WorldWideScience

Sample records for blind wide area

  1. Wireless Wide Area Networks for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Prakash

    This paper considers a basic question that many schools districts face in attempting to develop affordable, expandable district-wide computer networks that are resistant to obsolescence: Should these wide area networks (WANs) employ wireless technology, stick to venerable hard-wired solutions, or combine both. This publication explores the…

  2. Economics of area-wide pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumford, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    Area-wide pest management is commonly practised throughout the world, probably much more so than is generally recognised (Lindquist 2000, Klassen 2000). Apart from highly publicised area-wide schemes such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) for fruit flies, pheromone disruption for cotton bollworms and classical biological control, there are many examples of actions such as concerted host plant eradication, enforced closed crop seasons, organised pesticide rotation for resistance management, coordination of resistant crop genotypes, etc., some going back several centuries, which should also be considered as area-wide practices. Each of these is faced with many of the economic issues generally associated with area-wide management which will be discussed below. In general, there are to be four major questions to answer in devising an area-wide pest management programme: 1) Should a particular pest be controlled locally or area-wide? 2) What is an appropriate area over which management should be attempted? 3) Within that area what form of control is most efficient? 4) What level of organisation should be used to get the job done? It should be noted that apart from clearly objective measures such as technical effectiveness (say, mortality) or cost efficiency (mortality per dollar), there are many subjective measures that come into the evaluation of area-wide control due to the element of risk (for example, in quarantine and eradication), the boundaries of externalities (for example, variable probabilities of pesticide drift under different conditions or target organism sensitivities) and time preferences for returns on capital investments (such as insect rearing facilities or research to develop pheromone technologies). As a result of these subjective components, it may sometimes be difficult to reach clearly agreed decisions based on objective economic analyses, even with a consensus on the data used. There are three general classes of economic problems in comparing

  3. Wide-area continuous offender monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshen, Joseph; Drake, George; Spencer, Debra D.

    1997-02-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first- generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender's home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  4. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Glenn O.; Ferrell, Regina K.; Kercel, Stephen W.; Abston, Ruth A.

    1995-01-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a traffic flow wide-area surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  5. Wide Area Security Region Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai; Guo, Xinxin; Gronquist, James; Du, Pengwei; Nguyen, Tony B.; Burns, J. W.

    2010-03-31

    This report develops innovative and efficient methodologies and practical procedures to determine the wide-area security region of a power system, which take into consideration all types of system constraints including thermal, voltage, voltage stability, transient and potentially oscillatory stability limits in the system. The approach expands the idea of transmission system nomograms to a multidimensional case, involving multiple system limits and parameters such as transmission path constraints, zonal generation or load, etc., considered concurrently. The security region boundary is represented using its piecewise approximation with the help of linear inequalities (so called hyperplanes) in a multi-dimensional space, consisting of system parameters that are critical for security analyses. The goal of this approximation is to find a minimum set of hyperplanes that describe the boundary with a given accuracy. Methodologies are also developed to use the security hyperplanes, pre-calculated offline, to determine system security margins in real-time system operations, to identify weak elements in the system, and to calculate key contributing factors and sensitivities to determine the best system controls in real time and to assist in developing remedial actions and transmission system enhancements offline . A prototype program that automates the simulation procedures used to build the set of security hyperplanes has also been developed. The program makes it convenient to update the set of security hyperplanes necessitated by changes in system configurations. A prototype operational tool that uses the security hyperplanes to assess security margins and to calculate optimal control directions in real time has been built to demonstrate the project success. Numerical simulations have been conducted using the full-size Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system model, and they clearly demonstrated the feasibility and the effectiveness of the developed

  6. Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Prevalence Rates for Blindness by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence ... Race/Ethnicity 2010 Prevalence Rates of Blindness by Race Table for 2010 Prevalence Rates of Blindness by ...

  7. Security Analysis of a Software Defined Wide Area Network Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Enterprise wide area network (WAN) is a private network that connects the computers and other devices across an organisation's branch locations and the data centers. It forms the backbone of enterprise communication. Currently, multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) is commonly used to provide this service. As a recent alternative to MPLS, software-dened wide area networking (SD-WAN) solutions are being introduced as an IP based cloud-networking service for enterprises. SD-WAN virtualizes the n...

  8. Large scale track analysis for wide area motion imagery surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, C.J. van; Huis, J.R. van; Baan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) enables image based surveillance of areas that can cover multiple square kilometers. Interpreting and analyzing information from such sources, becomes increasingly time consuming as more data is added from newly developed methods for information extraction. Captured

  9. Architecture and Fault Identification of Wide-area Protection System

    OpenAIRE

    Yuxue Wang; Xianggen Yin; Zhe Zhang; Zhenxing Li

    2012-01-01

    Wide-area protection system (WAPS) is widely studied for the purpose of improvng the performance of conventional backup protection. In this paper, the system architecture of WAPS is proposed and its key technologies are discussed in view of engineering projects. So a mixed structure—centralized-distributed structure which is more suitable for WAPS in limited power grid region, is obtained based on the advantages of the centralized structure and distributed structure. Furthermore, regional dis...

  10. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Gungah, B.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.; Soonnoo, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  11. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Gungah, B.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.; Soonnoo, A.R., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries Reduit, Republic of Mauritius (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  12. An Architecture for a Wide Area Distributed System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homburg, P.; Steen, M.R. van; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    Distributed systems provide sharing of resources and information over a computer network. A key design issue that makes these systems attractive is that all aspects related to distribution are transparent to users. Unfortunately, general-purpose wide area distributed systems that allow users to

  13. The development of area wide traffic management scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zuylen, H.J.; Lu, S.; Li, J.; Yusen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic management in cities with congestion is a big challenge with still unused opportunities. Intersection control is a corner stone but this should be done in an area-wide context. The dominant traffic process on urban roads is the traffic flow on the intersections. Spill back is a most

  14. Architecture and Fault Identification of Wide-area Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxue Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wide-area protection system (WAPS is widely studied for the purpose of improvng the performance of conventional backup protection. In this paper, the system architecture of WAPS is proposed and its key technologies are discussed in view of engineering projects. So a mixed structurecentralized-distributed structure which is more suitable for WAPS in limited power grid region, is obtained based on the advantages of the centralized structure and distributed structure. Furthermore, regional distance protection algorithm was taken as an example to illustrate the functions of the constituent units. Faulted components can be detected based on multi-source imformation fuse in the algorithm. And the algorithm cannot only improve the selectivity, the rapidity, and the reliability of relaying protection but also has high fault tolerant capability. A simulation of 220 kV grid systems in Easter Hubei province shows the effectiveness of the wide-area protection system presented by this paper.

  15. Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctors may do surgery to remove it. Is Learning Different? A baby who is blind can still ... do amazing things in many different fields, including music, the arts, and even sports. Serious vision problems ...

  16. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moynihan, P.I. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  17. Pest management strategies: Area-wide and conventional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Conventional Insect Control The usual approach to insect control is to treat the commodity only after a damaging population of insects has developed. In other words, the producer, home owner or casual gardener fights a defensive battle. He reacts to an insect attack. When he sees the enemy or the damage caused by the enemy, he loads up his sprayer with an insecticide and mounts a counter attack. Most insect control procedures are applied by an individual producer on his own relatively small production area. This conventional insect control approach encourages the producer to make his own decisions about whether or not any insect control is to be used, which insect control method or product to use, when to use it, how to use it, who applies it, etc. Advice to producers on insect control is usually available from government extension personnel, private insect control consultants or representatives of companies that sell insecticides or other insect control materials or methods. The conventional procedure results in great variability in the efficacy of insect control because each producer makes his own decisions. The objective of conventional insect control is to protect the commodity. This is usually accomplished by treating the commodity, be it cows or corn or rice in a warehouse. Conventional insect control requires virtually no planning to achieve results. The 'programme' is short-term, frequently measured in days until the next insecticide application is needed. It is reactive (defensive). Area-wide Insect Control Area-wide insect control is applied against an important insect pest over a relatively large area involving many individual producers of the same or similar crops. The 'area' is a combination of geography and the range of hosts of the target insect pest. The term 'area' in 'area-wide' refers to the area where the target insect population survives. The area is not limited to production of the major crop(s) to be protected. It is very likely that a large

  18. The Evolving Wide Area Network Infrastructure in the LHC era

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The global network is more than ever taking its role as the great "enabler" for many branches of science and research. Foremost amongst such science drivers is of course the LHC/LCG programme, although there are several other sectors with growing demands of the network. Common to all of these is the realisation that a straightforward over provisioned best efforts wide area IP service is probably not enough for the future. This talk will summarise the needs of several science sectors, and the advances being made to exploit the current best efforts infrastructure. It will then describe current projects aimed as provisioning "better than best efforts" services (such bandwidth on demand), the global optical R&D testbeds and the strategy of the research network providers to move towards hybrid multi-service networks for the next generation of the global wide area production network.

  19. Wide-Area Persistent Energy-Efficient Maritime Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    sensor data can be processed coherently or incoherently to achieve synoptic maritime sensing over a wide area. OBJECTIVES 1) Development of a...use this testbed to collect on the open water to confirm operation at sea. Figure 4: Block diagram and picture of the Arduino-based...including ship self-protection, anti-submarine warfare, synoptic oceanographic field measurement, and harbor security. In particular, the reduction

  20. Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2009-05-29

    This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

  1. Wide-area traffic: The failure of Poisson modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxson, V.; Floyd, S.

    1994-08-01

    Network arrivals are often modeled as Poisson processes for analytic simplicity, even though a number of traffic studies have shown that packet interarrivals are not exponentially distributed. The authors evaluate 21 wide-area traces, investigating a number of wide-area TCP arrival processes (session and connection arrivals, FTPDATA connection arrivals within FTP sessions, and TELNET packet arrivals) to determine the error introduced by modeling them using Poisson processes. The authors find that user-initiated TCP session arrivals, such as remote-login and file-transfer, are well-modeled as Poisson processes with fixed hourly rates, but that other connection arrivals deviate considerably from Poisson; that modeling TELNET packet interarrivals as exponential grievously underestimates the burstiness of TELNET traffic, but using the empirical Tcplib[DJCME92] interarrivals preserves burstiness over many time scales; and that FTPDATA connection arrivals within FTP sessions come bunched into ``connection bursts``, the largest of which are so large that they completely dominate FTPDATA traffic. Finally, they offer some preliminary results regarding how the findings relate to the possible self-similarity of wide-area traffic.

  2. Development of Autonomous Magnetometer Rotorcraft For Wide Area Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. McKay; Matthew O. Anderson

    2011-08-01

    Large areas across the United States and internationally are potentially contaminated with unexploded ordinance (UXO), with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with (1) near 100% coverage and (2) near 100% detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 to 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys, resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre. In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide highresolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus there is a need for other systems, which can be used for effective data collection. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly

  3. Simulation studies of a wide area health care network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, J G

    1994-01-01

    There is an increasing number of efforts to install wide area health care networks. Some of these networks are being built to support several applications over a wide user base consisting primarily of medical practices, hospitals, pharmacies, medical laboratories, payors, and suppliers. Although on-line, multi-media telecommunication is desirable for some purposes such as cardiac monitoring, store-and-forward messaging is adequate for many common, high-volume applications. Laboratory test results and payment claims, for example, can be distributed using electronic messaging networks. Several network prototypes have been constructed to determine the technical problems and to assess the effectiveness of electronic messaging in wide area health care networks. Our project, Health Link, developed prototype software that was able to use the public switched telephone network to exchange messages automatically, reliably and securely. The network could be configured to accommodate the many different traffic patterns and cost constraints of its users. Discrete event simulations were performed on several network models. Canonical star and mesh networks, that were composed of nodes operating at steady state under equal loads, were modeled. Both topologies were found to support the throughput of a generic wide area health care network. The mean message delivery time of the mesh network was found to be less than that of the star network. Further simulations were conducted for a realistic large-scale health care network consisting of 1,553 doctors, 26 hospitals, four medical labs, one provincial lab and one insurer. Two network topologies were investigated: one using predominantly peer-to-peer communication, the other using client-server communication.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Multi Agent System Based Wide Area Protection against Cascading Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Leo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-agent system based wide area protection scheme is proposed in order to prevent long term voltage instability induced cascading events. The distributed relays and controllers work as a device agent which not only executes the normal function automatically but also can be mod...... the effectiveness of proposed protection strategy. The simulation results indicate that the proposed multi agent control system can effectively coordinate the distributed relays and controllers to prevent the long term voltage instability induced cascading events.......In this paper, a multi-agent system based wide area protection scheme is proposed in order to prevent long term voltage instability induced cascading events. The distributed relays and controllers work as a device agent which not only executes the normal function automatically but also can...... be modified to fulfill the extra function according to external requirements. The control center is designed as a highest level agent in MAS to coordinate all the lower agents to prevent the system wide voltage disturbance. A hybrid simulation platform with MATLAB and RTDS is set up to demonstrate...

  5. Economics of area-wide sit control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkerlin, Walther

    2003-01-01

    The economic feasibility of using the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control certain key insect pests has been demonstrated clearly. The successful implementation of a number of area-wide and large-scale SIT programs has produced substantial economic benefits for the beneficiaries of the technology. The economic advantages of this technology will become more evident as indirect benefits of SIT application are incorporated into total program benefit estimates. Awareness of the technical and economic advantages of the SIT, and market forces favoring the use of environmentally clean pest control methods, will encourage private investment in this technology. (author)

  6. Area-wide population suppression of codling moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, C.O.; Knight, A.L.; Richardson, G.; Bloem, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    The area-wide pest population control concept began with E.F. Knipling (1979) in the 1970s. Control of a pest population on individual fields does little to control the overall pest population because only a portion of the population is being affected. Expanding control tactics beyond individual farms tends to suppress the population on a wider scale and frequently results in suppression of the population for more than one year. The Agriculture Research Service (ARS) believes that this concept has not been addressed with the focus and support that it deserves. The ARS Administration made a conscious decision in 1994 to create a series of area-wide programmes funded out of ARS-based funds that had previously been used for pilot tests. These programmes involve a coordinated effort among ARS and university scientists, growers, and fieldmen for agriculture supply centres and fruit packing houses. The first area-wide programme supported by ARS was the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) suppression programme. The codling moth is the key pest of pome fruit throughout the western United States (Beers et al. 1993). About half of the insecticides applied on these crops are directed toward this pest. A non-insecticidal control technique, mating disruption (MD), is available to replace the organophosphates. Removal of the hard pesticides directed against this pest would do the most to allow natural enemies to survive and reproduce in the orchards, which in turn would have the effect of reducing secondary pests. Elimination of the pesticides would also remove much of the health risks to workers and would minimise buildup of pesticide resistance. The objectives of the Codling Moth Area-wide Program are to enhance the efficacy of the non-pesticide approach, to demonstrate that mating disruption will work if conducted properly, to develop biological technology to lower costs of control that complement mating disruption, to implement effective

  7. Bayes-Based Fault Discrimination in Wide Area Backup Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG, Z.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical analysis is an effective tool to finish the fault location for electric power system. In Bayesian discriminant analysis as a subbranch, by the research of several populations, one can calculate the conditional probability that some samples belong to these populations, and compare the corresponding probability. The sample will be classified as population with maximum probability. In this paper, based on Bayesian discriminant analysis principle, a great number of simulation examples have confirmed that the results of Bayesian fault discriminant in wide area backup protection are accurate and reliable.

  8. Scaling the PuNDIT project for wide area deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Shawn; Batista, Jorge; Carcassi, Gabriele; Dovrolis, Constantine; Lee, Danny

    2017-10-01

    In today’s world of distributed scientific collaborations, there are many challenges to providing reliable inter-domain network infrastructure. Network operators use a combination of active monitoring and trouble tickets to detect problems, but these are often ineffective at identifying issues that impact wide-area network users. Additionally, these approaches do not scale to wide area inter-domain networks due to unavailability of data from all the domains along typical network paths. The Pythia Network Diagnostic InfrasTructure (PuNDIT) project aims to create a scalable infrastructure for automating the detection and localization of problems across these networks. The project goal is to gather and analyze metrics from existing perfSONAR monitoring infrastructures to identify the signatures of possible problems, locate affected network links, and report them to the user in an intuitive fashion. Simply put, PuNDIT seeks to convert complex network metrics into easily understood diagnoses in an automated manner. We present our progress in creating the PuNDIT system and our status in developing, testing and deploying PuNDIT. We report on the project progress to-date, describe the current implementation architecture and demonstrate some of the various user interfaces it will support. We close by discussing the remaining challenges and next steps and where we see the project going in the future.

  9. Corn rootworm area-wide management across the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, Laurence D.; Coppedge, James R.; Richard Edwards, C.; Tollefson, Jon J.; Wilde, Gerald E.

    2000-01-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, northern corn rootworm, D. barberi Smith and Lawrence, and Mexican corn rootworm, D. virgifera zeae Krysan and Smith are among the most economically and environmentally important pests of United States maize (Zea mays L.) production systems (Metcalf 1986). Annually, 8 to 10 million hectares of maize are treated with soil applied insecticides to protect the crop from larval feeding damage. Crop rotation, however, is also widely used to minimise the need for soil insecticide applications. Insecticides for adult rootworm management are also frequently used. Numerous problems are currently associated with corn rootworm management approaches. Soil insecticides are normally used to protect maize roots from larval feeding damage. However, they are ineffective in controlling the management of corn rootworm populations (Gray et al. 1992, Sutter et al. 1991). It is not uncommon for large numbers of rootworms to develop within treated fields. Thus, when maize is grown in the same field year after year (continuous cropping), soil insecticide applications must be used to protect the plant. These applications are generally made without knowledge (prophylactic) of the rootworm population levels within the field due to the difficulty of sampling for immature life stages. Western corn rootworm resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides has been extensively documented (Ball and Weekman 1962). Recently, two distinct populations of western corn rootworms in Nebraska were found to be resistant to carbaryl and methyl parathion which are commonly used for adult control (Meinke et al. 1998). Although the occurrence of resistance has not spread outside of these areas, the potential for increased tolerance of western corn rootworm populations to carbamate and organophosphate insecticides across the region does exist. In response to many of the management problems discussed above, scientists with the USDA Agricultural

  10. Damping of Inter-Area Low Frequency Oscillation Using an Adaptive Wide-Area Damping Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wei; Jiang, L.; Fang, Jiakun

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive wide-area damping controller (WADC) based on generalized predictive control (GPC) and model identification for damping the inter-area low frequency oscillations in large-scale inter-connected power system. A recursive least-squares algorithm (RLSA) with a varying f...

  11. Prevalence of increases in functional connectivity in visual, somatosensory and language areas in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heine, Lizette; Bahri, Mohamed A; Cavaliere, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    -of-interest (ROIs) within visual, somato-sensory, auditory and language areas. Between-group comparisons revealed increased functional connectivity within both the ventral and the dorsal visual streams in blind participants, whereas connectivity between the two streams was reduced. In addition, our data revealed......There is ample evidence that congenitally blind individuals rely more strongly on non-visual information compared to sighted controls when interacting with the outside world. Although brain imaging studies indicate that congenitally blind individuals recruit occipital areas when performing various...... non-visual and cognitive tasks, it remains unclear through which pathways this is accomplished. To address this question, we compared resting state functional connectivity in a group of congenital blind and matched sighted control subjects. We used a seed-based analysis with a priori specified regions...

  12. Wide-Area Emergency Control in Power Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Andreas Søndergaard

    , thus making the behaviour less predictable, suggesting the need for new intelligent wide-area emergency control algorithms. The fluctuating nature of the future power system calls for new methods of calculating remedial actions that are able to adapt to changing conditions. As part of this thesis......This thesis concerns the development of new emergency control algorithms for electric power transmission systems. Diminishing global resources and climate concerns forces operators to change production away from fossil fuels and towards distributed renewable energy sources. Along with the change...... on production side measures must be taken on the demand side to maintain power balance. Due to these changes, the operating point of the power system will be less predictable. Traditionally, emergency controls are designed off-line by extensive simulations. The future power system is expected to fluctuate more...

  13. Wide area methane emissions mapping with airborne IPDA lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Jarett; Lyman, Philip; Weimer, Carl; Tandy, William

    2017-08-01

    Methane emissions from natural gas production, storage, and transportation are potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Methane leaks also constitute revenue loss potential from operations. Since 2013, Ball Aerospace has been developing advanced airborne sensors using integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) LIDAR instrumentation to identify methane, propane, and longer-chain alkanes in the lowest region of the atmosphere. Additional funding has come from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Administration (PHMSA) to upgrade instrumentation to a broader swath coverage of up to 400 meters while maintaining high spatial sampling resolution and geolocation accuracy. Wide area coverage allows efficient mapping of emissions from gathering and distribution networks, processing facilities, landfills, natural seeps, and other distributed methane sources. This paper summarizes the benefits of advanced instrumentation for aerial methane emission mapping, describes the operating characteristics and design of this upgraded IPDA instrumentation, and reviews technical challenges encountered during development and deployment.

  14. Development of autonomous magnetometer rotorcraft for wide area assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelof Versteeg; Matt Anderson; Les Beard; Eric Corban; Darryl Curley; Jeff Gamey; Ross Johnson; Dwight Junkin; Mark McKay; Jared Salzmann; Mikhail Tchernychev; Suraj Unnikrishnan; Scott Vinson

    2010-04-01

    Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. There is thus a need for other systems which can be used for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly characterization (through the use of

  15. Performability indicators for the traffic analysis of wide area networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Platis, Agapios

    2003-01-01

    In connecting computing networks, reliability term is strongly related to the availability of connections of Wide Area networks (WANs) or Local Area networks (LANs). In this paper we will examine the network connections activity of a Greek University in order to provide two sources of information: The Quantity of Information Not Delivered (QIND) and the Information Flow Interruption (IFI). These indicators will provide us with the inference of information from observable characteristics of data flow(s), even when the data is encrypted or otherwise not directly available (traffic), which is lost due to failures or upgrades inside this network. The reliability analysis is obtained by collecting the network failures data (duration and frequency) and traffic (total and average) for a specified period of 1 year. It is assumed that the numerical analysis is based on the fact that the lifetime follows and exponential distribution (here as we are working on discrete time the distribution must be the geometric distribution). Hence a Markov chain model seems suitable for modelling the functioning of this system. An algorithm concentrates the results in a transition probability matrix and calculates the reward functions for the QIND/IFI indicators with the use of the power method. Finally, the application part provides an example of how final results can be used to evaluate the observed network

  16. Regular Topologies for Gigabit Wide-Area Networks. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Nachum; Denny, Barbara A.; Lee, Diane S.; Khan, Irfan H.; Lee, Danny Y. C.; McKenney, Paul

    1994-01-01

    In general terms, this project aimed at the analysis and design of techniques for very high-speed networking. The formal objectives of the project were to: (1) Identify switch and network technologies for wide-area networks that interconnect a large number of users and can provide individual data paths at gigabit/s rates; (2) Quantitatively evaluate and compare existing and proposed architectures and protocols, identify their strength and growth potentials, and ascertain the compatibility of competing technologies; and (3) Propose new approaches to existing architectures and protocols, and identify opportunities for research to overcome deficiencies and enhance performance. The project was organized into two parts: 1. The design, analysis, and specification of techniques and protocols for very-high-speed network environments. In this part, SRI has focused on several key high-speed networking areas, including Forward Error Control (FEC) for high-speed networks in which data distortion is the result of packet loss, and the distribution of broadband, real-time traffic in multiple user sessions. 2. Congestion Avoidance Testbed Experiment (CATE). This part of the project was done within the framework of the DARTnet experimental T1 national network. The aim of the work was to advance the state of the art in benchmarking DARTnet's performance and traffic control by developing support tools for network experimentation, by designing benchmarks that allow various algorithms to be meaningfully compared, and by investigating new queueing techniques that better satisfy the needs of best-effort and reserved-resource traffic. This document is the final technical report describing the results obtained by SRI under this project. The report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 contains a technical description of the network techniques developed by SRI in the areas of FEC and multicast of real-time traffic. Volume 2 describes the work performed under CATE. Volume 3 contains the source

  17. Large scale track analysis for wide area motion imagery surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, C. J.; van Huis, J. R.; Baan, J.

    2016-10-01

    Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) enables image based surveillance of areas that can cover multiple square kilometers. Interpreting and analyzing information from such sources, becomes increasingly time consuming as more data is added from newly developed methods for information extraction. Captured from a moving Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), the high-resolution images allow detection and tracking of moving vehicles, but this is a highly challenging task. By using a chain of computer vision detectors and machine learning techniques, we are capable of producing high quality track information of more than 40 thousand vehicles per five minutes. When faced with such a vast number of vehicular tracks, it is useful for analysts to be able to quickly query information based on region of interest, color, maneuvers or other high-level types of information, to gain insight and find relevant activities in the flood of information. In this paper we propose a set of tools, combined in a graphical user interface, which allows data analysts to survey vehicles in a large observed area. In order to retrieve (parts of) images from the high-resolution data, we developed a multi-scale tile-based video file format that allows to quickly obtain only a part, or a sub-sampling of the original high resolution image. By storing tiles of a still image according to a predefined order, we can quickly retrieve a particular region of the image at any relevant scale, by skipping to the correct frames and reconstructing the image. Location based queries allow a user to select tracks around a particular region of interest such as landmark, building or street. By using an integrated search engine, users can quickly select tracks that are in the vicinity of locations of interest. Another time-reducing method when searching for a particular vehicle, is to filter on color or color intensity. Automatic maneuver detection adds information to the tracks that can be used to find vehicles based on their

  18. Trade issues and area-wide pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Food security and economic security are unarguably desirable objectives for all nations - indeed for the world. Equally important is the sustainability of designs that achieve these objectives without disadvantaging others or damaging the environment. Considering area-wide pest management in the context of these interrelated global policy forces is essential to fully understand its role in both the protection of plant resources and in facilitation of trade. The case for food security begins with the realisation that there are currently about 800 million people in the world who are suffering from malnutrition due to lack of food. The World Food Summit, convened in November 1996, urgently called for coordinated world-wide action to ensure 'food for all'. A key strategy for realising this goal is reducing losses due to plant pests. In this light, area-wide pest management can be viewed as a valuable addition to the toolbox of pest management strategies. It can also be one of the most sustainable and cost-effective options to consider for pest management. However, just as the problem of world hunger is not solved by a single farmer, area-wide pest management cannot be successful at the individual level. It requires commitment and cooperation to make it feasible - the same type of commitment and cooperation that was expressed at the World Food Summit. Where economic security is concerned, one need not look far to see a world of growing economic integration and widening circles of development. As the World Trade Organisation celebrates the 50th anniversary of the rules-based trading system which began with the GATT after World War II, it is clear that globalisation and the liberalisation of trade have become permanent fixtures in international policy formulation and are integral to the economic security of all nations. Now, more than ever before, the world's prosperity rests on maintaining an open international economy based on commonly agreed rules. The significance of

  19. On Data Transfers Over Wide-Area Dedicated Connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Liu, Qiang [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    Dedicated wide-area network connections are employed in big data and high-performance computing scenarios, since the absence of cross-traffic promises to make it easier to analyze and optimize data transfers over them. However, nonlinear transport dynamics and end-system complexity due to multi-core hosts and distributed file systems make these tasks surprisingly challenging. We present an overview of methods to analyze memory and disk file transfers using extensive measurements over 10 Gbps physical and emulated connections with 0–366 ms round trip times (RTTs). For memory transfers, we derive performance profiles of TCP and UDT throughput as a function of RTT, which show concave regions in contrast to entirely convex regions predicted by previous models. These highly desirable concave regions can be expanded by utilizing large buffers and more parallel flows. We also present Poincar´e maps and Lyapunov exponents of TCP and UDT throughputtraces that indicate complex throughput dynamics. For disk file transfers, we show that throughput can be optimized using a combination of parallel I/O and network threads under direct I/O mode. Our initial throughput measurements of Lustre filesystems mounted over long-haul connections using LNet routers show convex profiles indicative of I/O limits.

  20. Development of wide area environment accelerator operation and diagnostics method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Akito; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2015-08-01

    Remote operation and diagnostic systems for particle accelerators have been developed for beam operation and maintenance in various situations. Even though fully remote experiments are not necessary, the remote diagnosis and maintenance of the accelerator is required. Considering remote-operation operator interfaces (OPIs), the use of standard protocols such as the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is advantageous, because system-dependent protocols are unnecessary between the remote client and the on-site server. Here, we have developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force for Web-based systems, as a next-generation Web-based OPI using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System Channel Access protocol. As a result of this implementation, WebSocket-based client systems have become available for remote operation. Also, as regards practical application, the remote operation of an accelerator via a wide area network (WAN) faces a number of challenges, e.g., the accelerator has both experimental device and radiation generator characteristics. Any error in remote control system operation could result in an immediate breakdown. Therefore, we propose the implementation of an operator intervention system for remote accelerator diagnostics and support that can obviate any differences between the local control room and remote locations. Here, remote-operation Web-based OPIs, which resolve security issues, are developed.

  1. Highball: A high speed, reserved-access, wide area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, David L.; Boncelet, Charles G.; Elias, John G.; Schragger, Paul A.; Jackson, Alden W.

    1990-01-01

    A network architecture called Highball and a preliminary design for a prototype, wide-area data network designed to operate at speeds of 1 Gbps and beyond are described. It is intended for applications requiring high speed burst transmissions where some latency between requesting a transmission and granting the request can be anticipated and tolerated. Examples include real-time video and disk-disk transfers, national filestore access, remote sensing, and similar applications. The network nodes include an intelligent crossbar switch, but have no buffering capabilities; thus, data must be queued at the end nodes. There are no restrictions on the network topology, link speeds, or end-end protocols. The end system, nodes, and links can operate at any speed up to the limits imposed by the physical facilities. An overview of an initial design approach is presented and is intended as a benchmark upon which a detailed design can be developed. It describes the network architecture and proposed access protocols, as well as functional descriptions of the hardware and software components that could be used in a prototype implementation. It concludes with a discussion of additional issues to be resolved in continuing stages of this project.

  2. Trapping guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Different traps and lures have been developed and used over decades to survey fruit fly populations. The first attractant for male fruit flies was methyl eugenol (ME) (for Bactrocera zonata, Howlett, 1912) followed by kerosene for Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, (medfly), Severin and Severin, 1913. In 1956, Angelica seed oil was used to trap medfly (Steiner et al, 1957). Beroza et al. (1961) discovered trimedlure (TML) to be effective for the same purpose. Beroza and Green, 1963, demonstrated cuelure to be an effective attractant for Bactrocera cucurbitae. Food baits based on protein solutions, fermenting sugar solutions, fruit juices, and vinegar have been used since 1918 for the capture of females of several species. The McPhail trap was the first device to be used with protein baits (McPhail, 1929). Steiner traps were developed in 1957 (Steiner et al., 1957) and Jackson traps in 1971 for TML (Harris et al., 1971). These traps are currently used in various countries for fruit fly surveys in support of control activities and eradication campaigns. The combination of a McPhail trap with a protein attractant, Jackson trap with TML, and the Steiner trap with ME or cuelure (CUE), has remained unchanged for several decades. Global trends in increasing food quality, revenue sources, and fruit and vegetable trade, has resulted in an increased worldwide movement of fruit fly species and requires refinement of survey systems. After years of validating trapping technology through coordinated research programmes (CRP's) and extensive technical assistance to member countries, the Joint Division FAO/IAEA proposes the use of proven technologies in improving trap sensitivity in area-wide fruit fly control programmes (IAEA 1996 and IAEA 1998). These proven technologies include the use of synthetic food lures such as female attractants that can be used for several species of Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Ceratitis. Other citations of information on these developments are

  3. Widely Linear Blind Adaptive Equalization for Transmitter IQ-Imbalance/Skew Compensation in Multicarrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    Simple analytical widely linear complex-valued models for IQ-imbalance and IQ-skew effects in multicarrier transmitters are presented. To compensate for such effects, a 4×4 MIMO widely linear adaptive equalizer is proposed and experimentally validated.......Simple analytical widely linear complex-valued models for IQ-imbalance and IQ-skew effects in multicarrier transmitters are presented. To compensate for such effects, a 4×4 MIMO widely linear adaptive equalizer is proposed and experimentally validated....

  4. Strategies for reducing visual impairment and blindness in rural and remote areas of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan O. Oduntan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of visual impairment (VI and blindness in Africa is one of the highest in the world; a large proportion of the causes are preventable. The prevalence is particularly high in rural and remote areas, where many of the continent’s inhabitants live. This is of great concern because of the low number and poor distribution of primary eye care practitioners, as well as poor eye care infrastructure services in those areas. Uncorrected refractive errors are a major cause of avoidable VI and blindness, and optometrists play a major role in refractive error correction on the continent. However, as with other healthcare providers in Africa, optometrists are few and tend to be mainly in major cities. This paper highlights possible strategies, in alignment with the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, that can reduce VI in rural and remote areas of the continent. The strategies include increasing the eye care workforce, attracting them to rural areas and retaining them there, improving the eye care infrastructure, service improvement such as equitable distribution of eye care practitioners, implementing preventive measures such as vision screening and affordable spectacles, and eye health education such as eye health promotions, school health programmes and eye care awareness campaigns. Such strategies could drastically reduce the prevalence of VI and blindness in rural and remote areas of Africa.

  5. Summary of the Seattle Urban Area Consequence Management Guidance for a Wide-Area Biological Attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirvel, R

    2010-09-13

    A terrorist attack involving a release of biological warfare agent in the Seattle urban area would require decision-makers to make a host of important, and sometimes untested, choices concerning how best to respond and recover. This technical supplement supports the Puget Sound Regional Biological Attack Recovery Plan Annex to the Regional Catastrophic Plan, which structures the region’s response and recovery approach, by providing technical details on how to conduct a biological remediation. More specifically, the technical supplement identifies the principal issues that must be addressed following a wide-area release of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) spores; explains the resources that are available to address the release; sets forth strategies to reduce the time required for consequence management; and focuses on remediation options, procedures, and tools that can be implemented today should such an incident occur. The content is intended to be used with the Interim Consequence Management Guidance for a Wide-Area Biological Attack (LLNL 2009). A second and related purpose of this technical supplement is to serve as a detailed guide for other geographical regions interested in formulating their own consequence management plans. This technical supplement is funded by, and was developed as part of, the Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration (IBRD) program—a collaborative effort among Department of Homeland Security, Department of Defense, and numerous other Federal, state, and local agencies—to improve the nation’s ability to respond to and recover from a wide-area biological incident. Content of the technical supplement follows the six-phase diagram for responding to and recovering from a biological contamination incident (see Figure 1 on the next page), which represents a consensus scheme developed after multi-agency review and approval. Whereas the focus of the document is on remediation/cleanup activities, the topics of response

  6. [Causes of blindness and disability pensions in the eastern metropolitan area of Santiago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikart, A; Charlin, R; Stoppel, J; Jara, R; Maul de la Puente, E

    1991-05-01

    Between June 1983 and September 1987, 2799 disability pensions were given in the East Santiago Area, population 676,269. Of them, 222 (7.9%) were due to ophthalmological causes. Blindness as defined by the WHO was present in 57 cases. It was caused by myopia (33%), glaucoma (21%), diabetic retinopathy (9.8%), retinal detachment, cataract and optic atrophy (5.2%) and ocular trauma (3.5%).

  7. Blind Spectroscopic Galaxy Surveys Using an Ultra-Wide-Band Imaging Spectrograph on AtLAST and LST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Kotaro

    2018-01-01

    A novel approach to elucidation of cosmic star formation history is a blind search for CO and [CII] emissions using a ultra-wide-band imaging spectrograph on the future large submm telescopes like AtLAST and LST. In particular, searching for [CII] emitters in the appropriate frequency range allows us to sample those sources very efficiently for a redshift range of 3.5 to 9 (190 to 420 GHz), reaching the star-formation in the EoR. Further, spectroscopic analysis of CO in the lower frequency bands will constrain the evolution of CO luminosity functions across cosmic time. We conducted a feasibility study of ``CO/[CII] tomography'' based on a mock galaxy catalog containing 1.4 million objects drawn from the S(3) -SAX (Obreschkow et al. 2009). We find that a blind spectroscopic survey using a 50-m telescope equipped with a 100-pixel imaging spectrograph, which covers 70-370 GHz simultaneously, will be promising indeed. A survey of 2 deg(2) in 1,000 hr (on-source) will uncover > 10^5 line-emitting galaxies in total, including 10^3 [CII] emitters in the EoR (Tamura et al., in prep.). Wider surveys (10 deg^2 or wider) will also be discussed for RSD science cases.

  8. Summary of the 2012 Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Waste Management Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workshop advanced the planning of federal, state and local officials in the area of waste management following a chemical, biological or radiological wide-area incident in the Denver, Colorado urban area.

  9. Occipital cortex of blind individuals is functionally coupled with executive control areas of frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Ben; Saxe, Rebecca; Bedny, Marina

    2015-08-01

    In congenital blindness, the occipital cortex responds to a range of nonvisual inputs, including tactile, auditory, and linguistic stimuli. Are these changes in functional responses to stimuli accompanied by altered interactions with nonvisual functional networks? To answer this question, we introduce a data-driven method that searches across cortex for functional connectivity differences across groups. Replicating prior work, we find increased fronto-occipital functional connectivity in congenitally blind relative to blindfolded sighted participants. We demonstrate that this heightened connectivity extends over most of occipital cortex but is specific to a subset of regions in the inferior, dorsal, and medial frontal lobe. To assess the functional profile of these frontal areas, we used an n-back working memory task and a sentence comprehension task. We find that, among prefrontal areas with overconnectivity to occipital cortex, one left inferior frontal region responds to language over music. By contrast, the majority of these regions responded to working memory load but not language. These results suggest that in blindness occipital cortex interacts more with working memory systems and raise new questions about the function and mechanism of occipital plasticity.

  10. 40 CFR 52.326 - Area-wide nitrogen oxides (NOX) exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area-wide nitrogen oxides (NOX... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.326 Area-wide nitrogen oxides (NOX) exemptions. The Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) submitted a NOX exemption...

  11. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ioannides, Andreas A; Liu, Lichan; Poghosyan, Vahe

    2013-01-01

    reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45-70 Hz activity at latencies of 20-50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann...... areas (BA) 7 and 40, which compared to lower frequencies, were substantially more pronounced in the blind than the sighted subjects. Critically, at frequencies from α-band up to 100 Hz we found clear, strong, and widespread responses in the visual cortex of the blind subject, which increased...... with the intensity of the somatosensory stimuli. Time-delayed mutual information (MI) revealed that in blind subject the stimulus information is funneled from the early somatosensory to visual cortex through posterior parietal BA 7 and 40, projecting first to visual areas V5 and V3, and eventually V1. The flow...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2308 - Area-wide nitrogen oxides (NOX) exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area-wide nitrogen oxides (NOX) exemptions. 52.2308 Section 52.2308 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...-wide nitrogen oxides (NOX) exemptions. (a) The Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC...

  13. Analysis of area-wide management of insect pests based on sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Onstad; Mark S. Sisterson

    2011-01-01

    The control of invasive species greatly depends on area-wide pest management (AWPM) in heterogeneous landscapes. Decisions about when and where to treat a population with pesticide are based on sampling pest abundance. One of the challenges of AWPM is sampling large areas with limited funds to cover the cost of sampling. Additionally, AWPM programs are often confronted...

  14. Handoff Between a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN and a Wide Area Network (UMTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sánchez–García

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available With the appearance of wireless data networks with variable coverage, band width and handoff strategies, in addition to the growing need of mobile nodes to freely roam among these networks, the support of an interoperable handoff strategy for hybrid wireless data networks is a requirement that needs to be addressed. The current trend in wireless data networks is to offer multimedia access to mobile users by employing the wireless local area network (WLAN standard IEEE802.11 while the user is located indoors; on the other hand, 3rd generation wireless networks (WAN are being deployed to provide coverage while the user is located outdoors. As a result, the mobile node will require a handoff mechanism to allow the user to roam between WLAN and WAN environments; up to this date several strategies have been proposed (Sattari et al., 2004 and HyoJin, 2007 in the literature, however, none of these have been standardized to date. To support this interoperability, the mobile node must be equipped with configurable wireless inetrfaces to support the handoff between the WLAN and the WAN networks. In this work a new algorithm is proposed to allow a mobile node to roam between a wireless local area network (IEEE802.11 and a WAN base station (UMTS, while employing IP mobility support. The algorithm is implemented in simulation, using the Network Simulator 2.

  15. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas A Ioannides

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cross-modal activity in visual cortex of blind subjects has been reported during performance of variety of non-visual tasks. A key unanswered question is through which pathways non-visual inputs are funneled to the visual cortex. Here we used tomographic analysis of single trial magnetoencephalography (MEG data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor (M1 cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45 to 70 Hz activity at latencies of 20 to 50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann areas (BA 7 and 40, which compared to lower frequencies, were substantially more pronounced in the blind than the sighted subjects. Critically, at frequencies from α-band up to 100 Hz we found clear, strong and widespread responses in the visual cortex of the blind subject, which increased with the intensity of the somatosensory stimuli. Time-delayed mutual information (MI revealed that in blind subject the stimulus information is funneled from the early somatosensory to visual cortex through posterior parietal BA 7 and 40, projecting first to visual areas V5 and V3, and eventually V1. The flow of information through this pathway occured in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first evidence from MEG that in blind subjects, tactile information is routed from primary somatosensory to occipital cortex via the posterior parietal cortex.

  16. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Andreas A; Liu, Lichan; Poghosyan, Vahe; Saridis, George A; Gjedde, Albert; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Cross-modal activity in visual cortex of blind subjects has been reported during performance of variety of non-visual tasks. A key unanswered question is through which pathways non-visual inputs are funneled to the visual cortex. Here we used tomographic analysis of single trial magnetoencephalography (MEG) data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45-70 Hz activity at latencies of 20-50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann areas (BA) 7 and 40, which compared to lower frequencies, were substantially more pronounced in the blind than the sighted subjects. Critically, at frequencies from α-band up to 100 Hz we found clear, strong, and widespread responses in the visual cortex of the blind subject, which increased with the intensity of the somatosensory stimuli. Time-delayed mutual information (MI) revealed that in blind subject the stimulus information is funneled from the early somatosensory to visual cortex through posterior parietal BA 7 and 40, projecting first to visual areas V5 and V3, and eventually V1. The flow of information through this pathway occurred in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first evidence from MEG that in blind subjects, tactile information is routed from primary somatosensory to occipital cortex via the posterior parietal cortex.

  17. A Conceptual Model for Assessing the Minimum Size Area for an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J. Barclay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model was developed based on the two basic spatial elements of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM, a core area and a buffer zone, to determine the minimum size of the protected area for the program to be technically feasible and economically justifiable. The model consisted of a biological part (insect dispersal and an economic part. The biological part used random walks and diffusion equations to describe insect dispersal and to determine the minimum width of the buffer zone required to protect the core area from immigration of pests from outside. In the economic part, the size of the core area was calculated to determine the point at which the revenues from the core area equal the control costs. This model will need to be calibrated and validated for each species and geographic location. Tsetse flies and the Mediterranean fruit fly are used as case studies to illustrate the model.

  18. Discovery of Nine Gamma-Ray Pulsars in Fermi Large Area Telescope Data Using a New Blind Search Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pletsch, H.J.; Guillemot, L.; Allen, B.; Kramer, M.; Aulbert, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Ray, P.S.; Barr, E.D.; Belfiore, A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P.A.; Çelik, O.; Champion, D.J.; Dormody, M.; Eatough, R.P.; Ferrara, E.C.; Freire, P.C.C.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; De Luca, A.; Lyne, A.G.; Marelli, M.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Parent, D.; Ransom, S.M.; Razzano, M.; Reich, W.; Saz Parkinson, P.M.; Stappers, B.W.; Wolff, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of nine previously unknown gamma-ray pulsars in a blind search of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The pulsars were found with a novel hierarchical search method originally developed for detecting continuous gravitational waves from rapidly rotating neutron

  19. Voltage control and protection in electrical power systems from system components to wide-area control

    CERN Document Server

    Corsi, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Based on the author’s twenty years of experience, this book shows the practicality of modern, conceptually new, wide area voltage control in transmission and distribution smart grids, in detail. Evidence is given of the great advantages of this approach, as well as what can be gained by new control functionalities which modern technologies now available can provide. The distinction between solutions of wide area voltage regulation (V-WAR) and wide area voltage protection (V-WAP) are presented, demonstrating the proper synergy between them when they operate on the same power system as well as the simplicity and effectiveness of the protection solution in this case. The author provides an overview and detailed descriptions of voltage controls, distinguishing between generalities of underdeveloped, on-field operating applications and modern and available automatic control solutions, which are as yet not sufficiently known or perceived for what they are: practical, high-performance and reliable solutions. At th...

  20. An implementation and test platform for wide area stability assessment methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittrock, Martin Lindholm; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a software platform developed in MatLab with the purpose of supporting research, Development and testing of wide area algorithms for stability assessment and control. The development and testing process of algorithms exploiting real time wide area data from Phasor Measurement...... Units (PMU) can be very time consuming, especially if the testing procedure is not carried out in a systematic and automatic manner. The test platform overcomes this problem by automatically importing system model parameters, topology and simulation output from a time domain simulation of an instability...... scenario and automatically generating synthetic PMU snapshots of the system conditions. To demonstrate the platform’s potential for supporting research and development of wide area algorithms, a method to detect voltage instability is implemented and tested, giving results consistent with results from...

  1. Multiagent Model for Wide-Area Disaster-Evacuation Simulations with Local Factors Considered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Yuji; Kanoh, Hitoshi

    In this paper, we propose a multiagent model for wide-area disaster-evacuation simulations with local factorsconsidered. Conventional multiagent models for evacuation simulations neither allow general-purpose computers to executewide-area simulations nor allow the object area to be changed easily. If these problems are solved, however, these simulations can be useful for local governments to make disaster damage prevention plan. In the proposed model, each roadis expressed by a series of cells. A computational amount relevant to interaction among agents is reduced by describing themodel for agents to be affected by other agents through the state of each cell. This makes possible wide area simulations. Using the data of a digital map database that is widely used for car navigation systems enables the simulations to beperformed for any region in Japan. Local factors are reflected in simulations by setting some parameters for evacuees, anevacuation environment, and disaster damage prevention plan of the object area. As an evaluation experiment, wesimulated the situations of Kobe city on the date of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. Simulations results about thepercentage of evacuees who arrived at refuges were in good agreement with the actual data when parameters forevacuation-start timing were adjusted. We also simulated the current situations of two cities, Kobe and Tsukuba, and confirmed that this model was successfully applied to the two cities. From these evaluation experiments, we believe thatthis model can be applied to various areas and will perform further experiments in the future.

  2. Design of Weighted Wide Area Damping Controller (WWADC Based PSS for Damping Inter-Area Low Frequency Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh M. Bamasak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS can extend and effectively improve the power system stabilizers (PSS capability in damping the inter-area low frequency oscillations in interconnected bulk power systems. This paper proposes the implementation of Weighted Wide Area Damping Controller (WWADC in which weighted factors are introduced for each remote feedback signals. Modal analysis approach is implemented for the purpose of identifying the optimal location as well as the input signals’ optimal combination of WWADC. Based on the linearized model, Differential Evolution (DE algorithm is applied to search for optimal controller parameters and optimal weighted factors. The successful application of the proposed approach is achieved in two power networks; the two-area 4-machine system and the IEEE-39 bus 10-machine system. The analysis of the eigenvalue and non-linear time domain simulations indicate that damping the inter-area oscillations and improving the system stability irrespective of the severity and the location of the disturbances can be effectively achieved by WADC

  3. Area-wide integration of lepidopteran F1 sterility and augmentative biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Area-wide pest management (APM) and integrated pest management (IPM) originated from two different efforts to combine two or more control techniques into programmes in which each method could synergise the effectiveness of others and thus create a level of pest control that was greater than that of a single technique (Perkins 1982). Since then, the concept of APM has evolved to include many aspects of IPM and often is now referred to as area-wide IPM. Still, the element of total population management is central to this approach of insect pest management. In support of APM, Knipling (1998) stated that of the insect pests that were of major concern to agriculture before the newer classes of insecticides were available, most are still pests today, the major exceptions being the screw-worm fly and the boll weevil in the southeastern US cotton growing region. Knipling also noted that both of these pest species were subjected to area-wide suppression programmes. In response to the USDA IPM Initiative (USDA 1993, 1994) which seeks to achieve the national goal of having 75% of the crop acres under IPM by the year 2000, the Agricultural Research Service developed an Area-wide IPM Programme. This programme combines environmentally-sound pest control techniques with the advantages of APM and develops partnerships with other federal, state, local and private sector entities. Technologies such as the integration of lepidopteran F 1 sterility and augmentative biological control may be considered for future programmes

  4. Multi Agent System Based Process Control in Wide Area Protection against Cascading Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun

    2013-01-01

    In order to prevent long term voltage instability induced cascading events; a multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper. Due to some unexpected failures of control strategy execution or the consequent unexpected disturbance, the power system will face...... the effectiveness of the improved MAS based protection strategy....

  5. Wide Area Protection Scheme Preventing Cascading Events based on Improved Impedance relay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun

    2013-01-01

    Load flow transferring after an initial contingency is regarded as one of the main reasons of causing unexpected cascading trips. A multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper to predict the load flow transferring from the point of view of impedance relays...

  6. 40 CFR 52.992 - Area-wide nitrogen oxides exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area-wide nitrogen oxides exemptions. 52.992 Section 52.992 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... nitrogen oxides exemptions. (a) The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality submitted to the EPA on...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2351 - Area-wide nitrogen oxides (NOX) exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area-wide nitrogen oxides (NOX... nitrogen oxides (NOX) exemption. On May 2, 1997, Ursula Trueman, Director, Division of Air Quality, Utah...)(2)(A) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, a section 182(f)(2) NOX Reasonably Available Control...

  8. VillageLink: A channel allocation technique for wide-area white space networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pejovic, V

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available –800MHz band, a large block of frequencies has recently been freed due to the analog to digital TV transition. This spectrum, called white spaces, promises to deliver an affordable means of providing wide area coverage. It is extremely attractive for rural...

  9. On the design of a Radio Numerology for 5G Wide Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardinelli, Gilberto; Pedersen, Klaus Ingemann; Frederiksen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A 5th Generation (5G) radio access technology is expected to cope with the relentless increase of the data traffic demand and is meant to accommodate a plethora of services with different requirements. In this paper, we elaborate on the design of the radio numerology for a 5G wide area system...

  10. Wide area monitoring, protection and control systems the enabler for smarter grids

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccaro, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    This book is designed to give electrical and electronic engineers involved in the design, operation and maintenance of electrical power networks, the knowledge and skills necessary to deploy synchronised measurement technology (SMT) in Wide Area Monitoring, Protection And Control (WAMPAC) applications.

  11. Functional Semi-Blind Source Separation Identifies Primary Motor Area Without Active Motor Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcaro, Camillo; Cottone, Carlo; Cancelli, Andrea; Salustri, Carlo; Tecchio, Franca

    2018-04-01

    High time resolution techniques are crucial for investigating the brain in action. Here, we propose a method to identify a section of the upper-limb motor area representation (FS_M1) by means of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals recorded during a completely passive condition (FS_M1bySS). We delivered a galvanic stimulation to the median nerve and we applied to EEG the semi-Blind Source Separation (s-BSS) algorithm named Functional Source Separation (FSS). In order to prove that FS_M1bySS is part of FS_M1, we also collected EEG in a motor condition, i.e. during a voluntary movement task (isometric handgrip) and in a rest condition, i.e. at rest with eyes open and closed. In motor condition, we show that the cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) of FS_M1bySS does not differ from FS_ M1 CMC (0.04 for both sources). Moreover, we show that the FS_M1bySS's ongoing whole band activity during Motor and both rest conditions displays high mutual information and time correlation with FS_M1 (above 0.900 and 0.800, respectively) whereas much smaller ones with the primary somatosensory cortex [Formula: see text] (about 0.300 and 0.500, [Formula: see text]). FS_M1bySS as a marker of the upper-limb FS_M1 representation obtainable without the execution of an active motor task is a great achievement of the FSS algorithm, relevant in most experimental, neurological and psychiatric protocols.

  12. Summary of field operations Technical Area I well PGS-1. Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritts, J.E.; McCord, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is managing the project to assess and, when necessary, to remediate sites contaminated by the lab operations. Within the ER project, the site-wide hydrogeologic characterization task is responsible for the area-wide hydrogeologic investigation. The purpose of this task is to reduce the uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow beneath the area and across its boundaries. This specific report deals with the installation of PGS-1 monitoring well which provides information on the lithology and hydrology of the aquifer in the northern area of the Kirtland Air Force Base. The report provides information on the well design; surface geology; stratigraphy; structure; drilling, completion, and development techniques; and borehole geophysics information

  13. Integration of the White Sands Complex into a Wide Area Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Phillip Larry; Horan, Sheila, B.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Complex (WSC) satellite communications facility consists of two main ground stations, an auxiliary ground station, a technical support facility, and a power plant building located on White Sands Missile Range. When constructed, terrestrial communication access to these facilities was limited to copper telephone circuits. There was no local or wide area communications network capability. This project incorporated a baseband local area network (LAN) topology at WSC and connected it to NASA's wide area network using the Program Support Communications Network-Internet (PSCN-I). A campus-style LAN is configured in conformance with the International Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnect (ISO) model. Ethernet provides the physical and data link layers. Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) are used for the network and transport layers. The session, presentation, and application layers employ commercial software packages. Copper-based Ethernet collision domains are constructed in each of the primary facilities and these are interconnected by routers over optical fiber links. The network and each of its collision domains are shown to meet IEEE technical configuration guidelines. The optical fiber links are analyzed for the optical power budget and bandwidth allocation and are found to provide sufficient margin for this application. Personal computers and work stations attached to the LAN communicate with and apply a wide variety of local and remote administrative software tools. The Internet connection provides wide area network (WAN) electronic access to other NASA centers and the world wide web (WWW). The WSC network reduces and simplifies the administrative workload while providing enhanced and advanced inter-communications capabilities among White Sands Complex departments and with other NASA centers.

  14. Wide-area service water information management system; Koiki suido joho kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    A wide-area service water system is required to be more resistant to emergency situations, e.g., drought and hazards, and meet consumers' diversifying needs in each area, while stably supplying water at ordinary times by utilizing purification plants located in places within its system and piping networks in the water area. Fuji Electric is providing information management systems for wide-area service water systems, developed based on the company's abundant system know-hows accumulated for a long time and latest techniques. They are characterized by (1) Web monitoring, aided by an intranet system, (2) high-speed data transmission by a digital transmission system, (3) open network environments, and (4) emergency calling of the staff, and management of stock materials. The system allows to monitor operating conditions within the area on real time, needless to say, and business administration with civil minimum taken into consideration, e.g., stabilizing water quality by coordinating the purification plants within the system. (translated by NEDO)

  15. Comparative analysis of the application of different Low Power Wide Area Network technologies in power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Sui, Hong; Liao, Xing; Li, Junhao

    2018-03-01

    Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies developed rapidly in recent years, but the application principle of different LPWAN technologies in power grid is still not clear. This paper gives a comparative analysis of two mainstream LPWAN technologies including NB-IoT and LoRa, and gives an application suggestion of these two LPWAN technologies, which can guide the planning and construction of LPWAN in power grid.

  16. Camera Networks The Acquisition and Analysis of Videos over Wide Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2012-01-01

    As networks of video cameras are installed in many applications like security and surveillance, environmental monitoring, disaster response, and assisted living facilities, among others, image understanding in camera networks is becoming an important area of research and technology development. There are many challenges that need to be addressed in the process. Some of them are listed below: - Traditional computer vision challenges in tracking and recognition, robustness to pose, illumination, occlusion, clutter, recognition of objects, and activities; - Aggregating local information for wide

  17. Wide-Area Publish/Subscribe Mobile Resource Discovery Based on IPv6 GeoNetworking

    OpenAIRE

    Noguchi, Satoru; Matsuura, Satoshi; Inomata, Atsuo; Fujikawa, Kazutoshi; Sunahara, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Resource discovery is an essential function for distributed mobile applications integrated in vehicular communication systems. Key requirements of the mobile resource discovery are wide-area geographic-based discovery and scalable resource discovery not only inside a vehicular ad-hoc network but also through the Internet. While a number of resource discovery solutions have been proposed, most of them have focused on specific scale of network. Furthermore, managing a large number of mobile res...

  18. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Knowledge Enhancement Events: Waste Management Workshop After Action Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    REPORT DATE 16 MAR 2012 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 16 Mar 2012 - 30 Apr 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Wide Area Recovery and...Resiliency Program (WARRP) Waste Management Workshop After Action Report 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...the current situation. A new study from 2009 deems composting an option and this will be added to the tables. A suggestion was to add a vaccine

  19. Wide Area Protection Scheme Preventing Cascading Events Caused by Load Flow Transferring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun

    2013-01-01

    Load flow transferring after an initial contingency is regarded as one of the main reasons of causing unexpected cascading trips. A multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper to predict the load flow transferring from the point of view of impedance relays...... strategy. The simulation results indicate this strategy can successfully predict and prevent the unexpected relay operation caused by load flow transferring....

  20. High-Speed Optical Wide-Area Data-Communication Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacos, Steve P.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed fiber-optic wide-area network (WAN) for digital communication balances input and output flows of data with its internal capacity by routing traffic via dynamically interconnected routing planes. Data transmitted optically through network by wavelength-division multiplexing in synchronous or asynchronous packets. WAN implemented with currently available technology. Network is multiple-ring cyclic shuffle exchange network ensuring traffic reaches its destination with minimum number of hops.

  1. Multiagents-based wide area protection with best-effort adaptive strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yongli; Wang, Dewen [North China Electric Power University, Baoding (China); Song, Shaoqun [Fuzhou Electric Power Industry Bureau, Fujian Province (China)

    2009-02-15

    Abstract - Multi-trips of circuit breakers often occur within a short period in a severe blackout, and the tripping usually relates to relays' mal-operations. In fact, when two ore more electric primary devices are isolated by circuit breakers, the settings of most relays to protect their power system are getting infeasible and uncoordinated. Adaptive settings are needed to prevent them from wrong operation. This paper presents an adaptive protection scheme based on wide area information with best-effort protection strategy, and the outline of multiagents and WAN Based Adaptive Protection System (MAWAPS). In the scheme, the best-effort adaptive strategy is used to guarantee the adaptive settings to operate safely and effectively in most situations. The IP/SDH-based wide area network (WAN) is used to realize real-time wide area information exchange in the proposed protection scheme. Adaptive setting algorithms for the second stage zero-sequence current and phase overcurrent relays are proposed, which can provide larger line coverage than traditional relays. Moreover, multiagent techniques and IEC 61850 are employed to realize the fast communication between different agents, and MMS plays a prominent role in real-time remote communication. A simulating system has been developed according to the above ideas and approaches, and the experimental results show that the proposed adaptive protection scheme is feasible from the view of protective performance including the executing time. (author)

  2. Area-wide pest management of fruit flies in Hawaiian fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Roger I.; Jang, Eric B.; Klungness, L. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Four economically important fruit flies have been accidentally introduced into Hawaii: melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and the so-called Malaysian (solanaceous) fruit fly. Over 400 different host fruits are attacked. These fruit flies inhibit development of a diversified tropical fruit and vegetable industry, require that commercial fruits undergo quarantine treatment prior to export, and in Hawaii provide a breeding reservoir for their introduction into the continental United States. These exotic pests a serious threat of establishment into new areas with movement of people and commodities throughout the U.S. and the world. For example, if the Mediterranean fruit fly became established in California, projected losses would exceed $1 billion per year due to trade embargoes, loss of jobs, increased pesticide use, and direct crop loss. Present fruit fly control measures in Hawaii relay heavily on the application of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides to crops. Overuse of these insecticides has been implicated with secondary pest outbreaks, negative effects on beneficial insects, environmental contamination and adverse effects on human health. In 1999 a 5 year Area-wide Pest Management (AWPM) program was funded (for FY2000) for management of fruit flies in Hawaii. The goal of the Fruit Fly AWPM program is to develop and integrate biologically based pest management approaches that will result in area-wide suppression and control of fruit flies throughout selected agricultural areas of Hawaii. The IPM program will integrate two or more technologies into a comprehensive package that is economically viable, environmentally acceptable and sustainable. The program will result in a reduction in the use of organophosphate insecticides, and further growth and development of diversified agriculture in Hawaii. The technologies include: 1) field sanitation, 2) protein bait sprays and/or traps, 3) male annihilation with male lures and attractants, 4

  3. Interim Consequence Management Guidance for a Wide-Area Biological Attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raber, Ellen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kirvel, Robert [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); MacQueen, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Love, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dombroski, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McGrann, Thomas [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Richards, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Melius, Carl [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bunt, Thomas [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hibbard, Wilthea [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Greenwalt, Robert [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miles, Robin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dillon, Michael [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mancieri, Sav [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Harris, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Michalik, Richard [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wheeler, Richard [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoppes, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tucker, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Krauter, Paula [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knowlton, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, Lynn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Franco, Dave [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Einfeld, Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brockman, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Betty, Rita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-05-17

    The Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration (IBRD) program is a collaborative, interagency effort co-chaired by the Department of Homeland Security and Department of Defense aimed at improving the nation‘s ability to respond to and recover from a large-scale, wide-area, domestic attack involving the release of an environmentally persistent biological warfare agent. The program is focused on understanding interactions between the civilian and military sectors, and in building mutual support to carry out such remediations. This Interim Consequence Management Guidance document provides guidance for decisionmakers in executing activities required to respond to and recover from a biological incident affecting a wide urban area insofar as information is currently available. The spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis is discussed as the biological agent of primary concern because it is the most difficult of known bioterrorism agents to inactivate and is considered to be one of the key threat agents. Most other biological threat agents are much easier to remediate, and in many cases, inactivation would occur naturally within days as a result of environmental exposure; however, the framework and operational questions that need to be addressed are expected to remain the same. The guidance in this document is applicable to (1) enclosed facilities, such as commercial, residential, and continental U.S. military facilities; (2) semi-enclosed facilities, such as subways and public transit facilities; (3) outdoor areas (both localized and wide area), such as building exteriors, streets, parks, and other open spaces; (4) drinking water facilities; and (5) drinking water sources. This document follows an interagency framework [Planning Guidance for Recovery Following Biological Incidents (DHS and EPA 2009)]—which considered Raber et al. (2002) in its development—but takes the framework to a more operational level and provides guidance at key action and decision

  4. Recruitment of the middle temporal area by tactile motion in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, Maurice; Matteau, Isabelle; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    We used positron emission tomography to investigate whether tactile motion discrimination activates the dorsal visual stream in congenitally blind (CB) participants compared with sighted controls. The tactile stimuli consisted of either static dots, dots moving coherently in one of two possible...... indicate that the dorsal visual pathway is activated by tactile motion stimuli in CB, therefore providing additional support for the cross-modal plasticity hypothesis....

  5. The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in underserved rural areas: a crucial issue for future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, H; Yekta, A; Jafarzadehpur, E; Doostdar, A; Ostadimoghaddam, H; Khabazkhoob, M

    2017-08-01

    PurposeTo determine the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in underserved Iranian villages and to identify the most common cause of visual impairment and blindness.Patients and methodsMultistage cluster sampling was used to select the participants who were then invited to undergo complete examinations. Optometric examinations including visual acuity, and refraction were performed for all individuals. Ophthalmic examinations included slit-lamp biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy. Visual impairment was determined according to the definitions of the WHO and presenting vision.ResultsOf 3851 selected individuals, 3314 (86.5%) participated in the study. After using the exclusion criteria, the present report was prepared based on the data of 3095 participants. The mean age of the participants was 37.6±20.7 years (3-93 years). The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness was 6.43% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.71-9.14) and 1.18% (95% CI: 0.56-1.79), respectively. The prevalence of visual impairment varied from 0.75% in participants aged less than 5 years to 38.36% in individuals above the age of 70 years. Uncorrected refractive errors and cataract were the first and second leading causes of visual impairment; moreover, cataract and refractive errors were responsible for 35.90 and 20.51% of the cases of blindness, respectively.ConclusionThe prevalence of visual impairment was markedly high in this study. Lack of access to health services was the main reason for the high prevalence of visual impairment in this study. Cataract and refractive errors are responsible for 80% of visual impairments which can be due to poverty in underserved villages.

  6. A framework for activity detection in wide-area motion imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ruggiero, Christy E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morrison, Jack D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Wide-area persistent imaging systems are becoming increasingly cost effective and now large areas of the earth can be imaged at relatively high frame rates (1-2 fps). The efficient exploitation of the large geo-spatial-temporal datasets produced by these systems poses significant technical challenges for image and video analysis and data mining. In recent years there has been significant progress made on stabilization, moving object detection and tracking and automated systems now generate hundreds to thousands of vehicle tracks from raw data, with little human intervention. However, the tracking performance at this scale, is unreliable and average track length is much smaller than the average vehicle route. This is a limiting factor for applications which depend heavily on track identity, i.e. tracking vehicles from their points of origin to their final destination. In this paper we propose and investigate a framework for wide-area motion imagery (W AMI) exploitation that minimizes the dependence on track identity. In its current form this framework takes noisy, incomplete moving object detection tracks as input, and produces a small set of activities (e.g. multi-vehicle meetings) as output. The framework can be used to focus and direct human users and additional computation, and suggests a path towards high-level content extraction by learning from the human-in-the-loop.

  7. GNSS-based train positioning experiments with local and wide area augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X.; Schmidt, M.; Winter, J. [DaimlerChrysler Rail Systems (Signals) GmbH, Ulm (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Within the frame of the MAGNET Project ('Multimodal Approach for GNSS 1 in European Transport') of the Telematics Applications programme of the 4{sup th} Research Framework of the European Community (1994-1998), a GNSS-based Train Positioning Platform (TPP) has been developed and tested with the wide area augmentation system pre-EGNOS and a local differential GNSS system using a reference station. This paper presents the principle and the system architecture of the developed GNSS-based train positioning system and highlights the system performance achieved in field tests. The TPP consists of a GNSS core module with an EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service) decoding function, a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) data link for local GPS and GLONASS differential corrections, a digital route map and an interface to odometer. The first step to calculate the train position is to select either wide area or local area differential corrections depending on which are available. The position and velocity are then calculated and matched to the track by using the digital route map. Finally, the GNSS position and velocity data is integrated with odometer data in a sensor data fusion model. The integrated solution avoids the masking problem of GNSS signals and reduces odometer errors like drift and braking slip, so that a continuous positioning availability can be reached and the positioning accuracy can be improved to meter level. The achieved performance is being exploited for industrial applications. (orig.)

  8. New trends in InSAR time series analysis for wide area deformation mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, R. F.; Caro Cuenca, M.; Hooper, A.; Mahapatra, P.; Arikan, M.; Bekaert, D.

    2012-04-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) is a remote sensing technique that is extensively used to measure deformation at the Earth's surface. Although it has proven very successful to estimate small-scale (up to tens of km) deformation phenomena, InSAR still has limitations when applied to study wide areas (hundreds of km). First, radar observations are affected by atmospheric delay and errors in sensor position (also referred to as orbital errors). Both of these translate into large scale signals in InSAR estimations that can be interpreted as a non-existing deformation phenomenon. Second, since InSAR produces deformation maps relative to an area (or pixel) that is part of the observed track, combination of adjacent tracks requires the connection of these relative measurements to a common area or reference point. This operation is, however, non-trivial and is preferably performed in combination with in situ data. In this contribution, we explore different case studies where we address the aforementioned limitations to measure deformation in wide areas. They include the whole country of the Netherlands, the area of El Guerrero in Mexico and the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey. Our initial strategy is to filter out atmospheric and orbital errors assuming they are uncorrelated in time. However, this assumption does not always hold. Therefore, ancillary data, such as GPS and leveling, is also used for a precise estimation of the large scale deformation signal. Furthermore, datum connection is performed with ancillary data as well where different radar tracks and other geodetic data are combined to obtain the final deformation map in a common reference system. We also explore how compact radar transponders can help to tackle the datum connection problem.

  9. Emerging Technologies and Techniques for Wide Area Radiological Survey and Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhao, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Technologies to survey and decontaminate wide-area contamination and process the subsequent radioactive waste have been developed and implemented following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant release and the breach of a radiological source resulting in contamination in Goiania, Brazil. These civilian examples of radioactive material releases provided some of the first examples of urban radiological remediation. Many emerging technologies have recently been developed and demonstrated in Japan following the release of radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011. Information on technologies reported by several Japanese government agencies, such as the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and the National Institute for Environmental Science (NIES), together with academic institutions and industry are summarized and compared to recently developed, deployed and available technologies in the United States. The technologies and techniques presented in this report may be deployed in response to a wide area contamination event in the United States. In some cases, additional research and testing is needed to adequately validate the technology effectiveness over wide areas. Survey techniques can be deployed on the ground or from the air, allowing a range of coverage rates and sensitivities. Survey technologies also include those useful in measuring decontamination progress and mapping contamination. Decontamination technologies and techniques range from non-destructive (e.g., high pressure washing) and minimally destructive (plowing), to fully destructive (surface removal or demolition). Waste minimization techniques can greatly impact the long-term environmental consequences and cost following remediation efforts. Recommendations on technical improvements to address technology gaps are presented together with observations on remediation in Japan.

  10. MPWide: a light-weight library for efficient message passing over wide area networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Groen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present MPWide, a light weight communication library which allows efficient message passing over a distributed network. MPWide has been designed to connect application running on distributed (supercomputing resources, and to maximize the communication performance on wide area networks for those without administrative privileges. It can be used to provide message-passing between application, move files, and make very fast connections in client-server environments. MPWide has already been applied to enable distributed cosmological simulations across up to four supercomputers on two continents, and to couple two different bloodflow simulations to form a multiscale simulation.

  11. Multiagent System-Based Wide-Area Protection and Control Scheme against Cascading Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection and control scheme is proposed to deal with the long term voltage instability induced cascading trips. Based on sensitivity analysis between the relay operation margin and power system state variables, an optimal emergency control...... strategy. A hybrid simulation platform based on LabVIEW and real time digital simulator (RTDS) is set up to simulate a blackout case in the power system of Eastern Denmark and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MAS based protection strategy....

  12. Wide area 2D/3D imaging development, analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Langmann, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Imaging technology is an important research area and it is widely utilized in a growing number of disciplines ranging from gaming, robotics and automation to medicine. In the last decade 3D imaging became popular mainly driven by the introduction of novel 3D cameras and measuring devices. These cameras are usually limited to indoor scenes with relatively low distances. Benjamin Langmann introduces medium and long-range 2D/3D cameras to overcome these limitations. He reports measurement results for these devices and studies their characteristic behavior. In order to facilitate the application o

  13. Leaf Area Index (LAI Estimation of Boreal Forest Using Wide Optics Airborne Winter Photos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Stenberg

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new simple airborne method based on wide optics camera is developed for leaf area index (LAI estimation in coniferous forests. The measurements are carried out in winter, when the forest floor is completely snow covered and thus acts as a light background for the hemispherical analysis of the images. The photos are taken automatically and stored on a laptop during the flights. The R2 value of the linear regression of the airborne and ground based LAI measurements was 0.89.

  14. Research of the application of the Low Power Wide Area Network in power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Sui, Hong; Li, Jia; Yao, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies developed rapidly in recent years, but these technologies have not make large-scale applications in different application scenarios of power grid. LoRa is a mainstream LPWAN technology. This paper makes a comparison test of the signal coverage of LoRa and other traditional wireless communication technologies in typical signal environment of power grid. Based on the test results, this paper gives an application suggestion of LoRa in power grid services, which can guide the planning and construction of the LPWAN in power grid.

  15. A Flexible 5G Wide Area Solution for TDD with Asymmetric Link Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus I.; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Frederiksen, Frank

    2017-01-01

    A flexible multi-service 5G wide area (WA) solution for time division duplex (TDD) operation is outlined in this article. In particular, the Associated frame design is in focus. Given the fundamental tradeoffs between capacity, coverage, latency, and reliability, a flexible solution that allows...... operation is proposed, where users operate with different minimum transmission times for the two link directions. This is achieved by using a highly flexible asynchronous hybrid Automatic repeat request (HARQ) scheme, as well as a novel solution with in-resource control channel signaling for the scheduling...

  16. Solar 27-day rotational period detected in wide-area lightning activity in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Hiroko; Higuchi, Chika; Terasawa, Toshio; Kataoka, Ryuho; Sato, Mitsuteru; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    2017-04-01

    A signal of the 27-day solar rotational period is often observed in cloud and lightning activities over the globe. Here we provide evidence of the 27-day periodicity of lightning activity in Japan using daily observational records of lightning for AD 1989-2015. The 27-day period is detected with 4.2 standard deviations, but only in wide-area lightning activity covering more than a 105 km2. The 27-day signal is more prominent around the maxima of solar decadal cycles.

  17. Applied techniques for high bandwidth data transfers across wide area networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Gunter, D.; Tierney, B.; Allcock, B.; Bester, J.; Bresnahan, J.; Tuecke, S.

    2001-01-01

    Large distributed systems such as Computational/Data Grids require large amounts of data to be co-located with the computing facilities for processing. From their work developing a scalable distributed network cache, the authors have gained experience with techniques necessary to achieve high data throughput over high bandwidth Wide Area Networks (WAN). The authors discuss several hardware and software design techniques, and then describe their application to an implementation of an enhanced FTP protocol called GridFTP. The authors describe results from the Supercomputing 2000 conference

  18. Decentralized Gauss-Newton method for nonlinear least squares on wide area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanchao; Ling, Qing; Han, Zhu

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a decentralized approach of Gauss-Newton (GN) method for nonlinear least squares (NLLS) on wide area network (WAN). In a multi-agent system, a centralized GN for NLLS requires the global GN Hessian matrix available at a central computing unit, which may incur large communication overhead. In the proposed decentralized alternative, each agent only needs local GN Hessian matrix to update iterates with the cooperation of neighbors. The detail formulation of decentralized NLLS on WAN is given, and the iteration at each agent is defined. The convergence property of the decentralized approach is analyzed, and numerical results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  19. Solar 27-day rotational period detected in wide-area lightning activity in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Miyahara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A signal of the 27-day solar rotational period is often observed in cloud and lightning activities over the globe. Here we provide evidence of the 27-day periodicity of lightning activity in Japan using daily observational records of lightning for AD 1989–2015. The 27-day period is detected with 4.2 standard deviations, but only in wide-area lightning activity covering more than a 105 km2. The 27-day signal is more prominent around the maxima of solar decadal cycles.

  20. Stochastic Characterization of Communication Network Latency for Wide Area Grid Control Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameme, Dan Selorm Kwami [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guttromson, Ross [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This report characterizes communications network latency under various network topologies and qualities of service (QoS). The characterizations are probabilistic in nature, allowing deeper analysis of stability for Internet Protocol (IP) based feedback control systems used in grid applications. The work involves the use of Raspberry Pi computers as a proxy for a controlled resource, and an ns-3 network simulator on a Linux server to create an experimental platform (testbed) that can be used to model wide-area grid control network communications in smart grid. Modbus protocol is used for information transport, and Routing Information Protocol is used for dynamic route selection within the simulated network.

  1. Wide-area Power System Oscillation Damping using Model Predictive Control Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Tarek Hassan; Abdel-Rahim, Abdel-Moamen Mohammed; Hassan, Ahmed Abd-Eltawwab; Hiyama, Takashi

    This paper presents a new approach to deal with the problem of robust tuning of power system stabilizer (PSS) and automatic voltage regulator (AVR) in multi-machine power systems. The proposed method is based on a model predictive control (MPC) technique, for improvement stability of the wide-area power system with multiple generators and distribution systems including dispersed generations. The proposed method provides better damping of power system oscillations under small and large disturbances even with the inclusion of local PSSs. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through a two areas, four machines power system. A performance comparison between the proposed controller and some of other controllers is carried out confirming the superiority of the proposed technique. It has also been observed that the proposed algorithm can be successfully applied to larger multiarea power systems and do not suffer with computational difficulties. The proposed algorithm carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package.

  2. A multicenter, longitudinal, interventional, double blind randomized clinical trial in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients residing in remote areas: Lessons learned from the late cytomegalovirus prevention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise E. Kimball

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Complex randomized, double-blind, multicenter interventional trials with treatment decisions made at a central coordinating site can be conducted safely and effectively according to Good Clinical Practice (GCP guidelines over a large geographic area.

  3. Tile prediction schemes for wide area motion imagery maps in GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Chris J.; Lin, Bruce Y.

    2017-11-01

    Wide-area surveillance, traffic monitoring, and emergency management are just several of many applications benefiting from the incorporation of Wide-Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) maps into geographic information systems. Though the use of motion imagery as a GIS base map via the Web Map Service (WMS) standard is not a new concept, effectively streaming imagery is particularly challenging due to its large scale and the multidimensionally interactive nature of clients that use WMS. Ineffective streaming from a server to one or more clients can unnecessarily overwhelm network bandwidth and cause frustratingly large amounts of latency in visualization to the user. Seamlessly streaming WAMI through GIS requires good prediction to accurately guess the tiles of the video that will be traversed in the near future. In this study, we present an experimental framework for such prediction schemes by presenting a stochastic interaction model that represents a human user's interaction with a GIS video map. We then propose several algorithms by which the tiles of the stream may be predicted. Results collected both within the experimental framework and using human analyst trajectories show that, though each algorithm thrives under certain constraints, the novel Markovian algorithm yields the best results overall. Furthermore, we make the argument that the proposed experimental framework is sufficient for the study of these prediction schemes.

  4. Farmer education and organization in the Hawaii area-wide fruit fly pest management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mau, Ronald F.L.; Sugano, J.S.; Jang, Eric

    2003-01-01

    A critical component of successful area wide pest management (AWPM) programs are organized, coordinated and comprehensive outreach educational programs. The Hawaii area wide fruit fly pest management (HAW-FLYPM) program's educational program, a part of a USDA AWPM program in Hawaii, utilized the 'logic model' approach to organize, plan, execute and evaluate farmer and community educational programs statewide. The logic model approach was an outcome-driven rather than activity based method that employed a linear sequence that developed relationships between program inputs, outputs and outcomes. This model was utilized extensively to transfer sustainable, science-based technologies to suppress tephritid fruit fly pests. HAW-FLYPM's educational program targeted growers and community door yard growers, three teaching curricula aimed at elementary through high school students, and a statewide awareness program for the pubic at large. Additional key components of the HAW-FLYPM education program was the development of implementation schedules used to track program progress, a comprehensive media matrix developed to ensure educational materials met the needs of target audience groups, and a sustainability calculator to assess the likelihood of program sustainability after the initial five year funding cycle. The model served as a 'blue print' for ensuring program elements were planned, delivered and executed on a timely basis. Utilization of the logic model to organize efforts and manage diverse, multi agency programs such as the HAW-FLYPM program has shown to be a successful method of program advancement and outcome achievement. (author)

  5. Blanket illumination vs scanned-mosaicking imaging schemes for wide-area photoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Quinn; Harrison, Tyler; Zemp, Roger J.

    2015-03-01

    We compare scanned-mosaicking and blanket illumination schemes for wide-field photoacoustic tomography with potential applications to breast imaging. For each illumination, a locally high-SNR image patch is reconstructed then mosaicked with image patches from other illuminations. Because the beam is not diffused over the entire area, the fluence of the beam can be maximized, therefore maximizing the signal generated. Moreover, the imaging can potentially still be done fast enough within a breath-hold. A Monte Carlo simulation as a function of beam-spot size and depth is performed to quantify this signal gain. We experimentally test both schemes using a 256-element Imasonic ring array on a tissue-mimicking phantom. We were able to verify the simulated signal gain of 2.9x under 0.5 cm of tissue with the experimental data, and measured the signal gain decrease expected when imaging deeper into the tissue. We also measured the effectiveness of averaging the diffused beam versus the scanned-mosaicking approach, and observed that for the same scan times and limited laser power output, scanned-mosaicking was able to produce a higher SNR than the blanket illumination approach. We have shown that this technique will allow wide-area PAT to utilize the maximum SNR available from any system while minimizing the number of acquisitions to reach this SNR.

  6. Wide area data replication in an ITER-relevant data environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centioli, C.; Iannone, F.; Panella, M.; Vitale, V.; Bracco, G.; Guadagni, R.; Migliori, S.; Steffe, M.; Eccher, S.; Maslennikov, A.; Mililotti, M.; Molowny, M.; Palumbo, G.; Carboni, M.

    2005-01-01

    The next generation of tokamak experiments will require a new way of approaching data sharing issues among fusion organizations. In the fusion community, many researchers at different worldwide sites will analyse data produced by International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), wherever it will be built. In this context, an efficient availability of the data in the sites where the computational resources are located becomes a major architectural issue for the deployment of ITER computational infrastructure. The approach described in this paper goes beyond the usual site-centric model mainly devoted to granting access exclusively to experimental data stored at the device sites. To this aim, we propose a new data replication architecture relying on a wide area network, based on a Master/Slave model and on synchronization techniques producing mirrored data sites. In this architecture, data replication will affect large databases (TB) as well as large UNIX-like file systems, using open source-based software components, namely MySQL, as database management system, and RSYNC and BBFTP for data transfer. A test-bed has been set up to evaluate the performance of the software components underlying the proposed architecture. The test-bed hardware layout deploys a cluster of four Dual-Xeon Supermicro each with a raid array of 1 TB. High performance network line (1 Gbit over 400 km) provides the infrastructure to test the components on a wide area network. The results obtained will be thoroughly discussed

  7. Wide area data replication in an ITER-relevant data environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centioli, C. [Associazione EURATOM/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, p.b. 65, 00044 Frascati Rome (Italy); Iannone, F. [Associazione EURATOM/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, p.b. 65, 00044 Frascati Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: francesco.iannone@frascati.enea.it; Panella, M. [Associazione EURATOM/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, p.b. 65, 00044 Frascati Rome (Italy); Vitale, V. [Associazione EURATOM/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, p.b. 65, 00044 Frascati Rome (Italy); Bracco, G. [ENEA-INFO Central Computer and Network Service, Lungotevere Thaon di Revel 76, 00196 Rome (Italy); Guadagni, R. [ENEA-INFO Central Computer and Network Service, Lungotevere Thaon di Revel 76, 00196 Rome (Italy); Migliori, S. [ENEA-INFO Central Computer and Network Service, Lungotevere Thaon di Revel 76, 00196 Rome (Italy); Steffe, M. [ENEA-INFO Central Computer and Network Service, Lungotevere Thaon di Revel 76, 00196 Rome (Italy); Eccher, S. [CASPUR Inter-University Computing Consortium, Via dei Tizii 6B, 00185 Rome (Italy); Maslennikov, A. [CASPUR Inter-University Computing Consortium, Via dei Tizii 6B, 00185 Rome (Italy); Mililotti, M. [CASPUR Inter-University Computing Consortium, Via dei Tizii 6B, 00185 Rome (Italy); Molowny, M. [CASPUR Inter-University Computing Consortium, Via dei Tizii 6B, 00185 Rome (Italy); Palumbo, G. [CASPUR Inter-University Computing Consortium, Via dei Tizii 6B, 00185 Rome (Italy); Carboni, M. [GARR Consortium - Viale Palmiro Togliatti 1625, 00155 Rome (Italy)

    2005-11-15

    The next generation of tokamak experiments will require a new way of approaching data sharing issues among fusion organizations. In the fusion community, many researchers at different worldwide sites will analyse data produced by International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), wherever it will be built. In this context, an efficient availability of the data in the sites where the computational resources are located becomes a major architectural issue for the deployment of ITER computational infrastructure. The approach described in this paper goes beyond the usual site-centric model mainly devoted to granting access exclusively to experimental data stored at the device sites. To this aim, we propose a new data replication architecture relying on a wide area network, based on a Master/Slave model and on synchronization techniques producing mirrored data sites. In this architecture, data replication will affect large databases (TB) as well as large UNIX-like file systems, using open source-based software components, namely MySQL, as database management system, and RSYNC and BBFTP for data transfer. A test-bed has been set up to evaluate the performance of the software components underlying the proposed architecture. The test-bed hardware layout deploys a cluster of four Dual-Xeon Supermicro each with a raid array of 1 TB. High performance network line (1 Gbit over 400 km) provides the infrastructure to test the components on a wide area network. The results obtained will be thoroughly discussed.

  8. Wide-area video exploitation (WAVE) joint data management (JDM) for layered sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Seetharaman, Guna; Russell, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Emerging technologies of high performance computing facilitate increased data collection for wide area sensing; however, joint data management concepts of operations (CONOPs) are important to fully realize system-level performance. Joint data management (JDM) includes the hardware (e.g. sensors/targets), software (e.g. processing/algorithms), entities (e.g. service-based collections), and operations (scenario-based environments) of data exchange that enable persistent surveillance in the context of a layered sensing or data-to-decision (D2D) information fusion enterprise. Key attributes of an information fusion enterprise system require pragmatic assessment of data and information management, distributed communications, knowledge representation as well as a sensor mix, algorithm choice, life-cycle data management, and human-systems interaction. In this paper, we explore the various issues surrounding Wide-Area Video Exploitation (WAVE) in a layered-sensing environment to include improvements in Joint Data Management such as (1) data collection, construction, and transformation, (2) feature generation, extraction and selection, and (3) information evaluation, presentation, and dissemination. Throughout the paper, we seek to describe the current technology, research directions, and metrics that instantiate a realizable JDM product. We develop the methods for joint data management for structured and unstructured WAVE data in the context of decision making. Discerning accurate track and identification target information from WAVE JDM provides a moving intelligence (MOVINT) capability.

  9. KOLAM: a cross-platform architecture for scalable visualization and tracking in wide-area imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Joshua; Haridas, Anoop; Seetharaman, Guna; Rao, Raghuveer M.; Palaniappan, Kannappan

    2013-05-01

    KOLAM is an open, cross-platform, interoperable, scalable and extensible framework supporting a novel multi- scale spatiotemporal dual-cache data structure for big data visualization and visual analytics. This paper focuses on the use of KOLAM for target tracking in high-resolution, high throughput wide format video also known as wide-area motion imagery (WAMI). It was originally developed for the interactive visualization of extremely large geospatial imagery of high spatial and spectral resolution. KOLAM is platform, operating system and (graphics) hardware independent, and supports embedded datasets scalable from hundreds of gigabytes to feasibly petabytes in size on clusters, workstations, desktops and mobile computers. In addition to rapid roam, zoom and hyper- jump spatial operations, a large number of simultaneously viewable embedded pyramid layers (also referred to as multiscale or sparse imagery), interactive colormap and histogram enhancement, spherical projection and terrain maps are supported. The KOLAM software architecture was extended to support airborne wide-area motion imagery by organizing spatiotemporal tiles in very large format video frames using a temporal cache of tiled pyramid cached data structures. The current version supports WAMI animation, fast intelligent inspection, trajectory visualization and target tracking (digital tagging); the latter by interfacing with external automatic tracking software. One of the critical needs for working with WAMI is a supervised tracking and visualization tool that allows analysts to digitally tag multiple targets, quickly review and correct tracking results and apply geospatial visual analytic tools on the generated trajectories. One-click manual tracking combined with multiple automated tracking algorithms are available to assist the analyst and increase human effectiveness.

  10. Quantifying Wide-Area Continental Deformation: Palinspastic Reconstruction of the Northern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, C.; Rodriguez-Corcho, A. F.; Hoyos, N.; Cardona, A.; Bayona, G.

    2017-12-01

    The northern Andes could either be called a very wide plate margin, or an area of intraplate distributed deformation. At its apex, the northern Andes reach 5500 m elevation, nearly 600 km inboard from the margin (this is as far inland as the Sierras Pampeanas in Argentina). This part of the Andean belt is characterized by northeast-trending, wide deformation belts that turn eastwardly to define the sharp southern Caribbean plate boundary to the east. Regardless of kinematic model preferences, or reconstruction methodologies, any attempt to map deformation in the northern Andes and the southern Caribbean plate should honor known strain datasets and chronology of deformation in a way that allows quantification of wide- area deformation. We compiled all available strain datasets. These include shortening estimates, paleomagnetic declination data, and discrete kinematic markers. Shortening in the northern Andes has traditionally been estimated by constructing cross-sections perpendicular to the main structural trends, therefore missing any along-strike deformation. Recent GPS data confirms that modern convergence vectors are oblique to main structural trends, not orthogonal. Despite differences in interpretation and structural style, cross-sections across the Eastern cordillera of Colombia show roughly consistent shortening values. A paleomagnetic dataset shows that large vertical-axis clockwise rotations are dominant in the northwestern corner of South America and southern Caribbean margin, but absent in the Eastern cordillera. Vertical-axis rotations are again large in the Central American arc. Paleogeographic piercing points such as stranded high-grade clasts, displaced metamorphic belts, and provenance analyses, constrain strike-slip faulting, where often several hundreds of kilometers of displacement can be inferred. Combining all of these datasets into a single kinematic reconstruction (using freeware GPlates), that also respects known timing of deformation

  11. Blind I/Q imbalance and nonlinear ISI mitigation in Nyquist-SCM direct detection system with cascaded widely linear and Volterra equalizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Ju, Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Nyquist-SCM signal after fiber transmission, direct detection (DD), and analog down-conversion suffers from linear ISI, nonlinear ISI, and I/Q imbalance, simultaneously. Theoretical analysis based on widely linear (WL) and Volterra series is given to explain the relationship and interaction of these three interferences. A blind equalization algorithm, cascaded WL and Volterra equalizer, is designed to mitigate these three interferences. Furthermore, the feasibility of the proposed cascaded algorithm is experimentally demonstrated based on a 40-Gbps data rate 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) virtual single sideband (VSSB) Nyquist-SCM DD system over 100-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) transmission. In addition, the performances of conventional strictly linear equalizer, WL equalizer, Volterra equalizer, and cascaded WL and Volterra equalizer are experimentally evaluated, respectively.

  12. A wide area of air pollutant impact downwind of a freeway during pre-sunrise hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shishan; Fruin, Scott; Kozawa, Kathleen; Mara, Steve; Paulson, Suzanne E.; Winer, Arthur M.

    We have observed a wide area of air pollutant impact downwind of a freeway during pre-sunrise hours in both winter and summer seasons. In contrast, previous studies have shown much sharper air pollutant gradients downwind of freeways, with levels above background concentrations extending only 300 m downwind of roadways during the day and up to 500 m at night. In this study, real-time air pollutant concentrations were measured along a 3600 m transect normal to an elevated freeway 1-2 h before sunrise using an electric vehicle mobile platform equipped with fast-response instruments. In winter pre-sunrise hours, the peak ultrafine particle (UFP) concentration (˜95 000 cm -3) occurred immediately downwind of the freeway. However, downwind UFP concentrations as high as ˜40 000 cm -3 extended at least 1200 m from the freeway, and did not reach background levels (˜15 000 cm -3) until a distance of about 2600 m. UFP concentrations were also elevated over background levels up to 600 m upwind of the freeway. Other pollutants, such as NO and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, exhibited similar long-distance downwind concentration gradients. In contrast, air pollutant concentrations measured on the same route after sunrise, in the morning and afternoon, exhibited the typical daytime downwind decrease to background levels within ˜300 m as found in earlier studies. Although pre-sunrise traffic volumes on the freeway were much lower than daytime congestion peaks, downwind UFP concentrations were significantly higher during pre-sunrise hours than during the daytime. UFP and NO concentrations were also strongly correlated with traffic counts on the freeway. We associate these elevated pre-sunrise concentrations over a wide area with a nocturnal surface temperature inversion, low wind speeds, and high relative humidity. Observation of such wide air pollutant impact area downwind of a major roadway prior to sunrise has important exposure assessment implications

  13. Simulating Brown hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas dispersion: a tool for wildlife management of wide areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Amici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the 20th century was characterised by intense processes of urbanisation, industrialisation and agricultural mechanisation, leading to a fragmentation of the agricultural and forest landscape. This, in turn, reduced the bio-permeability of the territory and affected the dispersion of many wild species. Brown hare (Lepus europeus dispersion is dramatically affected by habitat fragmentation, presence of predators, intense tillage and elevated hunting pressure. Consequently, the only stable populations of hare are often in no-hunting areas where wildlife management is efficient. It is necessary, therefore, to identify not only additional areas suitable for reproduction, but also the most suitable dispersion pathways for hares, in order to optimise management. In the present study, by means of a Geographic Information System (GIS, a deterministic hare suitability model was developed on the basis of a multicriterial approach and fuzzy logic. Subsequently, a friction surface was derived from the suitability map in order to describe the land bio-permeability. Finally, on the basis of species potential, the spread of hares from stable population areas (source areas to the remaining territory was simulated. The area of study was the province of Viterbo (central Italy. The suitability map showed good discrimination ability (ROC=0.705. The hare dispersion simulation map allowed the potential spreading of this species throughout the provincial territory to be analysed. Isolated or less connected zones were highlighted, allowing the distribution of habitat enhancements, and/or the institution of new no-hunting areas devoted to the reproduction and consequent spread of hares throughout the territory, to be localised. The presented flexible and reiterable methodology could prove useful for wildlife management and hunting planning over a wide area. It would thus provide an important contribution to reducing the importance of animal

  14. The Study on the Communication Network of Wide Area Measurement System in Electricity Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaorong, Cheng; Ying, Wang; Yangdan, Ni

    Wide area measurement system(WAMS) is a fundamental part of security defense in Smart Grid, and the communication system of WAMS is an important part of Electric power communication network. For a large regional network is concerned, the real-time data which is transferred in the communication network of WAMS will affect the safe operation of the power grid directly. Therefore, WAMS raised higher requirements for real-time, reliability and security to its communication network. In this paper, the architecture of WASM communication network was studied according to the seven layers model of the open systems interconnection(OSI), and the network architecture was researched from all levels. We explored the media of WAMS communication network, the network communication protocol and network technology. Finally, the delay of the network were analyzed.

  15. Novel approach for all-optical packet switching in wide-area networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlamtac, Imrich; Fumagalli, Andrea F.; Wedzinga, Gosse

    1998-09-01

    All-optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) networks are believed to be a fundamental component in future high speed backbones. However, while wavelength routing made circuit switching in WDM feasible the reality of extant optical technology does not yet provide the necessary devices to achieve individual optical packet switching. This paper proposes to achieve all-optical packet switching in WDM Wide Area Networks (WANs) via a novel technique, called slot routing. Using slot routing, entire slots, each carrying multiple packets on distinct wavelengths, are switched transparently and individually. As a result packets can be optically transmitted and switched in the network using available fast and wavelength non-sensitive devices. The proposed routing technique leads to an optical packet switching solution, that is simple, practical, and unique as it makes it possible to build a WDM all-optical WAN with optical devices based on proven technologies.

  16. Sensor-Aware Recognition and Tracking for Wide-Area Augmented Reality on Mobile Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Cao, Ruochen; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-12-10

    Wide-area registration in outdoor environments on mobile phones is a challenging task in mobile augmented reality fields. We present a sensor-aware large-scale outdoor augmented reality system for recognition and tracking on mobile phones. GPS and gravity information is used to improve the VLAD performance for recognition. A kind of sensor-aware VLAD algorithm, which is self-adaptive to different scale scenes, is utilized to recognize complex scenes. Considering vision-based registration algorithms are too fragile and tend to drift, data coming from inertial sensors and vision are fused together by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to achieve considerable improvements in tracking stability and robustness. Experimental results show that our method greatly enhances the recognition rate and eliminates the tracking jitters.

  17. Prospects for the introduction of Wide Area Monitoring Using Environmental Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogman, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear proliferation signatures released to the environment must be collected and distinguished from primordial and man-made backgrounds in soils, sediments, air, and surface and underground water. The delay time between the nuclear proliferation emissions and the date of the Wide-Area Environmental Sampling (WAES) analysis will determine which radionuclides would be analyzed based upon their half-lives. Various sampling and analysis technologies have been considered here for application to a WAES. Sampling procedures and equipment discussed are aimed at aquatic, airborne particulate, gas, vegetation, sediment and/or soil, and fauna media. Specific procedures must be selected based upon the application scenario; for example, sampling in the northern latitudes under freezing conditions, sampling at the equator under tropical rain-forest conditions, sampling in the mid-latitudes under desert conditions, and sampling in the marine environment require different equipment and procedures. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  18. Applied techniques for high bandwidth data transfers across wide area networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jason; Gunter, Dan; Tierney, Brian; Allcock, Bill; Bester, Joe; Bresnahan, John; Tuecke, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Large distributed systems such as Computational/Data Grids require large amounts of data to be co-located with the computing facilities for processing. Ensuring that the data is there in time for the computation in today's Internet is a massive problem. From our work developing a scalable distributed network cache, we have gained experience with techniques necessary to achieve high data throughput over high bandwidth Wide Area Networks (WAN). In this paper, we discuss several hardware and software design techniques and issues, and then describe their application to an implementation of an enhanced FTP protocol called GridFTP. We also describe results from two applications using these techniques, which were obtained at the Supercomputing 2000 conference

  19. A scalable middleware solution for advanced wide-area Web services

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steen, Maarten; Tanenbaum, Andrew S.; Kuz, Ihor; Sips, Henk J.

    1999-03-01

    To alleviate scalability problems in the Web, many researchers concentrate on how to incorporate advanced caching and replication techniques. Many solutions incorporate object-based techniques. In particular, Web resources are considered as distributed objects offering a well-defined interface. We argue that most proposals ignore two important aspects. First, there is little discussion on what kind of coherence should be provided. Proposing specific caching or replication solutions makes sense only if we know what coherence model they should implement. Second, most proposals treat all Web resources alike. Such a one-size-fits-all approach will never work in a wide-area system. We propose a solution in which Web resources are encapsulated in physically distributed shared objects. Each object should encapsulate not only state and operations, but also the policy by which its state is distributed, cached, replicated, migrated, etc.

  20. Sensor-Aware Recognition and Tracking for Wide-Area Augmented Reality on Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wide-area registration in outdoor environments on mobile phones is a challenging task in mobile augmented reality fields. We present a sensor-aware large-scale outdoor augmented reality system for recognition and tracking on mobile phones. GPS and gravity information is used to improve the VLAD performance for recognition. A kind of sensor-aware VLAD algorithm, which is self-adaptive to different scale scenes, is utilized to recognize complex scenes. Considering vision-based registration algorithms are too fragile and tend to drift, data coming from inertial sensors and vision are fused together by an extended Kalman filter (EKF to achieve considerable improvements in tracking stability and robustness. Experimental results show that our method greatly enhances the recognition rate and eliminates the tracking jitters.

  1. Sensor-Aware Recognition and Tracking for Wide-Area Augmented Reality on Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Cao, Ruochen; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-01-01

    Wide-area registration in outdoor environments on mobile phones is a challenging task in mobile augmented reality fields. We present a sensor-aware large-scale outdoor augmented reality system for recognition and tracking on mobile phones. GPS and gravity information is used to improve the VLAD performance for recognition. A kind of sensor-aware VLAD algorithm, which is self-adaptive to different scale scenes, is utilized to recognize complex scenes. Considering vision-based registration algorithms are too fragile and tend to drift, data coming from inertial sensors and vision are fused together by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to achieve considerable improvements in tracking stability and robustness. Experimental results show that our method greatly enhances the recognition rate and eliminates the tracking jitters. PMID:26690439

  2. Management of area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, V.A.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Reyes Flores, J.; Regidor Fernandez, E.E.; Teruya, T.; Barnes, B.; Gomez Riera, P.; Lindquist, D.; Loosjes, M.

    2005-01-01

    Effective management of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) is key to success. Programme planning includes collection of baseline data and a feasibility assessment. The optimal management structure is where the programme can be implemented effectively and flexibly, independent of government politics, bureaucracy, and even corruption that impede timely goal achievement. Ideally, programmes include both public and private management, and require strong and steady financial support. Governments and donors are the most common sources of funds, but a mixture of public, community, and private funds is now the trend. Interrupted cash flow severely restrains programme performance. Physical support of programme operations must be reliable, and led by a maintenance professional. It is essential to have full-time, well-paid, and motivated staff led by a programme manger with technical and management experience. Programme failure is usually due to poor management and inadequate public support, and not to poor technology. (author)

  3. Fast Restoration Based on Alternative Wavelength Paths in a Wide Area Optical IP Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Francesco; Rea, Luca; Venezia, Matteo; Capanna, Lorenzo; Del Prete, Giuseppe

    In this article we describe an experimental investigation of IP network restoration based on wavelength recovery. We propose a procedure for metro and wide area gigabit Ethernet networks that allows us to route the wavelength in case of link failure to another existing link by exploiting wavelength division multiplexing in the fiber. Such a procedure is obtained by means of an optical switch that is managed by a loss-of-light signal that is generated by a router in case of link failure. Such a method has been tested in an IP network consisting of three core routers with optical gigabit Ethernet interfaces connected by means of 50-km-long single-mode fibers between Rome and Pomezia. Compared with other conventional restoration techniques, such as OSPF and MPLS, our method -in very fast (20 ms) and is compatible with real-time TV services and low-cost chips.

  4. Event Based Simulator for Parallel Computing over the Wide Area Network for Real Time Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Elankovan; Harwood, Aaron; Kotagiri, Ramamohanarao; Satria Prabuwono, Anton

    As the computational requirement of applications in computational science continues to grow tremendously, the use of computational resources distributed across the Wide Area Network (WAN) becomes advantageous. However, not all applications can be executed over the WAN due to communication overhead that can drastically slowdown the computation. In this paper, we introduce an event based simulator to investigate the performance of parallel algorithms executed over the WAN. The event based simulator known as SIMPAR (SIMulator for PARallel computation), simulates the actual computations and communications involved in parallel computation over the WAN using time stamps. Visualization of real time applications require steady stream of processed data flow for visualization purposes. Hence, SIMPAR may prove to be a valuable tool to investigate types of applications and computing resource requirements to provide uninterrupted flow of processed data for real time visualization purposes. The results obtained from the simulation show concurrence with the expected performance using the L-BSP model.

  5. Secure wide area network access to CMS analysis data using the Lustre filesystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourilkov, D.; Avery, P.; Cheng, M.; Fu, Y.; Kim, B.; Palencia, J.; Budden, R.; Benninger, K.; Rodriquez, J. L.; Dilascio, J.; Dykstra, D.; Seenu, N.

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports the design and implementation of a secure, wide area network (WAN), distributed filesystem by the ExTENCI project (Extending Science Through Enhanced National CyberInfrastructure), based on the Lustre filesystem. The system is used for remote access to analysis data from the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and from the Lattice Quantum ChromoDynamics (LQCD) project. Security is provided by Kerberos authentication and authorization with additional fine grained control based on Lustre ACLs (Access Control List) and quotas. We investigate the impact of using various Kerberos security flavors on the I/O rates of CMS applications on client nodes reading and writing data to the Lustre filesystem, and on LQCD benchmarks. The clients can be real or virtual nodes. We are investigating additional options for user authentication based on user certificates.

  6. Strategic options in using sterile insects for area-wide integrated pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrichs, J.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Enkerlin, W.R.; Cayol, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The four strategic options, 'suppression', 'eradication', 'containment' and 'prevention', in which the sterile insect technique (SIT) can be deployed as part of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) interventions, are defined and described in relation to the contexts in which they are applied against exotic or naturally occurring major insect pests. Advantages and disadvantages of these strategic options are analysed, and examples of successful programmes provided. Considerations of pest status, biology and distribution affecting decision-making in relation to strategy selection are reviewed and discussed in terms of feasibility assessment, and programme planning and implementation. Unrealistic expectations are often associated with applying the SIT, resulting in high political costs to change a strategy during implementation. The choice of strategy needs to be assessed carefully, and considerable baseline data obtained to prepare for the selected strategy, before embarking on an AW-IPM programme with an SIT component. (author)

  7. Detecting Topological Errors with Pre-Estimation Filtering of Bad Data in Wide-Area Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Sørensen, Mads; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur

    2017-01-01

    It is expected that bad data and missing topology information will become an issue of growing concern when power system state estimators are to exploit the high measurement reporting rates from phasor measurement units. This paper suggests to design state estimators with enhanced resilience against...... those issues. The work presented here include a review of a pre-estimation filter for bad data. A method for detecting branch status errors which may also be applied before the state estimation is then proposed. Both methods are evaluated through simulation on a novel test platform for wide......-area measurement applications. It is found that topology errors may be detected even under influence of the large dynamics following the loss of a heavily loaded branch....

  8. High-speed wide area, data intensive computing: A Ten Year Retrospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, William E.

    1998-05-01

    Modern scientific computing involves organizing, moving, visualizing, and analyzing massive amounts of data from around the world, as well as employing large-scale computation. The distributed systems that solve large-scale problems will always involve aggregating and scheduling many resources. Data must be located and staged, cache and network capacity must be available at the same time as computing capacity, etc. Every aspect of such a system is dynamic: locating and scheduling resources, adapting running application systems to availability and congestion in the middleware and infrastructure, responding to human interaction, etc. The technologies, the middleware services, and the architectures that are used to build useful high-speed, wide area distributed systems, constitute the field of data intensive computing. This paper explores some of the history and future directions of that field.

  9. Reflectance of Biological Turbid Tissues under Wide Area Illumination: Single Backward Scattering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guennadi Saiko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various scenarios of light propagation paths in turbid media (single backward scattering, multiple backward scattering, banana shape are discussed and their contributions to reflectance spectra are estimated. It has been found that a single backward or multiple forward scattering quasi-1D paths can be the major contributors to reflected spectra in wide area illumination scenario. Such a single backward scattering (SBS approximation allows developing of an analytical approach which can take into account refractive index mismatched boundary conditions and multilayer geometry and can be used for real-time spectral processing. The SBS approach can be potentially applied for the distances between the transport and reduced scattering domains. Its validation versus the Kubelka-Munk model, path integrals, and diffusion approximation of the radiation transport theory is discussed.

  10. The High Performance and Wide Area Analysis and Mining of Scientific & Engineering Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, R.

    2002-12-01

    This final report summarizes our accomplishments and findings and includes recent publications occurring in the final period of this award. One of our research goals was to develop algorithms and services for remote data analysis and distributed data mining which scaled from the commodity internet to high performance networks. When we began the project there was no effective mechanisms to achieve high end to end performance for data intensive applications over wide area, high bandwidth networks. For this reason, we developed algorithms and services for Layers 2,3, and 4 in the simple data web application stack below. We describe our research accomplishments for each of these layers in turn: Layer 4--Data Web Applications; Layer 3--Data Web Services; Layer 2--Network Protocol Services; Layer 1--IP.

  11. Grid-optimized Web 3D applications on wide area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Frank; Helian, Na; Meng, Lingkui; Wu, Sining; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Yike; Parker, Michael Andrew

    2008-08-01

    Geographical information system has come into the Web Service times now. In this paper, Web3D applications have been developed based on our developed Gridjet platform, which provides a more effective solution for massive 3D geo-dataset sharing in distributed environments. Web3D services enabling web users could access the services as 3D scenes, virtual geographical environment and so on. However, Web3D services should be shared by thousands of essential users that inherently distributed on different geography locations. Large 3D geo-datasets need to be transferred to distributed clients via conventional HTTP, NFS and FTP protocols, which often encounters long waits and frustration in distributed wide area network environments. GridJet was used as the underlying engine between the Web 3D application node and geo-data server that utilizes a wide range of technologies including the one of paralleling the remote file access, which is a WAN/Grid-optimized protocol and provides "local-like" accesses to remote 3D geo-datasets. No change in the way of using software is required since the multi-streamed GridJet protocol remains fully compatible with existing IP infrastructures. Our recent progress includes a real-world test that Web3D applications as Google Earth over the GridJet protocol beats those over the classic ones by a factor of 2-7 where the transfer distance is over 10,000 km.

  12. Cost-benefit analysis model: A tool for area-wide fruit fly management. Procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkerlin, W.; Mumford, J.; Leach, A.

    2007-03-01

    The Generic Fruit Fly Cost-Benefit Analysis Model assists in economic decision making associated with area-wide fruit fly control options. The FRUIT FLY COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS PROGRAM (available on 1 CD-ROM from the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture) is an Excel 2000 Windows based program, for which all standard Windows and Excel conventions apply. The Model is user friendly and thus largely self-explanatory. Nevertheless, it includes a procedures manual that has been prepared to guide the user, and thus should be used together with the software. Please note that the table presenting the pest management options in the Introductory Page of the model is controlled by spin buttons and click boxes. These controls are linked to macros that hide non relevant tables and boxes. N.B. it is important that the medium level of security is selected from the Tools menu of Excel, to do this go to Tools|Macros|Security| and select Medium. When the file is opened a form will appear containing three buttons, click on the middle button, 'Enable Macros', so that the macros may be used. Ideally the model should be used as a support tool by working groups aiming at assessing the economic returns of different fruit fly control options (suppression, eradication, containment and prevention). The working group should include professionals in agriculture with experience in area-wide implementation of integrated pest management programmes, an economist or at least someone with basic knowledge in economics, and if relevant, an entomologist with some background in the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT)

  13. Power System Stabilization Control Based on the Wide Area Phasor Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masayuki; Hashiguchi, Takuhei; Izumi, Takanori; Mitani, Yasunori

    This paper presents a method for tuning of power system stabilizers (PSS) for damping low-frequency oscillations in a multi-machine power system based on the wide area phasor measurement. The authors have developed a method for detecting inter-area low-frequency modes from the measured small oscillation associated with the load fluctuation by approximating oscillations as a coupled vibration model. In this paper, the coupled vibration model is extended for including the effect of PSSs. PSSs are tuned directly by using the extended model since the model includes parameters of PSSs. The advantage of this method is that steady state phasor fluctuations are available to tuning PSSs and assess the effect of the tuning control. In other words, a large disturbance like a line fault is not necessary since the stability of the major modes can be investigated directly by using eigenvalues of the extended model. The identification process does not require the information on the input to the system for perturbation. Some numerical analyses demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by using phasor dynamical data obtained by a power system simulation package.

  14. Leaf Area Index Estimation Using Chinese GF-1 Wide Field View Data in an Agriculture Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangqin; Gu, Xingfa; Meng, Qingyan; Yu, Tao; Zhou, Xiang; Wei, Zheng; Jia, Kun; Wang, Chunmei

    2017-07-08

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important vegetation parameter that characterizes leaf density and canopy structure, and plays an important role in global change study, land surface process simulation and agriculture monitoring. The wide field view (WFV) sensor on board the Chinese GF-1 satellite can acquire multi-spectral data with decametric spatial resolution, high temporal resolution and wide coverage, which are valuable data sources for dynamic monitoring of LAI. Therefore, an automatic LAI estimation algorithm for GF-1 WFV data was developed based on the radiative transfer model and LAI estimation accuracy of the developed algorithm was assessed in an agriculture region with maize as the dominated crop type. The radiative transfer model was firstly used to simulate the physical relationship between canopy reflectance and LAI under different soil and vegetation conditions, and then the training sample dataset was formed. Then, neural networks (NNs) were used to develop the LAI estimation algorithm using the training sample dataset. Green, red and near-infrared band reflectances of GF-1 WFV data were used as the input variables of the NNs, as well as the corresponding LAI was the output variable. The validation results using field LAI measurements in the agriculture region indicated that the LAI estimation algorithm could achieve satisfactory results (such as R² = 0.818, RMSE = 0.50). In addition, the developed LAI estimation algorithm had potential to operationally generate LAI datasets using GF-1 WFV land surface reflectance data, which could provide high spatial and temporal resolution LAI data for agriculture, ecosystem and environmental management researches.

  15. Ground Testing of Prototype Hardware and Processing Algorithms for a Wide Area Space Surveillance System (WASSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, N.; Dressler, R. A.; Richtsmeier, S. S.; McLean, J.; Dao, P. D.; Murray-Krezan, J.; Fulcoly, D. O.

    2013-09-01

    Recent ground testing of a wide area camera system and automated star removal algorithms has demonstrated the potential to detect, quantify, and track deep space objects using small aperture cameras and on-board processors. The camera system, which was originally developed for a space-based Wide Area Space Surveillance System (WASSS), operates in a fixed-stare mode, continuously monitoring a wide swath of space and differentiating celestial objects from satellites based on differential motion across the field of view. It would have greatest utility in a LEO orbit to provide automated and continuous monitoring of deep space with high refresh rates, and with particular emphasis on the GEO belt and GEO transfer space. Continuous monitoring allows a concept of change detection and custody maintenance not possible with existing sensors. The detection approach is equally applicable to Earth-based sensor systems. A distributed system of such sensors, either Earth-based, or space-based, could provide automated, persistent night-time monitoring of all of deep space. The continuous monitoring provides a daily record of the light curves of all GEO objects above a certain brightness within the field of view. The daily updates of satellite light curves offers a means to identify specific satellites, to note changes in orientation and operational mode, and to queue other SSA assets for higher resolution queries. The data processing approach may also be applied to larger-aperture, higher resolution camera systems to extend the sensitivity towards dimmer objects. In order to demonstrate the utility of the WASSS system and data processing, a ground based field test was conducted in October 2012. We report here the results of the observations made at Magdalena Ridge Observatory using the prototype WASSS camera, which has a 4×60° field-of-view , <0.05° resolution, a 2.8 cm2 aperture, and the ability to view within 4° of the sun. A single camera pointed at the GEO belt provided a

  16. Transient stability enhancement of modern power grid using predictive Wide-Area Monitoring and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefian, Reza

    This dissertation presents a real-time Wide-Area Control (WAC) designed based on artificial intelligence for large scale modern power systems transient stability enhancement. The WAC using the measurements available from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) at generator buses, monitors the global oscillations in the system and optimally augments the local excitation system of the synchronous generators. The complexity of the power system stability problem along with uncertainties and nonlinearities makes the conventional modeling non-practical or inaccurate. In this work Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm on the benchmark of Neural Networks (NNs) is used to map the nonlinearities of the system in real-time. This method different from both the centralized and the decentralized control schemes, employs a number of semi-autonomous agents to collaborate with each other to perform optimal control theory well-suited for WAC applications. Also, to handle the delays in Wide-Area Monitoring (WAM) and adapt the RL toward the robust control design, Temporal Difference (TD) is proposed as a solver for RL problem or optimal cost function. However, the main drawback of such WAC design is that it is challenging to determine if an offline trained network is valid to assess the stability of the power system once the system is evolved to a different operating state or network topology. In order to address the generality issue of NNs, a value priority scheme is proposed in this work to design a hybrid linear and nonlinear controllers. The algorithm so-called supervised RL is based on mixture of experts, where it is initialized by linear controller and as the performance and identification of the RL controller improves in real-time switches to the other controller. This work also focuses on transient stability and develops Lyapunov energy functions for synchronous generators to monitor the stability stress of the system. Using such energies as a cost function guarantees the convergence

  17. Vehicle tracking in wide area motion imagery from an airborne platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; van Huis, Jasper R.; Eendebak, Pieter T.; Baan, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Airborne platforms, such as UAV's, with Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) sensors can cover multiple square kilometers and produce large amounts of video data. Analyzing all data for information need purposes becomes increasingly labor-intensive for an image analyst. Furthermore, the capacity of the datalink in operational areas may be inadequate to transfer all data to the ground station. Automatic detection and tracking of people and vehicles enables to send only the most relevant footage to the ground station and assists the image analysts in effective data searches. In this paper, we propose a method for detecting and tracking vehicles in high-resolution WAMI images from a moving airborne platform. For the vehicle detection we use a cascaded set of classifiers, using an Adaboost training algorithm on Haar features. This detector works on individual images and therefore does not depend on image motion stabilization. For the vehicle tracking we use a local template matching algorithm. This approach has two advantages. In the first place, it does not depend on image motion stabilization and it counters the inaccuracy of the GPS data that is embedded in the video data. In the second place, it can find matches when the vehicle detector would miss a certain detection. This results in long tracks even when the imagery is of low frame-rate. In order to minimize false detections, we also integrate height information from a 3D reconstruction that is created from the same images. By using the locations of buildings and roads, we are able to filter out false detections and increase the performance of the tracker. In this paper we show that the vehicle tracks can also be used to detect more complex events, such as traffic jams and fast moving vehicles. This enables the image analyst to do a faster and more effective search of the data.

  18. A Wide Area Risk Assessment Framework for Underwater Military Munitions Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, K. T.; Calantoni, J.

    2017-12-01

    Our objective was to develop a prototype statistical framework supporting Wide Area Assessment and Remedial Investigation decisions relating to the risk of unexploded ordnance and other military munitions concentrated in underwater environments. Decision making involving underwater munitions is inherently complex due to the high degree of uncertainty in the environmental conditions that force munitions responses (burial, decay, migration, etc.) and associated risks to the public. The prototype framework provides a consistent approach to accurately delineating contaminated areas at underwater munitions sites through the estimation of most probable concentrations. We adapted existing deterministic models and environmental data services for use within statistical modules that allowed the estimation of munition concentration given historic site information and environmental attributes. Ultimately this risk surface can be used to evaluate costs associated with various remediation approaches (e.g. removal, monitoring, etc.). Unfortunately, evaluation of the assessment framework was limited due to the lack of enduser data services from munition site managers. Of the 450 U.S. sites identified as having potential contamination with underwater munitions, assessment of available munitions information (including historic firing or disposal records, and recent ground-truth munitions samples) indicated very limited information in the databases. Example data types include the most probable munition types, approximate firing / disposal dates and locations, and any supportive munition survey or sampling results. However the overall technical goal to integrate trained statistical belief networks with detailed geophysical knowledge of sites, of sensors and of the underwater environment was demonstrated and should allow probabilistic estimates of the most likely outcomes and tradeoffs while managing uncertainty associated with military munitions response.

  19. Wide Area Network Access to CMS Data Using the Lustre Filesystem

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, J L; Prescott, C; Wu, Y; Kim, B; Fu, Y; Bourilkov, D; Avery, P

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of the Lustre cluster filesystem over the wide area network to access Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) data stored on physical devices located hundreds of kilometres away. We describe the experimental testbed and report on the I/O performance of applications writing and reading data on the distributed Lustre filesystem established across the WAN. We compare the I/O performance of a CMS application to the performance obtained with IOzone, a standard benchmark tool. We then examine the I/O performance of the CMS application running multiple processes on a single server. And compare the Lustre results to results obtained on data stored on local filesystems. Our measurements reveal that the IOzone benchmark tool, accessing data sequentially, can saturate the Gbps network link that connects our Lustre client in Miami Florida to the Lustre storage located in Gainesville, Florida. We also find that the I/O rates of the CMS application is significantly less than what can be obtained with ...

  20. Wide area network access to CMS data using the LustreTM filesystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. L.; Avery, P.; Brody, T.; Bourilkov, D.; Fu, Y.; Kim, B.; Prescott, C.; Wu, Y.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of the LustreTM cluster filesystem over the wide area network to access Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) data stored on physical devices located hundreds of kilometres away. We describe the experimental testbed and report on the I/O performance of applications writing and reading data on the distributed LustreTM filesystem established across the WAN. We compare the I/O performance of a CMS application to the performance obtained with IOzone, a standard benchmark tool. We then examine the I/O performance of the CMS application running multiple processes on a single server. And compare the Lustre results to results obtained on data stored on local filesystems. Our measurements reveal that the IOzone benchmark tool, accessing data sequentially, can saturate the Gbps network link that connects our Lustre client in Miami Florida to the Lustre storage located in Gainesville, Florida. We also find that the I/O rates of the CMS application is significantly less than what can be obtained with IOzone for sequential access to data.

  1. A Soft Curtailment of Wide-Area Central Air Conditioning Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leehter Yao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An innovative solution to provide a demand response for power system is proposed in this paper by considering the feasibility of two-way direct load control (TWDLC of central air conditioning chiller system for wide-area in real-time manner. Particularly, the proposed TWDLC scheme is designed to tackle the load shedding ratio optimization problem for all under-controlled customers, aiming to satisfy the target load curtailment defined in each scheduling step. Another notable contribution of this work is the utilization of constraint loosening concept on actual load, curtailed to overcome the uncertainties of load reduction during TWDLC. Given the presence of fuzzy constraints, the proposed load shedding ratio optimization problem can be tackled using fuzzy linear programming. A delicate strategy is then formulated to transform the proposed fuzzy linear programming problem into a regular linear programming problem. A selection scheme used to obtain the feasible candidates set for load shedding at every sampling interval of TWDLC is also designed along with the fuzzy linear programming.

  2. Radiation distribution measurement using plastic scintillating optical fibers for survey of radioactive contamination in wide area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikara; Ito, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo; Nohtomi, Akihiro; Wakabayashi, Genichiro; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    It is important to examine distribution of environmental contamination due to the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and to confirm the effect of decontamination works. We have applied radiation distribution measurement using plastic scintillating optical fibers (PSFs) in the survey of contamination in wide area including residential, farmland, forests, etc. In the measurements system, two scintillation lights that emitted at an incidence of a radiation transmit to photomultiplier tubes at the both end of PSFs. The position where scintillation light emitted is obtained from the detection time difference of each photomultiplier tube. The distribution of light emission quantity indicates the distribution of radiation incident in a PSF which is corresponds to the distribution of dose-rate. The radiation detection system using the PSFs has been applied to the radiation distribution measurement on grounds, trees, etc. The results show a good agreement with point data measured by survey meters using sodium iodide scintillators. As the PSFs which have water resistance, they have been successfully applied to the radiation distribution measurement in the river. We have also succeeded in measuring two-dimensional distribution of radiation by measuring the count rate while moving to the fiber at a constant speed. (author)

  3. Genetic methods for area-wide management of Lepidopterous pests with emphasis on F1 sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, V.R.

    1996-01-01

    Enormous losses in the production and marketing of food and fiber are caused by larvae of Lepidoptera. Currently, large quantities of insecticides are used to combat these pests. Insecticide resistance, increasing concern over pesticide pollution, and the desire to effectively manage lepidopteran pests on an area-wide basis have motivated scientists to identify and develop new pest management tactics that are compatible with current IPM. Genetic methods have emerged as a promising control strategy for lepidopteran pests. Genetic control as a practical means of pest management was first successfully implemented by Knipling and colleagues in the USA during the 1960's with the sterile insect technique (SIT) program for the screwworm fly. SIT is not a readily adapted for use against Lepidoptera as against Diptera. Radiation-induced inherited sterility (or F 1 sterility) is generally considered the most promising genetic methods for large-scale suppression of lepidopteran populations. This papers discusses four genetic control methods that have been developed and the progress that has been made in integrating sterility with other IPM tactics. (author)

  4. Sterile insect technique. Principles and practice in area-wide integrated pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, V.A.; Hendrichs, J.; Robinson, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    For several major insect pests, the environment-friendly sterile insect technique (SIT) is being applied as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes. This technology, using radiation to sterilize insects, was first developed in the USA, and is currently applied on six continents. For four decades it has been a major subject for research and development in the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, involving both research and the transfer of this technology to Member States so that they can benefit from improved plant, animal and human health, cleaner environments, increased production of plants and animals in agricultural systems, and accelerated economic development. The socio-economic impacts of AW-IPM programmes that integrate the SIT have confirmed the usefulness of this technology. Numerous publications related to the integration of the SIT in pest management programmes, arising from research, coordinated research projects, field projects, symposia, meetings, and training activities have already provided much information to researchers, pest-control practitioners, programme managers, plant protection and animal health officers, and policy makers. However, by bringing together and presenting in a generic fashion the principles, practice, and global application of the SIT, this book will be a major reference source for all current and future users of the technology. The book will also serve as a textbook for academic courses on integrated pest management. Fifty subject experts from 19 countries contributed to the chapters, which were all peer reviewed before final editing

  5. Time-Dependent Statistical Analysis of Wide-Area Time-Synchronized Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Messina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of spatial and temporal changes in the dynamic patterns of a nonstationary process is a problem of great theoretical and practical importance. On-line monitoring of large-scale power systems by means of time-synchronized Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs provides the opportunity to analyze and characterize inter-system oscillations. Wide-area measurement sets, however, are often relatively large, and may contain phenomena with differing temporal scales. Extracting from these measurements the relevant dynamics is a difficult problem. As the number of observations of real events continues to increase, statistical techniques are needed to help identify relevant temporal dynamics from noise or random effects in measured data. In this paper, a statistically based, data-driven framework that integrates the use of wavelet-based EOF analysis and a sliding window-based method is proposed to identify and extract, in near-real-time, dynamically independent spatiotemporal patterns from time synchronized data. The method deals with the information in space and time simultaneously, and allows direct tracking and characterization of the nonstationary time-frequency dynamics of oscillatory processes. The efficiency and accuracy of the developed procedures for extracting localized information of power system behavior from time-synchronized phasor measurements of a real event in Mexico is assessed.

  6. Discrete-event simulation of a wide-area health care network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, J G

    1995-01-01

    Predict the behavior and estimate the telecommunication cost of a wide-area message store-and-forward network for health care providers that uses the telephone system. A tool with which to perform large-scale discrete-event simulations was developed. Network models for star and mesh topologies were constructed to analyze the differences in performances and telecommunication costs. The distribution of nodes in the network models approximates the distribution of physicians, hospitals, medical labs, and insurers in the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Modeling parameters were based on measurements taken from a prototype telephone network and a survey conducted at two medical clinics. Simulation studies were conducted for both topologies. For either topology, the telecommunication cost of a network in Saskatchewan is projected to be less than $100 (Canadian) per month per node. The estimated telecommunication cost of the star topology is approximately half that of the mesh. Simulations predict that a mean end-to-end message delivery time of two hours or less is achievable at this cost. A doubling of the data volume results in an increase of less than 50% in the mean end-to-end message transfer time. The simulation models provided an estimate of network performance and telecommunication cost in a specific Canadian province. At the expected operating point, network performance appeared to be relatively insensitive to increases in data volume. Similar results might be anticipated in other rural states and provinces in North America where a telephone-based network is desired.

  7. Wide area network access to CMS data using the LustreTM filesystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J L; Brody, T; Avery, P; Bourilkov, D; Fu, Y; Kim, B; Wu, Y; Prescott, C

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of the Lustre TM cluster filesystem over the wide area network to access Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) data stored on physical devices located hundreds of kilometres away. We describe the experimental testbed and report on the I/O performance of applications writing and reading data on the distributed Lustre TM filesystem established across the WAN. We compare the I/O performance of a CMS application to the performance obtained with IOzone, a standard benchmark tool. We then examine the I/O performance of the CMS application running multiple processes on a single server. And compare the Lustre results to results obtained on data stored on local filesystems. Our measurements reveal that the IOzone benchmark tool, accessing data sequentially, can saturate the Gbps network link that connects our Lustre client in Miami Florida to the Lustre storage located in Gainesville, Florida. We also find that the I/O rates of the CMS application is significantly less than what can be obtained with IOzone for sequential access to data.

  8. Frequency Monitoring and Control during Power System Restoration Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Nourizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency control during power system restoration has not been strongly addressed. Operators are often concerned with the offline sizing of load and generation steps, but, nowadays, the introduction of Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS makes it possible to monitor the stability of power system online. The constraints of WAMS operation result in some changes in power system frequency control. This paper proposes a novel methodology for frequency control and monitoring during the early steps of power system restoration based on WAMS. Detailed load modeling is achieved based on the static load modeling approach. Power generators' modeling is also accomplished utilizing the single machine equivalent of the power system based on PMU measurements. Simulation results of the presented methodology on the 39 bus New England power system clearly show the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed method. The simulation results show that the presented approach has a completely acceptable precision and an outstanding speed with less than 0.05% error. The outstanding speed of the presented approach along with the result precision will result in a great promotion in power system restoration methodologies.

  9. A double area detector system for simultaneous small and wide-angle X-ray scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Pokric, B; Ryan, A J; Fairclough, P; Dobson, B R; Derbyshire, G E; Helsby, W; Long, G; Moon, K

    2002-01-01

    A novel area detector has been designed for material science SR studies, capable of simultaneously collecting the diffraction data in two angular regimes. The detector for collecting wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) data consists of four taper-coupled CCDs arranged as a 2x2 mosaic with a central aperture about 40 mm in diameter, so permitting the inclusion of a distant on-axis CCD detector for small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The distance of the SAXS detector from the sample can be varied over the range 0.27 m to about 2 m. The overall aperture of WAXS detector is approximately 200x200 mm sup 2 allowing the measurement of the diffraction patterns from 5 deg. to 45 deg. with an average angular resolution of 0.05 deg. The parallax error for large angles is substantially reduced as the individual WAXS CCDs are tilted towards the specimen location. Both WAXS and SAXS diffraction data are simultaneously collected at 30 MB/s data rate, which is equivalent to 6 complete frames per second. Each pixel value is d...

  10. From rainfall to slope instability: an automatic GIS procedure for susceptibility analyses over wide areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Federici

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an automatic procedure in geographic information system (GIS for the analysis and prediction of landslides due to rainfall events over wide areas. It runs, for each unit cell, a hydrological balance based on the Curve Number method (USDA-SCS 1985–1986, computing the evolution of groundwater as a result of precipitation and then checks the overcoming, or not, of limit equilibrium conditions of the land in the domain of interest. The mathematical model was implemented in the free and open source GIS GRASS. For any sequence of consecutive days of rain, according to the conditions of soil moisture prior to the time history under study, the hydro-geotechnical model allows (1 the determination of the oscillations of the phreatic table, (2 the part of saturated soil and (3 the slope stability analysis, by taking into proper account the pore pressures buildup. The results of this procedure are returned in raster format, allowing an easy and intuitive interpretation of the land mass sensitivity to meteoric actions. The suggested procedure was applied on an extensive kinematic phenomenon surrounding the city of Santo Stefano d’Aveto (Liguria, Italy. The realized maps of landslide susceptibility are in excellent agreement with what is evident on site.

  11. Monitoring sterile and wild insects in area-wide integrated pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vreysen, M.J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Insect pest control programmes, which integrate the release of sterile insects, can be efficient only if the released insects have an optimal biological quality. Frequent monitoring of the quality of reared insects after being released in the field is an important but often neglected component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Parameters of sterile insects, which should be monitored regularly, are sexual competitiveness of the released insects, and related components, e.g. survival, mobility, dispersal characteristics, and spatial occupation of the habitat. A well-balanced monitoring programme will, at any given time, provide essential feedback on the progress being made. This information is prerequisite to efficient implementation of the release and cost-efficient use of sterile insects. The type of monitoring to be done will be determined largely by the particular biology of the target insect species. The most important parameter in relation to the release of sterile insects is the rate of sterility induced in the wild insect pest population; it will provide the best evidence that any observed changes, e.g. in the density of the target insect, are caused by the release of sterile insects. (author)

  12. Experiments and Analyses of Data Transfers Over Wide-Area Dedicated Connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Liu, Qiang [ORNL; Sen, Satyabrata [ORNL; Hanley, Jesse A. [ORNL; Foster, Ian [University of Chicago; Kettimuthu, R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wu, Qishi [University of Memphis; Yun, Daqing [Harrisburg University; Towsley, Don [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Vardoyan, Gayane [University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    2017-08-01

    Dedicated wide-area network connections are increasingly employed in high-performance computing and big data scenarios. One might expect the performance and dynamics of data transfers over such connections to be easy to analyze due to the lack of competing traffic. However, non-linear transport dynamics and end-system complexities (e.g., multi-core hosts and distributed filesystems) can in fact make analysis surprisingly challenging. We present extensive measurements of memory-to-memory and disk-to-disk file transfers over 10 Gbps physical and emulated connections with 0–366 ms round trip times (RTTs). For memory-to-memory transfers, profiles of both TCP and UDT throughput as a function of RTT show concave and convex regions; large buffer sizes and more parallel flows lead to wider concave regions, which are highly desirable. TCP and UDT both also display complex throughput dynamics, as indicated by their Poincare maps and Lyapunov exponents. For disk-to-disk transfers, we determine that high throughput can be achieved via a combination of parallel I/O threads, parallel network threads, and direct I/O mode. Our measurements also show that Lustre filesystems can be mounted over long-haul connections using LNet routers, although challenges remain in jointly optimizing file I/O and transport method parameters to achieve peak throughput.

  13. An UGS radar with micro-Doppler capabilities for wide area persistent surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmoush, Dave; Silvious, Jerry; Clark, John

    2010-04-01

    Detecting humans and distinguishing them from natural fauna is an important issue in security applications to reduce false alarm rates. In particular, it is important to detect and classify people who are walking in remote locations and transmit back detections over extended periods at a low cost and with minimal maintenance. The ability to discriminate men versus animals and vehicles at long range would give a distinct sensor advantage. The reduction in false positive detections due to animals would increase the usefulness of detections, while dismount identification could reduce friendly-fire. We developed and demonstrate a compact radar technology that is scalable to a variety of ultra-lightweight and low-power platforms for wide area persistent surveillance as an unattended, unmanned, and man-portable ground sensor. The radar uses micro-Doppler processing to characterize the tracks of moving targets and to then eliminate unimportant detections due to animals or civilian activity. This paper presents the system and data on humans, vehicles, and animals at multiple angles and directions of motion, demonstrates the signal processing approach that makes the targets visually recognizable, and verifies that the UGS radar has enough micro-Doppler capability to distinguish between humans, vehicles, and animals.

  14. NFU-Enabled FASTA: moving bioinformatics applications onto wide area networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huadong

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in Internet technologies have allowed life science researchers to reach beyond the lab-centric research paradigm to create distributed collaborations. Of the existing technologies that support distributed collaborations, there are currently none that simultaneously support data storage and computation as a shared network resource, enabling computational burden to be wholly removed from participating clients. Software using computation-enable logistical networking components of the Internet Backplane Protocol provides a suitable means to accomplish these tasks. Here, we demonstrate software that enables this approach by distributing both the FASTA algorithm and appropriate data sets within the framework of a wide area network. Results For large datasets, computation-enabled logistical networks provide a significant reduction in FASTA algorithm running time over local and non-distributed logistical networking frameworks. We also find that genome-scale sizes of the stored data are easily adaptable to logistical networks. Conclusion Network function unit-enabled Internet Backplane Protocol effectively distributes FASTA algorithm computation over large data sets stored within the scaleable network. In situations where computation is subject to parallel solution over very large data sets, this approach provides a means to allow distributed collaborators access to a shared storage resource capable of storing the large volumes of data equated with modern life science. In addition, it provides a computation framework that removes the burden of computation from the client and places it within the network.

  15. A Compact, Wide Area Surveillance 3D Imaging LIDAR Providing UAS Sense and Avoid Capabilities, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Eye safe 3D Imaging LIDARS when combined with advanced very high sensitivity, large format receivers can provide a robust wide area search capability in a very...

  16. Blind inlets: Conservation practices to reduce herbicide losses from closed depressional areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are designed to benefit agricultural production and may inadvertently affect water quality if environmental stewardship programs are not implemented. Closed depressional areas (potholes) are typical in the US Midwest and are usually drained with tile risers, however sediment and contamina...

  17. Training Effectiveness of a Wide Area Virtual Environment in Medical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, Grady S; Tree, Rebekah; Nusr, Rasha

    2017-02-01

    The success of war fighters and medical personnel handling traumatic injuries largely depends on the quality of training they receive before deployment. The purpose of this study was to gauge the utility of a Wide Area Virtual Environment (WAVE) as a training adjunct by comparing and evaluating student performance, measuring sense of realism, and assessing the impact on student satisfaction with their training exposure in an immersive versus a field environment. This comparative prospective cohort study examined the utility of a three-screen WAVE where subjects were immersed in the training environment with medical simulators. Standard field training commenced for the control group subjects. Medical skills, time to completion, and Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety objective metrics were assessed for each team (n = 94). In addition, self-efficacy questionnaires were collected for each subject (N = 470). Medical teams received poorer overall team scores (F1,186 = 0.756, P = 0.001), took longer to complete the scenario (F1,186 = 25.15, P = 0.001), and scored lower on The National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians trauma assessment checklist (F1,186 = 1.13, P = 0.000) in the WAVE versus the field environment. Critical thinking and realism factors within the self-efficacy questionnaires scored higher in the WAVE versus the field [(F1,466 = 8.04, P = 0.005), (F1,465 = 18.57, P = 0.000), and (F1,466 = 53.24, P = 0.000), respectively]. Environmental and emotional stressors may negatively affect critical thinking and clinical skill performance of medical teams. However, by introducing more advanced simulation trainings with added stressors, students may be able to adapt and overcome barriers to performance found in high-stress environments.

  18. Collaborative 3D Target Tracking in Distributed Smart Camera Networks for Wide-Area Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenofon Koutsoukos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the evolution and fusion of wireless sensor network and embedded camera technologies, distributed smart camera networks have emerged as a new class of systems for wide-area surveillance applications. Wireless networks, however, introduce a number of constraints to the system that need to be considered, notably the communication bandwidth constraints. Existing approaches for target tracking using a camera network typically utilize target handover mechanisms between cameras, or combine results from 2D trackers in each camera into 3D target estimation. Such approaches suffer from scale selection, target rotation, and occlusion, drawbacks typically associated with 2D tracking. In this paper, we present an approach for tracking multiple targets directly in 3D space using a network of smart cameras. The approach employs multi-view histograms to characterize targets in 3D space using color and texture as the visual features. The visual features from each camera along with the target models are used in a probabilistic tracker to estimate the target state. We introduce four variations of our base tracker that incur different computational and communication costs on each node and result in different tracking accuracy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed trackers by comparing their performance to a 3D tracker that fuses the results of independent 2D trackers. We also present performance analysis of the base tracker along Quality-of-Service (QoS and Quality-of-Information (QoI metrics, and study QoS vs. QoI trade-offs between the proposed tracker variations. Finally, we demonstrate our tracker in a real-life scenario using a camera network deployed in a building.

  19. LPWAN – Low-power Wide-area Network. Communication for the Internet of Things.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Viktorovich Sheshalevich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the field of cheaper sensors and various devices to control the parameters of industrial and household equipment has led to the emergence of new communication technologies, the so-called Internet of things, "machine-to-machine" or M2M technologies. The main feature of these technologies is a network communication of the physical objects without direct human intervention. The specifics of using the Low-power Wide-area Network (LPWAN network for these new communication technologies are considered. The LPWAN technologies have significant prospects for development adding to already traditional technologies such as Wi-Fi and cellular. This very term describes an approach, the communication technologies, characterized by the principles of reducing the connection speed in order to achieve wider range and lower power consumption of end nodes. Based on this concept different companies have built the specific competing systems of communication, such as Sigfox (first LPWAN technology, LoRa (derived from Long Range Ingenu RPMA, Weightless-P, “Strizh” telematics (the Russian analog of Sigfox and others. Each of the systems applies different methods to increase the range of coverage, to lower energy consumption and to use different possibilities for scalability. The principles of functioning of these communication systems are analyzed below. The major attention is paid to describing the very popular LPWAN-technology LoRa as one of the most open technology for practical applications. It is based on the same name radio modulation using its own unique method to broaden a spectrum. The topology and the main components of this network, including the sensor (end device with a radio module, the LoRa gateway and its network architecture are described in detail. Examples are given of the LoRa systems emerging on the domestic market of the Internet of things.

  20. Cost-benefit analysis of an area-wide pest management program to control Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito), which limit outdoor activities. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis for an AWPM in Mercer and Monmouth counties, New Jersey, as part of a controlled design with matched area...

  1. Potential for area-wide control or eradication of tsetse flies in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabayo, J.P.; Feldmann, U.

    2000-01-01

    Tsetse flies (Glossina) are found in Africa over an area, estimated by various authors, of 7-11 million sq. km. The northern limit of this area corresponds closely to the southern edges of the Sahara and Somali Deserts, running along 14 deg. N and extending across the continent from Senegal in the west to Somalia in the east. The southern limit of tsetse distribution corresponds closely to the northern edges of the Kalahari and Namibian Deserts in the west and runs generally at 20-30 deg. S to the east of the continent (Ford and Katondo 1977). This tsetse fly belt covers the following 38 countries (listed below) in which the tsetse flies spread African trypanosomosis, a severe disease that affects man and his domestic livestock, and is among the factors responsible for limiting the pace and extent of development in those countries. The disease is of a major economic importance. Throughout the affected countries within the fly belt, areas that are heavily infested by the tsetse fly are virtually devoid of cattle and other species of domestic livestock. Distribution of livestock in all countries on the African continent where densely infested foci exist is almost exactly the reverse of the distribution of the fly (Finelle 1974, Brunhes et al. 1994). Attempts to control African trypanosomosis date back to the beginning of this century. Several different methods of control, some aimed at the disease-causing organism and other aimed at the vector, were employed (Nagel 1995, Jordan 1986). Until after the Second World War, when insecticides became available for use in tsetse control campaigns, the most widely used control measure against tsetse flies was habitat destruction (involving felling trees and bush-clearing), the elimination of host animals (involving killing of wild game) and, to a certain extent, the use of various trapping devices to catch the flies. The tsetse control campaigns mounted in the 40s, 50s and 60s were invariably extensive 'roll up the country

  2. DISCOVERY OF NINE GAMMA-RAY PULSARS IN FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DATA USING A NEW BLIND SEARCH METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pletsch, H. J.; Allen, B.; Aulbert, C.; Fehrmann, H. [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Guillemot, L.; Kramer, M.; Barr, E. D.; Champion, D. J.; Eatough, R. P.; Freire, P. C. C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ray, P. S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Belfiore, A.; Dormody, M. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Caraveo, P. A. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Celik, Oe.; Ferrara, E. C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hessels, J. W. T. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Keith, M. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); Kerr, M., E-mail: holger.pletsch@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: guillemo@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); and others

    2012-01-10

    We report the discovery of nine previously unknown gamma-ray pulsars in a blind search of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The pulsars were found with a novel hierarchical search method originally developed for detecting continuous gravitational waves from rapidly rotating neutron stars. Designed to find isolated pulsars spinning at up to kHz frequencies, the new method is computationally efficient and incorporates several advances, including a metric-based gridding of the search parameter space (frequency, frequency derivative, and sky location) and the use of photon probability weights. The nine pulsars have spin frequencies between 3 and 12 Hz, and characteristic ages ranging from 17 kyr to 3 Myr. Two of them, PSRs J1803-2149 and J2111+ 4606, are young and energetic Galactic-plane pulsars (spin-down power above 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1} and ages below 100 kyr). The seven remaining pulsars, PSRs J0106+4855, J0622+3749, J1620-4927, J1746-3239, J2028+3332, J2030+4415, and J2139+4716, are older and less energetic; two of them are located at higher Galactic latitudes (|b| > 10 Degree-Sign ). PSR J0106+4855 has the largest characteristic age (3 Myr) and the smallest surface magnetic field (2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} G) of all LAT blind-search pulsars. PSR J2139+4716 has the lowest spin-down power (3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}) among all non-recycled gamma-ray pulsars ever found. Despite extensive multi-frequency observations, only PSR J0106+4855 has detectable pulsations in the radio band. The other eight pulsars belong to the increasing population of radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars.

  3. A Statewide Private Microwave Wide Area Network for Real-time Natural Hazard Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. C.; Kent, G.; Smith, K. D.; Plank, G.; Slater, D.; Torrisi, J.; Presser, R.; Straley, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL) at the University of Nevada, Reno, operates the Nevada Seismic Network, a collection of ground motion instruments installed throughout Nevada and California, for the purposes of detecting, locating, and notifying the public of earthquakes in the state. To perform these tasks effectively, NSL has designed and built a statewide wireless microwave wide-area network (WAN) in order to receive ground motion data in near real-time. This network consists of radio access points, backhauls, and backbone communication sites transmitting time-series, images, and datalogger diagnostics to our data center servers in Reno. This privately managed communication network greatly reduces the dependence on third-party infrastructure (e.g. commercial cellular networks), and is vital for emergency management response and system uptime. Any individual seismograph or data collection device is networked through a wireless point-to-multipoint connection to a remote access point (AP) using a low-cost radio/routerboard combination. Additional point-to-point connections from AP's to radio backhauls and/or mountaintop backbone sites allow the Data Center in Reno to communicate with and receive data directly from each datalogger. Dataloggers, radios, and routers can be configured using tablets on-site, or via desktop computers at the Data Center. Redundant mountaintop links can be added to the network and facilitate the re-routing of data (similar to a meshed network) in the event of a faulty, failing, or noisy communication site. All routers, radios, and servers, including those at the Data Center, have redundant power and can operate independently in the event of a grid power or public Internet outage. A managed server room at the Data Center processes earthquake data for notifications and acts as a data source for remote users. Consisting of about 500 hosts, and spanning hundreds of miles, this WAN provides network operators access to each router and

  4. DISTANT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM for Tsunamis - A wide-area and multi-hazard approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, Martin; Lendholt, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    system and to extend the CCUI with hazard specific functionality. The presentation covers the DEWS project, the system architecture and the CCUI in conjunction with details of information logistics. The DEWS Wide Area Centre connecting national centres to allow the international communication and warning exchange is presented also. REFERENCES: [1] DEWS, www.dews-online.org [2] OGC, www.opengeospatial.org [3] SWE, www.opengeospatial.org/projects/groups/sensorweb [4] Eclipse RCP, www.eclipse.org/home/categories/rcp.php [5] uDig, udig.refractions.net [6] WMS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wms [7] WFS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wfs [8] WPS, www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wps [9] OASIS, www.oasis-open.org [10] CAP, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#capv1.1 [11] EDXL-DE, www.oasis-open.org/specs/#edxlde-v1.0 [12] SOAP, www.w3.org/TR/soap [13] GITEWS (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) is a project of the German Federal Government to aid the recon¬struction of the tsunami-prone Indian Ocean region, www.gitews.org [14] The Tsunami Service Bus is the GITEWS sensor system integration platform offering standardised services for the detection and monitoring of tsunamis

  5. Protocol and Topology Issues for Wide-Area Satellite Interconnection of Terrestrial Optical LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraga, N.

    2002-01-01

    Apart from broadcasting, the satellite business is targeting niche markets. Wide area interconnection is considered as one of these niche markets, since it addresses operators and business LANs (B2B, business to business) in remote areas where terrestrial infrastructure is not available. These LANs - if high-speed - are typically based on optical networks such as SONET. One of the advantages of SONET is its architecture flexibility and capacity to transport all kind of applications including multimedia with a range of different transmission rates. The applications can be carried by different protocols among which the Internet Protocol (IP) or the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) are the most prominent ones. Thus, the question arises how these protocols can be interconnected via the satellite segment. The paper addresses several solutions for interworking with different protocols. For this investigation we distinguish first of all between the topology and the switching technology of the satellites. In case of a star network with transparent satellite, the satellite protocol consists of physical layer and data layer which can be directly interconnected with layer 2 interworking function to their terrestrial counterparts in the SONET backbone. For regenerative satellites the situation is more complex: here we need to distinguish the types of transport protocols being used in the terrestrial and satellite segment. Whereas IP, ATM, MPEG dominate in the terrestrial networks, satellite systems usually do not follow these standards. Some might employ minor additions (for instance, satellite specific packet headers), some might be completely proprietary. In general, interworking must be done for the data plane on top of layer 2 (data link layer), whereas for the signaling plane the interworking is on top of layer 3. In the paper we will discuss the protocol stacks for ATM, IP, and MPEG with a regenerative satellite system. As an example we will use the EuroSkyWay satellite

  6. Small Airborne Hyperspectral Wide Area Imager for Disaster Response and Earth Science, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed hyperspectral plus LWIR system will deliver high signal to noise performance, a wide spectral range, nominally 365 nm to 1.7 um, a single long wave IR...

  7. Influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation on genome wide expression of white blood cells: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hossein-nezhad

    Full Text Available Although there have been numerous observations of vitamin D deficiency and its links to chronic diseases, no studies have reported on how vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation affects broad gene expression in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D status and subsequent vitamin D supplementation on broad gene expression in healthy adults. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.A randomized, double-blind, single center pilot trial was conducted for comparing vitamin D supplementation with either 400 IUs (n = 3 or 2000 IUs (n = 5 vitamin D3 daily for 2 months on broad gene expression in the white blood cells collected from 8 healthy adults in the winter. Microarrays of the 16 buffy coats from eight subjects passed the quality control filters and normalized with the RMA method. Vitamin D3 supplementation that improved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations was associated with at least a 1.5 fold alteration in the expression of 291 genes. There was a significant difference in the expression of 66 genes between subjects at baseline with vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD20 ng/ml. After vitamin D3 supplementation gene expression of these 66 genes was similar for both groups. Seventeen vitamin D-regulated genes with new candidate vitamin D response elements including TRIM27, CD83, COPB2, YRNA and CETN3 which have been shown to be important for transcriptional regulation, immune function, response to stress and DNA repair were identified.Our data suggest that any improvement in vitamin D status will significantly affect expression of genes that have a wide variety of biologic functions of more than 160 pathways linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease with have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study reveals for the first time molecular finger prints that help explain the nonskeletal health benefits of vitamin D.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.

  8. Wide area change detection with satellite imagery for locating underground nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canty, M.J.; Jasani, B.; Schlittenhardt, J.

    2001-01-01

    nicest aspects of the MAD method: It sorts different categories of change into different image components. Another very important characteristic of the MAD transformation is that it is invariant to linear transformations of the data. This means that if for example the sensors used for the two images have different gains, or if atmospheric haze attenuates the reflectance measurement in one of the images but not in the other, the results of the analysis will be unaffected. A Bayesian model of the probability distribution of the MAD components intensities is applied to determine automatically the decision thresholds for change and no change. The prerequisite image-to-image registration is carried out automatically with the help contour and comer matching to determine ground control points, followed by nearest-neighbor resampling. The inclusion of higher resolution panchromatic information into the procedure without loss of spectral discrimination is accomplished via wavelet fusion with the multispectral channels. A computer program CDSAT (Change Detection with SATellite imagery), which implements a user-friendly graphical environment for performing the various steps involved, is described briefly. The technique has been applied successfully to detect the exact position of an underground nuclear test in Rajasthan in 1998. In the present paper we discuss further results for tests carried out in Lop Nor, China in the 1990's and at the Nevada test site in the 1980's. Historical LANDSAT TM satellite images are used for change detection. Results are correlated with seismic and ground truth data and conclusions are drawn regarding the applicability of wide area change detection to complement seismic verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

  9. Tsunami risk assessment for facility group over a wide area using inundation assessment method considering energy conservation law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutani, Yo; Imamura, Fumihiko; Tokunaga, Takeshi; Sato, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    We propose a quantitative evaluation method of overall tsunami risk that the entire facility group over a wide area holds. We considerably reduced the calculation cost for tsunami inundation depth by adopting the evaluation method using energy conservation law as compared with the evaluation method using non-linear long wave equation. For financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies with contractors over a wide area and business companies with multiple their assets and facilities in various places, the proposed evaluation method in this study could be a useful approach to implement their risk-based management decisions for tsunami risk. (author)

  10. Recent invasion of world-wide wheat growing areas by two aggressive strains of Puccinia striiformis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Ali, Sajid; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer

    2012-01-01

    The ever more frequent and severe large-scale epidemics of wheat yellow/stripe rust disease (caused by Puccinia striiformis) pose a severe threat to the world’s wheat production (Hovmøller et al. 2010). The onset of a new series of world-wide wheat yellow rust epidemics in 2000 has been linked...

  11. Data fusion in multi sensor platforms for wide-area perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polychronopoulos, A.; Floudas, N.; Amditis, A.; Bank, D.; Broek, S.P. van den

    2006-01-01

    there is a strong belief that the improvement of preventive safety applications and the extension of their operative range will be achieved by the deployment of multiple sensors with wide fields of view (FOV). The paper contributes to the solution of the problem and introduces distributed sensor

  12. A basic R and D for an analysis framework distributed on wide area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, M.; Kawabata, S.; Kawamoto, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Manabe, A.; Mashimo, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Morita, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, H.; Tanaka, J.; Ueda, I.; Watase, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Present status is reported on several R and D issues related to world-wide analysis for forthcoming high-energy collider experiments. This study includes (1) high-density computer farm with effective configuration and management capability (2) high throughput data storage mechanisms covering disk arrays and hierarchical storage architecture, and (3) high-performance massive data transfer techniques on large latency WAN. Understanding these basic technologies is necessary for the deployment of developing data grid computing

  13. Implementing Virtual Private Networking for Enabling Lower Cost, More Secure Wide Area Communications at Sandia National Laboratories; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MILLER, MARC M.; YONEK JR., GEORGE A.

    2001-01-01

    Virtual Private Networking is a new communications technology that promises lower cost, more secure wide area communications by leveraging public networks such as the Internet. Sandia National Laboratories has embraced the technology for interconnecting remote sites to Sandia's corporate network, and for enabling remote access users for both dial-up and broadband access

  14. Economic evaluation of area-wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus, which limit outdoor activities. While several evaluations of effectiveness exist, information on costs is lacking. Economic evaluation of such a program is important to help inform policy makers an...

  15. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and ...

  16. Activity and function recognition for moving and static objects in urban environments from wide-area persistent surveillance inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Bobick, Aaron; Jones, Eric

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we describe results from experimental analysis of a model designed to recognize activities and functions of moving and static objects from low-resolution wide-area video inputs. Our model is based on representing the activities and functions using three variables: (i) time; (ii) space; and (iii) structures. The activity and function recognition is achieved by imposing lexical, syntactic, and semantic constraints on the lower-level event sequences. In the reported research, we have evaluated the utility and sensitivity of several algorithms derived from natural language processing and pattern recognition domains. We achieved high recognition accuracy for a wide range of activity and function types in the experiments using Electro-Optical (EO) imagery collected by Wide Area Airborne Surveillance (WAAS) platform.

  17. Projected impacts of climate change on a continent-wide protected area network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hole, David G; Willis, Stephen G; Pain, Deborah J

    2009-01-01

    . Using modelled projected shifts in the distributions of sub-Saharan Africa's entire breeding avifauna, we show that species turnover across the continent's Important Bird Area (IBA) network is likely to vary regionally and will be substantial at many sites (> 50% at 42% of IBAs by 2085 for priority...

  18. Area burned in alpine treeline ecotones reflects region-wide trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Alina Cansler; Donald McKenzie; Charles B. Halpern

    2016-01-01

    The direct effects of climate change on alpine treeline ecotones – the transition zones between subalpine forest and non-forested alpine vegetation – have been studied extensively, but climate-induced changes in disturbance regimes have received less attention. To determine if recent increases in area burned extend to these higher-elevation landscapes, we analysed...

  19. Wide Area UXO Screening with the Multi-Sensor Fixed-Wing Airborne System MARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    and avoid contact with all types of cacti to minimize the potential for irritation or injury from this hazard. Bee and wasp stings, spider bites...other than caffeinated coffee), and warm rest areas are essential to preventing cold-related injury. Local body injury from exposure to cold is

  20. The South African fruit fly action plan: area-wide suppression and exotic species surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Brian N.; Venter, Jan-Hendrik

    2006-01-01

    Two species of tephritid fruit flies of economic importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann]) and Natal fruit fly (C. rosa Karsch) cause economic losses in the South African deciduous fruit industry of approximately US$3 million per annum. A third species, marula fruit fly, C. cosyra (Walker), causes damage to citrus and sub-tropical fruits in the north-eastern part of the country. In 1999 a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme against Medfly was initiated over 10,000 ha of table grapes with a goal of cost-effective, ecologically compatible suppression of Medfly. The SIT programme was extended to two other fruit production areas in 2004. Although results in all three SIT areas have been mixed, populations of wild Medflies, as well as associated pesticide usage and control costs, have been reduced since the start of sterile fly releases. Reasons for the partial degree of success and the relatively slow expansion of Medfly SIT to other areas include economic, operational and cultural factors, as well as certain fruit production practices. Before fruit fly-free areas can be created, deficiencies in the ability to mass-rear Natal fruit fly need to be overcome so that an SIT programme against this species can be initiated. Any fruit fly suppression or eradication campaign will be severely compromised by any introductions into South Africa of exotic fruit fly species. The risk of such introductions is increasing as trade with and travel to the country increases. A Plant Health Early Warning Systems Division has been initiated to formulate fruit fly detection and action plans. Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae [Coquillett]), Asian fruit fly (B. invadens Drew, Tsurutu and White) and peach fruit fly (B. zonata [Saunders]), which are all well established in parts of Africa and/or Indian Ocean islands, have been identified as presenting the highest risk for entering and becoming established in South Africa. An exotic fruit fly surveillance

  1. The South African fruit fly action plan: area-wide suppression and exotic species surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Brian N., E-mail: barnesb@arc.agric.z [ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Institute for Fruit, Vine and Wine, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Venter, Jan-Hendrik, E-mail: janhendrikv@nda.agric.z [Directorate Plant Health, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    Two species of tephritid fruit flies of economic importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann]) and Natal fruit fly (C. rosa Karsch) cause economic losses in the South African deciduous fruit industry of approximately US$3 million per annum. A third species, marula fruit fly, C. cosyra (Walker), causes damage to citrus and sub-tropical fruits in the north-eastern part of the country. In 1999 a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme against Medfly was initiated over 10,000 ha of table grapes with a goal of cost-effective, ecologically compatible suppression of Medfly. The SIT programme was extended to two other fruit production areas in 2004. Although results in all three SIT areas have been mixed, populations of wild Medflies, as well as associated pesticide usage and control costs, have been reduced since the start of sterile fly releases. Reasons for the partial degree of success and the relatively slow expansion of Medfly SIT to other areas include economic, operational and cultural factors, as well as certain fruit production practices. Before fruit fly-free areas can be created, deficiencies in the ability to mass-rear Natal fruit fly need to be overcome so that an SIT programme against this species can be initiated. Any fruit fly suppression or eradication campaign will be severely compromised by any introductions into South Africa of exotic fruit fly species. The risk of such introductions is increasing as trade with and travel to the country increases. A Plant Health Early Warning Systems Division has been initiated to formulate fruit fly detection and action plans. Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae [Coquillett]), Asian fruit fly (B. invadens Drew, Tsurutu and White) and peach fruit fly (B. zonata [Saunders]), which are all well established in parts of Africa and/or Indian Ocean islands, have been identified as presenting the highest risk for entering and becoming established in South Africa. An exotic fruit fly surveillance

  2. TeleMed: Wide-area, secure, collaborative object computing with Java and CORBA for healthcare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forslund, D.W.; George, J.E.; Gavrilov, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    Distributed computing is becoming commonplace in a variety of industries with healthcare being a particularly important one for society. The authors describe the development and deployment of TeleMed in a few healthcare domains. TeleMed is a 100% Java distributed application build on CORBA and OMG standards enabling the collaboration on the treatment of chronically ill patients in a secure manner over the Internet. These standards enable other systems to work interoperably with TeleMed and provide transparent access to high performance distributed computing to the healthcare domain. The goal of wide scale integration of electronic medical records is a grand-challenge scale problem of global proportions with far-reaching social benefits.

  3. Wide area tracking method for augmented reality supporting nuclear power plant maintenance work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hirotake; Yan, Weida; Yang, Shou-feng; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Izumi, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    A new fiducial marker for augmented reality was designed along with a method that recognizes the markers captured by a camera and calculates the relative position and orientation between the markers and the camera. These markers can be used at both long and short distances without increasing their number in the environment. Results of the experimental evaluation show that the new marker can be used in a larger area than legacy markers such as square markers and circular markers. (author)

  4. Development of wide area tracking method for augmented reality using multi-range fiducials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hirotake; Fujino, Hidenori; Yan, Weida; Yang, Shoufeng; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Izumi, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    A new fiducial marker for augmented reality was designed along with a method that recognizes the markers captured by a camera and calculates the relative position and orientation between the markers and the camera. These markers can be used at both long and short distances without increasing the number of markers pasted in the environment. Results of the experimental evaluation show that the new marker can be used in a larger area than circular markers and more stably than square markers. (author)

  5. Wide-area mapping of snow water equivalent by Sentinel-1&2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Vasco; Nico, Giovanni; Catalao, Joao; Kontu, Anna; Gritsevich, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The mapping of snow physical properties over large mountain areas of remote areas is an important topic in both climatological studies and hydrological models where the effects of snow melting are modeled and used to forecast extreme flood events. Usually, these models are run using in-situ measurements of snow which are expensive and statistically not representative of the spatial distribution of snow properties due to slope orientation of terrain, local terrain morphology and height as well as vegetation cover. In this work we investigate the use of data acquired by Sentinel-1 and 2 missions using a C-band SAR and multispectral sensor, respectively. The Sentinel-1 SAR data are processed to estimate the Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) using both the radar amplitude and the output of the SAR interferometry processing. Both approaches need in-situ data to process SAR data and calibrate SWE estimates. The use of SAR amplitude to estimate the SWE is well established and the basic idea is that the radar signal backscattered by snow is related to the SWE so, after modeling the relationship between these two quantities at the site of in-situ measurements this relationship can be used to map the SWE at all site where the SAR amplitude information is available. The physical principle used by SAR interferometry is that of phase delay due to propagation in a non-dispersive medium. This implies that the snow is supposed to be dry in order to allow the propagation of the SAR signal. Sentinel-2 images have been used to get land-use maps and identify areas covered by vegetation. Finland has been chosen as a study region with in-situ measurements acquired thanks to the availability of rich database of in-situ measurements of SWE. Sentinel data used in this work have been acquired starting from November 2015. Publication supported by FCT- project UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz.

  6. Body area networks using IEEE 802156 implementing the ultra wide band physical layer

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Marco; Mucchi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The market of wearable wireless medical sensors is experiencing a rapid growth and the associated telecommunications services for the healthcare sector are forecast to further increase in the next years. Medical body area networks (MBANs) allow the mobility of patients and medical personnel by facilitating the remote monitoring of patients suffering from chronic or risky diseases. Currently, MBANs are being introduced in unlicensed frequency bands, where the risk of mutual interference with other electronic devices radiating in the same band can be high. Thus, coexistence is an issue on which

  7. Many play concepts seen over wide area in Erris, Slyne troughs off Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, N.J.; Croker, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Erris and Slyne troughs are underexplored Mesozoic sedimentary basins off Ireland's northwest coast. The Irish Minister for Energy announced on Apr. 19, 1991, a frontier acreage licensing round of 128 blocks covering 29,000 sq km in these basins and the adjacent Rockall trough. Closing date for the round is June 30, 1993, set to allow two seasons for the acquisition of new geophysical and geological data over the area. Ireland has recently announced a new petroleum taxation regime. Revised licensing terms, which will acknowledge the specific circumstances of frontier acreage, will be announced

  8. Delayed-Input Wide Area Power System Stabilizer for Mode Selective Damping of Electromechanical Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaque Ahmed Hashmani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A long time delay due to the transmission and processing of remote signal may degrade stability of power system. This paper discusses the design of H? -based local decentralized delayed-input PSS (Power System Stabilizer controllers for a separate better damping of inter-area modes. The controllers use selected suitable remote signals from whole system as supplementary inputs. The local and remote input signals, used by the controller, are the ones in which the assigned single inter-area mode is most observable. The controller is located at a generator which is most effective in controlling the assigned mode. The controller, designed for a particular single interarea mode, also works mainly in the natural frequency of the assigned mode. Pade approximation approach is used to model time delay. The time delay model is then merged into delay-free power system model to obtain the delayed-input power system model. The controllers are then redesigned for the delayed-input system.

  9. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ˜22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  10. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-01-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability. PMID:26664131

  11. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer ( Emberiza citronella ), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m 2 . The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  12. Improvement of Wide-Area Damping Controller Subject to Actuator Saturations: A Dynamic Anti-windup Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jiakun; Wei, Yao; Chen, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents results on a dynamic anti-windup compensator (DAWC) for the flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) based wide-area damping controller (WADC). A systematic design approach of the DAWC is proposed following a typical two-step design procedure. First, a 3rd order WADC is designed...... for a 10 machine, 39-bus power system reinforced with a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) to damp the critical inter-area modes by employing appropriate global signal measurements. The full-order DAWC design method is applied to improve the dynamic performance with the saturated WADC. The robustness...... of the DAWC can cover a wide range of the operating conditions. Comparative studies on static anti-windup and DAWC has been carried out on both the numerical simulation and experimental platform. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate the improved performances of the DAWC....

  13. A novel wide-area backup protection based on fault component current distribution and improved evidence theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Kong, Xiangping; Yin, Xianggen; Yang, Zengli; Wang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of the existing wide-area backup protection (WABP) algorithms, the paper proposes a novel WABP algorithm based on the distribution characteristics of fault component current and improved Dempster/Shafer (D-S) evidence theory. When a fault occurs, slave substations transmit to master station the amplitudes of fault component currents of transmission lines which are the closest to fault element. Then master substation identifies suspicious faulty lines according to the distribution characteristics of fault component current. After that, the master substation will identify the actual faulty line with improved D-S evidence theory based on the action states of traditional protections and direction components of these suspicious faulty lines. The simulation examples based on IEEE 10-generator-39-bus system show that the proposed WABP algorithm has an excellent performance. The algorithm has low requirement of sampling synchronization, small wide-area communication flow, and high fault tolerance.

  14. A Novel Wide-Area Backup Protection Based on Fault Component Current Distribution and Improved Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problems of the existing wide-area backup protection (WABP algorithms, the paper proposes a novel WABP algorithm based on the distribution characteristics of fault component current and improved Dempster/Shafer (D-S evidence theory. When a fault occurs, slave substations transmit to master station the amplitudes of fault component currents of transmission lines which are the closest to fault element. Then master substation identifies suspicious faulty lines according to the distribution characteristics of fault component current. After that, the master substation will identify the actual faulty line with improved D-S evidence theory based on the action states of traditional protections and direction components of these suspicious faulty lines. The simulation examples based on IEEE 10-generator-39-bus system show that the proposed WABP algorithm has an excellent performance. The algorithm has low requirement of sampling synchronization, small wide-area communication flow, and high fault tolerance.

  15. A Novel Wide-Area Backup Protection Based on Fault Component Current Distribution and Improved Evidence Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Kong, Xiangping; Yin, Xianggen; Yang, Zengli; Wang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of the existing wide-area backup protection (WABP) algorithms, the paper proposes a novel WABP algorithm based on the distribution characteristics of fault component current and improved Dempster/Shafer (D-S) evidence theory. When a fault occurs, slave substations transmit to master station the amplitudes of fault component currents of transmission lines which are the closest to fault element. Then master substation identifies suspicious faulty lines according to the distribution characteristics of fault component current. After that, the master substation will identify the actual faulty line with improved D-S evidence theory based on the action states of traditional protections and direction components of these suspicious faulty lines. The simulation examples based on IEEE 10-generator-39-bus system show that the proposed WABP algorithm has an excellent performance. The algorithm has low requirement of sampling synchronization, small wide-area communication flow, and high fault tolerance. PMID:25050399

  16. Distributed power-line outage detection based on wide area measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Song, Wen-Zhan

    2014-07-21

    In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i) high computational complexity; and (ii) relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  17. Area-wide approaches to insect pest management: history and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, Waldemar

    2000-01-01

    World agriculture is now entering a very trying era because currently our numbers are expanding by more than 90 million additional people per year. Demographers project that our growth will not drop below 90 million people per year until about 2020 (United Nations 1993, Nygaard 1998). The challenge is to increase food production every three or four years sufficiently to feed an additional population equivalent to that of Western Europe or North America. The land available for agriculture on a per capita basis is becoming progressively more limited so than in 2010, on average, 1 hectare in developing countries will have to feed 5 people, and in South Asia, 1 hectare will have to feed 8 people (Alexandratos 1995, Klassen 1995). On an average, 66 percent of the additional food must come from increased yields, and in South Asia, fully 80 percent must come from increased yields. The balance will come from expanding the area cultivated and use of intensified cropping systems. However, this is not a simple matter since pest populations tend to be favoured by yield-boosting measures. Since population growth rates recede as people overcome poverty, and since increasing food production is the principal means of overcoming poverty in many countries, it is imperative that in the decades immediately ahead major improvements be made in reducing losses to pests and in other yield enhancing measures

  18. The Plasmonic Pixel: Large Area, Wide Gamut Color Reproduction Using Aluminum Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Timothy D; Mulvaney, Paul; Roberts, Ann

    2016-06-08

    We demonstrate a new plasmonic pixel (PP) design that produces a full-color optical response over macroscopic dimensions. The pixel design employs arrays of aluminum nanorods "floating" above their Babinet complementary screen, Concepts from conventional cyan magenta yellow key (CMYK) printing techniques and red green blue (RGB) digital displays are integrated with nanophotonic design principles and adapted to the production of PP elements. The fundamental PP color blocks of CMYK are implemented via a composite plasmonic nanoantenna/slot design and then mixed in a digital display analog 3 × 3 array to produce a broad-gamut PP. The PP goes beyond current investigations into plasmonic color production by enabling a broad color gamut and physically large plasmonic color features/devices/images. The use of nanorods also leads to a color response that is polarization tunable. Furthermore, devices are fabricated using aluminum and the fabrication strategy is compatible with inexpensive, rapid-throughput, nanoimprint approaches. Here we quantify, both computationally and experimentally, the performance of the PP. Spectral data from a test palette is obtained and a large area (>1.5 cm lateral dimensions) reproduction of a photograph is generated exemplifying the technqiue.

  19. Distributed Power-Line Outage Detection Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i high computational complexity; and (ii relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  20. Bay Area Severely Handicapped Deaf-Blind Project. Final Report, September 1, 1978 to December 31, 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailor, Wayne; Goetz, Lori

    The final report presents summary data on the accomplishments of a project serving deaf-blind children who were also severely, multiply handicapped. The project operated a model classroom for six to eight students in a San Francisco public school to develop and demonstrate innovative educational practices and assessment systems for visual and…

  1. The design of delay-dependent wide-area DOFC with prescribed degree of stability α for damping inter-area low-frequency oscillations in power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miaoping; Nian, Xiaohong; Dai, Liqiong; Guo, Hua

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the delay-dependent wide-area dynamic output feedback controller (DOFC) with prescribed degree of stability is proposed for interconnected power system to damp inter-area low-frequency oscillations. Here, the prescribed degree of stability α is used to maintain all the poles on the left of s=-α in the s-plane. Firstly, residue approach is adopted to select input-output control signals and the schur balanced truncation model reduction method is utilized to obtain the reduced power system model. Secondly, based on Lyapunov stability theory and transformation operation in complex plane, the sufficient condition of asymptotic stability for closed-loop power system with prescribed degree of stability α is derived. Then, a novel method based on linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) is presented to obtain the parameters of DOFC and calculate delay margin of the closed-loop system considering the prescribed degree of stability α. Finally, case studies are carried out on the two-area four-machine system, which is controlled by classical wide-area power system stabilizer (WAPSS) in reported reference and our proposed DOFC respectively. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are verified by the simulation results under different operating conditions. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Area-wide control of Chagas disease vectors in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Argentina, Brazil and Venezuela. Without exception, the results followed a similar course, with a rapid decline in house infestation rates and a reduction in the incidence of human infection. Generally however, it was impossible to consolidate the initial successes due to changes in intervention policy and a corresponding lack of programme continuity. Although domestic populations of Triatomine bugs can be cleared from individual houses, or from particular localities, the houses remain vulnerable to re-infestation by bugs brought in from untreated regions. In Brazil, the national programme to eliminate the primary vector, Triatoma infestans (Klug), was launched in 1983. It was highly successful, but - as with previous local campaigns - there were problems of sustainability and re-infestation of many of the treated localities (Dias 1987). To address this problem, governments of the six southern cone countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay) in 1991 set up a joint initiative to control Chagas disease through the elimination of all domestic and peridomestic populations of the triatomine vectors (Kingman 1991). With the addition of Peru to this programme in 1996, the initiative now covers the entire geographic distribution of the primary vector, T. infestans. The Southern Cone Initiative was planned as a 10-year programme to eliminate all domestic and peridomestic populations of T. infestans, with concurrent suppression of other vector species of local importance. Now just past its mid-point, the programme has already met with considerable success with Chagas disease transmission interrupted over vast areas of Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, central Brazil, eastern Paraguay and southern Bolivia (Schmunis et al. 1996, WHO 1996, 1997a, 1998). Other domestic vectors in the region - such as Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva in northeast Brazil - are also being controlled and the World Health Organisation (WHO) now predicts complete interruption of Chagas disease

  3. Wide-Area Landslide Deformation Mapping with Multi-Path ALOS PALSAR Data Stacks: A Case Study of Three Gorges Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuguo Shi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR has been adopted as a spaceborne geodetic tool to successfully measure surface deformation of a few well-known landslides in the Three Gorges area. In consideration of the fact that most events of slope failure happened at places other than those famous landslides since the reservoir impoundment in 2003, focusing on a limited number of slopes is insufficient to meet the requirements of regional-scale landslide disaster prevention and early warning. As a result, it has become a vital task to evaluate the overall stability of slopes across the vast area of Three Gorges using wide-coverage InSAR datasets. In this study, we explored the approach of carrying out joint analysis of multi-path InSAR data stacks for wide-area landslide deformation mapping. As an example, three ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data stacks of neighboring ascending paths covering the area along the Yangtze River from Fengjie to Zigui were analyzed. A key problem to be solved is the separation of the tropospheric signal from the interferometric phase, for which we employed a hybrid description model of the atmospheric phase screen (APS to improve APS estimation from time series interferograms. The estimated atmospheric phase was largely correlated with the seasonal rainfall in the temporal dimension. The experimental results show that about 30 slopes covering total areas of 48 km2 were identified to be landslides in active deformation and should be kept under routine surveillance. Analyses of time series displacement measurements revealed that most landslides in the mountainous area far away from Yangtze River suffered from linear deformation, whereas landslides located on the river bank were destabilized predominantly by the influences of reservoir water level fluctuation and rainfall.

  4. PDCI Wide-Area Damping Control: PSLF Simulations of the 2016 Open and Closed Loop Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilches Bernal, Felipe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pierre, Brian Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Elliott, Ryan Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schoenwald, David A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Byrne, Raymond H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trudnowski, Daniel J. [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States); Donnelly, Matthew K. [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2017-03-01

    To demonstrate and validate the performance of the wide-are a damping control system, the project plans to conduct closed-loop tests on the PDCI in summer/fall 2016. A test plan details the open and closed loop tests to be conducted on the P DCI using the wide-area damping control system. To ensure the appropriate level of preparedness, simulations were performed in order to predict and evaluate any possible unsafe operations before hardware experiments are attempted. This report contains the result s from these simulations using the power system dynamics software PSLF (Power System Load Flow, trademark of GE). The simulations use the WECC (Western Electricity Coordinating Council) 2016 light summer and heavy summer base cases.

  5. Practical design of SMES controller for improving power system stability based on wide area synchronized phasor measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechanupaprittha, S.; Watanabe, M.; Mitani, Y. [Kyushu Inst. of Technology, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan); Hongesombut, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo (Japan); Ngamroo, I. [King Mongkut' s Inst. of Technhology, Ladkrabang (Thailand)

    2007-07-01

    Various load demands with abrupt changes adversely affects power system operations and control, which can lead to significant problems such as system frequency oscillations due to insufficient system damping. In interconnected power systems, a local frequency control is needed in a given area. In addition, fluctuations of tie-line power flow should be stabilized. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) can be used as an effective device to exchange electrical energy with a power system. Wide area monitoring of power systems based on multiple synchronized phasor measurements such as the phasor measurement unit (PMU) using the global positioning system (GPS) offers the possibility of data synchronization at a common time reference. With the GPS, oscillation modes can be detected from measured data by modeling measured data as a coupled vibration model (CVM). This paper presented a practical design of a SMES controller based on wide area synchronized phasor measurement. The CVM can be used to represents an estimated power system model that is used for tuning SMES controller parameters. In addition, it can be used to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of the designed controller in the power system. For the desired damping performance, the controller parameters were optimally tuned using a heuristic optimization method, called a TABU search algorithm. A simulation study was then conducted in order to show and confirm the effectiveness of the design method on a two-area four machine power system. The paper explained the controller design methodology and discussed the application to a two-area, four-machine power system. The simulation revealed that the proposed design method could be implemented in a practical manner. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  6. A method exploiting direct communication between phasor measurement units for power system wide-area protection and control algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib; Vanfretti, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Synchrophasor measurements from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) are the primary sensors used to deploy Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) systems. PMUs stream out synchrophasor measurements through the IEEE C37.118.2 protocol using TCP/IP or UDP/IP. The proposed method establishes a direct communication between two PMUs, thus eliminating the requirement of an intermediate phasor data concentrator, data mediator and/or protocol parser and thereby ensuring minimum communication latency without considering communication link delays. This method allows utilizing synchrophasor measurements internally in a PMU to deploy custom protection and control algorithms. These algorithms are deployed using protection logic equations which are supported by all the PMU vendors. Moreover, this method reduces overall equipment cost as the algorithms execute internally in a PMU and therefore does not require any additional controller for their deployment. The proposed method can be utilized for fast prototyping of wide-area measurements based protection and control applications. The proposed method is tested by coupling commercial PMUs as Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) with Opal-RT's eMEGAsim Real-Time Simulator (RTS). As illustrative example, anti-islanding protection application is deployed using proposed method and its performance is assessed. The essential points in the method are: •Bypassing intermediate phasor data concentrator or protocol parsers as the synchrophasors are communicated directly between the PMUs (minimizes communication delays).•Wide Area Protection and Control Algorithm is deployed using logic equations in the client PMU, therefore eliminating the requirement for an external hardware controller (cost curtailment)•Effortless means to exploit PMU measurements in an environment familiar to protection engineers.

  7. Using Range-Wide Abundance Modeling to Identify Key Conservation Areas for the Micro-Endemic Bolson Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya A Ureña-Aranda

    Full Text Available A widespread biogeographic pattern in nature is that population abundance is not uniform across the geographic range of species: most occurrence sites have relatively low numbers, whereas a few places contain orders of magnitude more individuals. The Bolson tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus is endemic to a small region of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico, where habitat deterioration threatens this species with extinction. In this study we combined field burrows counts and the approach for modeling species abundance based on calculating the distance to the niche centroid to obtain range-wide abundance estimates. For the Bolson tortoise, we found a robust, negative relationship between observed burrows abundance and distance to the niche centroid, with a predictive capacity of 71%. Based on these results we identified four priority areas for the conservation of this microendemic and threatened tortoise. We conclude that this approach may be a useful approximation for identifying key areas for sampling and conservation efforts in elusive and rare species.

  8. Using Range-Wide Abundance Modeling to Identify Key Conservation Areas for the Micro-Endemic Bolson Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña-Aranda, Cinthya A; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Yáñez-Arenas, Carlos; Landgrave Ramírez, Rosario; Espinosa de los Monteros, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    A widespread biogeographic pattern in nature is that population abundance is not uniform across the geographic range of species: most occurrence sites have relatively low numbers, whereas a few places contain orders of magnitude more individuals. The Bolson tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus is endemic to a small region of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico, where habitat deterioration threatens this species with extinction. In this study we combined field burrows counts and the approach for modeling species abundance based on calculating the distance to the niche centroid to obtain range-wide abundance estimates. For the Bolson tortoise, we found a robust, negative relationship between observed burrows abundance and distance to the niche centroid, with a predictive capacity of 71%. Based on these results we identified four priority areas for the conservation of this microendemic and threatened tortoise. We conclude that this approach may be a useful approximation for identifying key areas for sampling and conservation efforts in elusive and rare species.

  9. Error Analysis of Fast Moving Target Geo-location in Wide Area Surveillance Ground Moving Target Indication Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shi-chao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As an important mode in airborne radar systems, Wide Area Surveillance Ground Moving Target Indication (WAS-GMTI mode has the ability of monitoring a large area in a short time, and then the detected moving targets can be located quickly. However, in real environment, many factors introduce considerable errors into the location of moving targets. In this paper, a fast location method based on the characteristics of the moving targets in WAS-GMTI mode is utilized. And in order to improve the location performance, those factors that introduce location errors are analyzed and moving targets are relocated. Finally, the analysis of those factors is proved to be reasonable by simulation and real data experiments.

  10. WIDE-AREA BASED ON COORDINATED TUNING OF FUZZY PSS AND FACTS CONTROLLER IN MULTI-MACHINE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Ebrahimian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper coordination of fuzzy power system stabilizer (FPSS and flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS have been considered in a multi-machine power system. The proposed model, has been applied for a wide-area power system. The proposed FPSS presented with local, nonlinear feedbacks, and the corresponding control synthesis conditions are given in terms of solutions to a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. For this model, in fuzzy control synthesis, the new proposed control design method is based on fewer fuzzy rules and less computational burden. Also, the parameters of FACTS controller have been evaluated by improved honey bee mating optimization (IHBMO. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been applied over two case studies of single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB and two areas four machine (TAFM Kundur’s power system. The obtained results demonstrate the superiority of proposed strategy.

  11. 2D PWV monitoring of a wide and orographically complex area with a low dense GNSS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Ilaria; Federici, Bianca; Sguerso, Domenico

    2018-04-01

    This study presents an innovative procedure to monitor the precipitable water vapor (PWV) content of a wide and orographically complex area with low-density networks. The procedure, termed G4M (global navigation satellite system, GNSS, for Meteorology), has been developed in a geographic information system (GIS) environment using the free and open source GRASS GIS software (https://grass.osgeo.org). The G4M input data are zenith total delay estimates obtained from GNSS permanent stations network adjustment and pressure ( P) and temperature ( T) observations using existing infrastructure networks with different geographic distributions in the study area. In spite of the wide sensor distribution, the procedure produces 2D maps with high spatiotemporal resolution (up to 250 m and 6 min) based on a simplified mathematical model including data interpolation, which was conceived by the authors to describe the atmosphere's physics. In addition to PWV maps, the procedure provides ΔPWV and heterogeneity index maps: the former represents PWV variations with respect to a "calm" moment, which are useful for monitoring the PWV evolution; and the latter are promising indicators to localize severe meteorological events in time and space. This innovative procedure is compared with meteorological simulations in this paper; in addition, an application to a severe event that occurred in Genoa (Italy) is presented.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. A Robust WLS Power System State Estimation Method Integrating a Wide-Area Measurement System and SCADA Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the development of modern society, the scale of the power system is rapidly increased accordingly, and the framework and mode of running of power systems are trending towards more complexity. It is nowadays much more important for the dispatchers to know exactly the state parameters of the power network through state estimation. This paper proposes a robust power system WLS state estimation method integrating a wide-area measurement system (WAMS and SCADA technology, incorporating phasor measurements and the results of the traditional state estimator in a post-processing estimator, which greatly reduces the scale of the non-linear estimation problem as well as the number of iterations and the processing time per iteration. This paper firstly analyzes the wide-area state estimation model in detail, then according to the issue that least squares does not account for bad data and outliers, the paper proposes a robust weighted least squares (WLS method that combines a robust estimation principle with least squares by equivalent weight. The performance assessment is discussed through setting up mathematical models of the distribution network. The effectiveness of the proposed method was proved to be accurate and reliable by simulations and experiments.

  13. Cyber-Physical Attack-Resilient Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection, and Control for the Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashok, Aditya; Govindarasu, Manimaran; Wang, Jianhui

    2017-07-01

    Cyber security and resiliency of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) applications is critically important to ensure secure, reliable, and economic operation of the bulk power system. WAMPAC relies heavily on the security of measurements and control commands transmitted over wide-area communication networks for real-time operational, protection, and control functions. Also, the current “N-1 security criteria” for grid operation is inadequate to address malicious cyber events and therefore it is important to fundamentally redesign WAMPAC and to enhance Energy Management System (EMS) applications to make them attack-resilient. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end defense-in-depth architecture for attack-resilient WAMPAC that addresses resilience at both the infrastructure layer and the application layers. Also, we propose an attack-resilient cyber-physical security framework that encompasses the entire security life cycle including risk assessment, attack prevention, attack detection, attack mitigation, and attack resilience. The overarching objective of this paper is to provide a broad scope that comprehensively describes most of the major research issues and potential solutions in the context of cyber-physical security of WAMPAC for the power grid.

  14. Real-time, wide-area hyperspectral imaging sensors for standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Tazik, Shawna; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the detection and analysis of targets located within complex backgrounds. HSI can detect threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have size, weight, and power limitations that prohibit their use for field-portable and/or real-time applications. Current generation systems commonly provide an inefficient area search rate, require close proximity to the target for screening, and/or are not capable of making real-time measurements. ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of real-time, wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems that utilize shortwave infrared (SWIR) absorption and Raman spectroscopy. SWIR HSI sensors provide wide-area imagery with at or near real time detection speeds. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focusing on sensor design and detection results.

  15. The transmission of monetary shocks in the euro area: a V AR analysis based on euro-wide data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kakes

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Using area-wide data, we simulate the responses of inflation and real output following monetary shocks in the EMU. We find that short-term interest rate shocks have a significant impact on real activity, but hardly on prices. M3 shows a perverse short-term response to a monetary contraction, which should be taken into account when interpreting the reference value of money growth (the "first pillar" of the Eurosystem's monetary strategy. Shocks to the effective exchange rate have a rapid impact on prices, money growth and real activity. As the exchange rate itself is hardly affected by monetary policy shocks, though, there is little scope for an exchange rate policy. Rather, these findings underscore the important role that the exchange rate should play as an information variable within the "second pillar" of the monetary strategy.

  16. A GIS-assisted approach to wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection for the state of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, M.C. [Brower & Company, Andover, MA (United States); Hurley, P. [RLA Consulting, Bothell, WA (United States); Simon, R. [Consulting Meteorologist, Mill Valley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the methodology and results of a wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection in Colorado. This was the first phase in a three-part assessment and monitoring program conducted for the State of Colorado Office of Energy Conservation and several collaborating utilities. The objective of this phase was to identify up to 20 candidate sites for evaluation and possible long-term monitoring. This was accomplished using a geographic information system (GIS), which takes into account such factors as topography, existing wind resource data, locations of transmission lines, land cover, and land use. The resulting list of sites recommended for evaluation in Phase 2 of the study includes locations throughout Colorado, but most are in the eastern plains. The GIS wind siting model may be modified and updated in the future as additional information becomes available. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Public relations and political support in area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, V.A.; Regidor Fernandez, E.E.; Reyes Flores, J.; Teruya, T.; Barnes, B.; Gomez Riera, P.; Lindquist, D.; Reuben, R.

    2005-01-01

    The public relations component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) has a large impact on programme success. Full-time professionals should direct public relations activities and secure vital political support from governments and community organizations. Good communication among programme staff, and between programme staff and the public, is required to maintain participation and support, and to keep the work goal-oriented even when some programme activities are controversial. The media can be valuable and effective partners by informing the public about the real facts and activities of a programme, especially if this is done in a non-technical and straightforward way. Ongoing research support improves the programme technology, provides technical credibility on contentious issues, and solves operational problems. Programme failure can result from poor public relations and inadequate public support. (author)

  18. Turbo-FSK, a physical layer for low-power wide-area networks: Analysis and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Yoann; Doré, Jean-Baptiste; Ros, Laurent; Berg, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    As the Internet-of-Things is becoming a reality, the need for a new Low-Power Wide-Area (LPWA) network emerged in the last few years. Numerous low-cost devices will be connected, and this requires an optimization of the link budget: the physical layer needs to be designed highly energy efficient. The combination of M-ary orthogonal Frequency-Shift-Keying (M-FSK) modulation and coding in the same process has been shown to be a promising candidate when associated with an iterative receiver (turbo principle). In this work, we study this new digital transmission scheme, called Turbo-FSK. An EXtrinsic Information Transfer (EXIT) chart analysis is realized. The influence of the packet length is investigated, and the scheme is shown to stay energy efficiency even with short packet sizes. Comparison with LPWA current technologies is performed, showing the potential of this technology. xml:lang="fr"

  19. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2013-01-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation’s electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments. PMID:25685516

  20. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Massi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Calusi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Castelli, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Fedi, M.E.; Gelli, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Palla, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Romano, F.P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali (IBAM), Via Biblioteca, 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), LNS, Via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  1. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments.

  2. The use of semiochemical-based devices and formulations in area-wide programmes - A commercial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Owen T.; Casagrande, Enzo D.

    2000-01-01

    It is now almost 40 years since the first insect pheromone was isolated and identified and many authors have referred over the years to their commercial potential. Although much progress has been made during those years in terms of scientific and technological advances related to semiochemicals, the 'progress' that has actually been made in the commercial exploitation of pheromones and other semiochemicals has been rather limited when viewed in terms of their share of the agrochemical market. Based on published data and unpublished information which has been made available to the authors, semiochemical-based products are estimated to have world-wide sales in the US$70-80 million range at the manufacturers' level. This compares with a world-wide insecticide market of nearly US$8 billion in 1995 so that it therefore constitutes less than 1% of that market. In terms of the biopesticide market (bacteria, viruses, botanical insecticides, entomopathogenic nematodes and beneficial insects) on the other hand, semiochemicals constitute a much higher percentage (ca. 30%) and probably are third in importance after bacterial and botanical products. The industry has taken over 20 years to achieve its current size and has been pioneered mostly by small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Several technical and biological factors have played a part in determining the rate at which semiochemical-based technology has been adopted commercially in the field but one factor in particular has greatly influenced this technology transfer process, namely, area-wide programmes. These have often been government-backed programmes that have demonstrated the effectiveness of the semiochemical-based technique being implemented and have convinced the farmers and growers of the benefits that these novel techniques can bring. Several strategies have been developed where semiochemicals have been used either alone or in combination with other control technologies but three in particular stands out

  3. Deep seismic transect across the Tonankai earthquake area obtained from the onshore- offshore wide-angle seismic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Obana, K.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Fujie, G.; Ito, A.; Sato, T.; Park, J.; Kaneda, Y.; Ito, K.; Iwasaki, T.

    2008-12-01

    In the Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, M8-class great earthquake area can be divided into three segments; they are source regions of the Nankai, Tonankai and presumed Tokai earthquakes. The Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes had often occurred simultaneously, and caused a great event. Hypocenters of these great earthquakes were usually located off the cape Shiono, Kii Peninsula, and the rupture propagated westwards and eastwards, respectively. To obtain the deep structure of the down-dip limit of around the Nankai Trough seismogenic zone, the segment boundary and first break area off the Kii Peninsula, the onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic studies was conducted in the western and eastern part of the Kii Peninsula and their offshore area in 2004 and 2006, respectively. The result of the seismic study in 2004 is mainly shown here. Structural images along the onshore and offshore profiles have already been separately obtained. In this study, an onshore-offshore integrated image of the western part of the Kii Peninsula, ~400km in a total length, is obtained from first arrival tomography and traveltime mapping of reflection phases by combining dataset of 13 land explosions, 2269 land stations, 36 OBSs and 1806 offshore airgun shots. The subduction angle of the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) gradually increases landward up to ~20-25 degree. Beneath the onshore part, the subducting PSP is estimated at ~5km shallower than that previously derived from seismicity. Low frequency earthquakes (identified and picked by Japan Meteorological Agency) are relocated around the plate interface of the subducting PSP by using the deep seismic transect obtained in this study. The offshore research is part of 'Structure research on plate dynamics of the presumed rupture zone of the Tonankai-Nankai Earthquakes' funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The onshore research carried by the Kyoto University is part of 'Special Project for

  4. Mass Releases of Genetically Modified Insects in Area-Wide Pest Control Programs and Their Impact on Organic Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Guy Reeves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass release of irradiated insects to reduce the size of agricultural pest populations of the same species has a more than 50-year record of success. Using these techniques, insect pests can be suppressed without necessarily dispersing chemical insecticides into the environment. Ongoing release programs include the suppression of medfly at numerous locations around the globe (e.g., California, Chile and Israel and the pink bollworm eradication program across the southern USA and northern Mexico. These, and other successful area-wide programs, encompass a large number of diverse organic farms without incident. More recently, mass release techniques have been proposed that involve the release of genetically modified insects. Given that the intentional use of genetically modified organisms by farmers will in many jurisdictions preclude organic certification, this prohibits the deliberate use of this technology by organic farmers. However, mass releases of flying insects are not generally conducted by individual farmers but are done on a regional basis, often without the explicit consent of all situated farms (frequently under the auspices of government agencies or growers’ collectives. Consequently, there exists the realistic prospect of organic farms becoming involved in genetically modified insect releases as part of area-wide programs or experiments. Herein, we describe genetically modified insects engineered for mass release and examine their potential impacts on organic farmers, both intended and unintended. This is done both generally and also focusing on a hypothetical organic farm located near an approved experimental release of genetically modified (GM diamondback moths in New York State (USA.

  5. Interpretation of the concentrations of aldehydes in rainwater over a wide area and local areas of Japan by some dominant factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Shigeru; Murai, Keita; Takamatsu, Mizuho; Hayakawa, Yukari; Tamizu, Shinya; Kuwata, Makoto; Katayama, Yuuki; Kuramitz, Hideki; Hata, Noriko

    2012-12-01

    Rainwater pollution with formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and other aliphatic aldehydes was investigated from May 2008 to June 2011 at 19 locations over a wide area in Japan to survey the pollution level. The pollution level was remarkably controlled by the amount of precipitation. The concentrations of total aliphatic aldehydes and formaldehyde sometimes exceeded 0.6 mg L-1 and 0.2 mg L-1 when the rainfall was small, and decreased rapidly with increasing the amount of rainfall. And in larger rainfall, the concentrations were converged to ca. 0.09 mg L-1 and 0.06 mg L-1 respectively. It was found that the concentration of the pollutants collected in a bottle for a single rainfall event is expressed by an equation based on a dilution model where heavy deposition occurred only at early rainfall followed by continuous dilution of the water with less polluted rainwater. These results were interpreted that the aldehydes in air were washed out very quickly due to their high solubility in water. As progressing of rainfall, the pollution level attained to an equilibrium state between influx and outflux of the pollutants. Precise investigation through a sequential sampling of rainwater by 1 mm during a rainfall event was also performed at several sites. It was found that a break of rainfall is another dominant factor to control the pollution level. A break of rainfall quickly enhanced the pollution level of the resumed rain. Regional difference on rainwater pollution level was observed only at the early stage throughout a rainfall event. The air-pollution levels were high just before beginning rainfall, and they decreased quickly with increasing the amount of rainfall, but never converged to zero. These results suggest that continuous influx of the pollutants occurs in a wide area in Japan besides regional influx.

  6. Blind Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockey, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The phrase "blind astronomer” is used as an allegorical oxymoron. However, there were and are blind astronomers. What of famous blind astronomers? First, it must be stated that these astronomers were not martyrs to their craft. It is a myth that astronomers blind themselves by observing the Sun. As early as France's William of Saint-Cloud (circa 1290) astronomers knew that staring at the Sun was ill-advised and avoided it. Galileo Galilei did not invent the astronomical telescope and then proceed to blind himself with one. Galileo observed the Sun near sunrise and sunset or through projection. More than two decades later he became blind, as many septuagenarians do, unrelated to their profession. Even Isaac Newton temporarily blinded himself, staring at the reflection of the Sun when he was a twentysomething. But permanent Sun-induced blindness? No, it did not happen. For instance, it was a stroke that left Scotland's James Gregory (1638-1675) blind. (You will remember the Gregorian telescope.) However, he died days later. Thus, blindness little interfered with his occupation. English Abbot Richard of Wallingford (circa 1291 - circa 1335) wrote astronomical works and designed astronomical instruments. He was also blind in one eye. Yet as he further suffered from leprosy, his blindness seems the lesser of Richard's maladies. Perhaps the most famous professionally active, blind astronomer (or almost blind astronomer) is Dominique-Francois Arago (1786-1853), director until his death of the powerful nineteenth-century Paris Observatory. I will share other _ some poignant _ examples such as: William Campbell, whose blindness drove him to suicide; Leonhard Euler, astronomy's Beethoven, who did nearly half of his life's work while almost totally blind; and Edwin Frost, who "observed” a total solar eclipse while completely sightless.

  7. Area-wide control of fruit flies and other insect pests. Joint proceedings of the international conference on area-wide control of insect pests and the fifth international symposium on fruit flies of economic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Keng-Hong

    2000-01-01

    With the world population attaining the six billion mark, the urgency of increasing quality food production and reducing the spread of diseases transmitted by insects, without affecting our fragile environment, will be of paramount importance. Losses currently experienced in agricultural production, due to insect pests and through diseases transmitted by insect vectors, are very high especially in developing and poor countries. Many insect pests and vectors are of economic importance, and several such as fruit flies, mosquitoes and tsetse flies have attracted international concerns. Most pests are traditionally controlled through heavy reliance on pesticides which can cause environmental pollution, pesticide resistance, and pest resurgence. The control, management or eradication of insect pests and vectors with minimal adverse impact on our food quality, environment, health and well-being should be of great concern to many agriculturists, biological and physical scientists as well as to national and international agencies responsible for pest control. Steps taken by the various concerned agencies to improve and implement the area-wide control will hopefully lead us into the next millennium free from major insect pests and vectors while at the same time protect our precarious global environment. This volume is the culmination of proceedings conducted in two recent international meetings, FAO/IAEA International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, 28 May - 2 June 1998, and the Fifth International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 1-5 June 1998, held in Penang, Malaysia. Over three hundred papers (both oral contributions and posters) were presented at the two meetings. The manuscripts submitted by authors are divided according to broad topics into eighteen sections originally defined by the organisers as corresponding to the sessions of the meetings. The organisers identified one to several individuals in each of the sessions to deliver an

  8. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S Shepard

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY. The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008 and the intervention years (2009-2011 declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.

  9. Wide-area mapping of resting state hemodynamic correlations at microvascular resolution with multi-contrast optical imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarathna, Janaka; Hadjiabadi, Darian; Gil, Stacy; Thakor, Nitish V.; Pathak, Arvind P.

    2017-02-01

    Different brain regions exhibit complex information processing even at rest. Therefore, assessing temporal correlations between regions permits task-free visualization of their `resting state connectivity'. Although functional MRI (fMRI) is widely used for mapping resting state connectivity in the human brain, it is not well suited for `microvascular scale' imaging in rodents because of its limited spatial resolution. Moreover, co-registered cerebral blood flow (CBF) and total hemoglobin (HbT) data are often unavailable in conventional fMRI experiments. Therefore, we built a customized system that combines laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging and fluorescence imaging (FI) to generate multi-contrast functional connectivity maps at a spatial resolution of 10 μm. This system comprised of three illumination sources: a 632 nm HeNe laser (for LSCI), a 570 nm ± 5 nm filtered white light source (for IOS), and a 473 nm blue laser (for FI), as well as a sensitive CCD camera operating at 10 frames per second for image acquisition. The acquired data enabled visualization of changes in resting state neurophysiology at microvascular spatial scales. Moreover, concurrent mapping of CBF and HbT-based temporal correlations enabled in vivo mapping of how resting brain regions were linked in terms of their hemodynamics. Additionally, we complemented this approach by exploiting the transit times of a fluorescent tracer (Dextran-FITC) to distinguish arterial from venous perfusion. Overall, we demonstrated the feasibility of wide area mapping of resting state connectivity at microvascular resolution and created a new toolbox for interrogating neurovascular function.

  10. Development of driver’s assistant system of additional visual information of blind areas for Gazelle Next

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, V.; Korelin, O.; Koblyakov, D.; Kostin, S.; Komandirov, A.

    2018-02-01

    The article is devoted to the development of the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for the GAZelle NEXT car. This project is aimed at developing a visual information system for the driver integrated into the windshield racks. The developed system implements the following functions: assistance in maneuvering and parking; Recognition of road signs; Warning the driver about the possibility of a frontal collision; Control of "blind" zones; "Transparent" vision in the windshield racks, widening the field of view, behind them; Visual and sound information about the traffic situation; Control and descent from the lane of the vehicle; Monitoring of the driver’s condition; navigation system; All-round review. The scheme of action of sensors of the developed system of visual information of the driver is provided. The moments of systems on a prototype of a vehicle are considered. Possible changes in the interior and dashboard of the car are given. The results of the implementation are aimed at the implementation of the system - improved informing of the driver about the environment and the development of an ergonomic interior for this system within the new Functional Salon of the Gazelle Next vehicle equipped with a visual information system for the driver.

  11. Data transfer nodes and demonstration of 100-400 Gbps wide area throughput using the Caltech SDN testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, A.; Newman, H.

    2017-10-01

    We review and demonstrate the design of efficient data transfer nodes (DTNs), from the perspective of the highest throughput over both local and wide area networks, as well as the highest performance per unit cost. A careful system-level design is required for the hardware, firmware, OS and software components. Furthermore, additional tuning of these components, and the identification and elimination of any remaining bottlenecks is needed once the system is assembled and commissioned, in order to obtain optimal performance. For high throughput data transfers, specialized software is used to overcome the traditional limits in performance caused by the OS, file system, file structures used, etc. Concretely, we will discuss and present the latest results using Fast Data Transfer (FDT), developed by Caltech. We present and discuss the design choices for three generations of Caltech DTNs. Their transfer capabilities range from 40 Gbps to 400 Gbps. Disk throughput is still the biggest challenge in the current generation of available hardware. However, new NVME drives combined with RDMA and a new NVME network fabric are expected to improve the overall data-transfer throughput and simultaneously reduce the CPU load on the end nodes.

  12. Bone cancer induces a unique central sensitization through synaptic changes in a wide area of the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Yoshikazu; Furue, Hidemasa; Kawamata, Tomoyuki; Uta, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Jun; Furuse, Shingo; Katafuchi, Toshihiko; Imoto, Keiji; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Yoshimura, Megumu

    2010-07-05

    Chronic bone cancer pain is thought to be partly due to central sensitization. Although murine models of bone cancer pain revealed significant neurochemical changes in the spinal cord, it is not known whether this produces functional alterations in spinal sensory synaptic transmission. In this study, we examined excitatory synaptic responses evoked in substantia gelatinosa (SG, lamina II) neurons in spinal cord slices of adult mice bearing bone cancer, using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording techniques. Mice at 14 to 21 days after sarcoma implantation into the femur exhibited hyperalgesia to mechanical stimuli applied to the skin of the ipsilateral hind paw, as well as showing spontaneous and movement evoked pain-related behaviors. SG neurons exhibited spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). The amplitudes of spontaneous EPSCs were significantly larger in cancer-bearing than control mice without any changes in passive membrane properties of SG neurons. In the presence of TTX, the amplitude of miniature EPSCs in SG neurons was increased in cancer-bearing mice and this was observed for cells sampled across a wide range of lumbar segmental levels. Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor- and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated EPSCs evoked by focal stimulation were also enhanced in cancer-bearing mice. Dorsal root stimulation elicited mono- and/or polysynaptic EPSCs that were caused by the activation of Adelta and/or C afferent fibers in SG neurons from both groups of animals. The number of cells receiving monosynaptic inputs from Adelta and C fibers was not different between the two groups. However, the amplitude of the monosynaptic C fiber-evoked EPSCs and the number of SG neurons receiving polysynaptic inputs from Adelta and C fibers were increased in cancer-bearing mice. These results show that spinal synaptic transmission mediated through Adelta and C fibers is enhanced in the SG across a wide area of

  13. Bone cancer induces a unique central sensitization through synaptic changes in a wide area of the spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Daisuke

    2010-07-01

    enhanced in the SG across a wide area of lumbar levels following sarcoma implantation in the femur. This widespread spinal sensitization may be one of the underlying mechanisms for the development of chronic bone cancer pain.

  14. [Cortical blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, S

    2014-02-01

    Cortical blindness refers to a visual loss induced by a bilateral occipital lesion. The very strong cooperation between psychophysics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology and neuropsychology these latter twenty years as well as recent progress in cerebral imagery have led to a better understanding of neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness. It thus becomes possible now to propose an earlier diagnosis of cortical blindness as well as new perspectives for rehabilitation in children as well as in adults. On the other hand, studying complex neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness is a way to infer normal functioning of the visual system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Designing and implementing a geographical information system: A guide for managers of area-wide pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    Over the past two decades, the use of computer software and mapping methods known as geographical information systems (GIS) has been adopted by an ever growing variety of professionals. Every activity that deals with location dependent information can use GIS, and agriculture is no exception. The potential of GIS and remote sensing (RS) to facilitate the planning and implementation of areawide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes is enormous but unfortunately, these methods are still much underused. AW-IPM programmes, especially those that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) with other surveillance and control methods, would benefit considerably by drawing on GIS/RS. These programmes are often implemented over large areas of even tens of thousands of square kilometres, where surveillance methods are deployed and large data sets are systematically generated on a daily basis. The acquisition of geo-referenced data sets on pest presence/absence, relative abundance, disease prevalence, crop damage, etc., that will allow accurate spatial and temporal analysis is important for proper and timely decision making to efficiently plan and implement any operational pest management programme. Animal health and plant protection officials and pest control programme managers might be intuitively aware of the importance of employing GIS as an analytical tool. However, they often lack a deeper understanding of its capabilities. Since GIS is a desk exercise using computers, data analysis is often left to the computer staff without proper directives from the programme managers on programmatic needs. This is unfortunate as it will usually NOT bring the desired GIS-processed information to the decision makers. This manual targets area-wide pest control programme administrators and managers of FAO and IAEA Member States in an attempt to demonstrate the type of data processing and spatial analysis that can be expected of GIS. The manual does not aim to provide

  16. Preparing the way for coming area wide integrated pest management projects against the new world screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, in MERCOSUR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fernandes, Thiago; Walder, Julio; Bezerra, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The New World Screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, was eradicated from the USA, Central America to Panama, but in most tropical regions of Latin America, the NWS is still a serious threat to livestock, provoking estimated annual losses of US$ 1.8 billion in Brazil. Between January and May 2009, a pilot-project was performed at the Brazil-Uruguay border. As the results were positive, novel regional Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management projects are being planned. To set a mass-rearing center based in South America is strategic when considering long-term programs. In partnership with CENA/USP and the Biofactory MOSCAMED Brazil, a project to produce sterile NWS started on 2009. The project aimed to maintain a colony of a regional NWS strain, to develop a mass-rearing system and a sterilization protocol by X rays, and to study the sterility induction in regional strains. A colony was successfully established. The adults were kept in cages and fed on a diet (honey and spray dried egg). The larvae were reared in a medium made of spray dried blood, spray dried egg, milk, water, formalin and Ecogel. Egg hatch has been of 80 ± 10%. From F 1 to F 22 , the total amount of pupae produced was about 38 L (∼ 315,400 pupae). The mean adult emergence and sex ratio were 86.7 ± 3% and 0.59 ± 0.08 respectively. The mean pupal weight was 47.1 ± 1.7 mg. The estimated X ray doses to induce 99% sterility in males and females were 43.7 Gy and 47.5 Gy, respectively. To produce 1.5 L of pupae, the current cost is about US$ 15.00. (author)

  17. Preparing the way for coming area wide integrated pest management projects against the new world screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, in MERCOSUR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fernandes, Thiago; Walder, Julio, E-mail: piaui@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Bezerra, Fernando [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Sertao Pernambucano (IFSERTAO-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The New World Screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, was eradicated from the USA, Central America to Panama, but in most tropical regions of Latin America, the NWS is still a serious threat to livestock, provoking estimated annual losses of US$ 1.8 billion in Brazil. Between January and May 2009, a pilot-project was performed at the Brazil-Uruguay border. As the results were positive, novel regional Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management projects are being planned. To set a mass-rearing center based in South America is strategic when considering long-term programs. In partnership with CENA/USP and the Biofactory MOSCAMED Brazil, a project to produce sterile NWS started on 2009. The project aimed to maintain a colony of a regional NWS strain, to develop a mass-rearing system and a sterilization protocol by X rays, and to study the sterility induction in regional strains. A colony was successfully established. The adults were kept in cages and fed on a diet (honey and spray dried egg). The larvae were reared in a medium made of spray dried blood, spray dried egg, milk, water, formalin and Ecogel. Egg hatch has been of 80 {+-} 10%. From F{sub 1} to F{sub 22}, the total amount of pupae produced was about 38 L ({approx} 315,400 pupae). The mean adult emergence and sex ratio were 86.7 {+-} 3% and 0.59 {+-} 0.08 respectively. The mean pupal weight was 47.1 {+-} 1.7 mg. The estimated X ray doses to induce 99% sterility in males and females were 43.7 Gy and 47.5 Gy, respectively. To produce 1.5 L of pupae, the current cost is about US$ 15.00. (author)

  18. Effectiveness of the Area-wide Pest Management Program to Control Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey: Evidence from a Household Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquitos. Beginning in 2009, a comprehensive area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Aedes albopictus was implemented in 4 areas in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey. Including other activities, the project f...

  19. Effectiveness of the area wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey: evidence from a household survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquito species. Beginning in 2009, an area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Ae. Albopictus was implemented in 6 areas in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. Including other activities, the project focused on increa...

  20. Topical Oxybutynin 10% Gel for the Treatment of Primary Focal Hyperhidrosis: A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Split Area Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzi, Ofir; Loizides, Christophoros; Zur, Eyal; Sprecher, Eli

    2017-10-02

    Limited efficacy, costs, side-effects and complications are issues of concern for most current therapeutic modalities for focal hyperhidrosis. This study evaluated the efficacy of topical oxybutynin 10% gel in treating 61 patients with primary focal hyperhidrosis. The gel was applied to the right or left axilla, palms or soles vs. a placebo compound to the contralateral side for 30 days. A blinded visual grading of the change in starch-iodine tests was performed by 2 non-involved physicians. The Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaires were administered before and after treatment. The patients rated their satisfaction with treatment. Fifty-three patients completed the 4-week treatment. Sweat reduction in the drug-treated sweating areas was higher than in the control-treated areas. There was a significant mean improvement in pre- and post-treatment HDSS and DQLI (p = 0.001 for both). Thirty-nine subjects (74%) reported moderate-to-high satisfaction. Twice-daily topical application of oxybutynin 10% gel appears to be an effective, safe and well-tolerated treatment for focal primary hyperhidrosis.

  1. Use of geographic information systems and spatial analysis in area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.St.H.; Vreysen, M.J.B.

    2005-01-01

    The advantages that geographic information systems (GIS) and associated technologies can offer, in terms of the design and implementation of area-wide programmes of insect and/or disease suppression, are becoming increasingly recognised, even if the realization of this potential has not been fully exploited and for some area-wide programmes adoption appears to be progressing slowly. This chapter provides a basic introduction to the science of GIS, Global Positioning System (GPS), and satellite remote sensing (RS), and reviews the principal ways in which these technologies can be used to assist various stages of development of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes - from the selection of project sites, and feasibility assessments and planning of pre-intervention surveys, to the monitoring and analysis of insect suppression programmes, and the release of sterile insects. Potential barriers to the successful deployment of GIS tools are also discussed. (author)

  2. 77 FR 38731 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Updates to Wide Area WorkFlow (DFARS Case 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... the submission of payment requests and receiving reports in electronic format. DATES: Effective date... policies and procedures for electronic submission of payment requests and receiving reports through Wide... with the primary DoD payment systems, is the accepted DoD system for generating invoices and receiving...

  3. Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

  4. Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated Pest Managment Program to control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using contingent valuation, the perceived value of an area-wide, integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey, was estimated. The residents’ maximum willingness-to-pay (WTP) and payment modality was estimat...

  5. EU protected area network did not prevent a country wide population decline in a threatened grassland bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, João P; Correia, Ricardo; Alonso, Hany; Martins, Ricardo C; D'Amico, Marcello; Delgado, Ana; Sampaio, Hugo; Godinho, Carlos; Moreira, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the effectiveness of the Protected Area networks on the conservation status of target species. Here, we assess the effectiveness of the Portuguese Natura 2000 (the European Union network of protected areas) in maintaining a species included in the Annex I of the Bird Directive, namely the population of a priority farmland bird, the little bustard Tetrax tetrax . We measured the effectiveness of the Natura 2000 by comparing population trends across time (2003-2006 and 2016) in 51 areas, 21 of which within 12 Special Protection Areas (SPA) that were mostly designated for farmland bird conservation and another 30 areas without EU protection. Overall, the national population is estimated to have declined 49% over the last 10-14 years. This loss was found to be proportionally larger outside SPA (64% decline) compared to losses within SPA (25% decline). However, the absolute male density decline was significantly larger within SPA . In spite of holding higher population densities and having prevented habitat loss, we conclude that Natura 2000 was not effective in buffering against the overall bustard population decline. Results show that the mere designation of SPA in farmland is not enough to secure species populations and has to be combined with agricultural policies and investment to maintain not only habitat availability but also habitat quality.

  6. EU protected area network did not prevent a country wide population decline in a threatened grassland bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Few studies have assessed the effectiveness of the Protected Area networks on the conservation status of target species. Here, we assess the effectiveness of the Portuguese Natura 2000 (the European Union network of protected areas in maintaining a species included in the Annex I of the Bird Directive, namely the population of a priority farmland bird, the little bustard Tetrax tetrax. Methods We measured the effectiveness of the Natura 2000 by comparing population trends across time (2003–2006 and 2016 in 51 areas, 21 of which within 12 Special Protection Areas (SPA that were mostly designated for farmland bird conservation and another 30 areas without EU protection. Results Overall, the national population is estimated to have declined 49% over the last 10–14 years. This loss was found to be proportionally larger outside SPA (64% decline compared to losses within SPA (25% decline. However, the absolute male density decline was significantly larger within SPA . Discussion In spite of holding higher population densities and having prevented habitat loss, we conclude that Natura 2000 was not effective in buffering against the overall bustard population decline. Results show that the mere designation of SPA in farmland is not enough to secure species populations and has to be combined with agricultural policies and investment to maintain not only habitat availability but also habitat quality.

  7. Outcomes from the USDA/ARS area-wide project for management of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, became established in the continental US in 1985 and now infests 30 states. In 2007 the USDA Agricultural Research Service funded an “area-wide” project focused on the management of this species. The project was a unique federal, state, local collaborati...

  8. Range-wide network of priority areas for greater sage-grouse - a design for conserving connected distributions or isolating individual zoos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Michele R.; Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.

    2015-09-08

    The network of areas delineated in 11 Western States for prioritizing management of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) represents a grand experiment in conservation biology and reserve design. We used centrality metrics from social network theory to gain insights into how this priority area network might function. The network was highly centralized. Twenty of 188 priority areas accounted for 80 percent of the total centrality scores. These priority areas, characterized by large size and a central location in the range-wide distribution, are strongholds for greater sage-grouse populations and also might function as sources. Mid-ranking priority areas may serve as stepping stones because of their location between large central and smaller peripheral priority areas. The current network design and conservation strategy has risks. The contribution of almost one-half (n = 93) of the priority areas combined for less than 1 percent of the cumulative centrality scores for the network. These priority areas individually are likely too small to support viable sage-grouse populations within their boundary. Without habitat corridors to connect small priority areas either to larger priority areas or as a clustered group within the network, their isolation could lead to loss of sage-grouse within these regions of the network. 

  9. Wide-area Power System Damping Control Coordination Based on Particle Swarm Optimization with Time Delay Considered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Jiang, Y.

    2017-10-01

    To ensure satisfactory dynamic performance of controllers in time-delayed power systems, a WAMS-based control strategy is investigated in the presence of output feedback delay. An integrated approach based on Pade approximation and particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed for parameter configuration of PSS. The coordination configuration scheme of power system controllers is achieved by a series of stability constraints at the aim of maximizing the minimum damping ratio of inter-area mode of power system. The validity of this derived PSS is verified on a prototype power system. The findings demonstrate that the proposed approach for control design could damp the inter-area oscillation and enhance the small-signal stability.

  10. Stratified Entomological Sampling in Preparation for an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program: The Example of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the Niayes of Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouyer, Jeremy; Seck, Momar Talla; Guerrini, Laure; Sall, Baba; Ndiaye, Elhadji Youssou; Vreysen, Marc J.B.

    2010-01-01

    The riverine tsetse species Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank 1949 (Diptera: Glossinidae) inhabits riparian forests along river systems in West Africa. The government of Senegal has embarked on a project to eliminate this tsetse species, and African animal trypanosomoses, from the Niayes are using an area-wide integrated pest management approach. A stratified entomological sampling strategy was therefore developed using spatial analytical tools and mathematical modeling. A preliminary phytosociological census identified eight types of suitable habitat, which could be discriminated from LandSat 7ETM satellite images and denominated wet areas. At the end of March 2009, 683 unbaited Vavoua traps had been deployed, and the observed infested area in the Niayes was 525 km2. In the remaining area, a mathematical model was used to assess the risk that flies were present despite a sequence of zero catches. The analysis showed that this risk was above 0.05 in19% of this area that will be considered as infested during the control operations.The remote sensing analysis that identifed the wet areas allowed a restriction of the area to be surveyed to 4% of the total surface area (7,150km2), whereas the mathematical model provided an efficient method to improve the accuracy and the robustness of the sampling protocol. The final size of the control area will be decided based on the entomological collection data.This entomological sampling procedure might be used for other vector or pest control scenarios. (Authors)

  11. Comparison of the New LEAF Area INDEX (LAI 3G) with the Kazahstan-Wide LEAF Area INDEX DATA SET (GGRS-LAI) over Central ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappas, M.; Propastin, P.; Degener, J.; Renchin, T.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term global data sets of Leaf Area Index (LAI) are important for monitoring global vegetation dynamics. LAI indicating phenological development of vegetation is an important state variable for modeling land surface processes. The comparison of long-term data sets is based on two recently available data sets both derived from AVHRR time series. The LAI 3g data set introduced by Zaichun Zhu et al. (2013) is developed from the new improved third generation Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g) and best-quality MODIS LAI data. The second long-term data set is based on the 8 km spatial resolution GIMMS-AVHRR data (GGRS-data set by Propastin et al. 2012). The GGRS-LAI product uses a three-dimensional physical radiative transfer model which establishes relationship between LAI, vegetation fractional cover and given patterns of surface reflectance, view-illumination conditions and optical properties of vegetation. The model incorporates a number of site/region specific parameters, including the vegetation architecture variables such as leaf angle distribution, clumping index, and light extinction coefficient. For the application of the model to Kazakhstan, the vegetation architecture variables were computed at the local (pixel) level based on extensive field surveys of the biophysical properties of vegetation in representative grassland areas of Kazakhstan. The comparison of both long-term data sets will be used to interpret their quality for scientific research in other disciplines. References:Propastin, P., Kappas, M. (2012). Retrieval of coarse-resolution leaf area index over the Republic of Kazakhstan using NOAA AVHRR satellite data and ground measurements," Remote Sensing, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 220-246. Zaichun Zhu, Jian Bi, Yaozhong Pan, Sangram Ganguly, Alessandro Anav, Liang Xu, Arindam Samanta, Shilong Piao, Ramakrishna R. Nemani and Ranga B. Myneni (2013). Global Data Sets of Vegetation Leaf Area

  12. Report of the workshop on strategic planning of area-wide tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis is a disease unique to Africa affecting both humans and animals. This disease occurs in about 10 million km 2 in 37 sub-Saharan countries corresponding approximately to one-third of Africa's total land area, and threatens an estimated 50 million people, 48 million cattle and a countless population of other domestic animal species. Trypanosomiasis has a severe impact on African agriculture; estimated annual losses in cattle production alone are in the range of 1.0-1.2 billion dollars. To this, we have to add the indirect negative effects engendered by trypanosomiasis on total crop production. The disease influences where people decide to live, how they manage their livestock and the intensity of crop agriculture. The combined effects result in changes in land use, environment and affect human welfare and increase the vulnerability of agricultural activity. FAO has identified the reinforcement of agriculture as a key element in the fight against poverty and the improvement of food security in developing countries. The need to reduce poverty is particularly felt in tsetse infested areas of sub-Saharan Africa. In this region half of the population suffers from food insecurity. Approximately 85% of the poor are located in rural areas and more than 80% of the population depends on agricultural production for their livelihood. In order to respond to the need in the fight against tsetse and trypanosomiasis (T and T) in people as well as livestock, the Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT) was endorsed in November 1997 by the FAO Conference. The Programme seeks to combine the forces of FAO, IAEA, OAU/IBAR and WHO in order to: promote and co-ordinate international alliances and efforts assisting in harmonised interventions against T and T; effectively combat the disease in Africa; and delineate the polity framework, strategies and guiding pest management principles. This workshop was primarily concerned with the development of

  13. [Detection of TBEV RNA in ticks as a tool for valuation of endemic area wide and sensitivity of TBE surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makówka, Agata; Gut, Włodzimierz; Rogalska, Justyna; Michalik, Jerzy; Wodecka, Beata; Rymaszewska, Anna; Stefanoff, Paweł

    2009-01-01

    In this study we present the nested RT-PCR strategy designed for detection of TBEV RNA in ticks Ixodes ricinus. The presented nested RT-PCR method using 2 different primer pairs specific primers for NS5 gene provides specific TBEV cDNA detectable by electroforesis in agarose gel. Of the 177 polls of ticks investigated, TBEV RNA was detected in 14, which accounts for 7.9% of all pools. We confront the PCR results of tested ticks to routine surveillance data. The obtained results showed that the TBEV RNA is detectable in ticks collected in areas in Poland, which are defined as an non-endemic. The nested RT-PCR method can be used as a tool of epidemiological surveillance as well as for screening of occurrence of circulating TBEV.

  14. Under the canopy: Community-wide effects of invasive algae in Marine Protected Areas revealed by metabarcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Owen S; Cebrian, Emma; Palacín, Creu; Turon, Xavier

    2018-02-01

    We analysed with multigene (18S and COI) metabarcoding the effects of the proliferation of invasive seaweeds on rocky littoral communities in two Spanish Marine Protected Areas. The invasive algae studied were Caulerpa cylindracea, Lophocladia lallemandii and Asparagopsis armata. They are canopy-forming, landscape-dominant seaweeds, and we were interested in their effects on the underlying communities of meiobenthos and macrobenthos, separated in two size fractions through sieving. A new semiquantitative treatment of metabarcoding data is introduced. The results for both markers showed that the presence of the invasive seaweed had a significant effect on the understory communities for Lophocladia lallemandii and Asparagopsis armata but not for Caulerpa cylindracea. Likewise, changes in MOTU richness and diversity with invasion status varied in magnitude and direction depending on the alga considered. Our results showed that metabarcoding allows monitoring of the less conspicuous, but not least important, effects of the presence of dominant invasive seaweeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. VIII. A WIDE-AREA, HIGH-RESOLUTION MAP OF DUST EXTINCTION IN M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hogg, David W. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Pl #424, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Lang, Dustin [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Gordon, Karl D.; Gilbert, Karoline M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sandstrom, Karin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dong, Hui; Lauer, Tod R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Gouliermis, Dimitrios A. [Max Planck Institute für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Guhathakurta, Puragra [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Schruba, Andreas [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Skillman, Evan D., E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We map the distribution of dust in M31 at 25 pc resolution using stellar photometry from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury survey. The map is derived with a new technique that models the near-infrared color–magnitude diagram (CMD) of red giant branch (RGB) stars. The model CMDs combine an unreddened foreground of RGB stars with a reddened background population viewed through a log-normal column density distribution of dust. Fits to the model constrain the median extinction, the width of the extinction distribution, and the fraction of reddened stars in each 25 pc cell. The resulting extinction map has a factor of ≳4 times better resolution than maps of dust emission, while providing a more direct measurement of the dust column. There is superb morphological agreement between the new map and maps of the extinction inferred from dust emission by Draine et al. However, the widely used Draine and Li dust models overpredict the observed extinction by a factor of ∼2.5, suggesting that M31's true dust mass is lower and that dust grains are significantly more emissive than assumed in Draine et al. The observed factor of ∼2.5 discrepancy is consistent with similar findings in the Milky Way by the Plank Collaboration et al., but we find a more complex dependence on parameters from the Draine and Li dust models. We also show that the the discrepancy with the Draine et al. map is lowest where the current interstellar radiation field has a harder spectrum than average. We discuss possible improvements to the CMD dust mapping technique, and explore further applications in both M31 and other galaxies.

  16. Enhanced Chemical Incident Response Plan (ECIRP). Appendix F, remediation analysis with Decision Support Tools (DSTs) for wide-area chemical hazards.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassig, Nancy L. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA); Pulsipher, Brent A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA); Foltz, Greg W.; Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2011-07-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) commissioned an assessment of the Consequence Management (CM) plans in place on military bases for response to a chemical attack. The effectiveness of the CM plans for recovering from chemical incidents was modeled using a multiple Decision Support Tools (DSTs). First, a scenario was developed based on an aerial dispersion of a chemical agent over a wide-area of land. The extent of contamination was modeled with the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) tool. Subsequently, the Analyzer for Wide Area Restoration Effectiveness (AWARE) tool was used to estimate the cost and time demands for remediation based on input of contamination maps, sampling and decontamination resources, strategies, rates and costs. The sampling strategies incorporated in the calculation were designed using the Visual Sample Plan (VSP) tool. Based on a gaps assessment and the DST remediation analysis, an Enhanced Chemical Incident Response Plan (ECIRP) was developed.

  17. Clinical evaluation of short and wide-diameter implants immediately placed into extraction sockets of posterior areas: a 2-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiansheng, Huang; Dongying, Xuan; Xianfeng, Wang; Baoyi, Xie; Qiong, Liu; Jincai, Zhang

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the short-term success rate of short and wide single-tooth implants, immediately placed into extraction sockets of the posterior area. A retrospective cohort study design was used. A total of 145 subjects received 162 short and wide-diameter single-tooth implants between 2006 and 2009. A minimal 7-mm residual height and 9-mm ridge width was available in all the implant sites, and the attached gingivae were at least 2 mm wide. All implants were placed and restored with the single crown by one experienced operator. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. All implants were placed in molar areas. There were 20 Ankylos implants with a diameter 5.5 or 7 mm and a length of 8 mm and 142 hydroxyapatite-coated implants with a diameter 5 or 6 mm and a length of 5.7 to 8 mm. One of the 162 implants failed before prosthetic restoration, resulting in a survival rate of 99.4% after loading. Patients were followed for up to 56 months (mean = 24 months) after loading of implants. The radiographic and clinical data revealed well-maintained hard and soft tissues with acceptable short-term results. For residual ridges with minimal height but adequate width, the immediate placement of short and wide-diameter implants in fresh extraction sockets may offer a simple and predictable treatment alternative if implants are positioned appropriately after a thorough preoperative analysis.

  18. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Biological Attack Response and Recovery: End to End Medical Countermeasure Distribution and Dispensing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    Bioterrorism?‖ Hearing Before the United States Senate. 110th Cong. (2007) Print . Courtney, Brooke, Eric Toner , and Richard Waldhorn."Preparing the...34Sverdlovsk Revisited: Modeling Human Inhalation Anthrax." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.20 (2006): 7589-594. Print . 3 IOM...Institute of Medicine). ―Prepositioning Antibiotics for Anthrax.‖ Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2011. Print . 4 Wide Area Recovery

  19. A wide area Bipolar Cascade Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diode for a Hybrid Range-Intensity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Reginald J.

    Autonomous Ground Vehicles (AGV) will require high-speed, real-time three dimensional (3-D) image processing to navigate treacherous terrain in order to complete their assigned mission without a human in the loop. LIDAR scanners of the 3-D variety, provide the necessary area coverage for 3-D image processing, but lack the speed to deliver the collected data for real-time processing. A novel Hybrid Range-Intensity System (HRIS) has been proposed for imaging large swaths of area very rapidly. This system is comprised of two infrared cameras, an illumination source, a control and coordination system to position the cameras, and signal processing algorithms to extract the contour image of the scene. This dissertation focused on the development of an illuminator for the HRIS. This illuminator enables faster image rendering and reduces the potential of errors in return signal data, that could be generated from extremely rough terrain. Four major achievements resulted from this work, which advance the field of 3-D image acquisition. The first is that the TJ is an effective current spreading layer for LEDs with mesa width up to 140 mum and current densities of ˜ 1 x 106A/cm2. The TJ allows fabrication of an efficient illuminator, with required geometry for the HRIS to operate as a real-time 3-D imaging system. Secondly, a design for a Bipolar Cascade-Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diode (BC-RCLED) has been accomplished, that will illuminate the FOV of the hybrid-ranged intensity system with a single sweep of the beam. This device is capable of producing ˜ 330 mW of output power. Additionally, from this work, key parameters for HRIS design were identified. Using a collection optic with a 15 cm diameter, an HRIS mounting height of 1.5 m, and a detector integration time of 330 msec, a SNR of 20 dB was achieved. Lastly, we demonstrated that the BC-RCLED designed for the HRIS can deliver sufficient energy to produce the required SNR. Also, through parametric analysis, we

  20. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavender Tina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants ( Methods A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted during 2010. Healthy, term babies (n = 280, recruited within 48 hours of birth, were randomly assigned to have their napkin area cleansed with an alcohol-free baby wipe (140 babies or cotton wool and water (140 babies. Primary outcome was change in hydration from within 48 hours of birth to 4 weeks post-birth. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in trans-epidermal water loss, skin surface pH and erythema, presence of microbial skin contaminants/irritants at 4 weeks and napkin dermatitis reported by midwife at 4 weeks and mother during the 4 weeks. Results Complete hydration data were obtained for 254 (90.7 % babies. Wipes were shown to be equivalent to water and cotton wool in terms of skin hydration (intention-to-treat analysis: wipes 65.4 (SD 12.4 vs. water 63.5 (14.2, p = 0.47, 95 % CI -2.5 to 4.2; per protocol analysis: wipes 64.6 (12.4 vs. water 63.6 (14.3, p = 0.53, 95 % CI -2.4 to 4.2. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, except for maternal-reported napkin dermatitis, which was higher in the water group (p = 0.025 for complete responses. Conclusions Baby wipes had an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with cotton wool and water. We found no evidence of any adverse effects of using these wipes. These findings offer reassurance to parents who choose to use baby wipes and to health professionals who support their use. Trial registration Current Controlled

  1. Designing local institutions for cooperative pest management to underpin market access: the case of industry-driven fruit fly area-wide management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Kruger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Area-wide management of mobile pests offers advantages overuncoordinated farm-by-farm efforts through increased effectiveness of pestcontrol and by reducing the need for pesticides. The literature about area-wide pestmanagement focuses predominantly on the technical aspects of these programs,but tends to neglect the importance of social and institutional aspects. In thisarticle the eight design principles for robust common-pool resource institutionsare applied to industry-driven area-wide pest management. Three case studiesare compared to gain insight about the social and institutional aspects that affectthe success of these undertakings. These cases are focused on Queensland FruitFly control to underpin market access. Growers face a particular challenge togain support from town residents, as backyard fruit trees can be pest breedingspots. The paper illustrates that social aspects – such as heterogeneous incentives,social capital and the ratio between town residents and main beneficiary growers– influence the ease of which the design principles can be applied. Market accessopportunities impact the ratio of cost and benefits to different participants. Thepaper concludes that disconnecting the technical aspects of successful programsfrom the social and institutional aspects in which they are embedded can createunrealistic expectations in socially different regions that intend to replicate theseprograms.

  2. High differentiation among eight villages in a secluded area of Sardinia revealed by genome-wide high density SNPs analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Pistis

    Full Text Available To better design association studies for complex traits in isolated populations it's important to understand how history and isolation moulded the genetic features of different communities. Population isolates should not "a priori" be considered homogeneous, even if the communities are not distant and part of a small region. We studied a particular area of Sardinia called Ogliastra, characterized by the presence of several distinct villages that display different history, immigration events and population size. Cultural and geographic isolation characterized the history of these communities. We determined LD parameters in 8 villages and defined population structure through high density SNPs (about 360 K on 360 unrelated people (45 selected samples from each village. These isolates showed differences in LD values and LD map length. Five of these villages show high LD values probably due to their reduced population size and extreme isolation. High genetic differentiation among villages was detected. Moreover population structure analysis revealed a high correlation between genetic and geographic distances. Our study indicates that history, geography and biodemography have influenced the genetic features of Ogliastra communities producing differences in LD and population structure. All these data demonstrate that we can consider each village an isolate with specific characteristics. We suggest that, in order to optimize the study design of complex traits, a thorough characterization of genetic features is useful to identify the presence of sub-populations and stratification within genetic isolates.

  3. Demonstration of a Novel Synchrophasor-based Situational Awareness System: Wide Area Power System Visualization, On-line Event Replay and Early Warning of Grid Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, A.

    2012-12-31

    Since the large North Eastern power system blackout on August 14, 2003, U.S. electric utilities have spent lot of effort on preventing power system cascading outages. Two of the main causes of the August 14, 2003 blackout were inadequate situational awareness and inadequate operator training In addition to the enhancements of the infrastructure of the interconnected power systems, more research and development of advanced power system applications are required for improving the wide-area security monitoring, operation and planning in order to prevent large- scale cascading outages of interconnected power systems. It is critically important for improving the wide-area situation awareness of the operators or operational engineers and regional reliability coordinators of large interconnected systems. With the installation of large number of phasor measurement units (PMU) and the related communication infrastructure, it will be possible to improve the operators’ situation awareness and to quickly identify the sequence of events during a large system disturbance for the post-event analysis using the real-time or historical synchrophasor data. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a novel synchrophasor-based comprehensive situational awareness system for control centers of power transmission systems. The developed system named WASA (Wide Area Situation Awareness) is intended to improve situational awareness at control centers of the power system operators and regional reliability coordinators. It consists of following main software modules: • Wide-area visualizations of real-time frequency, voltage, and phase angle measurements and their contour displays for security monitoring. • Online detection and location of a major event (location, time, size, and type, such as generator or line outage). • Near-real-time event replay (in seconds) after a major event occurs. • Early warning of potential wide-area stability problems. The system has been

  4. The ideal of beauty in the building of recognition marks in ocularcentric societies: the building of the body in blind women in Metropolitan Area in Monterrey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Araceli Bustos García

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is around the question: How do the blind women build the body image? Are they influenced by the hegemonic discourse of the ideal of beauty? At first we define the characteristics of an ocularcentric society. Than once we make a deconstruction of empirical research about the body building in blind women. Finally we present our proposed analysis, relying on narrative psychology, developing a perspective that interprets the building body in blind women as a narrative act through which marks recognition are used to evaluate and classify something as beautiful and attractive. In the analysis of the interviews we found that building of recognition marks has two variables: a one in which certain distrusts and even rejections in the opinions generated is shown by using senses such as smell , touch, etc. (b Other one in which a concept is constructed: tactile aesthetics. Distrust or acceptance of aesthetic tactile is generated mainly by aspects such as: (a age at which they lost the sight (b job they do (c blindness condition time.

  5. On imitation among young and blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Campello Rodrigues

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the imitation among young and blind children. The survey was conducted as a mosaic in the time since the field considerations were taken from two areas: a professional experience with early stimulation of blind babies and a workshop with blind and low vision young between 13-18 years. By statingthe situated trace of knowledge, theresearch indicates that imitation among blind young people can be one of the ways of creating a common world among young blind and sighted people. Imitation among blind young is a multi-sensory process that requires a body experience, including both blind and people who see. The paper concludes with an indication of the unique character of imitation and at the same time, with the affirmation of its relevance to the development and inclusion process of both the child and the young blind.

  6. Finding Objects for Assisting Blind People

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Chucai; Flores, Roberto W.; Chincha, Ricardo; Tian, YingLi

    2013-01-01

    Computer vision technology has been widely used for blind assistance, such as navigation and wayfinding. However, few camera-based systems are developed for helping blind or visually-impaired people to find daily necessities. In this paper, we propose a prototype system of blind-assistant object finding by camera-based network and matching-based recognition. We collect a dataset of daily necessities and apply Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) featu...

  7. Recent trends on sterile insect technique and area-wide integrated pest management. Economic feasibility, control projects, farmer organization and Bactrocera dorsalis complex control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    We have invited professional papers from over the world, including Okinawa, for compilation of recent trends on Sterile Insect Techniques and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management to further pursue environment friendly pest insects control measures in agricultural production in the Asia-Pacific region. Pest insects such as the tephritid fruit flies have long been and are still today causing serious damage to agricultural products in the Asia-Pacific region and farmers in the region apply such insecticides that are no longer allowed or being subjected to strict usage control in Japan. This, in return, may endanger the health of the very farmers, food safety and the ecosystem itself. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to clarify keys for technology transfer of so called SIT/AWIPM to potential recipients engaged in agricultural production in the region. This report focused on several topics, which make up important parts for the effective Sterile Insect Technique and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management: economic feasibility; pest insects control projects; farmers' education; research progress in Bactrocera dorsalis complex issues specific to the Asia-Pacific region. The 12 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. FAO/IAEA international conference on area-wide control of insect pests integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. Programme book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The organization of this International Conference on the Areawide Approach to the Control of Insect Pests is appropriate and timely. There is increasing interest in the holistic approach to dealing with major insect pest problems. This interest has been prompted by the steady progress scientists have made in the development of the sterile insect technique for eliminating the screwworm from North America, the melon fly from Okinawa, the elimination and containment of the medfly in various countries and the progress that scientists have made in eradicating tsetse fly populations from isolated areas. Increased interest has also been shown by agriculturalists because of the realization that the farm-to-farm reactive method of insect control is only a temporary solution to problems and that pests continue to be about as numerous as ever from year-to-year. In the meantime, there is increasing public concern over the environmental hazards created by the use of broad-spectrum insecticides to deal with insect pest problems. The sterile insect technique provides a feasible way to manage total insect pest populations. However, other techniques and strategies appropriately integrated into management programs can increase the effectiveness and efficiency of area-wide management programs. These include the augmentation of massproduced biological organisms and the use of semiochemicals such as the insect sex pheromones. This conference will give pest management scientists from many countries the opportunity to exchange information on the area-wide approach to insect pest management - an approach that if fully developed can be highly effective, low in cost and at the same time make a major contribution to alleviating the environmental concerns associated with primary reliance on broad-spectrum insecticides for controlling insect pests. This document contains 200 abstracts of papers presented at the conference

  9. Combining land use regression models and fixed site monitoring to reconstruct spatiotemporal variability of NO2concentrations over a wide geographical area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordioli, M; Pironi, C; De Munari, E; Marmiroli, N; Lauriola, P; Ranzi, A

    2017-01-01

    The epidemiological research benefits from an accurate characterization of both spatial and temporal variability of exposure to air pollution. This work aims at proposing a method to combine the high spatial resolution of Land Use Regression (LUR) models with the high temporal resolution of fixed site monitoring data, to model spatiotemporal variability of NO 2 over a wide geographical area in Northern Italy. We developed seasonal LUR models to reconstruct the spatial distribution of a scaling factor that relates local concentrations to those measured at two reference central sites, one for the northern flat area and one for the southern mountain area. We calculated the daily average concentrations at 19 locations spread over the study areas as the product of the local scaling factor and the reference central site concentrations. We evaluated model performance comparing modeled and measured NO 2 data. LUR model's R 2 ranges from 0.76 to 0.92. The main predictors refers substantially to traffic, industrial land use, buildings volume and altitude a.s.l. The model's performance in reproducing measured concentrations was satisfactory. The temporal variability of concentrations was well captured: Spearman correlation between model and measures was >0.7 for almost all sites. Model's average absolute errors were in the order of 10μgm -3 . The model for the southern area tends to overestimate measured concentrations. Our modeling framework was able to reproduce spatiotemporal differences in NO 2 concentrations. This kind of model is less data-intensive than usual regional atmospheric models and it may be very helpful to assess population exposure within studies in which individual relevant exposure occurs along periods of days or months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of air dose rates over a wide area around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant through a series of car-borne surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Masaki; Nakahara, Yukio; Tsuda, Shuichi; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Mikami, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Sato, Tetsuro; Tanigaki, Minoru; Takamiya, Koichi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Okumura, Ryo; Uchihori, Yukio; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of car-borne surveys using the Kyoto University RAdiation MApping (KURAMA) and KURAMA-II survey systems has been conducted over a wide area in eastern Japan since June 2011 to evaluate the distribution of air dose rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant and to evaluate the time-dependent trend of decrease in air dose rates. An automated data processing system for the KURAMA-II system was established, which enabled rapid analysis of large amounts of data obtained using about 100 KURAMA-II units. The initial data used for evaluating the migration status of radioactive cesium were obtained in the first survey, followed by other car-borne surveys conducted over more extensive and wider measurement ranges. By comparing the measured air dose rates obtained in each survey (until December 2012), the decreasing trend of air dose rates measured through car-borne surveys was found to be more pronounced than those expected on the basis of the physical decay of radioactive cesium and of the air dose rates measured using NaI (Tl) survey meters in the areas surrounding the roadways. In addition, it was found that the extent of decrease in air dose rates depended on land use, wherein it decreased faster for land used as building sites than for forested areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a Geographical Information System (GIS for the Integration of Solar Energy in the Energy Planning of a Wide Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelamaria Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy planning has become one of the most powerful tools for urban planning even if several constraints, (i.e., aesthetic, archaeological, landscape and technological (low diffusion of Renewable Energy Sources, RES reduce its spreading. An efficient and sustainable urban planning process should be based on detailed energy issues, such as: (i the effective energetic characteristics and needs of the area like urban density and energy consumption, (ii the integration of different RES and (iii the diffusion of high efficiency technologies for energy production like cogeneration and district heating. The above-mentioned energetic issues and constraints must be constantly updated, in order to evaluate the consequences on environment and landscape due to new distributed generation technologies. Moreover, energy strategies and policies must be adapted to the actual evolution of the area. In this paper the authors present a Geographical Information Database System (GIS DB based on: (i the availability of land use (Land Capability Classification, LCC to evaluate the productive potential; (ii the estimation of residential energy consumptions (e.g., electricity, (iii the integration of RES. The GIS DB model has been experimented in a wide area of Central Italy, considering exclusively the solar energy source for energy generation.

  12. SW-platform for R&D in Applications of Synchrophasor Measurements for Wide-Area Assessment, Control and Visualization in Real-Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Morais, Hugo; Pedersen, Allan Henning Birger

    2014-01-01

    , supplied by fossil fuel, are phased out in favor of non - controllable renewable energy sources like wind and solar energy. In particular, the SOSPO project aims to develop real - time stability and security assessment methods as well as wide - area control methods to re - establish stable and secure...... realistic conditions, the future system scenarios are represented in a real time grid simulator that is an integrated part of the platform. The SW - platform provides structured access to any model parameter as well as access to real - time phasor measurement unit (PMU) and remote terminal unit (RTU......, training and demonstration of technologies within electric power and energy. More specifically, the SW - platform exploits the Intelligent Control Lab facilities in PowerLabDK, which provides access to a powerful Real - Time Digital Simulator, a SCAD A system, a full scale experimental power system control...

  13. Area-wide pest management of locusts and grasshoppers: The striking similarities of problems and solutions in Africa and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    Grasshoppers and locusts are among the most devastating pests of human agriculture. These insects cause serious damage to crops and forage on every arable continent, and their depredations have become the basis for legends, myths, and (in recent times) complex political and economic programmes. No pest problem spans such immense areas, with up to 8 million ha treated for rangeland grasshoppers during outbreaks in the US and 16 million km 2 prone to outbreaks of the Desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forskal, alone. The traditional management approach has involved extensive, regionalised control programmes, but recent trends suggest a decentralised future for grasshopper and locust management. Hence, we have a dynamic situation that presents the opportunity for a comparative analysis of the costs and benefits of an area-wide approach to pest management at different scales. As political, cultural, and communication barriers between scientists dissolve, the possibility of learning from one another's experiences (both failures and successes) promises to dramatically accelerate the rate of innovation, progress and discovery in pest management. For example, the recent advances in Reduced Agent-Area Treatments (RAAT, in which insecticide is applied to swaths, separated by untreated swaths or buffers) for management of rangeland grasshoppers in the US (Lockwood and Schell 1997) are based on the adaptation of tactics developed by African, Australian, Asian, and European scientists (Rachadi and Foucart 1996, Musuna and Mugisha 1997, Scherer and Celestin 1997, Wilps and Diop 1997, Launois and Rachadi 1997). The key to successful adaptation of management methods must begin with intellectual modesty and nationalistic humility so that the insights of non-scientists and experts from outside one's country are given respect and serious consideration. It is subsequently necessary to recognise the essential similarities and differences between land use systems and understand the

  14. Guidelines for the Use of Mathematics in Operational Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Programmes Using the Sterile Insect Technique with a Special Focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, H.L.; Enkerlin, W.R.; Manoukis, N.C.; Reyes-Flores, J.

    2016-01-01

    This guideline attempts to assist managers in the use of mathematics in area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) programmes using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). It describes mathematical tools that can be used at different stages of suppression/eradication programmes. For instance, it provides simple methods for calculating the various quantities of sterile insects required in the intervention area so that more realistic sterile: fertile rates to suppress pest populations can be achieved. The calculations, for the most part, only involve high school mathematics and can be done easily with small portable computers or calculators. The guideline is intended to be a reference book, to be consulted when necessary. As such, any particular AW-IPM programme using the SIT will probably only need certain sections, and much of the book can be ignored if that is the case. For example, if the intervention area is relatively small and well isolated, then the section on dispersal can safely be ignored, as the boundedness of the area means that dispersal should not be a problem, and so the section on diffusion equations can be ignored. An overview is given in each chapter to try to let the programme manager make a decision about where to put the programme efforts. On the other hand, most SIT programmes have an information system (many of them based on GIS) that produces reliable profiles of historic information. Based on the results of past activities they describe what has happened in the last days or weeks but usually do not explain, or barely explain, what is expected in the following days or weeks. Current AW-IPM progammes using the SIT have produced over many years a vast amount of every-day data from the field operations and from the mass rearing facility and packing and sterile insect releasing centres. With the help of this guideline, that information can be used to develop predictive models for their particular conditions to better plan control measures.

  15. Measurement of air dose rates over a wide area around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant through a series of car-borne surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, Masaki; Nakahara, Yukio; Tsuda, Shuichi; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Mikami, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Sato, Tetsuro; Tanigaki, Minoru; Takamiya, Koichi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Okumura, Ryo; Uchihori, Yukio; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of car-borne surveys using the Kyoto University RAdiation MApping (KURAMA) and KURAMA-II survey systems has been conducted over a wide area in eastern Japan since June 2011 to evaluate the distribution of air dose rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant and to evaluate the time-dependent trend of decrease in air dose rates. An automated data processing system for the KURAMA-II system was established, which enabled rapid analysis of large amounts of data obtained using about 100 KURAMA-II units. The initial data used for evaluating the migration status of radioactive cesium were obtained in the first survey, followed by other car-borne surveys conducted over more extensive and wider measurement ranges. By comparing the measured air dose rates obtained in each survey (until December 2012), the decreasing trend of air dose rates measured through car-borne surveys was found to be more pronounced than those expected on the basis of the physical decay of radioactive cesium and of the air dose rates measured using NaI (Tl) survey meters in the areas surrounding the roadways. In addition, it was found that the extent of decrease in air dose rates depended on land use, wherein it decreased faster for land used as building sites than for forested areas. - Highlights: • Air dose rates distribution maps were constructed by Car-borne surveys. • KURAMA and KURAMA-II systems have been used for the measurement since 2011. • An automated data processing system for the KURAMA-II system was established. • Decreasing of the dose rates was more pronounced than those of the physical decay. • The dose rates decreased faster for building sites than for forested areas

  16. BioSense/SR-BioSpectra demonstrations of wide area/early warning for bioaerosol threats: program description and early test and evaluation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Jean-Robert; Buteau, Sylvie; Lahaie, Pierre; Mathieu, Pierre; Roy, Gilles; Nadeau, Denis; McFee, John; Ho, Jim; Rowsell, Susan; Ho, Nicolas; Babin, François; Cantin, Daniel; Healey, Dave; Robinson, Jennifer; Wood, Scott; Hsu, Jack

    2011-11-01

    Threats associated with bioaerosol weapons have been around for several decades and have been mostly associated with terrorist activities or rogue nations. Up to the turn of the millennium, defence concepts against such menaces relied mainly on point or in-situ detection technologies. Over the last 10 years, significant efforts have been deployed by multiple countries to supplement the limited spatial coverage of a network of one or more point bio-detectors using lidar technology. The addition of such technology makes it possible to detect within seconds suspect aerosol clouds over area of several tens of square kilometers and track their trajectories. These additional capabilities are paramount in directing presumptive ID missions, mapping hazardous areas, establishing efficient counter-measures and supporting subsequent forensic investigations. In order to develop such capabilities, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) and the Chemical, Biological, Radiological-Nuclear, and Explosives Research and Technology Initiative (CRTI) have supported two major demonstrations based on spectrally resolved Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) lidar: BioSense, aimed at defence military missions in wide open spaces, and SR-BioSpectra, aimed at surveillance of enclosed or semienclosed wide spaces common to defence and public security missions. This article first reviews briefly the modeling behind these demonstration concepts. Second, the lidar-adapted and the benchtop bioaerosol LIF chambers (BSL1), developed to challenge the constructed detection systems and to accelerate the population of the library of spectral LIF properties of bioaerosols and interferents of interest, will be described. Next, the most recent test and evaluation (T&E) results obtained with SR-BioSpectra and BioSense are reported. Finally, a brief discussion stating the way ahead for a complete defence suite is provided.

  17. A CoAP-Based Network Access Authentication Service for Low-Power Wide Area Networks: LO-CoAP-EAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Carrillo, Dan; Marin-Lopez, Rafael; Kandasamy, Arunprabhu; Pelov, Alexander

    2017-11-17

    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) landscape is expanding with new radio technologies. In addition to the Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN), the recent set of technologies conforming the so-called Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LP-WAN) offers long-range communications, allowing one to send small pieces of information at a reduced energy cost, which promotes the creation of new IoT applications and services. However, LP-WAN technologies pose new challenges since they have strong limitations in the available bandwidth. In general, a first step prior to a smart object being able to gain access to the network is the process of network access authentication. It involves authentication, authorization and key management operations. This process is of vital importance for operators to control network resources. However, proposals for managing network access authentication in LP-WAN are tailored to the specifics of each technology, which could introduce interoperability problems in the future. In this sense, little effort has been put so far into providing a wireless-independent solution for network access authentication in the area of LP-WAN. To fill this gap, we propose a service named Low-Overhead CoAP-EAP (LO-CoAP-EAP), which is based on previous work designed for LR-WPAN. LO-CoAP-EAP integrates the use of Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) infrastructures and the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) protocol. For this integration, we use the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) to design a network authentication service independent of the type of LP-WAN technology. LO-CoAP-EAP represents a trade-off between flexibility, wireless technology independence, scalability and performance in LP-WAN.

  18. A CoAP-Based Network Access Authentication Service for Low-Power Wide Area Networks: LO-CoAP-EAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Garcia-Carrillo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Internet-of-Things (IoT landscape is expanding with new radio technologies. In addition to the Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN, the recent set of technologies conforming the so-called Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LP-WAN offers long-range communications, allowing one to send small pieces of information at a reduced energy cost, which promotes the creation of new IoT applications and services. However, LP-WAN technologies pose new challenges since they have strong limitations in the available bandwidth. In general, a first step prior to a smart object being able to gain access to the network is the process of network access authentication. It involves authentication, authorization and key management operations. This process is of vital importance for operators to control network resources. However, proposals for managing network access authentication in LP-WAN are tailored to the specifics of each technology, which could introduce interoperability problems in the future. In this sense, little effort has been put so far into providing a wireless-independent solution for network access authentication in the area of LP-WAN. To fill this gap, we propose a service named Low-Overhead CoAP-EAP (LO-CoAP-EAP, which is based on previous work designed for LR-WPAN. LO-CoAP-EAP integrates the use of Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA infrastructures and the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP protocol. For this integration, we use the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP to design a network authentication service independent of the type of LP-WAN technology. LO-CoAP-EAP represents a trade-off between flexibility, wireless technology independence, scalability and performance in LP-WAN.

  19. What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Color Blindness Sections What Is Color Blindness? What Are ... Treatment How Color Blindness Is Tested What Is Color Blindness? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el daltonismo? ...

  20. The Impact of Marine Protected Areas on Reef-Wide Population Structure and Fishing-Induced Phenotypes in Coral-Reef Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Robert Young, III

    Overfishing and destructive fishing practices threaten the sustainability of fisheries worldwide. In addition to reducing population sizes, anthropogenic fishing effort is highly size-selective, preferentially removing the largest individuals from harvested stocks. Intensive, size-selective mortality induces widespread phenotypic shifts toward the predominance of smaller and earlier-maturing individuals. Fish that reach sexual maturity at smaller size and younger age produce fewer, smaller, and less viable larvae, severely reducing the reproductive capacity of exploited populations. These directional phenotypic alterations, collectively known as "fisheries-induced evolution" (FIE) are among the primary causes of the loss of harvestable fish biomass. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are one of the most widely utilized components of fisheries management programs around the world, and have been proposed as a potential mechanism by which the impacts of FIE may be mitigated. The ability of MPAs to buffer exploited populations against fishing pressure, however, remains debated due to inconsistent results across studies. Additionally, empirical evidence of phenotypic shifts in fishes within MPAs is lacking. This investigation addresses both of these issues by: (1) using a categorical meta-analysis of MPAs to standardize and quantify the magnitude of MPA impacts across studies; and (2) conducting a direct comparison of life-history phenotypes known to be influenced by FIE in six reef-fish species inside and outside of MPAs. The Philippines was used as a model system for analyses due to the country's significance in global marine biodiversity and reliance on MPAs as a fishery management tool. The quantitative impact of Philippine MPAs was assessed using a "reef-wide" meta-analysis. This analysis used pooled visual census data from 39 matched pairs of MPAs and fished reefs surveyed twice over a mean period of 3 years. In 17 of these MPAs, two additional surveys were conducted

  1. PYM: a new, affordable, image-based method using a Raspberry Pi to phenotype plant leaf area in a wide diversity of environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Benoît; Simonneau, Thierry; Boulord, Romain; Sourd, Francis; Frisson, Thibault; Ryckewaert, Maxime; Hamard, Philippe; Brichet, Nicolas; Dauzat, Myriam; Christophe, Angélique

    2017-01-01

    Plant science uses increasing amounts of phenotypic data to unravel the complex interactions between biological systems and their variable environments. Originally, phenotyping approaches were limited by manual, often destructive operations, causing large errors. Plant imaging emerged as a viable alternative allowing non-invasive and automated data acquisition. Several procedures based on image analysis were developed to monitor leaf growth as a major phenotyping target. However, in most proposals, a time-consuming parameterization of the analysis pipeline is required to handle variable conditions between images, particularly in the field due to unstable light and interferences with soil surface or weeds. To cope with these difficulties, we developed a low-cost, 2D imaging method, hereafter called PYM. The method is based on plant leaf ability to absorb blue light while reflecting infrared wavelengths. PYM consists of a Raspberry Pi computer equipped with an infrared camera and a blue filter and is associated with scripts that compute projected leaf area. This new method was tested on diverse species placed in contrasting conditions. Application to field conditions was evaluated on lettuces grown under photovoltaic panels. The objective was to look for possible acclimation of leaf expansion under photovoltaic panels to optimise the use of solar radiation per unit soil area. The new PYM device proved to be efficient and accurate for screening leaf area of various species in wide ranges of environments. In the most challenging conditions that we tested, error on plant leaf area was reduced to 5% using PYM compared to 100% when using a recently published method. A high-throughput phenotyping cart, holding 6 chained PYM devices, was designed to capture up to 2000 pictures of field-grown lettuce plants in less than 2 h. Automated analysis of image stacks of individual plants over their growth cycles revealed unexpected differences in leaf expansion rate between

  2. PYM: a new, affordable, image-based method using a Raspberry Pi to phenotype plant leaf area in a wide diversity of environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Valle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant science uses increasing amounts of phenotypic data to unravel the complex interactions between biological systems and their variable environments. Originally, phenotyping approaches were limited by manual, often destructive operations, causing large errors. Plant imaging emerged as a viable alternative allowing non-invasive and automated data acquisition. Several procedures based on image analysis were developed to monitor leaf growth as a major phenotyping target. However, in most proposals, a time-consuming parameterization of the analysis pipeline is required to handle variable conditions between images, particularly in the field due to unstable light and interferences with soil surface or weeds. To cope with these difficulties, we developed a low-cost, 2D imaging method, hereafter called PYM. The method is based on plant leaf ability to absorb blue light while reflecting infrared wavelengths. PYM consists of a Raspberry Pi computer equipped with an infrared camera and a blue filter and is associated with scripts that compute projected leaf area. This new method was tested on diverse species placed in contrasting conditions. Application to field conditions was evaluated on lettuces grown under photovoltaic panels. The objective was to look for possible acclimation of leaf expansion under photovoltaic panels to optimise the use of solar radiation per unit soil area. Results The new PYM device proved to be efficient and accurate for screening leaf area of various species in wide ranges of environments. In the most challenging conditions that we tested, error on plant leaf area was reduced to 5% using PYM compared to 100% when using a recently published method. A high-throughput phenotyping cart, holding 6 chained PYM devices, was designed to capture up to 2000 pictures of field-grown lettuce plants in less than 2 h. Automated analysis of image stacks of individual plants over their growth cycles revealed unexpected

  3. Full-Waveform, Wide-Swath Lidar Imaging of Forested and Urban Areas in Leaf-On Conditions: Development, Results and Future Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, James B.; Hofton, M.; Rabine, David; Welch, Wayne; Ramos, Luis; Padden, Phillip

    2003-01-01

    Full-Waveform lidar measurements provide unprecedented views of the vertical and horizontal structure of vegetation and the topography of the Earth s surface. Utilizing a high signal-to-noise ratio lidar system, larger than typical laser footprints (10-20 m), and the recorded time history of interaction between a short-duration (approx. 10 ns) pulse of laser light and the surface of the Earth, full-waveform lidar is able to simultaneously image sub-canopy topography as well as the vertical structure of any overlying vegetation. These data reveal the true 3-D vegetation structure in leaf-on conditions enabling important biophysical parameters such as above-ground biomass to be estimated with unprecedented accuracy. An airborne lidar mission was conducted July-August 2003 in support of the North America Carbon Program. NASA s Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) was used to image approximately 2,000 km$^2$ in Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Maryland. Areas with available ground and other data were included (e.g., experimental forests, FLUXNET sites) in order to facilitate as many bio- and geophysical investigations as possible. Data collected included ground elevation and canopy height measurements for each laser footprint, as well as the vertical distribution of intercepted surfaces. Data will be publicly distributed within 6- 12 months of collection. Further details of the mission, including the lidar system technology, the locations of the mapped areas, and examples of the numerous data products that can be derived from the return waveform data products will be presented. Future applications including detection of ground and vegetation canopy changes and a spaceborne implementation of wide-swath, full-waveform imaging lidar will also be discussed.

  4. Identification of QTL for UV-protective eye area pigmentation in cattle by progeny phenotyping and genome-wide association analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Pausch

    Full Text Available Pigmentation patterns allow for the differentiation of cattle breeds. A dominantly inherited white head is characteristic for animals of the Fleckvieh (FV breed. However, a minority of the FV animals exhibits peculiar pigmentation surrounding the eyes (ambilateral circumocular pigmentation, ACOP. In areas where animals are exposed to increased solar ultraviolet radiation, ACOP is associated with a reduced susceptibility to bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma (BOSCC, eye cancer. Eye cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumour affecting cattle. Selection for animals with ACOP rapidly reduces the incidence of BOSCC. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL underlying ACOP, we performed a genome-wide association study using 658,385 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The study population consisted of 3579 bulls of the FV breed with a total of 320,186 progeny with phenotypes for ACOP. The proportion of progeny with ACOP was used as a quantitative trait with high heritability (h(2 = 0.79. A variance component based approach to account for population stratification uncovered twelve QTL regions on seven chromosomes. The identified QTL point to MCM6, PAX3, ERBB3, KITLG, LEF1, DKK2, KIT, CRIM1, ATRN, GSDMC, MITF and NBEAL2 as underlying genes for eye area pigmentation in cattle. The twelve QTL regions explain 44.96% of the phenotypic variance of the proportion of daughters with ACOP. The chromosomes harbouring significantly associated SNPs account for 54.13% of the phenotypic variance, while another 19.51% of the phenotypic variance is attributable to chromosomes without identified QTL. Thus, the missing heritability amounts to 7% only. Our results support a polygenic inheritance pattern of ACOP in cattle and provide the basis for efficient genomic selection of animals that are less susceptible to serious eye diseases.

  5. A Real-Time High Performance Computation Architecture for Multiple Moving Target Tracking Based on Wide-Area Motion Imagery via Cloud and Graphic Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first attempt at combining Cloud with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs in a complementary manner within the framework of a real-time high performance computation architecture for the application of detecting and tracking multiple moving targets based on Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI. More specifically, the GPU and Cloud Moving Target Tracking (GC-MTT system applied a front-end web based server to perform the interaction with Hadoop and highly parallelized computation functions based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA©. The introduced multiple moving target detection and tracking method can be extended to other applications such as pedestrian tracking, group tracking, and Patterns of Life (PoL analysis. The cloud and GPUs based computing provides an efficient real-time target recognition and tracking approach as compared to methods when the work flow is applied using only central processing units (CPUs. The simultaneous tracking and recognition results demonstrate that a GC-MTT based approach provides drastically improved tracking with low frame rates over realistic conditions.

  6. A Real-Time High Performance Computation Architecture for Multiple Moving Target Tracking Based on Wide-Area Motion Imagery via Cloud and Graphic Processing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kui; Wei, Sixiao; Chen, Zhijiang; Jia, Bin; Chen, Genshe; Ling, Haibin; Sheaff, Carolyn; Blasch, Erik

    2017-02-12

    This paper presents the first attempt at combining Cloud with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) in a complementary manner within the framework of a real-time high performance computation architecture for the application of detecting and tracking multiple moving targets based on Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI). More specifically, the GPU and Cloud Moving Target Tracking (GC-MTT) system applied a front-end web based server to perform the interaction with Hadoop and highly parallelized computation functions based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA©). The introduced multiple moving target detection and tracking method can be extended to other applications such as pedestrian tracking, group tracking, and Patterns of Life (PoL) analysis. The cloud and GPUs based computing provides an efficient real-time target recognition and tracking approach as compared to methods when the work flow is applied using only central processing units (CPUs). The simultaneous tracking and recognition results demonstrate that a GC-MTT based approach provides drastically improved tracking with low frame rates over realistic conditions.

  7. Power System Event Ranking Using a New Linear Parameter-Varying Modeling with a Wide Area Measurement System-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Abolhasani Jabali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Detecting critical power system events for Dynamic Security Assessment (DSA is required for reliability improvement. The approach proposed in this paper investigates the effects of events on dynamic behavior during nonlinear system response while common approaches use steady-state conditions after events. This paper presents some new and enhanced indices for event ranking based on time-domain simulation and polytopic linear parameter-varying (LPV modeling of a power system. In the proposed approach, a polytopic LPV representation is generated via linearization about some points of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of power system using wide-area measurement system (WAMS concepts and then event ranking is done based on the frequency response of the system models on the vertices. Therefore, the nonlinear behaviors of the system in the time of fault occurrence are considered for events ranking. The proposed algorithm is applied to a power system using nonlinear simulation. The comparison of the results especially in different fault conditions shows the advantages of the proposed approach and indices.

  8. A Hardware-in-the-Loop Based Co-Simulation Platform of Cyber-Physical Power Systems for Wide Area Protection Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of smart grid technology, there has been an increasingly strong tendency towards the integration between the aspects of power and communication. The traditional power system has gradually transformed into the cyber-physical power system (CPPS, where co-simulation technologies can be utilized as an effective measure to describe the computation, communication, and integration processes of a power grid. In this paper, the construction methods and application scenarios of co-simulation platforms in the current research are first summarized. Then, a scheme of the real-time hardware-in-the-loop co-simulation platform is put forward. On the basis of power grid simulation developed with the Real-Time Laboratory (RT-LAB, and the communication network simulation developed with OPNET, the control center was developed with hardware devices to realize real-world control behavior instead of digital simulations. Therefore, the mixed-signal platform is capable of precisely simulating the dynamic features of CPPS with high speed. The distributed simulation components can be coordinated in a unified environment with high interoperability and reusability. Moreover, through a case study of a wide area load control system, the performance of the proposed platform under various conditions of control strategies, communication environments, and sampling frequencies was revealed and compared. As a result, the platform provided an intuitive and accurate way to reconstruct the CPPS environment where the influence of the information side of the CPPS control effects was verified.

  9. Using PACS and wavelet-based image compression in a wide-area network to support radiation therapy imaging applications for satellite hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles L.; Chu, Wei-Kom; Wobig, Randy; Chao, Hong-Yang; Enke, Charles

    1999-07-01

    An ongoing PACS project at our facility has been expanded to include providing and managing images used for routine clinical operation of the department of radiation oncology. The intent of our investigation has been to enable out clinical radiotherapy service to enter the tele-medicine environment through the use of a PACS system initially implemented in the department of radiology. The backbone for the imaging network includes five CT and three MR scanners located across three imaging centers. A PC workstation in the department of radiation oncology was used to transmit CT imags to a satellite facility located approximately 60 miles from the primary center. Chest CT images were used to analyze network transmission performance. Connectivity established between the primary department and satellite has fulfilled all image criteria required by the oncologist. Establishing the link tot eh oncologist at the satellite diminished bottlenecking of imaging related tasks at the primary facility due to physician absence. A 30:1 compression ratio using a wavelet-based algorithm provided clinically acceptable images treatment planning. Clinical radiotherapy images can be effectively managed in a wide- area-network to link satellite facilities to larger clinical centers.

  10. Evidence-based recommendations for musculoskeletal kinematic 4D-CT studies using wide area-detector scanners: a phantom study with cadaveric correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondim Teixeira, Pedro Augusto; Formery, Anne-Sophie; Blum, Alain [CHRU-Nancy Hopital Central, Service d' Imagerie Guilloz, Nancy (France); Hossu, Gabriela [Universite de Lorraine, IADI U947, Nancy (France); INSERM, CIC-IT 1433, Nancy (France); Winninger, Daniel [IDCmem, Nancy (France); Batch, Toufik [Hopital de Mercy, Service de Radiologie, Metz (France); Gervaise, Alban [Legouest Military Instruction Hospital, Medical Imaging Department, Metz (France)

    2017-02-15

    To establish evidence-based recommendations for musculoskeletal kinematic 4D-CT on wide area-detector CT. In order to assess factors influencing image quality in kinematic CT studies, a phantom consisting of a polymethylmethacrylate rotating disk with round wells of different sizes was imaged with various acquisition protocols. Cadaveric acquisitions were performed on the ankle joint during motion in two different axes and at different speeds to allow validation of phantom data. Images were acquired with a 320 detector-row CT scanner and were evaluated by two readers. Motion artefacts were significantly correlated with various parameters (movement axis, distance to centre, rotation speed and volume acquisition speed) (p < 0.0001). The relation between motion artefacts and distance to motion fulcrum was exponential (R{sup 2} 0.99). Half reconstruction led to a 23 % increase in image noise and a 40 % decrease in motion artefacts. Cadaveric acquisitions confirmed phantom data. Based on these findings, high tube rotation speed and half reconstruction are recommended for kinematic CT. The axis of motion significantly influences image artefacts and should be considered in patient training and evaluation of acquisition protocol suitability. This study provides evidence-based recommendations for musculoskeletal kinematic 4D-CT. (orig.)

  11. Distributed Large Data-Object Environments: End-to-End Performance Analysis of High Speed Distributed Storage Systems in Wide Area ATM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William; Tierney, Brian; Lee, Jason; Hoo, Gary; Thompson, Mary

    1996-01-01

    We have developed and deployed a distributed-parallel storage system (DPSS) in several high speed asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) wide area networks (WAN) testbeds to support several different types of data-intensive applications. Architecturally, the DPSS is a network striped disk array, but is fairly unique in that its implementation allows applications complete freedom to determine optimal data layout, replication and/or coding redundancy strategy, security policy, and dynamic reconfiguration. In conjunction with the DPSS, we have developed a 'top-to-bottom, end-to-end' performance monitoring and analysis methodology that has allowed us to characterize all aspects of the DPSS operating in high speed ATM networks. In particular, we have run a variety of performance monitoring experiments involving the DPSS in the MAGIC testbed, which is a large scale, high speed, ATM network and we describe our experience using the monitoring methodology to identify and correct problems that limit the performance of high speed distributed applications. Finally, the DPSS is part of an overall architecture for using high speed, WAN's for enabling the routine, location independent use of large data-objects. Since this is part of the motivation for a distributed storage system, we describe this architecture.

  12. The impact of prenatal vitamin A and zinc supplementation on birth size and neonatal survival - a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in a rural area of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawirohartono, Endy P; Nyström, Lennarth; Nurdiati, Detty S; Hakimi, Mohammad; Lind, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal supplementation with micronutrients may increase birth weight and thus improve infant health and survival in settings where infants and children are at risk of micronutrient deficiencies. To assess whether vitamin A and/or zinc supplementation given during pregnancy can improve birth weight, birth length, neonatal morbidity, or infant mortality. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial supplementing women (n = 2173) in Central Java, Indonesia throughout pregnancy with vitamin A, zinc, combined vitamin A+zinc, or placebo. Out of 2173 supplemented pregnant women, 1956 neonates could be evaluated. Overall, zinc supplementation improved birth length compared to placebo or combined vitamin A+zinc (48.8 vs. 48.5 cm, p = 0.04); vitamin A supplementation improved birth length compared to placebo or combined vitamin A+zinc (48.7 vs. 48.2 cm, p = 0.04). These effects remained after adjusting for maternal height, pre-pregnancy weight, and parity. There was no effect of supplementation on birth weight, the proportion of low birth weight, neonatal morbidity, or mortality. Prenatal zinc or vitamin A supplementation demonstrates a small but significant effect on birth length, but supplementation with zinc, vitamin A or a combination of zinc and vitamin A, have no effect on birth weight, neonatal morbidity, or mortality.

  13. Representing vision and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Patrick L; Cox, Alexander P; Jensen, Mark; Allen, Travis; Duncan, William; Diehl, Alexander D

    2016-01-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to represent vision or blindness ontologically. This is unsurprising as the related phenomena of sight and blindness are difficult to represent ontologically for a variety of reasons. Blindness has escaped ontological capture at least in part because: blindness or the employment of the term 'blindness' seems to vary from context to context, blindness can present in a myriad of types and degrees, and there is no precedent for representing complex phenomena such as blindness. We explore current attempts to represent vision or blindness, and show how these attempts fail at representing subtypes of blindness (viz., color blindness, flash blindness, and inattentional blindness). We examine the results found through a review of current attempts and identify where they have failed. By analyzing our test cases of different types of blindness along with the strengths and weaknesses of previous attempts, we have identified the general features of blindness and vision. We propose an ontological solution to represent vision and blindness, which capitalizes on resources afforded to one who utilizes the Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level ontology. The solution we propose here involves specifying the trigger conditions of a disposition as well as the processes that realize that disposition. Once these are specified we can characterize vision as a function that is realized by certain (in this case) biological processes under a range of triggering conditions. When the range of conditions under which the processes can be realized are reduced beyond a certain threshold, we are able to say that blindness is present. We characterize vision as a function that is realized as a seeing process and blindness as a reduction in the conditions under which the sight function is realized. This solution is desirable because it leverages current features of a major upper-level ontology, accurately captures the phenomenon of blindness, and can be

  14. Blindness and cataract in children in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Gogate

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Blindness in children is considered a priority area for VISION 2020, as visually impaired children have a lifetime of blindness ahead of them. Various studies across the globe show that one-third to half of childhood blindness is either preventable or treatable1 and that cataract is the leading treatable cause of blindness in children.The 8th General Assembly of the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB provided an opportunity to be acquainted with recent research and programme development work in the prevention of childhood blindness.

  15. Standoff detection of bioaerosols over wide area using a newly developed sensor combining a cloud mapper and a spectrometric LIF lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Sylvie; Simard, Jean-Robert; Roy, Gilles; Lahaie, Pierre; Nadeau, Denis; Mathieu, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    A standoff sensor called BioSense was developed to demonstrate the capacity to map, track and classify bioaerosol clouds from a distant range and over wide area. The concept of the system is based on a two steps dynamic surveillance: 1) cloud detection using an infrared (IR) scanning cloud mapper and 2) cloud classification based on a staring ultraviolet (UV) Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) interrogation. The system can be operated either in an automatic surveillance mode or using manual intervention. The automatic surveillance operation includes several steps: mission planning, sensor deployment, background monitoring, surveillance, cloud detection, classification and finally alarm generation based on the classification result. One of the main challenges is the classification step which relies on a spectrally resolved UV LIF signature library. The construction of this library relies currently on in-chamber releases of various materials that are simultaneously characterized with the standoff sensor and referenced with point sensors such as Aerodynamic Particle Sizer® (APS). The system was tested at three different locations in order to evaluate its capacity to operate in diverse types of surroundings and various environmental conditions. The system showed generally good performances even though the troubleshooting of the system was not completed before initiating the Test and Evaluation (T&E) process. The standoff system performances appeared to be highly dependent on the type of challenges, on the climatic conditions and on the period of day. The real-time results combined with the experience acquired during the 2012 T & E allowed to identify future ameliorations and investigation avenues.

  16. Future trends in global blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Resnikoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to discuss the available data on the prevalence and causes of global blindness, and some of the associated trends and limitations seen. A literature search was conducted using the terms "global AND blindness" and "global AND vision AND impairment", resulting in seven appropriate articles for this review. Since 1990 the estimate of global prevalence of blindness has gradually decreased when considering the best corrected visual acuity definition: 0.71% in 1990, 0.59% in 2002, and 0.55% in 2010, corresponding to a 0.73% reduction per year over the 2002-2010 period. Significant limitations were found in the comparability between the global estimates in prevalence or causes of blindness or visual impairment. These limitations arise from various factors such as uncertainties about the true cause of the impairment, the use of different definitions and methods, and the absence of data from a number of geographical areas, leading to various extrapolation methods, which in turn seriously limit comparability. Seminal to this discussion on limitations in the comparability of studies and data, is that blindness has historically been defined using best corrected visual acuity.

  17. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  18. Vision - night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003039.htm Vision - night blindness To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Night blindness is poor vision at night or in dim light. Considerations Night ...

  19. Leading Causes of Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of ... million Americans have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in the world. By age 80, ...

  20. Finding Objects for Assisting Blind People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chucai; Flores, Roberto W; Chincha, Ricardo; Tian, Yingli

    2013-07-01

    Computer vision technology has been widely used for blind assistance, such as navigation and wayfinding. However, few camera-based systems are developed for helping blind or visually-impaired people to find daily necessities. In this paper, we propose a prototype system of blind-assistant object finding by camera-based network and matching-based recognition. We collect a dataset of daily necessities and apply Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature descriptors to perform object recognition. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our prototype system.

  1. Effects of Reiki on Pain and Vital Signs When Applied to the Incision Area of the Body After Cesarean Section Surgery: A Single-Blinded, Randomized, Double-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagkal Midilli, Tulay; Ciray Gunduzoglu, Nazmiye

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Reiki on pain and vital signs when applied for 15 minutes to the incision area of the body after cesarean section surgery. The study was single-blinded, randomized, and double-controlled (Reiki, sham Reiki, and control groups). Forty-five patients, equalized by age and number of births, were randomly assigned to the Reiki, sham Reiki, and control groups. The treatment, which was applied to the patients in these 3 groups, was applied for 15 minutes to the incision area of body in the first 24 and 48 hours after the operation within 4 to 8 hours of the application of standard analgesics. The study data were collected using a patient follow-up form and a visual analog scale. Mean visual analog scale measurement values were significantly different from each other according to groups and times (P Reiki group patients between day 1 pre-tx and after application on the second day (day 2 post-tx) measurements. Mean breathing rate and systolic blood pressure measurement values were significantly different from each other according to groups (P Reiki group was observed to use fewer analgesics throughout the study and to need them after a longer time than the sham Reiki and control groups (P Reiki applied for 15 minutes to the incision area after a cesarean operation had the expected effects on pain and the need for the use of analgesics, but it had no effect on vital signs.

  2. Ceguera por catarata en personas mayores de 50 años en una zona semirrural del norte del Perú Cataract blindness in people 50 years old or older in a semirural area of northern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pongo Águila

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de ceguera y de ceguera por catarata en personas de 50 años o más en Piura y Tumbes, Perú, y caracterizar la cobertura y la calidad de los servicios de cirugía de catarata y las barreras que impiden acceder a estos servicios. MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron 80 conglomerados de 60 personas de 50 años o más cada uno, mediante muestreo sistemático en los departamentos de Piura y Tumbes, Perú, entre agosto de 2002 y marzo de 2003. Del total de 4 800 personas seleccionadas se examinaron 4 782 personas mediante una encuesta que recogía la información general de la persona, los resultados de los exámenes de agudeza visual (AV, del examen del cristalino y los antecedentes quirúrgicos por catarata o la razón por la que no se la había operado. La AV se evaluó mediante un optotipo de Snellen con la letra "E" con tamaños de 20/60 y de 20/200 a una distancia de 6 m y 3 m, respectivamente, con la corrección disponible (lentes. Cuando la AV resultó menor de 20/60 en alguno de los ojos, se evaluó la visión con agujero estenopeico. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de ceguera bilateral (AV OBJETIVE: To determine the prevalence of blindness and of cataract blindness in persons 50 years of age or older in Piura and Tumbes, which are two departments in northern Peru, and to describe the coverage and quality of cataract surgery services in that area, and the barriers that prevent access to those services. METHODS: Systematic sampling of persons 50 years old or older was done in Piura and Tumbes between August 2002 and March 2003, with 80 clusters of 60 people each being selected. Of the 4 800 persons chosen, 4 782 of them were examined, using a survey instrument that gathered general information on each person, the results of the visual acuity test and the lens examination, and information on cataract surgery or why that surgery had not been done. Visual acuity (VA testing was done with a Snellen optotype with the letter

  3. FAO/IAEA Training Course on Integrated Nutrient-Water Management at Field and Area-wide Scale, 19 May–27 June 2014, Seibersdorf, Austria [Activities of the Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahbi, Ammar; Weltin, Georg; Dercon, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of the training course was on: (i) improving nutrient management in rainfed and irrigated agriculture, (ii) monitoring nutrient balances and water use efficiency at the field scale, (iii) increasing the efficiency of water management in rainfed and irrigated agriculture at field and area-wide scales, (iv) monitoring soil moisture at both field and area-wide scales, (v) assessing soil water balance and crop water relations, and (vi) training on the use of FAAO’s AquaCrop model to improve soil water management and irrigation scheduling

  4. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  5. Ten years left to eliminate blinding trachoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad D.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available n 1997, the World Health Organization formed the Global Alliance to Eliminate Blinding Trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020, a coalition of governmental, non-governmental, research, and pharmaceutical partners. In 1998, the World Health Assembly urged member states to map blinding trachoma in endemic areas, implement the SAFE strategy (which stands for surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, facial-cleanliness and environmental change, such as clean water and latrines and collaborate with the global alliance in its work to eliminate blinding trachoma.

  6. Postictal blindness in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeh, M; Goldhammer, Y; Kuritsky, A

    1983-01-01

    Cortical blindness following grand mal seizures occurred in five adult patients. The causes of seizures included idiopathic epilepsy, vascular accident, brain cyst, acute encephalitis and chronic encephalitis. Blindness was permanent in one patients, but the others recovered within several days. Since most of the patients were either unaware of or denied their blindness, it is possible that this event often goes unrecognised. Cerebral hypoxia is considered the most likely mechanism.

  7. Static analysis for blinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    operation blinding. In this paper we study the theoretical foundations for one of the successful approaches to validating cryptographic protocols and we extend it to handle the blinding primitive. Our static analysis approach is based on Flow Logic; this gives us a clean separation between the specification...

  8. Blinded by Irrelevance: Pure Irrelevance Induced "Blindness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitam, Baruch; Yeshurun, Yaffa; Hassan, Kinneret

    2013-01-01

    To what degree does our representation of the immediate world depend solely on its relevance to what we are currently doing? We examined whether relevance per se can cause "blindness," even when there is no resource limitation. In a novel paradigm, people looked at a colored circle surrounded by a differently colored ring--the task relevance of…

  9. Saint Ioannis Lampadistis, the first possible case of blindness due to organic mercury poisoning in history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, Kleonikos A

    2016-09-29

    Saint Ioannis Lampadistis is a Cypriot saint of the Greek Orthodox Church, widely venerated in his island of origin. He lived during the 11th century and was blinded by ingesting contaminated fish in the mountainous area of Galata, withdrew from civil life when he was 18, and died at the age of 22. The reason for his blindness remains unknown, though it is widely attributed to an unknown poison related to the copper mines of the region. As fish is the end reservoir of organic mercury, it is quite possible that his blindness was the result of heavy metal toxicity. Organic mercury is associated with CNS atrophy and hypoplasia, and blindness is a frequent presenting symptom. While not much is known about the saint's clinical symptoms (as his ecclestiastical biography focuses on his example and miracles), organic mercury poisoning could explain his sudden loss of vision, thus possibly making him the first-recorded case of organic mercury poisoning in history. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. A weak blind signature scheme based on quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaojun; Niu, Xiamu; Ji, Liping; Tian, Yuan

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we present a weak blind signature scheme based on the correlation of EPR (Einstein-Padolsky-Rosen) pairs. Different from classical blind signature schemes and current quantum signature schemes, our quantum blind signature scheme could guarantee not only the unconditionally security but also the anonymity of the message owner. To achieve that, quantum key distribution and one-time pad are adopted in our scheme. Experimental analysis proved that our scheme have the characteristics of non-counterfeit, non-disavowal, blindness and traceability. It has a wide application to E-payment system, E-government, E-business, and etc.

  11. Management and Area-wide Evaluation of Water Conservation Zones in Agricultural Catchments for Biomass Production, Water Quality and Food Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Global land and water resources are under threat from both the agricultural and urban development to meet increased demand for food and from the resulting degradation of the environment. Poor crop yields due to water stress is one of the main reasons for the prevailing hunger and rural poverty in parts of the world. The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s particularly in Latin America and Asia resulted in increased agricultural production and depended partly on water management. In the future, most food will still need to come from rain-fed agriculture. Water conservation zones in agricultural catchments, particularly in rainfed areas, play an important role in the capture and storage of water and nutrients from farmlands and wider catchments, and help improve crop production in times of need in these areas. Water conservation zones are considered to be an important part of water resource management strategies that have been developed to prevent reservoir siltation, reduce water quality degradation, mitigate flooding, enhance groundwater recharge and provide water for farming. In addition to making crop production possible in dry areas, water conservation zones minimize soil erosion, improve soil moisture status through capillary rise and enhance soil fertility and quality. These water conservation zones include natural and constructed wetlands (including riparian wetlands), farm ponds and riparian buffer zones. The management of water conservation zones has been a challenge due to the poor understanding of the relationship between upstream land use and the functions of these zones and their internal dynamics. Knowledge of sources and sinks of water and redefining water and nutrient budgets for water conservation zones are important for optimizing the capture, storage and use of water and nutrients in agricultural landscapes. The overall objective of this coordinated research project (CRP) was to assess and enhance ecosystem services provided by wetlands, ponds

  12. Models for the blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Jan-Eric

    2014-01-01

    When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind...... person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical...

  13. Electric resistivity distribution in the Earth's crust and upper mantle for the southern East European Platform and Crimea from area-wide 2D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinov, Igor M.; Tarasov, Viktor N.

    2018-03-01

    Previously obtained magnetotelluric 2D models for 30 profiles made it possible to create an overview model of electric resistivity for the territory between 28°E and 36°E and between 44.5°N and 52.5°N. It allows us to distinguish a number of low resistivity objects (LRO) with resistivities lower than 100 Ω m the Earth's crust and mantle. Two regional conductivity anomalies are traced. The Kirovograd conductivity anomaly extends south to the Crimea mountains. A new regional conductivity anomaly (Konkskaya) can be distinguished along the southern slope of the Ukrainian Shield from 29° to 34°E. In addition, many local LROs have been identified. According to the modeling results, the local low resistivity objects on the East European Platform appear along fault zones activated during last 5-7 M years and the model suggests their relation to known zones of graphitization and polymetallic ore deposits. Local LROs in the Dnieper-Donets Basin correlate with the main oil and natural gas fields in this area. The depth of the anomalous objects amounts to 5-22 km. This is consistent with the hypotheses that hydrocarbon deposits are related to generation and transport zones of carbon-bearing fluids.

  14. Blind Loop Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of tissue that protrude through the intestinal wall (diverticulosis) Certain medical conditions, including Crohn's disease, radiation enteritis, ... History of radiation therapy to the abdomen Diabetes Diverticulosis of the small intestine Complications A blind loop ...

  15. Blindness and vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life. Alternative Names Loss of vision; No light perception (NLP); Low vision; Vision loss and blindness Images ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  16. The blind hens’ challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Hocking, Paul M.; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    about breeding blind hens. But we also argue that alternative views, which (for example) claim that it is important to respect the telos or rights of an animal, do not offer a more convincing solution to questions raised by the possibility of disenhancing animals for their own benefit.......Animal ethicists have recently debated the ethical questions raised by disenhancing animals to improve their welfare. Here, we focus on the particular case of breeding blind hens for commercial egg-laying systems, in order to benefit their welfare. Many people find breeding blind hens intuitively...... repellent, yet 'welfare-only' positions appear to be committed to endorsing this possibility if it produces welfare gains. We call this the 'Blind Hens' Challenge'. In this paper, we argue that there are both empirical and theoretical reasons why even those adopting 'welfare-only' views should be concerned...

  17. Issues in Traumatic Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, B.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses factors related to individuals with sudden blindness, focusing on the visually impaired client's readiness for rehabilitation, the reactions of family members and friends, and personality variables. Two cases illustrate the adjustment process and eventual rehabilitation. (DB)

  18. Wide-area estimates of evapotranspiration by red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and associated vegetation in the Murray-Darling River Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Doody, Tanya M.; Glenn, Edward P.; Jarchow, Christopher J.; Barreto-Munoz, Armando; Didan, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    Floodplain red gum forests (Eucalyptus camaldulensis plus associated grasses, reeds and sedges) are sites of high biodiversity in otherwise arid regions of southeastern Australia. They depend on periodic floods from rivers, but dams and diversions have reduced flood frequencies and volumes, leading to deterioration of trees and associated biota. There is a need to determine their water requirements so environmental flows can be administered to maintain or restore the forests. Their water requirements include the frequency and extent of overbank flooding, which recharges the floodplain soils with water, as well as the actual amount of water consumed in evapotranspiration (ET). We estimated the flooding requirements and ET for a 38 134 ha area of red gum forest fed by the Murrumbidgee River in Yanga National Park, New South Wales. ET was estimated by three methods: sap flux sensors placed in individual trees; a remote sensing method based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index from MODIS satellite imagery and a water balance method based on differences between river flows into and out of the forest. The methods gave comparable estimates yet covered different spatial and temporal scales. We estimated flood frequency and volume requirements by comparing Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values from Landsat images with flood history from 1995 to 2014, which included both wet periods and dry periods. ET during wet years is about 50% of potential ET but is much less in dry years because of the trees' ability to control stomatal conductance. Based on our analyses plus other studies, red gum trees at this location require environmental flows of 2000 GL yr−1 every other year, with peak flows of 20 000 ML d−1, to produce flooding sufficient to keep them in good condition. However, only about 120–200 GL yr−1 of river water is consumed in ET, with the remainder flowing out of the forest where it enters the Murray River system.

  19. Determination of organically bound tritium background level in biological samples from a wide area in the south-west of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointurier, F.; Baglan, N.; Alanic, G.; Chiappini, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a sensitive method for low-level non-exchangeable OBT determination. This methodology combines suitable sample treatment, a combustion apparatus for large-sized samples and low-background liquid scintillation spectrometry, along with precautions that substantially reduce the risks of sample contamination. Great care must be taken in the measurement of non-exchangeable OBT at environmental levels. Many authors have discussed the opportunities for cross-contamination between samples and contamination by exchange with the laboratory atmosphere. The authors also describe an application of the methodology to a large-scale sampling and measurement campaign, aimed at the determination of the environmental non-exchangeable OBT background level in tree leaves and ferns collected on the site and in the vicinity of a research centre located in the south-west of France, not far from Bordeaux. This study constitutes a 'zero level' for the non-exchangeable OBT activity, as, to our knowledge, there is no tritium source within or in the surroundings of the sampled area capable of producing non-exchangeable OBT activities above the natural levels. Our analyses showed that non-exchangeable OBT activities in the collected samples were very low, ranging from below the detection limit (ca 0.7 Bq kg -1 of dry material) to ca 2 Bq kg -1 of dry material. These values are similar to the natural tritium background measured in water samples. No discrepancies can be shown between fern samples and oak tree leaf samples or between samples collected inside and outside the research site

  20. Blind Analysis in Particle Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Roodman, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of "experimenter's bias" and the advantages of a blind analysis are described. Three distinct kinds of blind analysis in particle physics are presented in detail. Finally, the BABAR collaboration's experience with the blind analysis technique is discussed.

  1. Social attitudes and beliefs of sighted people towards blindness and blind persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadaki Maria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness has been interpreted in different, often controversial ways, since ancient times. It has been stereotyped and labeled by sighted people and has thus affected the acceptance of Visually Impaired persons, the tolerance towards them and their integration into societal life. The main purpose of this study is to find out the contemporary beliefs and social attitudes of Greek sighted people towards blindness and blind persons. 115 sighted Greek people, most of them from urban and rural areas of Athens and Crete, were asked to fill in a questionnaire consisting of 25 questions. Our results showed that firstly, visually impaired people are still treated with some prejudice concerning the size of their disability, their education and their integration into society. However, they have ceased to apply antiquated perceptions based on fear or ignorance. Sighted people no longer believe that blind individuals are beggars, evil or blinded because of a punishment. Secondly, sighted people still believe that blind persons possess some extra powers and abilities such as better sense of things, especially of hearing, sixth sense or better judgment abilities. Finally, the common belief about associating blind people with their musical talents and skills is no longer in actual existence.

  2. A Smart Infrared Microcontroller-Based Blind Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjed S. Al-Fahoum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness is a state of lacking the visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors. The partial blindness represents the lack of integration in the growth of the optic nerve or visual centre of the eye, and total blindness is the full absence of the visual light perception. In this work, a simple, cheap, friendly user, smart blind guidance system is designed and implemented to improve the mobility of both blind and visually impaired people in a specific area. The proposed work includes a wearable equipment consists of head hat and mini hand stick to help the blind person to navigate alone safely and to avoid any obstacles that may be encountered, whether fixed or mobile, to prevent any possible accident. The main component of this system is the infrared sensor which is used to scan a predetermined area around blind by emitting-reflecting waves. The reflected signals received from the barrier objects are used as inputs to PIC microcontroller. The microcontroller is then used to determine the direction and distance of the objects around the blind. It also controls the peripheral components that alert the user about obstacle's shape, material, and direction. The implemented system is cheap, fast, and easy to use and an innovative affordable solution to blind and visually impaired people in third world countries.

  3. Potentials of Rubella Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin F.

    Potentials of three classifications of rubella deaf blind children are discussed. Potentials for children at the middle trainable level and below are discussed for the areas of communication skills, daily living skills, mobility and orientation, vocational effort, and self-control and social interaction. For children in the upper trainable through…

  4. Prevalence of Cataract Blindness in Rural Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjørn

    Background: Over three-quarter of all blindness worldwide are preventable and usually caused by cataract and trachoma. Objective: To assess the ... Ophthalmologists from other areas conduct cataract operations once or twice each ... Some patients may have two eyes disorder causing visual impairment. The accepted ...

  5. The utility of microsatellite DNA markers for the evaluation of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT for the fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), control programs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Orankanok, Watchreeporn; Guglielmino, Carmela Rosalba; Franz, Gerald; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2011-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a key pest that causes reduction of the crop yield within the international fruit market. Fruit flies have been suppressed by two Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management programs in Thailand using Sterile Insect Technique (AW-IPM-SIT) since the late 1980s and the early 2000s. The projects' planning and evaluation usually rely on information from pest status, distribution, and fruit infestation. However, the collected data sometimes does not provide enough detail to answer management queries and public concerns, such as the long term sterilization efficacy of the released fruit fly, skepticism about insect migration or gene flow across the buffer zone, and the re-colonisation possibility of the fruit fly population within the core area. Established microsatellite DNA markers were used to generate population genetic data for the analysis of the fruit fly sampling from several control areas, and non-target areas, as well as the mass-rearing facility. The results suggested limited gene flow (m pests were suppressed to low density and showed weak bottleneck footprints although they still acquired a high degree of genetic variation. Potential pest resurgence from fragmented micro-habitats in mixed fruit orchards rather than pest incursion across the buffer zone has been proposed. Therefore, a suitable pest control effort, such as the SIT program, should concentrate on the hidden refuges within the target area.

  6. Novel wide-area hydrogen sensing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoagland, W.; Benson, D.K.; Smith, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    Element One, Inc. is developing novel, low cost visual indicators for hydrogen gas to complement electronic hydrogen sensors or serve as a low-cost alternative in situations where an electronic signal is not needed. The indicator consists of a thin film coating or a nano-particle pigment of a transition metal oxide such as tungsten oxide along with a catalyst such as platinum or palladium. The oxide is partially reduced in the presence of hydrogen in concentrations as low as 300 parts per million and changes from transparent to a dark color. The change is fast and easily seen from a distance. In air, the color change is reversed spontaneously when the source of hydrogen gas is removed. A number of possible implementations have been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory including hydrogen indicating paints, tape, cautionary decals, and coatings for hydrogen storage tanks. These and other implementations may find use in vehicles, stationary appliances, piping, refueling stations and in closed spaces such as maintenance and residential garages for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. (authors)

  7. ICPP digital wide area portal monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    A portal montior is described which is used to check personnel for contamination. The monitor is extremely sensitive. In addition to personnel contamination control, it serves as an extremely effective SNM detector capable of detecting U-235 in half the quantities specified in Federal Standards

  8. Locating Objects in Wide-Area Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M. van; Hauck, F.J.; Homburg, P.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    Locating mobile objects in a worldwide system requires a scalable location service. An object can be a telephone or a notebook computer, but also a software or data object, such as a file or an electronic document. Our service strictly separates an object's name from the addresses where it can be

  9. Wide Area Wind Field Monitoring Status & Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Marchant; Jed Simmons

    2011-09-30

    Volume-scanning elastic has been investigated as a means to derive 3D dynamic wind fields for characterization and monitoring of wind energy sites. An eye-safe volume-scanning lidar system was adapted for volume imaging of aerosol concentrations out to a range of 300m. Reformatting of the lidar data as dynamic volume images was successfully demonstrated. A practical method for deriving 3D wind fields from dynamic volume imagery was identified and demonstrated. However, the natural phenomenology was found to provide insufficient aerosol features for reliable wind sensing. The results of this study may be applicable to wind field measurement using injected aerosol tracers.

  10. Optimal blind quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantri, Atul; Pérez-Delgado, Carlos A; Fitzsimons, Joseph F

    2013-12-06

    Blind quantum computation allows a client with limited quantum capabilities to interact with a remote quantum computer to perform an arbitrary quantum computation, while keeping the description of that computation hidden from the remote quantum computer. While a number of protocols have been proposed in recent years, little is currently understood about the resources necessary to accomplish the task. Here, we present general techniques for upper and lower bounding the quantum communication necessary to perform blind quantum computation, and use these techniques to establish concrete bounds for common choices of the client's quantum capabilities. Our results show that the universal blind quantum computation protocol of Broadbent, Fitzsimons, and Kashefi, comes within a factor of 8/3 of optimal when the client is restricted to preparing single qubits. However, we describe a generalization of this protocol which requires exponentially less quantum communication when the client has a more sophisticated device.

  11. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Western Rwanda: blindness in a postconflict setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjiku Mathenge

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization estimates that there were 37 million blind people in 2002 and that the prevalence of blindness was 9% among adults in Africa aged 50 years or older. Recent surveys indicate that this figure may be overestimated, while a survey from southern Sudan suggested that postconflict areas are particularly vulnerable to blindness. The aim of this study was to conduct a Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness to estimate the magnitude and causes of visual impairment in people aged > or = 50 y in the postconflict area of the Western Province of Rwanda, which includes one-quarter of the population of Rwanda.Clusters of 50 people aged > or = 50 y were selected through probability proportionate to size sampling. Households within clusters were selected through compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA was measured with a tumbling "E" chart, and those with VA below 6/18 in either eye were examined by an ophthalmologist. The teams examined 2,206 people (response rate 98.0%. The unadjusted prevalence of bilateral blindness was 1.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2%-2.4%, 1.3% (0.8%-1.7% for severe visual impairment, and 5.3% (4.2%-6.4% for visual impairment. Most bilateral blindness (65% was due to cataract. Overall, the vast majority of cases of blindness (80.0%, severe visual impairment (67.9%, and visual impairment (87.2% were avoidable (i.e.. due to cataract, refractive error, aphakia, trachoma, or corneal scar. The cataract surgical coverage was moderate; 47% of people with bilateral cataract blindness (VA < 3/60 had undergone surgery. Of the 29 eyes that had undergone cataract surgery, nine (31% had a best-corrected poor outcome (i.e., VA < 6/60. Extrapolating these estimates to Rwanda's Western Province, among the people aged 50 years or above 2,565 are expected to be blind, 1,824 to have severe visual impairment, and 8,055 to have visual impairment.The prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in this postconflict

  12. A Weak Quantum Blind Signature with Entanglement Permutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhigang; Guo, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Motivated by the permutation encryption algorithm, a weak quantum blind signature (QBS) scheme is proposed. It involves three participants, including the sender Alice, the signatory Bob and the trusted entity Charlie, in four phases, i.e., initializing phase, blinding phase, signing phase and verifying phase. In a small-scale quantum computation network, Alice blinds the message based on a quantum entanglement permutation encryption algorithm that embraces the chaotic position string. Bob signs the blinded message with private parameters shared beforehand while Charlie verifies the signature's validity and recovers the original message. Analysis shows that the proposed scheme achieves the secure blindness for the signer and traceability for the message owner with the aid of the authentic arbitrator who plays a crucial role when a dispute arises. In addition, the signature can neither be forged nor disavowed by the malicious attackers. It has a wide application to E-voting and E-payment system, etc.

  13. Nutritional Amblyopia Combined with Night Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline M. Nguyen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of an 18-year-old male who developed both nutritional amblyopia and night blindness. After nearly a lifetime of consuming a bizarre diet limited to French fries, pretzels, crackers, and carbonated sodas, he had a relatively sudden onset of night blindness and bilateral visual loss. The night blindness resolved after taking daily oral vitamin A supplements. Visual acuity gradually improved from light perception, both eyes, to 20/20 right eye and 20/25 left eye after multivitamin supplementation and vitamin B12 injections. The patient had bilateral optic atrophy and bilateral ring scotomas around a small area of fixation. The patient was unable to modify his diet despite professional advice and counseling.

  14. Colour blindness-A rural prevalence survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natu Maya

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Colour vision is important for aeroplane pilots, motor drivers, seamen and signal men for their professional work Not much of attention has been paid to population studies of colour blindness as there is no interference with daily routine in majority of persons However there is a need to undertake community wide prevalence surveys which could be useful in study of other genetically transmitted diseases

  15. The Communities First (ComFi) study: protocol for a prospective controlled quasi-experimental study to evaluate the impact of area-wide regeneration on mental health and social cohesion in deprived communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James; Greene, Giles; Dunstan, Frank; Rodgers, Sarah; Lyons, Ronan A; Humphreys, Ioan; John, Ann; Webster, Chris; Palmer, Stephen; Elliott, Eva; Phillips, Ceri J; Fone, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Recent systematic reviews have highlighted the dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of regeneration on health and health inequalities. ‘Communities First’ is an area-wide regeneration scheme to improve the lives of people living in the most deprived areas in Wales (UK). This study will evaluate the impact of Communities First on residents’ mental health and social cohesion. Methods and analysis A prospective controlled quasi-experimental study of the association between residence in Communities First regeneration areas in Caerphilly county borough and change in mental health and social cohesion. The study population is the 4226 residents aged 18–74 years who responded to the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Study in 2001 (before delivery) and 2008 (after delivery of Communities First). Data on the location, type and cost of Communities First interventions will be extracted from records collected by Caerphilly county borough council. The primary outcome is the change in mental health between 2001 and 2008. Secondary outcomes are changes: in common mental disorder case status (using survey and general practice data), social cohesion and mental health inequalities. Multilevel models will examine change in mental health and social cohesion between Communities First and control areas, adjusting for individual and household level confounding factors. Further models will examine the effects of (1) different types of intervention, (2) contamination across areas, (3) length of residence in a Communities First area, and (4) population migration. We will carry out a cost-consequences analysis to summarise the outcomes generated for participants, as well as service utilisation and utility gains. Ethics and dissemination This study has had approval from the Information Governance Review Panel at Swansea University (Ref: 0266 CF). Findings will be disseminated through peer-review publications, international conferences, policy and practice partners in

  16. Homer: The Blind Bard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorley, Rachelle; King, Judith

    2005-01-01

    This article describes notable cultural, historical, and artistic elements emanating from sculptures originating in ancient Greece. The "blind bard" and its connection to the legendary Greek poet, Homer; Homer's impact on literary history; trends among Roman sculptures; and Roman replication of Greek art are described. Questions to…

  17. Postural control in blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Oliveira, Cláudia Silva Remor de; Knabben, Rodrigo José; Domenech, Susana Cristina; Borges Junior, Noe Gomes

    2011-12-01

    To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  18. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF BLIND CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Mira CVETKOVA

    1998-01-01

    A review is made on the research and studies concerning physical and motor development of blind children. An emphasis is also put on development of hand movements as part of the whole motor development process of the blind.

  19. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  20. The willed blindness of humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. It is a willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness enab...

  1. [The blindness in the literature-Jose Saramago: blindness and Albert Bang: the blind witness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permin, H; Norn, M

    2001-01-01

    Two novels with different aspects of blindness seen through the doctors eyes. The Portuguese Nobel-prize winner José Saramago's story of a city struck by an epidemic of "white blindness", where the truth is what we cannot bear to see. The Danish author and unskilled labourer Albert Bang's (synonym with Karl E. Rasmussen) crime novel describes a blind or pretend to be blind butcher, who is a witness to a murder. Both novels are lyric, thought-provoking and insightful.

  2. Wide area monitoring and controlling system for Sapporo Highway Facilities Control Center of the Japan Highway Public Corporation; Nihon Doro Kodan Sapporo shisetsu chuokyoku muke koiki kanshi seigyo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    As part of deliveries to the government offices, Meidensha supplied a system for monitoring and controlling all facilities in a wide area such as interchanges and tunnels on expressways in Hokkaido. The man-machine part consists of four CRT`s and two large displays. In case of a fire in a tunnel or a failure in equipment, the system automatically displays in an interlocking manner a related screen assigned to each man-machine, indicating also a corresponding guidance as assistance for the operator. Each supervisory office is connected to the Facilities Control Center through Intranet and is able to read information collected by the Control Center through browser. At the time of inspection of each equipment, the inspection data is automatically reported to the Control Center by connecting a handy terminal to the telephone line of each facility electric room, thereby contributing to the reduction of the burden of a Control Center operator. (NEDO)

  3. Blind Compressed Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Gleichman, Sivan; Eldar, Yonina C.

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental principle underlying compressed sensing is that a signal, which is sparse under some basis representation, can be recovered from a small number of linear measurements. However, prior knowledge of the sparsity basis is essential for the recovery process. This work introduces the concept of blind compressed sensing, which avoids the need to know the sparsity basis in both the sampling and the recovery process. We suggest three possible constraints on the sparsity basis that can ...

  4. [Blindness and visual rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matonti, F; Roux, S; Denis, D; Picaud, S; Chavane, F

    2015-02-01

    Blindness and visual impairment are a major public health problem all over the world and in all societies. A large amount of basic science and clinical research aims to rehabilitate patients and help them become more independent. Various methods are explored from cell and molecular therapy to prosthetic interfaces. We review the various treatment alternatives, describing their results and their limitations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. INTRODUCTION Childhood blindness is increasingly becoming a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number of blind years resulting from blindness in children is also equal to the number of blind years due to age related cataract.10 The burden of disability in terms of blind years in these children represents a major. CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AT THE SCHOOL FOR THE. BLIND OWO, NIGERIA.

  6. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  7. The communities first (ComFi) study: protocol for a prospective controlled quasi-experimental study to evaluate the impact of area-wide regeneration on mental health and social cohesion in deprived communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James; Greene, Giles; Dunstan, Frank; Rodgers, Sarah; Lyons, Ronan A; Humphreys, Ioan; John, Ann; Webster, Chris; Palmer, Stephen; Elliott, Eva; Phillips, Ceri J; Fone, David

    2014-10-14

    Recent systematic reviews have highlighted the dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of regeneration on health and health inequalities. 'Communities First' is an area-wide regeneration scheme to improve the lives of people living in the most deprived areas in Wales (UK). This study will evaluate the impact of Communities First on residents' mental health and social cohesion. A prospective controlled quasi-experimental study of the association between residence in Communities First regeneration areas in Caerphilly county borough and change in mental health and social cohesion. The study population is the 4226 residents aged 18-74 years who responded to the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Study in 2001 (before delivery) and 2008 (after delivery of Communities First). Data on the location, type and cost of Communities First interventions will be extracted from records collected by Caerphilly county borough council. The primary outcome is the change in mental health between 2001 and 2008. Secondary outcomes are changes: in common mental disorder case status (using survey and general practice data), social cohesion and mental health inequalities. Multilevel models will examine change in mental health and social cohesion between Communities First and control areas, adjusting for individual and household level confounding factors. Further models will examine the effects of (1) different types of intervention, (2) contamination across areas, (3) length of residence in a Communities First area, and (4) population migration. We will carry out a cost-consequences analysis to summarise the outcomes generated for participants, as well as service utilisation and utility gains. This study has had approval from the Information Governance Review Panel at Swansea University (Ref: 0266 CF). Findings will be disseminated through peer-review publications, international conferences, policy and practice partners in local and national government, and updates on our study website

  8. Sociocultural theory and blind taste-tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Paul Gee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his entertaining 1986 book, The Real Coke, the Real Story, Thomas Oliver tells the story of the now infamous “New Coke”, a story retold in Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005 best-seller Blink. In the early 1980s, Pepsi began running commercials in which people took a sip from two glasses, not knowing which was Coke and which Pepsi. The majority preferred Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company replicated these blind taste-tests and found the same result. Losing market share, Coke—long the dominant brand—changed its old formula and came out with “New Coke”, a soda made to a new formula, one that in a new round of blind taste-tests came out above Pepsi. But New Coke was a disaster.Consumers hated it. Coke not only returned to its old formula, but Pepsi never did overtake Coke, which remains today the dominant brand world-wide.

  9. Crossmodal recruitment of the ventral visual stream in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, Maurice; Matteau, Isabelle; Zhi Wang, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform...... a tactile-form recognition task with the tongue display unit (TDU). Both groups learned the task at the same rate. In line with our hypothesis, the fMRI data showed that during nonhaptic shape recognition, blind subjects activated large portions of the ventral visual stream, including the cuneus, precuneus......, inferotemporal (IT), cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv), and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic...

  10. Education Game to Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Oktorina Kusuma Sakti

    2015-11-01

    Now there are blind people who have their formal and informal education. Even though they cannot see, they can take benefit from another sense, like sense of hearing, palpability, smell, and taste. Their senses can be a modal to study. Developer games have their build game in audio to blind people too. Their game is variation between audio games and online games, so games can be used for blind people as an education tools. In this paper, there will be an explanation about how to facilitate blind people to study with paper

  11. Blind Quantum Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvail, Louis; Arrighi, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of "having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input". Say Alice wants Bob to compute some known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x. The situa......We investigate the possibility of "having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input". Say Alice wants Bob to compute some known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x....... The situation arises for instance if client Alice has limited computational resources in comparison with mistrusted server Bob, or if x is an inherently mobile piece of data. Could there be a protocol whereby Bob is forced to compute f(x) "blindly", i.e. without observing x? We provide such a blind computation...... protocol for the class of functions which admit an efficient procedure to generate random input-output pairs, e.g. factorization. The cheat-sensitive security achieved relies only upon quantum theory being true. The security analysis carried out assumes the eavesdropper performs individual attacks....

  12. Measurement of the area of muscle distribution in inferior pelvic aperture in children with imperforate anus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuo; Fujino, Toshio; Nakamura, Shiro

    1989-01-01

    The development of anal sphincter muscles is the most important prognostic factor in children with imperforate anus. In order to evaluate the develoment of anal sphincter muscles, CT examinations was carried out and the area of muscle distribution in inferior pelvic aperture was calculated with micro-computer. Our results are as follows: 1. In the low type anomalies which blind pouch was below I line, muscle distribution was as wide as in the normal cases. 2. Whereas, in the high type anomalies which blind pouch was on M line, muscle distribution was narrower. Furthermore, in the case which blind pouch was on P-C line, muscle distribution was extremely limited. 3. A ratio of the area of muscle distribution to that of inferior pelvic aperture may be a valuable index for evaluating the development of anal sphincter muscles. (author)

  13. Specifics of psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children

    OpenAIRE

    Zbyněk Janečka; Kateřina Chrobáková; Michal Mayer

    2011-01-01

    Ontogenesis of the psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children has its own specifics. Visual defect is influenced by many things. In the period from birth to two years of age occur in children, significant changes in cognitive, psychomotor and social development. Compared with the normal sighted population go the development of congenital blind children in all these areas slower. Visual deprivation also influenced on development of body posture. More important is whether the...

  14. POSTERIOR SEGMENT CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN IN BLIND SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is estimated that there are 1.4 million irreversibly blind children in the world out of which 1 million are in Asia alone. India has the highest number of blind children than any other country. Nearly 70% of the childhood blindness is avoidable. There i s paucity of data available on the causes of childhood blindness. This study focuses on the posterior segment causes of blindness among children attending blind schools in 3 adjacent districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a cross sectiona l study conducted among 204 blind children aged 6 - 16 years age. Detailed eye examination was done by the same investigator to avoid bias. Posterior segment examination was done using a direct and/or indirect ophthalmoscope after dilating pupil wherever nec essary. The standard WHO/PBL for blindness and low vision examination protocol was used to categorize the causes of blindness. A major anatomical site and underlying cause was selected for each child. The study was carried out during July 2014 to June 2015 . The results were analyzed using MS excel software and Epi - info 7 software version statistical software. RESULTS: Majority of the children was found to be aged 13 - 16 years (45.1% and males (63.7%. Family history of blindness was noted in 26.0% and consa nguinity was reported in 29.9% cases. A majority of them were belonged to fulfill WHO grade of blindness (73.0% and in majority of the cases, the onset of blindness was since birth (83.7%. The etiology of blindness was unknown in majority of cases (57.4% while hereditary causes constituted 25.4% cases. Posterior segment causes were responsible in 33.3% cases with retina being the most commonly involved anatomical site (19.1% followed by optic nerve (14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for mandatory oph thalmic evaluation, refraction and assessment of low vision prior to admission into blind schools with periodic evaluation every 2 - 3 years

  15. Crossmodal Recruitment of the Ventral Visual Stream in Congenital Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ptito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used functional MRI (fMRI to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform a tactile-form recognition task with the tongue display unit (TDU. Both groups learned the task at the same rate. In line with our hypothesis, the fMRI data showed that during nonhaptic shape recognition, blind subjects activated large portions of the ventral visual stream, including the cuneus, precuneus, inferotemporal (IT, cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv, and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic tactile shape discrimination. The activation of LOtv by nonhaptic tactile shape processing in blind and sighted subjects adds further support to the notion that this area subserves an abstract or supramodal representation of shape. Together with our previous findings, our data suggest that the segregation of the efferent projections of the primary visual cortex into a dorsal and ventral visual stream is preserved in individuals blind from birth.

  16. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O . Oduntan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent review of the causes and prevalence of low vision and blindness world wide is lack-ing. Such review is important for highlighting the causes and prevalence of visual impairment in the different parts of the world. Also, it is important in providing information on the types and magnitude of eye care programs needed in different parts of the world. In this article, the causes and prevalence of low vision and blind-ness in different parts of the world are reviewed and  the  socio-economic  and  psychological implications are briefly discussed. The review is based on an extensive review of the litera-ture using computer data bases combined with review of available national, regional and inter-national journals. Low vision and blindness are more prevalent in the developing countries than in the developed ones. Generally, the causes and prevalence of the conditions vary widely in different parts of the world and even within the same country. World wide, cataract is the most common cause of blindness and low vision among adults and elderly. Infectious diseases such as trachoma and onchocerciasis result-ing in low vision and blindness are peculiar to Africa, Asia and South America. Hereditary and congenital conditions are the most common causes of low vision and blindness among chil-dren worldwide.

  17. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O . Oduntan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent review of the causes and prevalence of low vision and blindness world wide is lack-ing. Such review is important for highlighting the causes and prevalence of visual impairment in the different parts of the world. Also, it is important in providing information on the types and magnitude of eye care programs needed in different parts of the world. In this article, the causes and prevalence of low vision and blind-ness in different parts of the world are reviewed and  the  socio-economic  and  psychological implications are briefly discussed. The review is based on an extensive review of the litera-ture using computer data bases combined with review of available national, regional and inter-national journals. Low vision and blindness are more prevalent in the developing countries than in the developed ones. Generally, the causes and prevalence of the conditions vary widely in different parts of the world and even within the same country. World wide, cataract is the most common cause of blindness and low vision among adults and elderly. Infectious diseases such as trachoma and onchocerciasis result-ing in low vision and blindness are peculiar to Africa, Asia and South America. Hereditary and congenital conditions are the most common causes of low vision and blindness among chil-dren worldwide.

  18. An Overwhelming Desire to Be Blind: Similarities and Differences between Body Integrity Identity Disorder and the Wish for Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Gutschke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The urge to be permanently blind is an extremely rare mental health disturbance. The underlying cause of this desire has not been determined yet, and it is uncertain whether the wish for blindness is a condition that can be included in the context of body integrity identity disorder, a condition where people feel an overwhelming need to be disabled, in many cases by amputation of a limb or through paralysis. Objective: The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that people with a desire for blindness suffer from a greater degree of visual stress in daily activities than people in a healthy visual control group. Method: We created a Likert scale questionnaire to measure visual stress, covering a wide range of everyday situations. The wish for blindness is extremely rare and worldwide only 5 people with an urge to be blind were found to participate in the study (4 female, 1 male. In addition, a control group of 35 (28 female, 7 male visually healthy people was investigated. Questions addressing issues that may be experienced by participants with a desire to be blind were integrated into the questionnaire. Results: The hypothesis that people with a desire for blindness suffer from a significantly higher visual overload in activities of daily living than visually healthy subjects was confirmed; the significance of visual stress between these groups was p < 0.01. In addition, an interview with the 5 affected participants supported the causal role of visual overload. Conclusions: The desire for blindness seems to originate from visual overload caused by either ophthalmologic or organic brain disturbances. In addition, psychological reasons such as certain personal character traits may play an active role in developing, maintaining, and reinforcing one’s desire to be blind.

  19. An Overwhelming Desire to Be Blind: Similarities and Differences between Body Integrity Identity Disorder and the Wish for Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschke, Katja; Stirn, Aglaja; Kasten, Erich

    2017-01-01

    The urge to be permanently blind is an extremely rare mental health disturbance. The underlying cause of this desire has not been determined yet, and it is uncertain whether the wish for blindness is a condition that can be included in the context of body integrity identity disorder, a condition where people feel an overwhelming need to be disabled, in many cases by amputation of a limb or through paralysis. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that people with a desire for blindness suffer from a greater degree of visual stress in daily activities than people in a healthy visual control group. We created a Likert scale questionnaire to measure visual stress, covering a wide range of everyday situations. The wish for blindness is extremely rare and worldwide only 5 people with an urge to be blind were found to participate in the study (4 female, 1 male). In addition, a control group of 35 (28 female, 7 male) visually healthy people was investigated. Questions addressing issues that may be experienced by participants with a desire to be blind were integrated into the questionnaire. The hypothesis that people with a desire for blindness suffer from a significantly higher visual overload in activities of daily living than visually healthy subjects was confirmed; the significance of visual stress between these groups was p < 0.01. In addition, an interview with the 5 affected participants supported the causal role of visual overload. The desire for blindness seems to originate from visual overload caused by either ophthalmologic or organic brain disturbances. In addition, psychological reasons such as certain personal character traits may play an active role in developing, maintaining, and reinforcing one's desire to be blind.

  20. Reversible blindness in fulminating preeclampsia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tung CF, Peng YC, Chen GH, Chow WK, Yang DY, Hu WH. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count. (HELLP) syndrome with acute cortical blindness. Chin. Med J (Taipei) 2001;64:482-5. 5. Cunningham FG, Fernandez CO, Hernandez C. Blindness associated with preeclampsia and eclampsia. Am J.

  1. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    It may seem that deaf-blindness refers to a total inability to see or hear. However, in reality deaf-blindness is a condition in which the combination of hearing and visual losses in children cause "such severe communication and other develop mental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for…

  2. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF BLIND CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira CVETKOVA

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A review is made on the research and studies concerning physical and motor development of blind children. An emphasis is also put on development of hand movements as part of the whole motor development process of the blind.

  3. World wide spatial capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rijurekha; Quercia, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  4. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. What do my eyes ... Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a scientist? Click to Watch ...

  5. Blindness and visual impairment in Okoboh, a rural community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the global fight against blindness in the rural communities, Rotary International, a humanitarian global organization, encourages all Rotary clubs world wide to undertake annual eye-camps in rural communities as part of their community service. Aim: To report the findings of a one-day eye-camp by the Rotary Club of Port ...

  6. Blind prediction of interfacial water positions in CAPRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Marc F; Moal, Iain H; Bates, Paul A; Kastritis, Panagiotis L; Melquiond, Adrien S J; Karaca, Ezgi; Schmitz, Christophe; van Dijk, Marc; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Eisenstein, Miriam; Jiménez-García, Brian; Grosdidier, Solène; Solernou, Albert; Pérez-Cano, Laura; Pallara, Chiara; Fernández-Recio, Juan; Xu, Jianqing; Muthu, Pravin; Praneeth Kilambi, Krishna; Gray, Jeffrey J; Grudinin, Sergei; Derevyanko, Georgy; Mitchell, Julie C; Wieting, John; Kanamori, Eiji; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Murakami, Yoichi; Sarmiento, Joy; Standley, Daron M; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nakamura, Haruki; Chavent, Matthieu; Ritchie, David W; Park, Hahnbeom; Ko, Junsu; Lee, Hasup; Seok, Chaok; Shen, Yang; Kozakov, Dima; Vajda, Sandor; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A; Pierce, Brian G; Hwang, Howook; Vreven, Thom; Weng, Zhiping; Buch, Idit; Farkash, Efrat; Wolfson, Haim J; Zacharias, Martin; Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Huang, Shen-You; Zou, Xiaoqin; Wojdyla, Justyna A; Kleanthous, Colin; Wodak, Shoshana J

    We report the first assessment of blind predictions of water positions at protein-protein interfaces, performed as part of the critical assessment of predicted interactions (CAPRI) community-wide experiment. Groups submitting docking predictions for the complex of the DNase domain of colicin E2 and

  7. Blind MuseumTourer: A System for Self-Guided Tours in Museums and Blind Indoor Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Meliones

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Notably valuable efforts have focused on helping people with special needs. In this work, we build upon the experience from the BlindHelper smartphone outdoor pedestrian navigation app and present Blind MuseumTourer, a system for indoor interactive autonomous navigation for blind and visually impaired persons and groups (e.g., pupils, which has primarily addressed blind or visually impaired (BVI accessibility and self-guided tours in museums. A pilot prototype has been developed and is currently under evaluation at the Tactual Museum with the collaboration of the Lighthouse for the Blind of Greece. This paper describes the functionality of the application and evaluates candidate indoor location determination technologies, such as wireless local area network (WLAN and surface-mounted assistive tactile route indications combined with Bluetooth low energy (BLE beacons and inertial dead-reckoning functionality, to come up with a reliable and highly accurate indoor positioning system adopting the latter solution. The developed concepts, including map matching, a key concept for indoor navigation, apply in a similar way to other indoor guidance use cases involving complex indoor places, such as in hospitals, shopping malls, airports, train stations, public and municipality buildings, office buildings, university buildings, hotel resorts, passenger ships, etc. The presented Android application is effectively a Blind IndoorGuide system for accurate and reliable blind indoor navigation.

  8. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saichin Isipradit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB study in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA <20/400, severe visual impairment (VA <20/200 but ≥20/400, and moderate visual impairment (VA <20/70 but ≥20/200 were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8, 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.6, 12.6% (95% CI: 10.8-14.5. There was no significant difference among the four regions of Thailand. Cataract was the main cause of vision loss accounted for 69.7% of blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. CONCLUSION: Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  9. Blind I/Q imbalance compensation technique for direct-conversion digital radio transceivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available . Digital signal processing techniques have widely been proposed to compensate for these mixer imperfections. Of these techniques, the class of blind compensation techniques seems very attractive since no test signals are required. This paper presents a...

  10. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  11. World wide spatial capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijurekha Sen

    Full Text Available In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion. Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where. They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK. We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  12. American Foundation for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Electronic Materials Webinars and Online Courses Accessible Technology AccessWorld ® : Technology News for People Who Are Blind ... Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma ...

  13. Simple pendulum for blind students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, A. M. B.; Cena, C. R.; Alves, D. C. B.; Errobidart, N. C. G.; Jardim, M. I. A.; Queiros, W. P.

    2017-09-01

    Faced with the need to teach physics to the visually impaired, in this paper we propose a way to demonstrate the dependence of distance and time in a pendulum experiment to blind students. The periodic oscillation of the pendulum is translated, by an Arduino and an ultrasonic sensor, in a periodic variation of frequency in a speaker. The main advantage of this proposal is the possibility that a blind student understands the movement without necessity of touching it.

  14. Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding from two groups of blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... Background: Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of the blind. Adjustment is often ...

  15. Morphometric changes of the corpus callosum in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D Louis

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender. There was no o......We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender....... There was no overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12......% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus...

  16. Blind surveys for radio pulsars and transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorimer, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    The main reasons for searching for pulsars are to: (i) get an accurate census of the neutron star population and its origin and evolution; (ii) connect neutron stars to other stellar populations in the Galaxy and globular clusters; (iii) study Galactic astronomy (the interstellar medium and magnetic field); (iv) find and study new interesting individual objects; (v) study pulsar phenomenology; (vi) find pulsars to add to the sensitivity of pulsar timing arrays. This review focuses on blind (i.e. large area) searches for radio pulsars. I'll summarize the methods we use, some of the challenges they present, look at some of the recent and current efforts going on. I will also look at outreach of this area to groups outside the traditional area of pulsar research, highlight the discoveries of radio transients and look ahead to the future. Pulsars found at other wavelengths will be reviewed elsewhere in this volume.

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on development of wide-area energy utilization network system. Study of energy system designing technology (Research into factory area energy system); Koiki energy riyo network system kaihatsu, energy system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Kojogun no energy system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Actualities of exhaust heat and demand for heat in the area are investigated on the result of which a wide-area energy utilization network system will be built. In fiscal 1998, further questionnaires are distributed in addition to last fiscal year's, and door-to-door visits are made on leading factories representing 10 types of industries. The result of data analysis places the nationwide total of exhaust heat at 320,000 Tcal/year including heat generated by electric power generation. When it is so defined that usable heat be above 150 degrees C for exhaust gas, above 40 degrees C for hot water, and above 200 degrees for solids, the total will be reduced to 230,000 Tcal/year. Cleaning plants (plants that treat refuse or sewage) as the sources of exhaust heat besides the factories are investigated for the amount of heat they discharge, and then it is found that the amount of heat they discharge is the fourth largest following electric power plants, iron and steel mills, and chemical plants. It is also found that most of their exhaust heat is of good quality because it is latent in steam or hot water. It is acknowledged, partly because many of such plants are situated relatively near to the urban district, that their role is important when studies are made on the utilization of exhaust heat. (NEDO)

  18. Causes of blindness in blind unit of the school for the handicapped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To describe the causes of blindness in pupils and staff in the blind unit of the School for the Handicapped in Kwara State. 2. To identify problems in the blind school and initiate intervention. All the blind or visually challenged people in the blind unit of the school for the handicapped were interviewed and examined using a ...

  19. Concepts and Criteria for Blind Quantum Source Separation and Blind Quantum Process Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Deville

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blind Source Separation (BSS is an active domain of Classical Information Processing, with well-identified methods and applications. The development of Quantum Information Processing has made possible the appearance of Blind Quantum Source Separation (BQSS, with a recent extension towards Blind Quantum Process Tomography (BQPT. This article investigates the use of several fundamental quantum concepts in the BQSS context and establishes properties already used without justification in that context. It mainly considers a pair of electron spins initially separately prepared in a pure state and then submitted to an undesired exchange coupling between these spins. Some consequences of the existence of the entanglement phenomenon, and of the probabilistic aspect of quantum measurements, upon BQSS solutions, are discussed. An unentanglement criterion is established for the state of an arbitrary qubit pair, expressed first with probability amplitudes and secondly with probabilities. The interest of using the concept of a random quantum state in the BQSS context is presented. It is stressed that the concept of statistical independence of the sources, widely used in classical BSS, should be used with care in BQSS, and possibly replaced by some disentanglement principle. It is shown that the coefficients of the development of any qubit pair pure state over the states of an orthonormal basis can be expressed with the probabilities of results in the measurements of well-chosen spin components.

  20. The spatiotopic 'visual' cortex of the blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likova, Lora

    2012-03-01

    Visual cortex activity in the blind has been shown in sensory tasks. Can it be activated in memory tasks? If so, are inherent features of its organization meaningfully employed? Our recent results in short-term blindfolded subjects imply that human primary visual cortex (V1) may operate as a modality-independent 'sketchpad' for working memory (Likova, 2010a). Interestingly, the spread of the V1 activation approximately corresponded to the spatial extent of the images in terms of their angle of projection to the subject. We now raise the questions of whether under long-term visual deprivation V1 is also employed in non-visual memory task, in particular in congenitally blind individuals, who have never had visual stimulation to guide the development of the visual area organization, and whether such spatial organization is still valid for the same paradigm that was used in blindfolded individuals. The outcome has implications for an emerging reconceptualization of the principles of brain architecture and its reorganization under sensory deprivation. Methods: We used a novel fMRI drawing paradigm in congenitally and late-onset blind, compared with sighted and blindfolded subjects in three conditions of 20s duration, separated by 20s rest-intervals, (i) Tactile Exploration: raised-line images explored and memorized; (ii) Tactile Memory Drawing: drawing the explored image from memory; (iii) Scribble: mindless drawing movements with no memory component. Results and Conclusions: V1 was strongly activated for Tactile Memory Drawing and Tactile Exploration in these totally blind subjects. Remarkably, after training, even in the memory task, the mapping of V1 activation largely corresponded to the angular projection of the tactile stimuli relative to the ego-center (i.e., the effective visual angle at the head); beyond this projective boundary, peripheral V1 signals were dramatically reduced or even suppressed. The matching extent of the activation in the congenitally blind

  1. Beliefs and Attitude to Eye Disease and Blindness in Rural Anambra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objectives: To determine (a) the beliefs and knowledge of the eye diseases/blindness; (b) the actions taken to alleviate eye diseases/blindness; (c) the disposition towards optical aids and surgery among adults in rural Anambra State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: three villages in the onchocercal endemic area ...

  2. The Role of Auditory Cues in the Spatial Knowledge of Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Papadimitriou, Kimon; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    The study presented here sought to explore the role of auditory cues in the spatial knowledge of blind individuals by examining the relation between the perceived auditory cues and the landscape of a given area and by investigating how blind individuals use auditory cues to create cognitive maps. The findings reveal that several auditory cues…

  3. Evaluation of Methyl Eugenol and Cue-Lure Traps with Solid Lure and Insecticide Dispensers for Fruit Fly Monitoring and Male Annihilation in the Hawaii Area-Wide Pest Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) traps with solid lure dispensers were deployed in areas with low and high populations of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), respectively. In low density areas, standard Jackson traps or Hawaii fruit fly A...

  4. Exploring the options for alternative means of livelihood for blind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To explore the readiness of and the options for alternative means of livelihood for Blind Street beggars in Sokoto, Nigeria, with a view to achieving the millennium development goals. Materials and Methods: A cross.sectional study was conducted in a Local Government Area (LGA), in Sokoto State overa 6 weeks period ...

  5. Epidemiology of blindness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solebo, Ameenat Lola; Teoh, Lucinda; Rahi, Jugnoo

    2017-09-01

    An estimated 14 million of the world's children are blind. A blind child is more likely to live in socioeconomic deprivation, to be more frequently hospitalised during childhood and to die in childhood than a child not living with blindness. This update of a previous review on childhood visual impairment focuses on emerging therapies for children with severe visual disability (severe visual impairment and blindness or SVI/BL).For children in higher income countries, cerebral visual impairment and optic nerve anomalies remain the most common causes of SVI/BL, while retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and cataract are now the most common avoidable causes. The constellation of causes of childhood blindness in lower income settings is shifting from infective and nutritional corneal opacities and congenital anomalies to more resemble the patterns seen in higher income settings. Improvements in maternal and neonatal health and investment in and maintenance of national ophthalmic care infrastructure are the key to reducing the burden of avoidable blindness. New therapeutic targets are emerging for childhood visual disorders, although the safety and efficacy of novel therapies for diseases such as ROP or retinal dystrophies are not yet clear. Population-based epidemiological research, particularly on cerebral visual impairment and optic nerve hypoplasia, is needed in order to improve understanding of risk factors and to inform and support the development of novel therapies for disorders currently considered 'untreatable'. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Arsanilic acid blindness in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, R.W.; Kintner, L.D.; Selby, L.A.; Stewart, R.W.; Marlenfeld, C.J.

    1970-06-01

    Blindness in pigs that were given an overdosage of arsanilic acid is reported. A 0.0375% level of arsanilic acid was fed to 640 pigs for 90 days beginning when the animals were 3 months old. Approximately one month after the start of feeding, partial or complete blindness was observed in 50 of the pigs. Clinical signs, pathologic findings and the chemical analysis of hair are discussed. The level of arsanilic acid used was that recommended for the control of swine dysentery, to be fed for only five or six days. The overdosage resulted from a misunderstanding between the farmer and the feed mill.

  7. Sound lateralization test in adolescent blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Takao; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2005-06-21

    Blind individuals require to compensate for the lack of visual information by other sensory inputs. In particular, auditory inputs are crucial to such individuals. To investigate whether blind individuals localize sound in space better than sighted individuals, we tested the auditory ability of adolescent blind individuals using a sound lateralization method. The interaural time difference discrimination thresholds of blind individuals were statistically significantly shorter than those of blind individuals with residual vision and controls. These findings suggest that blind individuals have better auditory spatial ability than individuals with visual cues; therefore, some perceptual compensation occurred in the former.

  8. Specifics of psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyněk Janečka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenesis of the psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children has its own specifics. Visual defect is influenced by many things. In the period from birth to two years of age occur in children, significant changes in cognitive, psychomotor and social development. Compared with the normal sighted population go the development of congenital blind children in all these areas slower. Visual deprivation also influenced on development of body posture. More important is whether the development proceeds in stages that correspond to the development of normal vision child. If development proceeds in the right direction is the temporal aspect criterion rather orientation. For blind children is also important to strengthen the ability to correctly identify their own body through somatognosy. Stereognosy in turn determines the degree of contact with the outer world and focus it in relation to the physical schema.

  9. Cortical blindness in a boy with acute glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min-Hsien; Sheu, Ji-Nan; Wang, Shuoh-Jyh

    2003-01-01

    Post-infectious acute glomerulonephritis with hypertensive encephalopathy is characterized by episodic hypertension with headache, vomiting, and hematuria. The association between hypertensive encephalopathy and cortical blindness in children with acute glomerulonephritis is extremely rare. We report the case of a 10-year-old boy with acute glomerulonephritis who presented with gross hematuria, headache, vomiting, and oliguria, and developed transient cortical blindness as a complication of hypertensive encephalopathy. No occurrence of seizure was observed during the clinical course. T2-weighted cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed a high-intensity signal over cortical and subcortical areas of bilateral occipital regions. His vision recovered fully, 2 days after receiving antihypertensive therapy. The patient was well without complaint at 1-year follow-up. This case highlights the possibility that cortical blindness may develop as a complication of acute glomerulonephritis in children. Prevention of the occurrence of neurological deficits in children with acute glomerulonephritis and hypertensive encephalopathy requires careful evaluation and appropriate management of hypertension.

  10. Blind Naso-Endotracheal Intubation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Difficult endotracheal intubation techniques include, use of fiberoptic bronchoscope, intubating laryngeal mask airway, tracheostomy, blind nasotracheal and retrograde intubation. According to the Difficult Airway Society guidelines, intubating with the aid of a fiberoptic scope has taken its place as the standard adjuvant for.

  11. Piagetian Reasoning and the Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatwell, Yvette

    Available for the first time in an English translation, the book reports the results of a series of studies undertaken in the early 1960s on the cognitive development of children with congenital blindness. Chapters one and two review the literaure on such topics as the concept of sensory compensation and the nature of tactual space and provide…

  12. Aquatic Recreation for the Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordellos, Harry C.

    The sixth in a series of booklets on physical education and recreation for the handicapped describes aquatic activities for blind persons. Written by a partially sighted athlete, the document discusses swimming pool characteristics and special pools for the visually impaired. Qualities of swimming instructors are reviewed, and suggestions for…

  13. Metro Navigation for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Saenz, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of using the software program AudioMetro, a tool that supports the orientation and mobility of people who are blind in the Metro system of Santiago de Chile. A quasi-experimental study considering experimental and control groups and using the paired Student's t in a two sample test analysis (pretest-posttest) was…

  14. Finding children who are blind

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, A Muhit

    2007-01-01

    Children who are blind need to be found as early as possible so they can be examined, treated, referred, or rehabilitated. This is crucial if they are to have the best possible chance of proper childhood development, education, and participation in broader social life.

  15. Finding children who are blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A Muhit

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Children who are blind need to be found as early as possible so they can be examined, treated, referred, or rehabilitated. This is crucial if they are to have the best possible chance of proper childhood development, education, and participation in broader social life.

  16. Vesicouterine fistula and blind vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M.; Hameed, S.; Asif, S.

    2003-01-01

    A case of vesicouterine fistula with blind vagina following cesarean section for obstructed labor is presented. It was surgically treated by fistulectomy, cervicoplasty and maintenance of bladder and cervical potency by catheterization. Intrauterine synechiae formation was prevented by copper T insertion and oral contraceptive pills. The patient is making uneventful a symptomatic progress planning to conceive. (author)

  17. Just how wide should 'wide reading' be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Educationalists introduce students to literature search strategies that, with rare exceptions, focus chiefly on the location of primary research reports and systematic reviews of those reports. These sources are, however, unlikely to adequately address the normative and/or metaphysical questions that nurses frequently and legitimately interest themselves in. To meet these interests, non-research texts exploring normative and/or metaphysical topics might and perhaps should, in some situations, be deemed suitable search targets. This seems plausible and, moreover, students are encouraged to 'read widely'. Yet accepting this proposition creates significant difficulties. Specifically, if non-research scholarly sources and artistic or literary (humanities) products dealing with normative/metaphysical issues were included in what are, at present, scientifically orientated searches, it is difficult to draw boundaries around what--if anything--is to be excluded. Engaging with this issue highlights problems with qualitative scholarship's designation as 'evidence'. Thus, absurdly, if qualitative scholarship's findings are labelled evidence because they generate practice-relevant understanding/insight, then any literary or artistic artefact (e.g. a throwaway lifestyle magazine) that generates kindred understandings/insights is presumably also evidence? This conclusion is rejected and it is instead proposed that while artistic, literary, and qualitative inquiries can provide practitioners with powerful and stimulating non-evidential understanding, these sources are not evidence as commonly conceived. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. "Visual" Cortex Responds to Spoken Language in Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedny, Marina; Richardson, Hilary; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-08-19

    Plasticity in the visual cortex of blind individuals provides a rare window into the mechanisms of cortical specialization. In the absence of visual input, occipital ("visual") brain regions respond to sound and spoken language. Here, we examined the time course and developmental mechanism of this plasticity in blind children. Nineteen blind and 40 sighted children and adolescents (4-17 years old) listened to stories and two auditory control conditions (unfamiliar foreign speech, and music). We find that "visual" cortices of young blind (but not sighted) children respond to sound. Responses to nonlanguage sounds increased between the ages of 4 and 17. By contrast, occipital responses to spoken language were maximal by age 4 and were not related to Braille learning. These findings suggest that occipital plasticity for spoken language is independent of plasticity for Braille and for sound. We conclude that in the absence of visual input, spoken language colonizes the visual system during brain development. Our findings suggest that early in life, human cortex has a remarkably broad computational capacity. The same cortical tissue can take on visual perception and language functions. Studies of plasticity provide key insights into how experience shapes the human brain. The "visual" cortex of adults who are blind from birth responds to touch, sound, and spoken language. To date, all existing studies have been conducted with adults, so little is known about the developmental trajectory of plasticity. We used fMRI to study the emergence of "visual" cortex responses to sound and spoken language in blind children and adolescents. We find that "visual" cortex responses to sound increase between 4 and 17 years of age. By contrast, responses to spoken language are present by 4 years of age and are not related to Braille-learning. These findings suggest that, early in development, human cortex can take on a strikingly wide range of functions. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3511674-08$15.00/0.

  19. Blindness and visual impairment in the Americas and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, B; West, S K

    2002-05-01

    To summarise available data on the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in the Americas and the Caribbean. The published literature was searched in Medline and LILACS using the following key words: blindness, visual impairment, prevalence. Articles were reviewed, and the references of the articles were also searched for relevant articles, which were also reviewed. Using the mortality in children under the age of 5 as an indicator, the overall prevalence of childhood blindness (in the under age 15 group) for the region was estimated at 0.45/1000, with the majority (67%) living in countries with mortality of children under age 5 above 30/1000 live births. Corneal opacities were more common in countries where the under 5 year mortality are above 30/1000 live births and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was an important cause in countries with intermediate death rates. For adults, overall blindness rates were not estimated because of the social, economic, and ethnic diversity in the region. The primary causes of visual loss in adults in the Americas were age related eye diseases, notably cataract and glaucoma in the African-American and Hispanic populations, and age related macular degeneration in the white population. Uncorrected refractive error was a significant cause of decreased vision across ages, ethnic groups, and countries. More data are needed on the magnitude and causes of visual loss for the Caribbean and Latin American countries. Rates of blindness and visual loss from available data within these countries are widely disparate. Prevention and control of avoidable blindness needs to be an ongoing focus in this region.

  20. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News ... series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ...

  1. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers ... your clothes don't match, someone might have teased you about being color blind. But some people really are color blind. It doesn't mean ...

  2. Brain mapping in a patient with congenital blindness – a case for multimodal approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarod L Roland

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in basic neuroscience research across a wide range of methodologies have contributed significantly to our understanding of human cortical electrophysiology and functional brain imaging. Translation of this research into clinical neurosurgery has opened doors for advanced mapping of functionality that previously was prohibitively difficult, if not impossible. Here we present the case of a unique individual with congenital blindness and medically refractory epilepsy who underwent neurosurgical treatment of her seizures. Pre-operative evaluation presented the challenge of accurately and robustly mapping the cerebral cortex for an individual with a high probability of significant cortical re-organization. Additionally, a blind individual has unique priorities in one’s ability to read Braille by touch and sense the environment primarily by sound than the non-vision impaired person. For these reasons we employed additional measures to map sensory, motor, speech, language, and auditory perception by employing a number of cortical electrophysiologic mapping and functional magnetic resonance imaging methods. Our data show promising results in the application of these adjunctive methods in the pre-operative mapping of otherwise difficult to localize, and highly variable, functional cortical areas.

  3. Big Data Blind Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujahid N. Syed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Data or signal separation is one of the critical areas of data analysis. In this work, the problem of non-negative data separation is considered. The problem can be briefly described as follows: given X ∈ R m × N , find A ∈ R m × n and S ∈ R + n × N such that X = A S . Specifically, the problem with sparse locally dominant sources is addressed in this work. Although the problem is well studied in the literature, a test to validate the locally dominant assumption is not yet available. In addition to that, the typical approaches available in the literature sequentially extract the elements of the mixing matrix. In this work, a mathematical modeling-based approach is presented that can simultaneously validate the assumption, and separate the given mixture data. In addition to that, a correntropy-based measure is proposed to reduce the model size. The approach presented in this paper is suitable for big data separation. Numerical experiments are conducted to illustrate the performance and validity of the proposed approach.

  4. "VisionTouch Phone" for the Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Robest

    2013-10-01

    Our objective is to enable the blind to use smartphones with touchscreens to make calls and to send text messages (sms) with ease, speed, and accuracy. We believe that with our proposed platform, which enables the blind to locate the position of the keypads, new games and education, and safety applications will be increasingly developed for the blind. This innovative idea can also be implemented on tablets for the blind, allowing them to use information websites such as Wikipedia and newspaper portals.

  5. Blind Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rita; Piplani, Rashmi

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the perception of parental attitudes of 50 blind adolescents in northern India. Results indicated that blind girls perceived their parents as being more accepting and less rejecting than did blind boys, a result explained by culturally determined differences in social sex roles. (DB)

  6. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  7. Nominal Realism in Congenitally Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. W.; Fisher, K. P.

    1986-01-01

    The study of 10 congenitally blind and 10 sighted children (ages 3 through 9) indicated that preoperational thought patterns of nominal realism remain longer for blind than for sighted children indicating a delay in (Piagetian) cognitive development of congenitally blind children and their need for appropriate cognitive and linguistic experiences.…

  8. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of fatty acid methyl esters of the blind-your-eye mangrove from India Atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de ésteres metílicos de acidos graxos de mangue"blind-your-eye" da India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Agoramoorthy

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are widely occurring in natural fats and dietary oils and they are known to have antibacterial and antifungal properties. However, little is known on the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the blind-your-eye mangrove (Excoecaria agallocha and this study for the first time determines the fatty acid composition and the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME of the blind-your-eye mangrove plant found along the coastal areas of south India.Gorduras naturais e óleos são abundantes em ácidos graxos que apresentam atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica. Entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre a atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de ésteres metílicos de ácidos graxos de mangue "blind-your-eye" (Excoecaria agallocha. Esse estudo relata, pela primeira vez, a composição em ácidos graxos e a atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de ésteres metílicos de ácidos graxos (FAME de mangue "blind-your-eye" encontrado ao longo de áreas costeiras do sul da India.

  9. Detecting Signage and Doors for Blind Navigation and Wayfinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuihua; Yang, Xiaodong; Tian, Yingli

    2013-07-01

    Signage plays a very important role to find destinations in applications of navigation and wayfinding. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to detect doors and signage to help blind people accessing unfamiliar indoor environments. In order to eliminate the interference information and improve the accuracy of signage detection, we first extract the attended areas by using a saliency map. Then the signage is detected in the attended areas by using a bipartite graph matching. The proposed method can handle multiple signage detection. Furthermore, in order to provide more information for blind users to access the area associated with the detected signage, we develop a robust method to detect doors based on a geometric door frame model which is independent to door appearances. Experimental results on our collected datasets of indoor signage and doors demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method.

  10. Morphometric measurements of the cranium in congenital bilateral blind males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengin Kosif

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cranium dimensions differ according to racial, geopraphic, ethnic and nutritional factors. This study will shed light on the question “Is there a difference in the cranial distances measured between congenital bilateral blind people and healthy individuals?” Nine anthropometric measures were performed on the brain MRI midsagittally obtained from male and female congenital bilateral blinds. The anthropometric measures taken included the glabella-opisthocranion, nasion-dorsum sellae, dorsum sellae-opisthocranion, nasion-basion, nasion-opisthion, basion-opisthion, prosthion-basion, basion-vertex and the clival angle. In addition, the supratentorial and infratentorial areas were calculated. Glabella-opisthocranion, nasion-dorsum sellae, nasion-basion, prosthion-basion and clival angle were found to be smaller in the congenital bilateral blind females compared to the healthy group, but these results were not statistically significant. Whereas, other measures out of the basion-opisthion were found to be smaller in the congenital bilateral blind males than in the healthy subjects. Of these results, the distance between glabella-opisthocranion, nasion-dorsum sellae and nasion-basion was significantly smaller compared to the measurements taken from the healthy male group. The infratentorial area was significantly smaller in congenital blind male subjects and the supratentorial area was significantly larger in congenital blind female subjects. This study has revealed that the cranium dimensions of congenital blind people are to different from normal individuals. The most significant difference was in the distance of the nasion-dorsum sellae. The region anterior to the basion and dorsum sellae was prominently smaller. The infratentorial area was significantly smaller in congenital blind male subjects and the supratentorial area was significantly larger in congenital blind female subjects.

  11. Blindness, cataract surgery and mortality in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Benjamin J; Sanders, David S; Oliva, Matthew S; Orrs, Mark S; Glick, Peter; Ruit, Sanduk; Chen, Wei; Luoto, Jill; Tasfaw, Alemu Kerie; Tabin, Geoffrey C

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relationships between blindness, the intervention of cataract surgery and all-cause mortality in a rural Ethiopian population. Population-based, interventional prospective study. Community-based detection methods identified blind Ethiopian persons from two selected kebeles in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Data from 1201 blind patients were collected-628 cataract-blind and 573 blind from other conditions. Free cataract surgery was provided for consenting, cataract-blind patients. Follow-up surveys were conducted after 12 months (±1 month)-the main outcome measure for this report is all-cause mortality at 1 year. During the follow-up period, 110 persons died from the selected population (mortality 9.2%), which consisted of those cataract-blind patients who received cataract surgery (N=461), cataract-blind patients who did not receive surgery (N=167) and all non-cataract-blind patients (N=573). Of the 461 patients who received cataract surgery, 44 patients died (9.5%). Of the 740 patients who did not receive surgery, 66 died (8.9%)-28 patients from the cohort of cataract-blind patients who did not receive surgery (16.8%) and 38 patients from the cohort of non-cataract blind (6.6%). Subgroup analysis revealed significantly increased odds of mortality for cataract-blind patients over 75 years of age who did not receive surgery and for unmarried patients of all age groups. In this population, mortality risk was significantly elevated for older cataract-blind patients when compared with non-cataract-blind patients-an elevation of risk that was not noted in an age-matched cohort of cataract-blind patients who underwent cataract surgery as early as 1-year follow-up. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    CERN Document Server

    Siebentritt, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Chalcopyrites, in particular those with a wide band gap, are fascinating materials in terms of their technological potential in the next generation of thin-film solar cells and in terms of their basic material properties. They exhibit uniquely low defect formation energies, leading to unusual doping and phase behavior and to extremely benign grain boundaries. This book collects articles on a number of those basic material properties of wide-gap chalcopyrites, comparing them to their low-gap cousins. They explore the doping of the materials, the electronic structure and the transport through interfaces and grain boundaries, the formation of the electric field in a solar cell, the mechanisms and suppression of recombination, the role of inhomogeneities, and the technological role of wide-gap chalcopyrites.

  13. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  14. Change blindness and eyewitness testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Graham; Hine, Sarah

    2007-07-01

    The authors explored the relevance of research on change blindness to eyewitness identification and testimony under intentional and incidental memory conditions. Participants (N = 80, 40 men and 40 women) viewed a video enactment of a burglary in which the identity of the burglar changed at the halfway point of the film. Half of participants were briefed to remember the content, and the other half were not. All were tested for the recall of the content, awareness of the change, and ability to identify either or both of the burglars. Some 61% of participants did not notice the identity change. Rates of detection were significantly higher in participants in the intentional condition, who also recalled significantly more detail from the film. Awareness of change was also significantly related to content recall scores and accuracy of identification of both burglars. The results illustrate the interrelation between the eyewitness and change blindness literatures.

  15. Blind Source Separation for Unimodal and Multimodal Brain Networks: A Unifying Framework for Subspace Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rogers F; Plis, Sergey M; Sui, Jing; Pattichis, Marios S; Adalı, Tülay; Calhoun, Vince D

    2016-10-01

    In the past decade, numerous advances in the study of the human brain were fostered by successful applications of blind source separation (BSS) methods to a wide range of imaging modalities. The main focus has been on extracting "networks" represented as the underlying latent sources. While the broad success in learning latent representations from multiple datasets has promoted the wide presence of BSS in modern neuroscience, it also introduced a wide variety of objective functions, underlying graphical structures, and parameter constraints for each method. Such diversity, combined with a host of datatype-specific know-how, can cause a sense of disorder and confusion, hampering a practitioner's judgment and impeding further development. We organize the diverse landscape of BSS models by exposing its key features and combining them to establish a novel unifying view of the area. In the process, we unveil important connections among models according to their properties and subspace structures. Consequently, a high-level descriptive structure is exposed, ultimately helping practitioners select the right model for their applications. Equipped with that knowledge, we review the current state of BSS applications to neuroimaging. The gained insight into model connections elicits a broader sense of generalization, highlighting several directions for model development. In light of that, we discuss emerging multi-dataset multidimensional (MDM) models and summarize their benefits for the study of the healthy brain and disease-related changes.

  16. The blindness of John Milton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, G B

    1995-01-01

    John Milton (1608-1674) often has been regarded as the greatest poet of his time, yet he did not compose his most famous work, Paradise Lost, until after he had become blind in both eyes. On the basis of clues in Milton's writings, several possible diagnoses have been advanced to explain his loss of vision. The evidence for and against each theory is presented.

  17. Multichannel blind iterative image restoration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šroubek, Filip; Flusser, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 9 (2003), s. 1094-1106 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/1711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : conjugate gradient * half-quadratic regularization * multichannel blind deconvolution Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.642, year: 2003 http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20030104.pdf

  18. Blind Deconvolution With Model Discrepancies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotera, Jan; Šmídl, Václav; Šroubek, Filip

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2017), s. 2533-2544 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S; GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : blind deconvolution * variational Bayes * automatic relevance determination Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics OBOR OECD: Computer hardware and architecture Impact factor: 4.828, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/ZOI/kotera-0474858.pdf

  19. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  1. Health Care Wide Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Hazards (Lack of) PPE Slips/Trips/Falls Stress Tuberculosis Universal Precautions Workplace Violence Use of Medical Lasers Health Effects Use ... Needlesticks Noise Mercury Inappropriate PPE Slips/Trips/Falls ... of Universal Precautions Workplace Violence For more information, see Other Healthcare Wide ...

  2. Evaluation of children in six blind schools of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornby Stella

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: 1.To determine the anatomical site and underlying causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in special education in Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. To compare the causes of blindness in two different regions in the state. 3. To evaluate improvement with correction of refractive error and low-vision devices (LVDs Methods: Children in 6 schools for the blind and in 3 integrated education programmes were examined by one ophthalmologist, and were refracted and assessed for LVDs by an optometrist. The major anatomical site and underlying aetiology of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL; <6/60 in the better eye were recorded using the standardised WHO reporting form. Results: Two hundred and ninety one students under 16 years were examined, and after refraction, 267 (91.7% were classified as being severely visually impaired or blind. The most common anatomical sites of SVI/BL were retina in 31.1% children; cornea in 24.3%; and whole globe in 20.2%. The aetiology was unknown in 38.2%, hereditary in 34.8% and childhood causes in 24%. 114 children (39.2% had functional low vision (i.e. visual acuity <6/18 to light perception with navigational vision. In this group, 36 children improved with spectacles and 16 benefited by LVDs. 41 children (15.4% were able to read N10 point though they were studying Braille. Conclusion: Overall 37.4% of children had "avoidable" causes of blindness. The major avoidable causes were vitamin-A deficiency and cataract. Vitamin-A deficiency and congenital anomalies were more common in the dry plateau areas of the state. One in seven children could read normal print with optical support.

  3. The LOFT wide field monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Hernanz, M.; Alvarez, L.

    2012-01-01

    LOFT (Large Observatory For x-ray Timing) is one of the four missions selected in 2011 for assessment study for the ESA M3 mission in the Cosmic Vision program, expected to be launched in 2024. The LOFT mission will carry two instruments with their prime sensitivity in the 2-30 keV range: a 10 m2...... class large area detector (LAD) with a effective area ~20 times larger than any previous mission and will by timing studies...... be able to address fundamental questions about strong gravity in the vicinity of black holes and the equation of state of nuclear matter in neutron stars. The prime goal of the WFM will be to detect transient sources to be observed by the LAD. However, with its wide field of view and good energy...

  4. Influence of play on the psycho-physical development of the adult blind.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemkina V.I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of correction of the motor areas of adults blind tools of the game. The study used grounds teaching conditions correct motor areas of adults with acquired blindness. To study the practice of correctional work with adult blind and its effectiveness has been used methods of observation and testing. Determination of the effectiveness of the developed pedagogical conditions of correction of the motor areas of adults with acquired blindness means game activities was provided by pedagogical experiment. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of empirical data was carried out by methods of mathematical statistics. This paper provides theoretical and methodological generalizations and scientific problem solving new correction motor areas of adults aged 22-35 years blind means playing activity that appears in the scientific substantiation of the complex pedagogical conditions of correction of the motor areas of adults with acquired blindness means game activities. It is shown that the systematic use of motor activity enhances mobility of those who engaged in it, and provides a complete assimilation of vital movements, the development of motor skills and ability to orientation in space.

  5. Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) in Alberta: A New Remote Sensing Tool for Wide Area Measurement of Particulates, CO2, and CH4 Emissions from Energy Extraction and Production Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, M.; Lemon, R.; Crowther, B. G.; Valupadas, P.; Fu, L.; Yang, Z.; Huda, Q.; Leung, B.; Chambers, A.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta Environmental Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting Agency (AEMERA) in cooperation with the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) of Utah State University, have developed a mobile DIAL sensor designed specifically for particle, CO2 and CH4 emissions measurement. Rapid expansion of the oil and gas industry in Alberta, including the oil sands, has challenged the Alberta Government to keep pace in its efforts to monitor and mitigate the environmental impacts of development. The limitations of current monitoring systems has pushed the provincial government to seek out advanced sensing technologies such as differential absorption lidar (DIAL) to help assess the impact of energy development and industrial operations. This instrument is housed inside a 36' trailer and can be quickly staged and used to characterize source emissions and to locate fugitive leaks. DIAL is capable of measuring concentrations for carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) at ranges of up to 3 km with a spatial resolution of 1.5 m. DIAL can map both CO2 and CH4, as well as particulate matter (PM) in a linear fashion; by scanning the laser beam in both azimuth and elevation, DIAL can create images of emissions concentrations and ultimately can be used to determine emission factors, locate fugitive leaks, assess plume dispersion and confirm air dispersion modeling. The DIAL system has been deployed at a landfill, a coal-fired power plant, and an oil sands production area. A system overview of the DIAL instrument and recent results will be discussed.

  6. Communication Development in Young Children with Deaf-Blindness: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael, Ed.; Fielding, Glen, Ed.

    This review summarizes and discusses literature relevant to the communication development of young children (0-5 years) with deaf-blindness. The review is divided into topical areas. The topical areas and the contributors for each area are as follows: "Perspectives on Communication Assessment" (Charity Rowland); "Research in Tactile…

  7. AWARE Wide Field View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Vignette Correction sRGB Conversion Exposure and Sensor Sensitivity Normalization Image Resizing and Warping Tone-Mapping OpenGL...ARCHITECTURE In addition to minimizing system size, weight, and power (SWaP), two major areas were identified for improvement over the previous AWARE camera...computer. Both of these areas are discussed next. A. Image Processing Improvements The overall data processing pipeline for the new system is shown

  8. Electronic white cane with GPS radar-based concept as blind mobility enhancement without distance limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Suharsono; Handafiah, Finna; Aprilliyani, Ria; Udhiarto, Arief

    2018-02-01

    The Indonesian Ministry of Social Affairs, in July 2012, informed that the number of blind in Indonesia has been the largest among to the people with other disabilities. The most common tools utilized to help the blind was a conventional cane which has limited features and therefore it was difficult to be used as a mobilization tools. Moreover, the conventional cane cannot assist them or their family when the blind gets lost. In this research, we designed and implemented an electronic white cane with the concept of radar and global positioning system (GPS). The purpose of this research was to design and develop an electronic white cane which can enhance the mobility of the blind without distance coverage limitation. Utilizing ultrasonic sensors as a distance measurement and a servo motor as an actuator, the produced radar system is able to map an area with maximum distance and coverage angle of 5 meters and 180° respectively. The blind senses the obstacle around them from the vibration generated by five vibration motors. The vibration becomes more intense when the obstacle is detected closer. In addition, we implemented a GPS to monitor the blind's position and allow their family to find them easily when the blind need a help. Based on the tests performed, we have successfully developed an electronic white cane that can be a solution to improve the blind's mobility.

  9. The KIDROP model of combining strategies for providing retinopathy of prematurity screening in underserved areas in India using wide-field imaging, tele-medicine, non-physician graders and smart phone reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Vinekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the Karnataka Internet Assisted Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity (KIDROP program for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP screening in underserved rural areas using an indigenously developed tele-ROP model. Materials and Methods: KIDROP currently provides ROP screening and treatment services in three zones and 81 neonatal units in Karnataka, India. Technicians were trained to use a portable Retcam Shuttle (Clarity, USA and validated against ROP experts performing indirect ophthalmoscopy. An indigenously developed 20-point score (STAT score graded their ability (Level I to III to image and decide follow-up based on a three-way algorithm. Images were also uploaded on a secure tele-ROP platform and accessed and reported by remote experts on their smart phones (iPhone, Apple. Results: 6339 imaging sessions of 1601 infants were analyzed. A level III technician agreed with 94.3% of all expert decisions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for treatment grade disease were 95.7, 93.2, 81.5 and 98.6 respectively. The kappa for technicians to decide discharge of babies was 0.94 (P < 0.001. Only 0.4% of infants needing treatment were missed.The kappa agreement of experts reporting on the iPhone vs Retcam for treatment requiring and mild ROP were 0.96 and 0.94 (P < 0.001 respectively. Conclusions: This is the first and largest real-world program to employ accredited non-physicians to grade and report ROP. The KIDROP tele-ROP model demonstrates that ROP services can be delivered to the outreach despite lack of specialists and may be useful in other middle-income countries with similar demographics.

  10. Political liberalism and religious claims: Four blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckl, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either 'liberal' or 'fundamentalist' and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation.

  11. A sessional blind signature based on quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodambashi, Siavash; Zakerolhosseini, Ali

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a sessional blind signature protocol whose security is guaranteed by fundamental principles of quantum physics. It allows a message owner to get his message signed by an authorized signatory. However, the signatory is not capable of reading the message contents and everyone can verify authenticity of the message. For this purpose, we took advantage of a sessional signature as well as quantum entangled pairs which are generated with respect to it in our proposed protocol. We describe our proposed blind signature through an example and briefly discuss about its unconditional security. Due to the feasibility of the protocol, it can be widely employed for e-payment, e-government, e-business and etc.

  12. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A MOBILE SENSOR BASED THE BLIND ASSISTANCE WAYFINDING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Barati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The blind and visually impaired people are facing a number of challenges in their daily life. One of the major challenges is finding their way both indoor and outdoor. For this reason, routing and navigation independently, especially in urban areas are important for the blind. Most of the blind undertake route finding and navigation with the help of a guide. In addition, other tools such as a cane, guide dog or electronic aids are used by the blind. However, in some cases these aids are not efficient enough in a wayfinding around obstacles and dangerous areas for the blind. As a result, the need to develop effective methods as decision support using a non-visual media is leading to improve quality of life for the blind through their increased mobility and independence. In this study, we designed and implemented an outdoor mobile sensor-based wayfinding system for the blind. The objectives of this study are to guide the blind for the obstacle recognition and the design and implementation of a wayfinding and navigation mobile sensor system for them. In this study an ultrasonic sensor is used to detect obstacles and GPS is employed for positioning and navigation in the wayfinding. This type of ultrasonic sensor measures the interval between sending waves and receiving the echo signals with respect to the speed of sound in the environment to estimate the distance to the obstacles. In this study the coordinates and characteristics of all the obstacles in the study area are already stored in a GIS database. All of these obstacles were labeled on the map. The ultrasonic sensor designed and constructed in this study has the ability to detect the obstacles in a distance of 2cm to 400cm. The implementation and the results obtained from the interview of a number of blind persons who employed the sensor verified that the designed mobile sensor system for wayfinding was very satisfactory.

  13. Design and Development of a Mobile Sensor Based the Blind Assistance Wayfinding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, F.; Delavar, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The blind and visually impaired people are facing a number of challenges in their daily life. One of the major challenges is finding their way both indoor and outdoor. For this reason, routing and navigation independently, especially in urban areas are important for the blind. Most of the blind undertake route finding and navigation with the help of a guide. In addition, other tools such as a cane, guide dog or electronic aids are used by the blind. However, in some cases these aids are not efficient enough in a wayfinding around obstacles and dangerous areas for the blind. As a result, the need to develop effective methods as decision support using a non-visual media is leading to improve quality of life for the blind through their increased mobility and independence. In this study, we designed and implemented an outdoor mobile sensor-based wayfinding system for the blind. The objectives of this study are to guide the blind for the obstacle recognition and the design and implementation of a wayfinding and navigation mobile sensor system for them. In this study an ultrasonic sensor is used to detect obstacles and GPS is employed for positioning and navigation in the wayfinding. This type of ultrasonic sensor measures the interval between sending waves and receiving the echo signals with respect to the speed of sound in the environment to estimate the distance to the obstacles. In this study the coordinates and characteristics of all the obstacles in the study area are already stored in a GIS database. All of these obstacles were labeled on the map. The ultrasonic sensor designed and constructed in this study has the ability to detect the obstacles in a distance of 2cm to 400cm. The implementation and the results obtained from the interview of a number of blind persons who employed the sensor verified that the designed mobile sensor system for wayfinding was very satisfactory.

  14. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  15. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment and Blindness in Shanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Du, Liping; Du, Lingzhen

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in Shanxi Province, China. Data were obtained from the Second National Sampling Survey of Disability conducted in 2006. Blindness and visual impairment were defined as best corrected visual acuity Visual acuity (VA) was measured using a Standard Logarithmic Visual Acuity E chart (Snellen) for subjects aged 7 years and older. Participants younger than 7 years were examined using special experiments or the Childhood Graphical Visual Chart. The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in Shanxi was estimated to be 0.6% (466/75,016) among persons up to 80 years old. The prevalence in rural areas (0.7%; 351/48,137) was significantly higher than that in urban areas (0.4%; 115/26,879) and was higher in females (0.8%; 298/36,933) than in males (0.4%; 168/38,083). The most common cause of visual impairment and blindness was cataract (44.9%), followed by retinopathy and choroidopathy (12.5%), hereditary and developmental disorders (10.3%), corneal disease (5.2%), and refractive error (4.9%). Prevalences of visual impairment and blindness in women and in rural areas were higher than in men and urban areas, and increased with age. Cataract was the most prevalent cause of visual impairment and blindness. Based on the findings from this study, we suggest that provision of support and welfare services should be organized.

  16. Change blindness, aging, and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Matthew; Sparks, JonDavid; McEvoy, Sean; Viamonte, Sarah; Kellison, Ida; Vecera, Shaun P.

    2011-01-01

    Change blindness (CB), the inability to detect changes in visual scenes, may increase with age and early Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To test this hypothesis, participants were asked to localize changes in natural scenes. Dependent measures were response time (RT), hit rate, false positives (FP), and true sensitivity (d′). Increased age correlated with increased sensitivity and RT; AD predicted even slower RT. Accuracy and RT were negatively correlated. Differences in FP were nonsignificant. CB correlated with impaired attention, working memory, and executive function. Advanced age and AD were associated with increased CB, perhaps due to declining memory and attention. CB could affect real-world tasks, like automobile driving. PMID:19051127

  17. Enterprise wide transparent information access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.

    1995-05-01

    The information management needs of the Department of Energy (DOE) represents a fertile domain for the development of highly sophisticated yet intuitive enterprise-wide computing solutions. These solutions must support business operations, research agendas, technology development efforts, decision support, and other application areas with a user base ranging from technical staff to the highest levels of management. One area of primary interest is in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Branch of DOE. In this arena, the issue of tracking and managing nuclear waste related to the long legacy of prior defense production and research programs is one of high visibility and great concern. The Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) application has been created by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE to assist in managing and accessing the information related to this mission. The TWINS solution addresses many of the technical issues faced by other efforts to provide integrated information access to a wide variety of stakeholders. TWINS provides secure transparent access to distributed heterogeneous multimedia information sources from around the DOE complex. The users interact with the information through a consistent user interface that presents the desired data in a common format regardless of the structure of the source information. The solutions developed by the TWINS project represent an integration of several technologies and products that can be applied to other mission areas within DOE and other government agencies. These solutions are now being applied to public and private sector problem domains as well. The successful integration and inter-operation of both commercial and custom modules into a flexible and extensible information architecture will help ensure that new problems facing DOE and other clients can be addressed more rapidly in the future by re-use of existing tools and techniques proven viable through the TWINS efforts

  18. With eyes wide open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Chistina Hee

    2013-01-01

    and that vulnerability and discomfort are often overlooked as transformative forces. The analysis draws on data from a classroom context in which university students tested methods for facilitating creative thinking in a course on data production and creativity. The data stem from a session on the method “Lego Serious...... in constructions of group identity when an external facilitator disrupts a context. We argue that the facilitation of creative methods calls for keeping our eyes wide open for tensions, for they are the mulch that improves the soil....

  19. Jihadism, Narrow and Wide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The term “jihadism” is popular, but difficult. It has narrow senses, which are generally valuable, and wide senses, which may be misleading. This article looks at the derivation and use of “jihadism” and of related terms, at definitions provided by a number of leading scholars, and at media usage....... It distinguishes two main groups of scholarly definitions, some careful and narrow, and some appearing to match loose media usage. However, it shows that even these scholarly definitions actually make important distinctions between jihadism and associated political and theological ideology. The article closes...

  20. A prospective, randomized, double blind controlled trial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of intravenous diclofenac on postoperative sore throat in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery at Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi: A prospective, randomized, double blind controlled trial.

  1. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 290

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  2. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 293

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George; Archiable, Robert; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  3. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Variety Seeking Tendency Scale, the Intuitive Eating Scale, and the Body Awareness Questionnaire. Our...... further indicate that blind subjects more strongly rely on internal hunger and satiety cues, instead of external contextual or emotional cues, to decide when and what to eat. We suggest that the lower taste sensitivity observed in congenitally blind individuals is due to various blindness...

  4. Wide Band Artificial Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Zackary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Band Artificial Pulsar (WBAP) is an instrument verification device designed and built by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virgina. The site currently operates the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI) and the Versatile Green Bank Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) digital backends for their radio telescopes. The commissioning and continued support for these sophisticated backends has demonstrated a need for a device capable of producing an accurate artificial pulsar signal. The WBAP is designed to provide a very close approximation to an actual pulsar signal. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of the current hardware and software implementations and to also share the current results from testing using the WBAP.

  5. Causes of blindness and career choice among pupils in a blind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The causes of Blindness vary from place to place with about 80% of it been avoidable. Furthermore Blind people face a lot of challenges in career choice thus limiting their economic potential and full integration into the society. This study aims at identifying the causes of blindness and career choice among ...

  6. Definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness: Do we need to revise it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Vashist

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A review appropriateness of the current definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB, Government of India. Online search of peer-reviewed scientific published literature and guidelines using PubMed, the World Health Organization (WHO IRIS, and Google Scholar with keywords, namely blindness and visual impairment, along with offline examination of reports of national and international organizations, as well as their cross-references was done until December 2016, to identify relevant documents on the definition of blindness. The evidence for the historical and currently adopted definition of blindness under the NPCB, the WHO, and other countries was reviewed. Differences in the NPCB and WHO definitions were analyzed to assess the impact on the epidemiological status of blindness and visual impairment in India. The differences in the criteria for blindness under the NPCB and the WHO definitions cause an overestimation of the prevalence of blindness in India. These variations are also associated with an over-representation of refractive errors as a cause of blindness and an under-representation of other causes under the NPCB definition. The targets for achieving elimination of blindness also become much more difficult to achieve under the NPCB definition. Ignoring differences in definitions when comparing the global and Indian prevalence of blindness will cause erroneous interpretations. We recommend that the appropriate modifications should be made in the NPCB definition of blindness to make it consistent with the WHO definition.

  7. Childhood Fears among Children Who Are Blind: The Perspective of Teachers Who Are Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zboon, Eman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate childhood fears in children who are blind from the perspective of teachers who are blind. The study was conducted in Jordan. Forty-six teachers were interviewed. Results revealed that the main fear content in children who are blind includes fear of the unknown; environment-, transportation- and…

  8. AIRIS Wide Area Detector for Integrated Early Warning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marinelli, William J; Finson, Michael L; Hagge, John; Gittins, Christopher M; Ustun, Teoman E; Chang, Shing; Rossi, David C; Jensen, James O

    2004-01-01

    ...), toxic industrial chemicals (TIC), and biological warfare agent aerosols. This sensor is capable of detecting CWA vapors at levels required of the non-imaging JSLSCAD sensor, as well as many TICs, at their toxicity threshold...

  9. Using Mosix for Wide-Area Compuational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brian G.

    2004-01-01

    One of the problems with using traditional Beowulf-type distributed processing clusters is that they require an investment in dedicated computer resources. These resources are usually needed in addition to pre-existing ones such as desktop computers and file servers. Mosix is a series of modifications to the Linux kernel that creates a virtual computer, featuring automatic load balancing by migrating processes from heavily loaded nodes to less used ones. An extension of the Beowulf concept is to run a Mosixenabled Linux kernel on a large number of computer resources in an organization. This configuration would provide a very large amount of computational resources based on pre-existing equipment. The advantage of this method is that it provides much more processing power than a traditional Beowulf cluster without the added costs of dedicating resources.

  10. LHCNet: Wide Area Networking and Collaborative Systems for HEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, H.B,

    2007-08-20

    This proposal presents the status and progress in 2006-7, and the technical and financial plans for 2008-2010 for the US LHCNet transatlantic network supporting U.S. participation in the LHC physics program. US LHCNet provides transatlantic connections of the Tier1 computing facilities at Fermilab and Brookhaven with the Tier0 and Tier1 facilities at CERN as well as Tier1s elsewhere in Europe and Asia. Together with ESnet, Internet2, the GEANT pan-European network, and NSF’s UltraLight project, US LHCNet also supports connections between the Tier2 centers (where most of the analysis of the data will take place, starting this year) and the Tier1s as needed.See report

  11. Wide area surveillance real-time motion detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book describes a system for visual surveillance using intelligent cameras. The camera uses robust techniques for detecting and tracking moving objects. The real time capture of the objects is then stored int he database. The tracking data stored in the database is analysed to study the camera view, detect and track objects, and study object behavior. These set of models provide a robust framework for coordinating the tracking of objects between overlapping and non-overlapping cameras, and recording the activity of objects detected by the system.

  12. LHCNet: Wide Area Networking and Collaborative Systems for HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, H.B.

    2007-01-01

    This proposal presents the status and progress in 2006-7, and the technical and financial plans for 2008-2010 for the US LHCNet transatlantic network supporting U.S. participation in the LHC physics program. US LHCNet provides transatlantic connections of the Tier1 computing facilities at Fermilab and Brookhaven with the Tier0 and Tier1 facilities at CERN as well as Tier1s elsewhere in Europe and Asia. Together with ESnet, Internet2, the GEANT pan-European network, and NSF's UltraLight project, US LHCNet also supports connections between the Tier2 centers (where most of the analysis of the data will take place, starting this year) and the Tier1s as needed.See report

  13. Wide area network monitoring system for HEP experiments at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Fermilab; Cottrell, Les; Logg, Connie; SLAC

    2004-01-01

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centres. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system

  14. Wide Area Network Monitoring System for HEP Experiments at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, M.

    2004-01-01

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centres. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system

  15. Cellular telephone-based wide-area radiation detection network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, William W [Pittsburg, CA; Labov, Simon E [Berkeley, CA

    2009-06-09

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  16. VillageLink: Wide-Area Wireless Coverage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pejovic, V

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available beyond simple channel utilization balancing, and uses frequency probing to profile channels according to their propagation properties. We devise VillageLink, a Gibbs sampling-based method that optimizes channel allocation in a distributed manner with a...

  17. Smart Grid Wide-Area Transmission System Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Overbye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The installation of vast quantities of additional new sensing and communication equipment, in conjunction with building the computing infrastructure to store and manage data gathered by this equipment, has been the first step in the creation of what is generically referred to as the “smart grid” for the electric transmission system. With this enormous capital investment in equipment having been made, attention is now focused on developing methods to analyze and visualize this large data set. The most direct use of this large set of new data will be in data visualization. This paper presents a survey of some visualization techniques that have been deployed by the electric power industry for visualizing data over the past several years. These techniques include pie charts, animation, contouring, time-varying graphs, geographic-based displays, image blending, and data aggregation techniques. The paper then emphasizes a newer concept of using word-sized graphics called sparklines as an extremely effective method of showing large amounts of time-varying data.

  18. Global Positioning System wide area augmentation system (WAAS) performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    The U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Positioning Service (SPS) consists of spacebased : positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) signals generated from space vehicles orbiting the : earth and delivered free of direct user fees for civil...

  19. The URREF Ontology for Semantic Wide Area Motion Imagery Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    operating systems (i.e., Level 5 fusion) [18], and others. Key to the various Data Fusion Information Group ( DFIG ) [19] levels of information fusion is...much as the DFIG level 1 object assessment information of object track and ID information). While the schema is simple, and worked well [47], for...Level 2/3 fusion” Int. Conf. on Info Fusion, 2006. [19] E. Blasch and S. Plano, “ DFIG Level 5 (User Refinement) issues supporting Situational

  20. Wide Area Network Monitoring System for HEP Experiments at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, M.

    2004-11-23

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centres. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system.

  1. A Wide-Area Distribution Network for Free Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.; van Steen, M.R.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Globe Distribution Network (GDN) is an application for the efficient, worldwide distribution of freely redistributable software packages. Distribution is made efficient by encapsulating the software into special distributed objects which efficiently replicate themselves near to the downloading

  2. Airborne Wide Area Imager for Wildfire Mapping and Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An advanced airborne imaging system for fire detection/mapping is proposed. The goal of the project is to improve control and management of wildfires in order to...

  3. A Flexible Frame Structure for 5G Wide Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus I.; Frederiksen, Frank; Berardinelli, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a 5G frame structure designed for efficient support of users with highly diverse service requirements, including mobile broadband (MBB) data, mission critical communication (MCC), and massive machine communication (MMC). The proposed solution encompasses flexible...

  4. Combined Arms Maneuver, Wide Area Security, and Dynamic Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    cognizant of a variety of humanistic , cultural and psychological biases that will distort risk assessment. We focus on three: confirmation, availability...and affect biases. They distort how we receive, process, and analyze context to create an assessment of risk. Psychologists have identified two

  5. Wide-Area Traffic Management for Cloud Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    β in the sytem , the trackers adapt their primal variables, reducing traffic forwarded to congested classes and increasing traffic forwarded to...top three, a significant improvement over the traditional round-robin approach. 117 4.6 Related Work Network distance estimation. A significant body of

  6. Towards a wide area alerting and notification system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McFerren, G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available for notifying users about phenomena or events occurring at geographical scales. Furthermore, events that could trigger alerts or notifications may be fast-moving or slow to unfold – even over a period of hours or days. This paper describes the functional and non...

  7. The Ooty Wide Field Array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) studies of the propagation of plasma irregularities through the inner heliosphere and (3) blind surveys for transient sources. More details on the upgrade, as well as on the expected science uses can be found in other papers in this special ...

  8. The research of "blind" spot in the LVQ network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhanjie; Nan, Shupo; Wang, Xiaoli

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays competitive neural network has been widely used in the pattern recognition, classification and other aspects, and show the great advantages compared with the traditional clustering methods. But the competitive neural networks still has inadequate in many aspects, and it needs to be further improved. Based on the learning Vector Quantization Network proposed by Learning Kohonen [1], this paper resolve the issue of the large training error, when there are "blind" spots in a network through the introduction of threshold value learning rules and finally programs the realization with Matlab.

  9. Efficient universal blind quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Rudolph, Terry G

    2013-12-06

    We give a cheat sensitive protocol for blind universal quantum computation that is efficient in terms of computational and communication resources: it allows one party to perform an arbitrary computation on a second party's quantum computer without revealing either which computation is performed, or its input and output. The first party's computational capabilities can be extremely limited: she must only be able to create and measure single-qubit superposition states. The second party is not required to use measurement-based quantum computation. The protocol requires the (optimal) exchange of O(Jlog2(N)) single-qubit states, where J is the computational depth and N is the number of qubits needed for the computation.

  10. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  11. Convolutive Blind Source Separation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Larsen, Jan; Kjems, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, much attention has been given to the separation of mixed sources, in particular for the blind case where both the sources and the mixing process are unknown and only recordings of the mixtures are available. In several situations it is desirable to recover all sources from...... the recorded mixtures, or at least to segregate a particular source. Furthermore, it may be useful to identify the mixing process itself to reveal information about the physical mixing system. In some simple mixing models each recording consists of a sum of differently weighted source signals. However, in many...... real-world applications, such as in acoustics, the mixing process is more complex. In such systems, the mixtures are weighted and delayed, and each source contributes to the sum with multiple delays corresponding to the multiple paths by which an acoustic signal propagates to a microphone...

  12. 33 CFR 117.861 - Blind Slough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blind Slough. 117.861 Section 117.861 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.861 Blind Slough. The draws of the Portland and...

  13. Does single blind peer review hinder newcomers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeber, Marco; Bacchelli, A.

    2017-01-01

    Several fields of research are characterized by the coexistence of two different peer review modes to select quality contributions for scientific venues, namely double blind (DBR) and single blind (SBR) peer review. In the first, the identities of both authors and reviewers are not known to each

  14. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  15. Acute, persistent quinine-induced blindness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-05-04

    May 4, 1991 ... Acute, persistent quinine-induced blindness. A case report. P. RHEEDER, W. L. SIELlNG. Summary auinine-induced blindness arising during empirical treatment for malaria in a young man is reported. The condition was noteworthy because it was total and permanent, which is at varia.nce with other ...

  16. Tackling the high burden of blindness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... care delivery, and tackling the five major eye conditions that contribute to most blindness could reduce the current burden of blindness. This would open the window for addressing glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and macula degeneration which are the new emerging global consequences of non-communicable diseases.

  17. Tactile maze solving in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C

    2010-01-01

    and environmental cues such as temperature and echolocation. We hypothesize that by limiting these cues, blind individuals will lose their advantage compared with controls in spatial navigation tasks. We therefore evaluated the performance of blind and sighted individuals in small-scale, tactile multiple T mazes...

  18. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. What do my eyes do when I’m sleeping? Click to Watch What does it mean to be nearsighted or farsighted? Click to Watch Do fish have eyelids? Click to Watch Why don’t all animal eyes look the same? Click to Watch Why ...

  19. Psychological and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... a pro forma designed by the authors to assess the psychosocial problems and risk factors in some blind people in. Ilorin metropolis. .... visually impaired.[29]. Ideally for any blind patient, the eye doctor should look for maladjustment in social-economic functioning (unemployment, difficulty in unaided mobility ...

  20. A Taxonomy for Mannerisms of Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichel, Valerie J.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation involving 24 blind children (2-11 years old) set out to develop and validate a coding procedure which employed a set of 34 descriptors with their corresponding definitions. The use of the taxonomy enabled a detailed, systematic study of manneristic behavior in blind children. (Author/SBH)

  1. Unconditionally verifiable blind quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Joseph F.; Kashefi, Elham

    2017-07-01

    Blind quantum computing (BQC) allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for them such that the client's input, output, and computation remain private. A desirable property for any BQC protocol is verification, whereby the client can verify with high probability whether the server has followed the instructions of the protocol or if there has been some deviation resulting in a corrupted output state. A verifiable BQC protocol can be viewed as an interactive proof system leading to consequences for complexity theory. We previously proposed [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, Atlanta, 2009 (IEEE, Piscataway, 2009), p. 517] a universal and unconditionally secure BQC scheme where the client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits in separable states randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. In this paper we extend that protocol with additional functionality allowing blind computational basis measurements, which we use to construct another verifiable BQC protocol based on a different class of resource states. We rigorously prove that the probability of failing to detect an incorrect output is exponentially small in a security parameter, while resource overhead remains polynomial in this parameter. This resource state allows entangling gates to be performed between arbitrary pairs of logical qubits with only constant overhead. This is a significant improvement on the original scheme, which required that all computations to be performed must first be put into a nearest-neighbor form, incurring linear overhead in the number of qubits. Such an improvement has important consequences for efficiency and fault-tolerance thresholds.

  2. New Identity-Based Blind Signature and Blind Decryption Scheme in the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phong, Le Trieu; Ogata, Wakaha

    We explicitly describe and analyse blind hierachical identity-based encryption (blind HIBE) schemes, which are natural generalizations of blind IBE schemes [20]. We then uses the blind HIBE schemes to construct: (1) An identity-based blind signature scheme secure in the standard model, under the computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH) assumption, and with much shorter signature size and lesser communication cost, compared to existing proposals. (2) A new mechanism supporting a user to buy digital information over the Internet without revealing what he/she has bought, while protecting the providers from cheating users.

  3. Social inequalities in blindness and visual impairment: A review of social determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Health inequities are related to social determinants based on gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, race, living in a specific geographic region, or having a specific health condition. Such inequities were reviewed for blindness and visual impairment by searching for studies on the subject in PubMed from 2000 to 2011 in the English and Spanish languages. The goal of this article is to provide a current review in understanding how inequities based specifically on the aforementioned social determinants on health influence the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness. With regards to gender inequality, women have a higher prevalence of visual impairment and blindness, which cannot be only reasoned based on age or access to service. Socioeconomic status measured as higher income, higher educational status, or non-manual occupational social class was inversely associated with prevalence of blindness or visual impairment. Ethnicity and race were associated with visual impairment and blindness, although there is general confusion over this socioeconomic position determinant. Geographic inequalities and visual impairment were related to income (of the region, nation or continent, living in a rural area, and an association with socioeconomic and political context was suggested. While inequalities related to blindness and visual impairment have rarely been specifically addressed in research, there is still evidence of the association of social determinants and prevalence of blindness and visual impairment. Additional research should be done on the associations with intermediary determinants and socioeconomic and political context.

  4. Social inequalities in blindness and visual impairment: a review of social determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulldemolins, Anna Rius; Lansingh, Van C; Valencia, Laura Guisasola; Carter, Marissa J; Eckert, Kristen A

    2012-01-01

    Health inequities are related to social determinants based on gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, race, living in a specific geographic region, or having a specific health condition. Such inequities were reviewed for blindness and visual impairment by searching for studies on the subject in PubMed from 2000 to 2011 in the English and Spanish languages. The goal of this article is to provide a current review in understanding how inequities based specifically on the aforementioned social determinants on health influence the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness. With regards to gender inequality, women have a higher prevalence of visual impairment and blindness, which cannot be only reasoned based on age or access to service. Socioeconomic status measured as higher income, higher educational status, or non-manual occupational social class was inversely associated with prevalence of blindness or visual impairment. Ethnicity and race were associated with visual impairment and blindness, although there is general confusion over this socioeconomic position determinant. Geographic inequalities and visual impairment were related to income (of the region, nation or continent), living in a rural area, and an association with socioeconomic and political context was suggested. While inequalities related to blindness and visual impairment have rarely been specifically addressed in research, there is still evidence of the association of social determinants and prevalence of blindness and visual impairment. Additional research should be done on the associations with intermediary determinants and socioeconomic and political context.

  5. Social inequalities in blindness and visual impairment: A review of social determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulldemolins, Anna Rius; Lansingh, Van C; Valencia, Laura Guisasola; Carter, Marissa J; Eckert, Kristen A

    2012-01-01

    Health inequities are related to social determinants based on gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, race, living in a specific geographic region, or having a specific health condition. Such inequities were reviewed for blindness and visual impairment by searching for studies on the subject in PubMed from 2000 to 2011 in the English and Spanish languages. The goal of this article is to provide a current review in understanding how inequities based specifically on the aforementioned social determinants on health influence the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness. With regards to gender inequality, women have a higher prevalence of visual impairment and blindness, which cannot be only reasoned based on age or access to service. Socioeconomic status measured as higher income, higher educational status, or non-manual occupational social class was inversely associated with prevalence of blindness or visual impairment. Ethnicity and race were associated with visual impairment and blindness, although there is general confusion over this socioeconomic position determinant. Geographic inequalities and visual impairment were related to income (of the region, nation or continent), living in a rural area, and an association with socioeconomic and political context was suggested. While inequalities related to blindness and visual impairment have rarely been specifically addressed in research, there is still evidence of the association of social determinants and prevalence of blindness and visual impairment. Additional research should be done on the associations with intermediary determinants and socioeconomic and political context. PMID:22944744

  6. Wilson's disease in children with blindness: an atypical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukunuzzaman, M; Karim, M B; Rahman, M M; Islam, M S; Mazumder, M W

    2013-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disease affecting copper metabolism causing copper induced organ damage. Common organs involved are liver and central nervous system. But RBC, eye, kidneys and bone may also be affected. In WD main defect remains in copper transporter protein p type ATPase resulting from gene mutation in chromosome 13. Neurological manifestations in WD develop due to deposition of copper in different brain areas like basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, corticospinal and corticobulbar pathway. Different types of neurological manifestations develop in WD but visual impairment is very rare. A 14 years old boy of WD presented to us with blindness, tremor and slurred speech along with end stage liver disease. Blindness was thought to be due to optic neuropathy which reversed after drug treatment.

  7. Continuous-variable blind quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2012-12-07

    Blind quantum computation is a secure delegated quantum computing protocol where Alice, who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal, delegates her computation to Bob, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output, and algorithm. Protocols of blind quantum computation have been proposed for several qudit measurement-based computation models, such as the graph state model, the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki model, and the Raussendorf-Harrington-Goyal topological model. Here, we consider blind quantum computation for the continuous-variable measurement-based model. We show that blind quantum computation is possible for the infinite squeezing case. We also show that the finite squeezing causes no additional problem in the blind setup apart from the one inherent to the continuous-variable measurement-based quantum computation.

  8. Preserved sleep microstructure in blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, Sébrina; Christensen, Julie A.E.; Jennum, Poul

    2018-01-01

    , as light is the primary zeitgeber of the master biological clock found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a greater number of sleep disturbances is often reported in blind individuals. Here, we examined various electroencephalographic microstructural components of sleep, both...... during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep, between blind individuals, including both of early and late onset, and normal-sighted controls. During wakefulness, occipital alpha oscillations were lower, or absent in blind individuals. During sleep, differences were observed across...... electrode derivations between the early and late blind samples, which may reflect altered cortical networking in early blindness. Despite these differences in power spectra density, the electroencephalography microstructure of sleep, including sleep spindles, slow wave activity, and sawtooth waves, remained...

  9. User-centered Technologies For Blind Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review, summarize, and illustrate research work involving four audio-based games created within a user-centered design methodology through successive usability tasks and evaluations. These games were designed by considering the mental model of blind children and their styles of interaction to perceive and process data and information. The goal of these games was to enhance the cognitive development of spatial structures, memory, haptic perception, mathematical skills, navigation and orientation, and problem solving of blind children. Findings indicate significant improvements in learning and cognition from using audio-based tools specially tailored for the blind. That is, technologies for blind children, carefully tailored through user-centered design approaches, can make a significant contribution to cognitive development of these children. This paper contributes new insight into the design and implementation of audio-based virtual environments to facilitate learning and cognition in blind children.

  10. Blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils at schools for the blind in Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhagaze, Patrick; Njuguna, Kahaki Kimani Margaret; Kandeke, Lévi; Courtright, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils attending schools for the blind in Burundi in order to assist planning for services in the country. All pupils attending three schools for the blind in Burundi were examined. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision was used to record the findings. Data was analyzed for those who became blind or severely visually impaired before the age of 16 years. Overall, 117 pupils who became visually impaired before 16 years of age were examined. Of these, 109 (93.2%) were blind or severely visually impaired. The major anatomical cause of blindness or severe visual impairment was cornea pathology/phthisis (23.9%), followed by lens pathology (18.3%), uveal lesions (14.7%) and optic nerve lesions (11.9%). In the majority of pupils with blindness or severe visual impairment, the underlying etiology of visual loss was unknown (74.3%). More than half of the pupils with lens related blindness had not had surgery; among those who had surgery, outcomes were generally poor. The causes identified indicate the importance of continuing preventive public health strategies, as well as the development of specialist pediatric ophthalmic services in the management of childhood blindness in Burundi. The geographic distribution of pupils at the schools for the blind indicates a need for community-based programs to identify and refer children in need of services.

  11. Nasa Unveils Cosmic Images Book in Braille for Blind Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    at NASA Headquarters, Washington. "About 10 million visually impaired people live in the United States," Grice said. "I hope this book will be a unique resource for people who are sighted or blind to better understand the part of the universe that is invisible to all of us." The book will be available to the public through a wide variety of sources, including NASA libraries, the National Federation of the Blind, Library of Congress repositories, schools for the blind, libraries, museums, science centers and Ozone Publishing. "We wanted to show that the beauty and complexity of the universe goes far beyond what we can see with our eyes!" Daou said. "The study of the universe is a detective story, a cosmic 'CSI,' where clues to the inner workings of the universe are revealed by the amazing technology of modern telescopes," Steel said. "This book invites everyone to join in the quest to unlock the secrets of the cosmos." "One of the greatest challenges faced by blind students who are interested in scientific study is that certain kinds of information are not available to them in a non-visual form," said Marc Maurer, president of the National Federation of the Blind. "Books like this one are an invaluable resource because they allow the blind access to information that is normally presented through visual observation and media. Given access to this information, blind students can study and compete in scientific fields as well as their sighted peers." The prototype for this book was funded by an education grant from the Chandra mission and production was a collaborative effort by the NASA space science missions, which provide the images, and other agency sources.

  12. Comparison of blind imaging performance of Fizeau and Michelson type arrays for a partially resolved object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Avoort, C.; Den Herder, J.W.; Braat, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares two well-known types of interferometer arrays for optical aperture synthesis. An analytical model for both types describes the expected output, in terms of photon counts. The goal is to characterize the performance of both types of array for blind imaging of a wide-field or

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of corneal blindness in Ningxia in northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun-Lun Sheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To describe the prevalence and demographic characteristics of corneal blindness in an urban and rural region of Ningxia, located in the northwest part of China.METHODS:A stratified, randomized sampling procedure was employed in the study, including urban and rural area of all age group. Visual acuity, anterior segment and ocular fundus were checked. Related factor of corneal disease, including age, gender, education status, ethnic group, location and occupation, were identified according to uniform customized protocol. An eye was defined to be corneal blindness if the visual acuity was <20/400 due to a corneal disease.RESULTS:Three thousand individuals (1290 from urban area and 1710 from rural area participated in the investigation, with a response rate of 80.380%. The prevalence of corneal blindness was 0.023% in both eyes and 0.733% in at least one eye. The blindness in at least one eye with varied causes was present in 106 participants (3.533% and in bilateral eyes in 34 participants (1.133%. The corneal diseases accounted for 20.754% of blindness in at least one eye and 20.588% of bilateral blindness. The prevalence of corneal disease was higher in older and Han ethnic group, especially those who occupied in agriculture and outdoor work. People with corneal blindness were more likely to be older and lower education. Rural population were more likely to suffer from bilateral corneal blindness than the urban population in ≥59-year group (χ2=6.716, P=0.019. Infectious, trauma and immune corneal disease were the three leading causes of corneal disease. Trauma corneal disease was more likely leading to blindness in one eye. However, infectious and immune corneal diseases make more contribution to the bilateral corneal blindness.CONCLUSION: Corneal blindness is a significant burden of in Ningxia population, encompassing a variety of corneal infections and trauma; the majority of those were avoidable. Health promotion strategies and good

  14. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of human brain metastasis of lung cancer analyzed by blind source separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-Hui; Pu, Yang; Cheng, Gangge; Yu, Xinguang; Zhou, Lixin; Lin, Dongmei; Zhu, Ke; Alfano, Robert R.

    2017-02-01

    Resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy offers a novel Optical Biopsy method in cancer discrimination by a means of enhancement in Raman scattering. It is widely acknowledged that the RR spectrum of tissue is a superposition of spectra of various key building block molecules. In this study, the Resonance Raman (RR) spectra of human metastasis of lung cancerous and normal brain tissues excited by a visible selected wavelength at 532 nm are used to explore spectral changes caused by the tumor evolution. The potential application of RR spectra human brain metastasis of lung cancer was investigated by Blind Source Separation such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA). PCA is a statistical procedure that uses an orthogonal transformation to convert a set of observations of possibly correlated variables into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal components (PCs). The results show significant RR spectra difference between human metastasis of lung cancerous and normal brain tissues analyzed by PCA. To evaluate the efficacy of for cancer detection, a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier is utilized to calculate the sensitivity, and specificity and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are used to evaluate the performance of this criterion. Excellent sensitivity of 0.97, specificity (close to 1.00) and the Area Under ROC Curve (AUC) of 0.99 values are achieved under best optimal circumstance. This research demonstrates that RR spectroscopy is effective for detecting changes of tissues due to the development of brain metastasis of lung cancer. RR spectroscopy analyzed by blind source separation may have potential to be a new armamentarium.

  15. Acceptance factors for the use of video call via smartphone by blind people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamanit Chanjaraspong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using video call via smartphones is a new technology for blind people which can be applied to facilitate their daily lives. This video call technology is different from old technology and the technology acceptance has changed users' behavior in society, culture, and especially attitude toward using new technology. This research studied the intention and the need to use video call via smartphone by blind people according to the Technology Acceptance Model, a famous and widely-accepted theory for the indication of the intention to use technology. The survey data collected from a sample of 30 blind people who lived in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region and used smartphones in their daily life were analyzed using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The results found the perceived ease of use factor and the perceived usefulness factor have similar direction and relation. These two factors also have similar roles and relation to the attitude toward using and behavioral intention to use video call via smartphone in the daily life of blind people. The group of blind people who had not experienced using video call via smartphone had similar direction and relation in technology acceptance at a higher level than the group of blind people who had experienced except for the relation between the attitude toward using factor and the behavioral intention to use factor.

  16. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Negros Island and Antique District, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Cristina; Kuper, Hannah; Polack, Sarah; Enconado, John; Tongson, Noel; Dionio, Donald; Dumdum, Anne; Limburg, Hans; Foster, Allen

    2007-12-01

    To conduct rapid assessments of avoidable blindness to estimate the magnitude and causes of blindness in people aged >/=50 years in Negros Island and Antique district, Philippines. Clusters of 50 people aged >/=50 years were sampled with probability proportionate to size. Households within clusters were selected through compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was measured with a tumbling "E" chart. Ophthalmologists examined people with VA/=6/60). Most of the cases of blindness (67% in Negros, 82% in Antique) and visual impairment (94% in Negros, 95% in Antique) were avoidable (ie, operated and unoperated cataract, refractive error and corneal scar). In Negros, 23% of eyes had a poor outcome after cataract surgery, and 13% in Antique. The prevalence of blindness in two areas in the Philippines was relatively low. Since most cases were avoidable, further reductions are possible.

  17. Individual and team susceptibility to change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollner-Burngasser, Alison; Riley, Michael A; Nelson, W Todd

    2010-10-01

    Individual operators in command and control environments are susceptible to change blindness. Change blindness by teams of operators, which is typical in military command and control, has not been extensively studied. This experiment investigated change blindness in individuals and teams in a simulated military command and control situation display. Subjects completed a change-detection task individually or in three-person teams. In one team condition team members could actively communicate with each other, but in another condition they could not. The change-detection task involved monitoring flicker sequences of displays containing 6, 12, 24, or 48 icons for changes in icon position. Results revealed a team advantage that was more pronounced when teams communicated. Communicating teams had higher overall correct detection rates (mean = 95%) than both non-communicating triads (mean = 80%) and individuals (mean = 79%). Teams were susceptible to change blindness just as individuals were, but teamwork and communication were beneficial in reducing change blindness susceptibility. Communicating teams also experienced lower global workload (mean = 24.08) than non-communicating triads (mean = 38.44) and individuals (mean = 47.18). This research highlights the importance of teamwork and communication in reducing change blindness and workload in a command and control environment. The findings can be used to facilitate development of methods and tools for reducing individual and team change blindness susceptibility.

  18. Blind extraction of exoplanetary spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giuseppe; Waldmann, Ingo; Damiano, Mario; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade, remote sensing spectroscopy enabled characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Transmission and emission spectra of tens of transiting exoplanets have been measured with multiple instruments aboard Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes as well as ground-based facilities, revealing the presence of chemical species in their atmospheres, and constraining their temperature and pressure profiles.Early analyses were somehow heuristic, leading to some controversies in the literature.A photometric precision of 0.01% is necessary to detect the atmospheric spectral modulations. Current observatories, except Kepler, were not designed to achieve this precision. Data reduction is necessary to minimize the effect of instrument systematics in order to achieve the target precision. In the past, parametric models have extensively been used by most teams to remove correlated noise with the aid of auxiliary information of the instrument, the so-called optical state vectors (OSVs). Such OSVs can include inter- and intra-pixel position of the star or its spectrum, instrument temperatures and inclinations, and/or other parameters. In some cases, different parameterizations led to discrepant results.We recommend the use of blind non-parametric data detrending techniques to overcome those issues. In particular, we adopt Independent Component Analysis (ICA), i.e. a powerful blind source separation (BSS) technique to disentangle the multiple instrument systematics and astrophysical signals in transit/eclipse light curves. ICA does not require a model for the systematics, thence it can be applied to any instrument with little changes, if any. ICA-based algorithms have been applied to Spitzer/IRAC and synthetic observations in photometry (Morello et al. 2014, 2015, 2016; Morello 2015) and to Hubble/WFC3, Hubble/NICMOS and Spitzer/IRS and Hubble/WFC3 in spectroscopy (Damiano, Morello et al., in prep., Waldmann 2012, 2014, Waldmann et al. 2013) with excellent

  19. A comparative study of simple auditory reaction time in blind (congenitally) and sighted subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Pritesh Hariprasad; Gokhale, Pradnya A; Mehta, H B; Shah, C J

    2013-07-01

    Reaction time is the time interval between the application of a stimulus and the appearance of appropriate voluntary response by a subject. It involves stimulus processing, decision making, and response programming. Reaction time study has been popular due to their implication in sports physiology. Reaction time has been widely studied as its practical implications may be of great consequence e.g., a slower than normal reaction time while driving can have grave results. To study simple auditory reaction time in congenitally blind subjects and in age sex matched sighted subjects. To compare the simple auditory reaction time between congenitally blind subjects and healthy control subjects. STUDY HAD BEEN CARRIED OUT IN TWO GROUPS: The 1(st) of 50 congenitally blind subjects and 2(nd) group comprises of 50 healthy controls. It was carried out on Multiple Choice Reaction Time Apparatus, Inco Ambala Ltd. (Accuracy±0.001 s) in a sitting position at Government Medical College and Hospital, Bhavnagar and at a Blind School, PNR campus, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India. Simple auditory reaction time response with four different type of sound (horn, bell, ring, and whistle) was recorded in both groups. According to our study, there is no significant different in reaction time between congenital blind and normal healthy persons. Blind individuals commonly utilize tactual and auditory cues for information and orientation and they reliance on touch and audition, together with more practice in using these modalities to guide behavior, is often reflected in better performance of blind relative to sighted participants in tactile or auditory discrimination tasks, but there is not any difference in reaction time between congenitally blind and sighted people.

  20. Blind image deconvolution methods and convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Rameshan, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Blind deconvolution is a classical image processing problem which has been investigated by a large number of researchers over the last four decades. The purpose of this monograph is not to propose yet another method for blind image restoration. Rather the basic issue of deconvolvability has been explored from a theoretical view point. Some authors claim very good results while quite a few claim that blind restoration does not work. The authors clearly detail when such methods are expected to work and when they will not. In order to avoid the assumptions needed for convergence analysis in the