local feedback signal designed controller. Therefore, it is one of the hot spots for the analysis and design with time delay influence of wide-area controller in recent study of interconnected grid. Based on Hamilton system theory, a nonlinear time-delay generalized Hamiltonian model of corresponding wide area measurement power system model was constructed. Based on the proposed model, the corresponding Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional was given to derive a delay-dependent steady stability criterion in term of matrix inequalities. It was noticed that control input contains the influence of time-delay signal;the corresponding wide-area damping controller (WADC) was designed. The WAN feedback control

  19. A semiotic approach to blind wayfinding: some primary conceptual standpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers from a wide variety of disciplines, such as philosophy, art, education or psychology, have over the years sustained the idea that blind persons are incapable or nearly incapable of formulating complex mental diagrammatic representations, which are schema based on the similarities found within internal logical relations between sign and object.Contrary to this widely accepted opinion, we will present an alternative approach in this paper: Our main idea is that blind and visually impaired people relying upon tact as a main knowledge source are capable of diagrammatic reasoning very well, but use a different method for this purpose, namely the method of inductive reasoning. Such method can effectively provide the mind with the data necessary to the elaboration of mental maps. Therefore, wayfinding as a semiotic process in which a route is planned and executed from marks or navigation indexes, is also enabled by tact.

  20. A Survey on Research of Power System Transient Stability Based on Wide-Area Measurement Information%基于广域量测信息的电力系统暂态稳定研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴为; 汤涌; 孙华东; 徐式蕴

    2012-01-01

    暂态稳定是电力系统研究的重要内容,一直以来受到人们的关注.近年来,随着基于相量测量装置的广域测量系统日趋完善,实时获取全网动态响应数据成为可能,这为暂态稳定研究提供了新手段.文章从暂态稳定传统分析方法的改进、快速暂态稳定判据的研究、暂态稳定趋势预测以及暂态稳定控制4个方面,对广域量测信息在电力系统暂态稳定研究中的应用进行了综述,指出基于广域量测信息进行暂态稳定研究是未来的发展方向.%Transient stability is an important issue in power system study to which special attentions are paid. In recent years along with the perfection of wide-area measurement system (WAMS) based on phasor measuring units (PMU) it is possible to acquire dynamic response data of the entire power system, so WAMS provides are new measure for the research on transient stability. In four aspects, I.e., the improvement of traditional analysis method for transient stability, the research on fast transient stability criteria, prediction of transient stability and control of transient stability, the application status of WAMS in the research on power system transient stability is summarized, and it is pointed out that it is the development trend of the research on transient stability based on wide-area measurement information in the future.

  1. Partially Blind Signatures Based on Quantum Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-Qiu; Niu, Hui-Fang

    2012-12-01

    In a partially blind signature scheme, the signer explicitly includes pre-agreed common information in the blind signature, which can improve the availability and performance. We present a new partially blind signature scheme based on fundamental properties of quantum mechanics. In addition, we analyze the security of this scheme, and show it is not possible to forge valid partially blind signatures. Moreover, the comparisons between this scheme and those based on public-key cryptography are also discussed.

  2. Tactile maze solving in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C;

    2010-01-01

    Vision is undoubtedly important for navigation although not essential as blind individuals outperform their blindfolded seeing counterparts in a variety of navigational tasks. It is believed that the blind's superior performance is because of their efficient use of proprioceptive signals and envi......Vision is undoubtedly important for navigation although not essential as blind individuals outperform their blindfolded seeing counterparts in a variety of navigational tasks. It is believed that the blind's superior performance is because of their efficient use of proprioceptive signals...

  3. Color Blindness Defect and Medical Laboratory Technologists: Unnoticed Problems and the Care for Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dargahi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "nColor -blindness is the inability to perceive differences between some color that other people can distinguish. Using a literature search , the results indicate the prevalence of color vision deficiency in the medical profession and its on medical skills. Medical laboratory technicians and technologists employees should also screen for color blindness. This research aimed to study color blindness prevalence among Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees and Students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS. A cross- sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 633 TUMS Clinical Laboratory Sciences' Students and Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees to detect color - blindness problems by Ishihara Test. The tests were first screened with certain pictures, then compared to the Ishihara criteria to be possible color defective were tested further with other plates to determine color - blindness defects. The data was saved using with SPSS software and analyzed by statistical methods. This is the first study to determine the prevalence of color - blindness in Clinical Laboratory Sciences' Students and Employees. 2.4% of TUMS Medical Laboratory Sciences Students and Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees are color- blind. There is significant correlation between color - blindness and sex and age. But the results showed that there is not significant correlation between color -blindness defect and exposure to chemical agents, type of job , trauma and surgery history, history of familial defect and race. It would be a wide range of difficulties by color blinded students and employees in their practice of laboratory diagnosis and techniques with a potentially of errors. We suggest color blindness as a medical conditions should restrict employment choices for medical laboratory technicians and technologists job in Iran.

  4. Color blindness defect and medical laboratory technologists: unnoticed problems and the care for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargahi, Hossein; Einollahi, Nahid; Dashti, Nasrin

    2010-01-01

    Color-blindness is the inability to perceive differences between some color that other people can distinguish. Using a literature search, the results indicate the prevalence of color vision deficiency in the medical profession and its on medical skills. Medical laboratory technicians and technologists employees should also screen for color blindness. This research aimed to study color blindness prevalence among Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees and Students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 633 TUMS Clinical Laboratory Sciences' Students and Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees to detect color-blindness problems by Ishihara Test. The tests were first screened with certain pictures, then compared to the Ishihara criteria to be possible color defective were tested further with other plates to determine color - blindness defects. The data was saved using with SPSS software and analyzed by statistical methods. This is the first study to determine the prevalence of color - blindness in Clinical Laboratory Sciences' Students and Employees. 2.4% of TUMS Medical Laboratory Sciences Students and Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees are color-blind. There is significant correlation between color-blindness and sex and age. But the results showed that there is not significant correlation between color-blindness defect and exposure to chemical agents, type of job, trauma and surgery history, history of familial defect and race. It would be a wide range of difficulties by color blinded students and employees in their practice of laboratory diagnosis and techniques with a potentially of errors. We suggest color blindness as a medical conditions should restrict employment choices for medical laboratory technicians and technologists job in Iran.

  5. Poverty and blindness in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin

    2007-11-01

    Africa carries a disproportionate responsibility in terms of blindness and visual impairment. With approximately 10 per cent of the world's population, Africa has 19 per cent of the world's blindness. It is no surprise that this reality also mirrors the situation in terms of the burden of world poverty. There is an increasing recognition of the need to highlight the link between poverty, development and health care. Blindness, disabling visual impairment and the overall lack of eye-care services are too often the result of social, economic and developmental challenges of the developing world. The state of eye care in Africa stands in alarming contrast to that in the rest of the world. Poor practitioner-to-patient ratios, absence of eye-care personnel, inadequate facilities, poor state funding and a lack of educational programs are the hallmarks of eye care in Africa, with preventable and treatable conditions being the leading cause of blindness. Eye diseases causing preventable blindness are often the result of a combination of factors such as poverty, lack of education and inadequate health-care services. The challenge that Vision 2020 has set itself in Africa is enormous. Africa is not a homogenous entity, the inter- and intra-country differences in economic development, prevalence of disease, delivery infrastructure and human resources amplify the challenges of meeting eye-care needs. The successful implementation of Vision 2020 programs will be hindered without the development of a comprehensive, co-ordinated strategy that is cognisant of the differences that exist and the need for comprehensive solutions that are rooted in the economic and political realities of the continent as well as the individual countries and regions within countries. This strategy should recognise the need for economic growth that results in greater state funded eye-care services that focus on health promotion to ensure the prevention of eye disease, the development of eye clinics in

  6. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  7. BLIND ADAPTIVE XPIC BASED ON HOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Haiyang; Yang Longxiang; Peng Jianglong

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new blind XPIC and a new adaptive blind deconvolutional algorithm based on HOS processing, which separates and equalizes the signals in real time. The simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed adaptive blind algorithm,compared with the conventional algorithms, is outstanding with the feature of feasibility, stability and fast convergence rate.

  8. Psychomotor Development for the Deaf-Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Claudine

    The stages of psychomotor development in deaf blind children and youth are reviewed, and educational principles to guide psychomotor development programs for the deaf blind are outlined. Etiological factors which contribute to the psychomotor development of deaf blind persons are discussed including nonambulation and sensory deprivation, heart…

  9. IMPLEMENTATION OF COLOR-BLIND AID SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruki Harwahyu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Color-blind is a physical defect causing patient loses the ability to recognize colors either particular or the whole of them. This disability is problematic in daily life, moreover in some specific areas that require carefulness eyesight. We propose a vision aid kit with improved user experience, such as finger pointer and voice command-and-response. Our work proofs the design and implementation of color-blind aid system for embedded and mobile device. This study used Windows Embedded Standard 2009, Windows Phone 7, Speech API library, Open CV library and EmguCV wrapper. The performance of each functionality is evaluated. From various testing that are conducted, the system can best detect color samples with precision level of 90.67% on embedded device implementation and 95.33% on mobile device implementation. The best fingertip detection rate attained is 89.6% with normal lighting condition. The voice command works with detection rate of 75.87%, meanwhile for the synthesized speech response, 88, 33% respondents can understood the words well.

  10. The effect of display timing on change blindness in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbranson, Walter T; Davis, Eva T

    2016-01-01

    Change blindness is a phenomenon in which even obvious changes in a visual scene may go unnoticed. Recent research has indicated that this phenomenon may not be exclusive to humans. Two experiments investigated change blindness in pigeons, using a variant of the widely-used flicker task to investigate the influence of display timing on change blindness. Results indicate that the duration of time during which a stimulus display is visible influences change detection accuracy, with the effect due to additional search time. The results are discussed in relation to the value of comparative cognition and cross-species investigations of behavior.

  11. From" Televised Blind Date” to" Televised Half-blind Wedding”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates” , arranged by a television station. It is interesting to see how a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding” to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that 1 think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out.

  12. From "Televised Blind Date" to "Televised Half-blind Wedding"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates", arranged by a television station, It is interesting to see bow a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding" to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that I think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out. In the beginning, the directors of FOX put ads in newspapers, openly asking the public: "Who wants to marry a multi-millionaire?" It did not cost much time or

  13. Brain mapping in a patient with congenital blindness – a case for multimodal approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarod L Roland

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in basic neuroscience research across a wide range of methodologies have contributed significantly to our understanding of human cortical electrophysiology and functional brain imaging. Translation of this research into clinical neurosurgery has opened doors for advanced mapping of functionality that previously was prohibitively difficult, if not impossible. Here we present the case of a unique individual with congenital blindness and medically refractory epilepsy who underwent neurosurgical treatment of her seizures. Pre-operative evaluation presented the challenge of accurately and robustly mapping the cerebral cortex for an individual with a high probability of significant cortical re-organization. Additionally, a blind individual has unique priorities in one’s ability to read Braille by touch and sense the environment primarily by sound than the non-vision impaired person. For these reasons we employed additional measures to map sensory, motor, speech, language, and auditory perception by employing a number of cortical electrophysiologic mapping and functional magnetic resonance imaging methods. Our data show promising results in the application of these adjunctive methods in the pre-operative mapping of otherwise difficult to localize, and highly variable, functional cortical areas.

  14. Detecting Signage and Doors for Blind Navigation and Wayfinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuihua; Yang, Xiaodong; Tian, Yingli

    2013-07-01

    Signage plays a very important role to find destinations in applications of navigation and wayfinding. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to detect doors and signage to help blind people accessing unfamiliar indoor environments. In order to eliminate the interference information and improve the accuracy of signage detection, we first extract the attended areas by using a saliency map. Then the signage is detected in the attended areas by using a bipartite graph matching. The proposed method can handle multiple signage detection. Furthermore, in order to provide more information for blind users to access the area associated with the detected signage, we develop a robust method to detect doors based on a geometric door frame model which is independent to door appearances. Experimental results on our collected datasets of indoor signage and doors demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method.

  15. Color blindness and Rorschach color responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsino, B V

    1985-10-01

    Color vision deficits occur in 10% of the American white male population. Thus, color blindness may invalidate diagnostic hypotheses generated from Rorschach data. The Rorschach protocols of 43 white, college male color-blind subjects were compared to the protocols of normally sighted controls. The color-blind group manifested fewer pure "C" responses. No significant between group differences emerged for any of the other primary Rorschach color variables. Pure "C" responses rarely figure prominently in Rorschach evaluations, and the apparent lowered frequency of these responses by the color-blind is insufficient to warrant modification of current Rorschach practice. The data suggest that color blindness is unlikely to confound Rorschach assessment.

  16. BLIND SERBIAN RULERS AND FAMOUS PERSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janicijevic Katarina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available History and medicine were an integral part of life-being of blind serbian acters. One of the main actors was half-blind serbian ruler, Stefan of Decani and whose name was associated with first ophthalmologic hospital and precursor of the eye`s injuries care. After, national reputation as Stefan Blind Righteous, ruler of the Serbian despot between 1458. and 1459. (member of Brankovic`s dinasty, and he was blinded by eye injuries burns. The famous national was also Filip Visnjic, as blind minstrel and authentic creator of serbian folk traditions, with sequels as a child, by bilateral infective panuveitis.

  17. Determining daylight and view preferences from the use of blinds in apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    2015-01-01

    Present research focuses on the use of blinds and curtains in apartments and inhabitants’ operation of them. The objective of the present research is to develop a better understanding of how curtains and blinds are operated by the inhabitants in apartments and the possible consequences it has...... that curtains or blinds, often close off new apartment buildings with large glass areas in dense urban context. Such observations indicate that there can be a discrepancy between the intentions of the design team or architect and the perception of the user. The paper presents the results of observations...... facades in the same building there is no indication of curtains and blinds being operated based on daylight. However, it appears that view and context plays a significant part in the use of blinds. Furthermore, it appears that the amount of traffic and the perception of privacy plays a role...

  18. Evaluation of children in six blind schools of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornby Stella

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: 1.To determine the anatomical site and underlying causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in special education in Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. To compare the causes of blindness in two different regions in the state. 3. To evaluate improvement with correction of refractive error and low-vision devices (LVDs Methods: Children in 6 schools for the blind and in 3 integrated education programmes were examined by one ophthalmologist, and were refracted and assessed for LVDs by an optometrist. The major anatomical site and underlying aetiology of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL; <6/60 in the better eye were recorded using the standardised WHO reporting form. Results: Two hundred and ninety one students under 16 years were examined, and after refraction, 267 (91.7% were classified as being severely visually impaired or blind. The most common anatomical sites of SVI/BL were retina in 31.1% children; cornea in 24.3%; and whole globe in 20.2%. The aetiology was unknown in 38.2%, hereditary in 34.8% and childhood causes in 24%. 114 children (39.2% had functional low vision (i.e. visual acuity <6/18 to light perception with navigational vision. In this group, 36 children improved with spectacles and 16 benefited by LVDs. 41 children (15.4% were able to read N10 point though they were studying Braille. Conclusion: Overall 37.4% of children had "avoidable" causes of blindness. The major avoidable causes were vitamin-A deficiency and cataract. Vitamin-A deficiency and congenital anomalies were more common in the dry plateau areas of the state. One in seven children could read normal print with optical support.

  19. [Cortical plasticity in blind individual].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-zhen; Zhu, Si-quan

    2008-10-01

    The cognitive mechanisms and functional brain imaging research on blind individuals provide special information for exploring the plasticity of the developing human brain. This paper focuses on five aspects of recent progress in this field: (1) the behavior compensation of the blind; (2) the influence of early visual deprivation and later visual deprivation on cross-modal reorganization; (3) the relationship between the complexity of task requirement and cross-modal reorganization; (4) the relationship between the sensitive periods of the visual system and the time course of cross-modal reorganization; (5) the neural mechanisms of cross-modal reorganization. These findings contribute greatly to the theoretical basis of the rehabilitation of individuals with perceptual deficits.

  20. [Double-blind peer review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyvesi, Tamás

    2002-02-03

    The peer review process in medical sciences is much debated. The method is not yet evidence based. Who are the reviewers and how do they perform? They are "independent" experts. As such they are bound to be involved in research similar to that outlined in the manuscript. Very often they are contestant in the same race. That is why the author consider the double blind method, where the author is blinded and the reviewer masked from each other's identity, the best choice. Nevertheless in very many scientific journals of high quality and envied impact factors do not blind the identity of the authors. Science is a race for fame, self accomplishment and also a means to get grants for pursuing the scientific research. Only success is able to provide resources for expensive scientific research. There is no fail-safe method against bias in grant giving and editorial process. In the tidal wave of electronic information it is mandatory to help in differentiating between signal and noise in science. Peer review is the best method to protect readers from the trash of uncontrolled publications in medical science.

  1. Influence of play on the psycho-physical development of the adult blind.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemkina V.I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of correction of the motor areas of adults blind tools of the game. The study used grounds teaching conditions correct motor areas of adults with acquired blindness. To study the practice of correctional work with adult blind and its effectiveness has been used methods of observation and testing. Determination of the effectiveness of the developed pedagogical conditions of correction of the motor areas of adults with acquired blindness means game activities was provided by pedagogical experiment. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of empirical data was carried out by methods of mathematical statistics. This paper provides theoretical and methodological generalizations and scientific problem solving new correction motor areas of adults aged 22-35 years blind means playing activity that appears in the scientific substantiation of the complex pedagogical conditions of correction of the motor areas of adults with acquired blindness means game activities. It is shown that the systematic use of motor activity enhances mobility of those who engaged in it, and provides a complete assimilation of vital movements, the development of motor skills and ability to orientation in space.

  2. Top-down influence on the visual cortex of the blind during sensory substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Matthew C; Nau, Amy C; Fisher, Christopher; Kim, Seong-Gi; Schuman, Joel S; Chan, Kevin C

    2016-01-15

    Visual sensory substitution devices provide a non-surgical and flexible approach to vision rehabilitation in the blind. These devices convert images taken by a camera into cross-modal sensory signals that are presented as a surrogate for direct visual input. While previous work has demonstrated that the visual cortex of blind subjects is recruited during sensory substitution, the cognitive basis of this activation remains incompletely understood. To test the hypothesis that top-down input provides a significant contribution to this activation, we performed functional MRI scanning in 11 blind (7 acquired and 4 congenital) and 11 sighted subjects under two conditions: passive listening of image-encoded soundscapes before sensory substitution training and active interpretation of the same auditory sensory substitution signals after a 10-minute training session. We found that the modulation of visual cortex activity due to active interpretation was significantly stronger in the blind over sighted subjects. In addition, congenitally blind subjects showed stronger task-induced modulation in the visual cortex than acquired blind subjects. In a parallel experiment, we scanned 18 blind (11 acquired and 7 congenital) and 18 sighted subjects at rest to investigate alterations in functional connectivity due to visual deprivation. The results demonstrated that visual cortex connectivity of the blind shifted away from sensory networks and toward known areas of top-down input. Taken together, our data support the model of the brain, including the visual system, as a highly flexible task-based and not sensory-based machine.

  3. Use dependent limb dominence and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs in the congenitally blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayananda Giriyappa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Vision has been considered as the dominant modality in the human multi-sensory perception of the surroundings. The congenitally blind individuals use cortical areas that are normally reserved for vision during Braille reading. Use-dependent reorganization and neural plasticity changes occur as a consequence of many events, including the normal development and maturation of the organism, the acquisition of new skills. The research was designed to study the effect of blindness on SEPs in the dominant hand (Braille reading hand compared to the non dominant (non Braille reading hand in the congenitally blind. Material and methods: SEPs were recorded in 15 Braille reading congenitally blind females and compared with 15 age matched normal sighted females following right and left index finger stimulation. Latency and amplitudes of SEP waveforms (N9, N13, and N20 were measured. Results: The SEP-N20 amplitude was significantly increased in the congenitally blind (p < 0.0001 for right index finger and p < 0.005 for left index finger. There is a very large effect of blindness (3.11 on right index finger. Conclusions: The congenitally blind individuals have larger N20 amplitude, which is suggestive of greater somatosensory cortical activity. Effect of blindness and Braille reading skills is greater on SEPs recorded from the dominant and preferred hand. A varied contribution from Basic mechanisms in plasticity like neurogenesis, activity-dependent synaptic and neuronal plasticity may be involved.

  4. 基于IEC 61850变电站广域后备保护agent的信息模型研究%Research on Information Model of Substation Wide-area Backup Protection Agent Based on IEC 61850

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钦辉; 程汉湘; 黄丽英

    2010-01-01

    为了提高电力系统的安全性,使广域后备保护(wide-area backup protection,WABP)设备满足变电站自动化系统的发展要求,对基于IEC 61850的分布式多主体(multiagent)WABP信息模型进行了研究.介绍了multiagent WABP的结构及功能,详细说明了WABP 主体(agent)的设计方法,包括保护智能电子设备(intelligent electronic device,IED)的对象模式、WABP agent的组成模块、保护agent和常规逻辑节点间的信息流,根据信息的不同类型,可以选择传输控制协议或用户数据报协议在不同变电站之间来传递信息.最后,对广域通信模型进行了介绍.采用广域协作策略的multiagent WABP可以准确判断系统故障,具有很好的可行性和实用性.

  5. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A MOBILE SENSOR BASED THE BLIND ASSISTANCE WAYFINDING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Barati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The blind and visually impaired people are facing a number of challenges in their daily life. One of the major challenges is finding their way both indoor and outdoor. For this reason, routing and navigation independently, especially in urban areas are important for the blind. Most of the blind undertake route finding and navigation with the help of a guide. In addition, other tools such as a cane, guide dog or electronic aids are used by the blind. However, in some cases these aids are not efficient enough in a wayfinding around obstacles and dangerous areas for the blind. As a result, the need to develop effective methods as decision support using a non-visual media is leading to improve quality of life for the blind through their increased mobility and independence. In this study, we designed and implemented an outdoor mobile sensor-based wayfinding system for the blind. The objectives of this study are to guide the blind for the obstacle recognition and the design and implementation of a wayfinding and navigation mobile sensor system for them. In this study an ultrasonic sensor is used to detect obstacles and GPS is employed for positioning and navigation in the wayfinding. This type of ultrasonic sensor measures the interval between sending waves and receiving the echo signals with respect to the speed of sound in the environment to estimate the distance to the obstacles. In this study the coordinates and characteristics of all the obstacles in the study area are already stored in a GIS database. All of these obstacles were labeled on the map. The ultrasonic sensor designed and constructed in this study has the ability to detect the obstacles in a distance of 2cm to 400cm. The implementation and the results obtained from the interview of a number of blind persons who employed the sensor verified that the designed mobile sensor system for wayfinding was very satisfactory.

  6. Design and Development of a Mobile Sensor Based the Blind Assistance Wayfinding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, F.; Delavar, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The blind and visually impaired people are facing a number of challenges in their daily life. One of the major challenges is finding their way both indoor and outdoor. For this reason, routing and navigation independently, especially in urban areas are important for the blind. Most of the blind undertake route finding and navigation with the help of a guide. In addition, other tools such as a cane, guide dog or electronic aids are used by the blind. However, in some cases these aids are not efficient enough in a wayfinding around obstacles and dangerous areas for the blind. As a result, the need to develop effective methods as decision support using a non-visual media is leading to improve quality of life for the blind through their increased mobility and independence. In this study, we designed and implemented an outdoor mobile sensor-based wayfinding system for the blind. The objectives of this study are to guide the blind for the obstacle recognition and the design and implementation of a wayfinding and navigation mobile sensor system for them. In this study an ultrasonic sensor is used to detect obstacles and GPS is employed for positioning and navigation in the wayfinding. This type of ultrasonic sensor measures the interval between sending waves and receiving the echo signals with respect to the speed of sound in the environment to estimate the distance to the obstacles. In this study the coordinates and characteristics of all the obstacles in the study area are already stored in a GIS database. All of these obstacles were labeled on the map. The ultrasonic sensor designed and constructed in this study has the ability to detect the obstacles in a distance of 2cm to 400cm. The implementation and the results obtained from the interview of a number of blind persons who employed the sensor verified that the designed mobile sensor system for wayfinding was very satisfactory.

  7. [Transient cortical blindness--a complication after coronary angiography--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowik, Helena; Kułakowska, Alina; Drozdowski, Wiesław; Dubicki, Artur; Kraśnicki, Paweł

    2008-05-01

    Transient cortical blindness is a very rare complication of cardiovascular and cerebral angiography procedures. We present a case of 63-years-old woman, who developed cortical blindness after coronary angiography. Computed tomography (CT) done immediately after blindness appearance showed bilateral hyperintensive areas (probably due to a leakage of contrast medium) in the occipital and parietal cerebral lobes. All visual symptoms disappeared during 48 hours and CT scan repeated after sight recovery did not show any focal lesions in the brain. A breakdown of the blood-brain barrier with direct contrast neurotoxicity seems to be the causal factor of neurological changes observed in our patient after coronary angiography.

  8. The LOFT wide field monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Hernanz, M.; Alvarez, L.

    2012-01-01

    class large area detector (LAD) with a wide field monitor (WFM) instrument based on the coded mask principle, providing coverage of more than 1/3 of the sky. The LAD will provide an effective area ~20 times larger than any previous mission and will by timing studies...... be able to address fundamental questions about strong gravity in the vicinity of black holes and the equation of state of nuclear matter in neutron stars. The prime goal of the WFM will be to detect transient sources to be observed by the LAD. However, with its wide field of view and good energy...

  9. Provably secure robust threshold partial blind signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhenfu; ZHU Haojin; LU Rongxing

    2006-01-01

    Threshold digital signature and blind signature are playing important roles in cryptography as well as in practical applications such as e-cash and e-voting systems.Over the past few years, many cryptographic researchers have made considerable headway in this field. However, to our knowledge, most of existing threshold blind signature schemes are based on the discrete logarithm problem. In this paper, we propose a new robust threshold partial blind signature scheme based on improved RSA cryptosystem.This scheme is the first threshold partial blind signature scheme based on factoring, and the robustness of threshold partial blind signature is also introduced. Moreover, in practical application, the proposed scheme will be especially suitable for blind signature-based voting systems with multiple administrators and secure electronic cash systems to prevent their abuse.

  10. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Variety Seeking Tendency Scale, the Intuitive Eating Scale, and the Body Awareness Questionnaire. Our...... behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data...... further indicate that blind subjects more strongly rely on internal hunger and satiety cues, instead of external contextual or emotional cues, to decide when and what to eat. We suggest that the lower taste sensitivity observed in congenitally blind individuals is due to various blindness...

  11. Cortical blindness in obstetric patients: case report of two different presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edomwonyi, N P; Idehen, H

    2013-06-01

    Cortical blindness can complicate pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. This normally resolves between a few hours and days with full restoration of patients sight. In this case report, we present the clinical course of two women in whom eclampsia was further complicated with blindness. One had pre-partum blindness which resolved after few hours while the second developed post-partum blindness that occurred after an episode of ischaemic cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and it became persistent. The patients were managed by standard pre-eclampsia/ eclampsia regimen; these entail the use of intravenous magnesium sulphate, i/v hydralazine and fluid restriction, as well as expedite delivery. Diagnosis was further confirmed by computed tomography (CT) that demonstrated low density areas localised predominantly in the occipital areas.

  12. Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good vision would be able to read certain letters from 20 feet (6 meters) away. Eyesight this good is called 20/20 vision, although some people can see even better than that. The numbers change depending on ...

  13. A Rare Hydrocephalus Complication: Cortical Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Emre; Göçmen, Rahşan; Işıkay, Ayşe İlksen; Tekşam, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Cortical blindness related to bilateral occipital lobe infarction is an extremely rare complication of hydrocephalus. Compression of the posterior cerebral artery, secondary to tentorial herniation, is the cause of occipital infarction. Particularly in children and mentally ill patients, cortical blindness may be missed. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of hydrocephalus is important. We present herein a child of ventricular shunt malfunction complicated by cortical blindness.

  14. CERTIFICATELESS SIGNATURE AND BLIND SIGNATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lei; Zhang Futai

    2008-01-01

    Certificateless public key cryptography is a new paradigm introduced by AI-Riyami and Paterson. It eliminates the need of the certificates in traditional public key cryptosystems and the key escrow problem in IDentity-based Public Key Cryptography (ID-PKC). Due to the advantages of the certificateless public key cryptography,a new efficient certificateless pairing-based signature scheme is presented,which has some advantages over previous constructions in computational cost. Based on this new signature scheme,a certificateless blind signature scheme is proposed. The security of our schemes is proven based on the hardness of computational Diffie-Hellman problem.

  15. Causes of blindness and needs of the blind in Mansoura, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Gilany, A H; el-Fedawy, S; Tharwat, M

    2002-01-01

    A study of 113 blind people in Mansoura, Egypt highlighted the causes and risk factors for blindness, and health and social care needs of the blind. In two-thirds of cases, blindness occurred before 10 years of age. Risk factors for blindness were reported by more than half the study population. Congenital causes accounted for almost half the cases. The commonest causes of bilateral blindness were corneal opacities, cataract and glaucoma. Almost three-quarters of causes were avoidable. Health and social care for this group was inadequate and more than half would benefit from further management. Legislation for keratoplasty, a registry of blind people, and a nationwide community survey on the epidemiology of blindness are needed urgently.

  16. Blindness and Insight in King Lear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳元玉

    2008-01-01

    This paper intends to explore how William Shakespeare illustrates the theme of blindness and insight in his great tragedy "King Lear".Four characters’ deeds and their fate are used as a case study to examine what blindness is,what insight is,and the relationship between the two.The writer finds that by depicting the characters’ deeds and their fate in a double plot,Shakespeare renders the folly of blindness,the transition from blindness to insight,and the use of reason and thought to understand the truth.

  17. Congenital color blindness in young Turkish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirik, Mehmet; Acaroglu, Golge; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2005-04-01

    We investigated a healthy population of men from different regions of Turkey for the presence of congenital red-green color blindness. Using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, 941 healthy men from the Turkish army were tested for congenital red-green color blindness. The prevalence of red-green color blindness was 7.33 +/- 0.98% (5.10% protans and 2.23% deutans). These ratios were higher than other reported samples from Mediterranean Europe. Higher percentages of color blindness were found in regions with a lower education level and more consanguineous marriages.

  18. 广域测量系统中刀片式构架相量数据集中器的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Blade Structure Data Concentrator in Wide Area Measurement System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 王亮; 陈玉林; 侯学勇; 吕航; 文继锋

    2012-01-01

    基于同步相量测量技术的广域测量系统(WAMS)为电力系统各领域的研究和开发提供了全新的数据支持平台。相量数据集中器(PDC)是WAMS中连接同步相量测量单元(PMU)和测量主站的关键环节,目前多数解决方案是采用工控机来实现。实际情况表明,基于工控机的PDC在可靠性和可扩展性方面存在明显不足。采用刀片式构架理念设计的新型PDC极大地提高了其在可靠性和可扩展性方面的表现,特别是对基于IEC 61850标准过程层总线的智能变电站有很好的适应性,实际运行验证了所提出的解决方案有效、实用。%Wide area measurement system (WAMS) based on synchronized phasor measurement technology provides a new data support platform for research and development in all area of power system, that makes it possible to monitor and control the dynamic characteristics of gird asynehronously, and to greatly promote the research advancements of related application in power System. Data Concentrator is a key part in WAMS, which connecting synchronized phasor measurement unit (PMU) with main measuring station. Currently, most schemes for solution are implemented with industrial computer. Practices show that the industrial computer based data concentrator has apparent deficiency in reliability and scalability. The new data concentrator with blade structure design can significantly improve the performance in reliability and scalability. In particularly, the structure proposed shows strong adaptability in the application of smart substation based on the IEC 61850 process bus. Its practical operation in substation proved validity and practicality of the solution.

  19. Comparison of Training, Blind and Semi Blind Equalizers in MIMO Fading Systems Using Capacity as Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Kavitha, Veeraruna; Sharma, Vinod

    2005-01-01

    Semi blind/blind equalizers are believed to work unsatisfactorily in fading MIMO channels compared to training based methods, due to slow convergence or high computational complexity. We revisit this issue. Defining a 'composite' channel for each equalizer, we compare the three algorithms based on the capacity of this channel. We show that, in a Rician (with line of sight, LOS) environment, semi blind/blind algorithms outperform training equalizers, but in Rayleigh channels, it is better to u...

  20. Impaired intestinal sodium and chloride transport in the blind loop syndrome of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzke, J D; Fromm, M; Menge, H; Riecken, E O

    1987-03-01

    Self-filling blind loops of rat jejunum were used as a model for the blind loop syndrome in humans. Electrical resistance, short circuit current, and unidirectional sodium and chloride fluxes were measured using the Ussing technique. Whereas net fluxes for sodium and chloride did not differ significantly from zero in the blind loop or in the control, unidirectional fluxes of either direction were decreased and electrical resistance was increased, indicating an increase in the tightness of the intestinal wall. Measurements of alternating current impedance and micropuncture experiments revealed that this was due to an increase in epithelial resistance from 9 +/- 1 omega X cm2 (n = 15, results of both methods) to 27 +/- 4 omega X cm2 (n = 15) and in subepithelial resistance from 40 +/- 2 omega X cm2 (n = 15) to 76 +/- 7 omega X cm2 (n = 15). As the ratio of epithelial to subepithelial resistance was similar in the blind loop and in the control, lower transport rates in the blind loop are indicative of impaired epithelial transport function. Subsequently, two different transport systems were characterized. First, the 3-o-methyl-glucose-induced, phlorizin-reversible increase in short circuit current, representing glucose-coupled sodium absorption, showed a 77% decrease in maximum velocity in the blind loop and no change in Km. Second, the chloride-induced, bumetanide-reversible increase in short circuit current in tissues stimulated simultaneously by prostaglandin E1 and theophylline, representing rheogenic chloride secretion, also showed a decrease in maximum velocity (of 83%) and no change in Km. A morphometric analysis revealed that the crypt surface area increased by 100% in the blind loop, whereas the villous surface area was not significantly different between blind loops and controls. We conclude that the jejunal self-filling blind loop is characterized by impaired active ion transport processes and an increase in epithelial and subepithelial resistance.

  1. Adaptive Wide-Area Damping Control for HVDC Transmission System Considering Influence of Time-Varying Delay%考虑时变时滞影响的直流广域阻尼自适应控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡楠; 李兴源; 杨毅强; 覃波

    2014-01-01

    针对交直流系统区间低频振荡问题,尤其是广域测量系统引入的时滞影响问题,利用递归最小二乘法在线辨识区间振荡主导模态,在直流附加控制抑制低频振荡机理的基础上,通过在线计算利用交流联络线功率信号进行阻尼控制的滞后相位与时变时滞造成低频振荡模态信号的滞后相位,将时域信号转化为二维旋转坐标体系中的向量信号,经过参考坐标体系的角度旋转,分别进行阻尼与时滞滞后相角的自适应补偿,结合增益放大,通过时域反变换后可得到最终补偿后的直流附加控制量。8机36节点系统仿真表明,所提设计方法能够消除时变时滞的影响,有效阻尼系统低频振荡,并且具有鲁棒性,适合在线应用。%In allusion to inter-area low-frequency oscillation occurred in AC-DC power transmission system, especially to the time delay caused by wide-area measurement system, using recursive least squares (RLS), the online identification of dominant modal of inter-area oscillation is implemented, and on the basis of suppressing low-frequency oscillation by adding supplementary control of HVDC, through the online calculation of the lagging phase caused by utilizing power signal of AC tie line transmission line for damping control and the lagging phase of low-frequency oscillation signal due to the time-varying delay, the time-domain signals are transformed into vector signals in the two dimensional rotating coordinate system, then by means of angle rotated in reference coordinate system the adaptive compensation for lagging phase due to damping control and the adaptive compensation for lagging phase due to time-varying delay are carried out respectively. Combining with gain amplification, after the inverse transformation in time-domain the post-final compensation DC supplementary controlled quantity can be obtained. Simulation results of a 8-machine 36-bus system show that the

  2. 3D Wide FOV Scanning Measurement System Based on Multiline Structured-Light Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Gao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Structured-light three-dimensional (3D vision measurement is currently one of the most common approaches to obtain 3D surface data. However, the existing structured-light scanning measurement systems are primarily constructed on the basis of single sensor, which inevitably generates three obvious problems: limited measurement range, blind measurement area, and low scanning efficiency. To solve these problems, we developed a novel 3D wide FOV scanning measurement system which adopted two multiline structured-light sensors. Each sensor is composed of a digital CCD camera and three line-structured-light projectors. During the measurement process, the measured object is scanned by the two sensors from two different angles at a certain speed. Consequently, the measurement range is expanded and the blind measurement area is reduced. More importantly, since six light stripes are simultaneously projected on the object surface, the scanning efficiency is greatly improved. The Multiline Structured-light Sensors Scanning Measurement System (MSSS is calibrated on site by a 2D pattern. The experimental results show that the RMS errors of the system for calibration and measurement are less than 0.092 mm and 0.168 mm, respectively, which proves that the MSSS is applicable for obtaining 3D object surface with high efficiency and accuracy.

  3. 75 FR 47304 - Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who Are Blind, Deaf-Blind, or Have Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... COMMISSION Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who Are Blind, Deaf- Blind, or Have Low Vision AGENCY... accessible for people who are blind, have vision loss, or are deaf-blind and the extent to which gaps in... deaf-blind; recommendations on the most effective and efficient technical policy solutions...

  4. Front blind spot crashes in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuk Ki; Wong, Koon Hung; Tao, Chi Hang; Tam, Cheok Ning; Tam, Yiu Yan; Tsang, Cheuk Nam

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014, our laboratory had investigated a total of 9 suspected front blind spot crashes, in which the medium and heavy goods vehicles pulled away from rest and rolled over the pedestrians, who were crossing immediately in front of the vehicles. The drivers alleged that they did not see any pedestrians through the windscreens or the front blind spot mirrors. Forensic assessment of the goods vehicles revealed the existence of front blind spot zones in 3 out of these 9 accident vehicles, which were attributed to the poor mirror adjustments or even the absence of a front blind spot mirror altogether. In view of this, a small survey was devised involving 20 randomly selected volunteers and their goods vehicles and 5 out of these vehicles had blind spots at the front. Additionally, a short questionnaire was conducted on these 20 professional lorry drivers and it was shown that most of them were not aware of the hazards of blind spots immediately in front of their vehicles, and many did not use the front blind spot mirrors properly. A simple procedure for quick measurements of the coverage of front blind spot mirrors using a coloured plastic mat with dimensional grids was also introduced and described in this paper.

  5. Blavigator: a navigation aid for blind persons

    OpenAIRE

    José,João; Moreno, M.; Pinilla-Dutoit, J.; Rodrigues, J. M. F.; du Buf, J. M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Blavigator (blind navigator) is a vision aid for blind and visuaIIy impaired persons. It supports local navigation by detecting waIkable paths in the immediate vicinity of the user. It guides the user for centering on the path.

  6. Blind Equalization Based on Evolution Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongYu; ZhangXianda; 等

    1997-01-01

    Conventional blind equalization algorithms suffer from ill convergence to local minima and slow convergence speed.This paper proposes a novel blind equalization algorithm.using random search methods-evolution strategies and existing cost functions,Simulation results verify the fast and global convergence of the proposed algorithm.

  7. 基于广域测量系统的电压稳定指标%A On-Line Voltage Stability Index Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩伟峥; 房鑫炎

    2011-01-01

    综述和比较了多种基于广域测量的在线电压静态稳定指标,通过理论分析指出了这几种指标的理论缺陷和使用限制.利用同步测量的母线电压相量、线路潮流等电气量,根据线路潮流电压方程计算比较线路两侧电压水平,提出了一种新的电压稳定性指标Ivs,指示被监测线路或母线的电压稳定情况.通过系统等效的方法解耦多机系统的线路电压耦合性,可将该指标推广到多机系统.在单机单负荷系统和IEEE 14节点系统的仿真表明,Ivs可以准确快速地判断系统线路电压稳定情况,预测线路电压失稳点,且适用于所有种类的线路.与之前的电压静态稳定指标相比,Ivs具有无需判断线路电阻,物理概念清晰,适用范围广,线性度好等优点,有利于实现在线电压稳定监测和评估.%On-line steady state voltage stability indices based on wide area measurement system (WAMS) are summarized and compared. Based on theoretical analysis, the theoretical defects and usage limitations of these indices are pointed out. Utilizing synchronously measured electric quantities such as bus voltage phasors and line power flows and according to the comparison results of voltage levels, which are calculated by power flow and voltage equations of transmission line, at both terminals oftransmission lines, a new voltage stability index Ivs is proposed to indicate the voltage stability condition of monitored bus or transmission line. By means of system equivalence, the coupling of line voltage in multi-machine power system is decoupled, thus the proposed voltage stability index can be applied to multi-machine power system. Simulation results fiom single-machine single-load system and IEEE 14-bus system show that voltage stability condition of transmission line can be rapidly judged and the voltage instability point can be predicted by the proposed index IVS, and the proposed index is suitable to all kinds of transmission

  8. MAGNITUDE AND CAUSES OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AND BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN ATTENDING PAEDIATRIC EYE CLINIC AT SANTHIRAM MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeeva Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The number of blind years resulting from blindness in children is alarmingly high. Blindness in children can have a significant impact on their performance at school as well as their social interaction and future employment as visually impaired children have a long lifetime of blindness ahead of them. The consequences of visual impairment and blindness in children are an important public health issues with greater impact in developing countries, where 80% of the blindness in children occurs. The control of blindness in children is considered a high priority area within the World Health Organization’s VISION 2020 initiative. However many developing countries do not have the accurate information about the magnitude and causes of visual impairment and blindness in children, from which the scope and priorities for prevention and treatment can be identified. To date the established Pediatric Eye Clinic, which works as a Tertiary Eye Centre does not have baseline data on the magnitude and causes of visual impairment and blindness in children.

  9. Early Interactions with Children Who Are Deaf-Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Logout Menu Early Interactions With Children Who Are Deaf-Blind NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness Help ... Archived Webinars Early Interactions With Children Who Are Deaf-Blind by DB-LINK on Apr 1, 2008 ...

  10. The Ooty Wide Field Array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C. R. Subrahmanya; P. K. Manoharan; Jayaram N. Chengalur

    2017-03-01

    We describe here an ongoing upgrade to the legacy Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT). The ORT is a cylindrical parabolic cylinder 530 m × 30 m in size operating at a frequency of 326.5 (or $z \\sim 3.35$ for the HI 21-cm line). The telescope has been constructed on a North–South hill slope whose gradient is equal to the latitude of the hill, making it effectively equatorially mounted. The feed consists of an array of 1056 dipoles. The key feature of this upgrade is the digitization and cross-correlation of the signals of every set of 4-dipoles. This converts the ORT into a 264 element interferometer with a field-of-view of $ 2^{\\circ} \\times 27.4^{\\circ} \\cos(\\delta)$. This upgraded instrument is called the Ooty Wide Field Array (OWFA). This paper briefly describes the salient features of the upgrade, as well as its main science drivers. There are three main science drivers viz. (1) observations of the large scale distribution of HI in the post-reionization era, (2) studies of the propagation of plasma irregularities through the inner heliosphere and (3) blind surveys for transient sources. More details on the upgrade, as well as on the expected science uses can be found in other papers in this special issue.

  11. Altered sleep-wake patterns in blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, S.; Gacon, C.; Jennum, P.

    2016-01-01

    discuss variability in the sleep–wake pattern between blind and normal-sighted individuals. Methods Thirty-day actigraphy recordings were collected from 11 blind individuals without residual light perception and 11 age- and sex-matched normal-sighted controls. From these recordings, we extracted...... episode in blind participants as compared to sighted control participants. We also confirm previous reports of reduced sleep quality in blind individuals. Notably, the variability in sleep efficiency and in the timing of sleep correlated with the severity of sleep disturbances. Conclusion The timing...... and physiology of sleep are strongly dependent on the endogenous circadian phase; therefore, observed findings support the hypothesis of free-running circadian rhythms as a dominant factor for the sleep disturbances experienced in blindness....

  12. An ECC-Based Blind Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuh-Gwo Jeng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is increasingly applied to the E-commerce world, especially to the untraceable payment system and the electronic voting system. Protocols for these systems strongly require the anonymous digital signature property, and thus a blind signature strategy is the answer to it. Chaum stated that every blind signature protocol should hold two fundamental properties, blindness and intractableness. All blind signature schemes proposed previously almost are based on the integer factorization problems, discrete logarithm problems, or the quadratic residues, which are shown by Lee et al. that none of the schemes is able to meet the two fundamental properties above. Therefore, an ECC-based blind signature scheme that possesses both the above properties is proposed in this paper.

  13. User-centered Technologies For Blind Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review, summarize, and illustrate research work involving four audio-based games created within a user-centered design methodology through successive usability tasks and evaluations. These games were designed by considering the mental model of blind children and their styles of interaction to perceive and process data and information. The goal of these games was to enhance the cognitive development of spatial structures, memory, haptic perception, mathematical skills, navigation and orientation, and problem solving of blind children. Findings indicate significant improvements in learning and cognition from using audio-based tools specially tailored for the blind. That is, technologies for blind children, carefully tailored through user-centered design approaches, can make a significant contribution to cognitive development of these children. This paper contributes new insight into the design and implementation of audio-based virtual environments to facilitate learning and cognition in blind children.

  14. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  15. Visual imagery without visual perception: lessons from blind subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bértolo, Helder

    2014-08-01

    The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review some of the works providing evidence for both claims. It seems that studying visual imagery in blind subjects can be used as a way of answering some of those questions, namely if it is possible to have visual imagery without visual perception. We present results from the work of our group using visual activation in dreams and its relation with EEG's spectral components, showing that congenitally blind have visual contents in their dreams and are able to draw them; furthermore their Visual Activation Index is negatively correlated with EEG alpha power. This study supports the hypothesis that it is possible to have visual imagery without visual experience.

  16. Robust and Blind Watermarking of Relational Database Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Haj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Digital multimedia watermarking technology was suggested in the last decade to embed copyright information in digital objects such images, audio and video. However, the increasing use of relational database systems in many real-life applications created an ever increasing need for watermarking database systems. As a result, watermarking relational database systems is now merging as a research area that deals with the legal issue of copyright protection of database systems. Approach: In this study, we proposed an efficient database watermarking algorithm based on inserting binary image watermarks in non-numeric mutli-word attributes of selected database tuples. Results: The algorithm is robust as it resists attempts to remove or degrade the embedded watermark and it is blind as it does not require the original database in order to extract the embedded watermark. Conclusion: Experimental results demonstrated blindness and the robustness of the algorithm against common database attacks.

  17. Permanent bilateral cortical blindness due to reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Mayumi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Takagi, Ryo; Hiraoka, Miki

    2011-01-01

    Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is induced by acute cerebral edema. Its symptoms include seizures, headache, altered mental status, and visual disturbances. The clinical and radiological findings are usually transient. This report describes a case of RPLS resulting in bilateral total blindness. A 40-year-old man presented with lethargy and bilateral visual loss. He had a 20-year history of hypertension, but had never been treated. On presentation, the left eye was able to perceive light, but the right eye was not. Radiological examination showed diffuse edema in the brain, and ocular fundus examination revealed severe bilateral hypertensive retinopathy. Antihypertensive therapy improved the patient's general condition, including blood pressure. Radiological findings 5 months later showed resolution of most of the abnormal signal areas. However, total blindness had developed in both eyes by day 15, and two courses of pulsed corticosteroid therapy failed to restore the visual loss.

  18. Method of wave propagation forecasting in 3D wide area with PE model%基于 PE 模型的三维广域电波传播预测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖金光; 周新力; 宋斌斌; 张烨

    2015-01-01

    为进行三维电磁环境电波传播的计算、应用和分析,提出一种基于抛物方程(PE)模型的三维广域电波传播预测和应用方法。基于数字高程模型抓取地形剖面数据并进行地面类型和大气折射率剖面的配伍,给出 PE 模型中获得任意位置电磁数据的方法,批处理并行运算各二维剖面的电波传播,提出剖面上和剖面间任意空间点场强数据的生成方法,基于等价门限实现雷达、通信、电磁干扰等应用的作用区域预报。利用 FORTRAN 在科学计算、MATLAB 在数据分析和可视化上的优势,设计软件流程,数值实验验证了该方法的正确性和可行性。%To compute,apply and analyze the wave propagation in 3D electromagnetic environment,a method of wave propaga-tion forecasting and applying in 3D wide area with parabolic equation (PE)model was presented.Terrain profiles were snatched from digital elevation model (DEM)and configured with ground composition type and refractivity profile.A method of field com-putation at arbitrary distance and height with PE was resolved.Wave propagation computation in 2D profiles was carried out using batch parallel algorithm.Creation of field at arbitrary position on a profile or that between profiles was proposed.Functional region forecasting based on equipollent bounds was achieved in radar,communication,and electromagnetic interference and so on.The software flow was designed using FORTRAN’s virtue in scientific computation and MATLAB’s virtue in data analysis and visualization.Correctness and validity of the method were verified by numerical experiments.

  19. 基于可信计算的广域保护与变电站通信安全防御策略%Proactive Defense Strategies for Wide-area Protection and Substation Communication Based on Trusted Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童晓阳

    2011-01-01

    A kind of hierarchical and distributed multi-agent proactive security defense framework based on trusted computing is proposed by combining information security with an analysis of business and algorithm.First,the characteristics of network attack and the causes of security threats are analyzed.Then the structure of the security defense framework is given,including the transport layer,access authority layer,platform authentication layer and advanced trusted behavior analysis layer.Some key techniques and strategies are studied,such as the check of user access authority,digital association,behavior analysis of network and business.The trusted system provides control for the suppression of network attacks and other suspicious events.A preliminary security design is implemented for a kind of wide-area backup protection system.The tests on the processing time for encryption algorithms are performed.%将信息安全与系统自身业务及算法相结合,运用可信计算理论,提出了分层分布多Agent主动型通信安全防御框架。首先分析了网络攻击的特点和安全威胁的原因,给出了该防御框架的结构,研究其关键技术和策略,包括加密、签名、用户身份认证、访问权限与角色检查、平台认证、网络可信连接、可疑网络行为检查、加强型数字关联、与业务相关的容错处理和恶意行为分析等不同层次的可信模块。针对一种广域后备保护系统,给出了初步的安全设计,对变电站中多种加密算法的运行性能进行了测试。

  20. Blind reconstruction of linear scrambler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xie; Fenghua Wang; Zhitao Huang

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm based on eigenanalysis technique and Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT) is proposed. The algorithm contains two steps. Firstly, the received sequence is divided into temporal windows, and a covariance matrix is computed. The li-near feedback shift register (LFSR) sequence is reconstructed from the first eigenvector of this matrix. Secondly, equations ac-cording to the recovered LFSR sequence are constructed, and the Walsh spectrum corresponding to the equations is computed. The feedback polynomial of LFSR is estimated from the Walsh spec-trum. The validity of the algorithm is verified by the simulation result. Final y, case studies are presented to il ustrate the perfor-mance of the blind reconstruction method.

  1. BLIND DIFFERENTIAL ADAPTIVE MULTIUSER DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a new blind equalization cost function, termed differential mean output energy (DMOE), was presented, and a new multiuser detection algorithm with variable step size was designed. It is shown through simulation results for a co-channel system involving severe MAI that the DMOE algorithm gives significantly enhanced signal to interference ratio (SIR) performance and converges rapidly to the optimum MMSE detector, together with a low computational complexity requirement relative to the recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. Thus, it is not necessary to switch to the decision-directed mode. Moreover, it also exhibits global convergence, and can be used in different interference environment without the requirement of estimating and restricting the surplus energy.

  2. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  3. 基于积分滑模控制的广域阻尼鲁棒控制策略%Wide-Area Damping Robust Control Strategy Based on Integral Sliding Mode Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静; 郭锐; 王玉慧; 杨奇逊

    2013-01-01

    采用混合H2/H∞鲁棒控制设计积分滑模面的过程中,由于仅使用一个公共的Lyapunov矩阵而产生了一定的保守性;与此同时,该方法也未充分考虑由于系统结构未知以及运行点变化造成的不确定性.针对这些问题,提出一种降低保守性和不确定性的广域阻尼积分滑模控制方法.该方法设计了积分形式的滑模切换函数,并通过边界层方法削弱抖振.在设计滑模面的过程中,首先将H2/H∞控制理论中的Lyapunov矩阵与系统矩阵分离,并对H2控制和H∞控制分别计算能使多面体各个顶点的约束条件均成立的矩阵,并将该矩阵取为积分滑模控制中的反馈增益矩阵,进而获得基于降低保守性且降低不确定性的积分滑模控制器.IEEE 4机2区域系统仿真结果验证了该方法的正确性和有效性.%During the design of integral sliding mode surface by use of hybrid H2/H∞ robust control theory, the conservatism is stemmed from utilizing a common Lyapunov matrix only, in the meanwhile, the uncertainty caused by unknown system structure and operating point variation is not adequately considered in this method. In allusion to it, a wide-area integral sliding mode control method, which can reduce both conservatism and uncertainty, is proposed. A sliding mode switching function in integral form for the proposed method is designed, and the buffeting is weakened by boundary layer method. During the design of sliding mode surface, firstly the Lyapunov matrix in H2/H∞ control theory is separated from system matrix; secondly for H2 control and H∞ control the Lyapunov matrices, which can make the constraints at polyhedral vertexes established, are calculated respectively and these Lyapunov matrices are taken as the feedback gain matrices in integral sliding mode control; finally an integral sliding mode controller based on weakened conservatism and reduced uncertainty is obtained. The correctness and effectiveness of the

  4. Nasa Unveils Cosmic Images Book in Braille for Blind Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    at NASA Headquarters, Washington. "About 10 million visually impaired people live in the United States," Grice said. "I hope this book will be a unique resource for people who are sighted or blind to better understand the part of the universe that is invisible to all of us." The book will be available to the public through a wide variety of sources, including NASA libraries, the National Federation of the Blind, Library of Congress repositories, schools for the blind, libraries, museums, science centers and Ozone Publishing. "We wanted to show that the beauty and complexity of the universe goes far beyond what we can see with our eyes!" Daou said. "The study of the universe is a detective story, a cosmic 'CSI,' where clues to the inner workings of the universe are revealed by the amazing technology of modern telescopes," Steel said. "This book invites everyone to join in the quest to unlock the secrets of the cosmos." "One of the greatest challenges faced by blind students who are interested in scientific study is that certain kinds of information are not available to them in a non-visual form," said Marc Maurer, president of the National Federation of the Blind. "Books like this one are an invaluable resource because they allow the blind access to information that is normally presented through visual observation and media. Given access to this information, blind students can study and compete in scientific fields as well as their sighted peers." The prototype for this book was funded by an education grant from the Chandra mission and production was a collaborative effort by the NASA space science missions, which provide the images, and other agency sources.

  5. Quantum broadcasting multiple blind signature with constant size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Min; Li, Zhenli

    2016-09-01

    Using quantum homomorphic signature in quantum network, we propose a quantum broadcasting multiple blind signature scheme. Different from classical signature and current quantum signature schemes, the multi-signature proposed in our scheme is not generated by simply putting the individual signatures together, but by aggregating the individual signatures based on homomorphic property. Therefore, the size of the multi-signature is constant. Furthermore, based on a wide range of investigation for the security of existing quantum signature protocols, our protocol is designed to resist possible forgery attacks against signature and message from the various attack sources and disavowal attacks from participants.

  6. A Blind Eye to Industry-Level Corruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    -level corruption when tempted to favour their own industries. In other words, the optimal level of national cheating may not take into account the external cost it imposes upon other countries and the risk of wide-scale cheating and the possibility of an EU ETS collapse. Such national incentives to cheat......We investigate the risk of favouring domestic industries in the current European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS). As the EU forms a weak federal structure compared to the US, there is a risk that single countries may free ride on the others by choosing to take a blind eye to industry...

  7. How does experience modulate auditory spatial processing in individuals with blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qian; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Luo, Yue-jia; Li, Jian-jun; Ting, Kin-hung; Wang, Jun; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-05-01

    Comparing early- and late-onset blindness in individuals offers a unique model for studying the influence of visual experience on neural processing. This study investigated how prior visual experience would modulate auditory spatial processing among blind individuals. BOLD responses of early- and late-onset blind participants were captured while performing a sound localization task. The task required participants to listen to novel "Bat-ears" sounds, analyze the spatial information embedded in the sounds, and specify out of 15 locations where the sound would have been emitted. In addition to sound localization, participants were assessed on visuospatial working memory and general intellectual abilities. The results revealed common increases in BOLD responses in the middle occipital gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, precuneus, and precentral gyrus during sound localization for both groups. Between-group dissociations, however, were found in the right middle occipital gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus. The BOLD responses in the left superior frontal gyrus were significantly correlated with accuracy on sound localization and visuospatial working memory abilities among the late-onset blind participants. In contrast, the accuracy on sound localization only correlated with BOLD responses in the right middle occipital gyrus among the early-onset counterpart. The findings support the notion that early-onset blind individuals rely more on the occipital areas as a result of cross-modal plasticity for auditory spatial processing, while late-onset blind individuals rely more on the prefrontal areas which subserve visuospatial working memory.

  8. Wide HI profile galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brosch, Noah; Zitrin, Adi

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the nature of objects in a complete sample of 28 galaxies selected from the first sky area fully covered by ALFALFA, being well-detected and having HI profiles wider than 550 km/s. The selection does not use brightness, morphology, or any other property derived from optical or other spectral bands. We investigate the degree of isolation, the morphology, and other properties gathered or derived from open data bases and show that some objects have wide HI profiles probably because they are disturbed or are interacting, or might be confused in the ALFALFA beam. We identify a sub-sample of 14 galaxies lacking immediate interacting neighbours and showing regular, symmetric, two-horned HI profiles that we propose as candidate high-mass disk systems (CHMDs). We measure the net-Halpha emission from the CHMDs and combine this with public multispectral data to model the global star formation (SF) properties of each galaxy. The Halpha observations show SFRs not higher than a few solar masses per year. Sim...

  9. A comparative study of simple auditory reaction time in blind (congenitally and sighted subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritesh Hariprasad Gandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reaction time is the time interval between the application of a stimulus and the appearance of appropriate voluntary response by a subject. It involves stimulus processing, decision making, and response programming. Reaction time study has been popular due to their implication in sports physiology. Reaction time has been widely studied as its practical implications may be of great consequence e.g., a slower than normal reaction time while driving can have grave results. Objective: To study simple auditory reaction time in congenitally blind subjects and in age sex matched sighted subjects. To compare the simple auditory reaction time between congenitally blind subjects and healthy control subjects. Materials and Methods: Study had been carried out in two groups: The 1 st of 50 congenitally blind subjects and 2 nd group comprises of 50 healthy controls. It was carried out on Multiple Choice Reaction Time Apparatus, Inco Ambala Ltd. (Accuracy΁0.001 s in a sitting position at Government Medical College and Hospital, Bhavnagar and at a Blind School, PNR campus, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India. Observations / Results: Simple auditory reaction time response with four different type of sound (horn, bell, ring, and whistle was recorded in both groups. According to our study, there is no significant different in reaction time between congenital blind and normal healthy persons. Conclusion: Blind individuals commonly utilize tactual and auditory cues for information and orientation and they reliance on touch and audition, together with more practice in using these modalities to guide behavior, is often reflected in better performance of blind relative to sighted participants in tactile or auditory discrimination tasks, but there is not any difference in reaction time between congenitally blind and sighted people.

  10. Comparison of blind imaging performance of Fizeau and Michelson type arrays for a partially resolved object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Avoort, C.; Den Herder, J.-W.; Braat, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares two well-known types of interferometer arrays for optical aperture synthesis. An analytical model for both types describes the expected output, in terms of photon counts. The goal is to characterize the performance of both types of array for blind imaging of a wide-field or exten

  11. 配电网广域监测及故障定位信息集成方案%An Information Integrated Scheme for Distribution Network Wide Area Monitoring and Fault Location

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩笑; 宋丽群; 朱冬力

    2013-01-01

    An information integrated scheme consisting of the fault circuit indicator (FCI) with synchronization measurement function, local information merge and control unit (LIMCU) and distribution automation system (DAS) is proposed. The wide area measurement and control technology is applied in the distribution network. The functional characteristics and program flow chart of the novel FCI are described. The functional characteristics of LIMCU and the communication style between LIMCU and FCI are briefly treated. Conventional monitoring function improved methods using FCI and LIMCU are proposed. New diagnosing methods involve phase to phase short circuit, inrush current, shock loading, automatic reclosing, open-conductor, transmission line standby. The new methods of locating single phase to ground fault section through the LIMCU to analyze the transient electric information and estimate the fault direction is also proposed. The research results show that the information integrated scheme can realize local diagnosis of fault and the abnormal operation states of the distribution network. The scheme can appreciably enhance the local data processing ability and information interaction ability of the distribution automation system.%提出了由具有同步测量功能的故障指示器、就地信息合并控制单元以及配电自动化系统构成的信息集成方案.该方案将广域测量与控制技术应用于配电网络.介绍了新型故障指示器的功能特征、程序流程.说明了就地信息合并控制单元的功能特征以及其与故障指示器之间的通信方式.提出了利用故障指示器与就地信息合并控制单元进行相间短路故障、励磁涌流、负荷冲击、重合闸、线路断线、退出运行等馈线运行状态的常规监测功能的改进方案.提出了通过就地信息合并控制单元利用暂态电气量进行单相故障方向判别的故障区段定位新方法.研究结果表

  12. Internet Adaptation for Colour-Blind Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rytė Žiūrienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Of all human race about 8% of males and 0,5% of females are colour-blind. It is estimated that in 2011 or 2012 there will be around 2 billion Internet users worldwide, so the number of colour-blind Internet users can reach about 200 million. Authors of this publication analyse issues that arise for colour-blind persons on the Internet and deliver the ways to make the Internet more comfortable. The special software is proposed as one of the ways together with comparison of its advantages.

  13. Blind image deconvolution methods and convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Rameshan, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Blind deconvolution is a classical image processing problem which has been investigated by a large number of researchers over the last four decades. The purpose of this monograph is not to propose yet another method for blind image restoration. Rather the basic issue of deconvolvability has been explored from a theoretical view point. Some authors claim very good results while quite a few claim that blind restoration does not work. The authors clearly detail when such methods are expected to work and when they will not. In order to avoid the assumptions needed for convergence analysis in the

  14. Reversible cortical blindness: posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Mondal, Kanchan Kumar; Das, Somnath; Gupta, Anindya; Biswas, Jaya; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Biswas, Gautam

    2010-11-01

    Cortical blindness is defined as visual failure with preserved pupillary reflexes in structurally intact eyes due to bilateral lesions affecting occipital cortex. Bilateral oedema and infarction of the posterior and middle cerebral arterial territory, trauma, glioma and meningioma of the occipital cortex are the main causes of cortical blindness. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) refers to the reversible subtype of cortical blindness and is usually associated with hypertension, diabetes, immunosuppression, puerperium with or without eclampsia. Here, 3 cases of PRES with complete or partial visual recovery following treatment in 6-month follow-up are reported.

  15. Evaluation of Methyl Eugenol and Cue-Lure Traps with Solid Lure and Insecticide Dispensers for Fruit Fly Monitoring and Male Annihilation in the Hawaii Area-Wide Pest Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) traps with solid lure dispensers were deployed in areas with low and high populations of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), respectively. In low density areas, standard Jackson traps or Hawaii fruit fly A...

  16. The coupling of vision with locomotion in cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelah, Adar; Barbur, John; Thurrell, Adrian; Hock, Howard S

    2015-05-01

    Maintaining or modifying the speed and direction of locomotion requires the coupling of the locomotion with the retinal optic flow that it generates. It is shown that this essential behavioral capability, which requires on-line neural control, is preserved in the cortically blind hemifield of a hemianope. In experiments, optic flow stimuli were presented to either the normal or blind hemifield while the patient was walking on a treadmill. Little difference was found between the hemifields with respect to the coupling (i.e. co-dependency) of optic flow detection with locomotion. Even in the cortically blind hemifield, faster walking resulted in the perceptual slowing of detected optic flow, and self-selected locomotion speeds demonstrated behavioral discrimination between different optic flow speeds. The results indicate that the processing of optic flow, and thereby on-line visuo-locomotor coupling, can take place along neural pathways that function without processing in Area V1, and thus in the absence of conscious intervention. These and earlier findings suggest that optic flow and object motion are processed in parallel along with correlated non-visual locomotion signals. Extrastriate interactions may be responsible for discounting the optical effects of locomotion on the perceived direction of object motion, and maintaining visually guided self-motion.

  17. Increased calcium absorption from synthetic stable amorphous calcium carbonate: Double-blind randomized crossover clinical trial in post-menopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium supplementation is a widely recognized strategy for achieving adequate calcium intake. We designed this blinded, randomized, crossover interventional trial to compare the bioavailability of a new stable synthetic amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) with that of crystalline calcium carbonate (C...

  18. Compressed Blind De-convolution

    CERN Document Server

    Saligrama, V

    2009-01-01

    Suppose the signal x is realized by driving a k-sparse signal u through an arbitrary unknown stable discrete-linear time invariant system H. These types of processes arise naturally in Reflection Seismology. In this paper we are interested in several problems: (a) Blind-Deconvolution: Can we recover both the filter $H$ and the sparse signal $u$ from noisy measurements? (b) Compressive Sensing: Is x compressible in the conventional sense of compressed sensing? Namely, can x, u and H be reconstructed from a sparse set of measurements. We develop novel L1 minimization methods to solve both cases and establish sufficient conditions for exact recovery for the case when the unknown system H is auto-regressive (i.e. all pole) of a known order. In the compressed sensing/sampling setting it turns out that both H and x can be reconstructed from O(k log(n)) measurements under certain technical conditions on the support structure of u. Our main idea is to pass x through a linear time invariant system G and collect O(k lo...

  19. Blindness of Johann Sebastian Bach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkkanen, Ahti

    2013-03-01

    Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was one of the greatest composers of all time. Apart from performing as a brilliant organist, he composed over 1.100 works in almost every musical genre. He was known as a hardworking, deeply Christian person, who had to support his family of 20 children and many students staying at his home. At the age of 64 years, his vision started to decline. Old biographies claim that it was the result of overstressing his vision in poor illumination. By persuasion of his friends, he had his both eyes operated by a travelling British eye surgeon. A cataract couching was performed. After surgery, Bach was totally blind and unable to play an organ, compose or direct choirs and orchestras. He was confined to bed and suffering from immense pain of the eyes and the body. He died <4 months after surgery. In this paper, as the plausible diagnosis, intractable glaucoma because of pupillary block or secondary to phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis is suggested.

  20. Night blindness and Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Lima, Breno; Pichi, Francesco; Lowder, Careen Y

    2014-10-01

    Signs of malnutrition are common clinical features in Crohn's disease; and bowel resection, commonly needed in these cases, can aggravate malnutrition. These patients are at risk of developing vitamin A deficiency, which can lead to night blindness. We present a 60-year-old male, with history of Crohn's disease and multiple resections for strictures and fistulas leading to short bowel syndrome, with progressive bilateral loss of night vision (nyctalopia). Serum vitamin A level was markedly depleted (11 µg/dL, reference 20-120 µg/dL), and full-field electroretinogram testing demonstrated extinguished scotopic (rod function) responses and decreased amplitudes of photopic responses on 30 Hz flicker (cone function). He was started on vitamin A supplementation (initially intramuscular). His vitamin A level was back to normal (78 µg/dL), and night vision problems subjectively improved. Patients with Crohn's disease should be inquired about night vision problems. The presence of nyctalopia should prompt vitamin A level measurement and ophthalmology referral for further evaluation.

  1. Imagery limitations in totally congenitally blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beni, R; Cornoldi, C

    1988-10-01

    Research on totally blind subjects performing tasks that involve visual imagery has often shown that they do not behave differently from matched sighted subjects, even when their blindness is congenital. If visual imagery is based on visual perception, such tasks may not required visual imagery. In the present article visual images are considered as representations maintaining some properties of visible objects and constructed on the basis of information from various sources. Owing to the absence of visual experience, the limitations of such representations are explored in a series of experiments requiring memorization of single nouns, pairs of nouns, or triplets of nouns associated with a cue noun. Recall by blind subjects was impaired when multiple interactive images (with noun pairs and triplets) are formed. The poorer recall of blind subjects reflected also loss of order information. Recall was better for both groups with locative noun cues and high-imagery targets.

  2. Hypertension and color blindness in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, W E

    1975-05-01

    Medical data from Selective Service registrants born from 1939 to 1941 were studied in Oregon and Colorado. Among 29,119 registrants with medical information (41.3% of all registrants), 1,073 (3.6%) had definite hypertension, and 1,226 (4.2%) had some type of color blindness. In both states, there was a highly significant association between the prevalence of hypertension and the prevalence of color blindness. Thus, definite hypertension was present in 6.0% of color clind individuals but in only 3.6% of those with unimparied color vision, while color blindness occurred in 6.8% with definite hypertension, in 5.8% with borderline hypertension, and in only 4.0% with normal blood pressure. The data did not differentiate among types of color blindness, and the reason for the association is not yet evident.

  3. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’ ... a scientist? Click to Watch What is an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click ...

  4. Transient cortical blindness after coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, B N; Bozbuğa, N; Tuncer, M A; Yakut, C

    2009-01-01

    Transient cortical blindness is rarely encountered after angiography of native coronary arteries or bypass grafts. This paper reports a case of transient cortical blindness that occurred 72 h after coronary angiography in a 56-year old patient. This was the patient's fourth exposure to contrast medium. Neurological examination demonstrated cortical blindness and the absence of any focal neurological deficit. A non-contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan of the brain revealed bilateral contrast enhancement in the occipital lobes and no evidence of cerebral haemorrhage, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed no pathology. Sight returned spontaneously within 4 days and his vision gradually improved. A search of the current literature for reported cases of transient cortical blindness suggested that this is a rarely encountered complication of coronary angiography.

  5. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color ... I’m sleeping? Click to Watch What does it mean to be nearsighted or farsighted? Click to ...

  6. From Perception to Metacognition: Auditory and Olfactory Functions in Early Blind, Late Blind, and Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina; Arshamian, Artin; Nilsson, Mats E.; Larsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15), late blind (n = 15), and sighted (n = 30) participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity. PMID:27729884

  7. From perception to metacognition: Auditory and olfactory functions in early blind, late blind, and sighted individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina Cornell Kärnekull

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15, late blind (n = 15, and sighted (n = 30 participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity.

  8. An Efficient Scheme for Sensitive Message Transmission using Blind Signcryption

    OpenAIRE

    Awasthi, Amit K; Lal, Sunder

    2005-01-01

    Blind signature schemes enable a useful protocol that guarantee the anonymity of the participants while Signcryption offers authentication of message and confidentiality of messages at the same time and more efficiently. In this paper, we present a blind signcryption scheme that combines the functionality of blind signature and signcryption. This blind Signcryption is useful for applications that are based on anonymity untracebility and unlinkability.

  9. Shape Perception and Navigation in Blind Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Monica; Cappagli, Giulia; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Finocchietti, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Different sensory systems interact to generate a representation of space and to navigate. Vision plays a critical role in the representation of space development. During navigation, vision is integrated with auditory and mobility cues. In blind individuals, visual experience is not available and navigation therefore lacks this important sensory signal. In blind individuals, compensatory mechanisms can be adopted to improve spatial and navigation skills. On the other hand, the limitations of these compensatory mechanisms are not completely clear. Both enhanced and impaired reliance on auditory cues in blind individuals have been reported. Here, we develop a new paradigm to test both auditory perception and navigation skills in blind and sighted individuals and to investigate the effect that visual experience has on the ability to reproduce simple and complex paths. During the navigation task, early blind, late blind and sighted individuals were required first to listen to an audio shape and then to recognize and reproduce it by walking. After each audio shape was presented, a static sound was played and the participants were asked to reach it. Movements were recorded with a motion tracking system. Our results show three main impairments specific to early blind individuals. The first is the tendency to compress the shapes reproduced during navigation. The second is the difficulty to recognize complex audio stimuli, and finally, the third is the difficulty in reproducing the desired shape: early blind participants occasionally reported perceiving a square but they actually reproduced a circle during the navigation task. We discuss these results in terms of compromised spatial reference frames due to lack of visual input during the early period of development. PMID:28144226

  10. Blind source separation dependent component analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yang, Zuyuan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers a complete and self-contained set of knowledge about dependent source separation, including the latest development in this field. The book gives an overview on blind source separation where three promising blind separation techniques that can tackle mutually correlated sources are presented. The book further focuses on the non-negativity based methods, the time-frequency analysis based methods, and the pre-coding based methods, respectively.

  11. Blind Signature Scheme Based on Chebyshev Polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Maheswara Rao Valluri

    2011-01-01

    A blind signature scheme is a cryptographic protocol to obtain a valid signature for a message from a signer such that signer’s view of the protocol can’t be linked to the resulting message signature pair. This paper presents blind signature scheme using Chebyshev polynomials. The security of the given scheme depends upon the intractability of the integer factorization problem and discrete logarithms ofChebyshev polynomials.

  12. Blind Signature Scheme Based on Chebyshev Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswara Rao Valluri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A blind signature scheme is a cryptographic protocol to obtain a valid signature for a message from a signer such that signer’s view of the protocol can’t be linked to the resulting message signature pair. This paper presents blind signature scheme using Chebyshev polynomials. The security of the given scheme depends upon the intractability of the integer factorization problem and discrete logarithms ofChebyshev polynomials.

  13. Quantum group blind signature scheme without entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Huang, Liusheng; Yang, Wei; He, Libao

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we propose a quantum group blind signature scheme designed for distributed e-voting system. Our scheme combines the properties of group signature and blind signature to provide anonymity of voters in an e-voting system. The unconditional security of our scheme is ensured by quantum mechanics. Without employing entanglement, the proposed scheme is easier to be realized comparing with other quantum signature schemes.

  14. Can acupuncture treatment be double-blinded?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari;

    2015-01-01

    and acupuncturists were asked about perceived treatment allocation at the end of the study. To test if there were clues which led to identification of the treatment, deep dull pain associated with needle application and rotation (termed "de qi" in East Asian medicine), and patients' pain levels were assessed...... is the only needle that allows some degree of practitioner blinding. The study raises questions about alternatives to double-blind randomized clinical trials in the assessment of acupuncture treatment....

  15. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied. On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up, and the calculation boundary condi-tions were analyzed. According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics soft-ware. The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained. The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimiza-tion. The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were ob-tained. The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed, which pro-vided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer, the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency, provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  16. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied.On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up,and the calculation boundary conditions were analyzed.According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics software.The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained.The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimization.The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were obtained.The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed,which provided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer,the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency,provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  17. Unblinding the dark matter blind spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tao; Kling, Felix; Su, Shufang; Wu, Yongcheng

    2017-02-01

    The dark matter (DM) blind spots in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) refer to the parameter regions where the couplings of the DM particles to the Z-boson or the Higgs boson are almost zero, leading to vanishingly small signals for the DM direct detections. In this paper, we carry out comprehensive analyses for the DM searches under the blind-spot scenarios in MSSM. Guided by the requirement of acceptable DM relic abundance, we explore the complementary coverage for the theory parameters at the LHC, the projection for the future underground DM direct searches, and the indirect searches from the relic DM annihilation into photons and neutrinos. We find that (i) the spin-independent (SI) blind spots may be rescued by the spin-dependent (SD) direct detection in the future underground experiments, and possibly by the indirect DM detections from IceCube and SuperK neutrino experiments; (ii) the detection of gamma rays from Fermi-LAT may not reach the desirable sensitivity for searching for the DM blind-spot regions; (iii) the SUSY searches at the LHC will substantially extend the discovery region for the blind-spot parameters. The dark matter blind spots thus may be unblinded with the collective efforts in future DM searches.

  18. The Prevention of Blindness-Past, Present and Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira; Nakajima

    1992-01-01

    Prevention of blindness is the most important aim of ophthalmology. Prevention of blindness is related to many factors. It is related to many factors, such as science and technology, economy and social behavior. There are worldwide activities by WHO, NGOs and other functions to promote the prevention of blindness in the world. More than 90% of blind population lives in developing world. Cataract is the top causes of blindness which is curable. Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in west Africa and cent...

  19. Tactile Sensitivity and Braille Reading in People with Early Blindness and Late Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Kensuke; Arai, Tetsuya; Ichihara, Shigeru; Nakano, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The inability to read quickly can be a disadvantage throughout life. This study focused on the associations of braille reading fluency and individual factors, such as the age at onset of blindness and number of years reading braille, and the tactile sensitivity of people with early and late blindness. The relationship between reading…

  20. Blind compressive sensing dynamic MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingala, Sajan Goud; Jacob, Mathews

    2013-06-01

    We propose a novel blind compressive sensing (BCS) frame work to recover dynamic magnetic resonance images from undersampled measurements. This scheme models the dynamic signal as a sparse linear combination of temporal basis functions, chosen from a large dictionary. In contrast to classical compressed sensing, the BCS scheme simultaneously estimates the dictionary and the sparse coefficients from the undersampled measurements. Apart from the sparsity of the coefficients, the key difference of the BCS scheme with current low rank methods is the nonorthogonal nature of the dictionary basis functions. Since the number of degrees-of-freedom of the BCS model is smaller than that of the low-rank methods, it provides improved reconstructions at high acceleration rates. We formulate the reconstruction as a constrained optimization problem; the objective function is the linear combination of a data consistency term and sparsity promoting l1 prior of the coefficients. The Frobenius norm dictionary constraint is used to avoid scale ambiguity. We introduce a simple and efficient majorize-minimize algorithm, which decouples the original criterion into three simpler subproblems. An alternating minimization strategy is used, where we cycle through the minimization of three simpler problems. This algorithm is seen to be considerably faster than approaches that alternates between sparse coding and dictionary estimation, as well as the extension of K-SVD dictionary learning scheme. The use of the l1 penalty and Frobenius norm dictionary constraint enables the attenuation of insignificant basis functions compared to the l0 norm and column norm constraint assumed in most dictionary learning algorithms; this is especially important since the number of basis functions that can be reliably estimated is restricted by the available measurements. We also observe that the proposed scheme is more robust to local minima compared to K-SVD method, which relies on greedy sparse coding. Our

  1. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Neena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness provides valid estimates in a short period of time to assess the magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness. The study determined magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness in India in 2007 among the 50+ population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixteen randomly selected districts where blindness surveys were undertaken 7 to 10 years earlier were identified for a follow up survey. Stratified cluster sampling was used and 25 clusters (20 rural and 5 urban were randomly picked in each district.. After a random start, 100 individuals aged 50+ were enumerated and examined sequentially in each cluster. All those with presenting vision = 50 years were enumerated, and 94.7% examined. Based on presenting vision,, 4.4% (95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 4.1,4.8 were severely visually impaired (vision<6/60 to 3/60 in the better eye and 3.6% (95% CI: 3.3,3.9 were blind (vision<3/60 in the better eye. Prevalence of low vision (<6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye was 16.8% (95% CI: 16.0,17.5. Prevalence of blindness and severe visual impairment (<6/60 in the better eye was higher among rural residents (8.2%; 95% CI: 7.9,8.6 compared to urban (7.1%; 95% CI: 5.0, 9.2, among females (9.2%; 95% CI: 8.6,9.8 compared to males (6.5%; 95% CI: 6.0,7.1 and people above 70 years (20.6%; 95% CI: 19.1,22.0 compared to people aged 50-54 years (1.3%; 95% CI: 1.1,1.6. Of all blindness, 88.2% was avoidable. of which 81.9% was due to cataract and 7.1% to uncorrected refractive errors/uncorrected aphakia. CONCLUSIONS: Cataract and refractive errors are major causes of blindness and low vision and control strategies should prioritize them. Most blindness and low vision burden is avoidable.

  2. Privacy Preserving Similarity Based Text Retrieval through Blind Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Kumari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is improving rapidly due to their more advantage and more data owners give interest to outsource their data into cloud storage for centralize their data. As huge files stored in the cloud storage, there is need to implement the keyword based search process to data user. At the same time to protect the privacy of data, encryption techniques are used for sensitive data, that encryption is done before outsourcing data to cloud server. But it is critical to search results in encryption data. In this system we propose similarity text retrieval from the blind storage blocks with encryption format. This system provides more security because of blind storage system. In blind storage system data is stored randomly on cloud storage.  In Existing Data Owner cannot encrypt the document data as it was done only at server end. Everyone can access the data as there was no private key concept applied to maintained privacy of the data. But In our proposed system, Data Owner can encrypt the data himself using RSA algorithm.  RSA is a public key-cryptosystem and it is widely used for sensitive data storage over Internet. In our system we use Text mining process for identifying the index files of user documents. Before encryption we also use NLP (Nature Language Processing technique to identify the keyword synonyms of data owner document. Here text mining process examines text word by word and collect literal meaning beyond the words group that composes the sentence. Those words are examined in API of word net so that only equivalent words can be identified for index file use. Our proposed system provides more secure and authorized way of recover the text in cloud storage with access control. Finally, our experimental result shows that our system is better than existing.

  3. Turning the tide of corneal blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Oliva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world′s largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind.

  4. Turning the tide of corneal blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Matthew S; Schottman, Tim; Gulati, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world's largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind.

  5. Socio-Emotional Effects of the Transition from Sight to Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Mhairi; Thurston, Allen; McLeod, John

    2010-01-01

    The research examined the socio-emotional impact of sight loss on a sample of 18 blind and partially sighted adults from the east coast of Scotland (average age 64). The impact of sight loss in four core areas (mood, self-concept, social connectedness and loss) was explored. Data were collected using the mental health and social functioning…

  6. Increased BOLD variability in the parietal cortex and enhanced parieto-occipital connectivity during tactile perception in congenitally blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Andrea; Bernardi, Giulio; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bonino, Daniela; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Pietrini, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies in early blind individuals posited a possible role of parieto-occipital connections in conveying nonvisual information to the visual occipital cortex. As a consequence of blindness, parietal areas would thus become able to integrate a greater amount of multimodal information than in sighted individuals. To verify this hypothesis, we compared fMRI-measured BOLD signal temporal variability, an index of efficiency in functional information integration, in congenitally blind and sighted individuals during tactile spatial discrimination and motion perception tasks. In both tasks, the BOLD variability analysis revealed many cortical regions with a significantly greater variability in the blind as compared to sighted individuals, with an overlapping cluster located in the left inferior parietal/anterior intraparietal cortex. A functional connectivity analysis using this region as seed showed stronger correlations in both tasks with occipital areas in the blind as compared to sighted individuals. As BOLD variability reflects neural integration and processing efficiency, these cross-modal plastic changes in the parietal cortex, even if described in a limited sample, reinforce the hypothesis that this region may play an important role in processing nonvisual information in blind subjects and act as a hub in the cortico-cortical pathway from somatosensory cortex to the reorganized occipital areas.

  7. Increased BOLD Variability in the Parietal Cortex and Enhanced Parieto-Occipital Connectivity during Tactile Perception in Congenitally Blind Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Leo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in early blind individuals posited a possible role of parieto-occipital connections in conveying nonvisual information to the visual occipital cortex. As a consequence of blindness, parietal areas would thus become able to integrate a greater amount of multimodal information than in sighted individuals. To verify this hypothesis, we compared fMRI-measured BOLD signal temporal variability, an index of efficiency in functional information integration, in congenitally blind and sighted individuals during tactile spatial discrimination and motion perception tasks. In both tasks, the BOLD variability analysis revealed many cortical regions with a significantly greater variability in the blind as compared to sighted individuals, with an overlapping cluster located in the left inferior parietal/anterior intraparietal cortex. A functional connectivity analysis using this region as seed showed stronger correlations in both tasks with occipital areas in the blind as compared to sighted individuals. As BOLD variability reflects neural integration and processing efficiency, these cross-modal plastic changes in the parietal cortex, even if described in a limited sample, reinforce the hypothesis that this region may play an important role in processing nonvisual information in blind subjects and act as a hub in the cortico-cortical pathway from somatosensory cortex to the reorganized occipital areas.

  8. Non-blind watermarking of network flows

    CERN Document Server

    Houmansadr, Amir; Borisov, Nikita

    2012-01-01

    Linking network flows is an important problem in intrusion detection as well as anonymity. Passive traffic analysis can link flows but requires long periods of observation to reduce errors. Active traffic analysis, also known as flow watermarking, allows for better precision and is more scalable. Previous flow watermarks introduce significant delays to the traffic flow as a side effect of using a blind detection scheme; this enables attacks that detect and remove the watermark, while at the same time slowing down legitimate traffic. We propose the first non-blind approach for flow watermarking, called RAINBOW, that improves watermark invisibility by inserting delays hundreds of times smaller than previous blind watermarks, hence reduces the watermark interference on network flows. We derive and analyze the optimum detectors for RAINBOW as well as the passive traffic analysis under different traffic models by using hypothesis testing. Comparing the detection performance of RAINBOW and the passive approach we o...

  9. Experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joe; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-02-01

    Quantum computers are among the most promising applications of quantum-enhanced technologies. Quantum effects such as superposition and entanglement enable computational speed-ups that are unattainable using classical computers. The challenges in realising quantum computers suggest that in the near future, only a few facilities worldwide will be capable of operating such devices. In order to exploit these computers, users would seemingly have to give up their privacy. It was recently shown that this is not the case and that, via the universal blind quantum computation protocol, quantum mechanics provides a way to guarantee that the user's data remain private. Here, we demonstrate the first experimental version of this protocol using polarisation-entangled photonic qubits. We demonstrate various blind one- and two-qubit gate operations as well as blind versions of the Deutsch's and Grover's algorithms. When the technology to build quantum computers becomes available, this will become an important privacy-preserving feature of quantum information processing.

  10. Brief mindfulness induction reduces inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Creswell, J David; Denson, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Prior research has linked mindfulness to improvements in attention, and suggested that the effects of mindfulness are particularly pronounced when individuals are cognitively depleted or stressed. Yet, no studies have tested whether mindfulness improves declarative awareness of unexpected stimuli in goal-directed tasks. Participants (N=794) were either depleted (or not) and subsequently underwent a brief mindfulness induction (or not). They then completed an inattentional blindness task during which an unexpected distractor appeared on the computer monitor. This task was used to assess declarative conscious awareness of the unexpected distractor's presence and the extent to which its perceptual properties were encoded. Mindfulness increased awareness of the unexpected distractor (i.e., reduced rates of inattentional blindness). Contrary to predictions, no mindfulness×depletion interaction emerged. Depletion however, increased perceptual encoding of the distractor. These results suggest that mindfulness may foster awareness of unexpected stimuli (i.e., reduce inattentional blindness).

  11. No such thing as a "blind culture".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisleder, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    Cochlear implant technology has altered the landscape for the Deaf and for those who provide services to the profoundly hearing impaired. As indicated by Teagle in one of the companion articles, cochlear implants afford the profoundly hearing impaired child the ability to circumvent the effects of deafness. Cochlear implants, as indicated by Lee in the other companion article, are regarded differently by members of the Deaf Community where some see the technology as a threat to Deaf Culture. Members of a different community, which comprises the visually impaired, cite lack of a common language as the main argument against the existence of a "Blind Culture." As indicated by Pierce "We [the blind] often enjoy each other's company, and we certainly spend time together working on the problems that face what we often call the 'blind community,' but I would argue that this community is different from an actual culture."

  12. Development of a computing program for prediction of wind power for midsize and wide grid areas. Final report; Entwicklung eines Rechenmodells zur Vorhersage der Windleistung fuer mittlere und grosse Versorgungsgebiete. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeder, L.; Rohrig, K.; Ernst, B.; Schorn, P.; Bettels, B.

    2002-06-30

    In co-operation with partners out of industry and research a machine program was developed predicting the output of wind power plants. Three attributes should be realised by this prediction tool: Short computing time, usable for various grid regions, high reliability. Therewith the transmission system operators get a tool for reducing the amount of control energy which is needed to ensure the balance between power generation and consumption in their networks. This prediction tool for up to two days was developed exemplary for the northern grid area of the transmission system operator 'E.ON Netz GmbH' (ENE). The wind power prediction is based on numerical weather forecast from the German weather service (Deutscher Wetterdienst). The weather forecast is given for 16 representative sites within the ENE-area. The meso-scale model KLIMM (Klima Model Mainz) was used to calculate the meteorological variables near to the wind farms, which are connected to the one transformer substation belonging to one representative place. Therefor KLIMM is fed with the weather forecast given for one limited location in the representative sites. The transformation of the meteorological variables to the output of wind power plants at the representative site is done by Neural Networks. These Neural Networks have been trained with corresponding measurements. Using an existing online-model the total wind power for the whole ENE-area will be calculated from the individual wind power of the representative sites. The Evaluation of the prediction- and measured data from 2001 shows comparing with reference-models, that the prediction-model evolved in the project lead to very good results. (orig.)

  13. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  14. Three Blind Men and the Elephant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J S

    2007-02-13

    Just like the blind men in the popular story of perceiving the elephant, the three major constituencies participating in the energy debate have greatly different perceptions of the problem. The constituency that is worried about climate change believes the energy problem is caused by profligate use of fossil fuel that has dramatically changed our atmosphere. The energy security group sees dangerous reliance on foreign sources of oil increasingly held by countries hostile to the US. The economic vitality group sees high energy prices and their effect on the economy and our life-style. Just like the blind men, each of the three constituencies perceives a different problem. And just as with the blind men, while each perspective is right as a piece of the elephant, it takes all the perspectives together to actually solve the problem. Environmentalists focus on solutions responding to the scientific consensus that greenhouse gases are creating rapid climate change. The tipping point has come: it is now a consensus position among scientists the global warming is being affected by anthropogenic activity to 90% certainty according to the last IPCC report. Although they still struggle with the prediction of how much global temperatures will rise if we do nothing--is it 5 deg or 10 under BAU? This group believes that we cannot afford to take a chance because we get only one chance. We can not afford to do this kind of experiment with the Earth. Any choice which decreases our CO{sub 2} footprint is favored, even if it means a decrease in standard of living. The energy security constituency sees the geo-politics of oil becoming increasingly dire. They look at oil money being used to fund anti-American activities of groups such as the Wahabis in Saudi Arabia, Hezbollah in Lebanon and the infamous Al Qaeda. They quip that the Iraq war is the first war where we are paying for both sides. They note Iran and the Shia throughout the Middle East seeing the possibility of controlling

  15. Recent ROB developments on wide bandgap based UV sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordanengo, B.; Ben Moussa, A.; Hochedez, J.-F.; Soltani, A.; de Moor, P.; Minoglou, K.; Malinowski, P.; Duboz, J.-Y.; Chong, Y. M.; Zou, Y. S.; Zhang, W. J.; Lee, S. T.; Dahal, R.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    The next ESA spatial mission planned to study the Sun, Solar Orbiter (SO), necessitates very innovative EUV detectors. The commonly used silicon detectors suffer important limitations mainly in terms of UV robustness and dark current level. An alternative comes from diamond or III-nitride materials. In these materials, the radiation hardness, solar blindness and dark current are improved due to their wide bandgap. This paper presents the new developments on wide bandgap materials at the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB). We present also the LYRA instrument, the BOLD project, and the EUI instrument suite.

  16. Blind test of physics-based prediction of protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, M Scott; Ozkan, S Banu; Voelz, Vincent; Wu, Guohong Albert; Dill, Ken A

    2009-02-01

    We report here a multiprotein blind test of a computer method to predict native protein structures based solely on an all-atom physics-based force field. We use the AMBER 96 potential function with an implicit (GB/SA) model of solvation, combined with replica-exchange molecular-dynamics simulations. Coarse conformational sampling is performed using the zipping and assembly method (ZAM), an approach that is designed to mimic the putative physical routes of protein folding. ZAM was applied to the folding of six proteins, from 76 to 112 monomers in length, in CASP7, a community-wide blind test of protein structure prediction. Because these predictions have about the same level of accuracy as typical bioinformatics methods, and do not utilize information from databases of known native structures, this work opens up the possibility of predicting the structures of membrane proteins, synthetic peptides, or other foldable polymers, for which there is little prior knowledge of native structures. This approach may also be useful for predicting physical protein folding routes, non-native conformations, and other physical properties from amino acid sequences.

  17. Methomyl poisoning presenting with decorticate posture and cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming

    2014-01-17

    Methomyl is a potent pesticide that is widely used in the field of agriculture. The systemic toxic effects of methomyl have been well described. However, the neurological effects of methomyl intoxication are not well understood. In this study, we report a 61-year-old Taiwanese man sent to our emergency department because of altered mental status. His family stated that he had consumed liquid methomyl in a suicide attempt. He was provided cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of unstable vital signs. He was then sent to an intensive care unit for close observation. On the second day of admission, he regained consciousness but exhibited irregular limb and torso posture. On the sixth day, he started to complain of blurred vision. An ophthalmologist was consulted but no obvious abnormalities could be identified. On suspicion of cerebral disease, a neurologist was consulted. Further examination revealed cortical blindness and decorticate posture. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was arranged, which identified bilateral occipital regions lesions. The patient was administered normal saline and treated with aspirin and piracetam for 3 weeks in hospital. During the treatment period, his symptom of cortical blindness resolved, whereas his decorticate posture was refractory. Follow-up brain MRI results supported our clinical observations by indicating the disappearance of the bilateral occipital lesions and symmetrical putaminal high signal abnormalities. In this article, we briefly discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the cerebral effects of methomyl poisoning. Our study can provide clinicians with information on the manifestations of methomyl intoxication and an appropriate treatment direction.

  18. Methomyl poisoning presenting with decorticate posture and cortical blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ming Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Methomyl is a potent pesticide that is widely used in the field of agriculture. The systemic toxic effects of methomyl have been well described. However, the neurological effects of methomyl intoxication are not well understood. In this study, we report a 61-year-old Taiwanese man sent to our emergency department because of altered mental status. His family stated that he had consumed liquid methomyl in a suicide attempt. He was provided cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of unstable vital signs. He was then sent to an intensive care unit for close observation. On the second day of admission, he regained consciousness but exhibited irregular limb and torso posture. On the sixth day, he started to complain of blurred vision. An ophthalmologist was consulted but no obvious abnormalities could be identified. On suspicion of cerebral disease, a neurologist was consulted. Further examination revealed cortical blindness and decorticate posture. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was arranged, which identified bilateral occipital regions lesions. The patient was administered normal saline and treated with aspirin and piracetam for 3 weeks in hospital. During the treatment period, his symptom of cortical blindness resolved, whereas his decorticate posture was refractory. Follow-up brain MRI results supported our clinical observations by indicating the disappearance of the bilateral occipital lesions and symmetrical putaminal high signal abnormalities. In this article, we briefly discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the cerebral effects of methomyl poisoning. Our study can provide clinicians with information on the manifestations of methomyl intoxication and an appropriate treatment direction.

  19. Transient cortical blindness: a benign but devastating complication after coronary angiography and graft study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Ganiga Srinivasaiah; Sadiq, Muhammad Athar; Wan Ahmad, Wan Azman; Supuramaniam, Chitra; Undok, Abdul Wahab; Abidin, Imran Zainal; Chee, Kok Han

    2014-10-01

    Transient cortical blindness after coronary angiography and bypass graft is a very rare complication. In this report we present the case of a 63-year-old man who developed transient cortical blindness within 30 minutes of coronary angioplasty and graft study, but subsequently recovered within 72 hours without any neurological deficit. A plain computed tomography brain scan showed bilateral symmetrical subarachnoid hyperdensities in the posterior cerebral circulation area suspicious of subarachnoid bleed. However, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography scans were normal. Excess contrast volume causing direct neurotoxicity seems to be the most probable cause, but the exact mechanism is unclear.

  20. Natural Gradient Approach to Multichannel Blind Deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we study the geometrical structures of FIR filters and their application to multichannel blind deconvolution.First we introduce a Lie group structure and a Riemannian structure on the manifolds of the FIR filters.Then we derive the natural gradients on the manifolds using the isometry of the Riemannian metric.Using the natural gradient,we present a novel learning algorithm for blind deconvolution based on the minimization of mutual information.Some properties of the learning algorithm,such as equivariance and stability are also studied.Finally,the simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness and validity of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Transform domain steganography with blind source separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouny, Ismail

    2015-05-01

    This paper applies blind source separation or independent component analysis for images that may contain mixtures of text, audio, or other images for steganography purposes. The paper focuses on separating mixtures in the transform domain such as Fourier domain or the Wavelet domain. The study addresses the effectiveness of steganography when using linear mixtures of multimedia components and the ability of standard blind sources separation techniques to discern hidden multimedia messages. Mixing in the space, frequency, and wavelet (scale) domains is compared. Effectiveness is measured using mean square error rate between original and recovered images.

  2. Blind source separation theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xianchuan; Xu, Jindong

    2013-01-01

    A systematic exploration of both classic and contemporary algorithms in blind source separation with practical case studies    The book presents an overview of Blind Source Separation, a relatively new signal processing method.  Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the subject, the book has been written so as to appeal to an audience from very different backgrounds. Basic mathematical skills (e.g. on matrix algebra and foundations of probability theory) are essential in order to understand the algorithms, although the book is written in an introductory, accessible style. This book offers

  3. Contrast-induced transient cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parth R; Yohendran, Jayshan; Parker, Geoffrey D; McCluskey, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    We present a case of transient cortical blindness secondary to contrast medium toxicity. A 58-year-old man had successful endovascular coiling of a right posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm but became confused and unable to see after the procedure. His visual acuity was no light perception bilaterally. Clinically, there was no new intra-ocular pathology. An urgent non-contrast computed tomography scan of the brain showed cortical hyperdensity in both parieto-occipital cortices, consistent with contrast medium leakage through the blood-brain barrier from the coiling procedure. The man remained completely blind for 72 hours, after which his visual acuity improved gradually back to his baseline level.

  4. Health Care Wide Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Hazards (Lack of) PPE Slips/Trips/Falls Stress Tuberculosis Universal Precautions Workplace Violence Use of Medical Lasers Health Effects Use ... Needlesticks Noise Mercury Inappropriate PPE Slips/Trips/Falls ... of Universal Precautions Workplace Violence For more information, see Other Healthcare Wide ...

  5. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased rapidly in

  6. Determining daylight and view preferences from the use of blinds in apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    2015-01-01

    for the inhabitants’ health and well-being, as well as the energy consumption. Present research is an important contribution, because of the increased knowledge about daylights impact on health and well-being as well as daylights impact on the energy consumption in our buildings. However, it is often seen...... that curtains or blinds, often close off new apartment buildings with large glass areas in dense urban context. Such observations indicate that there can be a discrepancy between the intentions of the design team or architect and the perception of the user. The paper presents the results of observations...... facades in the same building there is no indication of curtains and blinds being operated based on daylight. However, it appears that view and context plays a significant part in the use of blinds. Furthermore, it appears that the amount of traffic and the perception of privacy plays a role...

  7. Congenital blindness affects diencephalic but not mesencephalic structures in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchetti, Luca; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Handjaras, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    While there is ample evidence that the structure and function of visual cortical areas are affected by early visual deprivation, little is known of how early blindness modifies subcortical relay and association thalamic nuclei, as well as mesencephalic structures. Therefore, in the present...... multicenter study, we used MRI to measure volume of the superior and inferior colliculi, as well as of the thalamic nuclei relaying sensory and motor information to the neocortex, parcellated according to atlas-based thalamo-cortical connections, in 29 individuals with congenital blindness of peripheral...... origin (17 M, age 35.7 ± 14.3 years) and 29 sighted subjects (17 M, age 31.9 ± 9.0). Blind participants showed an overall volume reduction in the left (p = 0.008) and right (p = 0.007) thalami, as compared to the sighted individuals. Specifically, the lateral geniculate (i.e., primary visual thalamic...

  8. Analytic study of the Tadoma method: language abilities of three deaf-blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, C

    1986-09-01

    This study reports on the linguistic abilities of 3 adult deaf-blind subjects. The subjects perceive spoken language through touch, placing a hand on the face of the speaker and monitoring the speaker's articulatory motions, a method of speechreading known as Tadoma. Two of the subjects, deaf-blind since infancy, acquired language and learned to speak through this tactile system; the third subject has used Tadoma since becoming deaf-blind at age 7. Linguistic knowledge and productive language are analyzed, using standardized tests and several tests constructed for this study. The subjects' language abilities prove to be extensive, comparing favorably in many areas with hearing individuals. The results illustrate a relatively minor effect of limited language exposure on eventual language achievement. The results also demonstrate the adequacy of the tactile sense, in these highly trained Tadoma users, for transmitting information about spoken language sufficient to support the development of language and learning to produce speech.

  9. [Case of transient cortical blindness due to thrombosis of the transverse sinus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitaki, Shingo; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kitani, Mitsuhiro

    2008-05-01

    An 62-year-old man presented visual impairment and generalized seizure. Brain CT performed on the day of admission showed thrombus in the right transverse sinus, and DWI showed high intensity areas in the bilateral occipital and parietal lobes. According to bilateral occipital lobe lesions, we considered his visual impairment as cortical blindness. He was diagnosed as venous sinus thrombosis and intravenous heparin, edaravone and osmotic diuretics were administered. MR venography performed after starting of intravenous treatment showed flow gap in the left transverse sinus but no abnormalities in the right transverse sinus. On the second day of hospitalization, his cortical blindness showed improvement and thrombus in the right transverse sinus were disappeared. This indicated that his left transverse sinus originally hypoplastic, thrombus and hemostatis in the right transverse sinus (his dominant side) caused his cortical blindness and generalized seizure. There was a recanalization in the right transverse sinus after heparin therapy.

  10. Manipulation detection and preference alterations in a choice blindness paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Taya

    Full Text Available It is commonly believed that individuals make choices based upon their preferences and have access to the reasons for their choices. Recent studies in several areas suggest that this is not always the case. In choice blindness paradigms, two-alternative forced-choice in which chosen-options are later replaced by the unselected option, individuals often fail to notice replacement of their chosen option, confabulate explanations for why they chose the unselected option, and even show increased preferences for the unselected-but-replaced options immediately after choice (seconds. Although choice blindness has been replicated across a variety of domains, there are numerous outstanding questions. Firstly, we sought to investigate how individual- or trial-factors modulated detection of the manipulations. Secondly, we examined the nature and temporal duration (minutes vs. days of the preference alterations induced by these manipulations.Participants performed a computerized choice blindness task, selecting the more attractive face between presented pairs of female faces, and providing a typewritten explanation for their choice on half of the trials. Chosen-face cue manipulations were produced on a subset of trials by presenting the unselected face during the choice explanation as if it had been selected. Following all choice trials, participants rated the attractiveness of each face individually, and rated the similarity of each face pair. After approximately two weeks, participants re-rated the attractiveness of each individual face online.Participants detected manipulations on only a small proportion of trials, with detections by fewer than half of participants. Detection rates increased with the number of prior detections, and detection rates subsequent to first detection were modulated by the choice certainty. We show clear short-term modulation of preferences in both manipulated and non-manipulated explanation trials compared to choice-only trials

  11. Change Blindness in Pigeons (Columba livia: the Effects of Change Salience and Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Troy Herbranson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with one or more line features on a single key differing between consecutive displays. Change salience was manipulated by varying the number of line features that changed on the critical response key. Results indicated that change blindness is reduced if a change is made more salient, and this matches previous human results. Furthermore, accuracy patterns indicate that pigeons’ effective search area expanded over the course of a trial to encompass a larger portion of the stimulus environment. Thus, the data indicate two important aspects of temporal cognition. First, the timing of a change has a profound influence on whether or not that change will be perceived. Second, pigeons appear to engage in a serial search for changes, in which additional time is required to search additional locations.

  12. Change blindness in pigeons (Columba livia): the effects of change salience and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbranson, Walter T

    2015-01-01

    Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with one or more line features on a single key differing between consecutive displays. Change salience was manipulated by varying the number of line features that changed on the critical response key. Results indicated that change blindness is reduced if a change is made more salient, and this matches previous human results. Furthermore, accuracy patterns indicate that pigeons' effective search area expanded over the course of a trial to encompass a larger portion of the stimulus environment. Thus, the data indicate two important aspects of temporal cognition. First, the timing of a change has a profound influence on whether or not that change will be perceived. Second, pigeons appear to engage in a serial search for changes, in which additional time is required to search additional locations.

  13. Neural correlates associated with superior tactile symmetry perception in the early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Corinna; Yazzolino, Lindsay; Hirsch, Gabriella; Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2015-02-01

    Symmetry is an organizational principle that is ubiquitous throughout the visual world. However, this property can also be detected through non-visual modalities such as touch. The role of prior visual experience on detecting tactile patterns containing symmetry remains unclear. We compared the behavioral performance of early blind and sighted (blindfolded) controls on a tactile symmetry detection task. The tactile patterns used were similar in design and complexity as in previous visual perceptual studies. The neural correlates associated with this behavioral task were identified with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In line with growing evidence demonstrating enhanced tactile processing abilities in the blind, we found that early blind individuals showed significantly superior performance in detecting tactile symmetric patterns compared to sighted controls. Furthermore, comparing patterns of activation between these two groups identified common areas of activation (e.g. superior parietal cortex) but key differences also emerged. In particular, tactile symmetry detection in the early blind was also associated with activation that included peri-calcarine cortex, lateral occipital (LO), and middle temporal (MT) cortex, as well as inferior temporal and fusiform cortex. These results contribute to the growing evidence supporting superior behavioral abilities in the blind, and the neural correlates associated with crossmodal neuroplasticity following visual deprivation.

  14. The LOFT Wide Field Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, S; Alvarez, L; Azzarello, P; Barret, D; Bozzo, E; Budtz-Jørgensen,; Campana, R; del Monte, E; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Sanchez, J L Galvez; Götz, D; Hansen, F; Herder, J W den; Hudec, R; Huovelin, J; Karelin, D; Korpela, S; Lund, N; Orleanski, P; Pohl, M; Rachevski, A; Santangelo, A; Schanne, S; Schmid, C; Suchy, S; Tenzer, C; Vacchi, A; Wilms, J; Zampa, G; Zampa, N; Zand, J in't; Zdziarski, A

    2012-01-01

    LOFT (Large Observatory For x-ray Timing) is one of the four missions selected in 2011 for assessment study for the ESA M3 mission in the Cosmic Vision program, expected to be launched in 2024. The LOFT mission will carry two instruments with their prime sensitivity in the 2-30 keV range: a 10 m^2 class large area detector (LAD) with a <1{\\deg} collimated field of view and a wide field monitor (WFM) instrument based on the coded mask principle, providing coverage of more than 1/3 of the sky. The LAD will provide an effective area ~20 times larger than any previous mission and will by timing studies be able to address fundamental questions about strong gravity in the vicinity of black holes and the equation of state of nuclear matter in neutron stars. The prime goal of the WFM will be to detect transient sources to be observed by the LAD. However, with its wide field of view and good energy resolution of <300 eV, the WFM will be an excellent monitoring instrument to study long term variability of many cl...

  15. Channelrhodopsins provide a breakthrough insight into strategies for curing blindness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hiroshi Tomita; Eriko Sugano; Hitomi Isago; Makoto Tamai

    2009-12-01

    Photoreceptor cells are the only retinal neurons that can absorb photons. Their degeneration due to some diseases or injuries leads to blindness. Retinal prostheses electrically stimulating surviving retinal cells and evoking a pseudo light sensation have been investigated over the past decade for restoring vision. Currently, a gene therapy approach is under development. Channelrhodopsin-2 derived from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a microbial-type rhodopsin. Its specific characteristic is that it functions as a light-driven cation-selective channel. It has been reported that the channelrhodopsin-2 transforms inner light-insensitive retinal neurons to light-sensitive neurons. Herein, we introduce new strategies for restoring vision by using channelrhodopsins and discuss the properties of adeno-associated virus vectors widely used in gene therapy.

  16. An efficient certificateless blind signature scheme without bilinear pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUOFAGN DONG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the certificateless public key cryptography (CLPKC has been studied widely since it could solve both of the certificate management problem in traditional public key cryptography (TPKC and the key escrow problem in the identity-based public key cryptography (ID-based PKC. To satisfy requirements of different applications, many certificateless blind signature (CLBS schemes using bilinear pairing for the CLPKC setting have been proposed. However, the bilinear pairing operation is very complicated. Therefore, the performance of those CLBS schemes is not very satisfactory. To solve the problem, we propose an efficient CLBS scheme without bilinear pairing. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme could reduce costs of computation and storage. Security analysis shows the proposed scheme is provably secure against both of two types of adversaries.

  17. Cortical blindness as a rare presentation of cerebral venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bonnie; Moon, Seong-Jin; Olivero, William C; Wang, Huan

    2013-05-09

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. Manifesting in a remarkably wide spectrum of symptoms and signs, CVT often presents in a misleading fashion-if unrecognized or misdiagnosed, it carries potentially fatal consequences. Visual loss is quite rare as the initial presentation of CVT and is typically a finding more frequent in chronic cases with associated papilledema on funduscopy Ferro, Lopes, Rosas and Fontes (Delay in Hospital Admission of Patients with Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis. Cerebrovasc Dis 2005;19: :152-6). We report a rare case of acute cortical blindness as the initial presentation of CVT in an 18-year-old female patient and review the current literature.

  18. Voxel-Based Morphometric Study on Chinese Blind Men's Brain Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chun-lan; PAN Wen-ju; ZHENG Lian

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown the functional relevance of cross-modal plasticity in blind men.In order to study the changes of their brain structure,voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods are used.The regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) concentrations of magnetic resonance (MR) images from 11 blind people and 9 sighted control subjects are compared using standard VBM.Optimized VBM is also discussed to measure the absolute local volume of GM or WM.Consistent results are achieved by statistical analysis with these methods.There are distinct differences not only in visual cortex but also the sensory area,auditory area and motor area.GM concentrations in blind men significantly decreased in Brodmann 7 and 22.While in Brodmann 18 and 19,GM concentration increased.GM volumes decreased in Brodmann 3,4,6,9 and 45.On the other hand,both WM concentration and volume increased in Brodmann 7.These results suggest that early visual deprivation can lead to changes in the brain structural anatomy which is consistent with the cortical cross-modal reorganization found by functional imaging.It may help to discover the relationship between the brain structural anatomy and the brain functional data of blind men at a macroscopic level from neuroimaging perspective.

  19. Blind parents and nutrition of children: experiences and care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kariane Gomes Cezario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand the experiences of blind parents in care related to breastfeeding and complementary feeding of children. Methods: qualitative research with the participation of four blind mothers and five blind fathers. Home interviews were carried out to address the experience of feeding children in the context of blindness, categorized by the technique of thematic analysis. Results: three categories emerged: Breastfeeding and complementary feeding offered by blind mothers; Blind fathers and the feeding of children; and Care of the children and blindness: coping strategies, in which difficulties and alternatives developed to feed the children were highlighted. Conclusion: blind parents have difficulties similar to those seer parents but with specific demands associated with the handling of utensils in safe and satisfactory supply of food.

  20. Navigation with a sensory substitution device in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Schneider, Fabien C; Kupers, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Vision allows for obstacle detection and avoidance. The compensatory mechanisms involved in maintaining these functions in blind people using their remaining intact senses are poorly understood. We investigated the ability of congenitally blind participants to detect and avoid obstacles using...