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Sample records for blind subterranean mole

  1. Circadian genes in a blind subterranean mammal II: Conservation and uniqueness of the three Period homologs in the blind subterranean mole rat, Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies

    OpenAIRE

    Avivi, A; Oster, H; A Joel; BEILES, A.; Albrecht, U; Nevo, E.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrated that a subterranean, visually blind mammal has a functional set of three Per genes that are important components of the circadian clockwork in mammals. The mole rat superspecies Spalax ehrenbergi is a blind subterranean animal that lives its entire life underground in darkness. It has degenerated eyes, but the retina and highly hypertrophic harderian gland are involved in photoperiodic perception. All three Per genes oscillate with a periodicity of 24 h in the suprachiasmatic ...

  2. Lipid profile and serum characteristics of the blind subterranean mole rat, Spalax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J Nasser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spalax (blind subterranean mole rat, is a mammal adapted to live in fluctuating oxygen levels, and can survive severe hypoxia and hypercapnia. The adaptive evolution of Spalax to underground life resulted in structural and molecular-genetic differences comparing to above-ground mammals. These differences include higher myocardial maximal oxygen consumption, increased lung diffusion capacity, increased blood vessels density, and unique expression patterns of cancer and angiogenesis related genes such as heparanase, vascular endothelial growth factor, and P53. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we elucidate the main characteristics of Spalax lipid profile, as well as its main antioxidant and serum parameters. Compared to human, Spalax possesses lower total-cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL and triglycerides levels, and higher levels of high density lipoproteins (HDL. Apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B-100 were significantly lower in Spalax compared to human. Paraoxonase (PON 1 arylesterase activity, was higher in Spalax compared to both human and mouse serum levels. Analysis of serum chemistry of Spalax revealed special features in this mammal. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Spalax possesses a unique lipid profile with high HDL and low LDL lipoproteins. The antioxidant serum content in the mole rat is higher than that of human and mouse. Serum C reactive protein (CRP levels are significantly lower in Spalax compared to that of human or mouse, reflecting low levels of inflammation. These differences between Spalax, human and mouse are due to several factors including the intensive activity life-style that Spalax pursue underground, dietary components, and evolutionary genetic adaptations. Unfolding the genetic basis of these differences will probably result in unique treatments for a variety of human diseases such as dyslipedemias, inflammation and cancer.

  3. Circadian genes in a blind subterranean mammal II: conservation and uniqueness of the three Period homologs in the blind subterranean mole rat, Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avivi, Aaron; Oster, Henrik; Joel, Alma; Beiles, Avigdor; Albrecht, Urs; Nevo, Eviatar

    2002-09-03

    We demonstrated that a subterranean, visually blind mammal has a functional set of three Per genes that are important components of the circadian clockwork in mammals. The mole rat superspecies Spalax ehrenbergi is a blind subterranean animal that lives its entire life underground in darkness. It has degenerated eyes, but the retina and highly hypertrophic harderian gland are involved in photoperiodic perception. All three Per genes oscillate with a periodicity of 24 h in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, eye, and harderian gland and are expressed in peripheral organs. This oscillation is maintained under constant conditions. The light inducibility of sPer1 and sPer2, which are similar in structure to those of other mammals, indicates the role of these genes in clock resetting. However, sPer3 is unique in mammals and has two truncated isoforms, and its expressional analysis leaves its function unresolved. Per's expression analysis in the harderian gland suggests an important participation of this organ in the stabilization and resetting mechanism of the central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei and in unique adaptation to life underground.

  4. Transcriptome sequencing of the blind subterranean mole rat, Spalax galili: utility and potential for the discovery of novel evolutionary patterns.

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    Assaf Malik

    Full Text Available The blind subterranean mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies is a model animal for survival under extreme environments due to its ability to live in underground habitats under severe hypoxic stress and darkness. Here we report the transcriptome sequencing of Spalax galili, a chromosomal type of S. ehrenbergi. cDNA pools from muscle and brain tissues isolated from animals exposed to hypoxic and normoxic conditions were sequenced using Sanger, GS FLX, and GS FLX Titanium technologies. Assembly of the sequences yielded over 51,000 isotigs with homology to ∼12,000 mouse, rat or human genes. Based on these results, it was possible to detect large numbers of splice variants, SNPs, and novel transcribed regions. In addition, multiple differential expression patterns were detected between tissues and treatments. The results presented here will serve as a valuable resource for future studies aimed at identifying genes and gene regions evolved during the adaptive radiation associated with underground life of the blind mole rat.

  5. Transcriptome sequencing of the blind subterranean mole rat, Spalax galili: Utility and potential for the discovery of novel evolutionary patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Malik, Assaf

    2011-08-12

    The blind subterranean mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies) is a model animal for survival under extreme environments due to its ability to live in underground habitats under severe hypoxic stress and darkness. Here we report the transcriptome sequencing of Spalax galili, a chromosomal type of S. ehrenbergi. cDNA pools from muscle and brain tissues isolated from animals exposed to hypoxic and normoxic conditions were sequenced using Sanger, GS FLX, and GS FLX Titanium technologies. Assembly of the sequences yielded over 51,000 isotigs with homology to ~12,000 mouse, rat or human genes. Based on these results, it was possible to detect large numbers of splice variants, SNPs, and novel transcribed regions. In addition, multiple differential expression patterns were detected between tissues and treatments. The results presented here will serve as a valuable resource for future studies aimed at identifying genes and gene regions evolved during the adaptive radiation associated with underground life of the blind mole rat. 2011 Malik et al.

  6. Non-image Forming Light Detection by Melanopsin, Rhodopsin, and Long-Middlewave (L/W) Cone Opsin in the Subterranean Blind Mole Rat, Spalax Ehrenbergi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esquiva, Gema; Avivi, Aaron; Hannibal, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The blind mole rat, Spalax ehrenbergi, can, despite severely degenerated eyes covered by fur, entrain to the daily light/dark cycle and adapt to seasonal changes due to an intact circadian timing system. The present study demonstrates that the Spalax retina contains a photoreceptor layer, an outer...

  7. Reproduction, aging and mortality rate in social subterranean mole voles (Ellobius talpinus Pall.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, E; Kondratyuk, E; Petrovski, D; Titova, T; Zadubrovskaya, I; Zadubrovskiy, P; Moshkin, M

    2015-12-01

    Eusocial subterranean rodents of the Bathyergidae family have enormous longevity. The long lifespan of these species is associated with negligible senescence, that is, an absence of the signs of age-related deterioration in physical condition. The question arises as to whether these features are unique to eusocial Bathyergids or typical of other social subterranean rodents as well. In the present study, we analysed data from observations of a social subterranean Microtinae rodent, the northern mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall.), which, like mole-rats, has reproductive skew. Among the individuals captured in the wild and maintained in captivity, females that reproduced lived significantly longer than non-breeding females. We did not find any changes in muscle strength with age in any of the demographic groups studied. Faecal glucocorticoid concentrations before death were significantly higher in non-breeding females than in breeding females and males. Increased adrenocortical activity may be one mechanism responsible for the decreased lifespan of non-reproducing individuals of social subterranean rodents. We conclude that the patterns of aging, although different in some respects, are generally common for social subterranean rodents of different taxonomic groups.

  8. Adaptations to a Subterranean Environment and Longevity Revealed by the Analysis of Mole Rat Genomes

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    Xiaodong Fang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Subterranean mammals spend their lives in dark, unventilated environments that are rich in carbon dioxide and ammonia and low in oxygen. Many of these animals are also long-lived and exhibit reduced aging-associated diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. We sequenced the genome of the Damaraland mole rat (DMR, Fukomys damarensis and improved the genome assembly of the naked mole rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber. Comparative genome analyses, along with the transcriptomes of related subterranean rodents, revealed candidate molecular adaptations for subterranean life and longevity, including a divergent insulin peptide, expression of oxygen-carrying globins in the brain, prevention of high CO2-induced pain perception, and enhanced ammonia detoxification. Juxtaposition of the genomes of DMR and other more conventional animals with the genome of NMR revealed several truly exceptional NMR features: unusual thermogenesis, an aberrant melatonin system, pain insensitivity, and unique processing of 28S rRNA. Together, these genomes and transcriptomes extend our understanding of subterranean adaptations, stress resistance, and longevity.

  9. Non-image Forming Light Detection by Melanopsin, Rhodopsin, and Long-Middlewave (L/W) Cone Opsin in the Subterranean Blind Mole Rat, Spalax Ehrenbergi: Immunohistochemical Characterization, Distribution, and Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquiva, Gema; Avivi, Aaron; Hannibal, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The blind mole rat, Spalax ehrenbergi, can, despite severely degenerated eyes covered by fur, entrain to the daily light/dark cycle and adapt to seasonal changes due to an intact circadian timing system. The present study demonstrates that the Spalax retina contains a photoreceptor layer, an outer nuclear layer (ONL), an outer plexiform layer (OPL), an inner nuclear layer (INL), an inner plexiform layer (IPL), and a ganglion cell layer (GCL). By immunohistochemistry, the number of melanopsin (mRGCs) and non-melanopsin bearing retinal ganglion cells was analyzed in detail. Using the ganglion cell marker RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) it was shown that the Spalax eye contains 890 ± 62 RGCs. Of these, 87% (752 ± 40) contain melanopsin (cell density 788 melanopsin RGCs/mm(2)). The remaining RGCs were shown to co-store Brn3a and calretinin. The melanopsin cells were located mainly in the GCL with projections forming two dendritic plexuses located in the inner part of the IPL and in the OPL. Few melanopsin dendrites were also found in the ONL. The Spalax retina is rich in rhodopsin and long/middle wave (L/M) cone opsin bearing photoreceptor cells. By using Ctbp2 as a marker for ribbon synapses, both rods and L/M cone ribbons containing pedicles in the OPL were found in close apposition with melanopsin dendrites in the outer plexus suggesting direct synaptic contact. A subset of cone bipolar cells and all photoreceptor cells contain recoverin while a subset of bipolar and amacrine cells contain calretinin. The calretinin expressing amacrine cells seemed to form synaptic contacts with rhodopsin containing photoreceptor cells in the OPL and contacts with melanopsin cell bodies and dendrites in the IPL. The study demonstrates the complex retinal circuitry used by the Spalax to detect light, and provides evidence for both melanopsin and non-melanopsin projecting pathways to the brain.

  10. Cancer resistance in the blind mole rat is mediated by concerted necrotic cell death mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Vera; Hine, Christopher; Tian, Xiao; Ablaeva, Julia; Gudkov, Andrei V; Nevo, Eviatar; Seluanov, Andrei

    2012-11-20

    Blind mole rats Spalax (BMR) are small subterranean rodents common in the Middle East. BMR is distinguished by its adaptations to life underground, remarkable longevity (with a maximum documented lifespan of 21 y), and resistance to cancer. Spontaneous tumors have never been observed in spalacids. To understand the mechanisms responsible for this resistance, we examined the growth of BMR fibroblasts in vitro of the species Spalax judaei and Spalax golani. BMR cells proliferated actively for 7-20 population doublings, after which the cells began secreting IFN-β, and the cultures underwent massive necrotic cell death within 3 d. The necrotic cell death phenomenon was independent of culture conditions or telomere shortening. Interestingly, this cell behavior was distinct from that observed in another long-lived and cancer-resistant African mole rat, Heterocephalus glaber, the naked mole rat in which cells display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition. Sequestration of p53 and Rb proteins using SV40 large T antigen completely rescued necrotic cell death. Our results suggest that cancer resistance of BMR is conferred by massive necrotic response to overproliferation mediated by p53 and Rb pathways, and triggered by the release of IFN-β. Thus, we have identified a unique mechanism that contributes to cancer resistance of this subterranean mammal extremely adapted to life underground.

  11. Adaptive methylation regulation of p53 pathway in sympatric speciation of blind mole rats, Spalax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Tang, Jia-Wei; Yang, Zhi; Cao, Yi-Bin; Ren, Ji-Long; Ben-Abu, Yuval; Li, Kexin; Chen, Xue-Qun; Du, Ji-Zeng; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-02-23

    Epigenetic modifications play significant roles in adaptive evolution. The tumor suppressor p53, well known for controlling cell fate and maintaining genomic stability, is much less known as a master gene in environmental adaptation involving methylation modifications. The blind subterranean mole rat Spalax eherenbergi superspecies in Israel consists of four species that speciated peripatrically. Remarkably, the northern Galilee species Spalax galili (2n = 52) underwent adaptive ecological sympatric speciation, caused by the sharply divergent chalk and basalt ecologies. This was demonstrated by mitochondrial and nuclear genomic evidence. Here we show that the expression patterns of the p53 regulatory pathway diversified between the abutting sympatric populations of S. galili in sharply divergent chalk-basalt ecologies. We identified higher methylation on several sites of the p53 promoter in the population living in chalk soil (chalk population). Site mutagenesis showed that methylation on these sites linked to the transcriptional repression of p53 involving Cut-Like Homeobox 1 (Cux1), paired box 4 (Pax 4), Pax 6, and activator protein 1 (AP-1). Diverse expression levels of p53 between the incipiently sympatrically speciating chalk-basalt abutting populations of S. galili selectively affected cell-cycle arrest but not apoptosis. We hypothesize that methylation modification of p53 has adaptively shifted in supervising its target genes during sympatric speciation of S. galili to cope with the contrasting environmental stresses of the abutting divergent chalk-basalt ecologies.

  12. Is evolution of blind mole rats determined by climate oscillations?

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    Yarin Hadid

    Full Text Available The concept of climate variability facilitating adaptive radiation supported by the "Court Jester" hypothesis is disputed by the "Red Queen" one, but the prevalence of one or the other might be scale-dependent. We report on a detailed, comprehensive phylo-geographic study on the ∼4 kb mtDNA sequence in underground blind mole rats of the family Spalacidae (or subfamily Spalacinae from the East Mediterranean steppes. Our study aimed at testing the presence of periodicities in branching patterns on a constructed phylogenetic tree and at searching for congruence between branching events, tectonic history and paleoclimates. In contrast to the strong support for the majority of the branching events on the tree, the absence of support in a few instances indicates that network-like evolution could exist in spalacids. In our tree, robust support was given, in concordance with paleontological data, for the separation of spalacids from muroid rodents during the first half of the Miocene when open, grass-dominated habitats were established. Marine barriers formed between Anatolia and the Balkans could have facilitated the separation of the lineage "Spalax" from the lineage "Nannospalax" and of the clade "leucodon" from the clade "xanthodon". The separation of the clade "ehrenbergi" occurred during the late stages of the tectonically induced uplift of the Anatolian high plateaus and mountains, whereas the separation of the clade "vasvarii" took place when the rapidly uplifting Taurus mountain range prevented the Mediterranean rainfalls from reaching the Central Anatolian Plateau. The separation of Spalax antiquus and S. graecus occurred when the southeastern Carpathians were uplifted. Despite the role played by tectonic events, branching events that show periodicity corresponding to 400-kyr and 100-kyr eccentricity bands illuminate the important role of orbital fluctuations on adaptive radiation in spalacids. At the given scale, our results supports the

  13. Mechanisms regulating proteostasis are involved in sympatric speciation of the blind mole rat, Spalax galili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Li, Kexin; Nevo, Eviatar; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide analysis demonstrates extensive genomic adaptive complexes involved in sympatric speciation between blind mole rats (Spalax galili) in abutting populations living in basalt and chalk soils. Among the gene ontology (GO) enrichment, musculature and metabolism stood out in basalt dwellers while nutrition and neurogenetics were highlighted in chalk residents. Measurements of mechanisms regulating protein homeostasis inspired by these GO terms suggest that at the proteomic level there is also a habitat/soil-type driven divergence with the basalt residents exhibiting higher proteasome activity whereas elevated levels of markers of autophagy are evident in the chalk inhabitants.

  14. Transcriptome, genetic editing, and microRNA divergence substantiate sympatric speciation of blind mole rat, Spalax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kexin; Wang, Liuyang; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Xu, Qinqin; Levanon, Erez Y; Wang, Huihua; Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Tagore, Satabdi; Fang, Xiaodong; Bazak, Lily; Buchumenski, Ilana; Zhao, Yang; Lövy, Matěj; Li, Xiangfeng; Han, Lijuan; Frenkel, Zeev; Beiles, Avigdor; Cao, Yi Bin; Wang, Zhen Long; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-07-05

    Incipient sympatric speciation in blind mole rat, Spalax galili, in Israel, caused by sharp ecological divergence of abutting chalk-basalt ecologies, has been proposed previously based on mitochondrial and whole-genome nuclear DNA. Here, we present new evidence, including transcriptome, DNA editing, microRNA, and codon usage, substantiating earlier evidence for adaptive divergence in the abutting chalk and basalt populations. Genetic divergence, based on the previous and new evidence, is ongoing despite restricted gene flow between the two populations. The principal component analysis, neighbor-joining tree, and genetic structure analysis of the transcriptome clearly show the clustered divergent two mole rat populations. Gene-expression level analysis indicates that the population transcriptome divergence is displayed not only by soil divergence but also by sex. Gene ontology enrichment of the differentially expressed genes from the two abutting soil populations highlights reproductive isolation. Alternative splicing variation of the two abutting soil populations displays two distinct splicing patterns. L-shaped FST distribution indicates that the two populations have undergone divergence with gene flow. Transcriptome divergent genes highlight neurogenetics and nutrition characterizing the chalk population, and energetics, metabolism, musculature, and sensory perception characterizing the abutting basalt population. Remarkably, microRNAs also display divergence between the two populations. The GC content is significantly higher in chalk than in basalt, and stress-response genes mostly prefer nonoptimal codons. The multiple lines of evidence of ecological-genomic and genetic divergence highlight that natural selection overrules the gene flow between the two abutting populations, substantiating the sharp ecological chalk-basalt divergence driving sympatric speciation.

  15. Effects of laboratory housing on exploratory behaviour, novelty discrimination and spatial reference memory in a subterranean, solitary rodent, the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Oosthuizen, Maria Kathleen; Scheibler, Anne-Gita; Bennett, Nigel Charles; Amrein, Irmgard

    2013-01-01

    A large number of laboratory and field based studies are being carried out on mole-rats, both in our research group and others. Several studies have highlighted the development of adverse behaviours in laboratory animals and have emphasised the importance of enrichment for captive animals. Hence we were interested in evaluating how laboratory housing would affect behavioural performance in mole-rats. We investigated exploratory behaviour, the ability to discriminate between novel and familiar...

  16. Effects of laboratory housing on exploratory behaviour, novelty discrimination and spatial reference memory in a subterranean, solitary rodent, the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, Maria Kathleen; Scheibler, Anne-Gita; Bennett, Nigel Charles; Amrein, Irmgard

    2013-01-01

    A large number of laboratory and field based studies are being carried out on mole-rats, both in our research group and others. Several studies have highlighted the development of adverse behaviours in laboratory animals and have emphasised the importance of enrichment for captive animals. Hence we were interested in evaluating how laboratory housing would affect behavioural performance in mole-rats. We investigated exploratory behaviour, the ability to discriminate between novel and familiar environments and reference memory in the solitary Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis). Our data showed that both wild and captive animals readily explore open spaces and tunnels. Wild animals were however more active than their captive counterparts. In the Y maze two trial discrimination task, wild animals failed to discriminate between novel and familiar environments, while laboratory housed mole-rats showed preferential spatial discrimination in terms of the length of time spent in the novel arm. The performance of the laboratory and wild animals were similar when tested for reference memory in the Y maze, both groups showed a significant improvement compared to the first day, from the 3rd day onwards. Wild animals made more mistakes whereas laboratory animals were slower in completing the task. The difference in performance between wild and laboratory animals in the Y-maze may be as a result of the lower activity of the laboratory animals. Laboratory maintained Cape mole-rats show classic behaviours resulting from a lack of stimulation such as reduced activity and increased aggression. However, they do display an improved novelty discrimination compared to the wild animals. Slower locomotion rate of the laboratory animals may increase the integration time of stimuli, hence result in a more thorough inspection of the surroundings. Unlike the captive animals, wild animals show flexibility in their responses to unpredictable events, which is an important requirement under

  17. Sympatric speciation revealed by genome-wide divergence in the blind mole rat Spalax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kexin; Hong, Wei; Jiao, Hengwu; Wang, Guo-Dong; Rodriguez, Karl A; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Zhao, Yang; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhao, Huabin

    2015-09-22

    Sympatric speciation (SS), i.e., speciation within a freely breeding population or in contiguous populations, was first proposed by Darwin [Darwin C (1859) On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection] and is still controversial despite theoretical support [Gavrilets S (2004) Fitness Landscapes and the Origin of Species (MPB-41)] and mounting empirical evidence. Speciation of subterranean mammals generally, including the genus Spalax, was considered hitherto allopatric, whereby new species arise primarily through geographic isolation. Here we show in Spalax a case of genome-wide divergence analysis in mammals, demonstrating that SS in continuous populations, with gene flow, encompasses multiple widespread genomic adaptive complexes, associated with the sharply divergent ecologies. The two abutting soil populations of S. galili in northern Israel habituate the ancestral Senonian chalk population and abutting derivative Plio-Pleistocene basalt population. Population divergence originated ∼0.2-0.4 Mya based on both nuclear and mitochondrial genome analyses. Population structure analysis displayed two distinctly divergent clusters of chalk and basalt populations. Natural selection has acted on 300+ genes across the genome, diverging Spalax chalk and basalt soil populations. Gene ontology enrichment analysis highlights strong but differential soil population adaptive complexes: in basalt, sensory perception, musculature, metabolism, and energetics, and in chalk, nutrition and neurogenetics are outstanding. Population differentiation of chemoreceptor genes suggests intersoil population's mate and habitat choice substantiating SS. Importantly, distinctions in protein degradation may also contribute to SS. Natural selection and natural genetic engineering [Shapiro JA (2011) Evolution: A View From the 21st Century] overrule gene flow, evolving divergent ecological adaptive complexes. Sharp ecological divergences abound in nature; therefore, SS appears to be an

  18. Moles (Nevi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Keloids Keratosis pilaris Moles Moles ...

  19. Mole Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D.; Brooks, David W.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract nature of the mole and its applications to problem solving make learning the concept difficult for students, and teaching the concept challenging for teachers. Presents activities that use concept maps and graphing calculators as tools for solving mole problems. (ASK)

  20. Light perception in two strictly subterranean rodents: life in the dark or blue?

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    Ondrej Kott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia are strictly subterranean, congenitally microphthalmic rodents that are hardly ever exposed to environmental light. Because of the lack of an overt behavioural reaction to light, they have long been considered to be blind. However, recent anatomical studies have suggested retention of basic visual capabilities. In this study, we employed behavioural tests to find out if two mole-rat species are able to discriminate between light and dark, if they are able to discriminate colours and, finally, if the presence of light in burrows provokes plugging behaviour, which is assumed to have a primarily anti-predatory function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We used a binary choice test to show that the silvery mole-rat Heliophobius argenteocinereus and the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii exhibit a clear photoavoidance response to full-spectrum ("white", blue and green-yellow light, but no significant reaction to ultraviolet or red light during nest building. The mole-rats thus retain dark/light discrimination capabilities and a capacity to perceive short to medium-wavelength light in the photopic range of intensities. These findings further suggest that the mole-rat S opsin has its absorption maximum in the violet/blue part of the spectrum. The assay did not yield conclusive evidence regarding colour discrimination. To test the putative role of vision in bathyergid anti-predatory behaviour, we examined the reaction of mole-rats to the incidence of light in an artificial burrow system. The presence of light in the burrow effectively induced plugging of the illuminated tunnel. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that the photopic vision is conserved and that low acuity residual vision plays an important role in predator avoidance and tunnel maintenance in the African mole-rats.

  1. The mole

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The mole continued its way around the SPS ring ... and on 31 July emerged where it started from, having completed its 7 kilometre journey without ever veering more than a couple of centimetres from its schedule path.

  2. The deep subterranean biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose with this review is to summarise present research on the microbiology of deep subterranean environments, deeper than 50-100 m. Included are mainly studies where drilling, excavation, core sampling and ground water sampling have been made for research. Studies done in environments penetrated for commercial purposes, such as water wells, mining, oil recovery etc., have been dismissed because of the obvious risk for contamination during the penetration. Different measures that can be applied to reduce the risk of microbial contamination of sampled specimens by the access operations are discussed. The requirement for reliable estimations of the present microbial biomass, its activity and diversity in subterranean ecosystems, is fundamental. An array of different methods to achieve this goal are presented. The depth limit for subterranean life is suggested to be set by temperature, provided there is energy available for microbial life. If so, it should be possible to enrich thermophilic bacteria from deep hot ground waters which also has been done. There are only a few sites where the subterranean microbiology has been studied in multidisiplinary programs including chemistry and geology. The two most extensively published sites are the sediments of the Atlantic coastal plain of South Carolina, USA, studied in a subsurface program, initiated and sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, and crystalline bed-rock in Sweden studied in a program concerning the safety of future underground repositories for nuclear waste. This review presents an array of independent reports suggesting that microbial life is widespread at depth in the crust of earth—the deep subterranean biosphere. The obvious consequences is that microbes may be involved in many subterranean geochemical processes, such as diagenesis, weathering, precipitation, and in oxidation or reduction reactions of metals, carbon, nitrogen and sulfur—just as they are in most terranean environments.

  3. Nasal aerodynamics protects brain and lung from inhaled dust in subterranean diggers, Ellobius talpinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Moshkin; D.V. Petrovski; A.E. Akulov; A.V. Romashchenko; L.A. Gerlinskaya; V.L. Ganimedov; M.I. Muchnaya; A.S. Sadovsky; I.V. Koptyug; A.A. Savelov; S. Yu Troitsky; Y.M. Moshkn; V.I. Bukhtiyarov; N.A. Kolchanov; R.Z. Sagdeev; V.M. Fomin

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInhalation of air-dispersed sub-micrometre and nano-sized particles presents a risk factor for animal and human health. Here, we show that nasal aerodynamics plays a pivotal role in the protection of the subterranean mole vole Ellobius talpinus from an increased exposure to nano-aerosols

  4. Mole gun injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds.

  5. [Genetics of hydatidiform moles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackertz, M

    1983-07-01

    Newer genetic investigations show that the complete or classical hydatidiform mole has in over 90% of the cases a diploid female set of chromosomes which is exclusively of paternal origin. The 23 X sperm genom is doubled and the nucleus of the ovocyte is degenerated. In contradistinction the nucleus of the ovocyte persists in partial moles. The normal ontogenesis is also disturbed by a preponderance of paternal genetic material. By melting of 2 instead of 1 paternal germ cell (Dispermia) the genom of partial moles is to 1/3 of maternal and to 2/3 of paternal origin. The triploid set of chromosomes shows usually 69xxy. Whereas the potential of malignancy of partial moles is low a choriocarcinoma results from 2 to 10% of the complete moles. Responsible maybe recessive hereditary mutations of growth controlling genes, which are present in complete moles in a homozygote form due to the doubling of a single paternal set of chromosomes. Total absence of the growth controlling loci of these genes maternally permits an unhibited expression of the growth controlling paternal genes.

  6. Genome sequencing reveals insights into physiology and longevity of the naked mole rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Eun Bae; Fang, Xiaodong; Fushan, Alexey A

    2011-01-01

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age......-related increase in mortality, and high fecundity until death. In addition to delayed ageing, they are resistant to both spontaneous cancer and experimentally induced tumorigenesis. Naked mole rats pose a challenge to the theories that link ageing, cancer and redox homeostasis. Although characterized...... by significant oxidative stress, the naked mole rat proteome does not show age-related susceptibility to oxidative damage or increased ubiquitination. Naked mole rats naturally reside in large colonies with a single breeding female, the 'queen', who suppresses the sexual maturity of her subordinates. They also...

  7. Common Moles, Atypical Moles (Dysplastic Nevi), and Risk of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Common Moles, Dysplastic Nevi, and Risk of Melanoma On This Page What is a common mole? ... slightly scaly, or rough, irregular, and pebbly appearance. Melanoma Is it cancer? Yes. How many people have ...

  8. Subterranean sympatry: an investigation into diet using stable isotope analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian N Robb

    Full Text Available In the Western Cape three species of mole-rat occur in sympatry, however, little is known about differences in their dietary preferences. Dietary composition of the three species; the common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus, the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis and the Cape dune mole-rat (Bathyergus suillus were examined using stable isotope analysis. Blood, fur and claw samples were collected from 70 mole-rats, in addition to several potential food items, to assess food selection of the three species under natural conditions. Overall there was a significant difference in the isotopic composition (δ(13C and δ(15N between all three species and significant differences in their diet composition. There were also significant differences between tissues in all three species suggesting temporal variation in diet. The small size and colonial lifestyle of C. h. hottentotus allows it to feed almost 100% on bulbs, while the solitary and larger species G. capensis and B. suillus fed to a greater extent on other resources such as grasses and clover. B. suillus, the largest of the species, had the most generalized diet. However, overall all species relied most heavily upon geophytes and consumed the same species suggesting competition for resources could exist. We also showed a high level of individual variation in diet choices. This was most pronounced in B. suillus and G. capensis and less so in C. h. hottentotus. We demonstrate that stable isotope analysis can successfully be applied to examine dietary patterns in subterranean mammals and provide insights into foraging patterns and dietary variation at both the inter and intra population level.

  9. Trading new neurons for status: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in eusocial Damaraland mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, M K; Amrein, I

    2016-06-02

    Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste. Overall, Damaraland mole-rats were found to have a small hippocampus and low rates of neurogenesis. We found no correlation between neurogenesis and sex or relative age. Social status or caste was the most prominent modulator of neurogenesis. An inverse relationship between neurogenesis and social status was apparent, with queens displaying the lowest neurogenesis while the worker mole-rats had the most. As there is no natural progression from one caste to another, social status within a colony was relatively stable and is reflected in the level of neurogenesis. Our results correspond to those found in the naked mole-rat, and may reflect an evolutionary and environmentally conserved trait within social mole-rat species.

  10. Trend of Complete Hydatidiform Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Thapa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complete Hydatidiform mole is one of the most frequent abnormal pregnancies. This review studies the trend of complete mole in Paropakar Maternity and Women's hospital and clinical ability to detect it. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 504 cases of complete hydatidiform mole recorded at Paropakar maternity and women's hospital, Kathmandu, during 2058-2065 B.S. Medical records were reviewed and incidence, clinical presentation and method of diagnosis were studied. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 13,9117 births and 504 complete moles, 12 partial moles, 48 persistent gestational tumours, six choriocarcinoma and four invasive moles recorded in the hospital. The incidence of complete mole was one per 276 births. It was prevalent among women younger than 29 years (80% and among the primigravidae (36.7%. More than 90% women presented in the first half of their pregnancy and vaginal bleeding was the main complaint (68.3%. Suction evacuation, dilation and evacuation followed by sharp curettage and abdominal hysterectomy were performed in 80.6%, 17.6% and 1.2% of the women respectively. Persistent mole and choriocarcinoma developed in 9.5% and 0.4% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Complete mole has the highest incidence. It affects mostly younger women and presents with vaginal bleeding most of the time, usually in the first half of their pregnancy. Keywords: complete hydatidiform mole, gestational trophoblastic disease, persistent gestational tumours.

  11. Family Wide Molecular Adaptations to Underground Life in African Mole-Rats Revealed by Phylogenomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kalina T J; Bennett, Nigel C; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Rossiter, Stephen J; Faulkes, Christopher G

    2015-12-01

    During their evolutionary radiation, mammals have colonized diverse habitats. Arguably the subterranean niche is the most inhospitable of these, characterized by reduced oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide, absence of light, scarcity of food, and a substrate that is energetically costly to burrow through. Of all lineages to have transitioned to a subterranean niche, African mole-rats are one of the most successful. Much of their ecological success can be attributed to a diet of plant storage organs, which has allowed them to colonize climatically varied habitats across sub-Saharan Africa, and has probably contributed to the evolution of their diverse social systems. Yet despite their many remarkable phenotypic specializations, little is known about molecular adaptations underlying these traits. To address this, we sequenced the transcriptomes of seven mole-rat taxa, including three solitary species, and combined new sequences with existing genomic data sets. Alignments of more than 13,000 protein-coding genes encompassed, for the first time, all six genera and the full spectrum of ecological and social variation in the clade. We detected positive selection within the mole-rat clade and along ancestral branches in approximately 700 genes including loci associated with tumorigenesis, aging, morphological development, and sociality. By combining these results with gene ontology annotation and protein-protein networks, we identified several clusters of functionally related genes. This family wide analysis of molecular evolution in mole-rats has identified a suite of positively selected genes, deepening our understanding of the extreme phenotypic traits exhibited by this group.

  12. Modern Mathematics and the Mole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, R.; Stumbles, A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses several examples of the modern mathematics familiar to the pupils at the age where the mole concept is introduced, to help the teacher adopt an appropriate approach when dealing with this topic. (GA)

  13. Atypical moles: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Allen; Duffy, R Lamar

    2015-06-01

    Atypical moles are benign pigmented lesions. Although they are benign, they exhibit some of the clinical and histologic features of malignant melanoma. They are more common in fair-skinned individuals and in those with high sun exposure. Atypical moles are characterized by size of 6 mm or more at the greatest dimension, color variegation, border irregularity, and pebbled texture. They are associated with an increased risk of melanoma, warranting enhanced surveillance, especially in patients with more than 50 moles and a family history of melanoma. Because an individual lesion is unlikely to display malignant transformation, biopsy of all atypical moles is neither clinically beneficial nor cost-effective. The ABCDE (asymmetry, border irregularity, color unevenness, diameter of 6 mm or more, evolution) mnemonic is a valuable tool for clinicians and patients to identify lesions that could be melanoma. Also, according to the "ugly duckling" concept, benign moles tend to have a similar appearance, whereas an outlier with a different appearance is more likely to be undergoing malignant change. Atypical moles with changes suggestive of malignant melanoma should be biopsied, using an excisional method, if possible.

  14. Diatom flora in subterranean ecosystems: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Falasco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In scarcity of light and primary producers, subterranean ecosystems are generally extremely oligotrophic habitats, receiving poor supplies of degradable organic matter from the surface. Human direct impacts on cave ecosystems mainly derive from intensive tourism and recreational caving, causing important alterations to the whole subterranean environment. In particular, artificial lighting systems in show caves support the growth of autotrophic organisms (the so-called lampenflora, mainly composed of cyanobacteria, diatoms, chlorophytes, mosses and ferns producing exocellular polymeric substances (EPSs made of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This anionic EPSs matrix mediates to the intercellular communications and participates to the chemical exchanges with the substratum, inducing the adsorption of cations and dissolved organic molecules from the cave formations (speleothems. Coupled with the metabolic activities of heterotrophic microorganisms colonising such layer (biofilm, this phenomenon may lead to the corrosion of the mineral surfaces. In this review, we investigate the formation of biofilms, especially of diatom-dominated ones, as a consequence of artificial lighting and its impacts on speleothems. Whenever light reaches the subterranean habitat (both artificially and naturally a relative high number of species of diatoms may indeed colonise it. Cave entrances, artificially illuminated walls and speleothems inside the cave are generally the preferred substrates. This review focuses on the diatom flora colonising subterranean habitats, summarizing the information contained in all the scientific papers published from 1900 up to date. In this review we provide a complete checklist of the diatom taxa recorded in subterranean habitats, including a total of 363 taxa, belonging to 82 genera. The most frequent and abundant species recorded in caves and other low light subterranean habitats are generally aerophilic and

  15. Goodbye, Father of the Mole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Krtek, a snub-nosed, wide-eyed mole, has delighted cartoon lovers around the world for more than 50 years. Gently, cheerfully and almost always wordlessly, Krtek came to the aid of those in need and lamented the destruction of the environment.

  16. Of Bushwahckers, Termites and Moles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelter, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    Retired school administrator describes five types of school personnel that make an administrator's job difficult: Bushwackers, termites, CIA moles, rumor-mill addicts, and sartorial slobs. For example, termites are staff members who purposely volunteer for committees so they can sabotage the group's efforts from within. (PKP)

  17. Moles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Derm App Skin Facts Aging and Sun Damage Beauty Myths Preventing Sun Damage Skin Cancer Detection Skin ... hairiness. Some are reddish-tan; others are almost black. Most are shades of brown. Some have fine ...

  18. Developing an Intuitive Approach to Moles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeley, Dawn M.; de Grys, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Explains the concept of mole and presents a teaching approach in which students can experiment with atoms and develop an understanding of mass ratios. Presents 10 examples of chemistry problems involving moles and unit conversations. (YDS)

  19. Tool to Distinguish Moles from Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles to Melanoma: Recognizing the ABCDE Features” presents photos that show changes in individual pigmented lesions over time, and describes the different appearances of moles, dysplastic nevi, and melanomas.

  20. Little Czech Mole,Deep Affection From

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Do you remember the little animated character in The Mole? The famous mole has lived for over 86 years in this animation movie which was made by Studio Bratri vtriku,Czech.When I was still a child,I was a crazy fan of this kind-hearted but a little silly mole.

  1. Hypofunctional TrkA Accounts for the Absence of Pain Sensitization in the African Naked Mole-Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Omerbašić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat is a subterranean rodent lacking several pain behaviors found in humans, rats, and mice. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF, an important mediator of pain sensitization, fails to produce thermal hyperalgesia in naked mole-rats. The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 ion channels is necessary for NGF-induced hyperalgesia, but naked mole-rats have fully functional TRPV1 channels. We show that exposing isolated naked mole-rat nociceptors to NGF does not sensitize TRPV1. However, the naked mole-rat NGF receptor TrkA displays a reduced ability to engage signal transduction pathways that sensitize TRPV1. Between one- and three-amino-acid substitutions in the kinase domain of the naked mole-rat TrkA are sufficient to render the receptor hypofunctional, and this is associated with the absence of heat hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that evolution has selected for a TrkA variant that abolishes a robust nociceptive behavior in this species but is still compatible with species fitness.

  2. Invasive mole presenting as pain abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms (GTN are proliferative as well as degenerative disorders of placental elements and include complete or partial mole (90%, invasive mole (5.8%, choriocarcinoma (1-2% and placental site tumor (1-2%. 15% of complete mole can develop into invasive mole. Very rarely (2-4% partial mole can develop into invasive one presenting with features of incomplete abortion, mixed abortion and sometimes as obstetric emergencies like intraperitoneal hemorrhage. So, proper diagnosis and timely intervention can prevent mortality and reduce the morbidity of the patients. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(3.000: 480-481

  3. Life in Burrows Channelled the Morphological Evolution of the Skull in Rodents: the Case of African Mole-Rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    International audience; African mole-rats are fossorial rodents that consist of five chisel-tooth digging genera (Heterocephalus, Heliophobius, Georychus, Fukomys, and Cryptomys) and one scratch digger (Bathyergus). They are characterized by striking physiological, morphological, and behavioral adaptations intimately related to their subterranean life. The influence of their mode of life in shaping the cranial morphology has yet to be evaluated in comparison to other Ctenohystrica, especially...

  4. Toxicity of thiamethoxam against Philippine subterranean termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acda, Menandro N

    2007-01-01

    Thiamethoxam (ACTARA 25WG) was evaluated for its termiticidal properties against three species of economically important subterranean termites (Isoptera: Termitidae) in the Philippines: Nasutitermes luzonicus Oshima, Macrotermes gilvus Hagen, and Microcerotermes losbanosensis Oshima. Results of the study indicated that exposure to soil or ingestion of paper treated with thiamethoxam at concentration above 0.41 ppm may provide an adequate chemical barrier or induce high mortality against N. luzonicus, M. gilvus and M. losbanosensis after 5-9 days. Feeding bioassays showed that thiamethoxam was not repellent to M. gilvus and M. losbanosensis but had an anti-feeding effect on N. luzonicus.

  5. Mold, Mould, Mole-d: The Three M's of Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Norman E.

    2008-01-01

    The author explores a creative idea development process wherein one begins by applying the image of "breaking the mold" to career development and then extending the process further by considering other related images. In this article, the related images include synonyms for mold such as mould and mole-d (the mole is a small burrowing animal with…

  6. Molecular basis of a novel adaptation to hypoxic-hypercapnia in a strictly fossorial mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventura Joseph

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated blood O2 affinity enhances survival at low O2 pressures, and is perhaps the best known and most broadly accepted evolutionary adjustment of terrestrial vertebrates to environmental hypoxia. This phenotype arises by increasing the intrinsic O2 affinity of the hemoglobin (Hb molecule, by decreasing the intracellular concentration of allosteric effectors (e.g., 2,3-diphosphoglycerate; DPG, or by suppressing the sensitivity of Hb to these physiological cofactors. Results Here we report that strictly fossorial eastern moles (Scalopus aquaticus have evolved a low O2 affinity, DPG-insensitive Hb - contrary to expectations for a mammalian species that is adapted to the chronic hypoxia and hypercapnia of subterranean burrow systems. Molecular modelling indicates that this functional shift is principally attributable to a single charge altering amino acid substitution in the β-type δ-globin chain (δ136Gly→Glu of this species that perturbs electrostatic interactions between the dimer subunits via formation of an intra-chain salt-bridge with δ82Lys. However, this replacement also abolishes key binding sites for the red blood cell effectors Cl-, lactate and DPG (the latter of which is virtually absent from the red cells of this species at δ82Lys, thereby markedly reducing competition for carbamate formation (CO2 binding at the δ-chain N-termini. Conclusions We propose this Hb phenotype illustrates a novel mechanism for adaptively elevating the CO2 carrying capacity of eastern mole blood during burst tunnelling activities associated with subterranean habitation.

  7. Naked mole-rat has increased translational fidelity compared with the mouse, as well as a unique 28S ribosomal RNA cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpurua, Jorge; Ke, Zhonghe; Chen, Iris X.; Zhang, Quanwei; Ermolenko, Dmitri N.; Zhang, Zhengdong D.; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a subterranean eusocial rodent with a markedly long lifespan and resistance to tumorigenesis. Multiple data implicate modulation of protein translation in longevity. Here we report that 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the naked mole-rat is processed into two smaller fragments of unequal size. The two breakpoints are located in the 28S rRNA divergent region 6 and excise a fragment of 263 nt. The excised fragment is unique to the naked mole-rat rRNA and does not show homology to other genomic regions. Because this hidden break site could alter ribosome structure, we investigated whether translation rate and amino acid incorporation fidelity were altered. We report that naked mole-rat fibroblasts have significantly increased translational fidelity despite having comparable translation rates with mouse fibroblasts. Although we cannot directly test whether the unique 28S rRNA structure contributes to the increased fidelity of translation, we speculate that it may change the folding or dynamics of the large ribosomal subunit, altering the rate of GTP hydrolysis and/or interaction of the large subunit with tRNA during accommodation, thus affecting the fidelity of protein synthesis. In summary, our results show that naked mole-rat cells produce fewer aberrant proteins, supporting the hypothesis that the more stable proteome of the naked mole-rat contributes to its longevity. PMID:24082110

  8. Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated

  9. Nootkatone is a repellent for Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, B C; Henderson, G; Chen, F; Maistrello, L; Laine, R A

    2001-03-01

    We examined the behavior of Formosan subterranean termites toward one of the components of vetiver grass oil, the roots of which manufacture insect repellents. We found nootkatone, a sesquiterpene ketone, isolated from vetiver oil is a strong repellent and toxicant to Formosan subterranean termites. The lowest effective concentration tested was 10 micrograms/g substrate. This is the first report of nootkatone being a repellent to insects.

  10. Moles and Mole Control on British Farms, Amenities and Gardens after Strychnine Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sandra E; Ellwood, Stephen A; Johnson, Paul J; Macdonald, David W

    2016-06-08

    Moles are considered pests in Britain, but this issue has been little studied. Lower welfare standards have been tolerated for moles than for most other managed wild mammal species, as use of both the controversial poison, strychnine, and unregulated traps have been permitted. Strychnine was withdrawn in 2006 and there were fears that mole populations would increase as a result. In 2007, we conducted a comprehensive, nationwide survey of land manager perceptions, opinions and behaviour regarding moles and mole control on farms, amenities and domestic gardens in Britain. We surveyed 2150 land managers (achieving a 59% response rate) and ground-truthed 29 responses. Moles were reported to be present on most farms and amenities, and 13% of gardens, and were more common in lighter soils. Where present, moles were usually considered pests, this being more likely in Wales, Scotland and northern England, on livestock and mixed farms, and on large, high-value amenities, e.g., racecourses and golf courses. Mole control followed similar patterns to mole presence. More control may occur than is economically, and therefore potentially ethically, justified. Control should be more carefully considered and, where necessary, more effectively targeted. Kill-trapping was the favoured recent and future method on farms and amenities, even if strychnine was to be reintroduced; however, because mole traps are currently unregulated, some might not meet current welfare standards if tested. We found no evidence for an increase in moles since a farm questionnaire survey conducted in 1992; this could have wider implications for future wildlife management policy changes.

  11. Hydatidiform mole clinical and pathological characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco D., José; Instituto de Patología, UNMSM; Instituto de Medicina Legal; Alegre, Jaime; Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, Lima, Perú; Paniagua, Gissela; Instituto de Patología de la UNMSM

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine clinical and pathological findings in hydatidiform mole. Design: Descriptive retrospective study. Material and methods: All cases de molar pregnancy attended at Dos de Mayo National Hospital (HNDM) between 1998 and 2001 were reviewed. Results: Twenty-four cases of hydatidiform mole were attended; mean age was 26,4 years ± 6,4 and gestational age 13,1 weeks ± 3,3. Past history only showed 1 and 3 cases of hyperemesis gravidarum and previous abortions, respectively; 18 p...

  12. Effect of chemical cues on the foraging and tunneling behavior of Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood rot fungi can cause directional tunneling, aggregation behavior and increased wood consumption by subterranean termites. Because vanillin and guaiacol are byproducts of lignin degradation, these chemicals were tested as potential attractants to Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formo...

  13. Local and regional scale genetic variation in the Cape dune mole-rat, Bathyergus suillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Jacobus H; Bennett, Nigel C; Jansen van Vuuren, Bettine

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of genetic variation is determined through the interaction of life history, morphology and habitat specificity of a species in conjunction with landscape structure. While numerous studies have investigated this interplay of factors in species inhabiting aquatic, riverine, terrestrial, arboreal and saxicolous systems, the fossorial system has remained largely unexplored. In this study we attempt to elucidate the impacts of a subterranean lifestyle coupled with a heterogeneous landscape on genetic partitioning by using a subterranean mammal species, the Cape dune mole-rat (Bathyergus suillus), as our model. Bathyergus suillus is one of a few mammal species endemic to the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of the Western Cape of South Africa. Its distribution is fragmented by rivers and mountains; both geographic phenomena that may act as geographical barriers to gene-flow. Using two mitochondrial fragments (cytochrome b and control region) as well as nine microsatellite loci, we determined the phylogeographic structure and gene-flow patterns at two different spatial scales (local and regional). Furthermore, we investigated genetic differentiation between populations and applied Bayesian clustering and assignment approaches to our data. Nearly every population formed a genetically unique entity with significant genetic structure evident across geographic barriers such as rivers (Berg, Verlorenvlei, Breede and Gourits Rivers), mountains (Piketberg and Hottentots Holland Mountains) and with geographic distance at both spatial scales. Surprisingly, B. suillus was found to be paraphyletic with respect to its sister species, B. janetta-a result largely overlooked by previous studies on these taxa. A systematic revision of the genus Bathyergus is therefore necessary. This study provides a valuable insight into how the biology, life-history and habitat specificity of animals inhabiting a fossorial system may act in concert with the structure of the surrounding

  14. Activity Patterns in a Subterranean Social Rodent, Spalacopus cyanus (Octodontidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begall, Sabine; Daan, S.; Burda, H.; Overkamp, G.J.F.; Tomasi, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    Daily patterns of activity were studied under laboratory conditions in 12 coruros, Spalacopus cyanus, subterranean social rodents originally from Chile. When able to burrow, coruros spent 90% of the total time underground, and surface activity occurred during the 1st hours of darkness. When prevente

  15. Insights: A LAP on Moles: Teaching an Important Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihde, John

    1985-01-01

    Describes a learning activity packet (LAP) designed to help students understand the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit; know relationships between the mole and atomic weights in the periodic table; and solve basic conversion problems involving moles, atoms, and molecules. (JN)

  16. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles (Talpa europaea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, I.M.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Wisselink, H.J.; Meerburg, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles, Talpa europaea, was investigated in order to determine whether moles can serve as an indicator species for T. gondii infections in livestock. Findings In total, 86 moles were caught from 25 different sites in the Netherlands. Five diffe

  17. PARTIAL HYDATIDIFORM MOLE WITH A LIVE FETUS: A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounika Reddy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN represents a spectrum of premalignant and malignant diseases that occur after abnormal fertilization. [ 1 ] GTN includes complete hydatidiform mole (CHM, partial hydatidiform mole (PHM, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, and placental - site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT. CHM and PHM together account for 80% of all cases of GTN.

  18. Invasive mole: a rare cause of postmenopausal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamour Guèye

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD describes a number of gynaecological tumours that originate in the trophoblast layer, including hydatidiform mole (complete or partial, placental site trophoblastic tumour, choriocarcinoma and invasive mole. Invasive moles are responsible of most cases of localized gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN. Invasive mole is a condition where a molar pregnancy, such as a partial hydatidiform mole or complete hydatidiform mole, invades the wall of the uterus. It is an extremely rare condition. As GTN is not considered in the differential diagnosis of postmenopausal uterine malignancies, its preoperative diagnosis is challenging. We report a case of invasive hydatidiform mole in a postmenopausal woman discovered in a context of postmenopausal bleeding. She underwent hysterectomy and followed up till her beta hCG levels were within normal limits. The patient is in complete remission in the first postoperative year. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(3.000: 451-453

  19. Willed blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. A willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness enables us...... blindness focusing on the development of either a new moral vision of our obligations or new visions of what a good life is....

  20. Color Blindness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2007-01-01

    About one in 12 boys is color-blind, and one in every 400 girls, so in each school class there are likely to be at least one or two people who are color-blind. Because they are color- blind from birth, most people do not know that they are color-

  1. Color blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color blindness often have problems seeing reds and greens, too. The most severe form of color blindness is achromatopsia. This is a rare condition in which a person cannot see any color, only shades of gray. Most color blindness is due to ...

  2. Mole guns in Turkey in 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Riza; Birincioğlu, Ismail; Cakir, Ismail; Uner, H Bülent; Açikgöz, Dinç; Seçkin, Cetin

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the frequency of mole guns in Turkey by examining the cases sent to the Council of Forensic Medicine of Turkey between 2003 and 2005. In total, 11 mole guns were examined. Mole guns are manufactured to be used as a trap against detrimental animals. Although they are not meant to be used as a firearm, they are able to cause death. Mole guns appearing in regular casework were evaluated in terms of type of the gun, number of barrels, size and caliber, rifling, design, mechanism, fitness for use, legality, and geographical distribution. Ninety-one percent of the guns were 12 gauge. Most commonly they originate from Inner Anatolia. Mole guns are typically handmade. Some examples of injuries and deaths caused by mole guns are also offered.

  3. ABO Genotyping of Complete Hydatidiform Moles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Fisher

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the ABO blood group of a patient and her partner influence the clinical outcome for patients having a pregnancy with a complete hydatidiform mole (CHM. Since CHM lack red blood Cells, it has not previously been possible to type CHM serologically and investigate the relationship between the blood group of the CHM and that of the patient. In the present study we have demonstrated the feasibility of using molecular genotyping to determine the ABO genotype of CHM, the ABO genotype being consistent with the androgenetic origin of CHM in all cases. In the series of 48 cases of CHM, the requirement for chemotherapy was not significantly different in those patients with a CHM of like blood group compared with those with a CHM of unlike blood group.

  4. MOLES3: Implementing an ISO standards driven data catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham A Parton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ISO19156 Observations and Measurements (O&M provides a standardised framework for organising information about the collection of information about the environment.  Here we describe the implementation of a specialisation of O&M for environmental data, the Metadata Objects for Linking Environmental Sciences (MOLES3.MOLES3 provides support for organising information about data, and for user navigation around data holdings. The implementation described here, “CEDA-MOLES”, also supports data management functions for the Centre for Environmental Data Archival, CEDA. The previous iteration of MOLES (MOLES2 saw active use over five years, being replaced by CEDA-MOLES in late 2014. During that period important lessons were learnt both about the information needed, as well as how to design and maintain the necessary information systems. In this paper we review the problems encountered in MOLES2; how and why CEDA-MOLES was developed and engineered; the migration of information holdings from MOLES2 to CEDA-MOLES; and, finally, provide an early assessment of MOLES3 (as implemented in CEDA-MOLES and its limitations.Key drivers for the MOLES3 development included the necessity for improved data provenance, for further structured information to support ISO19115 discovery metadata  export (for EU INSPIRE compliance, and to provide appropriate fixed landing pages for Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs in the presence of evolving datasets. Key lessons learned included the importance of minimising information structure in free text fields, and the necessity to support as much agility in the information infrastructure as possible without compromising on maintainability both by those using the systems internally and externally (e.g. citing in to the information infrastructure, and those responsible for the systems themselves. The migration itself needed to ensure continuity of service and traceability of archived assets.

  5. [Cortical blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, S

    2014-02-01

    Cortical blindness refers to a visual loss induced by a bilateral occipital lesion. The very strong cooperation between psychophysics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology and neuropsychology these latter twenty years as well as recent progress in cerebral imagery have led to a better understanding of neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness. It thus becomes possible now to propose an earlier diagnosis of cortical blindness as well as new perspectives for rehabilitation in children as well as in adults. On the other hand, studying complex neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness is a way to infer normal functioning of the visual system.

  6. Teasing apart socially-induced infertility in non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats, Fukomys damarensis (Rodentia: Bathyergidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nigel C

    2011-12-01

    The Damaraland mole-rat is a subterranean mammal exhibiting extreme reproductive skew with a single reproductive female in each colony responsible for procreation. Non-reproductive female colony members are physiologically suppressed while in the colony, exhibiting reduced concentrations of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and a decreased response of the pituitary, as measured by the release of bioactive LH, to an exogenous dose of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). Removal of the reproductive female from the colony results in an elevation of LH and an enhanced response of the pituitary to a GnRH challenge in non-reproductive females comparable to reproductive females, implying control of reproduction in these individuals by the reproductive female. The Damaraland mole-rat is an ideal model for investigating the physiological and behavioral mechanisms that regulate the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In contrast, we know less about the control of reproduction at the level of the hypothalamus. The immunohistochemistry of the GnRH system of both reproductive and non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats has revealed no significant differences with respect to morphology, distribution or numbers of immunoreactive GnRH perikarya. We examined whether the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin was responsible for the inhibition of the release of the GnRH from the neurons indirectly by measuring LH concentrations in these non-reproductive females following single, hourly and 8 hourly injections of the opioid antagonist naloxone. The results imply that the endogenous opioid peptide, beta-endorphin, is not responsible for the inhibition of GnRH release from the perikarya in non-reproductive females. Preliminary data examining the circulating levels of cortisol also do not support a role for circulating glucocorticoids. The possible role of kisspeptin is discussed.

  7. Genomic evidence for rod monochromacy in sloths and armadillos suggests early subterranean history for Xenarthra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerling, Christopher A; Springer, Mark S

    2015-02-07

    Rod monochromacy is a rare condition in vertebrates characterized by the absence of cone photoreceptor cells. The resulting phenotype is colourblindness and low acuity vision in dim-light and blindness in bright-light conditions. Early reports of xenarthrans (armadillos, sloths and anteaters) suggest that they are rod monochromats, but this has not been tested with genomic data. We searched the genomes of Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo), Choloepus hoffmanni (Hoffmann's two-toed sloth) and Mylodon darwinii (extinct ground sloth) for retinal photoreceptor genes and examined them for inactivating mutations. We performed PCR and Sanger sequencing on cone phototransduction genes of 10 additional xenarthrans to test for shared inactivating mutations and estimated the timing of inactivation for photoreceptor pseudogenes. We concluded that a stem xenarthran became an long-wavelength sensitive-cone monochromat following a missense mutation at a critical residue in SWS1, and a stem cingulate (armadillos, glyptodonts and pampatheres) and stem pilosan (sloths and anteaters) independently acquired rod monochromacy early in their evolutionary history following the inactivation of LWS and PDE6C, respectively. We hypothesize that rod monochromacy in armadillos and pilosans evolved as an adaptation to a subterranean habitat in the early history of Xenarthra. The presence of rod monochromacy has major implications for understanding xenarthran behavioural ecology and evolution.

  8. Moles: Tool-Assisted Environment Isolation with Closures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Halleux, Jonathan; Tillmann, Nikolai

    Isolating test cases from environment dependencies is often desirable, as it increases test reliability and reduces test execution time. However, code that calls non-virtual methods or consumes sealed classes is often impossible to test in isolation. Moles is a new lightweight framework which addresses this problem. For any .NET method, Moles allows test-code to provide alternative implementations, given as .NET delegates, for which C# provides very concise syntax while capturing local variables in a closure object. Using code instrumentation, the Moles framework will redirect calls to provided delegates instead of the original methods. The Moles framework is designed to work together with the dynamic symbolic execution tool Pex to enable automated test generation. In a case study, testing code programmed against the Microsoft SharePoint Foundation API, we achieved full code coverage while running tests in isolation without an actual SharePoint server. The Moles framework integrates with .NET and Visual Studio.

  9. Non-Breeding Eusocial Mole-Rats Produce Viable Sperm--Spermiogram and Functional Testicular Morphology of Fukomys anselli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Montero, Angelica; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Holtze, Susanne; Morhart, Michaela; Saragusty, Joseph; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Begall, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) are subterranean rodents living in families composed of about 20 members with a single breeding pair and their non-breeding offspring. Most of them remain with their parents for their lifetime and help to maintain and defend the natal burrow system, forage, and care for younger siblings. Since incest avoidance is based on individual recognition (and not on social suppression) we expect that non-breeders produce viable sperm spontaneously. We compared the sperm of breeding and non-breeding males, obtained by electroejaculation and found no significant differences in sperm parameters between both groups. Here, we used electroejaculation to obtain semen for the first time in a subterranean mammal. Spermiogram analysis revealed no significant differences in sperm parameters between breeders and non-breeders. We found significantly larger testes (measured on autopsies and on living animals per ultrasonography) of breeders compared to non-breeders (with body mass having a significant effect). There were no marked histological differences between breeding and non-breeding males, and the relative area occupied by Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules on histological sections, respectively, was not significantly different between both groups. The seminiferous epithelium and to a lesser degree the interstitial testicular tissue are characterized by lesions (vacuolar degenerations), however, this feature does not hinder fertilization even in advanced stages of life. The continuous production of viable sperm also in sexually abstinent non-breeders might be best understood in light of the mating and social system of Fukomys anselli, and the potential to found a new family following an unpredictable and rare encounter with an unfamiliar female ("provoked or induced dispersal"). Apparently, the non-breeders do not reproduce because they do not copulate but not because they would be physiologically infertile. The significantly increased testes

  10. Non-Breeding Eusocial Mole-Rats Produce Viable Sperm--Spermiogram and Functional Testicular Morphology of Fukomys anselli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Garcia Montero

    Full Text Available Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli are subterranean rodents living in families composed of about 20 members with a single breeding pair and their non-breeding offspring. Most of them remain with their parents for their lifetime and help to maintain and defend the natal burrow system, forage, and care for younger siblings. Since incest avoidance is based on individual recognition (and not on social suppression we expect that non-breeders produce viable sperm spontaneously. We compared the sperm of breeding and non-breeding males, obtained by electroejaculation and found no significant differences in sperm parameters between both groups. Here, we used electroejaculation to obtain semen for the first time in a subterranean mammal. Spermiogram analysis revealed no significant differences in sperm parameters between breeders and non-breeders. We found significantly larger testes (measured on autopsies and on living animals per ultrasonography of breeders compared to non-breeders (with body mass having a significant effect. There were no marked histological differences between breeding and non-breeding males, and the relative area occupied by Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules on histological sections, respectively, was not significantly different between both groups. The seminiferous epithelium and to a lesser degree the interstitial testicular tissue are characterized by lesions (vacuolar degenerations, however, this feature does not hinder fertilization even in advanced stages of life. The continuous production of viable sperm also in sexually abstinent non-breeders might be best understood in light of the mating and social system of Fukomys anselli, and the potential to found a new family following an unpredictable and rare encounter with an unfamiliar female ("provoked or induced dispersal". Apparently, the non-breeders do not reproduce because they do not copulate but not because they would be physiologically infertile. The significantly

  11. Non-Breeding Eusocial Mole-Rats Produce Viable Sperm—Spermiogram and Functional Testicular Morphology of Fukomys anselli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Montero, Angelica; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Holtze, Susanne; Morhart, Michaela; Saragusty, Joseph; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Begall, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Ansell’s mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) are subterranean rodents living in families composed of about 20 members with a single breeding pair and their non-breeding offspring. Most of them remain with their parents for their lifetime and help to maintain and defend the natal burrow system, forage, and care for younger siblings. Since incest avoidance is based on individual recognition (and not on social suppression) we expect that non-breeders produce viable sperm spontaneously. We compared the sperm of breeding and non-breeding males, obtained by electroejaculation and found no significant differences in sperm parameters between both groups. Here, we used electroejaculation to obtain semen for the first time in a subterranean mammal. Spermiogram analysis revealed no significant differences in sperm parameters between breeders and non-breeders. We found significantly larger testes (measured on autopsies and on living animals per ultrasonography) of breeders compared to non-breeders (with body mass having a significant effect). There were no marked histological differences between breeding and non-breeding males, and the relative area occupied by Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules on histological sections, respectively, was not significantly different between both groups. The seminiferous epithelium and to a lesser degree the interstitial testicular tissue are characterized by lesions (vacuolar degenerations), however, this feature does not hinder fertilization even in advanced stages of life. The continuous production of viable sperm also in sexually abstinent non-breeders might be best understood in light of the mating and social system of Fukomys anselli, and the potential to found a new family following an unpredictable and rare encounter with an unfamiliar female (“provoked or induced dispersal”). Apparently, the non-breeders do not reproduce because they do not copulate but not because they would be physiologically infertile. The significantly increased

  12. Kinematics of Terrestrial Locomotion in Mole Cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhang; He Huang; Xiangyang Liu; Luquan Ren

    2011-01-01

    The fore leg of mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) has developed into claw for digging and excavating. As the result of having a well-suited body and appendages for living underground, mole cricket still needs to manoeuvre on land in some cases with some kinds of gait. In this paper, the three-dimensional kinematics information of mole cricket in terrestrial walking was recorded by using a high speed 3D video recording system. The mode and the gait of the terrestrial walking mole cricket were investigated by analyzing the kinematics parameters, and the kinematics coupling disciplines of each limb and body were discussed. The results show that the locomotion gait of mole cricket in terrestrial walking belongs to a distinctive alternating tripod gait. We also found that the fore legs of a mole cricket are not as effective as that ofcommon hexapod insects, its middle legs and body joints act more effective in walking and turning which compensate the function of fore legs. The terrestrial locomotion of mole cricket is the result of biological coupling of three pairs of legs, the distinctive alternating tripod gait and the trunk locomotion.

  13. Brain mass and cranial nerve size in shrews and moles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Duncan B; Sarko, Diana K; Catania, Kenneth C

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the relationship between body size, brain size, and fibers in selected cranial nerves in shrews and moles. Species include tiny masked shrews (S. cinereus) weighing only a few grams and much larger mole species weighing up to 90 grams. It also includes closely related species with very different sensory specializations - such as the star-nosed mole and the common, eastern mole. We found that moles and shrews have tiny optic nerves with fiber counts not correlated with body or brain size. Auditory nerves were similarly small but increased in fiber number with increasing brain and body size. Trigeminal nerve number was by far the largest and also increased with increasing brain and body size. The star-nosed mole was an outlier, with more than twice the number of trigeminal nerve fibers than any other species. Despite this hypertrophied cranial nerve, star-nosed mole brains were not larger than predicted from body size, suggesting that magnification of their somatosensory systems does not result in greater overall CNS size.

  14. Blind Masseurs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Guan Enming and his wife Hao Dejuan, a blind couple, vowed to "never become a burden for society." The couple retired from the QJngdao Massotherapy Hospital in 1992, and thereafter opened a private clinic with assistance from their

  15. Resource competition between two fungal parasites in subterranean termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvenc, Thomas; Efstathion, Caroline A.; Elliott, Monica L.; Su, Nan-Yao

    2012-11-01

    Subterranean termites live in large groups in underground nests where the pathogenic pressure of the soil environment has led to the evolution of a complex interaction among individual and social immune mechanisms in the colonies. However, groups of termites under stress can show increased susceptibility to opportunistic parasites. In this study, an isolate of Aspergillus nomius Kurtzman, Horn & Hessltine was obtained from a collapsed termite laboratory colony. We determined that it was primarily a saprophyte and, secondarily, a facultative parasite if the termite immunity is undergoing a form of stress. This was determined by stressing individuals of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki via a co-exposure to the virulent fungal parasite Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch.) Sorokin. We also examined the dynamics of a mixed infection of A. nomius and M. anisopliae in a single termite host. The virulent parasite M. anisopliae debilitated the termite immune system, but the facultative, fast growing parasite A. nomius dominated the mixed infection process. The resource utilization strategy of A. nomius during the infection resulted in successful conidia production, while the chance for M. anisopliae to complete its life cycle was reduced. Our results also suggest that the occurrence of opportunistic parasites such as A. nomius in collapsing termite laboratory colonies is the consequence of a previous stress, not the cause of the stress.

  16. Results of the mole penetration tests in different materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzaszek, Roman; Seweryn, Karol; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Rybus, Tomasz; Wisniewski, Lukasz; Neal, Clive R.; Huang, Shaopeng

    2010-05-01

    Mole devices are low velocity, medium to high energy, self-driven penetrators, designed as a carrier of different sensors for in situ investigations of subsurface layers of planetary bodies. The maximum insertion depth of such devices is limited by energy of single mole's stroke and soil resistance for the dynamic penetration. A mole penetrator ‘KRET' has been designed, developed, and successfully tested at Space Research Centre PAS in Poland. The principle of operation of the mole bases on the interaction between three masses: the cylindrical casing, the hammer, and the rest of the mass, acting as a support mass. This approach takes advantage of the MUPUS penetrator (a payload of Philae lander on Rosetta mission) insertion tests knowledge. Main parameters of the mole KRET are listed below: - outer diameter: 20.4mm, - length: 330mm, - total mass: 488g, - energy of the driving spring: 2.2J, - average power consumption: 0.28W, - average insertion progress/stroke: 8.5mm, The present works of Space Research Center PAS team are focused on three different activities. First one includes investigations of the mole penetration effectiveness in the lunar analogues (supported by ESA PECS project). Second activity, supported by Polish national fund, is connected with numerical calculation of the heat flow investigations and designing and developing the Heat Flow Probe Hardware Component (HPHC) for L-GIP NASA project. It's worth noting that L-GIP project refers to ILN activity. Last activity focuses on preparing the second version of the mole ready to work in low thermal and pressure conditions. Progress of a mole penetrator in granular medium depends on the mechanical properties of this medium. The mole penetrator ‘KRET' was tested in different materials: dry quartz sand (0.3 - 0.8 grain size), wet quartz sand, wheat flour and lunar regolith mechanical simulant - Chemically Enhanced OB-1 (CHENOBI). Wheat flour was selected due to its high cohesion rate and small grain size

  17. Energy Efficient Networks for Monitoring Water Quality in Subterranean Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ge

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fresh water in rivers beneath the Earth’s surface is as significant to humans as that on the surface. However, the water quality is difficult to monitor due to its unapproachable nature. In this work, we consider building networks to monitor water quality in subterranean rivers. The network node is designed to have limited functions of floating and staying in these rivers when necessary. We provide the necessary conditions to set up such networks and a topology building method, as well as the communication process between nodes. Furthermore, we provide every an node’s energy consumption model in the network building stage, the data acquiring and transmission stage. The numerical results show that the energy consumption in every node is different, and the node number should be moderate to ensure energy efficiency.

  18. Self-contained instrument for measuring subterranean tunnel wall deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Donald Edgar; Hof, Jr., Peter John

    1978-01-01

    The deflection of a subterranean tunnel is measured with a rod-like, self-contained instrument that is adapted to be inserted into a radially extending bore of the tunnel adjacent an end of the tunnel where the tunnel is being dug. One end of the instrument is anchored at the end of the bore remote from the tunnel wall, while the other end of the intrument is anchored adjacent the end of the wall in proximity to the tunnel wall. The two ends of the instrument are linearly displaceable relative to each other; the displacement is measured by a transducer means mounted on the instrument. Included in the instrument is a data storage means including a paper tape recorder periodically responsive to a parallel binary signal indicative of the measured displacement.

  19. The Hawaiian cave planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae - A model for rapid subterranean speciation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Hoch

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available After the successful colonization of a single ancestral species in the Hawaiian Islands, planthoppers of the cixiid genus Oliarus underwent intensive adaptive radiation resulting in 80 described endemic species. Oliarus habitats range from montaneous rain forests to dry coastal biotopes and subterranean environments. At least 7 independant evolutionary lines represented by different species have adapted to lava tubes on Molokai (1, Maui (3, and Hawaii Island (3. Behavioral and morphological studies on one of these evolutionary lines on Hawaii Island, the blind, flight- and pigmentless Oliarus polyphentus have provided evidence for reproductive isolation between allopatric populations which may in fact be separate species. Significant differences in song parameters were observed even between populations from neighbouring lava tubes, although the planthoppers are capable of underground migration through the voids and cracks of the mesocavernous rock system which is extant in young basalt: after a little more than 20 years, lava tubes within the Mauna Ulu 1974 flow had been colonized by O. ‘polyphenius” individuals, most probably originating from a near-by forestkipuka. Amazingly, this species complex is found on the youngest of the Hawaiian Islands, with probably less than 0.5 m.y., which suggests rapid speciation processes. Field observations have led to the development of a hypothesis to match underground speciation with the dynamics of vegetational succession on the surface of active volcanoes. Planthopper range partitioning and geographic separation of populations by young lava flows, founder events and small population size may be important factors involved in rapid divergence.

  20. Does subterranean flow initiate mud banks off the southwest coast of India?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.

    Coastal waters off the southwest coast of India draw special attention because of the occurrence of mud banks at certain locations during southwest monsoon period. The present study puts forward a hypothesis of a subterranean flow, which could be a...

  1. Presence of Nitrogen Fixing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the gut of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Coptotermes formosanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A gram-negative facultative anaerobic enteric bacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from the hindgut of the Formosan subterranean termite (FST). It was characterized using, Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, BIOLOG assay, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-...

  2. The subterranean waters of tenerife-I Origin and chemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, E F; Garcia, V P

    1969-07-01

    A systematic study has been made of the chemical characteristics of the subterranean waters of Tenerife from all sources, including galleries, wells, and springs. All the constituents and characteristics of agricultural interest have been considered. A marked dependence was observed between the characteristics of the water and the situation of the sources, and a study was made of the principal types of geological formation which determine the presence of subterranean accumulations of water at different levels of the island.

  3. Blind Ambition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    No matter how dedicated they may be, some teachers are daunted by extreme challenges. Carol Agler, music director at the Ohio State School for the Blind (OSSB), is not one of those teachers. Since joining the OSSB staff 11 years ago, Agler has revived the school's long-dormant band program and created its first marching band. Next January, she…

  4. Epidemiological Factors and Pathomorphologic Characteristics of Hydatidiform Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Muminhodžić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hydatidiform mole is a gestational trophoblastic disease characterized by a range of disorders of abnormal trophoblastic proliferation.Methods: This was a retrospective study of 70 singletone pregnancies until the 12th week of gestational age diagnosed with hydatidiform mole or spontaneously aborted physiological pregnancy. The pregnantwomen had almost similar demographic features and were divided into two groups. 35 pregnant women with a molar pregnancy were included in the study group; while 35 pregnant women with physiologicalpregnancy spontaneously aborted were included in the control group. Analyzed parameters included a pregnant woman’s age, blood type, parity and previous pregnancies (course and outcomes.Results: In the study group 11.43% of cases had hydatidiform mola during previous pregnancies as well as the advanced average gestational age of an ongoing pregnancy (9.63±1.83 in contrast to 8.25±2.03in the control group. The pregnant women with the hydatidiform mole were reported to have statistically significantly greater number of irregular villous borders (71.43%; slightly enlarged villi (54.29%; moderatedpresence of cisterns (65.71% as well as mild avascularisation of villi (57.14%.Conclusion: It was concluded that a previous molar pregnancy represents the highest risk for hydtidiforme mole and the pathomorphologic analysis of vilous changes can be a reliable parameter for establishingproper diagnosis of partial hydatidiform mole.

  5. Neuroanatomical investigation of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 1 system in the seasonally breeding Cape dune mole-rat, Bathyergus suillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Leanne; Bennett, Nigel C; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Oosthuizen, Maria K; Jarvis, Jennifer U M; O'Riain, M Justin; Coen, Clive W

    2008-10-22

    The gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) system has been investigated immunohistochemically in Cape dune mole-rats (Bathyergus suillus), subterranean rodents that normally display severe aggression towards conspecifics. These animals breed seasonally and show a reduced mean plasma level of luteinising hormone during the non-breeding season. GnRH1-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies and processes are found in the septal/preoptic area and the mediobasal hypothalamus; the cell bodies are found in equal measure in these two regions. Dense aggregations of GnRH1-ir fibres are present in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the external zone of the median eminence. The total number of detectable GnRH1-ir cell bodies does not differ between the sexes or within the sexes between breeding and non-breeding seasons. Similarly there is no difference in the distribution of detectable GnRH1-ir cell bodies in male and female mole-rats in and out of the breeding season. Although the average size of GnRH1-ir cell bodies does not differ between the seasons in males, their size in females is significantly smaller in the non-breeding season. Whether this reduced size reflects reduced GnRH1 synthesis remains to be determined.

  6. How attractive is the girl next door? An assessment of spatial mate acquisition and paternity in the solitary Cape dune mole-rat, Bathyergus suillus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C Bray

    Full Text Available Behavioural observations of reproduction and mate choice in wild fossorial rodents are extremely limited and consequently indirect methods are typically used to infer mating strategies. We use a combination of morphological, reproductive, spatial, and genetic data to investigate the reproductive strategy of a solitary endemic species, the Cape dune mole-rat Bathyergus suillus. These data provide the first account on the population dynamics of this species. Marked sexual dimorphism was apparent with males being both significantly larger and heavier than females. Of all females sampled 36% had previously reproduced and 12% were pregnant at the time of capture. Post-partum sex ratio was found to be significantly skewed in favour of females. The paternity of fifteen litters (n = 37 was calculated, with sires assigned to progeny using both categorical and full probability methods, and including a distance function. The maximum distance between progeny and a putative sire was determined as 2149 m with males moving between sub-populations. We suggest that above-ground movement should not be ignored in the consideration of mate acquisition behaviour of subterranean mammals. Estimated levels of multiple paternity were shown to be potentially as high as 26%, as determined using sibship and sire assignment methods. Such high levels of multiple paternity have not been found in other solitary mole-rat species. The data therefore suggest polyandry with no evidence as yet for polygyny.

  7. Carbonate system biogeochemistry in a subterranean estuary - Waquoit Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Charette, Matthew A.; Breier, Crystaline F.; Henderson, Paul B.; McCorkle, Daniel C.; Martin, William; Dai, Minhan

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying carbon fluxes associated with submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) remains challenging due to the complex biogeochemistry of the carbonate system in the subterranean estuary (STE). Here we conducted time series measurements of total alkalinity (TAlk) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in a well-studied coastal aquifer (Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts, USA). Groundwater samples were collected monthly from May 2009 to June 2010 across the freshwater-saltwater mixing zone of the Waquoit Bay (WB) STE. The concentrations of both TAlk and DIC in zero-salinity groundwater were variable, but were lower than those in the bay water (S ∼ 28). DIC underwent slightly non-conservative mixing between low and intermediate salinities while there was an apparent additional DIC source at high salinity (>20) in all seasons. TAlk concentrations exhibited even stronger variations, with evidence of both production and consumption in high salinity zones, and consistent TAlk consumption at intermediate salinity in summer and fall (June-December, 2009). The increases in DIC and TAlk at high salinity were attributed to aerobic respiration and denitrification in WB sediments during bay water recharge of the STE. We infer that the loss of TAlk at intermediate salinity reflects H+ production as reduced compounds (e.g. Fe2+) are oxidized within the STE. In terms of impacts on surface water inorganic carbon budgets, the SGD-derived DIC flux was mainly controlled by seasonal changes in SGD while a combination of TAlk concentration variability and SGD drove the TAlk flux. SGD-derived DIC, aqueous CO2, and H+ fluxes to the bay were ∼40-50% higher in summer vs. in winter, a result of enhanced marine groundwater flux and significant TAlk removal (proton addition) during periods of high seawater intrusion. Furthermore, the SGD-derived DIC flux was consistently greater than TAlk flux regardless of season, indicating that SGD serves to reduce the CO2 buffering capacity of surface water. Our

  8. Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A; Palamara, I; Caratelli, D; Morabito, F C

    2013-01-01

    Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated ones). Online measurements include both real-time and no real-time measurements. In general, it is difficult to implement real-time measurements in stricto sensu for online acquisitions on aqueous effluents since they need to be processed by a modeling. This research presents an experimental measurement system based on infrared (IR) spectroscopy for aqueous effluents containing hydrocarbons and capable of displaying excellent values of pollutant concentrations even in instable conditions; the system is able to detect pollutants either in laminar or turbulent flow. The results show the possibility of avoiding the use of "Pitot tube" that is employed to create a stagnation point in order to convert kinetic energy into potential one. This conversion allows the transformation of a turbulent flow in a laminar flow making easy measurement of pollutants included in an aqueous effluent. Obviously, "Pitot tube" is also used for other fluid effluents. The obtained results have been compared with those produced by means of sophisticated IR instrumentation for laboratory applications.

  9. Placentation in the Hottentot golden mole, Amblysomus hottentotus (Afrosoricida: Chrysochloridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, C J P; Carter, A M; Bennett, N C;

    2009-01-01

    The placentation of the Hottentot golden mole (Amblysomus hottentotus) has been examined using light and electron microscopy and lectin histochemistry of nine specimens at both mid and late gestation. The placentae were lobulated towards the allantoic surface and the lobules contained roughly par...

  10. Hydatidiform mole presentation as a tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakeer, Tabassum; Shahid, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Asad; Nakeer, Rooham

    2014-05-01

    Presentation of hydatidiform mole as tubal ectopic pregnancy is very rare. These patients usually present with ectopic pregnancy and are later diagnosed with hydatidiform mole on the basis of histological examination following surgery. We present the case of a 32-year-old female who presented with abdominal pain and vaginal bleed since 2 days of presentation. She was vitally stable. There was mild tenderness in hypogastrium and left iliac fossa. Pelvic examination showed mild bleeding per vaginum and fullness in both fornices. The patient was suspected of having an ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasonography of pelvis revealed fluid in cul-de-sac and a sac like mass of 1.8 cm attached to the left ovary. On laparotomy, there was a left sided tubal ectopic pregnancy and subsequently left salpingectomy was done. Histopathology of the tissue sample showed features of partial hydatidiform mole. Ectopic pregnancy can present as hydatidiform mole in rare cases for which histological examination of the tissue is required to establish the diagnosis.

  11. Seasonal changes in body composition of Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae): an herbivore subterranean rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, Juana C; López Mañanes, Alejandra A; Busch, Cristina

    2006-09-01

    Ctenomys talarum is a subterranean herbivorous rodent whose burrow systems exhibit particular characteristics, distinct from other subterranean environments. We studied seasonal variation in body composition of C. talarum in relation to energetic requirements. Body lipid content seasonally changed in C. talarum, related to reproductive cycle and thermorregulatory mechanisms. A decrease in protein body content was found only in spring. Ash content of females was lowest when most of them are in post partum estro. Observed variations in water body content could be associated with plant water content and/or metabolic regulation. Our results show the occurrence of seasonal variations in body composition in C. talarum, which could be related to the high cost of reproduction and the subterranean life style of this species.

  12. Subterranean species of Acipes Attems, 1937 (Diplopoda, Julida, Blaniulidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik; P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    Two new blind, cave-dwelling species of the genus Acipes Attems, 1937, are described from the Algarve, southern Portugal: A. machadoi n. sp. and A. bifilum n. sp. Acipes andalusius Enghoff & Mauriès, 1999, is reported from the mesovoid shallow substratum in Alicante (Spain), 250 km from the type...

  13. Linewidth Narrowing and Intensity Enhancement of Wavelength Tunable MOLEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Microcavity structure consisting of distributed Bragg reflector and metal aluminum mirror is designed. Using tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum as electron-transport layer and emissive layer, and N, N′-bis (3-methylphenyl)-N, N′-diphenylbenzidine as a hole-transport layer, microcavity organic light-emitting diodes(MOLEDs) are fabricated. Compared to the electroluminescence spectra of non-cavity OLEDs, the linewidth of the MOLEDs is compressed from 75 nm to 7 nm, and the peak intensity enhances by a factor of about 3. When the effective length of the microcavity is modified, resonance wavelength can be selectively scanned over a very wide range of wavelengths that cover almost 140 nm.

  14. Abraham Moles ou l’information et la communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mathien, Michel

    2014-01-01

    « Qui expose, s’expose ! », s’exclamait-il souvent. Avec la présente communication, l’auteur ne prend certainement pas la mesure du risque. Risque d’autant plus réel que ni la trajectoire ni l’appréhension des champs scientifiques d’Abraham Moles (1920-1992) ne correspondent totalement aux siennes. Bien qu’ayant passé une part de son cursus de formation en psychologie sociale sous la direction de Moles, l’auteur étudiait une « discipline » dont la conception était spécifique à son professeur....

  15. Unpacking the Meaning of the Mole Concept for Secondary School Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Su-Chi; Hart, Christina; Clarke, David

    2014-01-01

    The "mole" is a fundamental concept in quantitative chemistry, yet research has shown that the mole is one of the most perplexing concepts in the teaching and learning of chemistry. This paper provides a survey of the relevant literature, identifies the necessary components of a sound understanding of the mole concept, and unpacks and…

  16. Teaching the Mole Concept Using a Conceptual Change Method at College Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uce, Musa

    2009-01-01

    Chemistry is a subject area that is difficult to understand for some students as it contains abstract concepts, such as mole, molecule and particle. The mole concept is one of the most important topics in which students have difficulty in understanding. There are many studies in the literature on the mole concept. Students who do not fully…

  17. Immunohistochemical characterization of the chemosensory pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies in the naked mole-rat reveals a unique adaptive phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Pan

    Full Text Available The pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs constitute polymodal airway chemosensors for monitoring and signaling ambient gas concentrations (pO2, pCO2/H+ via complex innervation to the brain stem controlling breathing. NEBs produce the bioactive amine, serotonin (5-HT, and a variety of peptides with multiple effects on lung physiology and other organ systems. NEBs in mammals appear prominent and numerous during fetal and neonatal periods, and decline in the post-natal period suggesting an important role during perinatal adaptation. The naked mole-rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber, has adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of living in subterranean burrows in large colonies (up to 300 colony mates. The crowded, unventilated burrows are environments of severe hypoxia and hypercapnia. However, NMRs adjust readily to above ground conditions. The chemosensory NEBs of this species were characterized and compared to those of the conventional Wistar rat (WR to identify similarities and differences that could explain the NMR's adaptability to environments. A multilabel immunohistochemical analysis combined with confocal microscopy revealed that the expression patterns of amine, peptide, neuroendocrine, innervation markers and chemosensor component proteins in NEBs of NMR were similar to that of WR. However, we found the following differences: 1 NEBs in both neonatal and adult NMR lungs were significantly larger and more numerous as compared to WR; 2 NEBs in NMR had a more variable compact cell organization and exhibited significant differences in the expression of adhesion proteins; 3 NMR NEBs showed a significantly greater ratio of 5-HT positive cells with an abundance of 5-HT; 4 NEBs in NMR expressed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and the neurogenic gene (MASH1 indicating active proliferation and a state of persistent differentiation. Taken together our findings suggest that NEBs in lungs of NMR are in a hyperactive, functional

  18. Simulation study of territory size distributions in subterranean termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Wonju; Lee, Sang-Hee

    2011-06-21

    In this study, on the basis of empirical data, we have simulated the foraging tunnel patterns of two subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), using a two-dimensional model. We have defined a territory as a convex polygon containing a tunnel pattern and explored the effects of competition among termite territory colonies on the territory size distribution in the steady state that was attained after a sufficient simulation time. In the model, territorial competition was characterized by a blocking probability P(block) that quantitatively describes the ease with which a tunnel stops its advancement when it meets another tunnel; higher P(block) values imply easier termination. In the beginning of the simulation run, N=10, 20,…,100 territory seeds, representing the founding pair, were randomly distributed on a square area. When the territory density was less (N=20), the differences in the territory size distributions for different P(block) values were small because the territories had sufficient space to grow without strong competitions. Further, when the territory density was higher (N>20), the territory sizes increased in accordance with the combinational effect of P(block) and N. In order to understand these effects better, we introduced an interference coefficient γ. We mathematically derived γ as a function of P(block) and N: γ(N,P(block))=a(N)P(block)/(P(block)+b(N)). a(N) and b(N) are functions of N/(N+c) and d/(N+c), respectively, and c and d are constants characterizing territorial competition. The γ function is applicable to characterize the territoriality of various species and increases with both the P(block) values and N; higher γ values imply higher limitations of the network growth. We used the γ function, fitted the simulation results, and determined the c and d values. In addition, we have briefly discussed the predictability of the present model by comparing it with our previous lattice model

  19. Convergent Reduction of Ovariole Number Associated with Subterranean Life in Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faille, Arnaud; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Background Some species of obligate cavernicolous beetles are known to possess a unique feature—a contraction of the larval cycle. In contrast to many other subterranean beetles, life-cycle contraction in Trechini ground beetles (Carabidae) is correlated with a reduction in the number of eggs and a drastic reduction in the number of ovarioles. This remarkable peculiarity has only been reported for a small number of closely related species. Results We give a description of the female internal reproductive system for six species of Trechini, including five subterranean species, with a particular focus on the western Pyrenean radiation of Aphaenops, a group for which nothing is known regarding the early life stages. We redescribe the internal female genitalia of A. crypticola Linder. Study of the ovarioles allowed us to infer the postembryonic development of the larvae for each species examined. We then used a phylogenetic framework to recognize two independent reductions in the number of ovarioles in the Pyrenean lineage. We discuss the multiple convergent evolutions in ovariole number and the potential link between a reduction of ovariole number and troglobiomorphism in a phylogenetic context. Conclusions There is an extreme reduction in ovariole number and size within the species studied; the eggs produced by small ovarioles have a remarkably large size. A reduction to one ovariole has occurred independently at least twice in this subterranean group. A reduction in the number of ovarioles in ground beetles is one of the striking consequences of subterranean specialization and it is correlated with another remarkable adaptation of subterranean beetles, a reduction in the number of larval instars. PMID:26151557

  20. A content analysis of the presentation of the mole concept in chemistry textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staver, John R.; Lumpe, Andrew T.

    The goal of this study was to examine the means used by textbook authors to introduce, define, and explain the mole concept in high school and introductory college chemistry textbooks. The analysis was framed by four questions:1How is the mole defined?2What concepts about the atom are introduced prior to the mole?3Is Avogadro's constant presented as an experimentally determined value?4What is the context for introducing the mole?Twenty-nine high school and introductory college level chemistry texts were examined. After independent reading of appropriate sections of each text, discussion of differences, second or third readings of texts, and subsequent discussions, both authors reach 100% agreement concerning the results. Major conclusions were: Two ways of defining the mole dominate the texts. One way defines the mole as Avogadro's number (6.02 × 1023) particles; the other method defines the mole in terms of carbon-12. All texts that present a definition in terms of C-12 introduce and define concepts about the atom prior to introducing the mole. Most texts at all levels point out that the value 6.02 × 1023 is an experimentally determined quantity. Nearly all texts discuss the mole in relation to die problem of finding a way to count particles that are too small to be directly weighed. Most texts also use a familiar counting unit, such as the dozen, to introduce the mole by analogy. Four issues were discussed: (a) the defining attributes of the mole concept itself and the cognitive requirements for comprehending the two most frequently used definitions; (b) the connection between the definition of the mole presented in the text and the concepts about atoms that are introduced before the mole concept is developed; (c) the experimental nature of Avogadro's number; and (d) the context or setting for developing the mole concept.

  1. Rana iberica (Boulenger, 1879 goes underground: subterranean habitat usage and new insights on natural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Reports of amphibians exploiting subterranean habitats are common, with salamanders being the most frequent and studied inhabitants. Anurans can occasionally be observed in caves and other subterranean habitats, but in contrast to salamanders, breeding had never been reported in a cave or similar subterranean habitat in Western Europe. Based on observations during visits to a drainage gallery in Serra da Estrela, Portugal, from May 2010 to December 2012, here we document: (i first report of Rana iberica reproduction in cave-like habitat, representing the fourth report of an anuran for the Palearctic ecozone; (ii oophagic habits of the tadpoles of R. iberica; and (iii Salamandra salamandra predation on R. iberica larvae. These observations, particularly of R. iberica, highlight our lack of knowledge of subterranean ecosystems in the Iberian Peninsula.

  2. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2016-12-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  3. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  4. Blind system identification

    OpenAIRE

    Abed-Meriam, Karim; Qui, Wanzhi; Hua, Yingbo

    1997-01-01

    Blind system identification (BSI) is a fundamental signal processing technology aimed at retrieving a system's unknown information from its output only. This technology has a wide range of possible applications such as mobile communications, speech reverberation cancellation, and blind image restoration. This paper reviews a number of recently developed concepts and techniques for BSI, which include the concept of blind system identifiability in a deterministic framework, the blind techniques...

  5. The risk of persistent trophoblastic disease after hydatidiform mole classified by morphology and ploidy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Isa; Hansen, Estrid S; Sunde, Lone

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hydatidiform mole can be classified by histopathologic characteristics and by genetic constitutions and most complete moles are diploid, whereas most partial moles are triploid. We investigated the concordance between these two classifications, characterized moles with conflicting...... classifications, and compared the ability of the two classifications to discriminate between patients with and without a substantial risk of persistent trophoblastic disease. METHODS: 294 cases of consecutively collected hydropic placentas clinically suspected of hydatidiform mole made the basis...... of this retrospective study. We determined the ploidy and reviewed the original histopathologic material in all cases. Data on possible chemotherapy were collected for each patient. RESULTS: 270 of the conceptuses were histopathologically classified as hydatidiform mole. Among the 24 conceptuses classified as non...

  6. The subterranean fauna of a biodiversity hotspot region - Portugal: an overview and its conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reboleira Ana Sofia P.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the obligate hypogean fauna in Portugal (including Azores and Madeira archipelagos is provided, with a list of obligated cave-dwelling species and subspecies, and a general perspective about its conservation. All the available literature on subterranean Biology of Portugal since the first written record in 1870 until today has been revised. A total of 43 troglobiont and 67 stygobiont species and subspecies from 12 orders have been described so far in these areas, included in the so-called Mediterranean hotspot of biodiversity. The subterranean fauna in Portugal has been considered moderately poor with some endemic relicts and it remains to be demonstrated if this fact is still true after investing in standard surveys in cave environments. The major problems related to the conservation of cave fauna are discussed, but it is clear that the protection of this specialized fauna implies an adequate management of surface habitats.

  7. Biogas production using anaerobic groundwater containing a subterranean microbial community associated with the accretionary prism

    OpenAIRE

    Baito, Kyohei; Imai, Satomi; Matsushita, Makoto; Otani, Miku; Sato, Yu; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    In a deep aquifer associated with an accretionary prism, significant methane (CH4) is produced by a subterranean microbial community. Here, we developed bioreactors for producing CH4 and hydrogen (H2) using anaerobic groundwater collected from the deep aquifer. To generate CH4, the anaerobic groundwater amended with organic substrates was incubated in the bioreactor. At first, H2 was detected and accumulated in the gas phase of the bioreactor. After the H2 decreased, rapid CH4 production was ...

  8. High molecular weight hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole-rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Hine, Christopher; Vaidya, Amita; Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Ablaeva, Julia; Mao, Zhiyong; Nevo, Eviatar; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years1–3. This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole-rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years4,5. In addition to their longevity, naked mole-rats show an unusual resistance to cancer. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single incidence of cancer2,6. Here we identify a mechanism responsible for the naked mole-rat’s cancer resistance. We found that naked mole-rat fibroblasts secrete extremely high molecular weight hyaluronan (HA), which is over five times larger than human or mouse HA. This high molecular weight HA accumulates abundantly in naked mole rat tissues due to the decreased activity of HA-degrading enzymes and a unique sequence of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). Furthermore, the naked mole-rat cells are more sensitive to HA signaling, as the naked mole rat cells have a higher affinity to HA than the mouse or human cells. Perturbation of the signaling pathways sufficient for malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts fails to transform naked mole-rat cells. However, once high molecular weight HA is removed by either knocking down HAS2 or overexpressing the HA-degrading enzyme, Hyal2, naked mole-rat cells become susceptible to malignant transformation and readily form tumors in mice. We speculate that naked mole-rats have evolved a higher concentration of HA in the skin to provide skin elasticity needed for life in underground tunnels. This trait may have then been co-opted to provide cancer resistance and longevity to this species. PMID:23783513

  9. Selective binocular vision loss in two subterranean caviomorph rodents: Spalacopus cyanus and Ctenomys talarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Zuniga, T.; Medina, F. S.; Marín, G.; Letelier, J. C.; Palacios, A. G.; Němec, P.; Schleich, C. E.; Mpodozis, J.

    2017-01-01

    To what extent can the mammalian visual system be shaped by visual behavior? Here we analyze the shape of the visual fields, the densities and distribution of cells in the retinal ganglion-cell layer and the organization of the visual projections in two species of facultative non-strictly subterranean rodents, Spalacopus cyanus and Ctenomys talarum, aiming to compare these traits with those of phylogenetically closely related species possessing contrasting diurnal/nocturnal visual habits. S. cyanus shows a definite zone of frontal binocular overlap and a corresponding area centralis, but a highly reduced amount of ipsilateral retinal projections. The situation in C. talarum is more extreme as it lacks of a fronto-ventral area of binocular superposition, has no recognizable area centralis and shows no ipsilateral retinal projections except to the suprachiasmatic nucleus. In both species, the extension of the monocular visual field and of the dorsal region of binocular overlap as well as the whole set of contralateral visual projections, appear well-developed. We conclude that these subterranean rodents exhibit, paradoxically, diurnal instead of nocturnal visual specializations, but at the same time suffer a specific regression of the anatomical substrate for stereopsis. We discuss these findings in light of the visual ecology of subterranean lifestyles. PMID:28150809

  10. Draft genome sequence of subterranean clover, a reference for genus Trifolium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Kaur, Parwinder; Shirasawa, Kenta; Nichols, Phillip; Nagano, Soichiro; Appels, Rudi; Erskine, William; Isobe, Sachiko N.

    2016-01-01

    Clovers (genus Trifolium) are widely cultivated across the world as forage legumes and make a large contribution to livestock feed production and soil improvement. Subterranean clover (T. subterraneum L.) is well suited for genomic and genetic studies as a reference species in the Trifolium genus, because it is an annual with a simple genome structure (autogamous and diploid), unlike the other economically important perennial forage clovers, red clover (T. pratense) and white clover (T. repens). This report represents the first draft genome sequence of subterranean clover. The 471.8 Mb assembled sequence covers 85.4% of the subterranean clover genome and contains 42,706 genes. Eight pseudomolecules of 401.1 Mb in length were constructed, based on a linkage map consisting of 35,341 SNPs. The comparative genomic analysis revealed that different clover chromosomes showed different degrees of conservation with other Papilionoideae species. These results provide a reference for genetic and genomic analyses in the genus Trifolium and new insights into evolutionary divergence in Papilionoideae species. PMID:27545089

  11. Safe caves and dangerous forests? Predation risk may contribute to salamander colonization of subterranean habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvidio, Sebastiano; Palumbi, Giulia; Romano, Antonio; Costa, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that many organisms actively colonize the subterranean environment to avoid climatic stress, exploit new ecological opportunities and reduce competition and predation. Terrestrial salamanders are known to colonize the more stable subterranean habitats mainly to escape external climatic extremes, while the role of predation avoidance remains untested. To better understand the importance of predation, we used clay models of the cave salamander Speleomantes strinatii to compare the predation occurring in woodland and subterranean habitats. Models were positioned in three forests and in three caves in NW Italy. One-hundred eighty-four models were retrieved from the field and 59 (32%) were attacked by predators. Models were attacked on their head more often than expected by chance and, therefore, were perceived by predators as real prey items. In the woodlands, clay models showed a four-time higher probability of being attacked in comparison to caves, suggesting a different level of potential predation risk in these surface habitats. These findings are one of the first experimental evidences that, in terrestrial ecosystems, predation avoidance may contribute to the salamander underground colonization process.

  12. High-molecular-mass hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Hine, Christopher; Vaidya, Amita; Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Ablaeva, Julia; Mao, Zhiyong; Nevo, Eviatar; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-07-18

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years. This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years. In addition to their longevity, naked mole rats show an unusual resistance to cancer. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single incidence of cancer. Here we identify a mechanism responsible for the naked mole rat's cancer resistance. We found that naked mole-rat fibroblasts secrete extremely high-molecular-mass hyaluronan (HA), which is over five times larger than human or mouse HA. This high-molecular-mass HA accumulates abundantly in naked mole-rat tissues owing to the decreased activity of HA-degrading enzymes and a unique sequence of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). Furthermore, the naked mole-rat cells are more sensitive to HA signalling, as they have a higher affinity to HA compared with mouse or human cells. Perturbation of the signalling pathways sufficient for malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts fails to transform naked mole-rat cells. However, once high-molecular-mass HA is removed by either knocking down HAS2 or overexpressing the HA-degrading enzyme, HYAL2, naked mole-rat cells become susceptible to malignant transformation and readily form tumours in mice. We speculate that naked mole rats have evolved a higher concentration of HA in the skin to provide skin elasticity needed for life in underground tunnels. This trait may have then been co-opted to provide cancer resistance and longevity to this species.

  13. The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource: facilitating analyses of cancer and longevity-related adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael; Craig, Thomas; Alföldi, Jessica; Berlin, Aaron M.; Johnson, Jeremy; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Di Palma, Federica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Church, George M.; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is an exceptionally long-lived and cancer-resistant rodent native to East Africa. Although its genome was previously sequenced, here we report a new assembly sequenced by us with substantially higher N50 values for scaffolds and contigs. Results: We analyzed the annotation of this new improved assembly and identified candidate genomic adaptations which may have contributed to the evolution of the naked mole rat’s extraordinary traits, including in regions of p53, and the hyaluronan receptors CD44 and HMMR (RHAMM). Furthermore, we developed a freely available web portal, the Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource (http://www.naked-mole-rat.org), featuring the data and results of our analysis, to assist researchers interested in the genome and genes of the naked mole rat, and also to facilitate further studies on this fascinating species. Availability and implementation: The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource is freely available online at http://www.naked-mole-rat.org. This resource is open source and the source code is available at https://github.com/maglab/naked-mole-rat-portal. Contact: jp@senescence.info PMID:25172923

  14. What's the Diagnosis? An Inquiry-Based Activity Focusing on Mole-Mass Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2011-01-01

    An inquiry-based mole-to-mass activity is presented associated with the analysis of blood. Students working in groups choose between two medical cases to determine if the "patient" has higher or lower concentrations of minerals than normal. The data are presented such that students must convert moles to mass in order to compare the patient values…

  15. Hydatidiform mole and fetus with normal karyotype: support of a separate entity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejerslev, L O; Sunde, L; Hansen, B F

    1991-01-01

    Repetitive hydatidiform mole was observed in four pregnancies. The pregnancies presented with heavy bleeding and vomiting, but the post-evacuation courses were uncomplicated, with rapid regression of serum hCG levels. Cytogenetic investigations, analyses of restriction fragment length polymorphis...... within hydatidiform mole. Following chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis, continued pregnancy may be considered, depending on prenatal diagnosis including genetic marker analysis....

  16. Hydatidiform mole and fetus with normal karyotype: support of a separate entity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejerslev, L O; Sunde, L; Hansen, B F;

    1991-01-01

    Repetitive hydatidiform mole was observed in four pregnancies. The pregnancies presented with heavy bleeding and vomiting, but the post-evacuation courses were uncomplicated, with rapid regression of serum hCG levels. Cytogenetic investigations, analyses of restriction fragment length polymorphisms...... analysis was consistent with a single conception. With incomplete genetic information, a hydatidiform mole with coexistent normal fetus is generally considered to result from dizygous twinning comprising an androgenetic complete mole and a normal conception. In the present gestations, the results based...... on several techniques applied on numerous samples from different tissues render this possibility unlikely. Some of the contradictions between histologic and cytogenetic classifications of hydatidiform mole may be explained by diploid, biparental partial mole, which seems to constitute a separate subgroup...

  17. Convergence vs. Specialization in the ear region of moles (Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpton, Nick; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Asher, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    We investigated if and how the inner ear region undergoes similar adaptations in small, fossorial, insectivoran-grade mammals, and found a variety of inner ear phenotypes. In our sample, afrotherian moles (Chrysochloridae) and the marsupial Notoryctes differ from most other burrowing mammals in their relatively short radii of semicircular canal curvature; chrysochlorids and fossorial talpids share a relatively long interampullar width. Chrysochlorids are unique in showing a highly coiled cochlea with nearly four turns. Extensive cochlear coiling may reflect their greater ecological dependence on low frequency auditory cues compared to talpids, tenrecids, and the marsupial Notoryctes. Correspondingly, the lack of such extensive coiling in the inner ear of other fossorial species may indicate a greater reliance on other senses to enable their fossorial lifestyle, such as tactile sensation from vibrissae and Eimer's organs. The reliance of chrysochlorids on sound is evident in the high degree of coiling and in the diversity of its mallear types, and may help explain the lack of any semiaquatic members of that group. The simplest mallear types among chrysochlorids are not present in the basal-most members of that clade, but all extant chrysochlorids investigated to date exhibit extensive cochlear coiling. The chrysochlorid ear region thus exhibits mosaic evolution; our data suggest that extensive coiling evolved in chrysochlorids prior to and independently of diversification in middle ear ossicle size and shape.

  18. Eye development in the Cape dune mole rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Natalya V; Kidson, Susan H

    2014-03-01

    Studies on mammalian species with naturally reduced eyes can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary developmental mechanisms underlying the reduction of the eye structures. Because few naturally microphthalmic animals have been studied and eye reduction must have evolved independently in many of the modern groups, novel evolutionary developmental models for eye research have to be sought. Here, we present a first report on embryonic eye development in the Cape dune mole rat, Bathyergus suillus. The eyes of these animals contain all the internal structures characteristic of the normal eye but exhibit abnormalities in the anterior chamber structures. The lens is small but develops normally and exhibits a normal expression of α- and γ-crystallins. One of the interesting features of these animals is an extremely enlarged and highly pigmented ciliary body. In order to understand the molecular basis of this unusual feature, the expression pattern of an early marker of the ciliary zone, Ptmb4, was investigated in this animal. Surprisingly, in situ hybridization results revealed that Ptmb4 expression was absent from the ciliary body zone of the developing Bathyergus eye.

  19. Traceability of pH to the Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Camões

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Free acidity of aqueous solutions was initially defined in 1909 by Søren Peter Lauritz Sørensen as pH = −lgcH+ (c/mol·dm−3 or m/mol·kg−1 of the free hydrogen ions in solution, H+ soon (1910 was changed to pH = paH+ = −lgaH+, integrating the new concepts of activity, ai and activity coefficient γi, for the ionic species i under concern, H+ in this case; it is ai = −lg(miγi. Since individual ions do not exist alone in solution, primary pH values cannot be assigned solely by experimental measurements, requiring extra thermodynamic model assumptions for the activity coefficient, γH+, which has put pH in a unique situation of not being fully traceable to the International System of Units (SI. Also the concept of activity is often not felt to be as perceptible as that of concentration which may present difficulties, namely with the interpretation of data. pH measurements on unknown samples rely on calibration of the measuring setup with adequate reference pH buffers. In this work, the assignment of pH values to buffers closely matching the samples, e.g., seawater, is revisited. An approach is presented to assess the quantity pmH+ = −lgmH+ profiting from the fact that, contrary to single ion activity coefficients, mean activity coefficients,   can be assessed based on experimentally assessed quantities alone, γExp ±, thus ensuring traceability to the mole, the SI base unit for amount of substance. Compatibility between γExp ± and mean activity coefficient calculated by means of Pitzer model equations, γPtz ±, validates the model for its intended use.

  20. Remarks on the earthworm genus Helodrilus Hoffmeister, 1845 with new epigean and subterranean records (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea Szederjesi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The earthworm genus Helodrilus Hoffmeister, 1845 is shortly reviewed. Its special semi-aquatic and subterranean way of life and its consequences to the taxonomy of the genus is discussed. Several new occurrences of some little-known Helodrilus species are given including new country records of H. oculatus for Hungary and H. putricola putricola for Portugal. Examining a topotype of H. hachiojii revealed presence of saccular nephridial bladders consequently, here we propose its transposal to the genus Eisenia as E. hachiojii (Blakemore, 2007 comb. nov.

  1. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, a new subterranean loach from Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei; Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir; Ararat, Korsh; Ibrahim, Hamad; Geiger, Matthias F

    2016-10-04

    Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, new species, is described from subterranean waters in the Little Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. After the discovery of E. smithi in 1976, E. proudlovei is the second troglomorphic nemacheilid loach found in the Middle East and the second species placed in Eidinemacheilus. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei is distinguished from E. smithi by having 8+8 or 8+7 branched caudal-fin rays, no adipose keel on the caudal peduncle, enlarged jaws and a fully developed head canal system. It furthers differs substantially in its DNA barcode (>8% K2P distance) from all other nemacheilid loaches in the Middle East, Europe and Western India.

  2. Blindness and vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... means you cannot see anything and DO NOT see light. (Most people who use the term "blindness" mean ... the vision loss. For long-term vision loss, see a low-vision specialist, who can help you learn to care for yourself and ... of vision; No light perception (NLP); Low vision; Vision loss and blindness ...

  3. Blindness%失明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同良

    2009-01-01

    @@ There was a blind girl who hated herself because she was blind. She hated everyone,except her loving boyfriend who was always there for her. She told her boyfriend, "If I could only see the World, I will marry you."

  4. Blindness and Yoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Anthony David

    1974-01-01

    Evidence is presented to support the claims that, among many blind persons, physical inactivity leads to poor physical fitness; that a state of anxiety is often a concomitant of unguided blind mobility; and that Yogic practices offer a solution to both difficulties. (GW)

  5. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  6. Blind Pre-School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Billie, Comp.

    Articles pertinent to aiding the pre-school blind child are collected in this publication. Topics include discussion of attitudes and emotional reactions important for parents and teachers of blind children, and optimal development in regard to early motor behavior and emotional and social needs. Common areas of parental concern such as discipline…

  7. Assessment of naked mole-rat distribution and threats in Eastern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengistu Wale; Abeje Kassie; Tesfu Fekensa

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To identify the distribution, threats and community attitudes towards naked mole-rat in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: Data were collected through direct observation and interview andChi-square at 95% confidence interval was used for significance test. Results:Naked mole-rat was identified in Fafan, City/Shinele,Eastern Hararghe Zone and Dire Dawa Administrative. The main threats of naked mole-rat identified were agricultural expansion, human killing and lack of awareness. Froma total of 100 respondents, 92% of them considered naked mole-rat as pest as a result that 46% of them participated in direct killing. Literacy rate significantly affects thewillingness to participate in the conservation of naked mole-rat (χ2 = 7.478,df = 1,P Conclusions:Naked mole-rat is fairly common in many of the study sites. However, rapid shift from nomadic life style to cultivation of crops and lacks of awareness were the main threats of naked mole-rat. Therefore, since there is no conservation action currently, further comprehensive study is required to design conservation plan for this species.

  8. Urban, Indoor and Subterranean Navigation Sensors and Systems (Capteurs et systemes de navigation urbains, interieurs et souterrains)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    SET-114 Urban, Indoor and Subterranean Navigation Sensors and Systems ( Capteurs et systèmes de navigation urbains, intérieurs et souterrains...SET-114 Urban, Indoor and Subterranean Navigation Sensors and Systems ( Capteurs et systèmes de navigation urbains, intérieurs et souterrains...1 2.1.3 Session 4: Simulation and Testing 2-2 2.1.4 Session 5: Military Systems and Applications 2-2 2.1.5 Session 6: Robust GNSS Integration

  9. Models for the blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Jan-Eric

    2014-01-01

    When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind...... person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical...... background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material...

  10. Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Park

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes "normal" mammalian nociception.

  11. Pregnancy outcome with coexisting mole after intracytoplasmic sperm injection: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha R Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial/complete hydatidiform mole with coexisting fetus is a rare condition. Optimal management is a challenge that remains a dilemma since these pregnancies are associated with maternal as well as fetal complications including hemorrhage, preeclampsia, thromboembolic disease, intra uterine demise and increased risk of persistent trophoblastic disease. Here we report 2 cases of partial mole with live fetus after ICSI and a case of complete mole with coexisting fetus after ICSI in a turner mosaic that resulted in a live birth.

  12. Invasive mole of the uterus: A description of two cases managed by hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Samy El-agwany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD is a term used for a group of pregnancy-related tumors. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN, is recognized as the most curable gynecologic malignancy. However, many cases are resistant to first line chemotherapy. We present cases of invasive mole. They were diagnosed as a vesicular mole on ultrasonography and underwent suction and evacuation but vaginal bleeding recurred with plateau and rising B-hcg with intramyometrial vascular lesion. Hysterectomy was done that indicated invasive mole. Patients were cured of their symptoms. Surgical therapy (hysterectomy with chemotherapy has shown to achieve remission in these cases especially with resistance to chemotherapy and in perimenopause.

  13. What Are Students' Initial Ideas about "Amount of Substance"? "Is There a Specific Weight for a Mole?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesgens, Jennifer; Stacy, Angelica

    Analyzes the role of students' prior knowledge in their emerging understanding of the mole. The research question this study seeks to answer is what knowledge, if any, do student have regarding the mole and what prior knowledge do they access when presented problems regarding the nature of the mole. Data collection focuses on student knowledge…

  14. Biogas production using anaerobic groundwater containing a subterranean microbial community associated with the accretionary prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baito, Kyohei; Imai, Satomi; Matsushita, Makoto; Otani, Miku; Sato, Yu; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    In a deep aquifer associated with an accretionary prism, significant methane (CH₄) is produced by a subterranean microbial community. Here, we developed bioreactors for producing CH₄ and hydrogen (H₂) using anaerobic groundwater collected from the deep aquifer. To generate CH₄, the anaerobic groundwater amended with organic substrates was incubated in the bioreactor. At first, H₂ was detected and accumulated in the gas phase of the bioreactor. After the H₂ decreased, rapid CH₄ production was observed. Phylogenetic analysis targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that the H₂ -producing fermentative bacterium and hydrogenotrophic methanogen were predominant in the reactor. The results suggested that syntrophic biodegradation of organic substrates by the H₂ -producing fermentative bacterium and the hydrogenotrophic methanogen contributed to the CH₄ production. For H₂ production, the anaerobic groundwater, amended with organic substrates and an inhibitor of methanogens (2-bromoethanesulfonate), was incubated in a bioreactor. After incubation for 24 h, H₂ was detected from the gas phase of the bioreactor and accumulated. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene analysis suggested the dominance of the H₂ -producing fermentative bacterium in the reactor. Our study demonstrated a simple and rapid CH4 and H2 production utilizing anaerobic groundwater containing an active subterranean microbial community.

  15. Sharing the space: distribution, habitat segregation and delimitation of a new sympatric area of subterranean rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Busnello Kubiak

    Full Text Available Subterranean rodents of the genus Ctenomys usually present an allopatric or parapatric distribution. Currently, two cases of sympatry have been recognized for the genus in the coastal dunes of southern Argentina and southern Brazil. In this context, they are ideal models to test hypotheses about the factors that delimit the patterns of space use and to understand interspecific interactions in small mammals. We investigated the vegetation structure, plant biomass and soil hardness selected by two species of subterranean rodents (Ctenomys flamarioni and C. minutus when distributed in sympatry and allopatry from nine different areas along the line of coastal dunes in southern Brazil. In addition, our work presents a new record of a third area of sympatry for the genus Ctenomys. Ctenomys flamarioni and C. minutus show habitat segregation in the area where they occur in sympatry. These species show segregation in their selection of microhabitats, differing in relation to soil hardness, plant biomass, and plant cover. Ctenomys flamarioni showed a distinction in habitat selection when occurring in allopatry and sympatry, whereas C. minutus selected the same habitat characteristics under both conditions. A possible explanation to the observed pattern is that these species have acquired different adaptations over time which allows them the ability to exploit different resources and thus avoid competitive interactions all together.

  16. Modeling natural photic entrainment in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti, the Tuco-Tuco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo E F L Flôres

    Full Text Available Subterranean rodents spend most of the day inside underground tunnels, where there is little daily change in environmental variables. Our observations of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti in a field enclosure indicated that these animals perceive the aboveground light-dark cycle by several bouts of light-exposure at irregular times during the light hours of the day. To assess whether such light-dark pattern acts as an entraining agent of the circadian clock, we first constructed in laboratory the Phase Response Curve for 1 h light-pulses (1000lux. Its shape is qualitatively similar to other curves reported in the literature and to our knowledge it is the first Phase Response Curve of a subterranean rodent. Computer simulations were performed with a non-linear limit-cycle oscillator subjected to a simple model of the light regimen experienced by tuco-tucos. Results showed that synchronization is achieved even by a simple regimen of a single daily light pulse scattered uniformly along the light hours of the day. Natural entrainment studies benefit from integrated laboratory, field and computational approaches.

  17. Molecular identification of Taenia mustelae cysts in subterranean rodent plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Ma, Jun-Ying; Cai, Hui-Xia; Su, Jian-Ping; Hou, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Tong-Zuo; Lin, Gong-Hua

    2014-07-01

    Cestode larvae spend one phase of their two-phase life cycle in the viscera of rodents, but cases of cestodes infecting subterranean rodents have only been rarely observed. To experimentally gain some insight into this phenomenon, we captured approximately 300 plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi), a typical subterranean rodent inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and examined their livers for the presence of cysts. Totally, we collected five cysts, and using a mitochondrial gene (cox1) and two nuclear genes (pepck and pold) as genetic markers, we were able to analyze the taxonomy of the cysts. Both the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods showed that the cysts share a monophyly with Taenia mustelae, while Kimura 2-parameter distances and number of different sites between our sequences and T. mustelae were far less than those found between the examined sequences and other Taeniidae species. These results, alongside supporting paraffin section histology, imply that the cysts found in plateau zokors can be regarded as larvae of T. mustelae, illustrating that zokors are a newly discovered intermediate host record of this parasite.

  18. Evaluation of vetiver oil and seven insect-active essential oils against the Formosan subterranean termite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, B C; Henderson, G; Chen, F; Fei, H; Laine, R A

    2001-08-01

    Repellency and toxicity of 8 essential oils (vetiver grass, cassia leaf, clove bud, cedarwood, Eucalyptus globules, Eucalyptus citrodora, lemongrass and geranium) were evaluated against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Vetiver oil proved the most effective repellent because of its long-lasting activity. Clove bud was the most toxic, killing 100% of termites in 2 days at 50 micrograms/cm2. The tunneling response of termites to vetiver oil also was examined. Vetiver oil decreased termite tunneling activity at concentrations as low as 5 micrograms/g sand. Tunneling and paper consumption were not observed when vetiver oil concentrations were higher than 25 micrograms/g sand. Bioactivity of the 8 oils against termites and chemical volatility were inversely associated. Listed in decreasing order of volatility, the major constituents of the 8 oils were: eucalyptol, citronellal, citral, citronellol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, thujopsene, and both alpha- and beta-vetivone. Vetivor oil is a promising novel termiticide with reduced environmental impact for use against subterranean termites.

  19. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

    2001-04-01

    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo.

  20. Entrainment of circadian rhythms to irregular light/dark cycles: a subterranean perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Jannetti, Milene G; Valentinuzzi, Veronica S; Oda, Gisele A

    2016-10-04

    Synchronization of biological rhythms to the 24-hour day/night has long been studied with model organisms, under artificial light/dark cycles in the laboratory. The commonly used rectangular light/dark cycles, comprising hours of continuous light and darkness, may not be representative of the natural light exposure for most species, including humans. Subterranean rodents live in dark underground tunnels and offer a unique opportunity to investigate extreme mechanisms of photic entrainment in the wild. Here, we show automated field recordings of the daily light exposure patterns in a South American subterranean rodent, the tuco-tuco (Ctenomys aff. knighti ). In the laboratory, we exposed tuco-tucos to a simplified version of this natural light exposure pattern, to determine the minimum light timing information that is necessary for synchronization. As predicted from our previous studies using mathematical modeling, the activity rhythm of tuco-tucos synchronized to this mostly simplified light/dark regimen consisting of a single light pulse per day, occurring at randomly scattered times within a day length interval. Our integrated semi-natural, lab and computer simulation findings indicate that photic entrainment of circadian oscillators is robust, even in face of artificially reduced exposure and increased phase instability of the synchronizing stimuli.

  1. Trace element geochemistry of groundwater in a karst subterranean estuary (Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonneea, Meagan Eagle; Charette, Matthew A.; Liu, Qian; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A.; Morales-Ojeda, Sara M.

    2014-05-01

    Trace element cycling within subterranean estuaries frequently alters the chemical signature of groundwater and may ultimately control the total chemical load to the coastal ocean associated with submarine groundwater discharge. Globally, karst landscapes occur over 12% of all coastlines. Subterranean estuaries in these regions are highly permeable, resulting in rapid infiltration of precipitation and transport of groundwater to the coast, and the predominant carbonate minerals are readily soluble. We studied the chemical cycling of barium (Ba), strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), uranium (U), calcium (Ca) and radium (Ra) within the carbonate karst subterranean estuary of the Yucatan Peninsula, which is characterized by a terrestrial groundwater lens overlying marine groundwater intrusion with active submarine discharge through coastal springs. Terrestrial groundwater calcium (1-5 mmol kg-1) and alkalinity (3-8 mmol kg-1) are enriched over that predicted by equilibrium between recharging precipitation and calcite, which can be accounted for by groundwater organic matter respiration and subsequent dissolution of calcite, dolomite and gypsum. There is a close agreement between the observed terrestrial groundwater Sr/Ca, Mn/Ca, Ba/Ca and Ra/Ca and that predicted by equilibrium dissolution of calcite, thus the trace element content of terrestrial groundwater is largely determined by mineral dissolution. Subsequent mixing between terrestrial groundwater and the ocean within the actively discharging springs is characterized by conservative mixing of Sr, Mn, Ba and Ca, while U is variable and Ra displays a large enrichment (salinity: 1.9-34.9, Ba: 60-300 nmol kg-1, Sr: 15-110 μmol kg-1, U: 0.3-35 nmol kg-1, Mn: 0.3-200 nmol kg-1, Ca: 4.3-12.9 mmol kg-1, 226Ra: 18-2140 dpm 100 L-1). The deep groundwater sampled through cenotes, local dissolution features, is typified by elevated Ba, Sr, Ca, Mn and Ra and the absence of U within marine groundwater, due to enhanced dissolution

  2. Static analysis for blinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    operation blinding. In this paper we study the theoretical foundations for one of the successful approaches to validating cryptographic protocols and we extend it to handle the blinding primitive. Our static analysis approach is based on Flow Logic; this gives us a clean separation between the specification...... of the analysis and its realisation in an automatic tool. We concentrate on the former in the present paper and provide the semantic foundation for our analysis of protocols using blinding - also in the presence of malicious attackers....

  3. Perimenopausal invasive hyadatidiform mole treated by total abdominal hysterectomy followed by chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Ayaka; Miyoshi, Ai; Miyatake, Takashi; Kazuhide, Ogita; Takeshi, Yokoi

    2016-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasias (GTNs) are rare tumors that constitute mole of the uterus with metastasis to the right ovary and labium minus treated by total abdominal hysterectomy followed by chemotherapy. PMID:27651108

  4. Hypersensitivity to contact inhibition provides a clue to cancer resistance of naked mole-rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seluanov, Andrei; Hine, Christopher; Azpurua, Jorge; Feigenson, Marina; Bozzella, Michael; Mao, Zhiyong; Catania, Kenneth C.; Gorbunova, Vera

    2009-01-01

    The naked mole-rat is the longest living rodent with a maximum lifespan exceeding 28 years. In addition to its longevity, naked mole-rats have an extraordinary resistance to cancer as tumors have never been observed in these rodents. Furthermore, we show that a combination of activated Ras and SV40 LT fails to induce robust anchorage-independent growth in naked mole-rat cells, while it readily transforms mouse fibroblasts. The mechanisms responsible for the cancer resistance of naked mole-rats were unknown. Here we show that naked mole-rat fibroblasts display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition, a phenomenon we termed “early contact inhibition.” Contact inhibition is a key anticancer mechanism that arrests cell division when cells reach a high density. In cell culture, naked mole-rat fibroblasts arrest at a much lower density than those from a mouse. We demonstrate that early contact inhibition requires the activity of p53 and pRb tumor suppressor pathways. Inactivation of both p53 and pRb attenuates early contact inhibition. Contact inhibition in human and mouse is triggered by the induction of p27Kip1. In contrast, early contact inhibition in naked mole-rat is associated with the induction of p16Ink4a. Furthermore, we show that the roles of p16Ink4a and p27Kip1 in the control of contact inhibition became temporally separated in this species: the early contact inhibition is controlled by p16Ink4a, and regular contact inhibition is controlled by p27Kip1. We propose that the additional layer of protection conferred by two-tiered contact inhibition contributes to the remarkable tumor resistance of the naked mole-rat. PMID:19858485

  5. RBM10 in complete hydatidiform mole: cytoplasmic occurrence of its 50 kDa polypeptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Inoue

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: RNA-binding motif protein 10 (RBM10, originally identified as S1-1 protein, is a nuclear protein with likely functions in transcription and RNA splicing. The RBM10 gene maps to the X chromosome and, in female cells, is inactivated in one of the two X chromosomes near the boundary with genes escaping inactivation. This study investigated the occurrence of the RBM10 gene product in complete hydatidiform mole, which is composed of cells with paternal diploid chromosomes (46, XX. Methods: Deparaffinized normal chorion or complete hydatidiform mole tissues were hybridized with a fluorescein-conjugated RBM10 gene probe in fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH analysis. Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy of the tissues were performed using an anti-RBM10 antiserum. Proteins from complete hydatidiform mole tissues and those separated by anti-RBM10-linked affinity chromatography were also examined by western blotting. Results: As expected, the RBM10 gene was detected by FISH as double spots in the nuclei of complete hydatidiform mole cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed a nuclear presence of RBM10 in normal chorion and complete hydatidiform moles, and a notable cytoplasmic presence in complete hydatidiform moles. Western blotting and immunoaffinity chromatography revealed that a 50 kDa protein was predominantly found in the cytosolic fraction of complete hydatidiform moles. Conclusions: A 50 kDa protein with common antigenicity to RBM10 was found in the cytoplasm of complete hydatidiform mole cells, and could represent one of the characteristics of the disease. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 114-118

  6. Area-Wide Management of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in the New Orleans French Quarter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (FST) was first introduced to the continental US after WWII. New Orleans’ French Quarter (FQ) in particular has been severely impacted experiencing reoccurring cycles of damages and repairs since FST was introduced to the region 65 ye...

  7. Modeling biogeochemical processes in subterranean estuaries : Effect of flow dynamics and redox conditions on submarine groundwater discharge of nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiteri, C.; Slomp, C.P.; Tuncay, K.; Meile, C.

    2008-01-01

    A two-dimensional density-dependent reactive transport model, which couples groundwater flow and biogeochemical reactions, is used to investigate the fate of nutrients (NO3 −, NH4 +, and PO4) in idealized subterranean estuaries representing four end-members of oxic/anoxic aquifer and seawater redox

  8. Improved mortality of the Formosan subterranean termite by fungi, when amended with cuticle-degrading enzymes or eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formosan subterranean termites (FST) were exposed to spores of the fungus Beauveria pseudobassiana (Bpb) strain 8046 to determine virulence of the fungus. Once Bpb was determined to cause mortality of FST it was combined with enzymes capable of degrading the insect cuticle to measure the potential ...

  9. Seasonal changes in the caste distribution of foraging populations of formosan subterranean termite in New Orleans, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the relationship between temperature, precipitation, soil composition and levels of feeding damage and the caste distribution of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, collected in underground monitoring stations over a 12 mo period. In addition, the s...

  10. Detection of Homozygous Deletions and Mutations in the CDKN2A Gene in Hydatidiform Moles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wang; Shuying Wu; Ying Gu; Yan Zhu; Xiaowei Zhang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate homozygous deletions and mutations in the CDKN2A gene (p16INK4a and p14ARF gene) in hydatidiform moles.METHODS A total of 38 hydatidiform mole samples and 30 villi samples were examined for homozygous deletions in the CDKN2A gene by PCR and for mutations by DHPLC.RESULTS I) Among 38 hydatidiform mole samples,homozygous deletions in the p16INK4a exon 1 were identified in 5 cases (13.2%), while no homozygous deletions were found in the p16INK4a exon 1 of 30 early-pregnancy samples. The rates of those deletions in hydatidiform compared to early-pregnancy villi samples was statistically significant (P = 0.036). Ii) No homozygous deletions in the p14ARF exon 1 or p16INK4a exon 2 were found in any of the hydatidiform moles or early-preganancy samples, iii)In all hydatidiform moles and early-pregnancy villi samples, no mutations were detected by DHPLC.CONCLUSION We suggest there may be a close correlation between homozygous deletions in the CDKN2A gene and occurrence of hydatidiform moles variation in the CDKN2A gene is mainly caused by homozygous deletions, while mutations may be not a major cause.

  11. High Autophagy in the Naked Mole Rat may Play a Significant Role in Maintaining Good Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmin Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The maximum lifespan of the naked mole rat is over 28.3 years, which exceeds that of any other rodent species, suggesting that age-related changes in its body composition and functionality are either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. However, the mechanisms underlying the aging process in this species are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether long-lived naked mole rats display more autophagic activity than short-lived mice. Methods: Hepatic stellate cells isolated from naked mole rats were treated with 50 nM rapamycin or 20 mM 3-methyladenine (3-MA for 12 or 24 h. Expression of the autophagy marker proteins LC3-II and beclin 1 was measured with western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The induction of apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Our results demonstrate that one-day-old naked mole rats have higher levels of autophagy than one-day-old short-lived C57BL/6 mice, and that both adult naked mole rats (eight months old and adult C57BL/6 mice (eight weeks old have high basal levels of autophagy, which may be an important mechanism inhibiting aging and reducing the risk of age-related diseases. Conclusion: Here, we report that autophagy facilitated the survival of hepatic stellate cells from the naked mole rat, and that treatment with 3-MA or rapamycin increased the ratio of apoptotic cells to normal hepatic stellate cells.

  12. Vision - night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People with night blindness often have trouble seeing stars on a clear night or walking through a ... certain drugs Vitamin A deficiency (rare) Nontreatable causes: Birth defects Retinitis pigmentosa

  13. Blind Loop Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more commonly result from other conditions such as short bowel syndrome or chronic pancreatitis. Small intestine aspirate and fluid ... people with severe blind loop syndrome resulting in short bowel syndrome. References Townsend CM Jr, et al. Sabiston Textbook ...

  14. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  15. Blind loop syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the stomach) and operations for extreme obesity As a complication of inflammatory bowel disease Diseases such as diabetes or scleroderma may slow down movement in a segment of the intestine, leading to blind loop syndrome.

  16. The Mole as an Explanatory Device: How Do You Know a Mole if You See One? A Manual for Chemistry Students. Sample Teaching Materials: The Explanatory Modes Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Douglas A.

    This booklet is designed to supplement the study of introductory chemistry. It deals particularly with the mole concept but also includes ideas for analyzing the kinds of statements that appear in all science textbooks and scientific writing. The material in the booklet should be studied after the completion of an introductory textbook study of…

  17. A Blind Date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话:A: Talking about girls, I still remember my first time to meet my girlfriend. Iwas so clumsy and very nervous.B: That’s the same case with me. I had the jitters at my blind date, too.A: Did you also meet your girlfriend at a blind date?B: Yeah. I was actually very shy of speaking to girls, you know?

  18. Models for the Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Eric Olsén

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material objects are rarely used as historical testimonies for the simple reason that they, unlike archival material, do not present historians with written documents that can be held as evidence of the past. However, as I point out, certain historical questions of which archives remain silent could be approached by other means such as the use of material objects. Rather than delivering concrete methodological suggestions, this second part reflects upon the historical use of material objects - both their possibilities and their limits - within the context of blindness.

  19. Epidermal sensory organs of moles, shrew moles, and desmans: a study of the family talpidae with comments on the function and evolution of Eimer's organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, K C

    2000-09-01

    The epidermal sensory organs of members of the family Talpidae (moles, shrew-moles, and desmans) were investigated and compared to determine the range of sensory specializations and better understand how they evolved. Small domed mechanosensory organs called 'Eimer's organs' were present on the rhinarium of nearly all species of talpids, but not among the sister group of shrews (Soricidae) or other insectivore families. This suggests that the common ancestor to the talpids possessed Eimer's organs. Two species of moles from the driest habitats did not exhibit Eimer's organs - suggesting that their sensory organs degenerated in response to harsh, abrasive soil conditions. The semi-aquatic desmans uniquely possessed tiny sensory hairs interspersed with their Eimer's organs; these may act to sense water currents. Some species exhibited a subdivided, star-like, rhinarium - resembling an early embryonic stage of the star-nosed mole and providing clues to the evolution of the star. A single genera (Uropsilus) that branched off early in the evolution of the talpids had Eimer's organ-like structures but lacked some typical components. These findings fill a major gap in our knowledge of talpid sensory biology and suggest (1) how Eimer's organs evolved, (2) how the unusual appendages of the star-nosed mole evolved, (3) that the evolution of Eimer's organ is convergent with the mechanosensory push-rod of monotremes. The results also demonstrate the features that distinguish Eimer's organ from similar configurations of sensory receptors in other mammalian skin surfaces. Finally, a mechanism for Eimer's organ function in detecting object and prey specific surface features is proposed.

  20. Optimal management of common acquired melanocytic nevi (moles: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardana K

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kabir Sardana, Payal Chakravarty, Khushbu Goel Department of Dermatology and STD, Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, Delhi, India Abstract: Although common acquired melanocytic nevi are largely benign, they are probably one of the most common indications for cosmetic surgery encountered by dermatologists. With recent advances, noninvasive tools can largely determine the potential for malignancy, although they cannot supplant histology. Although surgical shave excision with its myriad modifications has been in vogue for decades, the lack of an adequate histological sample, the largely blind nature of the procedure, and the possibility of recurrence are persisting issues. Pigment-specific lasers were initially used in the Q-switched mode, which was based on the thermal relaxation time of the melanocyte (size 7 µm; 1 µsec, which is not the primary target in melanocytic nevus. The cluster of nevus cells (100 µm probably lends itself to treatment with a millisecond laser rather than a nanosecond laser. Thus, normal mode pigment-specific lasers and pulsed ablative lasers (CO2/erbium [Er]:yttrium aluminum garnet [YAG] are more suited to treat acquired melanocytic nevi. The complexities of treating this disorder can be overcome by following a structured approach by using lasers that achieve the appropriate depth to treat the three subtypes of nevi: junctional, compound, and dermal. Thus, junctional nevi respond to Q-switched/normal mode pigment lasers, where for the compound and dermal nevi, pulsed ablative laser (CO2/Er:YAG may be needed. If surgical excision is employed, a wide margin and proper depth must be ensured, which is skill dependent. A lifelong follow-up for recurrence and melanoma is warranted in predisposed individuals, although melanoma is decidedly uncommon in most acquired melanocytic nevi, even though histological markers may be seen on evaluation. Keywords: lasers, surgery, nevus, melanoma

  1. Intra- and interspecific agonistic behavior of the subterranean termite Microcerotermes crassus (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nellie; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2010-10-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the intra- and interspecific agonistic behaviors exhibited by the worker and soldier castes of the subterranean termite Microcerotermes crassus Snyder (Isoptera: Termitidae). Aggression between M. crassus colonies from different field locations and also against three termite species--Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann), Globitermnes sulphureus Haviland, and Odontotermes sp.--were observed in the laboratory. Termite responses were tested in paired combination of castes (soldiers versus soldiers, soldiers versus workers, and workers versus workers) consisting of 10 individuals each. Significant agonistic behaviors were observed only in encounters between pairings of different termite species. M. crassus was aggressive toward individuals from different species but not toward individuals from different M. crassus colonies. Mortality of M. crassus reached 100% in most of the interspecific encounters. However, no or low mortality was recorded in the intraspecific pairings.

  2. Field evaluation of a fipronil bait against subterranean termite Odontotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiu-Ying; Lei, Chao-Liang; Xue, Dong

    2006-04-01

    The subterranean termite Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki is an important pest of agronomic crops, plantations, and forestry, and it endangers earthen dikes and dams in China. A fipronil bait consisting of straw pulp and white sugar was evaluated against field colonies of O. formosanus. Triple mark-capture with Nile blue dye was used to delineate foraging territories and to estimate foraging populations of four O. formosanus colonies locating in the campus of Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China. Termite activity was monitored by number of termite workers and straw board consumption in underground monitoring stations. Consumption of bait matrix and fipronil was estimated for each testing site. The results showed that approximately 3-5 mg of fipronil could suppress foraging populations of O. formosanus containing 0.4-0.7 million foragers per colony. Baits containing fipronil seem to be a feasible alternative for controlling O. formosanus.

  3. Effect of chlorpyrifos and monocrotophos on locomotor behaviour and acetylcholinesterase activity of subterranean termites, Odontotermes obesus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswara Rao, J; Parvathi, K; Kavitha, P; Jakka, N M; Pallela, R

    2005-04-01

    The acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos and monocrotophos to subterranean termites, Odontotermes obesus (Rambur), has been studied by a paper contact method. The LC50 values for chlorpyrifos and monocrotophos were 0.046 and 0.148 microg cm(-2), respectively. Chlorpyrifos was 3.22-fold more toxic than monocrotophos. The effect of the pesticides on locomotor behaviour (velocity) and head acetylcholinesterase (AChE: EC 3.1.1.7) activity was estimated in LC50-exposed termites at intervals of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h. Chlorpyrifos- and monocrotophos-treated termites showed, respectively, 97 and 88% reduction in locomotor behaviour (velocity) after 24 h. At all time intervals the chlorpyrifos-treated termites exhibited more AChE inhibition and showed greater distorted behaviour than those exposed to monocrotophos. In vitro studies indicated that the I50 value (50% inhibition) for chlorpyrifos against AChE was 8.75 times that of monocrotophos.

  4. Toxicity and transmission of thiamethoxam in the Asian subterranean termite Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acda, Menandro N

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity and horizontal transmission of thiamethoxam was evaluated in the workers of the Asian subterranean termite Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Brief exposure to sand treated with thiamethoxam at concentration ranging from 0.25 to 50 µg/ml resulted in a dose-dependent mortality in C. gestroi. Sand treated with 50 µg/ml thiamethoxam resulted in very high mortality within 30-60 min of exposure. Termites exposed to sand treated with 0.25-25 µg/ml exhibited delayed toxicity and nonrepellency in C. gestroi. A horizontal transmission study using 25 µg/ml of thiamethoxam at donor-recipient ratio of at least 2:5 (treated:untreated) indicated that thiamethoxam can be transferred between exposed and unexposed workers, resulting in significant termite mortality in unexposed termites within 1-3 d post exposure.

  5. Why colour in subterranean vertebrates? Exploring the evolution of colour patterns in caecilian amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, K C; Measey, C John

    2009-05-01

    The proximate functions of animal skin colour are difficult to assign as they can result from natural selection, sexual selection or neutral evolution under genetic drift. Most often colour patterns are thought to signal visual stimuli; so,their presence in subterranean taxa is perplexing. We evaluate the adaptive nature of colour patterns in nearly a third of all known species of caecilians, an order of amphibians most of which live in tropical soils and leaf litter. We found that certain colour pattern elements in caecilians can be explained based on characteristics concerning above-ground movement. Our study implies that certain caecilian colour patterns have convergently evolved under selection and we hypothesize their function most likely to be a synergy of aposematism and crypsis, related to periods when individuals move overground. In a wider context, our results suggest that very little exposure to daylight is required to evolve and maintain a varied array of colour patterns in animal skin.

  6. Effects of climate change on subterranean termite territory size: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Chon, Tae-Soo

    2011-01-01

    In order to study how climate change affects the territory size of subterranean termites, a lattice model was used to simulate the foraging territory of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), and the minimized local rules that are based on empirical data from the development of termites' foraging territory was applied. A landscape was generated by randomly assigning values ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 to each lattice site, which represented the spatially distributed property of the landscape. At the beginning of the simulation run, N territory seeds - one for each founding pair, were randomly distributed on the lattice space. The territories grew during the summer and shrank during the winter. In the model, the effects of climate change were demonstrated by changes in two variables: the period of the summer season, T, and the percentage of the remaining termite cells, σ, after the shrinkage. The territory size distribution was investigated in the size descending order for the values of T (= 10, 15, ... , 50) and σ (= 10, 15, ... , 50) at a steady state after a sufficiently long time period. The distribution was separated into two regions: the larger-sized territories and the smaller-sized territories. The slope, m, of the distribution of territory size on a semi-log scale for the larger-sized territories was maximal with T (45 ≤ T ≤ 50) in the maximal range and with σ in the optimal range (30 ≤ σ ≤ 40), regardless of the value of N. The results suggest that the climate change can influence the termite territory size distribution under the proper balance of T and σ in combination.

  7. Shrimps down under: evolutionary relationships of subterranean crustaceans from Western Australia (Decapoda: Atyidae: Stygiocaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Page

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the large and small scale evolutionary relationships of the endemic Western Australian subterranean shrimp genus Stygiocaris (Atyidae using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Stygiocaris is part of the unique cave biota of the coastal, anchialine, limestones of the Cape Range and Barrow Island, most of whose nearest evolutionary relations are found in coastal caves of the distant North Atlantic. The dominance of atyids in tropical waters and their food resources suggest they are pivotal in understanding these groundwater ecosystems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Our nuclear and mitochondrial analyses all recovered the Mexican cave genus Typhlatya as the sister taxon of Stygiocaris, rather than any of the numerous surface and cave atyids from Australia or the Indo-Pacific region. The two described Stygiocaris species were recovered as monophyletic, and a third, cryptic, species was discovered at a single site, which has very different physiochemical properties from the sites hosting the two described species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that Stygiocaris and Typhlatya may descend from a common ancestor that lived in the coastal marine habitat of the ancient Tethys Sea, and were subsequently separated by plate tectonic movements. This vicariant process is commonly thought to explain the many disjunct anchialine faunas, but has rarely been demonstrated using phylogenetic techniques. The Cape Range's geological dynamism, which is probably responsible for the speciation of the various Stygiocaris species, has also led to geographic population structure within species. In particular, Stygiocaris lancifera is split into northern and southern groups, which correspond to population splits within other sympatric subterranean taxa.

  8. Incidence and review of hydatidiform mole; chorioadenoma, destruens and chorio carcinoma in Mirza Kochek Khan Hospita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffari V

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Initial management, incidence and review of hydatidiform mole, chorioadenoma and destruens and chorio carcinoma in Mirza Kochek khan hospital department of ob.gyn and gynecology oncology of women's hospital Tehran-Iran school of medicin from September 1985 to March 1990, 209 patients received primary management for hydatidiform mole at oncology department of Mirza Kochek Khan hospital medical school of Tehran Iran. All of these women HAD complete record available for analysis, of these, 167 women bydatidiform mole, 12 patients chorioadenoma-destruens 30 patients chorio carcinoma a survey was made of factors likely to provide an important clinical perspective patient aye and the status of pregnancy were noted. 41 patient only sharp curettage and 55 patients suction curettage to remove the hydatidiform mole. 97 patient require chemo terapy, suction curettage of the uterus is clearly the best means of management in the most cases their eyperince documents that hydatidiform mole is an high risk pregnancy that requires prompt and in tensive management.

  9. Homonymous Quadrantanopsia as the First Manifestation of Cerebral Metastasis of Invasive Mole: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song De-Lu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Homonymous quadrantanopsia results from retrochiasmal lesions in the visual pathway. Invasive mole is a benign tumor that arises from myometrial invasion of a hydatidiform mole via direct extension through tissue or venous channels. Cerebral metastasis of invasive mole is rare and there has been no report demonstrating homonymous quadrantanopsia as the first manifestation of metastasis in any trophoblastic neoplasms. Case presentation We report the case of a 31-year-old Asian woman who presented with right homonymous inferior quadrantanopsia from the mass effect of a solitary cerebral metastasis from an invasive mole. A magnetic resonance image (MRI of the brain showed a metastatic tumor in the left occipital lobe. The visual field improved slightly after chemotherapy. There was a reduction in the tumor size and the surrounding edema. This is the first case report demonstrating that homonymous quadrantanopsia should be included in the manifestations of the metastasis of an invasive mole. Conclusions The presentation of homonymous quadrantanopsia must alert ophthalmologists to conduct a complete medical history and arrange specialist consultation.

  10. iMole, a web based image retrieval system from biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Manuela; Natale, Massimo; Cornaz, Moreno; Ruffino, Andrea; Bonino, Dario; Bucci, Enrico M

    2013-07-01

    iMole is a platform that automatically extracts images and captions from biomedical literature. Images are tagged with terms contained in figure captions by means of a sophisticate text-mining tool. Moreover, iMole allows the user to upload directly their own images within the database and manually tag images by curated dictionary. Using iMole the researchers can develop a proper biomedical image database, storing the images extracted from paper of interest, image found on the web repositories, and their own experimental images. In order to show the functioning of the platform, we used iMole to build a 2DE database. Briefly, tagged 2DE gel images were collected and stored in a searchable 2DE gel database, available to users through an interactive web interface. Images were obtained by automatically parsing 16,608 proteomic publications, which yielded more than 16,500 images. The database can be further expanded by users with images of interest trough a manual uploading process. iMole is available with a preloaded set of 2DE gel data at http://imole.biodigitalvalley.com.

  11. A new hypogean Trechus Clairville (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechini) discovered in a non-calcareous Superficial Subterranean Habitat of the Iberian System (Central Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, Vicente M; Cuesta, Eva; Gilgado, José D; Ledesma, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    A new hypogean species of Trechus Clairville, Trechus arrecheai sp. nov., is described from the Iberian Peninsula. It was captured by subterranean pitfall traps in a non-calcareous Superficial Subterranean Habitat from the Moncayo Massif (Zaragoza, Spain). Data on the accompanying fauna are provided and the biogeographical implications of this discovery are discussed. A synthesis of the data about the known distribution of the Trechus angusticollis species group is provided.

  12. Models for the Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Eric Olsén

    2014-01-01

    When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in n...

  13. Low and Maternal-specific Expression of p57KIP2 in Hydatidiform Mole and Its Clinical Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊雅丽; 曹阳; 李红发

    2002-01-01

    Summary: In situ hybridization was applied to locate and detect the expression of p57KIP2 in hydatidi form mole (5 cases of partial hydatidiform mole and 18 cases of complete hydatidiform mole) and nor-mal villi (23 cases). The positive signals of p57KIP2 expression were analyzed by HPIAS-1000 Image Analysis System. p57KIP2 was highly expressed in normal villi but showed distinct low expression in hydatidiform mole (P<0. 01). Furthermore, the locus of low expression of p57KIP2 accorded with the place where lesion of trophoblast occurred. Detection of p57KIP2 made it possible to study the genetics of hydatidiform mole at the transcriptional level. Low expression of p57IP2 could be a molecular marker in hydatidiform mole and a target for therapy.

  14. Twin Pregnancy with a Complete Hydatidiform Mole and a Coexisting Live Fetus: Rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheik, Shahila; Al-Riyami, Nihal; Mathew, Namitha R; Al-Sukaiti, Rashid; Qureshi, Asim; Mathew, Mariam

    2015-11-01

    A hydatidiform mole with a coexisting live fetus is a rare occurrence and the optimal management for this condition is not yet known. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman (gravida 3, para 2) who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in March 2012 at 13 gestational weeks with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. An ultrasound examination revealed a hydatidiform mole pregnancy coexisting with a live fetus. After extensive counselling, the patient and her husband opted for a conservative management approach. Unfortunately, a hysterotomy had to be performed at 17 gestational weeks due to severe haemorrhage. The postoperative period was uneventful and histopathology results confirmed one complete mole with a coexisting fetus and normal placenta. The patient's serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin level remained normal for 18 months following her surgery.

  15. A Mole for Warm Magnetic and Optical Measurements of LHC Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Deferne, G; Glöckner, C; Jansen, H; Köster, A; Legrand, P; Rijllart, A; Sievers, P

    2000-01-01

    A new rotating coil probe (a mole) has been developed for the simultaneous measurement of the magnetic field and magnetic axis of warm superconducting LHC dipoles and associated corrector windings. The mole houses a radial rotating coil and travels inside the magnet aperture by means of an externally driven two-way traction belt. The coil is rotated by an on-board piezo motor, being tested in view of future devices for cold measurements as the only type of motor compatible with strong magnetic fields. A virtual light spot is generated in the coil center by a LED source. The position of this light spot is measured from the outside by a system including a telescope, a CCD camera and a DSP. Jigs on reference granite tables are used to transfer the optical measurements to the magnet fiducials. We describe here the main characteristics and performance of the mole

  16. Extended longevity of reproductives appears to be common in Fukomys mole-rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Dammann

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia contain several social, cooperatively breeding species with low extrinsic mortality and unusually high longevity. All social bathyergids live in multigenerational families where reproduction is skewed towards a few breeding individuals. Most of their offspring remain as reproductively inactive "helpers" in their natal families, often for several years. This "reproductive subdivision" of mole-rat societies might be of interest for ageing research, as in at least one social bathyergid (Ansell's mole-rats Fukomys anselli, breeders have been shown to age significantly slower than non-breeders. These animals thus provide excellent conditions for studying the epigenetics of senescence by comparing divergent longevities within the same genotypes without the inescapable short-comings of inter-species comparisons. It has been claimed that many if not all social mole-rat species may have evolved similar ageing patterns, too. However, this remains unclear on account of the scarcity of reliable datasets on the subject. We therefore analyzed a 20-year breeding record of Giant mole-rats Fukomys mechowii, another social bathyergid species. We found that breeders indeed lived significantly longer than helpers (ca. 1.5-2.2fold depending on the sex, irrespective of social rank or other potentially confounding factors. Considering the phylogenetic positions of F. mechowii and F. anselli and unpublished data on a third Fukomys-species (F. damarensis showing essentially the same pattern, it seems probable that the reversal of the classic trade-off between somatic maintenance and sexual reproduction is characteristic of the whole genus and hence of the vast majority of social mole-rats.

  17. Evaluation of the MoleMateTM training program for assessment of suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Wood

    2008-05-01

    Conclusion The MoleMateTM training program is a potentially effective and acceptable informatics tool to teach practitioners to recognise the features of SPLs identified by the MoleMateTM system. It will be used as part of the intervention in a randomised controlled trial to compare the diagnostic accuracy and appropriate referral rates of practitioners using the MoleMateTM system with best practice in primary care.

  18. Twin pregnancy with both complete hydatiform mole and coexistent alive fetus:case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Achour Radhouane; Ben Aissa Imen; NEJI Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Twin pregnancy consisting of a complete hydatidiform mole coexisting with a live fetus is a rare condition with an incidence of 1 in 22 000 to 1 in 1 00 000 pregnancies. Clinical information is limited and management is difficult due to the risk of pregnancy complications such as fetal death, vaginal bleeding, preeclampsia, hyperthyroidism, and the risk of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease. Thus, the report described about the change of size and implantation site of the molar mass coexisting with a live fetus is rare especially about sonographic findings such as echo patterns. Recently we experienced a case of complete hydatidiform mole with a healthy infant delivered at term.

  19. Twin pregnancy with both complete hydatiform mole and coexistent alive fetus: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achour Radhouane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Twin pregnancy consisting of a complete hydatidiform mole coexisting with a live fetus is a rare condition with an incidence of 1 in 22000 to 1 in 100000 pregnancies. Clinical information is limited and management is difficult due to the risk of pregnancy complications such as fetal death, vaginal bleeding, preeclampsia, hyperthyroidism, and the risk of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease. Thus, the report described about the change of size and implantation site of the molar mass coexisting with a live fetus is rare especially about sonographic findings such as echo patterns. Recently we experienced a case of complete hydatidiform mole with a healthy infant delivered at term.

  20. Torsion theca lutein cyst in association with invasive mole presenting as acute abdomen: a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhamani S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gestational trophoblastic neoplasias (GTN are rare tumours that constitute less than 1% of all gynaecological malignancies. Invasive mole is a distinct subgroup of GTN, which if not diagnosed and treated early, can result in serious complications like uterine perforation and haemoperitoneum. We present a rare case of torsion theca lutein cyst in association with invasive mole of the uterus, which developed following the evacuation of a molar pregnancy with features of continued irregular vaginal bleeding, persistently high betaHcg levels along with acute abdomen. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1237-1240

  1. Oplysningens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  2. Oplysnigens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  3. The blind hens’ challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Hocking, Paul M.; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    repellent, yet 'welfare-only' positions appear to be committed to endorsing this possibility if it produces welfare gains. We call this the 'Blind Hens' Challenge'. In this paper, we argue that there are both empirical and theoretical reasons why even those adopting 'welfare-only' views should be concerned...

  4. Phylogenetic placement of the Pacific Northwest subterranean endemic diving beetle Stygoporus oregonensis Larson & LaBonte (Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojun Kanda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stygoporus oregonensis Larson & LaBonte is a little-known subterranean diving beetle, which, until recently, had not been collected since the type series was taken from a shallow well in western Oregon, USA, in 1984. Here we report the discovery of additional specimens collected from a nearby well in the Willamette Valley. Sequence data from four mitochondrial genes, wingless, and histone III place Stygoporus Larson & LaBonte in the predominantly Mediterranean subtribe Siettitiina of the Hydroporini. Morphological support for these results is discussed, and details of the collecting circumstances of the new specimens are presented. We argue that the biogeographic patterns of Nearctic Siettitiina highlight the likelihood of additional undiscovered subterranean dytiscids in North America.

  5. Two new species of the Pterostichus macrogenys species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae discovered in shallow subterranean habitats in northern Honshu, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kôji Sasakawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow subterranean environments have recently received attention as a habitat for Carabidae beetles, and many new species have been discovered using collection techniques devised for this habitat. We report the discovery of two new species of the macrogenys species group of the Pterostichus subgenus Nialoe Tanaka, 1958, collected by subterranean baited traps in northern Honshu, Japan. Pterostichus shinbodakensis Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n. is described from Mt. Shinbodake, Niigata Prefecture, and P. tateishiyamanus Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n. is described from the southeastern foot of Mt. Tateishiyama, Fukushima Prefecture. Comparative male genital morphology shows that among the known species, the two new species are most closely related to P. falcispinus Sasakawa, 2005 and P. chokaisanus Sasakawa, 2009, respectively. In addition, sympatric occurrence of P. shinbodakensis with a smaller, unidentified species of the species group was also confirmed. The implications of these results for future studies of the macrogenys species group, as well as those of Nialoe, are discussed.

  6. Phylogenetic placement of the Pacific Northwest subterranean endemic diving beetle Stygoporus oregonensis Larson & LaBonte (Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Kojun; Gomez, R. Antonio; Van Driesche, Richard; Miller, Kelly B.; Maddison, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stygoporus oregonensis Larson & LaBonte is a little-known subterranean diving beetle, which, until recently, had not been collected since the type series was taken from a shallow well in western Oregon, USA, in 1984. Here we report the discovery of additional specimens collected from a nearby well in the Willamette Valley. Sequence data from four mitochondrial genes, wingless, and histone III place Stygoporus Larson & LaBonte in the predominantly Mediterranean subtribe Siettitiina of the Hydroporini. Morphological support for these results is discussed, and details of the collecting circumstances of the new specimens are presented. We argue that the biogeographic patterns of Nearctic Siettitiina highlight the likelihood of additional undiscovered subterranean dytiscids in North America. PMID:27920606

  7. Variations of iron flux and organic carbon remineralization in a subterranean estuary caused by interannual variations in recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Moutusi; Martin, Jonathan B.; Cable, Jaye E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    We determine the inter-annual variations in diagenetic reaction rates of sedimentary iron (Fe ) in an east Florida subterranean estuary and evaluate the connection between metal fluxes and recharge to the coastal aquifer. Over the three-year study period (from 2004 to 2007), the amount of Fe-oxides reduced at the study site decreased from 192 g/yr to 153 g/yr and associated organic carbon (OC) remineralization decreased from 48 g/yr to 38 g/yr. These reductions occurred although the Fe-oxide reduction rates remained constant around 1 mg/cm2/yr. These results suggest that changes in flow rates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) related to changes in precipitation may be important to fluxes of the diagenetic reaction products. Rainfall at a weather station approximately 5 km from the field area decreased from 12.6 cm/month to 8.4 cm/month from 2004 to 2007. Monthly potential evapotranspiration (PET) calculated from Thornthwaite’s method indicated potential evapotranspiration cycled from about 3 cm/month in the winter to about 15 cm/month in the summer so that net annual recharge to the aquifer decreased from 40 cm in 2004 to -10 cm in 2007. Simultaneously, with the decrease in recharge of groundwater, freshwater SGD decreased by around 20% and caused the originally 25 m wide freshwater seepage face to decrease in width by about 5 m. The smaller seepage face reduced the area under which Fe-oxides were undergoing reductive dissolution. Consequently, the observed decrease in Fe flux is controlled by hydrology of the subterranean estuary. These results point out the need to better understand linkages between temporal variations in diagenetic reactions and changes in flow within subterranean estuaries in order to accurately constrain their contribution to oceanic fluxes of solutes from subterranean estuaries.

  8. Corneal blindness and xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Vladimir; Hara, Hidetaka; Mammen, Alex; Dhaliwal, Deepinder; Cooper, David K C

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 39 million people are blind worldwide, with an estimated 285 million visually impaired. The developing world shoulders 90% of the world's blindness, with 80% of causative diseases being preventable or treatable. Blindness has a major detrimental impact on the patient, community, and healthcare spending. Corneal diseases are significant causes of blindness, affecting at least 4 million people worldwide. The prevalence of corneal disease varies between parts of the world. Trachoma, for instance, is the second leading cause of blindness in Africa, after cataracts, but is rarely found today in developed nations. When preventive strategies have failed, corneal transplantation is the most effective treatment for advanced corneal disease. The major surgical techniques for corneal transplantation include penetrating keratoplasty (PK), anterior lamellar keratoplasty, and endothelial keratoplasty (EK). Indications for corneal transplantation vary between countries, with Fuchs' dystrophy being the leading indication in the USA and keratoconus in Australia. With the exception of the USA, where EK will soon overtake PK as the most common surgical procedure, PK is the overwhelming procedure of choice. Success using corneal grafts in developing nations, such as Nepal, demonstrates the feasibility of corneal transplantation on a global scale. The number of suitable corneas from deceased human donors that becomes available will never be sufficient, and so research into various alternatives, for example stem cells, amniotic membrane transplantation, synthetic and biosynthetic corneas, and xenotransplantation, is progressing. While each of these has potential, we suggest that xenotransplantation holds the greatest potential for a corneal replacement. With the increasing availability of genetically engineered pigs, pig corneas may alleviate the global shortage of corneas in the near future.

  9. The willed blindness of humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. It is a willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness...

  10. Perceptions & use of termite resistant treated wood products. Part I: The perspective of homeowners in Formosan subterranean termite infected States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Vlosky

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Formosan subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is estimated to cause hundreds of millions of dollars in losses annually in North America. Unlike most subterranean species, Formosan termites often build nests (cartons in living trees and wooden buildings, and even penetrate plaster, plastic, asphalt, mortar, creosote, concrete, and rubber to reach wood. The study addresses issues that U.S. home owners consider in evaluating whether to buy or build homes that are built with termite resistant building materials. The sample frame for this study consisted of a random sample of 5.000 home owners in the region where Formosan subterranean termites are a current or potential problem. When examined by state, 50 percent of respondents in Hawaii said termites have damaged the home they currently live in followed by respondents from Louisiana and California. On average, respondents indicated that preservative pressure treated wood and regular fumigation as being most effective in protecting a house against termites and only 8 percent of respondents said they would not pay a premium for a guaranteed termite-free new home.

  11. [The blindness in the literature-Jose Saramago: blindness and Albert Bang: the blind witness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permin, H; Norn, M

    2001-01-01

    Two novels with different aspects of blindness seen through the doctors eyes. The Portuguese Nobel-prize winner José Saramago's story of a city struck by an epidemic of "white blindness", where the truth is what we cannot bear to see. The Danish author and unskilled labourer Albert Bang's (synonym with Karl E. Rasmussen) crime novel describes a blind or pretend to be blind butcher, who is a witness to a murder. Both novels are lyric, thought-provoking and insightful.

  12. Nitrogen budget of a typical subterranean river in peak cluster karst area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Jiang, Guanghui

    2009-10-01

    Karst groundwater is one of the important water resources for people in the world. There is an estimate that by 2028 karst groundwater will supply more than 80% of people in the world. However, several areas in the world are characterized by high nitrate concentrations in karst aquifers. In China, karst groundwater is also threatened by extensive use of fertilizer and pesticides, industry waste, septic systems and poultry, hog or cattle manure. In order to understand the water quality of a subterranean river in south China, especially the dynamic variation of nitrate, nitrogen input and output were determined via auto-monitored apparatus, manual observation and samples from 2004 to 2008 in Guancun subterranean river drainage area. Land use and anthropogenic activities were also investigated frequently. The results showed the range of nitrate variation was 2.56-15.40 mg l-1, with an average value of 6.60 mg l-1. Spatial variation of nitrate concentrations showed nitrate rose where there were villages and agriculture distribution. Long series of nitrate and discharge monitoring revealed there was a nitrate peak in spring just before the beginning of rainy season. Three rainfall events were selected for analysis of relations among hydrological process, water chemistry, and nitrate of the spring. The flood processes of the spring were divided into three or four phases according to change of water level and water chemistry. They were dominated by initial condition of aquifer, piston flow in soil and vadose, piston flow in conduit, diffuse recharge, and bypass recharge. The original condition of aquifer and rainfall pulse controlled recharge flow and changes of nitrate and hydro-chemical graphs of the spring. The quantity of nitrogen input in a year was 66.61 t, and the output was 21.24 t. Nitrogen leaching loss in base flow accounted for 76.11% in a year. Some measures should be taken to protect karst water in the very near future, so that health risks to the local

  13. Dispersal and population structure at different spatial scales in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittlein Marcelo J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population genetic structure of subterranean rodent species is strongly affected by demographic (e.g. rates of dispersal and social structure and stochastic factors (e.g. random genetic drift among subpopulations and habitat fragmentation. In particular, gene flow estimates at different spatial scales are essential to understand genetic differentiation among populations of a species living in a highly fragmented landscape. Ctenomys australis (the sand dune tuco-tuco is a territorial subterranean rodent that inhabits a relatively secure, permanently sealed burrow system, occurring in sand dune habitats on the coastal landscape in the south-east of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Currently, this habitat is threatened by urban development and forestry and, therefore, the survival of this endemic species is at risk. Here, we assess population genetic structure and patterns of dispersal among individuals of this species at different spatial scales using 8 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Furthermore, we evaluate the relative importance of sex and habitat configuration in modulating the dispersal patterns at these geographical scales. Results Our results show that dispersal in C. australis is not restricted at regional spatial scales (~ 4 km. Assignment tests revealed significant population substructure within the study area, providing support for the presence of two subpopulations from three original sampling sites. Finally, male-biased dispersal was found in the Western side of our study area, but in the Eastern side no apparent philopatric pattern was found, suggesting that in a more continuous habitat males might move longer distances than females. Conclusions Overall, the assignment-based approaches were able to detect population substructure at fine geographical scales. Additionally, the maintenance of a significant genetic structure at regional (~ 4 km and small (less than 1 km spatial scales despite apparently

  14. Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat, mouse, and human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Macrae (Sheila L.); Q. Zhang (Quanwei); C. Lemetre (Christophe); I. Seim (Inge); R.B. Calder (Robert B.); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); Y. Suh (Yousin); V.N. Gladyshev (Vadim N.); A. Seluanov (Andrei); V. Gorbunova (Vera); J. Vijg (Jan); Z.D. Zhang (Zhengdong D.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGenome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM g

  15. Identifying the Critical Components for a Conceptual Understanding of the Mole in Secondary Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Su-Chi; Hart, Christina; Clarke, David

    2016-01-01

    The amount of substance and its unit the mole is a basic concept in chemistry. However, previous research has shown that teaching and learning the concept are challenging tasks for both teachers and students. The purpose of this study was to pinpoint the problems which emerge in the teaching and learning process, and provide integrated suggestions…

  16. Background Mole Fractions of Hydrocarbons in North America Determined from NOAA Global Reference Network Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke-Maday, I.

    2015-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) maintains a global reference network for over 50 trace gas species and analyzes discrete air samples collected by this network throughout the world at the Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. In particular, flask samples are analyzed for a number of hydrocarbons with policy and health relevance such as ozone precursors, greenhouse gases, and hazardous air pollutants. Because this global network's sites are remote and therefore minimally influenced by local anthropogenic emissions, these data yield information about background ambient mole fractions and can provide a context for observations collected in intensive field campaigns, such as the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE), the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study, and the DISCOVER-AQ deployments. Information about background mole fractions during field campaigns is critical for calculating hydrocarbon enhancements in the region of study and for assessing the extent to which a particular region's local emissions sources contribute to these enhancements. Understanding the geographic variability of the background and its contribution to regional ambient mole fractions is also crucial for the development of realistic regulations. We present background hydrocarbon mole fractions and their ratios in North America using data from air samples collected in the planetary boundary layer at tall towers and aboard aircraft from 2008 to 2014. We discuss the spatial and seasonal variability in these data. We present trends over the time period of measurements and propose possible explanations for these trends.

  17. Trauma and humanitarian translation in Liberia: the tale of open mole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Sharon Alane

    2010-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the intercultural process through which Open Mole and trauma-related mental illnesses are brought together in the postconflict mental health encounter. In this paper, I explore the historical dimension of this process by reviewing the history of Open Mole, and the ways in which it has been interpreted, acted on, and objectified by external observers over the last half-century. Moving into Liberia's recent war and postconflict period, I examine the process by which Open Mole is transformed from a culture-bound disorder into a local idiom of trauma, and how it has become a gateway diagnosis of PTSD-related mental illnesses, and consider how it is produced as an objectified experience of psychiatric disorder in clinical humanitarian contexts. By studying how Open Mole is transformed in the humanitarian encounter, I address the structure and teleology of the humanitarian encounter and challenge some of the foundational assumptions about cultural sensitivity and community-based mental health care in postconflict settings that are prevalent in scholarship and practice today.

  18. Reading about the Power of Music: "Mole Music" and "Children of the Stone"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I review two books that address the power of music for the individual and group. Both books address the benefits of making, learning, and listening to music during times of conflict. The first brief review is David McPhail's picture book "Mole Music." The second is "Children of the Stone: The Power of Music in a…

  19. Tetraploid partial hydatidiform moles: two cases with a triple paternal contribution and a 92,XXXY karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surti, U; Szulman, A E; Wagner, K; Leppert, M; O'Brien, S J

    1986-01-01

    In the course of a systematic study of cytogenetics, morphology, and clinical follow-up of hydatidiform moles we encountered two unusual cases of partial hydatidiform moles each with a 92,XXXY karyotype. Previously reported cases of tetraploidy, of 92,XXXX or 92,XXYY karyotype, resulted from a failure of the first mitotic division of a normal zygote. This is to our knowledge the first report of tetraploidy with XXXY sex chromosomes. Study of chromosomal heteromorphisms, isozymes, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms reveal that both present cases resulted from a combination of a haploid ovum with three haploid sets of paternal chromosomes either by the mechanism of trispermy (involving three separate haploid spermatozoa) or through dispermy (involving one haploid and one diploid sperm). Both cases resembled closely partial moles in their morphology; one gave a highly typical clinical picture while the other was recognized at an early voluntary abortion. Partial moles are ordinarily triploids of nearly always diandric constitution that evince focal villous swelling with cistern formation and focal trophoblastic hyperplasia. The findings here presented point to an association of molar phenotype with an excess of paternal over maternal haploid sets.

  20. The eye of the African mole-rat Cryptomys anselli : to see or not to see?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernuda-Cernuda, R; Garcia-Fernandez, JM; Gordijn, MCM; Bovee-Geurts, PHM; DeGrip, WJ; de Grip, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify its possible physiological role, we studied the eye of the Zambian mole rat Cryptomys anselli by light, electron and confocal microscopy using conventional staining as well as immunolabelling with rod and cone cell markers. The small eyes of Cryptomys are located superficial

  1. Clinical management and diagnostic possibilities in hydatidiform mole with coexistent fetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejerslev, L O

    1991-01-01

    , as well as in 9.1 per cent of those intended to continue. Due to advances in prenatal diagnosis, clinicians will be confronted with counseling in pregnancies with mole and fetus more often than expected from the literature. Chorionic villus biopsy or amniocentesis can disclose those triploid gestations...

  2. The Atomic Mass Unit, the Avogadro Constant, and the Mole: A Way to Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Numerous articles have been published that address problems encountered in teaching basic concepts of chemistry such as the atomic mass unit, Avogadro's number, and the mole. The origin of these problems is found in the concept definitions. If these definitions are adjusted for teaching purposes, understanding could be improved. In the present…

  3. Unconditionally verifiable blind computation

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzsimons, Joseph F

    2012-01-01

    Blind Quantum Computing (BQC) allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for them such that the client's input, output and computation remain private. Recently the authors together with Broadbent proposed a universal unconditionally secure BQC scheme where the client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits in separable states randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. A desirable property for any BQC protocol is verification, whereby the client can verify with high probability whether the server has followed the instructions of the protocol, or if there has been some deviation resulting in a corrupted output state. A verifiable BQC protocol can be viewed as an interactive proof system leading to consequences for complexity theory. In this paper we extend the BQC protocol presented in [Broadbent, Fitzsimons and Kashefi, FOCS 2009 p517] with new functionality allowing blind computational basis m...

  4. Blind Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, P; Arrighi, Pablo; Salvail, Louis

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input. Say Alice wants Bob to compute some well-known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x. The situation arises for instance if client Alice has limited computational resources in comparison with mistrusted server Bob, or if x is an inherently mobile piece of data. Could there be a protocol whereby Bob is forced to compute f(x) "blindly", i.e. without observing x? We provide such a blind computation protocol for the class of functions which admit an efficient procedure to generate random input-output pairs, e.g. factorization. The setting is quantum, the security is unconditional, the eavesdropper is as malicious as can be. Keywords: Secure Circuit Evaluation, Secure Two-party Computation, Information Hiding, Information gain vs disturbance.

  5. Color Blind Affirmative Action

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for understanding the consequences of the widespread adoption of race-neutral alternatives' to conventional racial affirmative action policies in college admissions. A simple model of applicant competition with endogenous effort is utilized to show that, in comparison to color-conscious affirmative action, these color-blind alternatives can significantly lower the efficiency of the student selection process in equilibrium. We examine data on matricul...

  6. Postpartum cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Shakeel Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    A 30-years-old third gravida with previous normal pregnancies and an unremarkable prenatal course had an emergency lower segment caesarean section at a periphery hospital for failure of labour to progress. She developed bilateral cortical blindness immediately after recovery from anesthesia due to cerebral angiopathy shown by CT and MR scan as cortical infarct cerebral angiopathy, which is a rare complication of a normal pregnancy.

  7. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  8. No evidence for mutations in NLRP7 and KHDC3L in women with androgenetic hydatidiform moles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the mutational spectrum of NLRP7 and KHDC3L (C6orf221) in women with sporadic and recurrent androgenetic complete hydatidiform moles (AnCHM) and biparental hydatidiform moles (BiHM) to address the hypothesis that autosomal recessive mutations in these gene...

  9. The Mole Mapper Study, mobile phone skin imaging and melanoma risk data collected using ResearchKit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Dan E; Suver, Christine; Doerr, Megan; Mounts, Erin; Domenico, Lisa; Petrie, Tracy; Leachman, Sancy A; Trister, Andrew D; Bot, Brian M

    2017-02-14

    Sensor-embedded phones are an emerging facilitator for participant-driven research studies. Skin cancer research is particularly amenable to this approach, as phone cameras enable self-examination and documentation of mole abnormalities that may signal a progression towards melanoma. Aggregation and open sharing of this participant-collected data can be foundational for research and the development of early cancer detection tools. Here we describe data from Mole Mapper, an iPhone-based observational study built using the Apple ResearchKit framework. The Mole Mapper app was designed to collect participant-provided images and measurements of moles, together with demographic and behavioral information relating to melanoma risk. The study cohort includes 2,069 participants who contributed 1,920 demographic surveys, 3,274 mole measurements, and 2,422 curated mole images. Survey data recapitulates associations between melanoma and known demographic risks, with red hair as the most significant factor in this cohort. Participant-provided mole measurements indicate an average mole size of 3.95 mm. These data have been made available to engage researchers in a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to better understand and prevent melanoma.

  10. Parasite infection negatively affects PHA-triggered inflammation in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Julieta L; Cutrera, Ana P; Zenuto, Roxana R

    2016-02-01

    Magnitude and effectiveness of immune responses vary greatly between and within species. Among factors reported to determine this variation, parasitism is a critical one, although controversial effects of parasites over immunological indices have been reported. Information regarding immune strategies in species with different life histories is crucial to better understand the role of immune defenses in an ecological and evolutionary context. Here, we examine the influence of the parasite community on immune responsiveness of a solitary subterranean rodent, Ctenomys talarum. To do this, we assessed the impact of the natural parasite community and the experimental infection with Eimeria sp. on the phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-response, as well as other immune, condition, nutrition, and stress parameters. PHA-triggered inflammation was similarly impaired by Eimeria sp. infection alone or co-occurring with a number of gastrointestinal nematodes. None of the other physiological parameters studied were affected by parasitism. This indicates that parasitism is a general key factor modulating immune responsiveness of the host, and in particular for C. talarum, it could explain the great inter-individual variation previously observed in the PHA-response. Thus, our results highlight the importance of taking the parasite community into account in ecoimmunological studies, particularly when using immunological indices.

  11. Ecology and sampling techniques of an understudied subterranean habitat: the Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammola, Stefano; Giachino, Pier Mauro; Piano, Elena; Jones, Alexandra; Barberis, Marcel; Badino, Giovanni; Isaia, Marco

    2016-12-01

    The term Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS) has been used since the early 1980s in subterranean biology to categorize an array of different hypogean habitats. In general terms, a MSS habitat represents the underground network of empty air-filled voids and cracks developing within multiple layers of rock fragments. Its origins can be diverse and is generally covered by topsoil. The MSS habitat is often connected both with the deep hypogean domain—caves and deep rock cracks—and the superficial soil horizon. A MSS is usually characterized by peculiar microclimatic conditions, and it can harbor specialized hypogean, endogean, and surface-dwelling species. In light of the many interpretations given by different authors, we reviewed 235 papers regarding the MSS in order to provide a state-of-the-art description of these habitats and facilitate their study. We have briefly described the different types of MSS mentioned in the scientific literature (alluvial, bedrock, colluvial, volcanic, and other types) and synthesized the advances in the study of the physical and ecological factors affecting this habitat—i.e., microclimate, energy flows, animal communities, and trophic interactions. We finally described and reviewed the available sampling methods used to investigate MSS fauna.

  12. Method and apparatus for completing a non-vertical portion of a subterranean well bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, J.F.; Spatz, E.C.; Salerni, J.V.; Peterson, E.R.; Weirich, J.B.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes an apparatus for completing a well bore having a deviated configuration including an essentially vertical entry portion communicating with a curved portion extending away from the top surface of the well and communicating with a generally linear bore portion traversable with a production formation. It comprises: a plurality of tubular screen elements; a plurality of tubular stabilizer housings threadably interconnecting the tubular screen elements, thereby forming a tool string; means for securing the stabilizer elements in a radially retracted position during run-in of the screen elements into the generally linear portion of the well bore; and fluid pressure means for radially expanding the stabilizer elements into engagement with the wall of the generally linear portion of the well bore, thereby centering the tubular screen elements relative to the generally linear portion of the well bore. The method of completing a deviated subterranean well bore having a generally vertical entry portion and a nonvertical bore portion traversing a production formation. It comprises the steps of: inserting in the non-vertical well portion a plurality of tubular screen elements interconnected by tubular stabilizing housings; each stabilizer housing mounting a plurality of peripherally spaced, radially shiftable stabilizer elements; and placing the stabilizer elements in a radially retracted position during run in. The stabilizer elements being movable from retracted position and movable radially outwardly to engage the well bore when the tubular screen elements are positioned in the production formation.

  13. Ecology and sampling techniques of an understudied subterranean habitat: the Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammola, Stefano; Giachino, Pier Mauro; Piano, Elena; Jones, Alexandra; Barberis, Marcel; Badino, Giovanni; Isaia, Marco

    2016-12-01

    The term Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS) has been used since the early 1980s in subterranean biology to categorize an array of different hypogean habitats. In general terms, a MSS habitat represents the underground network of empty air-filled voids and cracks developing within multiple layers of rock fragments. Its origins can be diverse and is generally covered by topsoil. The MSS habitat is often connected both with the deep hypogean domain-caves and deep rock cracks-and the superficial soil horizon. A MSS is usually characterized by peculiar microclimatic conditions, and it can harbor specialized hypogean, endogean, and surface-dwelling species. In light of the many interpretations given by different authors, we reviewed 235 papers regarding the MSS in order to provide a state-of-the-art description of these habitats and facilitate their study. We have briefly described the different types of MSS mentioned in the scientific literature (alluvial, bedrock, colluvial, volcanic, and other types) and synthesized the advances in the study of the physical and ecological factors affecting this habitat-i.e., microclimate, energy flows, animal communities, and trophic interactions. We finally described and reviewed the available sampling methods used to investigate MSS fauna.

  14. Identification of mycosis-related genes in the eastern subterranean termite by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qi; Tancredi, Sarah E; Thompson, Graham J

    2012-07-01

    The Eastern subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae) is a cosmopolitan, structural pest that is the target of research into termite innate immunity. In this study, we use suppression subtractive hybridization to construct a normalized cDNA library of genes excessively expressed upon fungal infection. At 24 h postinfection with Metarhizium anisopliae, the library revealed 182 expressed sequence tag (EST) clones that potentially represent immune responsive genes. The nucleotide sequence from a majority (97%) of ESTs assembled into a small number (n = 13) of contiguous sequences, with the remainder (n = 6) representing singletons. Our screen therefore captured as many as 19 different mRNAs highly expressed in response to the fungal pathogen at this time. Primary sequencing of all loci revealed that approximately half (n = 10) contained open reading frames with significant similarity to known proteins. These clones represent nuclear and mitochondrial coding genes, as well as putative long noncoding RNA genes. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of coding genes on independently infected groups of worker termites confirms in each case that the transcripts identified from the library are up-regulated postfungal infection. The genes identified here are relevant to future studies on termite biocontrol and social insect immunity.

  15. Investigations of subterranean microorganisms. Their importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). General and Marine Microbiology; Karlsson, Fred [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    This report presents a broad and thorough description of how microorganisms may influence safety of repositories for radioactive waste. First, an overview of the Swedish concepts for disposal is given, including a discussion of the geological, chemical and hydrological conditions in repositories. Then the limiting and stimulating factors for life of microorganisms are reviewed, such as relations to oxygen, temperature, pH, radiation, pressure, water and nutrients availability. Bacteria in the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, iron, manganese and hydrogen are also discussed. A literature review of subterranean bacteria is given in chapter 4. Chapter 5 treats investigations of microorganisms in repository-like environments, and microbial corrosion and redox processes relevant for materials in the repository and for the mobility of radionuclides. Possibilities to predict the activity and presence of microorganisms through mathematical models are discussed in chapter 6. Chapter 7 summarizes the conclusion drawn in the report, how microorganisms may influence performance safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal, and also identifies research needs. 293 refs, 43 figs, 36 tabs.

  16. Fighting blindness with microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrenner, Eberhart

    2013-11-06

    There is no approved cure for blindness caused by degeneration of the photoreceptor cells of the retina. However, there has been encouraging progress with attempts to restore vision using microelectronic retinal implant devices. Yet many questions remain to be addressed. Where is the best location to implant multielectrode arrays? How can spatial and temporal resolution be improved? What are the best ways to ensure the safety and longevity of these devices? Will color vision be possible? This Perspective discusses the current state of the art of retinal implants and attempts to address some of the outstanding questions.

  17. Uterine rupture in twin pregnancy with normal fetus and complete hydatidiform mole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ferrer, María Luisa; Hernández-Martínez, Florentina; Machado-Linde, Francisco; Ferri, Belén; Carbonel, Pablo; Nieto-Diaz, Anibal

    2014-01-01

    We describe a rare case of complete hydatidiform mole with twin live fetus (CHMTF) confirmed by histopathology, flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction techniques. No malformations were observed, fetal karyotype was normal and β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels were high (>100,000 IU/ml). The patient was informed of the risks and decided to continue with the pregnancy, but at week 15, she had to undergo hysterectomy due to uterine rupture. She subsequently developed persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD) with pulmonary metastases that required treatment with polychemotherapy. Patients with CHMTF should be informed of all known risks, including the considerable risk of PTD, which is similar to or, even higher than that associated with a singleton complete mole. The risk does not appear to be increased by continuing the pregnancy. Because so few series have been published, there is a lack of evidence-based clinical management guidelines. To our knowledge, this is the first report of uterine rupture in CHMTF.

  18. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on mole rats kidney: A histopathologic and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Türker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to realize the ultrastructural effects of ultraviolet radiation on the kidney tissue cells of mole rats (Spalax leucodon. The mole rats of 180–200 g body weight were divided into the control and radiation-trial groups. The control group was not given any radiation. The other groups were irradiated with artificially produced UVC radiation for 14, 28 and 60 days. The kidney tissue samples were prepared at the end of experiments and analyzed by the light and electron microscope. Several effects were observed in the kidney tissues cells analyzed in accordance with the dose magnitude of radiation. These results clearly show the detrimental effects of UVC radiation on kidney tissue cells in exposure periods dependent on radiation dose and exposure time.

  19. Twin Pregnancy with Hydatidiform Mole and Coexisting Fetus: Report of Three Cases and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Yarandi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A twin pregnancy with a coexisting complete hydatidiform mole and a healthy fetus (CMCF is rare. Here we report three cases of CMCF with different clinical courses but similar outcome without a surviving neonate. Two women required uterine evacuation before 20 weeks of gestational age because of vaginal bleeding and medical complications and the other patient underwent termination of her pregnancy at 24 weeks of gestation due to severe pre-eclampsia. The pathologic diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole was confirmed in each case and the chromosome complement was 46XX in two molar gestations and 46XY in one gestation. One of the three women required chemotherapy for treatment of low-risk gestational trophoblastic disease. The hCG level was normalized after 4 cycles and the patient was free of disease at 1 year follow-up. Review of the literature discussing the diagnostic tools, clinical features, management and outcome of pregnancies with CMCF are presented.

  20. Seasonal changes in burrow geometry of the common mole rat (Rodentia: Bathyergidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, H. G.; Scantlebury, M.; Swanepoel, D.; Bateman, P. W.; Bennett, N. C.

    2013-11-01

    Sociality in mole rats has been suggested to have evolved as a response to the widely dispersed food resources and the limited burrowing opportunities that result from sporadic rainfall events. In the most arid regions, individual foraging efficiency is reduced, and energetic constraints increase. In this study, we investigate seasonal differences in burrow architecture of the social Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus in a mesic region. We describe burrow geometry in response to seasonal weather conditions for two seasons (wet and dry). Interactions occurred between seasons and colony size for the size of the burrow systems, but not the shape of the burrow systems. The fractal dimension values of the burrow systems did not differ between seasons. Thus, the burrow complexity was dependent upon the number of mole rats present in the social group.

  1. Genetics and Epigenetics of Recurrent Hydatidiform Moles: Basic Science and Genetic Counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Minh Phuong; Slim, Rima

    2014-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of conditions that originate from the abnormal hyperproliferation of trophoblastic cells, which derive from the trophectoderm, the outer layer of the blastocyst that would normally develop into the placenta during pregnancy. GTDs encompass hydatidiform mole (HM) (complete and partial), invasive mole, gestational choriocarcinoma, placental-site trophoblastic tumor, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor. Of these, the most common is HM, and it is the only one that has been reported to recur in the same patients from independent pregnancies, which indicates the patients' genetic predisposition. In addition, HM is the only GTD that segregates in families according to Mendel's laws of heredity, which made it possible to use rare familial cases of recurrent HMs (RHMs) to identify two maternal-effect genes, NLRP7 and KHDC3L, responsible for this condition. Here, we recapitulate current knowledge about RHMs and conclude with the role and benefits of testing patients for mutations in the known genes.

  2. Preliminary Study on c-Ha-ras Oncogene Mutations in Hydatidiform Mole Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 谭运年; 陈碧; 李英勇; 康旭

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the presence of c-Ha-fas oncogene mutations in hydatidiform mole (HM) tissues and to further explore its relationship with mole's malignancy Materials & methods c-Ha-ras codon 12 mutation was detected in invasive and noninvasive HM by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).Results c-Ha-fas codon 12 mutation was detected in 7 samples (53. 85%) of 13 invasive HM and 8 samples (26. 67%) in 30 non-invasive HM. c-Ha-ras mutations also showed loss of wild-type c-Ha-fas. No mutation in control group was observed.Conclusion The tendency of c-Ha-ras codon 12 mutation may be related with a higher invasive degree of HM.

  3. Analysis of internal doses to Mole voles inhabiting the East-Ural radioactive trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinovsky, G.; Yarmoshenko, I. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation); Chibiryak, M.; Vasil' ev, A. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Substantial task of development of approaches to radiation protection of non-human biota is investigation of relationships of exposure to dose, and dose to effects. Small mammals inhabiting territory of the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) are affected to ionizing radiation for many generations after accident at Mayak plutonium production in 1957. According to results of numerous studies a number of effects of exposure are observed. It is remarkable that the revealed effects are both negative and adaptive. In particular, the analysis of the variability of morphological structures of the axial skull and lower jaw in the population of northern mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall.), the burrowing rodent inhabiting the EURT, is of great interest. At the same time there is no reliable assessment of the radiation doses to these animals. Earlier we developed the approach to assess internal doses to mouse-like rodents (mice and voles) caused by incorporated {sup 90}Sr, which is the main dose contributing radionuclide at the EURT. Dose assessments are based on the results of beta-radiometry of intact bone. Routine methods for measuring the activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skeleton require ashing of samples, however in morphometric studies the destruction of material should be avoided: the skulls of mole voles are stored in the environmental samples depository of IPAE. Coefficients linking results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skull of mouse was obtained basing on comparison of results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and bone ash. Obtained coefficients cannot be directly applied for calculating activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in mole vole skulls because they are significantly larger. Therefore the additional study is required to assess proper coefficient of conversion from beta-radiometry to activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr. Developed dose assessment procedure includes application of the published values of

  4. Attenuation of arsenic in a karst subterranean stream and correlation with geochemical factors: a case study at Lihu, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liankai; Yang, Hui; Tang, Jiansheng; Qin, Xiaoqun; Yu, Au Yik

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic (As) pollutants generated by human activities in karst areas flow into subterranean streams and contaminate groundwater easily because of the unique hydrogeological characteristics of karst areas. To elucidate the reaction mechanisms of arsenic in karst subterranean streams, physical-chemical analysis was conducted by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The results show that inorganic species account for most of the total arsenic, whereas organic arsenic is not detected or occurs in infinitesimal amounts. As(III) accounts for 51.0%±9.9% of the total inorganic arsenic. Arsenic attenuation occurs and the attenuation rates of total As, As(III) and As(V) in the Lihu subterranean stream are 51%, 36% and 59%, respectively. To fully explain the main geochemical factors influencing arsenic attenuation, SPSS 13.0 and CANOCO 4.5 bundled with CanoDraw for Windows were used for simple statistical analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA). Eight main factors, i.e., sediment iron (SFe), sediment aluminum (SAl), sediment calcium (SCa), sediment organic matter (SOM), sediment manganese (SMn), water calcium (WCa(2+)), water magnesium (WMg(2+)), and water bicarbonate ion (WHCO3(-)) were extracted from thirteen indicators. Their impacts on arsenic content rank as: SFe>SCa>WCa(2+)>SAl>WHCO3(-)>SMn>SOM>WMg(2+). Of these factors, SFe, SAl, SCa, SOM, SMn, WMg(2+) and WCa(2+) promote arsenic attenuation, whereas WHCO3(-) inhibits it. Further investigation revealed that the redox potential (Eh) and pH are adverse to arsenic removal. The dramatic distinction between karst and non-karst terrain is that calcium and bicarbonate are the primary factors influencing arsenic migration in karst areas due to the high calcium concentration and alkalinity of karst water.

  5. Paternity testing of hydatidiform mole%葡萄胎的亲缘关系鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巴华杰; 邵岗; 董玉贞; 林子清

    2011-01-01

    According to the histopathology characteristics and the gene source, the hydatidiform mole (HM) is divided into partial hydatidiform mole(PHM) and complete hydatidiform mole(CHM). Obtain the types and organizational source of HM, besides use histopathological method, we still can use the method of STR loci detection. According to the types, organizational source and fertilization ways of HM, we can paternity testing using the principle and method of group genetics.%根据组织病理学特点及基因来源,葡萄胎可分为部分性葡萄胎和完全性葡萄胎.葡萄胎的类型及组织来源的判断除可采用组织病理学的方法外,还可采用STR基因座检测的方法.根据葡萄胎的类型、组织来源及受精方式,利用群体遗传学的原理和方法对葡萄胎进行亲缘关系鉴定.

  6. Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K Sarko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors. Due to naked mole-rats’ behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors. Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae. We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs (such as independent movement of the lower incisors. These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment.

  7. The changes of clinical features of hydatidiform mole:analysis of 113 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Jin-lin; Wan Xi-run; Xiang Yang; Qi Qing-wei; Yang Xiu-yu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of the clinical features of hydatidiform mole.Methods.One hundred and thirteen cases of hydatidiform mole treated in Peking Union Medical College Hospital during 1989-2006 were reviewed retrospectively and a comparison was made to historic data(1948-1975)using χ2 test.Results: The median age was 28 years (ranges from 20 to 55 years).The median gestational age was 90.2 days.Vaginal bleeding remaines the most common presenting symptom, ocurring in 94 of 113 cases (83.2%).Fifty-two of 113 cases (46 % ) presented with excessive uterine size.Pregnancy induced hypertension syndome (PIH), hyperemsis, hemoptysis and theca lutein cysts occurred in 4 of 113 (3.5%) ,12 of 113 (10.6%), 4 of 113 (3.5%) and 19 of 113 cases(16.8%) respectively.Incidence of postmolar trophoblastic neoplasia was 21%(24 of 113).Campared to historic data,the incidence of vaginal bleeding and PIH were statistically lower(P<0.005).The incidence of postmolar gastational trophohlastic neoplasia (GTN) was increased moderately without statistical significance compared to historic data.Conclusions: Because of the wide use of ultrasonography and serum hCG test, the current patients with hydatidiform mole have been diagnosed earlier in gestation and the elinical features have changed.Patterns of medical practice should be changed accordingly.

  8. [From human andro- and parthenogenesis (hydatidiform moles and benign ovarian teratomas) to cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coullin, P

    2005-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a process that appeared in mammals. This phenomenon blocks the normal development of parthenogenic and androgenic conceptuses, that is to say benign ovarian teratomas and hydatidiform moles respectively. Pathological modifications of these conceptuses depend on whether the chromosomes come from the mother or father. These pathologies are associated with an accidental anomaly during gametogenesis and/or fertilizing. These reproductive anomalies are sporadic and some familial cases may exist suggesting a genetic control of such diseases. The human andro- and parthenogenetic conceptuses, but more frequently the moles, may be invasive (choriocarcinoma). An imbalance of the imprinting genes may initiate the deregulation of other genes, including oncogenes and anti-oncogenes, which can explain the cancerous modification. Immunological and environmental factors must be also considered (presence of the only paternal chromosomes in the choriocarcinoma). Numerous works on this subject are published and some recent important discoveries underline the roles of genes HOX, Tim P3, E-cad and p-16, and the recurrent chromosome anomalies 7q21+and 8p21- in the mole to choriocarcinoma processing. Although these phenomena are complex and heterogeneous, the andro- and parthenogenote conceptuses are particularly interesting models with which to understand developmental disorders and cancerous progression.

  9. Long bone histology of the subterranean rodent Bathyergus suillus (Bathyergidae): ontogenetic pattern of cortical bone thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Sanhueza, Germán; Chinsamy, Anusuya

    2017-02-01

    Patterns of bone development in mammals are best known from terrestrial and cursorial groups, but there is a considerable gap in our understanding of how specializations for life underground affect bone growth and development. Likewise, studies of bone microstructure in wild populations are still scarce, and they often include few individuals and tend to be focused on adults. For these reasons, the processes generating bone microstructural variation at intra- and interspecific levels are not fully understood. This study comprehensively examines the bone microstructure of an extant population of Cape dune molerats, Bathyergus suillus (Bathyergidae), the largest subterranean mammal endemic to the Western Cape of South Africa. The aim of this study is to investigate the postnatal bone growth of B. suillus using undecalcified histological sections (n = 197) of the femur, humerus, tibia-fibula, ulna and radius, including males and females belonging to different ontogenetic and reproductive stages (n = 42). Qualitative histological features demonstrate a wide histodiversity with thickening of the cortex mainly resulting from endosteal and periosteal bone depositions, whilst there is scarce endosteal resorption and remodeling throughout ontogeny. This imbalanced bone modeling allows the tissues deposited during ontogeny to remain relatively intact, thus preserving an excellent record of growth. The distribution of the different bone tissues observed in the cortex depends on ontogenetic status, anatomical features (e.g. muscle attachment structures) and location on the bone (e.g. anterior or lateral). The type of bone microstructure and modeling is discussed in relation to digging behavior, reproduction and physiology of this species. This study is the first histological assessment describing the process of cortical thickening in long bones of a fossorial mammal.

  10. Corrections for Measurements of Tritium in Subterranean Vapor using Silica Gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dewart, Jean M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, Shannon P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eisele, William F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcnaughton, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Green, Andrew A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Hazardous contaminants buried within vadose zones can accumulate in soil gas. The concentrations and spatial extent of these contaminants are measured to evaluate potential transport to ground water for public risk evaluation. Tritium is an important contaminant found in and monitored for in vadose zones across numerous sites within the United States nuclear weapons complex, including Los Alamos National Laboratory. The extraction, collection, and laboratory analysis of tritium from subterranean soil gas presents numerous technical challenges that have not been fully studied. Particularly, the lack of soil moisture in the soil gas in the vadose zone makes it difficult to obtain enough sample moisture (e.g., > 5 g) to provide for the required sensitivity, and often, only small amounts of moisture can be collected. Further, although silica gel has high affinity for water vapor and is prebaked prior to sampling, there is still sufficient residual moisture in the prebaked gel to dilute the relatively small amount of sampled moisture; thereby, significantly lowering the 'true' tritium concentration in the soil gas. This paper provides an evaluation of the magnitude of the bias from dilution, provides methods to correct past measurements by applying a correction factor (CF), and evaluates the uncertainty of the CF values. For this, ten-thousand Monte Carlo calculations were perfonned and distribution parameters of CF values were detennined and evaluated. The mean and standard deviation of the distribution of CF values were 1.53 {+-} 0.36, and the minimum, median, and maximum values were 1.14, 1.43, and 5.27, respectively.

  11. Postnatal ontogeny of limb proportions and functional indices in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Alejandra Isabel; Becerra, Federico; Vassallo, Aldo Iván

    2014-08-01

    Burrow construction in the subterranean Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) primarily occurs by scratch-digging. In this study, we compared the limbs of an ontogenetic series of C. talarum to identify variation in bony elements related to fossorial habits using a morphometrical and biomechanical approach. Diameters and functional lengths of long bones were measured and 10 functional indices were constructed. We found that limb proportions of C. talarum undergo significant changes throughout postnatal ontogeny, and no significant differences between sexes were observed. Five of six forelimb indices and two of four hindlimb indices showed differences between ages. According to discriminant analysis, the indices that contributed most to discrimination among age groups were robustness of the humerus and ulna, relative epicondylar width, crural and brachial indices, and index of fossorial ability (IFA). Particularly, pups could be differentiated from juveniles and adults by more robust humeri and ulnae, wider epicondyles, longer middle limb elements, and a proportionally shorter olecranon. Greater robustness indicated a possible compensation for lower bone stiffness while wider epicondyles may be associated to improved effective forces in those muscles that originate onto them, compensating the lower muscular development. The gradual increase in the IFA suggested a gradual enhancement in the scratch-digging performance due to an improvement in the mechanical advantage of forearm extensors. Middle limb indices were higher in pups than in juveniles-adults, reflecting relatively more gracile limbs in their middle segments, which is in accordance with their incipient fossorial ability. In sum, our results show that in C. talarum some scratch-digging adaptations are already present during early postnatal ontogeny, which suggests that they are prenatally shaped, and other traits develop progressively. The role of early digging behavior as a factor influencing on

  12. Subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae):Exploitation of equivalent food resources with different forms of placement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juliana Toledo Lima; Ana Maria Costa-Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Coptotermes gestroi and Heterotermes tenuis have been described as important urban pests in Brazil.The establishment of control technologies using baits that consider the social behavior of termites requires a better knowledge of their foraging behavior.Thus,this study analyzed the feeding behavior of these species with three different forms of food placement:food on the surface of a substrate and food either partially or completely buried in the substrate.Experimental arenas were composed of a central chamber connected to three food chambers.Each central chamber contained 550 foragers of C.gestroi or 517 foragers ofH.tenuis.Blocks ofPinus elliottii were placed in the different food chambers.After 28 days,the consumption of each wood block and the percentage of foraging individuals recruited for food chambers were verified in relation to the total survival rate obtained for each one of the 20 replicates.Results showed that completely buried food was most consumed for H.tenuis and presented a higher recruitment rate of workers and soldiers for both species.Although the consumption had non-significant differences for C.gestroi,these termites exhibited a tendency to prefer completely buried food.In these conditions,it can be concluded that the forms of food placement used in the present research influenced the recruitment of individuals for both species.Data also suggests that when the foraging subterranean termites find food resources in the tunneling substrate,they tend to concentrate their efforts on it,a behavior regime that reduces exposure to external environment.

  13. Structural, magnetic and microwave properties of barium hexaferrite thick films with different Fe/Ba mole ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Samiksha [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147004 (India); Dhawan, S.K. [Polymeric & Soft Materials Section, National Physical laboratory, New Delhi 119912 (India); Paesano, Andrea [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, Maringá (Brazil); Pandey, O.P. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147004 (India); Sharma, Puneet, E-mail: puneet.sharma@thapar.edu [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147004 (India)

    2015-12-15

    Barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) thick films (∼60 µm) with different BaO·xFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} mole ratio (x=5.0–6.0) were prepared by screen printing method. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of single phase BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (BaM). Preferential site occupation of Fe{sup 3+} ion at five different crystallographic sites, with varied mole ratio was measured by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Vacancy fraction found to be higher at 4f{sub 1}, 4f{sub 2} and 2b sites for mole ratio 5.5 and 5.0 respectively. Magnetic measurement shows that the magnetization (M) and magnetocrystalline anisotropy field (H{sub a}) depends upon mole ratio. M and H{sub a} are found to be maximum for mole ratio 5.5, while the coercivity (H{sub c}) remains constant. Reflection losses (R{sub L}) in the frequency range of 12–18 GHz were also studied. Present investigation demonstrates the effect of mole ratio on structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of BaM thick films for microwave device applications. - Highlights: • Single phase BaM thick films with different Fe/Ba mole ratio are prepared. • Site preference of Fe ion is estimated by Mössbauer spectroscopy. • Magnetization and magnetocrystalline ansisotropy is found maximum for 5.5 mole ratio. • Absorption frequency found to vary with the mole ratio.

  14. Deaf, blind or deaf-blind: Is touch enhanced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, Costanza; Cecchetto, Carlo; Pisoni, Alberto; Bolognini, Nadia

    2016-02-01

    When someone looses one type of sensory input, s/he may compensate by using the sensory information conveyed by other senses. To verify whether loosing a sense or two has consequences on a spared sensory modality, namely touch, and whether these consequences depend on the type of sensory loss, we investigated the effects of deafness and blindness on temporal and spatial tactile tasks in deaf, blind and deaf-blind people. Deaf and deaf-blind people performed the spatial tactile task better than the temporal one, while blind and controls showed the opposite pattern. Deaf and deaf-blind participants were impaired in temporal discrimination as compared to controls, while deaf-blind individuals outperformed blind participants in the spatial tactile task. Overall, sensory-deprived participants did not show an enhanced tactile performance. We speculate that discriminative touch is not so relevant in humans, while social touch is. Probably, more complex tactile tasks would have revealed an increased performance in sensory-deprived people.

  15. POSTERIOR SEGMENT CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN IN BLIND SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is estimated that there are 1.4 million irreversibly blind children in the world out of which 1 million are in Asia alone. India has the highest number of blind children than any other country. Nearly 70% of the childhood blindness is avoidable. There i s paucity of data available on the causes of childhood blindness. This study focuses on the posterior segment causes of blindness among children attending blind schools in 3 adjacent districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a cross sectiona l study conducted among 204 blind children aged 6 - 16 years age. Detailed eye examination was done by the same investigator to avoid bias. Posterior segment examination was done using a direct and/or indirect ophthalmoscope after dilating pupil wherever nec essary. The standard WHO/PBL for blindness and low vision examination protocol was used to categorize the causes of blindness. A major anatomical site and underlying cause was selected for each child. The study was carried out during July 2014 to June 2015 . The results were analyzed using MS excel software and Epi - info 7 software version statistical software. RESULTS: Majority of the children was found to be aged 13 - 16 years (45.1% and males (63.7%. Family history of blindness was noted in 26.0% and consa nguinity was reported in 29.9% cases. A majority of them were belonged to fulfill WHO grade of blindness (73.0% and in majority of the cases, the onset of blindness was since birth (83.7%. The etiology of blindness was unknown in majority of cases (57.4% while hereditary causes constituted 25.4% cases. Posterior segment causes were responsible in 33.3% cases with retina being the most commonly involved anatomical site (19.1% followed by optic nerve (14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for mandatory oph thalmic evaluation, refraction and assessment of low vision prior to admission into blind schools with periodic evaluation every 2 - 3 years

  16. Hydrogen cyanide-producing rhizobacteria kill subterranean termite Odontotermes obesus (Rambur) by cyanide poisoning under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, K Kanchana; Seth, Nidhi; Kothamasi, Shalini; Kothamasi, David

    2007-01-01

    The subterranean termite Odontotermes obesus is an important pest of the Indian subcontinent, causing extensive damage to major agricultural crops and forest plantation trees. Control of termites by strategies employing their parasites has limitations because they have evolved a complex social structure, immune responses, and adaptive behavior toward pathogen-infected individuals. Nonparasitic rhizobacteria that produce harmful metabolites might facilitate the biocontrol of termites. In the present investigation, three different species of hydrogen cyanide-producing rhizobacteria were tested for their potential to kill O. obesus. The three bacterial species were found to be effective in killing the termites under in vitro conditions.

  17. Adult neurogenesis in the hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) and mole (Talpa europaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkowska, K; Turlejski, K; Grabiec, M; Ghazaryan, A; Yavruoyan, E; Djavadian, R L

    2010-01-01

    We investigated adult neurogenesis in two species of mammals belonging to the superorder Laurasiatheria, the southern white-breasted hedgehog (order Erinaceomorpha, species Erinaceus concolor) from Armenia and the European mole (order Soricomorpha, species Talpa europaea) from Poland. Neurogenesis in the brain of these species was examined immunohistochemically, using the endogenous markers doublecortin (DCX) and Ki-67, which are highly conserved among species. We found that in both the hedgehog and mole, like in the majority of earlier investigated mammals, neurogenesis continues in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and in the dentate gyrus (DG). In the DG of both species, DCX-expressing cells and Ki-67-labeled cells were present in the subgranular and granular layers. In the mole, a strong bundle of DCX-labeled processes, presumably axons of granule cells, was observed in the center of the hilus. Proliferating cells (expressing Ki-67) were identified in the SVZ of lateral ventricles of both species, but neuronal precursor cells (expressing DCX) were also observed in the olfactory bulb (OB). In both species, the vast majority of cells expressing DCX in the OB were granule cells with radially orientated dendrites, although some periglomerular cells surrounding the glomeruli were also labeled. In addition, this paper is the first to show DCX-labeled fibers in the anterior commissure of the hedgehog and mole. These fibers must be axons of new neurons making interhemispheric connections between the two OB or piriform (olfactory) cortices. DCX-expressing neurons were observed in the striatum and piriform cortex of both hedgehog and mole. We postulate that in both species a fraction of cells newly generated in the SVZ migrates along the rostral migratory stream to the piriform cortex. This pattern of migration resembles that of the 'second-wave neurons' generated during embryonal development of the neocortex rather than the pattern observed during

  18. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build relationships and become the eventual basis for language learning. As the child who is deaf-blind becomes ... those near them, deaf-blindness fosters opportunities for learning and mutual ... M. (Eds.), (1993). Second edition. A model service delivery system for persons ...

  19. 对摩尔(MOLE)可编程探测系统的双盲现场评估%Double-Blind Field Evaluation of the MOLE Programmable Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dale Murray; 张剑飞

    2006-01-01

    双盲测试是一种经典的测试方法,适用于测试结果依赖人的影响或解释的情况.本文记录Sandia国家实验室对MOLE可编程探测系统进行双盲测试的整个过程,包括测试准备、测试设计、测试参数设定、进行测试、测试结果分析和讨论.

  20. National Center On Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Profile Logout Menu NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness Help ... Collaborate Project Staff Service Provider Family Member State Deaf-Blind Projects Click on a state on the ...

  1. Blind Cognitive MAC Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Mehanna, Omar; Gamal, Hesham El

    2008-01-01

    We consider the design of cognitive Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols enabling an unlicensed (secondary) transmitter-receiver pair to communicate over the idle periods of a set of licensed channels, i.e., the primary network. The objective is to maximize data throughput while maintaining the synchronization between secondary users and avoiding interference with licensed (primary) users. No statistical information about the primary traffic is assumed to be available a-priori to the secondary user. We investigate two distinct sensing scenarios. In the first, the secondary transmitter is capable of sensing all the primary channels, whereas it senses one channel only in the second scenario. In both cases, we propose MAC protocols that efficiently learn the statistics of the primary traffic online. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed blind protocols asymptotically achieve the throughput obtained when prior knowledge of primary traffic statistics is available.

  2. Corneal blindness: prevention, treatment and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Burton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Blindness from corneal disease is a major ophthalmic public health problem. There are three important elements to addressing corneal blindness: prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation.

  3. Subterranean medicine: an inquiry into underground medical treatment protocols in cave rescue situations in national parks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, K; Shalit, M

    2000-01-01

    Caving and spelunking have become increasingly popular over the years, with hundreds of thousands of amateur spelunkers across the country visiting caves. National parks in the United States offer hundreds of caves for all levels of spelunkers and, in fact, many national parks boast caves as either their main or major attraction. In an effort to increase visitor safety and establish subterranean medical treatment protocols, we began an investigation into cave rescue, medical protocols, previously published recommendations concerning cave safety, and visitor and rescue statistics in the national parks. Our inquiry provided little guidance from either the literature or the present US National Parks database for treating underground injuries. However, 2 predominant trends did appear. First, despite the nearly 2 million visitors to the caves in the 14 parks surveyed, there were only about 200 total calls for medical care. The vast number of those calls were for minor injuries. Second, no strict evidence-based treatment protocols for underground injuries exist, probably because they are not feasible. A caving incident database for the national parks would facilitate suggestions for preventative measures for the minor injuries and would help catalog the creative solutions for the rare serious subterranean medical incident.

  4. Improved mortality of the Formosan subterranean termite by fungi, when amended with cuticle-degrading enzymes or eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Maureen S; Lax, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Formosan subterranean termites (FST) were exposed to strains of Beauveria pseudobassiana (Bpb) and Isaria fumosorosea (Ifr) to determine virulence of the fungi. Once lethality was determined, sublethal doses of Bpb were combined with enzymes capable of degrading the insect cuticle to measure the potential to enhance fungal infection. Bpb applied to FST in combination with proteinases and a chitinase caused increased mortality over the fungus alone. Mortality was enhanced when Ifr was applied to FST in combination with a chitinase isolated from Serratia marcesans. A lipase isolated from Pseudomonas cepacia, when combined with Ifr, also resulted in greater mortality than all control treatments. FST were also exposed to the eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors (EBIs) dexamethasone (DEX), ibuprofen (IBU), and ibuprofen sodium salt (IBUNA), in combination with Ifr. Combining Ifr with IBUNA caused significantly increased mortality on days 6, 7, and 9. Cuticle-degrading enzymes and EBIs may have potential to enhance the pathogenic effect of a fungal control agent against the Formosan subterranean termite.

  5. First Insights into the Subterranean Crustacean Bathynellacea Transcriptome: Transcriptionally Reduced Opsin Repertoire and Evidence of Conserved Homeostasis Regulatory Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Kang, Seunghyun; Ahn, Do-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Ahn, Inhye; Lee, Chi-Woo; Cho, Joo-Lae; Min, Gi-Sik; Park, Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Bathynellacea (Crustacea, Syncarida, Parabathynellidae) are subterranean aquatic crustaceans that typically inhabit freshwater interstitial spaces (e.g., groundwater) and are occasionally found in caves and even hot springs. In this study, we sequenced the whole transcriptome of Allobathynella bangokensis using RNA-seq. De novo sequence assembly produced 74,866 contigs including 28,934 BLAST hits. Overall, the gene sequences were most similar to those of the waterflea Daphnia pulex. In the A. bangokensis transcriptome, no opsin or related sequences were identified, and no contig aligned to the crustacean visual opsins and non-visual opsins (i.e. arthropsins, peropsins, and melaopsins), suggesting potential regressive adaptation to the dark environment. However, A. bangokensis expressed conserved gene family sets, such as heat shock proteins and those related to key innate immunity pathways and antioxidant defense systems, at the transcriptional level, suggesting that this species has evolved adaptations involving molecular mechanisms of homeostasis. The transcriptomic information of A. bangokensis will be useful for investigating molecular adaptations and response mechanisms to subterranean environmental conditions. PMID:28107438

  6. Nutritional ecology of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): growth and survival of incipient colonies feeding on preferred wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2003-02-01

    The wood of 11 plant species was evaluated as a food source significantly impacting the growth and survival of incipient colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Colonies of C. formosanus feeding on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.), and red gum, Liquidambar styraciflua L., produced significantly more progeny than colonies feeding on other wood species tested. Progeny of colonies feeding on pecan and American ash, Fraxinus americana L., had significantly greater survival than progeny of colonies feeding on other wood species. Colonies feeding on a nutritionally supplemented cellulose based matrix showed similar fitness characteristics as colonies feeding on the best wood treatments. These results indicate that differences observed in colony fitness can be partially explained by nutritional value of the food treatment, raising the possibility that wood from different tree species have different nutritional values to the Formosan subterranean termites. Colonies feeding on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., had significantly lower survival and produced significantly fewer workers and soldiers than colonies feeding on other wood species. Colony survival from 90 to 180 d of age and from 90 to 360 d of age was significantly correlated with the number of workers present at 90 d of colony age, indicating that colony survival depends on the presence of workers. Wood consumption in a multiple-choice study was significantly correlated with colony fitness value. This suggests that feeding preference of C. formosanus is at least partially influenced by the nutritional value of the food source.

  7. Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility affected by the in mole fraction fluctuation in InxAl1-xN/GaN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guipeng; Zhang, Jinfeng; Lu, Kunyi; Chen, Wenjie; Tian, Yonghui; Yang, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    In an InxAl1-xN/GaN heterostructure, we have studied the mobility limited by the In mole fraction fluctuation scattering. The In mole fraction fluctuation characterizes the quality of the InxAl1-xN material with two parameters, one is the mole fraction fluctuation δx and the other is its lateral s Λ. Similar to a roughness scattering, for a fixed mole fraction x, the mobility limited by the In mole fraction fluctuation initially decreases with Λ increasing, reaches a minimum at a certain value of Λ and then increases.

  8. Clinical Usefulness of Immunohistochemical Staining of p57kip2 for the Differential Diagnosis of Complete Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Sasaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Can polymer-based immunohistochemical staining of p57kip2 replace DNA analysis as an inexpensive means of differentiating complete mole from partial mole or hydropic abortion? Methods and Materials. Original paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from 14 equivocal cases were turned over to our laboratory and examined by immunohistochemical staining of p57kip2. Results. Four of the 14 cases showed clearly negative nuclear staining in cytotrophoblasts and villous stromal cells: these results were fully concordant with the control staining. The remaining 10 cases showed apparently positive staining in cytotrophoblasts and villous stromal cells. Without DNA analysis we are able to clearly differentiate the 4 cases of complete mole among the 14 equivocal cases. During follow-up, secondary low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN developed in 1 of the 4 cases of complete mole: the GTN was treated by single-agent chemotherapy. No subsequent changes were observed during follow-up in the other cases. Conclusion. Polymer-based immunohistochemical staining of p57kip2 (paternally imprinted gene, expressed from maternal allele is a very effective method that can be used to differentiate androgenetic complete mole from partial mole and hydropic abortion. We might be able to avoid the cost of DNA analysis.

  9. Utilizing rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein for mark-capture studies on the desert subterranean termite, Heterotermes aureus (Snyder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of mark-capture dispersal studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of marking the southwestern desert subterranean termite, Heterotermes aureus (Snyder) with rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein. In turn, short-range dispersal patterns of H. aureus were measured across a 20-m ...

  10. Antagonismo direto e biocontrole da podridão-mole-do-tomateiro pelo uso de procariotas.

    OpenAIRE

    BARRA, V.R.; ROMEIRO, R. da S.; GARCIA, F.A. de O.; Moura,A.B.; SILVA, H. S. A.; MENDONÇA, H.L.; HALFELD-VIEIRA, B. de A.

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar procariotas quanto ao potencial de antagonismo direto para o biocontrole da podridão-mole-do-tomateiro (Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum). Avaliaram-se 45 isolados bacterianos pelo teste de antibiose contra o patógeno. Foram feitos dois ensaios em que sementes de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. Santa Clara foram infectadas com isolados antagônicos. As mudas foram transplantadas para solos infestados com suspensões de propágulos P. ...

  11. [Twin pregnancy with complete mole and coexisting fetus: Reach fetal viability is possible].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsène, E; Clouqueur, E; Stichelbout, M; Devisme, L; Vaast, P; Subtil, D

    2015-11-01

    Twin pregnancies combining complete hydatidiform mole and coexistent fetus are a rare situation (incidence in 1/20,000 in 1/100,000 pregnancies) and a challenge for diagnosis. Their complications can be important - bleeding, preeclampsia, miscarriage - and their management remains complex and controversial. In case of continuing the pregnancy, nearly 40% of women have lives babies. Three quarters of fetal loss occur before 24weeks gestation. We report here three new cases; only one of these cases had a favorable outcome.

  12. MARCO MOLES Y PERELLÓ LA CRUZ. LA EXPRESIÓN EXISTENCIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión Miró, Juan

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se intenta reivindicar una serie de valores que consideramos muy importantes y que cada vez se van haciendo más escasos en la práctica artística, a través de la obra de dos creadores contemporáneos, Antonio Marco Moles (Alquerías del Niño Perdido (Castellón), 1929) y Vicente Perelló La Cruz (Valencia 1933-2008). Unos artistas que, avanzando a contracorriente, han conseguido unas realizaciones de gran densidad significativa y profundidad, que son una sugestiva aportación a l...

  13. Hearing in mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) at sonic and ultrasonic frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, A C; Forrest, T G; Hoy, R R

    1998-06-01

    We have studied auditory responses in two species of mole cricket (Scapteriscus borellii and S. abbreviatus) to determine (1) whether they show sensitivity to ultrasound, (2) whether their hearing (at both low and high frequencies) is based on the same neural circuitry as that of true crickets, and (3) whether ultrasound sensitivity in different mole cricket species varies with their ability to fly. S. borellii are sensitive to ultrasonic frequencies. There is evidence of a segregation of frequency bands in prothoracic auditory neurons. There are two pairs of omega neurons (ONs) with similar morphology to ON1 of true crickets. The two pairs of ONs differ in tuning. One pair has two sensitivity peaks: at the frequency of the calling song of this species (3 kHz), and in the ultrasonic range (25 kHz). The other pair lacks the high-frequency sensitivity and responds exclusively to frequencies in the range of the species song. These two types are not morphologically distinguishable. In S. abbreviatus, only one class of ON was found. S. abbreviatus ONs are narrowly tuned to the frequency of the species' calls. A T-neuron had the best ultrasonic frequency sensitivity in S. borellii. This cell showed a broad tuning to ultrasonic frequencies and was inhibited by low-frequency stimuli. A morphologically similar neuron was also recorded in S. abbreviatus, but lacked the high-frequency sensitivity peak of that in S. borellii. We also assessed the responses of flying S. borellii to ultrasound using field playbacks to free-flying animals. The attractiveness of broadcast calling song was diminished by the addition of an ultrasound signal, indicating that S. borellii avoid high-frequency sound. The results indicate that mole crickets process low-frequency auditory stimuli using mechanisms similar to those of true crickets. They show a negative behavioural response to high-frequency stimuli, as do true crickets, but the organization of ultrasound-sensitive auditory circuitry in

  14. [Characteristics and Transport Patterns of Ammonia, Nitrites, Nitrates and Inorganic Nitrogen Flux at Epikarst Springs and a Subterranean Stream in Nanshan, Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-zhu; He, Qiu-fang; Jiang, Yong-jun; Li, Yong

    2016-04-15

    In a karst groundwater system, it develops complex multiple flows because of its special geological structure and unique physical patterns of aquifers. In order to investigate the characteristics and transport patterns of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate in epikarst water and subterranean stream, the water samples were collected monthly in a fast-urbanizing karst region. The results showed distinctive characteristics of three forms of inorganic nitrogen. The concentration of inorganic nitrogen was stable in the epikarst water while it was fluctuant in the subterranean stream. Epikarst water was less affected by rainfall and sewage compared with subterranean stream. In epikarst water, the nitrate concentration was much higher than the ammonia concentration. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen, mainly from non-point source pollution related to agricultural activities, passed in and out of the epikarst water based on a series of physical; chemical and biological processes in the epikarst zone, such as ammonification, adsorption and nitrification. On the contrary, subterranean stream showed a result of NH₄⁺-N > NO₃⁻-N in dry seasons and NO₃⁻-N > NH₄⁺-N in rainy seasons. This can be due to the fact that sanitary and industrial sewage flowed into subterranean river through sinkholes, fissures and grikes in dry season. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen in subterranean river was mainly from the non-point source pollution in wet season. Non-point source pollutants entered into subterranean water by two transport ways, one by penetration along with vadose flow through fissures and grikes, and the other by conduit flow through sinkholes from the surface runoff, soil water flow and epikarst flow. The export flux of DIN was 56.05 kg · (hm² · a)⁻¹, and NH₄⁺-N and NO₃⁻-N accounted for 46.03% and 52.51%, respectively. The contributions of point-source pollution and non point-source pollution to the export flux of DIN were 25.08% and 74.92%, respectively, based on run

  15. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy.

  16. LOVE IS COLOR BLIND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦扬

    2013-01-01

    <正>看完这部电影,突然想起小时候看完《辛德勒的名单》后,问过母亲一个问题:"为什么有些人要嘲笑和歧视那些与众不同的人?"母亲告诉我:"我们都是一样的,没有人应当受到责备,每个人都应当为自己而活,要始终坚信‘Love is color blind(爱无定界)’。"爱究竟有无定界?有太多故事让我们相信这句话并非纸上谈兵。《汤姆叔叔的小屋》、《美国往事》、《为黛西小姐开车》……是的,"Love"是"Listen(倾听)",是无条件无偏见地倾听对方的需求,并予以协助;是"Obligate(感恩)",需要不断地感恩,付出爱来灌

  17. Blinded trials taken to the test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Forfang, E; Haahr, M T

    2007-01-01

    Blinding can reduce bias in randomized clinical trials, but blinding procedures may be unsuccessful. Our aim was to assess how often randomized clinical trials test the success of blinding, the methods involved and how often blinding is reported as being successful....

  18. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What It's Like to Be Color Blind KidsHealth > For Kids > What It's Like to Be Color Blind Print A A ... blind. But some people really are color blind. It doesn't mean they can't see any ...

  19. Absence of histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat and "rescue" by Substance P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Gary R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent research has proposed a pathway in which sensory neurons expressing the capsaicin activated ion channel TRPV1 are required for histamine-induced itch and subsequent scratching behavior. We examined histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber and found that although naked mole-rats display innate scratching behavior, histamine was unable to evoke increased scratching as is observed in most mouse strains. Using calcium imaging, we examined the histamine sensitivity of naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons and identified a population of small diameter neurons activated by histamine, the majority of which are also capsaicin-sensitive. This suggested that naked mole-rat sensory neurons are activated by histamine, but that spinal dorsal horn processing of sensory information is not the same as in other rodents. We have previously shown that naked mole-rats naturally lack substance P (SP in cutaneous C-fibers, but that the neurokinin-1 receptor is expressed in the superficial spinal cord. This led us to investigate if SP deficiency plays a role in the lack of histamine-induced scratching in this species. After intrathecal administration of SP into the spinal cord we observed robust scratching behavior in response to histamine injection. Our data therefore support a model in which TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons are important for histamine-induced itch. In addition, we demonstrate a requirement for active, SP-induced post-synaptic drive to enable histamine sensitive afferents to drive itch-related behavior in the naked mole-rat. These results illustrate that it is altered dorsal horn connectivity of nociceptors that underlies the lack of itch and pain-related behavior in the naked mole-rat.

  20. High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Rella

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional techniques for measuring the mole fractions of greenhouse gases in the well-mixed atmosphere have required dry sample gas streams (dew point inter-laboratory compatibility goals (WMO, 2011a without drying the sample gas. In this paper, we present laboratory methodology for empirically deriving the water vapour correction factors, and we summarise a series of in-situ validation experiments comparing the measurements in humid gas streams to well-characterised dry-gas measurements. By using the manufacturer-supplied correction factors, the dry-mole fraction measurements have been demonstrated to be well within the GAW compatibility goals up to a water vapour concentration of at least 1%. By determining the correction factors for individual instruments once at the start of life, this water vapour concentration range can be extended to at least 2% over the life of the instrument, and if the correction factors are determined periodically over time, the evidence suggests that this range can be extended up to and even above 4% water vapour concentrations.

  1. Resonant Spin-Flavor Conversion of Supernova Neutrinos: Dependence on Electron Mole Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, T; Kimura, K; Yokomakura, H; Kawagoe, S; Kajino, T

    2009-01-01

    Detailed dependence of resonant spin-flavor (RSF) conversion of supernova neutrinos on electron mole fraction Ye is investigated. Supernova explosion forms a hot-bubble and neutrino-driven wind region of which electron mole fraction exceeds 0.5 in several seconds after the core collapse. When a higher resonance of the RSF conversion is located in the innermost region, flavor change of the neutrinos strongly depends on the sign of 1-2Ye. At an adiabatic high RSF resonance the flavor conversion of bar{nu}_e -> nu_{mu,tau} occurs in Ye 0.5 and inverted mass hierarchy. In other cases of Ye values and mass hierarchies, the conversion of nu_e -> bar{nu}_{mu,tau} occurs. The final bar{nu}_e spectrum is evaluated in the cases of Ye 0.5 taking account of the RSF conversion. Based on the obtained result, time variation of the event number ratios of low bar{nu}_e energy to high bar{nu}_e energy is discussed. In normal mass hierarchy, an enhancement of the event ratio should be seen in the period when the electron frac...

  2. Peripheral administration of oxytocin increases social affiliation in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Skyler J; Douglas, Natasha R; Holmes, Melissa M

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin regulates a wide variety of social behaviors across diverse species. However, the types of behaviors that are influenced by this hormone are constrained by the species in question and the social organization that a particular species exhibits. Therefore, the present experiments investigated behaviors regulated by oxytocin in a eusocial mammalian species by using the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). In Experiment 1, adult non-breeding mole-rats were given intraperitoneal injections of either oxytocin (1mg/kg or 10mg/kg) or saline on alternate days. Animals were then returned to their colony and behavior was recorded for minutes 15-30 post-injection. Both doses of oxytocin increased huddling behavior during this time period. In Experiment 2, animals received intraperitoneal injections of either oxytocin (1mg/kg), an oxytocin-receptor antagonist (0.1mg/kg), a cocktail of oxytocin and the antagonist, or saline across 4 testing days in a counterbalanced design. Animals were placed in either a 2-chamber arena with a familiar conspecific or in a small chamber with 1week old pups from their home colony and behaviors were recorded for minutes 15-30 post-injection. Oxytocin increased investigation of, and time spent in close proximity to, a familiar conspecific; these effects were blocked by the oxytocin antagonist. No effects were seen on pup-directed behavior. These data suggest that oxytocin is capable of modulating affiliative-like behavior in this eusocial species.

  3. Structural Features of the Telomerase RNA Gene in the Naked Mole Rat Heterocephalus glaber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evfratov, S. A.; Smekalova, E. M.; Golovin, A. V.; Logvina, N. A.; Zvereva, M. I.; Dontsova, O. A.

    2014-01-01

    Telomere length, an important feature of life span control, is dependent on the activity of telomerase (a key enzyme of the telomere-length-maintaining system). Telomerase RNA is a component of telomerase and, thus, is crucial for its activity. The structures of telomerase RNA genes and their promoter regions were compared for the long-living naked mole rat and different organisms. Two rare polymorphisms in Heterocephalus glaber telomerase RNA (hgTER) were identified: A→G in the first loop of pseudoknot P2b-p3 (an equivalent of 111nt in hTR) and G→A in the scaRNA domain CR7-p8b (an equivalent of 421nt in hTR). Analysis of TER promoter regions allowed us to identify two new transcription factor binding sites. The first one is the ETS family site, which was found to be a conserved element for all the analyzed TER promoters. The second site is unique for the promoter region of TER of the naked mole rat and is a binding site for the SOX17 transcription factor. The absence of one Sp1 site in the TER promoter region of the naked small rat is an additional specific feature of the promoter area of hgTER. Such variation in the hgTER transcription regulation region and hgTER itself could provide increased telomerase activity in stem cells and an extended lifespan to H. glaber. PMID:25093110

  4. Blindness in children: a worldwide perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Gilber

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Many of the causes of childhood blindness are avoidable, being either preventable or treatable. Only three per cent of the world's blind population are children. However, because children have a lifetime of blindness ahead of them, the number of ‘blind person years’ resulting from blindness starting in childhood is second only to cataract. Controlling blindness in children is a priority of VISION 20203,4; however, as its causes differ from that of blindness in adults, different strategies, personnel, infrastructure, and equipment are required to combat it. There is also a greater urgency when managing children, as delays in treatment can lead to amblyopia (lazy eye.

  5. Multiframe Blind Super Resolution Imaging Based on Blind Deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元伟; 张立毅

    2016-01-01

    As an ill-posed problem, multiframe blind super resolution imaging recovers a high resolution image from a group of low resolution images with some degradations when the information of blur kernel is limited. Note that the quality of the recovered image is influenced more by the accuracy of blur estimation than an advanced regularization. We study the traditional model of the multiframe super resolution and modify it for blind deblurring. Based on the analysis, we proposed two algorithms. The first one is based on the total variation blind deconvolution algorithm and formulated as a functional for optimization with the regularization of blur. Based on the alternating minimization and the gradient descent algorithm, the high resolution image and the unknown blur kernel are esti-mated iteratively. By using the median shift and add operator, the second algorithm is more robust to the outlier influence. The MSAA initialization simplifies the interpolation process to reconstruct the blurred high resolution image for blind deblurring and improves the accuracy of blind super resolution imaging. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority and accuracy of our novel algorithms.

  6. Acheivement of Nano-Scale SiGe Layer with Discrete Ge Mole Fraction Profile Using Batch-Type HVCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gon-sub Lee; Tae-hun Shim; Jea-gun Park

    2004-01-01

    The strained Si grown on the relaxed SiGe-on-insulator C-MOSFET's is a promising device for the future system LSI devices with the design rule of sub-micron. The achievement of the discrete Ge mole fraction in the SiGe layer is a key engineering in low-temperature SiGe epitaxial growth using HVCVD. The pre-flow of GeH4 gas enhanced the Ge mole fraction and SiGe layer thickness. In addition, the Ge mole fraction and SiGe layer thickness increases with the gas ratio of GeH4/SiH4 + GeH4, process temperature, and gas flow time. However, the haze was produced if the Ge mole fraction is above 22wt%. The discrete-like Ge mole fraction with 22 wt% in 10 nm SiGe layer was obtained by the pre-flow of GeH4 for 10 s, the mixture gas ratio of GeH4/SiH4 + GeH4 of 67%, and the gas flow time for 150 s at the process temperature of 550 C.

  7. NATURAL RESISTANCE OF WOOD OF NINE BRAZILIAN SEMI-ARID REGIONS TREE SPECIES TO SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES, UNDER LABORATORY CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The research evaluated the natural resistance of nine woods of Brazilian semi-aridregion species to subterranean termites, under laboratory condition. The studied species wereProsopis juliflora, Piptadenia macrocarpa, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Sennasiamea, Tabebuia aurea, Amburana cearenses, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Aspidosperma pyrifolium.Samples measuring 2.54 x 2.00 x 0.64 cm, with the largest measure taken on fiber direction wereobtained from four positions from pith to bark direction. The samples were submitted to the action ofNasutitermes corniger termites for 28 days. The wood resistance to termites attack, with exception ofProsopis juliflora and Tabebuia aurea, was affected by position on pith to bark direction, but was notassociated to wood density. The Aspidosperma pyrifolium and Tabebuia impetiginosa woods werethe more resistance woods. The wood natural resistance was not associated to soluble hot waterextractives content present in the wood of each studied species.

  8. A Kazal-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor from the Defense Gland Secretion of the Subterranean Termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia Negulescu

    Full Text Available Coptotermes formosanus is an imported, subterranean termite species with the largest economic impact in the United States. The frontal glands of the soldier caste termites comprising one third of the body mass, contain a secretion expelled through a foramen in defense. The small molecule composition of the frontal gland secretion is well-characterized, but the proteins remain to be identified. Herein is reported the structure and function of one of several proteins found in the termite defense gland secretion. TFP4 is a 6.9 kDa, non-classical group 1 Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor with activity towards chymotrypsin and elastase, but not trypsin. The 3-dimensional solution structure of TFP4 was solved with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and represents the first structure from the taxonomic family, Rhinotermitidae. Based on the structure of TFP4, the protease inhibitor active loop (Cys(8 to Cys(16 was identified.

  9. Redescription of Trichuris pampeana (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from the South American subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum Thomas, 1898 (Rodentia: Octodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, M Alejandra; Malizia, Ana I

    2005-02-01

    Trichuris pampeana Suriano and Navone, 1994 (Nematoda: Trichuridae) is redescribed from voucher specimens from the type host Ctenomys azarae Thomas, 1903 (Rodentia: Octodontidae) and from parasites collected from 2 populations of the subterranean rodent C. talarum Thomas, 1898 from Mar de Cobo and Necochea, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. After a revision of these nematodes, it was confirmed that the following characters were not considered in the original description: bacillary band, cells from the esophagointestinal junction, ejaculatory duct, vas deferens, adanal papillae, vagina, oviduct, and rectum. Additional information about the spicular sheath, vulva, uteri, and ovary is provided. The morphological features given in this redescription allow to confirm the identity of T. pampeana as a valid species and also to distinguish it more clearly from other species of the genus.

  10. The contamination impact of human exploration to a subterranean environment and the implications for further crewed space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuko, Stefan; Rettberg, Petra; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Laura; Koskinen, Kaisa

    2016-07-01

    The quest of exploring and looking for life in new places is a human desire since centuries. Nowadays, we are not only looking on planet Earth any more, but our endeavours focus on nearby planets in our solar system. It is therefore of great importance to preserve the extra-terrestrial environment and not to contaminate it with terrestrial / human associated bacteria. At this point in time we are not able to send crewed missions to other planets; however, analysing the impact of human exploration on environments is of great planetary protection concern. This can be achieved by obtaining samples from a subterranean environment, where only expert speleologists have access and the human impact is considered very low. For this study, astronauts participating in the 2014 ESA CAVES (Cooperative Adventure for Valuing and Exercising human behaviour and performance Skills) training course, obtained samples from deep within a subterranean environment and returned them to the laboratory for molecular microbial analysis. The diversity of the returned soil samples was analysed by molecular means such as clone library and next-generation sequencing (NGS). It was found that humans have an immense impact on the microbial diversity in the environment. Although the cave system is sparsely entered by humans, a high relative abundance of Staphylococcus spp. and Propionibacteria spp., organisms that are characteristic for human skin, have been recovered. Some samples even showed the presence of human gut associated methanogenic archaea, Methanomassiliicoccus spp. The obtained data from this investigation indicate that human exploration is strongly polluting an environment and may lead to false-positive sign of life on other planets. It is therefore imperative to increase our awareness to this problem as well as work towards new protocols to protect a pristine extraterrestrial environment during exploration.

  11. Estimating regional methane surface fluxes: the relative importance of surface and GOSAT mole fraction measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fraser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We use an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF, together with the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model, to estimate regional monthly methane (CH4 fluxes for the period June 2009–December 2010 using proxy dry-air column-averaged mole fractions of methane (XCH4 from GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite and/or NOAA ESRL (Earth System Research Laboratory and CSIRO GASLAB (Global Atmospheric Sampling Laboratory CH4 surface mole fraction measurements. Global posterior estimates using GOSAT and/or surface measurements are between 510–516 Tg yr−1, which is less than, though within the uncertainty of, the prior global flux of 529 ± 25 Tg yr−1. We find larger differences between regional prior and posterior fluxes, with the largest changes in monthly emissions (75 Tg yr−1 occurring in Temperate Eurasia. In non-boreal regions the error reductions for inversions using the GOSAT data are at least three times larger (up to 45% than if only surface data are assimilated, a reflection of the greater spatial coverage of GOSAT, with the two exceptions of latitudes >60° associated with a data filter and over Europe where the surface network adequately describes fluxes on our model spatial and temporal grid. We use CarbonTracker and GEOS-Chem XCO2 model output to investigate model error on quantifying proxy GOSAT XCH4 (involving model XCO2 and inferring methane flux estimates from surface mole fraction data and show similar resulting fluxes, with differences reflecting initial differences in the proxy value. Using a series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs we characterize the posterior flux error introduced by non-uniform atmospheric sampling by GOSAT. We show that clear-sky measurements can theoretically reproduce fluxes within 10% of true values, with the exception of tropical regions where, due to a large seasonal cycle in the number of measurements because of clouds and aerosols, fluxes are within 15% of true fluxes. We evaluate our

  12. Current transport mechanism in graphene/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with various Al mole fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Bhishma; Seo, Tae Hoon; Ryu, Beo Deul; Cho, Jaehee

    2016-06-01

    The current transport mechanism of graphene formed on AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures with various Al mole fractions (x = 0.15, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40) is investigated. The current-voltage measurement from graphene to AlGaN/GaN shows an excellent rectifying property. The extracted Schottky barrier height of the graphene/AlGaN/GaN contacts increases with the Al mole fraction in AlGaN. However, the current transport mechanism deviates from the Schottky-Mott theory owing to the deterioration of AlGaN crystal quality at high Al mole fractions confirmed by reverse leakage current measurement.

  13. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the extensive use of hot peppers and spicy sauces in the Mexican cuisine, in the present paper, three widely consumed Mexican condiments (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat. All samples were extracted first with methanol and then with acetone, and the extracts were compared. Pasilla pepper showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content in both solvents, followed by mole and achiote. Achiote showed the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. All samples showed high antioxidant activity, and good correlations with phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while no correlation was observed in the case of condensed tannins. Mole sauce methanolic extract showed the highest inhibition of pork meat oxidation, followed by pasilla pepper, and finally achiote paste extracts. These results suggest that these condiments are useful to prevent meat lipid oxidation during storage.

  14. Access to Mathematics by Blind Students: A Global Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Karshmer, Arthur I.; Daryoush D. Farsi

    2007-01-01

    The issue of blindness and legally blind is becoming a global issue. Based on the last statistics from American Foundation for the blind, there are approximately 10 million blind and visually impaired people in the United States alone. Over 45 million people around the world are completely blind. 180 million more people are legally blind, and approximately 7 million people are diagnosed as blind or legally blind every year. One of the greatest stumbling blocks in the ability of the blind to e...

  15. Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat, mouse, and human

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Sheila L; Zhang, Quanwei; Lemetre, Christophe; Seim, Inge; Calder, Robert B; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Suh, Yousin; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Vijg, Jan; Zhang, Zhengdong D

    2015-01-01

    Genome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM genes appeared to be strongly conserved, with copy number variation in only four genes. Interestingly, we found NMR to have a higher copy number of CEBPG, a regulator of DNA repair, and TINF2, a protector of telomere integrity. NMR, as well as human, was also found to have a lower rate of germline nucleotide substitution than the mouse. Together, the data suggest that the long-lived NMR, as well as human, has more robust GM than mouse and identifies new targets for the analysis of the exceptional longevity of the NMR. PMID:25645816

  16. Oxygen-Binding Characteristics of Hemoglobins from Hypoxia and Hypercapnia Tolerant African Mole Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Jarvis, Jennifer U. M; Fago, Angela;

    2016-01-01

    ) originating from a range of different biomes and soil types. The study shows no evidence for distinguishing interspecific differences in hematological characters (e.g. DPG and Hb levels and isoHb differentiation). Additionally small differences observed in Hb’s intrinsic O2 affinity and in the effects of pH...... transport of respiratory gases, we analysed hematological characters, as well as the Hb-O2 affinities and their sensitivities to pH (the Bohr effect), CO2, temperature and to the major red cell allosteric effector, DPG, in 4 eusocial and 2 strictly-solitary species of African mole rats (family Bathyergidae......, DPG and temperature were not clearly correlated with sociality and soil-type. However, it reveals palpable, species-specific reductions in the specific (pH-independent) effect of CO2 on Hb-O2 affinity (carbamate formation) compared to other mammalian Hbs, which would be adaptive in safeguarding...

  17. Whack-A-Mole Model: Towards unified description of biological effect caused by radiation-exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Manabe, Yuichiro; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Nakamura, Issei; Bando, Masako

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel model to estimate biological effects caused by artificial radiation exposure, Whack-a-mole (WAM) model. It is important to take account of the recovery effects during the time course of the cellular reactions. The inclusion of the dose-rate dependence is essential in the risk estimation of low dose radiation, while nearly all the existing theoretical models relies on the total dose dependence only. By analyzing the experimental data of the relation between the radiation dose and the induced mutation frequency of 5 organisms, mouse, drosophila, chrysanthemum, maize and tradescantia, we found that all the data can be reproduced by WAM model. Most remarkably, a scaling function, which is derived from WAM model, consistently accounts for the observed mutation frequencies of 5 organisms. This is the first rationale to account for the dose rate dependence as well as to give a unified understanding of a general feature of organisms.

  18. A mobile one-sided NMR sensor with a homogeneous magnetic field: the NMR-MOLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, B; Coy, A; Dykstra, R; Eccles, C D; Hunter, M W; Parkinson, B J; Callaghan, P T

    2006-11-01

    A new portable NMR sensor with a novel one-sided access magnet design, termed NMR-MOLE (MObile Lateral Explorer), has been characterised in terms of sensitivity and depth penetration. The magnet has been designed to be portable and create a volume with a relatively homogeneous magnetic field, 15,000 ppm over a region from 4 to 16 mm away from the probe, with maximum sensitivity at a depth of 10 mm. The proton NMR frequency is 3.3 MHz. We have demonstrated that with this approach a highly sensitive, portable, unilateral NMR sensor can be built. Such a design is especially suited for the characterisation of liquids in situations where unilateral or portable access is required.

  19. Whack-A-Mole Model: Towards a Unified Description of Biological Effects Caused by Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yuichiro; Wada, Takahiro; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Nakamura, Issei; Bando, Masako

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel model to for estimating biological effects caused by artificial radiation exposure, i.e., the Whack-A-Mole (WAM) model. It is important to take into account the recovery effects during the time course of cellular reactions. The inclusion of dose-rate dependence is essential in the risk estimation of low-dose radiation, while nearly all the existing theoretical models rely on the total dose dependence only. By analyzing experimental data of the relationship between the radiation dose and the induced mutation frequency of five organisms, namely, mouse, Drosophila, chrysanthemum, maize, Tradescantia, we found that all the data can be reproduced by the WAM model. Most remarkably, a scaling function, which is derived from the WAM model, consistently accounts for the observed mutation frequencies of the five organisms. This is the first rationale to account for the dose rate dependence as well as to provide a unified understanding of a general feature of organisms.

  20. Patient understanding of moles and skin cancer, and factors influencing presentation in primary care: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Fiona M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma incidence in the UK has doubled over two decades, yet there is conflicting evidence about factors which prompt or delay patients seeking advice. Aim: To explore patient understanding of pigmented skin lesions (moles and skin cancer, and factors which influence seeking help in primary care. Method Semi-structured interviews with forty MoleMate Trial participants, analysed using the theoretical framework of the Safer-Andersen model of Total Patient Delay. Results Patient understanding and awareness was influenced by personal, family and friends' experiences of moles, skin cancer and other cancers, knowledge of risk factors, and the lay media. The route to consulting was complex and often iterative. For lesions that people could see, detecting and appraising change was influenced by comparisons with a normal mole on themselves, a family member, friend or image. Inferring illness came about with recognition of changes (particularly size as serious, and associated 'internal' symptoms such as pain. For lesions that people could not see, family, friends and health professionals detected and appraised changes. Deciding to seek help was often prompted by another person or triggered by rapid or multiple changes in a mole. Three of four people subsequently diagnosed with melanoma did not seek help; instead, their GP opportunistically noticed the lesion. Conclusions Changing moles are often perceived as trivial and not signifying possible skin cancer. This study contributes to current national strategies to improve patient awareness and earlier diagnosis of cancer by highlighting factors that can trigger or act as barriers to seeking help. (ISRCTN79932379

  1. Giant invasive mole presenting as a cause of abdominopelvic mass in a perimenopausal woman: An unusual presentation of a rare pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Akyol, Alpaslan; Şimşek, Memet; Özlem ÜÇER

    2016-01-01

    Invasive mole is a benign gestational trophoblastic disease that arises from the myometrial invasion of any gestational event via direct extension through tissue or vascular structures. Invasive mole (and other gestational trophoblastic diseases) may present with life-threatening complications including uterine perforation, excessive bleeding, acute hemoperitoneum, and abdominal pain. We report a case of invasive mole presenting as abdominal distention in a 51-year-old perimenopausal woman (g...

  2. Micro- and macrogeographical genetic structure of colonies of naked mole-rats Heterocephalus glaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkes, C G; Abbott, D H; O'Brien, H P; Lau, L; Roy, M R; Wayne, R K; Bruford, M W

    1997-07-01

    Patterns of genetic structure in eusocial naked mole-rat populations were quantified within and among geographically distant populations using multilocus DNA fingerprinting and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis. Individuals within colonies were genetically almost monomorphic, sharing the same mtDNA control region haplotype and having coefficients of band sharing estimated from DNA fingerprints ranging from 0.93 to 0.99. Family analysis of a hybrid captive colony of naked mole-rats with increased levels of genetic variability using multilocus DNA fingerprinting gave results consistent with Mendelian inheritance, and has revealed for the first time that multiple paternity can occur. In a survey of wild colonies from Ethiopia, Somalia and locations in northern and southern Kenya, we have examined mtDNA control region sequence variation in 42 individuals from 15 colonies, and together with multilocus DNA fingerprinting and mtDNA cytochrome-b sequence analysis in selected individuals have shown that these populations show considerable genetic divergence. Most of the variance in sequence divergence was found to be between geographical locations (phi ct = 0.68) and there was a significant correlation between sequence divergence and geographical separation of haplotypes. Six colonies from Mtito Andei in southern Kenya shared the same control region haplotype, suggesting a recent common maternal ancestor. In contrast, out of four colonies at Lerata in north Kenya, three haplotypes were identified, and phylogenetic analysis suggests that this area may be a zone where two distinct lineages are in close proximity. Genetic distances were maximal between Ethiopian and southern Kenyan populations at 5.8% for cytochrome-b, and are approaching interspecific values seen between other Bathyergids.

  3. High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Rella

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional techniques for measuring the mole fractions of greenhouse gas in the well-mixed atmosphere have required extremely dry sample gas streams (dew point < −25 °C to achieve the inter-laboratory compatibility goals set forth by the Global Atmospheric Watch program of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO/GAW for carbon dioxide (±0.1 ppm and methane (±2 ppb. Drying the sample gas to low levels of water vapor can be expensive, time-consuming, and/or problematic, especially at remote sites where access is difficult. Recent advances in optical measurement techniques, in particular Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS, have led to the development of highly stable and precise greenhouse gas analyzers capable of highly accurate measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor. Unlike many older technologies, which can suffer from significant uncorrected interference from water vapor, these instruments permit for the first time accurate and precise greenhouse gas measurements that can meet the WMO/GAW inter-laboratory compatibility goals without drying the sample gas. In this paper, we present laboratory methodology for empirically deriving the water vapor correction factors, and we summarize a series of in-situ validation experiments comparing the measurements in humid gas streams to well-characterized dry-gas measurements. By using the manufacturer-supplied correction factors, the dry-mole fraction measurements have been demonstrated to be well within the GAW compatibility goals up to at least 1% water vapor. By determining the correction factors for individual instruments once at the start of life, this range can be extended to at least 2% over the life of the instrument, and if the correction factors are determined periodically over time, the evidence suggests that this range can be extended above 4%.

  4. Effect of Temperature and Mole Ratio on the Synthesis Yield of Rhenium-Tetrofosmin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastuti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Technetium-99m (99mTc tetrofosmin is widely used in nuclear medicine as a diagnostic agent for myocardial perfusion and as a tumor imaging agent. As a parenteral preparation it requires an evaluation of its pharmacokinetics and stability in-vivo. Since 99mTc has a short half-life and is only available in very low concentrations, it is impossible to characterize its chemical properties and presence in the body. Due to this reason, only technetium-99 (T1/2 = 5 × 105 years, which is available in macro quantities, or natural rhenium can be used for this purpose. In this study rhenium-188 (188Re tetrofosmin will be synthesized and applied, because non-radioactive Re can be easily obtained. Synthesis and radiochemical purity analysis of carrier-added 188Re-tetrofosmin were carried out as a model to study the in-vivo stability of technetium-99m tetrofosmin. Rhenium-188 was used as a tracer to identify the formation of rhenium tetrofosmin. Rhenium gluconate was synthesized first prior to the formation of rhenium tetrofosmin. The quality of labeling for both rhenium gluconate and rhenium tetrofosmin was analyzed using paper- and thin-layer chromatography, respectively. Rhenium gluconate can be synthesized with high labeling yield within 1 hour, whereas rhenium tetrofosmin was synthesized both in room temperature and in an elevated temperature with various tetrofosmin-to-rhenium mole ratios.The results showed that heating at 95oC led to a higher yield of more than 90% within 30 minutes. Rhenium tetrofosmin could be produced in high radiochemical purity using an excess of tetrofosmin with mole ratio of 2000. It is concluded that rhenium tetrofosmin could be synthesized through the formation of rhenium gluconate, and a higher yield could be obtained in a shorter time by heating process.

  5. Life history plasticity does not confer resilience to environmental change in the mole salamander (Ambystoma talpoideum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney L. Davis,; David A.W. Miller,; Walls, Susan; Barichivich, William J.; Riley, Jeffrey W.; Brown, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Plasticity in life history strategies can be advantageous for species that occupy spatially or temporally variable environments. We examined how phenotypic plasticity influences responses of the mole salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, to disturbance events at the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge (SMNWR), FL, USA from 2009 to 2014. We observed periods of extensive drought early in the study, in contrast to high rainfall and expansive flooding events in later years. Flooding facilitated colonization of predatory fishes to isolated wetlands across the refuge. We employed multistate occupancy models to determine how this natural experiment influenced the occurrence of aquatic larvae and paedomorphic adults and what implications this may have for the population. We found that, in terms of occurrence, responses to environmental variation differed between larvae and paedomorphs, but plasticity (i.e. the ability to metamorphose rather than remain in aquatic environment) was not sufficient to buffer populations from declining as a result of environmental perturbations. Drought and fish presence negatively influenced occurrence dynamics of larval and paedomorphic mole salamanders and, consequently, contributed to observed short-term declines of this species. Overall occurrence of larval salamanders decreased from 0.611 in 2009 to 0.075 in 2014 and paedomorph occurrence decreased from 0.311 in 2009 to 0.121 in 2014. Although variation in selection pressures has likely maintained this polyphenism previously, our results suggest that continued changes in environmental variability and the persistence of fish in isolated wetlands could lead to a loss of paedomorphosis in the SMNWR population and, ultimately, impact regional persistence in the future.

  6. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of acquired blindness in Japan. One reason that it often leads to blindness is that it can continue to worsen even after effective medical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only evidence-based treatment. The limitations of current treatments make it critical to identify IOP-independent factors that can cause glaucoma and develop new drugs to target these factors. This is a challenging task, as the pathology of glaucoma is thought to be very complex, with different combinations of factors underlying its development and progression in different patients. Additionally, there is a deficiency in methods to efficiently perform clinical evaluations and reliably probe the state of the disease over relatively short periods. In addition, newly developed drugs need to be evaluated with clinical trials, for which human and financial resources are limited, before they can be widely used for treatment. Taking all these issues into consideration, it is evident that there are two urgent issues to consider: the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on its pathology, and the improvement of clinical evaluation methods. In this review, we discuss some of our efforts to develop new neuroprotective agents for glaucoma, with a focus on the following three areas: 1. Clinical research and development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP-independent factors, and the exploration of possibilities for the improvement of clinical evaluation of glaucoma. 2. Pathology-based research and development of new drugs for glaucoma, focusing on comprehensive gene expression analysis and the development of molecule-targeting drugs, using murine optic nerve crush as a disease model. 3. Development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities and the establishment of infrastructure enabling "big-data" analysis. First, we discuss our clinical research and the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP

  7. Spatial variability of soil electrical conductivity under the mole rats (Spalax microphthalmus digging activity at the different scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhukov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The soil mounds emerged owing to the mole rats’ digging activity have been shown to be characterised by less electrical conductivity than surrounded soil. This effect is due to the changes of the mounds bulk’s density and moisture. The effect of the mole rats’ digging activity on the soil electrical conductivity has been found not to be restricted by the geometrical border of the mounds. The mounds are surrounded by 1–1.5 m halo of increased soil electrical conductivity. The halo size is increased with the aging of the mound and with the compacting of their aggregation.

  8. Gis-approach for variability assessment of soil electric conductivity under pedoturbation activity of mole rat (Spalax microphthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. М. Konovalova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the investigation of the impact of the mole rat’s activity on soil electric conductivity have been presented. GIS-technology have been shown to be effective for assessment of the pedoturbation activity effect on the soil surface heterogeneity formation. Method of the one-dimension spatial coordinated array transformation into matrix form has been proposed for following multidimension statistic analysis application. The quantity estimation of the mole rats role in formation of the habitat nanorelief-level diversity has been obtained by means of indexes of the landscape complexity and diversity.

  9. New treatments of hereditary blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Rosenberg, Thomas; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life and a structura......Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life...... and a structurally intact retinal tissue to adult life with a complete loss of photoreceptors. It must be assumed that some of the trials will succeed in producing new therapies and action must be taken to refine and accelerate diagnostics and to preserve therapeutic potential in blind people....

  10. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  11. The role of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae) in the life cycle of Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Alejandra; Malizia, Ana I; Denegri, Guillermo M

    2004-06-10

    This work is the first report of subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae) as intermediate host of Taenia taeniaeformis in urban areas of Mar de Cobo (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) and to experimentally reproduce in domestic dogs the adult stage of this parasite. Prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of infection with T. taeniaeformis larvae in the liver and peritoneal cavity of C. talarum were 64%, 15.3 and 9.8, respectively. Ten adults of T. taeniaeformis were obtained from experimentally infected dogs. Information about the role of subterranean rodents in the life cycle of this parasite is also given. The above mentioned data indicate that T. taeniaeformis is a frequent parasite of this species of rodents, at least within the study area. Also explanations for the high prevalence of larval forms of this parasite in C. talarum populations are given.

  12. Elliptic Curve Blind Digital Signature Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOULin; YANGYixian; WENQiaoyan

    2003-01-01

    Blind signature schemes are important cryptographic protocols in guaranteeing the privacy or anonymity of the users.Three new blind signature schemes and their corresponding generalizations are pro-posed. Moreover, their securities are simply analyzed.

  13. The Concept and Operations of Blind Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Yan-jun; LIU Kai-di; ZHANG Bo-wen

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the definition and operations of blind number, and discusses its operationproperties. Blind number is a mathematical tool to express and deal with complex information with severalkinds of uncertainty.

  14. Blinding in randomized clinical trials: imposed impartiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I

    2011-01-01

    Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations...

  15. American Foundation for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Research Navigator: A Series on Research in Blindness and Visual Impairment Stay Involved Enter your e-mail address to receive AFB eNews: Helen Keller A Driving Force Behind AFB Learn more about Helen Keller Visit the Helen Keller Kids Museum Directory of Services Find Local Services: Select a ...

  16. Convolutive Blind Source Separation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Larsen, Jan; Kjems, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, much attention has been given to the separation of mixed sources, in particular for the blind case where both the sources and the mixing process are unknown and only recordings of the mixtures are available. In several situations it is desirable to recover all sources fro...

  17. The Blind as "Ordinary People".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Saul

    1978-01-01

    Based on a paper presented at the 1977 Western Social Science Association Meeting in Denver, Colorado, the article reports on a study that compared major demographic features of a sample of 70 legally blind adults with the sighted adult sample studied in the 1975 National Opinion Research Center General Social Survey. (Author/DLS)

  18. The Blind Learning Aptitude Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, T. Ernest

    A Blind Learning Aptitude Test (BLAT) was developed on the basis of sense of touch rather than on conventional experience, fine sensory discrimination, or verbal competency. From a pool of about 350 items, most of them used in testing intelligence in the sighted, a pool of 94 was selected and embossed after the manner of braille. A residual pool…

  19. Impact of day-time and/or night-time ozone exposure on visible injury and leaf conductance of subterranean clover, Trifolium subterraneum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, G.P.; Danielsson, H.; Pleijel, H. [Goeteborg Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Science and Conservation; Karlsson, P.E. [Swedish Environmental Reserch Inst. (IVL), Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-07-01

    Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) plants were exposed during two days to four different ozone treatments in Open-Top Chambers (OTC). The ozone treatments were: 1. Day CF/Night CF, 2. Day CF+/Night CF, 3. Day CF/Night CF+, 4. Day CF+/Night CF+, where CF=charcoal-filtered air (5-15 ppb); CF+=charcoal-filtered air plus extra ozone (30-60 ppb). The leaf stomatal conductance was measured on six occasions during 34 hours. After one week, the plants were harvested and the visible injury was estimated on the leaves of the main shoot of each plant. The treatments which received CF during the day showed significantly less visible injury than the treatments that received CF+during the day. Night-time ozone exposure generally did not affect the development of ozone-induced visible injury of leaves of subterranean clover, except, maybe the development of slight visible injury. It is possible that the short Nordic summer nights allow some stomatal ozone uptake during nighttime. Ozone exposure with levels around 50 ppb for two days did affect the leaf conductance of subterranean clover. The stomatal conductance was lower when the leaves were exposed to high concentrations of ozone. Maximum sensitivity of the leaves was found among the leaves of moderate age. Young leaves are less sensitive than older leaves and very old leaves (though without visible symptoms of senescence) tended to be less sensitive than moderately old leaves. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of the Resistance of Gmelina arborea Wood Treated With Creosote Oil and Liquid Cashew Nut Shell to Subterranean Termites' Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Mayowa OWOYEMI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the resistance of Creosote oil (CREO and Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL on theprotection of Gmelina arborea wood against subterranean termites’ attack. Gmelina wooden stakes weretreated with undiluted CREO and with diluted CREO/ kerosene mixtures ratio 1:1 and 1:3; undiluted CNSLand diluted CNSL/kerosene mixtures ratio 1:1 and 1:3, using cold dipping method. Termites’ field exposuretest was carried out at the timber grave yard for 36 months (3 years to test the resistance of CREO andCNSL preservatives to subterranean termites. Weekly visual observations according to American Standardsfor Testing Materials (ASTM were taken to find out the effect of prolonged exposure of treated woodsamples to termites’ attack. CREO treated samples had 54.2, 65.0 and 76.0% weight loss compared to thecontrol (untreated sample having 86.7% respectively for the same period. CNSL treated samples had 80.0,80.8 and 85.0% weight loss respectively compared with the control with 86.7%. These results indicated thatCREO treated samples provided a better protection against subterranean termites compared with CNSLtreated samples for the 36-month period.

  1. Pigmentary Markers in Danes - Associations with Quantitative Skin Colour, Nevi Count, Familial Atypical Multiple-Mole, and Melanoma Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Peter; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; Madsen, Linnea Nørgård;

    2016-01-01

    multiple mole and melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome. We typed 32 pigmentary SNP markers and sequenced MC1R in 246 healthy individuals and 116 individuals attending periodic control for malignant melanoma development, 50 of which were diagnosed with FAMMM. It was observed that individuals with any two grouped MC1R...

  2. 气动矛系统性能仿真分析%The Simulation Analysis on Performance of Hammerhead Mole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓琳; 闫明印

    2011-01-01

    The structure and working principles of hammerhead mole system were analyzed, and the simulation computation was made by MATLAB based on the dynamic simulation model of working hammerhead mole system. The factors affecting the performance of hammerhead mole were analyzed, and the relationship between affecting factors and performance parameters was studied. The results can be a reference to the design of hammerhead mole.%分析气动矛系统的结构及工作原理,在建立气动矛系统工作状态下动力学仿真数学模型的基础上,利用MATLAB软件对Hammerhead12”型气动矛进行仿真,并对影响气动矛系统性能的各因素进行仿真分析,研究气动矛性能与各影响因素的关系.分析和研究结果可为气动矛的设计提供参考.

  3. Illustrated key for the identification of the mole crabs (Decapoda, Anomura, Hippoidea of the Cuban sea waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Lalana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to the identification of the families, four genera and 5 species, as well as a possible additional genus, of the Cuban waters mole crabs (Anomura, Hippoidea are presented. One of these is a new record for Cuba. The general and Cuban distribution of each species and their habitat, are also given.

  4. Functional neurokinin and NMDA receptor activity in an animal naturally lacking substance P: the naked mole-rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Brand

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats are extremely unusual among mammals in that their cutaneous C-fibers lack the neuropeptide Substance P (SP. In other mammals, SP plays an important role in nociception: it is released from C-fibers onto spinal neurons where it facilitates NMDA receptor activity and causes sensitization that can last for minutes, hours or days. In the present study, we tested the effects of intrathecal application of: 1 SP, 2 an SP antagonist (GR-82334, and 3 an NMDA antagonist (APV on heat-evoked foot withdrawal. In the naked mole-rat, at a high enough concentration, application of SP caused a large, immediate, and long-lasting sensitization of foot withdrawal latency that was transiently reversed by application of either antagonist. However, neither SP nor NMDA antagonists had an effect when administered alone to naïve animals. In contrast, both antagonists induced an increase in basal withdrawal latency in mice. These results indicate that spinal neurons in naked mole-rats have functional SP and NMDA receptors, but that these receptors do not participate in heat-evoked foot withdrawal unless SP is experimentally introduced. We propose that the natural lack of SP in naked mole-rat C-fibers may have resulted during adaptation to living in a chronically high carbon dioxide, high ammonia environment that, in other mammals, would stimulate C-fibers and evoke nocifensive behavior.

  5. Dynamic Thermodynamics with Internal Energy, Volume, and Amount of Moles as States : Application to Liquefied Gas Tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendsen, A. R. J.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic models for process design, optimization, and control usually solve a set of heat and/or mass balances as a function of time and/or position in the process. To obtain more robust dynamic models and to minimize the amount of assumptions, internal energy, volume, and amount of moles are chosen

  6. A Study Comparing the Efficacy of a Mole Ratio Flow Chart to Dimensional Analysis for Teaching Reaction Stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Eugene P.

    2001-01-01

    Reaction stoichiometry calculations have always been difficult for students. Offers the use of a mole ratio flow chart (MRFC) as a logistical sequence of steps that incorporates molar proportions as alternative problem solving techniques to improve student understanding. Indicates that MRFC users performed as well on exam problems covering…

  7. Partially Blind Signatures Based on Quantum Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-Qiu; Niu, Hui-Fang

    2012-12-01

    In a partially blind signature scheme, the signer explicitly includes pre-agreed common information in the blind signature, which can improve the availability and performance. We present a new partially blind signature scheme based on fundamental properties of quantum mechanics. In addition, we analyze the security of this scheme, and show it is not possible to forge valid partially blind signatures. Moreover, the comparisons between this scheme and those based on public-key cryptography are also discussed.

  8. Tactile maze solving in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C;

    2010-01-01

    Vision is undoubtedly important for navigation although not essential as blind individuals outperform their blindfolded seeing counterparts in a variety of navigational tasks. It is believed that the blind's superior performance is because of their efficient use of proprioceptive signals and envi......Vision is undoubtedly important for navigation although not essential as blind individuals outperform their blindfolded seeing counterparts in a variety of navigational tasks. It is believed that the blind's superior performance is because of their efficient use of proprioceptive signals...

  9. Poverty and blindness in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin

    2007-11-01

    Africa carries a disproportionate responsibility in terms of blindness and visual impairment. With approximately 10 per cent of the world's population, Africa has 19 per cent of the world's blindness. It is no surprise that this reality also mirrors the situation in terms of the burden of world poverty. There is an increasing recognition of the need to highlight the link between poverty, development and health care. Blindness, disabling visual impairment and the overall lack of eye-care services are too often the result of social, economic and developmental challenges of the developing world. The state of eye care in Africa stands in alarming contrast to that in the rest of the world. Poor practitioner-to-patient ratios, absence of eye-care personnel, inadequate facilities, poor state funding and a lack of educational programs are the hallmarks of eye care in Africa, with preventable and treatable conditions being the leading cause of blindness. Eye diseases causing preventable blindness are often the result of a combination of factors such as poverty, lack of education and inadequate health-care services. The challenge that Vision 2020 has set itself in Africa is enormous. Africa is not a homogenous entity, the inter- and intra-country differences in economic development, prevalence of disease, delivery infrastructure and human resources amplify the challenges of meeting eye-care needs. The successful implementation of Vision 2020 programs will be hindered without the development of a comprehensive, co-ordinated strategy that is cognisant of the differences that exist and the need for comprehensive solutions that are rooted in the economic and political realities of the continent as well as the individual countries and regions within countries. This strategy should recognise the need for economic growth that results in greater state funded eye-care services that focus on health promotion to ensure the prevention of eye disease, the development of eye clinics in

  10. HP3 on ExoMars - Cutting airbag cloths with the sharp tip of a mechanical mole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, C.; Izzo, M.; Re, E.; Mehls, C.; Richter, L.; Coste, P.

    2009-04-01

    The HP3 - Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package - is planned to be one of the Humboldt lander-based instruments on the ESA ExoMars mission. HP3 will allow the measurement of the subsurface temperature gradient and physical as well as thermophysical properties of the subsurface regolith of Mars down to a depth of 5 meters. From these measurements, the planetary heat flux can be inferred. The HP³ instrument package consists of a mole trailing a package of thermal and electrical sensors into the regolith. Beside the payload elements Thermal Excitation and Measurement Suite and a Permittivity Probe the HP3 experiment includes sensors to detect the forward motion and the tilt of the HP3 payload compartment. The HP3 experiment will be integrated into the lander platform of the ExoMars mission. The original accommodation featured a deployment device or a robotic arm to place HP3 onto the soil outside the deflated lander airbags. To avoid adding such deployment devices, it was suggested that the HP3 mole should be capable of piercing the airbags under the lander. The ExoMars lander airbag is made of 4 Kevlar layers (2 abrasive and 2 bladders). A double fold of the airbag (a worst case) would represent a pile of 12 layers. An exploratory study has examined the possibility of piercing airbag cloths by adding sharp cutting blades on the tip of a penetrating mole. In the experimental setup representative layers were laid over a Mars soil simulant. Initial tests used a hammer-driven cutting tip and had moderate to poor results. More representative tests used a prototype of the HP3 mole and were fully successful: the default 4 layer configuration was pierced as well as the 12 layer configuration, the latter one within 3 hours and about 3000 mole strokes This improved behaviour is attributed to the use of representative test hardware where guidance and suppression of mole recoil were concerned. The presentation will provide an explanation of the technical requirements on

  11. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  12. BLIND ADAPTIVE XPIC BASED ON HOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Haiyang; Yang Longxiang; Peng Jianglong

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new blind XPIC and a new adaptive blind deconvolutional algorithm based on HOS processing, which separates and equalizes the signals in real time. The simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed adaptive blind algorithm,compared with the conventional algorithms, is outstanding with the feature of feasibility, stability and fast convergence rate.

  13. Psychomotor Development for the Deaf-Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Claudine

    The stages of psychomotor development in deaf blind children and youth are reviewed, and educational principles to guide psychomotor development programs for the deaf blind are outlined. Etiological factors which contribute to the psychomotor development of deaf blind persons are discussed including nonambulation and sensory deprivation, heart…

  14. Variation of CO2 mole fraction in the lower free troposphere, in the boundary layer and at the surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tarniewicz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eight years of occasional flask air sampling and 3 yr of frequent in situ measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2 vertical profiles on board of a small aircraft, over a tall tower greenhouse gases monitoring site in Hungary are used for the analysis of the variations of vertical profile of CO2 mole fraction. Using the airborne vertical profiles and the measurements along the 115 m tall tower it is shown that the measurements at the top of the tower estimate the mean boundary layer CO2 mole fraction during the mid-afternoon fairly well, with an underestimation of 0.27–0.85 μmol mol−1 in summer, and an overestimation of 0.66–1.83 μmol mol−1 in winter. The seasonal cycle of CO2 mole fraction is damped with elevation. While the amplitude of the seasonal cycle is 28.5 μmol mol−1 at 10 m above the ground, it is only 10.7 μmol mol−1 in the layer of 2500–3000 m corresponding to the lower free atmosphere above the well-mixed boundary layer. The maximum mole fraction in the layer of 2500–3000 m can be observed around 25 March on average, two weeks ahead of that of the marine boundary layer reference (GLOBALVIEW. By contrast, close to the ground, the maximum CO2 mole fraction is observed late December, early January. The specific seasonal behavior is attributed to the climatology of vertical mixing of the atmosphere in the Carpathian Basin.

  15. From" Televised Blind Date” to" Televised Half-blind Wedding”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates” , arranged by a television station. It is interesting to see how a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding” to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that 1 think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out.

  16. From "Televised Blind Date" to "Televised Half-blind Wedding"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates", arranged by a television station, It is interesting to see bow a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding" to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that I think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out. In the beginning, the directors of FOX put ads in newspapers, openly asking the public: "Who wants to marry a multi-millionaire?" It did not cost much time or

  17. Color blindness and Rorschach color responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsino, B V

    1985-10-01

    Color vision deficits occur in 10% of the American white male population. Thus, color blindness may invalidate diagnostic hypotheses generated from Rorschach data. The Rorschach protocols of 43 white, college male color-blind subjects were compared to the protocols of normally sighted controls. The color-blind group manifested fewer pure "C" responses. No significant between group differences emerged for any of the other primary Rorschach color variables. Pure "C" responses rarely figure prominently in Rorschach evaluations, and the apparent lowered frequency of these responses by the color-blind is insufficient to warrant modification of current Rorschach practice. The data suggest that color blindness is unlikely to confound Rorschach assessment.

  18. BLIND SERBIAN RULERS AND FAMOUS PERSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janicijevic Katarina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available History and medicine were an integral part of life-being of blind serbian acters. One of the main actors was half-blind serbian ruler, Stefan of Decani and whose name was associated with first ophthalmologic hospital and precursor of the eye`s injuries care. After, national reputation as Stefan Blind Righteous, ruler of the Serbian despot between 1458. and 1459. (member of Brankovic`s dinasty, and he was blinded by eye injuries burns. The famous national was also Filip Visnjic, as blind minstrel and authentic creator of serbian folk traditions, with sequels as a child, by bilateral infective panuveitis.

  19. Protocol for the MoleMate™ UK Trial: a randomised controlled trial of the MoleMate system in the management of pigmented skin lesions in primary care [ISRCTN 79932379

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Edward CF

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suspicious pigmented lesions are a common presenting problem in general practice consultations; while the majority are benign a small minority are melanomas. Differentiating melanomas from other pigmented lesions in primary care is challenging: currently, 95% of all lesions referred to a UK specialist are benign. The MoleMate system is a new diagnostic aid, incorporating a hand-held SIAscopy scanner with a primary care diagnostic algorithm. This trial tests the hypothesis that adding the MoleMate system to current best primary care practice will increase the proportion of appropriate referrals of suspicious pigmented lesions to secondary care compared with current best practice alone. Methods/design The MoleMate UK Trial is a primary care based multi-centre randomised controlled trial, with randomisation at patient level using a validated block randomisation method for two age groups (45 years and under; 46 years and over. We aim to recruit adult patients seen in general practice with a pigmented skin lesion that cannot immediately be diagnosed as benign and the patient reassured. The trial has a 'two parallel groups' design, comparing 'best practice' with 'best practice' plus the MoleMate system in the intervention group. The primary outcome is the positive predictive value (PPV of referral defined as the proportion of referred lesions seen by secondary care experts that are considered 'clinically significant' (i.e. biopsied or monitored. Secondary outcomes include: the sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value (NPV of the decision not to refer; clinical outcomes (melanoma thickness, 5 year melanoma incidence and mortality; clinician outcomes (Index of Suspicion, confidence, learning effects; patient outcomes (satisfaction, general and cancer-specific worry, and cost-utility. Discussion The MoleMate UK Trial tests a new technology designed to improve the management of suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care

  20. Novel husbandry techniques support survival of naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhonghe; Vaidya, Amita; Ascher, Jill; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole rat (NMR) is a small eusocial rodent. Because of its remarkable longevity (maximal lifespan, 32 y) and resistance to cancer, the NMR has emerged as a valuable model for aging and cancer research. However, breeding NMR can be difficult. Here, we report the successful introduction and acceptance of pups into a foreign colony with existing pups of different ages. Among the 7 NMR colonies in our satellite facility, one had a consistently poor record of pup viability, with nearly 100% preweaning mortality in multiple litters born over the course of 2 y. The queen of this colony gave birth to 18 pups in January 2013; by 2 d after parturition, it was evident that the pups were not receiving sufficient nourishment. To salvage the litter, the most vigorous pups were cross-fostered to another queen that had recently given birth. On postparturition day 1 (PD1), two pups from the poorly nourished donor litter were bathed with warm water, rolled in recipient colony bedding, and transferred to the recipient colony, which included 8 PD14 pups. The new pups were accepted by the recipient queen, who continued to produce milk in response to suckling by the donor pups well past the weaning of her own litter. This case report provides evidence of successful cross-fostering of NMR pups despite age differences between donor pups and those in the recipient litter; this technique may prove beneficial to researchers struggling with NMR breeding issues.

  1. Functional characteristics of the naked mole rat μ-opioid receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Busch-Dienstfertig

    Full Text Available While humans and most animals respond to µ-opioid receptor (MOR agonists with analgesia and decreased aggression, in the naked mole rat (NMR opioids induce hyperalgesia and severe aggression. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1 can underlie altered behavioral responses to opioids. Therefore, we hypothesized that the primary structure of the NMR MOR may differ from other species. Sequencing of the NMR oprm1 revealed strong homology to other mammals, but exposed three unique amino acids that might affect receptor-ligand interactions. The NMR and rat oprm1 sequences were cloned into mammalian expression vectors and transfected into HEK293 cells. Radioligand binding and 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP enzyme immunoassays were used to compare opioid binding and opioid-mediated cAMP inhibition. At normalized opioid receptor protein levels we detected significantly lower [3H]DAMGO binding to NMR compared to rat MOR, but no significant difference in DAMGO-induced cAMP inhibition. Strong DAMGO-induced MOR internalization was detectable using radioligand binding and confocal imaging in HEK293 cells expressing rat or NMR receptor, while morphine showed weak or no effects. In summary, we found minor functional differences between rat and NMR MOR suggesting that other differences e.g. in anatomical distribution of MOR underlie the NMR's extreme reaction to opioids.

  2. Two novel mutations in the KHDC3L gene in Asian patients with recurrent hydatidiform mole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Maryam; Nguyen, Ngoc Minh Phuong; Foroughinia, Leila; Dash, Pratima; Ahmadpour, Fatemeh; Verma, Ishwar Chandra; Slim, Rima; Fardaei, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent hydatidiform mole (RHM) is defined by the occurrence of repeated molar pregnancies in affected women. Two genes, NLRP7 and KHDC3L, play a causal role in RHM and are responsible for 48–80% and 5% of cases, respectively. Here, we report the results of screening these two genes for mutations in one Iranian and one Indian patient with RHM. No mutations in NLRP7 were identified in the two patients. KHDC3L sequencing identified two novel protein-truncating mutations in a homozygous state, a 4-bp deletion, c.17_20delGGTT (p.Arg6Leufs*7), in the Iranian patient and a splice mutation, c.349+1G>A, that affects the invariant donor site at the junction of exon 2 and intron 2 in the Indian patient. To date, only four mutations in KHDC3L have been reported. The identification of two additional mutations provides further evidence for the important role of KHDC3L in the pathophysiology of RHM and increases the diversity of mutations described in Asian populations. PMID:27621838

  3. Macroscopic anatomy of the lower respiratory system in mole rats (Spalax leucodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlgun, R; Yoldas, A; Kuru, N; Özkan, Z E

    2014-12-01

    The morphologic and morphometric features of the lower respiratory system in mole rats were examined. It was seen that the low respiratory system of this species leading a special life under highly hypoxic/hypercapnic conditions underground is structurally similar to other mammals living on land in terms of the parts examined; trachea was formed by 29.5 ± 4 oval-formed cartilaginous tracheals arranged backwards and became gradually more stenotic diameter from cranial to the caudal of the neck. The trachea was separated in two principal bronchus at the fourth thoracal intercostal spatium level. The angle between the two main principal bronchi was 60.5 ± 2.35°. The lung constituted 1.29 ± 0.03% of the body weight and the right lung was heavier than the left lung. Fissura inter-lobaris was deep and separated the lung lobes wholly, and the right lung was separated in four lobes, whereas the left lung was not separated into the lobes. Also, the medial lobe of the left lung was the lightest lobe.

  4. Digital subtraction angiography in the diagnosis of invasive hydatidiform mole. Comparison with PAG, CT and USG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikuma, Kenichiro; Daimon, Michiko; Muranaka, Junko; Suno, Shigeo; Takayasu, Yukio; Shibahara, Hiroaki; Sawai, Hideaki

    1987-11-01

    Pelvic angiography (PAG) by Seldinger is one of the most useful examinations for the diagnosis of trophoblastic disease and also for the assessment of the therapeutic results. This technique, however, causes some stress to the patient. Therefore, noninvasive method, such as computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (USG) have recently been introduced. In the 1980s, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was developed. It is now being used increasingly in the fields of Obstetrics and Gynecology as a substitute for the conventional PAG. In this report, the results of DSA, PAG, CT and USG which were carried out before and after chemotherapy in a patient with invasive hydatidiform mole were compared. In terms of the location, size and shape of the lesion, the CT findings were almost the same as those of USG. In terms of the angiographic findings in the affected area, intravenous DSA (IVDSA) was a sufficiently substitutional examination for conventional PAG. With IVDSA, arterial images can be obtained following the intravenous injection of a contrast medium. Therefore, this technique is excellent in terms of simplicity and safety. From now on, DSA will be utilized instead of PAG as an effective diagnostic method for trophoblastic disease and for follow-up such cases.

  5. PHA-induced inflammation is not energetically costly in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (tuco-tucos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Julieta L; Cutrera, Ana P; Luna, Facundo; Zenuto, Roxana R

    2014-09-01

    Immune activity has been proposed to be associated with substantial costs, due to trade-offs with other functions or activities that share common resources and contribute to an animal's fitness. However, direct estimates of the cost of mounting an immune response are few and have been performed mainly in birds. Thus, further work is needed to clarify the relative costs of different components of the immune system and the role of environmental and life-history traits in modulating the costs of resistance. Within the components of immunity, inflammation is considered to be associated with a larger energetic expenditure. Here, we evaluated the energetic cost of the inflammatory response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in a wild population of a subterranean rodent, Ctenomys talarum, and the trade-offs between immune activity and reproduction. C. talarum develops an inflammatory response to PHA, but contrary to our predictions, this response was not associated with an increase in oxygen consumption regardless of reproductive status or sex. Our study shows that an immune challenge may not always result in a detectable energetic cost. We discuss the possibility that other currencies could be underlying the cost, such as micro-or macronutrients requirements, autoimmunity or oxidative stress.

  6. Pathogenicity of a new China variety of Metarhizium anisopliae (M. Anisopliae var. Dcjhyium) to subterranean termite Odontotermes formosanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Changjin; Zhang, Jiamin; Huang, Hai; Chen, Wuguo; Hu, Yuanyang

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenicity of a new China variety of Metarhizium anisopliae (M. anisopliae var. dcjhyium) against the subterranean termite Odontotermes formosanus and the effect of the fungal fermented solution on hemolymph intracellular calcium were studied in laboratory. Conidia from the M. anisopliae var. dcjhyium were highly virulent for O. formosanus causing approximately 100% mortality 3 days post-inoculation in the concentration of 3x10(8) conidia/ml. The conidial clumps with conidial chains distributed on the cadavers of termite. When the termite was treated with 3x10(5) conidia/ml for 2 days, two constitutive proteins (91 and 105kDa) disappeared and a new specific protein (40kDa) appeared in the hemolymph of survivors relative to the controls. Hemolymph cells treated by the fungal fermented solution had a significantly higher level of intracellular calcium than controls 30min after treatment (x1.7). When the termite O. formosanus was infected by the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae var. dcjhyium, hyphae invaded the integument and body cavity of the termite; well-developed muscles and fat tissue in the thorax of termite were decomposed and absorbed by hyphae, and formed the net structure; Hyphae seriously destroyed hemolymph, various tissues, pipelines and produced large number of conidia in the body of termite.

  7. Highly complex mitochondrial DNA genealogy in an endemic Japanese subterranean breeding brown frog Rana tagoi (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Koshiro; Matsui, Masafumi; Sugahara, Takahiro; Tanaka-Ueno, Tomoko

    2012-10-01

    The endemic Japanese frog Rana tagoi is unique among Holarctic brown frogs in that it breeds in small subterranean streams. Using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes, we investigated genealogical relationships among geographic samples of this species together with its relative R. sakuraii, which is also a unique stream breeder. These two species together form a monophyletic group, within which both are reciprocally paraphyletic. Rana tagoi is divided into two major clades (Clade A and B) that are composed of 14 genetic groups. Rana sakuraii is included in Clade A and split into two genetic groups, one of which forms a clade (Subclade A-2) with sympatric R. tagoi. This species-level paraphyly appears to be caused by incomplete taxonomy, in addition to introgressive hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting. Rana tagoi strongly differs from other Japanese anurans in its geographic pattern of genetic differentiation, most probably in relation to its unique reproductive habits. Taxonomically, R. tagoi surely includes many cryptic species.

  8. Glaciochemical investigations on the subterranean ice deposit of Vukušić Ice Cave, Velebit Mountain, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Z.; Fórizs, I.; Horvatinčić, N.; Széles, É.; Bočić, N.; Nagy, B.

    2010-09-01

    The 3H activity, 18O/16O and 2H/1H ratio and concentration of 33 metals and metalloids have been analysed on ice core samples from the perennial subterranean cave ice deposit of Vukušić Ice Cave, Velebit Mt. The tritium data suggested that the ice deposition at 2-2.4 m depth is build from precipitation fallen ~45 years before sampling and the uppermost ice layer could be estimated between early 1970s and early 1980s or between ~1954 and 1960. Both the fluctuation range of stable water isotopes and the derived isotopic waterline of the ice agree reasonably well with the corresponding data of the local precipitation. This fact predicts that the potential of Vukušić Ice Cave's ice deposit is superior for paleoclimatological studies to the nearby Ledena Pit. Principal component analysis helped to select three groups of elements. The Ca-Mg governed group (PC1) encompasses the bedrock related components; hence the fluctuation of these elements might reflect the past intensities of the dissolution process of the adjacent epikarst. The Zn governed group (PC2) preserves probably an atmospheric deposition signal and related to the emission of regional non-ferrous metallurgy. PC3 is governed by Al and Fe. This probably carries the distal, non-karstic crustal signal hence might be related to the past atmospheric circulation (i.e. wind direction and speed).

  9. A new species of the subterranean amphipod crustacean genus Stygobromus (Crangonyctidae from a cave in Nevada, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Taylor

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Stygobromus albapinus, a new stygobiotic amphipod crustacean species in the family Crangonyctidae, is described from two pools in Model Cave in Great Basin National Park, White Pine County, Nevada, USA. The type specimens were collected on two different visits to the cave. The new species is assigned to the hubbsi group, bringing the number of described species in this group to 45, but many other provisionally recognized species assigned to this group remain undescribed. With exception of a single species from deep wells in southeastern Wisconsin, all other members of the hubbsi group are recorded from a wide variety of subterranean groundwater habitats (e.g., caves, springs, wells, etc. in western North America, west of the Great Plains. Although the taxonomic affi nities of Stygobromus albapinus, n. sp. need further study, the species does appear to share several important morphological characters with a species from a cave in western Utah located approximately 300 km east-northeast of Model Cave.

  10. [Cortical plasticity in blind individual].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-zhen; Zhu, Si-quan

    2008-10-01

    The cognitive mechanisms and functional brain imaging research on blind individuals provide special information for exploring the plasticity of the developing human brain. This paper focuses on five aspects of recent progress in this field: (1) the behavior compensation of the blind; (2) the influence of early visual deprivation and later visual deprivation on cross-modal reorganization; (3) the relationship between the complexity of task requirement and cross-modal reorganization; (4) the relationship between the sensitive periods of the visual system and the time course of cross-modal reorganization; (5) the neural mechanisms of cross-modal reorganization. These findings contribute greatly to the theoretical basis of the rehabilitation of individuals with perceptual deficits.

  11. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  12. [Double-blind peer review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyvesi, Tamás

    2002-02-03

    The peer review process in medical sciences is much debated. The method is not yet evidence based. Who are the reviewers and how do they perform? They are "independent" experts. As such they are bound to be involved in research similar to that outlined in the manuscript. Very often they are contestant in the same race. That is why the author consider the double blind method, where the author is blinded and the reviewer masked from each other's identity, the best choice. Nevertheless in very many scientific journals of high quality and envied impact factors do not blind the identity of the authors. Science is a race for fame, self accomplishment and also a means to get grants for pursuing the scientific research. Only success is able to provide resources for expensive scientific research. There is no fail-safe method against bias in grant giving and editorial process. In the tidal wave of electronic information it is mandatory to help in differentiating between signal and noise in science. Peer review is the best method to protect readers from the trash of uncontrolled publications in medical science.

  13. Geochemical and Petrologic Constraints on the Source of Eocene Volcanism at Mole Hill, Rockingham County, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. A.; Beard, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Mole Hill is an Eocene (48 Ma) basaltic volcanic neck located west of Harrisonburg, VA, and provides a unique opportunity to probe the mantle beneath the Shenandoah Valley. It lies on the northeastern edge of a swarm of alkaline-series volcanic plugs, dikes, and diatremes extending through Rockingham and Highland Counties, VA, and Pendleton County, WV. The Eocene volcanics are thought to have exploited extensive basement fracture systems originally formed during the Alleghenian Orogeny and subsequent rifting. The Eocene volcanism may have been triggered by reactivation of faults due to global shifts in relative plate motions (Southworth 1993, USGS Bull, B1839-I) but the source material and magmatic processes for the Eocene volcanism are largely unknown. Compositional and texture analyses of xenocrystic and groundmass clinopyroxene, olivine, and spinel were completed either at Virginia Tech on the Cameca SX-50 electron microprobe in the Dept of Geological Sciences, or in the Dept of Mineral Sciences, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C using the JEOL JXA-8900R WD/EDS microanalyzer or the FEI NOVA nanoSEM600 FEG Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope. Xenocrysts up to 2cm in diameter are distributed throughout the volcanic neck, with clinopyroxene >>spinel>olivine. The clinopyroxene and olivine xenocrysts show undulatory extinction in cross-polarized light and are found as individual crystals or as aggregates. Clinopyroxene xenocryst cores are high-Al, low-Cr augite ( ˜Wo44En46Fs10) with Mg# 78.5-85.9. The clinopyroxene xenocrysts have compositionally zoned rims 100-250 μm-wide containing abundant plagioclase inclusions and sparse melt inclusions in a sieve texture. The outer edges of xenocrysts approach the compositions of groundmass and microphenocryst clinopyroxenes ( ˜Wo47En38Fs15; Mg# 67.9-74.5). Olivine xenocrysts contain sulfide inclusions and Cr-rich spinel and have Mg-rich ( ˜Fo86-90) cores with more Fe- and Ca-rich rims (Fo70

  14. The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in the Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene Brohus

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber (NMRs are the longest living rodents known. They show negligible senescence, and are resistant to cancers and certain damaging effects associated with aging. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs have pluripotent actions, influencing growth processes in virtually every system of the body. They are established contributors to the aging process, confirmed by the demonstration that decreased IGF signaling results in life-extending effects in a variety of species. The IGFs are likewise involved in progression of cancers by mediating survival signals in malignant cells. This report presents a full characterization of the IGF system in the NMR: ligands, receptors, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs, and IGFBP proteases. A particular emphasis was placed on the IGFBP protease, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, shown to be an important lifespan modulator in mice. Comparisons of IGF-related genes in the NMR with human and murine sequences indicated no major differences in essential parts of the IGF system, including PAPP-A. The protease was shown to possess an intact active site despite the report of a contradictory genome sequence. Furthermore, PAPP-A was expressed and translated in NMRs cells and retained IGF-dependent proteolytic activity towards IGFBP-4 and IGF-independent activity towards IGFBP-5. However, experimental data suggest differential regulatory mechanisms for PAPP-A expression in NMRs than those described in humans and mice. This overall description of the IGF system in the NMR represents an initial step towards elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms underlying longevity, and how these animals have evolved to ensure a delayed and healthy aging process.

  15. The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in the Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohus, Malene; Gorbunova, Vera; Faulkes, Chris G.; Overgaard, Michael T.; Conover, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) (NMRs) are the longest living rodents known. They show negligible senescence, and are resistant to cancers and certain damaging effects associated with aging. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have pluripotent actions, influencing growth processes in virtually every system of the body. They are established contributors to the aging process, confirmed by the demonstration that decreased IGF signaling results in life-extending effects in a variety of species. The IGFs are likewise involved in progression of cancers by mediating survival signals in malignant cells. This report presents a full characterization of the IGF system in the NMR: ligands, receptors, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), and IGFBP proteases. A particular emphasis was placed on the IGFBP protease, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), shown to be an important lifespan modulator in mice. Comparisons of IGF-related genes in the NMR with human and murine sequences indicated no major differences in essential parts of the IGF system, including PAPP-A. The protease was shown to possess an intact active site despite the report of a contradictory genome sequence. Furthermore, PAPP-A was expressed and translated in NMRs cells and retained IGF-dependent proteolytic activity towards IGFBP-4 and IGF-independent activity towards IGFBP-5. However, experimental data suggest differential regulatory mechanisms for PAPP-A expression in NMRs than those described in humans and mice. This overall description of the IGF system in the NMR represents an initial step towards elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms underlying longevity, and how these animals have evolved to ensure a delayed and healthy aging process. PMID:26694858

  16. Simulation of the shallow groundwater-flow system near Mole Lake, Forest County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Juckem, Paul F.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2011-01-01

    The shallow groundwater system near Mole Lake, Forest County, Wis. was simulated using a previously calibrated regional model. The previous model was updated using newly collected water-level measurements and refinements to surface-water features. The updated model was then used to calculate the area contributing recharge for one existing and two proposed pumping locations on lands of the Sokaogon Chippewa Community. Delineated 1-, 5-, and 10-year areas contributing recharge for existing and proposed wells extend from the areas of pumping to the northeast of the pumping locations. Steady-state pumping was simulated for two scenarios: a base pumping scenario using pumping rates that reflect what the Tribe expects to pump and a high pumping scenario, in which the rate was set to the maximum expected from wells installed in this area. In the base pumping scenario, pumping rates of 32 gallons per minute (gal/min; 46,000 gallons per day (gal/d)) from the existing well and 30 gal/min (43,000 gal/d) at each of the two proposed wells were simulated. The high pumping scenario simulated a rate of 70 gal/min (101,000 gal/d) from each of the three pumping wells to estimate of the largest areas contributing recharge that might be expected given what is currently known about the shallow groundwater system. The areas contributing recharge for both the base and high pumping scenarios did not intersect any modeled surface-water bodies; however, the high pumping scenario had a larger areal extent than the base pumping scenario and intersected a septic separator.

  17. Complete Hydatidiform Mole Presenting as a Placenta Accreta in a Twin Pregnancy with a Coexisting Normal Fetus: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijo Aguilera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A twin pregnancy with a complete hydatidiform mole and a coexisting normal fetus (CHMF is a rare clinical scenario, and it carries many associated pregnancy and postnatal risks. Limited numbers of case studies exist reporting an outcome of live birth, and only three prior cases report the presentation of a hydatidiform mole as a placenta previa. We report a case of CHMF with the molar component presenting antenatally as a placenta previa, which ultimately resulted in placenta accreta at the time of delivery. A live male infant was delivered at 34 weeks’ gestation via planned cesarean section, and a hysterectomy was performed following unsuccessful removal of the molar component. We additionally utilized previously described methods of placing internal iliac balloons and ureteral stents prior to delivery. In such a high-risk pregnancy with a known molar previa component, these surgical preparation measures may be of benefit.

  18. RNA sequencing reveals differential expression of mitochondrial and oxidation reduction genes in the long-lived naked mole-rat when compared to mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanfei Yu

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is a long-lived, cancer resistant rodent and there is a great interest in identifying the adaptations responsible for these and other of its unique traits. We employed RNA sequencing to compare liver gene expression profiles between naked mole-rats and wild-derived mice. Our results indicate that genes associated with oxidoreduction and mitochondria were expressed at higher relative levels in naked mole-rats. The largest effect is nearly 300-fold higher expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Epcam, a tumour-associated protein. Also of interest are the protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin (A2m, and the mitochondrial complex II subunit Sdhc, both ageing-related genes found strongly over-expressed in the naked mole-rat. These results hint at possible candidates for specifying species differences in ageing and cancer, and in particular suggest complex alterations in mitochondrial and oxidation reduction pathways in the naked mole-rat. Our differential gene expression analysis obviated the need for a reference naked mole-rat genome by employing a combination of Illumina/Solexa and 454 platforms for transcriptome sequencing and assembling transcriptome contigs of the non-sequenced species. Overall, our work provides new research foci and methods for studying the naked mole-rat's fascinating characteristics.

  19. Multiple primary cutaneous melanomas in patients with FAMMM syndrome and sporadic atypical mole syndrome (AMS): what's worse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernev, Georgi; Ananiev, Julian; Cardoso, José-Carlos; Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Philipov, Stanislav; Penev, Plamen Kolev; Lotti, Torello; Wollina, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    Atypical Mole Syndrome is the most important phenotypic risk factor for cutaneous melanoma, a malignancy that accounts for about 80% of deaths from skin cancer. Since early diagnosis of melanoma is of great prognostic relevance, the identification of Atypical Mole Syndrome carriers (sporadic and familial) is essential, as well as the recommendation of preventative measures that must be undertaken by these patients.We report two rare cases concerning patients with multiple primary skin melanomas in the setting of a familial and a sporadic syndrome of dysplastic nevi: the first patient is a 67-year-old patient with a history of multiple superficial spreading melanomas localized on his back. The second patient presented with multiple primary melanomas in advanced stage in the context of the so-called sporadic form of the syndrome of dysplastic nevi-AMS (atypical mole syndrome). In the first case, excision of the melanomas was carried out with an uneventful post-operative period. In the second case, disseminated metastases were detected, involving the right fibula, the abdominal cavity as well as multiple lesions in the brain. The patient declined BRAF mutation tests as well as chemotherapy or targeted therapies, and suffered a rapid deterioration in his general condition leading to death. We classified the second case as a sporadic form of the atypical mole syndrome, associated with one nodular and two superficial spreading melanomas.There are no data in the literature to allow us to understand if, in patients with multiple primary melanomas, there is any difference in terms of prognosis between those with and without a family history of a similar phenotype. To answer this and other questions related to these rare cases, further studies with a significant number of patients should be carried out.

  20. Comparison of the regional CO2 mole fraction filtering approaches at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, S. X.; Tans, P. P.; Steinbacher, M.; Zhou, L. X.; Luan, T.

    2015-12-01

    The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which are minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for trend analysis, for the estimation of regional sources and sinks, and for the modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) regional station (Lin'an, LAN) in China. The methods are based on the concentration of atmospheric black carbon (BC), on a statistical approach (robust extraction of baseline signal, REBS), on CH4 as an auxiliary tracer (AUX), and on meteorological parameters (MET). All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during the winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fraction evaluations, as the filtered trend may be influenced by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks, and considers diurnal variations and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 (standard error) from 2009 to 2011.

  1. Study of the regional CO2 mole fractions filtering approach at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. X. Fang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which is minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for the estimation of trend analysis, regional sources and sinks, and for modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW regional station (Lin'an, LAN in China. The methods are based on the atmospheric black carbon concentration (BC, on a statistical approach (REBS, on CH4 as auxiliary tracer (AUX and on meteorological parameters (MET. All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fractions evaluations, as the filtered trend may be deviated by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks and considers diurnal variations, local topography, and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr−1 (standard error from 2009 to 2013.

  2. Study of Pulse Laser Assisted Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of InGaN with Large Indium Mole Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kawaguchi, Norihito; Hida, Ken-nosuke; Kumagai, Yoshinao; Koukitu, Akinori

    2004-08-01

    The indium composition of the InGaN film increases with decreasing growth temperature; however, the crystalline quality of the film is poor when it is grown at low temperatures. To form a high-quality InGaN film with a large indium mole fraction, Nd: YAG pulse laser assisted metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) was carried out at low temperatures. The results suggest that film quality can be improved by pulse laser irradiation on the surface of the film.

  3. Organization of the main olfactory bulbs of some mammals: musk shrews, moles, hedgehogs, tree shrews, bats, mice, and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Katsuko; Kosaka, Toshio

    2004-04-19

    We immunohistochemically examined the organization of the main olfactory bulbs (MOBs) in seven mammalian species, including moles, hedgehogs, tree shrews, bats, and mice as well as laboratory musk shrews and rats. We focused our investigation on two points: 1) whether nidi, particular spheroidal synaptic regions subjacent to glomeruli, which we previously reported for the laboratory musk shrew MOBs, are also present in other animals and 2) whether the compartmental organization of glomeruli and two types of periglomerular cells we proposed for the rat MOBs are general in other animals. The general laminar pattern was similar among these seven species, but discrete nidi and the nidal layer were recognized only in two insectivores, namely, the mole and laboratory musk shrew. Olfactory marker protein-immunoreactive (OMP-IR) axons extended beyond the limits of the glomerular layer (GL) into the superficial region of the external plexiform layer (EPL) or the nidal layer in the laboratory musk shrew, mole, hedgehog, and tree shrew but not in bat, mouse, and rat. We observed, in nidi and the nidal layer in the mole and laboratory musk shrew MOBs, only a few OMP-IR axons. In the hedgehog, another insectivore, OMP-IR processes extending from the glomeruli were scattered and intermingled with calbindin D28k-IR cells at the border between the GL and the EPL. In the superficial region of the EPL of the tree shrew MOBs, there were a small number of tiny glomerulus-like spheroidal structures where OMP-IR axons protruding from glomeruli were intermingled with dendritic branches of surrounding calbindin D28k-IR cells. Furthermore, we recognized the compartmental organization of glomeruli and two types of periglomerular cells in the MOBs of all of the mammals we examined. These structural features are therefore considered to be common and important organizational principles of the MOBs.

  4. CFD modelling of most probable bubble nucleation rate from binary mixture with estimation of components' mole fraction in critical cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ban Zhen; Keong, Lau Kok; Shariff, Azmi Mohd

    2016-05-01

    The employment of different mathematical models to address specifically for the bubble nucleation rates of water vapour and dissolved air molecules is essential as the physics for them to form bubble nuclei is different. The available methods to calculate bubble nucleation rate in binary mixture such as density functional theory are complicated to be coupled along with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. In addition, effect of dissolved gas concentration was neglected in most study for the prediction of bubble nucleation rates. The most probable bubble nucleation rate for the water vapour and dissolved air mixture in a 2D quasi-stable flow across a cavitating nozzle in current work was estimated via the statistical mean of all possible bubble nucleation rates of the mixture (different mole fractions of water vapour and dissolved air) and the corresponding number of molecules in critical cluster. Theoretically, the bubble nucleation rate is greatly dependent on components' mole fraction in a critical cluster. Hence, the dissolved gas concentration effect was included in current work. Besides, the possible bubble nucleation rates were predicted based on the calculated number of molecules required to form a critical cluster. The estimation of components' mole fraction in critical cluster for water vapour and dissolved air mixture was obtained by coupling the enhanced classical nucleation theory and CFD approach. In addition, the distribution of bubble nuclei of water vapour and dissolved air mixture could be predicted via the utilisation of population balance model.

  5. Isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent lineage of hantavirus from the European mole (Talpa europaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Se Hun; Kumar, Mukesh; Sikorska, Beata; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Markowski, Marcin; Liberski, Paweł P; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-02-19

    Genetically distinct hantaviruses have been identified in five species of fossorial moles (order Eulipotyphla, family Talpidae) from Eurasia and North America. Here, we report the isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent hantavirus, named Nova virus (NVAV), from lung tissue of a European mole (Talpa europaea), captured in central Poland in August 2013. Typical hantavirus-like particles, measuring 80-120 nm in diameter, were found in NVAV-infected Vero E6 cells by transmission electron microscopy. Whole-genome sequences of the isolate, designated NVAV strain Te34, were identical to that amplified from the original lung tissue, and phylogenetic analysis of the full-length L, M and S segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that NVAV was most closely related to hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats, consistent with an ancient evolutionary origin. Infant Swiss Webster mice, inoculated with NVAV by the intraperitoneal route, developed weight loss and hyperactivity, beginning at 16 days, followed by hind-limb paralysis and death. High NVAV RNA copies were detected in lung, liver, kidney, spleen and brain by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Neuropathological examination showed astrocytic and microglial activation and neuronal loss. The first mole-borne hantavirus isolate will facilitate long-overdue studies on its infectivity and pathogenic potential in humans.

  6. Provably secure robust threshold partial blind signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhenfu; ZHU Haojin; LU Rongxing

    2006-01-01

    Threshold digital signature and blind signature are playing important roles in cryptography as well as in practical applications such as e-cash and e-voting systems.Over the past few years, many cryptographic researchers have made considerable headway in this field. However, to our knowledge, most of existing threshold blind signature schemes are based on the discrete logarithm problem. In this paper, we propose a new robust threshold partial blind signature scheme based on improved RSA cryptosystem.This scheme is the first threshold partial blind signature scheme based on factoring, and the robustness of threshold partial blind signature is also introduced. Moreover, in practical application, the proposed scheme will be especially suitable for blind signature-based voting systems with multiple administrators and secure electronic cash systems to prevent their abuse.

  7. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Variety Seeking Tendency Scale, the Intuitive Eating Scale, and the Body Awareness Questionnaire. Our...... behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data...... further indicate that blind subjects more strongly rely on internal hunger and satiety cues, instead of external contextual or emotional cues, to decide when and what to eat. We suggest that the lower taste sensitivity observed in congenitally blind individuals is due to various blindness...

  8. 气动矛性能的计算机仿真研究%COMPUTER IMITATION STUDY ON THE PERFRMANCE OF IMPACT MOLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志兵; 刘静; 祝世平

    2001-01-01

    Abstract:This article analyses the factors affecting theperformance of impact mole in computer imitation method taking YH75 impact mole as an example and discusses the principle of selecting the design parametErs of impact mole.%[摘 要]运用计算机仿真方法,以YH75型气动矛为例,对影响气动矛性能的因素进行了分析,探讨了气动矛设计参数的选取原则。

  9. Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good vision would be able to read certain letters from 20 feet (6 meters) away. Eyesight this good is called 20/20 vision, although some people can see even better than that. The numbers change depending on ...

  10. A Rare Hydrocephalus Complication: Cortical Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Emre; Göçmen, Rahşan; Işıkay, Ayşe İlksen; Tekşam, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Cortical blindness related to bilateral occipital lobe infarction is an extremely rare complication of hydrocephalus. Compression of the posterior cerebral artery, secondary to tentorial herniation, is the cause of occipital infarction. Particularly in children and mentally ill patients, cortical blindness may be missed. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of hydrocephalus is important. We present herein a child of ventricular shunt malfunction complicated by cortical blindness.

  11. Determining the concentration of individual eruptive events of the CAMP: Distinguishing interflow hiatuses from subterranean alteration and void infilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, P. E.; Kent, D. V.; Et-Touhami, M.

    2012-04-01

    -filled cracks in the flow and spread laterally at its base; 3) footprints of small subterranean animals. Features that could identify a significant temporal hiatus between flows absolutely require being produced at the land surface including: 1) terrestrial animal footprints too big to fit in the void; and 2) features requiring sunlight, such as in situ above-ground parts of plants, a root or possibly soil profiles terminating upward at paleohorizonatal surfaces, and possibly stromatolites. Using the above critera, most interflow and cross-cutting features in the Moroccan and eastern North America CAMP prove to be post-emplacement subterranean void fillings and alteration phenomena. There is a residuum of hiatuses that correspond to previously recognized geochemical boundaries between flow sequences or paleosecular magnetic directional groups. This weeding out of spurious hiatuses magnifies the concentration of eruptive events by reducing the inferred duration by one or two orders of magnitudes. For example the more than 30 or so individual basalt flows of the Argana and Central High Atlas basins of Morocco can be reduced to perhaps as few as 4 giant eruptions each lasting less than a hundred years or so. It is the magnitude of these events not the total volume that is most relevant CAMP kill mechanisms.

  12. CERTIFICATELESS SIGNATURE AND BLIND SIGNATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lei; Zhang Futai

    2008-01-01

    Certificateless public key cryptography is a new paradigm introduced by AI-Riyami and Paterson. It eliminates the need of the certificates in traditional public key cryptosystems and the key escrow problem in IDentity-based Public Key Cryptography (ID-PKC). Due to the advantages of the certificateless public key cryptography,a new efficient certificateless pairing-based signature scheme is presented,which has some advantages over previous constructions in computational cost. Based on this new signature scheme,a certificateless blind signature scheme is proposed. The security of our schemes is proven based on the hardness of computational Diffie-Hellman problem.

  13. Investigations of subterranean microorganisms and their importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. Results and conclusions achieved during the period 1995 to 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology

    1997-11-01

    In 1987, microbiology became a part of the Swedish scientific program for the safe disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLW). The goal of the microbiology sub-program is to understand how subterranean microorganisms will interact with the performance of a future HLW repository. The Swedish research program on subterranean microbiology has mainly been performed at two sites in granitic rock aquifers at depths ranging from 70 m down to 1240 m; the Stripa research mine in the middle of Sweden and the Aespoe hard rock laboratory (HRL) situated on the south eastern coast of Sweden. Some work has also been performed in co-operation with other national or international research groups in Sweden, Canada and at the natural analogue sites in Oklo in Gabon and Maqarin in Jordan. The most recent report in the SKB technical report series on microbiology and performance assessment, SKB-TR--95-10, gave the state of the art regarding microorganisms and their importance for performance assessment. That report is recommended as a source of knowledge about basic microbiology, microbial ecology of subterranean environments and the nuclear waste disposal concept in a microbiological perspective. The present report summarises results and conclusions achieved during the period 1995 to 1997 and is a continuation of SKB TR 95-10. The report is structured as summary which explains and analyses the obtained results and conclusions in a performance assessment perspective. The scientific basis for the summary is an enclosed series of eleven papers of which eight have gone through an international peer review process for publication in international scientific journals and reports and papers published earlier. 413 refs, 56 figs, 39 tabs.

  14. Causes of blindness and needs of the blind in Mansoura, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Gilany, A H; el-Fedawy, S; Tharwat, M

    2002-01-01

    A study of 113 blind people in Mansoura, Egypt highlighted the causes and risk factors for blindness, and health and social care needs of the blind. In two-thirds of cases, blindness occurred before 10 years of age. Risk factors for blindness were reported by more than half the study population. Congenital causes accounted for almost half the cases. The commonest causes of bilateral blindness were corneal opacities, cataract and glaucoma. Almost three-quarters of causes were avoidable. Health and social care for this group was inadequate and more than half would benefit from further management. Legislation for keratoplasty, a registry of blind people, and a nationwide community survey on the epidemiology of blindness are needed urgently.

  15. Sequential Subterranean Transport of Excavated Sand and Foraged Seeds in Nests of the Harvester Ant, Pogonomyrmex badius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschinkel, Walter R; Rink, William J; Kwapich, Christina L

    2015-01-01

    During their approximately annual nest relocations, Florida harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex badius) excavate large and architecturally-distinct subterranean nests. Aspects of this process were studied by planting a harvester ant colony in the field in a soil column composed of layers of 12 different colors of sand. Quantifying the colors of excavated sand dumped on the surface by the ants revealed the progress of nest deepening to 2 m and enlargement to 8 L in volume. Most of the excavation was completed within about 2 weeks, but the nest was doubled in volume after a winter lull. After 7 months, we excavated the nest and mapped its structure, revealing colored sand deposited in non-host colored layers, especially in the upper 30 to 40 cm of the nest. In all, about 2.5% of the excavated sediment was deposited below ground, a fact of importance to sediment dating by optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL). Upward transport of excavated sand is carried out in stages, probably by different groups of ants, through deposition, re-transport, incorporation into the nest walls and floors and remobilization from these. This results in considerable mixing of sand from different depths, as indicated in the multiple sand colors even within single sand pellets brought to the surface. Just as sand is transported upward by stages, incoming seeds are transported downward to seed chambers. Foragers collect seeds and deposit them only in the topmost nest chambers from which a separate group of workers rapidly transports them downward in increments detectable as a "wave" of seeds that eventually ends in the seed chambers, 20 to 80 cm below the surface. The upward and downward transport is an example of task-partitioning in a series-parallel organization of work carried out by a highly redundant work force in which each worker usually completes only part of a multi-step process.

  16. Glaciochemical investigations on the subterranean ice deposit of Vukušić Ice Cave, Velebit Mountain, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kern

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The 3H activity, 18O/16O and 2H/1H ratio and concentration of 33 metals and metalloids have been analysed on ice core samples from the perennial subterranean cave ice deposit of Vukušić Ice Cave, Velebit Mt. The tritium data suggested that the ice deposition at 2–2.4 m depth is build from precipitation fallen ~45 years before sampling and the uppermost ice layer could be estimated between early 1970s and early 1980s or between ~1954 and 1960. Both the fluctuation range of stable water isotopes and the derived isotopic waterline of the ice agree reasonably well with the corresponding data of the local precipitation. This fact predicts that the potential of Vukušić Ice Cave's ice deposit is superior for paleoclimatological studies to the nearby Ledena Pit. Principal component analysis helped to select three groups of elements. The Ca-Mg governed group (PC1 encompasses the bedrock related components; hence the fluctuation of these elements might reflect the past intensities of the dissolution process of the adjacent epikarst. The Zn governed group (PC2 preserves probably an atmospheric deposition signal and related to the emission of regional non-ferrous metallurgy. PC3 is governed by Al and Fe. This probably carries the distal, non-karstic crustal signal hence might be related to the past atmospheric circulation (i.e. wind direction and speed.

  17. Blindness and Insight in King Lear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳元玉

    2008-01-01

    This paper intends to explore how William Shakespeare illustrates the theme of blindness and insight in his great tragedy "King Lear".Four characters’ deeds and their fate are used as a case study to examine what blindness is,what insight is,and the relationship between the two.The writer finds that by depicting the characters’ deeds and their fate in a double plot,Shakespeare renders the folly of blindness,the transition from blindness to insight,and the use of reason and thought to understand the truth.

  18. Congenital color blindness in young Turkish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirik, Mehmet; Acaroglu, Golge; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2005-04-01

    We investigated a healthy population of men from different regions of Turkey for the presence of congenital red-green color blindness. Using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, 941 healthy men from the Turkish army were tested for congenital red-green color blindness. The prevalence of red-green color blindness was 7.33 +/- 0.98% (5.10% protans and 2.23% deutans). These ratios were higher than other reported samples from Mediterranean Europe. Higher percentages of color blindness were found in regions with a lower education level and more consanguineous marriages.

  19. Comparison of Training, Blind and Semi Blind Equalizers in MIMO Fading Systems Using Capacity as Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Kavitha, Veeraruna; Sharma, Vinod

    2005-01-01

    Semi blind/blind equalizers are believed to work unsatisfactorily in fading MIMO channels compared to training based methods, due to slow convergence or high computational complexity. We revisit this issue. Defining a 'composite' channel for each equalizer, we compare the three algorithms based on the capacity of this channel. We show that, in a Rician (with line of sight, LOS) environment, semi blind/blind algorithms outperform training equalizers, but in Rayleigh channels, it is better to u...

  20. FOREWORD: International Workshop on the Avogadro Constant and the Representation of the Silicon Mole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Giuseppe; Garfagnini, Raffaello; Mana, Giovanni; Peuto, Anna; Zosi, Gianfranco

    1994-01-01

    This special issue of Metrologia brings together contributions to the International Workshop on the Avogadro Constant and the Representation of the Silicon Mole, held in Turin, Italy, from 9 to 10 March 1994. It was organized by the Istituto di Metrologia "G Colonnetti" (IMGC) del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) and the Istituto di Fisica Generale "A Avogadro" (IFG) dell'Università di Tonno. It was sponsored by the CNR, the University of Turin, the Regione Piemonte, and the Commission of the European Communities DG XII. The workshop was a follow-up to previous international meetings held in Turin to commemorate Amedeo Avogadro, one in 1911 (the centenary of the publication of his hypothesis) and another in 1957 (the centenary of his death). On this occasion the workshop was motivated by the requirements of researchers engaged in the international project on the determination of the Avogadro constant by the x-ray crystal density method. Sixty-four participants representing eight countries attended the workshop. Doctoral students in metrology from Turin University and researchers working in adjacent fields were also present. The lectures were chosen so as to review the different aspects of this project, to illustrate progress in research, and to indicate future developments to scientists working in different fields of physics, metrology and technology. Complementary approaches to the NA determination based on electrical measurements were also reported and analysed. During the workshop, a number of specialist meetings allowed experts to discuss specific topics, to exchange information on results and techniques, and to improve the coordination of their activities. In their opening addresses, Prof. C Castagnoli (Director of the IFG) and Prof. L Crovini (Director of the IMGC) welcomed the participants and introduced the work in progress with a view to making a more precise determination of the Avogadro constant. They mentioned the expected influence of this

  1. 75 FR 47304 - Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who Are Blind, Deaf-Blind, or Have Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... COMMISSION Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who Are Blind, Deaf- Blind, or Have Low Vision AGENCY... accessible for people who are blind, have vision loss, or are deaf-blind and the extent to which gaps in... deaf-blind; recommendations on the most effective and efficient technical policy solutions...

  2. Front blind spot crashes in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuk Ki; Wong, Koon Hung; Tao, Chi Hang; Tam, Cheok Ning; Tam, Yiu Yan; Tsang, Cheuk Nam

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014, our laboratory had investigated a total of 9 suspected front blind spot crashes, in which the medium and heavy goods vehicles pulled away from rest and rolled over the pedestrians, who were crossing immediately in front of the vehicles. The drivers alleged that they did not see any pedestrians through the windscreens or the front blind spot mirrors. Forensic assessment of the goods vehicles revealed the existence of front blind spot zones in 3 out of these 9 accident vehicles, which were attributed to the poor mirror adjustments or even the absence of a front blind spot mirror altogether. In view of this, a small survey was devised involving 20 randomly selected volunteers and their goods vehicles and 5 out of these vehicles had blind spots at the front. Additionally, a short questionnaire was conducted on these 20 professional lorry drivers and it was shown that most of them were not aware of the hazards of blind spots immediately in front of their vehicles, and many did not use the front blind spot mirrors properly. A simple procedure for quick measurements of the coverage of front blind spot mirrors using a coloured plastic mat with dimensional grids was also introduced and described in this paper.

  3. Blavigator: a navigation aid for blind persons

    OpenAIRE

    José,João; Moreno, M.; Pinilla-Dutoit, J.; Rodrigues, J. M. F.; du Buf, J. M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Blavigator (blind navigator) is a vision aid for blind and visuaIIy impaired persons. It supports local navigation by detecting waIkable paths in the immediate vicinity of the user. It guides the user for centering on the path.

  4. Blind Equalization Based on Evolution Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongYu; ZhangXianda; 等

    1997-01-01

    Conventional blind equalization algorithms suffer from ill convergence to local minima and slow convergence speed.This paper proposes a novel blind equalization algorithm.using random search methods-evolution strategies and existing cost functions,Simulation results verify the fast and global convergence of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Early Interactions with Children Who Are Deaf-Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Logout Menu Early Interactions With Children Who Are Deaf-Blind NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness Help ... Archived Webinars Early Interactions With Children Who Are Deaf-Blind by DB-LINK on Apr 1, 2008 ...

  6. Altered sleep-wake patterns in blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, S.; Gacon, C.; Jennum, P.

    2016-01-01

    discuss variability in the sleep–wake pattern between blind and normal-sighted individuals. Methods Thirty-day actigraphy recordings were collected from 11 blind individuals without residual light perception and 11 age- and sex-matched normal-sighted controls. From these recordings, we extracted...... episode in blind participants as compared to sighted control participants. We also confirm previous reports of reduced sleep quality in blind individuals. Notably, the variability in sleep efficiency and in the timing of sleep correlated with the severity of sleep disturbances. Conclusion The timing...... and physiology of sleep are strongly dependent on the endogenous circadian phase; therefore, observed findings support the hypothesis of free-running circadian rhythms as a dominant factor for the sleep disturbances experienced in blindness....

  7. An ECC-Based Blind Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuh-Gwo Jeng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is increasingly applied to the E-commerce world, especially to the untraceable payment system and the electronic voting system. Protocols for these systems strongly require the anonymous digital signature property, and thus a blind signature strategy is the answer to it. Chaum stated that every blind signature protocol should hold two fundamental properties, blindness and intractableness. All blind signature schemes proposed previously almost are based on the integer factorization problems, discrete logarithm problems, or the quadratic residues, which are shown by Lee et al. that none of the schemes is able to meet the two fundamental properties above. Therefore, an ECC-based blind signature scheme that possesses both the above properties is proposed in this paper.

  8. User-centered Technologies For Blind Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review, summarize, and illustrate research work involving four audio-based games created within a user-centered design methodology through successive usability tasks and evaluations. These games were designed by considering the mental model of blind children and their styles of interaction to perceive and process data and information. The goal of these games was to enhance the cognitive development of spatial structures, memory, haptic perception, mathematical skills, navigation and orientation, and problem solving of blind children. Findings indicate significant improvements in learning and cognition from using audio-based tools specially tailored for the blind. That is, technologies for blind children, carefully tailored through user-centered design approaches, can make a significant contribution to cognitive development of these children. This paper contributes new insight into the design and implementation of audio-based virtual environments to facilitate learning and cognition in blind children.

  9. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  10. Genetically Engineered Yeast Expressing a Lytic Peptide from Bee Venom (Melittin) Kills Symbiotic Protozoa in the Gut of Formosan Subterranean Termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Donaldson, Jennifer R; Foil, Lane D

    2016-01-01

    The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is a costly invasive urban pest in warm and humid regions around the world. Feeding workers of the Formosan subterranean termite genetically engineered yeast strains that express synthetic protozoacidal lytic peptides has been shown to kill the cellulose digesting termite gut protozoa, which results in death of the termite colony. In this study, we tested if Melittin, a natural lytic peptide from bee venom, could be delivered into the termite gut via genetically engineered yeast and if the expressed Melittin killed termites via lysis of symbiotic protozoa in the gut of termite workers and/or destruction of the gut tissue itself. Melittin expressing yeast did kill protozoa in the termite gut within 56 days of exposure. The expressed Melittin weakened the gut but did not add a synergistic effect to the protozoacidal action by gut necrosis. While Melittin could be applied for termite control via killing the cellulose-digesting protozoa in the termite gut, it is unlikely to be useful as a standalone product to control insects that do not rely on symbiotic protozoa for survival.

  11. Blind reconstruction of linear scrambler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xie; Fenghua Wang; Zhitao Huang

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm based on eigenanalysis technique and Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT) is proposed. The algorithm contains two steps. Firstly, the received sequence is divided into temporal windows, and a covariance matrix is computed. The li-near feedback shift register (LFSR) sequence is reconstructed from the first eigenvector of this matrix. Secondly, equations ac-cording to the recovered LFSR sequence are constructed, and the Walsh spectrum corresponding to the equations is computed. The feedback polynomial of LFSR is estimated from the Walsh spec-trum. The validity of the algorithm is verified by the simulation result. Final y, case studies are presented to il ustrate the perfor-mance of the blind reconstruction method.

  12. BLIND DIFFERENTIAL ADAPTIVE MULTIUSER DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a new blind equalization cost function, termed differential mean output energy (DMOE), was presented, and a new multiuser detection algorithm with variable step size was designed. It is shown through simulation results for a co-channel system involving severe MAI that the DMOE algorithm gives significantly enhanced signal to interference ratio (SIR) performance and converges rapidly to the optimum MMSE detector, together with a low computational complexity requirement relative to the recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. Thus, it is not necessary to switch to the decision-directed mode. Moreover, it also exhibits global convergence, and can be used in different interference environment without the requirement of estimating and restricting the surplus energy.

  13. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  14. Extended Pile Driving Model to Predict the Penetration of the Insight/HP3 Mole into the Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poganski, Joshua; Kömle, Norbert I.; Kargl, Günter; Schweiger, Helmut F.; Grott, Matthias; Spohn, Tilman; Krömer, Olaf; Krause, Christian; Wippermann, Torben; Tsakyridis, Georgios; Fittock, Mark; Lichtenheldt, Roy; Vrettos, Christos; Anrade, Jose E.

    2016-11-01

    The NASA InSight mission will provide an opportunity for soil investigations using the penetration data of the heat flow probe built by the German Aerospace Center DLR. The Heat flow and Physical Properties Probe (HP3) will penetrate 3 to 5 meter into the Martian subsurface to investigate the planetary heat flow. The measurement of the penetration rate during the insertion of the HP3 will be used to determine the physical properties of the soil at the landing site. For this purpose, numerical simulations of the penetration process were performed to get a better understanding of the soil properties influencing the penetration performance of HP3. A pile driving model has been developed considering all masses of the hammering mechanism of HP3. By cumulative application of individual stroke cycles it is now able to describe the penetration of the Mole into the Martian soil as a function of time, assuming that the soil parameters of the material through which it penetrates are known. We are using calibrated materials similar to those expected to be encountered by the InSight/HP3 Mole when it will be operated on the surface of Mars after the landing of the InSight spacecraft. We consider various possible scenarios, among them a more or less homogeneous material down to a depth of 3-5 m as well as a layered ground, consisting of layers with different soil parameters. Finally we describe some experimental tests performed with the latest prototype of the InSight Mole at DLR Bremen and compare the measured penetration performance in sand with our modeling results. Furthermore, results from a 3D DEM simulation are presented to get a better understanding of the soil response.

  15. Dynamic Thermodynamics with Internal Energy, Volume, and Amount of Moles as States: Application to Liquefied Gas Tank

    OpenAIRE

    Arendsen, A. R. J.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic models for process design, optimization, and control usually solve a set of heat and/or mass balances as a function of time and/or position in the process. To obtain more robust dynamic models and to minimize the amount of assumptions, internal energy, volume, and amount of moles are chosen as states for the conservation laws of the dynamic model. Temperature, pressure, and the amount and composition of the phases are calculated on the basis of these states at every time step. The Red...

  16. Marco Isaia, Mauro Paschetta, Enrico Lana, Paolo Pantini, Axel L. Schönhofer, Erhard Christian & Guido Bandino (2011: Aracnidi sotterranei delle Alpi Occidentali italiane/Subterranean Arachnids of the Western Italian Alps (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenker, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available book review: Marco Isaia, Mauro Paschetta, Enrico Lana, Paolo Pantini, Axel L. Schönhofer, Erhard Christian & Guido Bandino (2011: Aracnidi sotterranei delle Alpi Occidentali italiane/Subterranean Arachnids of the Western Italian Alps (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpiones

  17. Genetic structure and diversity in an isolated population of an endemic mole salamander (Ambystoma rivulare Taylor, 1940) of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Bobadilla, Rosa-Laura; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán David; Sunny, Armando

    2016-12-01

    Human activities are affecting the distribution of species worldwide by causing fragmentation and isolation of populations. Isolation and fragmentation lead to populations with lower genetic variability and an increased chance of inbreeding and genetic drift, which results in a loss of biological fitness over time. Studies of the genetic structure of small and isolated populations are critically important for management and conservation decisions. Ambystoma rivulare is a micro-endemic Mexican mole salamander from central Mexico. It is found in the most ecologically disturbed region in Mexico, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The goal of this study of the population genetics of the micro-endemic mole salamander was to provide information to be used as a basis for future research and conservation planning of this species and other species of the Ambystoma genus in Mexico. The structural analysis found two subpopulations, one for each river sampled, with no signs of admixture and very high levels of genetic differentiation. Medium to high levels of heterozygosity and few alleles and genotypes were observed. Evidence of an ancestral genetic bottleneck, low values of effective population size, small inbreeding coefficients, and low gene flow were also found.

  18. Long-term analysis of carbon dioxide and methane column-averaged mole fractions retrieved from SCIAMACHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneising, Oliver; Buchwitz, Michael; Reuter, Maximilian; Heymann, Jens; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John P.

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributing to climate change. Despite their importance our knowledge about their variable natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks has significant gaps. Satellite observations can add important global scale information on greenhouse gas sources and sinks provided the data are accurate and precise enough and are sensitive to the lowest atmospheric layers where the variability is largest. High sensitivity to near-surface greenhouse gas concentration changes can be achieved using reflected solar radiation in the near-infrared/shortwave-infrared (NIR/SWIR) spectral region. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launch 2002) was the first and is now besides TANSO onboard GOSAT (launch 2009) the only satellite instrument currently in space covering important absorption bands of both gases in this spectral range. Global SCIAMACHY nadir observations from the time period 2003-2009 have been used to retrieve carbon dioxide and methane column-averaged mole fractions (which are the quantities needed for inverse modelling to get information on the sources and sinks) constituting seven years of greenhouse gas information derived from European EO data and offering temporal overlap with GOSAT. These new improved WFM-DOAS multi-year global data sets extending afore existing retrievals will be presented and discussed including an analysis of the long-term characteristics and comparison of the retrieved mole fractions with independent data, e.g., a first analysis of how the SCIAMACHY results compare with GOSAT retrievals for the overlapping time period.

  19. Internet Adaptation for Colour-Blind Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rytė Žiūrienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Of all human race about 8% of males and 0,5% of females are colour-blind. It is estimated that in 2011 or 2012 there will be around 2 billion Internet users worldwide, so the number of colour-blind Internet users can reach about 200 million. Authors of this publication analyse issues that arise for colour-blind persons on the Internet and deliver the ways to make the Internet more comfortable. The special software is proposed as one of the ways together with comparison of its advantages.

  20. Blind image deconvolution methods and convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Rameshan, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Blind deconvolution is a classical image processing problem which has been investigated by a large number of researchers over the last four decades. The purpose of this monograph is not to propose yet another method for blind image restoration. Rather the basic issue of deconvolvability has been explored from a theoretical view point. Some authors claim very good results while quite a few claim that blind restoration does not work. The authors clearly detail when such methods are expected to work and when they will not. In order to avoid the assumptions needed for convergence analysis in the

  1. Ten years left to eliminate blinding trachoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad D.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available n 1997, the World Health Organization formed the Global Alliance to Eliminate Blinding Trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020, a coalition of governmental, non-governmental, research, and pharmaceutical partners. In 1998, the World Health Assembly urged member states to map blinding trachoma in endemic areas, implement the SAFE strategy (which stands for surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, facial-cleanliness and environmental change, such as clean water and latrines and collaborate with the global alliance in its work to eliminate blinding trachoma.

  2. Reversible cortical blindness: posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Mondal, Kanchan Kumar; Das, Somnath; Gupta, Anindya; Biswas, Jaya; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Biswas, Gautam

    2010-11-01

    Cortical blindness is defined as visual failure with preserved pupillary reflexes in structurally intact eyes due to bilateral lesions affecting occipital cortex. Bilateral oedema and infarction of the posterior and middle cerebral arterial territory, trauma, glioma and meningioma of the occipital cortex are the main causes of cortical blindness. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) refers to the reversible subtype of cortical blindness and is usually associated with hypertension, diabetes, immunosuppression, puerperium with or without eclampsia. Here, 3 cases of PRES with complete or partial visual recovery following treatment in 6-month follow-up are reported.

  3. Compressed Blind De-convolution

    CERN Document Server

    Saligrama, V

    2009-01-01

    Suppose the signal x is realized by driving a k-sparse signal u through an arbitrary unknown stable discrete-linear time invariant system H. These types of processes arise naturally in Reflection Seismology. In this paper we are interested in several problems: (a) Blind-Deconvolution: Can we recover both the filter $H$ and the sparse signal $u$ from noisy measurements? (b) Compressive Sensing: Is x compressible in the conventional sense of compressed sensing? Namely, can x, u and H be reconstructed from a sparse set of measurements. We develop novel L1 minimization methods to solve both cases and establish sufficient conditions for exact recovery for the case when the unknown system H is auto-regressive (i.e. all pole) of a known order. In the compressed sensing/sampling setting it turns out that both H and x can be reconstructed from O(k log(n)) measurements under certain technical conditions on the support structure of u. Our main idea is to pass x through a linear time invariant system G and collect O(k lo...

  4. Blindness of Johann Sebastian Bach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkkanen, Ahti

    2013-03-01

    Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was one of the greatest composers of all time. Apart from performing as a brilliant organist, he composed over 1.100 works in almost every musical genre. He was known as a hardworking, deeply Christian person, who had to support his family of 20 children and many students staying at his home. At the age of 64 years, his vision started to decline. Old biographies claim that it was the result of overstressing his vision in poor illumination. By persuasion of his friends, he had his both eyes operated by a travelling British eye surgeon. A cataract couching was performed. After surgery, Bach was totally blind and unable to play an organ, compose or direct choirs and orchestras. He was confined to bed and suffering from immense pain of the eyes and the body. He died <4 months after surgery. In this paper, as the plausible diagnosis, intractable glaucoma because of pupillary block or secondary to phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis is suggested.

  5. Night blindness and Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Lima, Breno; Pichi, Francesco; Lowder, Careen Y

    2014-10-01

    Signs of malnutrition are common clinical features in Crohn's disease; and bowel resection, commonly needed in these cases, can aggravate malnutrition. These patients are at risk of developing vitamin A deficiency, which can lead to night blindness. We present a 60-year-old male, with history of Crohn's disease and multiple resections for strictures and fistulas leading to short bowel syndrome, with progressive bilateral loss of night vision (nyctalopia). Serum vitamin A level was markedly depleted (11 µg/dL, reference 20-120 µg/dL), and full-field electroretinogram testing demonstrated extinguished scotopic (rod function) responses and decreased amplitudes of photopic responses on 30 Hz flicker (cone function). He was started on vitamin A supplementation (initially intramuscular). His vitamin A level was back to normal (78 µg/dL), and night vision problems subjectively improved. Patients with Crohn's disease should be inquired about night vision problems. The presence of nyctalopia should prompt vitamin A level measurement and ophthalmology referral for further evaluation.

  6. Imagery limitations in totally congenitally blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beni, R; Cornoldi, C

    1988-10-01

    Research on totally blind subjects performing tasks that involve visual imagery has often shown that they do not behave differently from matched sighted subjects, even when their blindness is congenital. If visual imagery is based on visual perception, such tasks may not required visual imagery. In the present article visual images are considered as representations maintaining some properties of visible objects and constructed on the basis of information from various sources. Owing to the absence of visual experience, the limitations of such representations are explored in a series of experiments requiring memorization of single nouns, pairs of nouns, or triplets of nouns associated with a cue noun. Recall by blind subjects was impaired when multiple interactive images (with noun pairs and triplets) are formed. The poorer recall of blind subjects reflected also loss of order information. Recall was better for both groups with locative noun cues and high-imagery targets.

  7. Hypertension and color blindness in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, W E

    1975-05-01

    Medical data from Selective Service registrants born from 1939 to 1941 were studied in Oregon and Colorado. Among 29,119 registrants with medical information (41.3% of all registrants), 1,073 (3.6%) had definite hypertension, and 1,226 (4.2%) had some type of color blindness. In both states, there was a highly significant association between the prevalence of hypertension and the prevalence of color blindness. Thus, definite hypertension was present in 6.0% of color clind individuals but in only 3.6% of those with unimparied color vision, while color blindness occurred in 6.8% with definite hypertension, in 5.8% with borderline hypertension, and in only 4.0% with normal blood pressure. The data did not differentiate among types of color blindness, and the reason for the association is not yet evident.

  8. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’ ... a scientist? Click to Watch What is an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click ...

  9. Enhanced heat discrimination in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, Hocine; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that congenitally blind individuals perform better than normally sighted controls in a variety of auditory, tactile and olfactory discrimination tasks. However, little is known about the capacity of blind individuals to make fine discriminatory judgments in the thermal...... discrimination. Thermal stimuli were delivered with either a 2.56 or 9 cm(2) Peltier-based thermode. We applied for 5-8s lasting non-painful thermal stimuli to the forearm and asked participants to detect small increments in temperature (ΔT = 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 or 1.6°C) that occurred at random time intervals. Blank...... of the stimulated skin surface or magnitude of the temperature shift. Increasing the size of the stimulated skin area increased the response criterion in the blind (p=0.022) but not in the sighted. Together, these findings show that congenitally blind individuals have enhanced temperature discrimination accuracy...

  10. Transient cortical blindness after coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, B N; Bozbuğa, N; Tuncer, M A; Yakut, C

    2009-01-01

    Transient cortical blindness is rarely encountered after angiography of native coronary arteries or bypass grafts. This paper reports a case of transient cortical blindness that occurred 72 h after coronary angiography in a 56-year old patient. This was the patient's fourth exposure to contrast medium. Neurological examination demonstrated cortical blindness and the absence of any focal neurological deficit. A non-contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan of the brain revealed bilateral contrast enhancement in the occipital lobes and no evidence of cerebral haemorrhage, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed no pathology. Sight returned spontaneously within 4 days and his vision gradually improved. A search of the current literature for reported cases of transient cortical blindness suggested that this is a rarely encountered complication of coronary angiography.

  11. Reversible cortical blindness after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knower, Mark T; Pethke, Scott D; Valentine, Vincent G

    2003-06-01

    Cyclosporine (CYA) is a calcineurin inhibitor widely used in immunosuppressive regimens after organ transplantation. Several neurologic side effects are frequently associated with CYA use; however, reversible cortical blindness is a rare manifestation of CYA toxicity traditionally seen after liver and bone marrow transplantation. This report presents a case of reversible cortical blindness after lung transplantation, then details the risk factors and clinical course of 28 previously well-documented cases of CYA-induced cortical blindness after transplantation. Identification of known risk factors, clinical clues, and typical radiographic findings may aid in the diagnosis of CYA-induced cortical blindness, since reduction in CYA dose or cessation of CYA therapy usually permits resolution of the neurologic effects.

  12. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color ... I’m sleeping? Click to Watch What does it mean to be nearsighted or farsighted? Click to ...

  13. From Perception to Metacognition: Auditory and Olfactory Functions in Early Blind, Late Blind, and Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina; Arshamian, Artin; Nilsson, Mats E.; Larsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15), late blind (n = 15), and sighted (n = 30) participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity. PMID:27729884

  14. From perception to metacognition: Auditory and olfactory functions in early blind, late blind, and sighted individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina Cornell Kärnekull

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15, late blind (n = 15, and sighted (n = 30 participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity.

  15. An Efficient Scheme for Sensitive Message Transmission using Blind Signcryption

    OpenAIRE

    Awasthi, Amit K; Lal, Sunder

    2005-01-01

    Blind signature schemes enable a useful protocol that guarantee the anonymity of the participants while Signcryption offers authentication of message and confidentiality of messages at the same time and more efficiently. In this paper, we present a blind signcryption scheme that combines the functionality of blind signature and signcryption. This blind Signcryption is useful for applications that are based on anonymity untracebility and unlinkability.

  16. Shape Perception and Navigation in Blind Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Monica; Cappagli, Giulia; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Finocchietti, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Different sensory systems interact to generate a representation of space and to navigate. Vision plays a critical role in the representation of space development. During navigation, vision is integrated with auditory and mobility cues. In blind individuals, visual experience is not available and navigation therefore lacks this important sensory signal. In blind individuals, compensatory mechanisms can be adopted to improve spatial and navigation skills. On the other hand, the limitations of these compensatory mechanisms are not completely clear. Both enhanced and impaired reliance on auditory cues in blind individuals have been reported. Here, we develop a new paradigm to test both auditory perception and navigation skills in blind and sighted individuals and to investigate the effect that visual experience has on the ability to reproduce simple and complex paths. During the navigation task, early blind, late blind and sighted individuals were required first to listen to an audio shape and then to recognize and reproduce it by walking. After each audio shape was presented, a static sound was played and the participants were asked to reach it. Movements were recorded with a motion tracking system. Our results show three main impairments specific to early blind individuals. The first is the tendency to compress the shapes reproduced during navigation. The second is the difficulty to recognize complex audio stimuli, and finally, the third is the difficulty in reproducing the desired shape: early blind participants occasionally reported perceiving a square but they actually reproduced a circle during the navigation task. We discuss these results in terms of compromised spatial reference frames due to lack of visual input during the early period of development. PMID:28144226

  17. Blind source separation dependent component analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yang, Zuyuan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers a complete and self-contained set of knowledge about dependent source separation, including the latest development in this field. The book gives an overview on blind source separation where three promising blind separation techniques that can tackle mutually correlated sources are presented. The book further focuses on the non-negativity based methods, the time-frequency analysis based methods, and the pre-coding based methods, respectively.

  18. Blind Signature Scheme Based on Chebyshev Polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Maheswara Rao Valluri

    2011-01-01

    A blind signature scheme is a cryptographic protocol to obtain a valid signature for a message from a signer such that signer’s view of the protocol can’t be linked to the resulting message signature pair. This paper presents blind signature scheme using Chebyshev polynomials. The security of the given scheme depends upon the intractability of the integer factorization problem and discrete logarithms ofChebyshev polynomials.

  19. Blind Signature Scheme Based on Chebyshev Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswara Rao Valluri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A blind signature scheme is a cryptographic protocol to obtain a valid signature for a message from a signer such that signer’s view of the protocol can’t be linked to the resulting message signature pair. This paper presents blind signature scheme using Chebyshev polynomials. The security of the given scheme depends upon the intractability of the integer factorization problem and discrete logarithms ofChebyshev polynomials.

  20. Quantum group blind signature scheme without entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Huang, Liusheng; Yang, Wei; He, Libao

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we propose a quantum group blind signature scheme designed for distributed e-voting system. Our scheme combines the properties of group signature and blind signature to provide anonymity of voters in an e-voting system. The unconditional security of our scheme is ensured by quantum mechanics. Without employing entanglement, the proposed scheme is easier to be realized comparing with other quantum signature schemes.

  1. Can acupuncture treatment be double-blinded?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari;

    2015-01-01

    and acupuncturists were asked about perceived treatment allocation at the end of the study. To test if there were clues which led to identification of the treatment, deep dull pain associated with needle application and rotation (termed "de qi" in East Asian medicine), and patients' pain levels were assessed...... is the only needle that allows some degree of practitioner blinding. The study raises questions about alternatives to double-blind randomized clinical trials in the assessment of acupuncture treatment....

  2. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied. On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up, and the calculation boundary condi-tions were analyzed. According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics soft-ware. The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained. The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimiza-tion. The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were ob-tained. The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed, which pro-vided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer, the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency, provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  3. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied.On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up,and the calculation boundary conditions were analyzed.According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics software.The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained.The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimization.The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were obtained.The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed,which provided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer,the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency,provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  4. Unblinding the dark matter blind spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tao; Kling, Felix; Su, Shufang; Wu, Yongcheng

    2017-02-01

    The dark matter (DM) blind spots in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) refer to the parameter regions where the couplings of the DM particles to the Z-boson or the Higgs boson are almost zero, leading to vanishingly small signals for the DM direct detections. In this paper, we carry out comprehensive analyses for the DM searches under the blind-spot scenarios in MSSM. Guided by the requirement of acceptable DM relic abundance, we explore the complementary coverage for the theory parameters at the LHC, the projection for the future underground DM direct searches, and the indirect searches from the relic DM annihilation into photons and neutrinos. We find that (i) the spin-independent (SI) blind spots may be rescued by the spin-dependent (SD) direct detection in the future underground experiments, and possibly by the indirect DM detections from IceCube and SuperK neutrino experiments; (ii) the detection of gamma rays from Fermi-LAT may not reach the desirable sensitivity for searching for the DM blind-spot regions; (iii) the SUSY searches at the LHC will substantially extend the discovery region for the blind-spot parameters. The dark matter blind spots thus may be unblinded with the collective efforts in future DM searches.

  5. A new species of Glaphyropoma: the first subterranean copionodontine catfish and the first occurrence of opercular odontodes in the subfamily (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elina Bichuette

    Full Text Available A new species of the rare copionodontine genus Glaphyropoma is described from subterranean waters in the Diamantina Plateau, Bahia State, central northeastern Brazil. This is the first troglomorphic species in the subfamily Copionodontinae. It is distinguished from all other copionodontines by the presence of opercular odontodes, and further distinguished from its only congener, G. rodriguesi, by the reduction of dark integumentary pigmentation. The new species shares the single synapomorphy previously proposed for Glaphyropoma, the marked narrowing of the first hypobranchial and indirect character evidence also supports its inclusion in the genus. The presence of opercular odontodes in the new species, in combination with a reviewed hypothesis of sister group relationship between Copionodontinae and Trichogeninae, indicate that the absence of opercular odontodes in previously-known copionodontines is secondary, rather than primitive.

  6. The Prevention of Blindness-Past, Present and Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira; Nakajima

    1992-01-01

    Prevention of blindness is the most important aim of ophthalmology. Prevention of blindness is related to many factors. It is related to many factors, such as science and technology, economy and social behavior. There are worldwide activities by WHO, NGOs and other functions to promote the prevention of blindness in the world. More than 90% of blind population lives in developing world. Cataract is the top causes of blindness which is curable. Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in west Africa and cent...

  7. The role of chromosomal rearrangements and geographical barriers in the divergence of lineages in a South American subterranean rodent (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae: Ctenomys minutus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, C M; Ximenes, S S F; Gava, A; de Freitas, T R O

    2013-10-01

    Identifying factors and the extent of their roles in the differentiation of populations is of great importance for understanding the evolutionary process in which a species is involved. Ctenomys minutus is a highly karyotype-polymorphic subterranean rodent, with diploid numbers ranging from 42 to 50 and autosomal arm numbers (ANs) ranging from 68 to 80, comprising a total of 45 karyotypes described so far. This species inhabits the southern Brazilian coastal plain, which has a complex geological history, with several potential geographical barriers acting on different time scales. We assessed the geographical genetic structure of C. minutus, examining 340 individuals over the entire distributional range and using information from chromosomal rearrangements, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 14 microsatellite loci. The mtDNA results revealed seven main haplogroups, with the most recent common ancestors dating from the Pleistocene, whereas clustering methods defined 12 populations. Some boundaries of mtDNA haplogroups and population clusters can be associated with potential geographical barriers to gene flow. The isolation-by-distance pattern also has an important role in fine-scale genetic differentiation, which is strengthened by the narrowness of the coastal plain and by common features of subterranean rodents (that is, small fragmented populations and low dispersal rates), which limit gene flow among populations. A step-by-step mechanism of chromosomal evolution can be suggested for this species, mainly associated with the metapopulation structure, genetic drift and the geographical features of the southern Brazilian coastal plain. However, chromosomal variations have no or very little role in the diversification of C. minutus populations.

  8. 30Si Mole Fraction of a Silicon Material Highly Enriched in 28Si Determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Mana, Giovanni; Oddone, Massimo; Pramann, Axel; Prata, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The latest determination of the Avogadro constant, carried out by counting the atoms in a pure silicon crystal highly enriched in 28Si, reached the target 2x10-8 relative uncertainty required for the redefinition of the kilogram based on the Planck constant. The knowledge of the isotopic composition of the enriched silicon material is central; it is measured by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. In this work, an independent estimate of the 30Si mole fraction was obtained by applying a relative measurement protocol based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The amount of 30Si isotope was determined by counting the 1266.1 keV gamma-photons emitted during the radioactive decay of the radioisotope 31Si produced via the neutron capture reaction 30Si(n,gamma)31Si. The x(30Si) = 1.043(19)x10-6 mol mol-1 is consistent with the value currently adopted by the International Avogadro Coordination.

  9. (30)Si mole fraction of a silicon material highly enriched in (28)Si determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Di Luzio, Marco; Mana, Giovanni; Oddone, Massimo; Pramann, Axel; Prata, Michele

    2015-06-01

    The latest determination of the Avogadro constant, carried out by counting the atoms in a pure silicon crystal highly enriched in (28)Si, reached the target 2 × 10(-8) relative uncertainty required for the redefinition of the kilogram based on the Planck constant. The knowledge of the isotopic composition of the enriched silicon material is central; it is measured by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. In this work, an independent estimate of the (30)Si mole fraction was obtained by applying a relative measurement protocol based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The amount of (30)Si isotope was determined by counting the 1266.1 keV γ-photons emitted during the radioactive decay of the radioisotope (31)Si produced via the neutron capture reaction (30)Si(n,γ)(31)Si. The x((30)Si) = 1.043(19) × 10(-6) mol mol(-1) is consistent with the value currently adopted by the International Avogadro Coordination.

  10. Spatial and temporal activity patterns of the free-living giant mole-rat (Fukomys mechowii, the largest social bathyergid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěj Lövy

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable attention devoted to the biology of social species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia, knowledge is lacking about their behaviour under natural conditions. We studied activity of the largest social bathyergid, the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii, in its natural habitat in Zambia using radio-telemetry. We radio-tracked six individuals during three continuous 72-h sessions. Five of these individuals, including a breeding male, belonged to a single family group; the remaining female was probably a solitary disperser. The non-breeders of the family were active (i.e. outside the nest 5.8 hours per 24h-day with the activity split into 6.5 short bouts. The activity was more concentrated in the night hours, when the animals also travelled longer distances from the nest. The breeding male spent only 3.2 hours per day outside the nest, utilizing less than 20% of the whole family home range. The dispersing female displayed a much different activity pattern than the family members. Her 8.0 hours of outside-nest activity per day were split into 4.6 bouts which were twice as long as in the family non-breeders. Her activity peak in the late afternoon coincided with the temperature maximum in the depth of 10 cm (roughly the depth of the foraging tunnels. Our results suggest that the breeding individuals (at least males contribute very little to the work of the family group. Nevertheless, the amount of an individual's activity and its daily pattern are probably flexible in this species and can be modified in response to actual environmental and social conditions.

  11. Automatic processing of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 mole fractions at the ICOS Atmosphere Thematic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazan, Lynn; Tarniewicz, Jérôme; Ramonet, Michel; Laurent, Olivier; Abbaris, Amara

    2016-09-01

    The Integrated Carbon Observation System Atmosphere Thematic Centre (ICOS ATC) automatically processes atmospheric greenhouse gases mole fractions of data coming from sites of the ICOS network. Daily transferred raw data files are automatically processed and archived. Data are stored in the ICOS atmospheric database, the backbone of the system, which has been developed with an emphasis on the traceability of the data processing. Many data products, updated daily, explore the data through different angles to support the quality control of the dataset performed by the principal operators in charge of the instruments. The automatic processing includes calibration and water vapor corrections as described in the paper. The mole fractions calculated in near-real time (NRT) are automatically revaluated as soon as a new instrument calibration is processed or when the station supervisors perform quality control. By analyzing data from 11 sites, we determined that the average calibration corrections are equal to 1.7 ± 0.3 µmol mol-1 for CO2 and 2.8 ± 3 nmol mol-1 for CH4. These biases are important to correct to avoid artificial gradients between stations that could lead to error in flux estimates when using atmospheric inversion techniques. We also calculated that the average drift between two successive calibrations separated by 15 days amounts to ±0.05 µmol mol-1 and ±0.7 nmol mol-1 for CO2 and CH4, respectively. Outliers are generally due to errors in the instrument configuration and can be readily detected thanks to the data products provided by the ATC. Several developments are still ongoing to improve the processing, including automated spike detection and calculation of time-varying uncertainties.

  12. The Role of NLRP 7 Gene in Hydatidiform Mole%NLRP7基因在葡萄胎发生中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周薇

    2011-01-01

    Hydatidiform mole (HM) is a gestational trophoblastic disease (GrD) characterized by proliferation of the pregnancy-associated trophoblastic tissue. With the widespread use of ultrasound, early diagnosis and treatment of hydatidiform mole is possible, but the diagnosis is still based on histopathology. The treatment of hydatidiform mole is difficult, and the prognosis of this disease is not vary good especially in recurrent hydatidfform mole. The mechanism of hydatidiform mole remains unclear. Different type of mole and the wrong chromosome gene imprinting have been found in genetics. Recently, the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich containing, pyrin domain containing 7 (NLRP 7)gene is found to connected with recurrent hydatidfform mole. This article will have a review of NLRP7 gene in the role of hydatidiform mole.%葡萄胎(HM)是异常人类妊娠,以绒毛滋养细胞增生、间质水肿,同时缺乏胚胎发育或者异常的胚胎发育为特征,是一种滋养细胞疾病(GTD).超声的广泛使用使早期诊断和处理葡萄胎成为可能,但其确诊依据仍是组织学诊断;葡萄胎治疗有一定难度.且葡萄胎特别是复发性葡萄胎的预后不理想.葡萄胎的发生机制尚不明确,细胞遗传学研究发现葡萄胎组织染色体核型异常和基因印迹错误.最近对葡萄胎患者基因方面的研究发现,NLRP7基因与复发性葡萄胎存在相关性.就葡萄胎及其与NLRP7基因的研究进展综述.

  13. Investigation of the presence and antinociceptive function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristine B.; Krogh-Jensen, Karen; Pickering, Darryl S;

    2016-01-01

    musculus) using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). The presence and function of M1 and M4 was investigated in vivo, using the formalin test with the muscarinic receptor agonists xanomeline and VU0152100. Spinal cord tissue from the naked mole-rat was used for receptor saturation binding studies...... with [3H]-N-methylscopolamine. The BLAST test revealed 95 % protein sequence homology showing the naked mole-rat to have the genetic potential to express all five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. A significant reduction in pain behavior was demonstrated after administration of 8.4 mg...

  14. Tactile Sensitivity and Braille Reading in People with Early Blindness and Late Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Kensuke; Arai, Tetsuya; Ichihara, Shigeru; Nakano, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The inability to read quickly can be a disadvantage throughout life. This study focused on the associations of braille reading fluency and individual factors, such as the age at onset of blindness and number of years reading braille, and the tactile sensitivity of people with early and late blindness. The relationship between reading…

  15. Blind compressive sensing dynamic MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingala, Sajan Goud; Jacob, Mathews

    2013-06-01

    We propose a novel blind compressive sensing (BCS) frame work to recover dynamic magnetic resonance images from undersampled measurements. This scheme models the dynamic signal as a sparse linear combination of temporal basis functions, chosen from a large dictionary. In contrast to classical compressed sensing, the BCS scheme simultaneously estimates the dictionary and the sparse coefficients from the undersampled measurements. Apart from the sparsity of the coefficients, the key difference of the BCS scheme with current low rank methods is the nonorthogonal nature of the dictionary basis functions. Since the number of degrees-of-freedom of the BCS model is smaller than that of the low-rank methods, it provides improved reconstructions at high acceleration rates. We formulate the reconstruction as a constrained optimization problem; the objective function is the linear combination of a data consistency term and sparsity promoting l1 prior of the coefficients. The Frobenius norm dictionary constraint is used to avoid scale ambiguity. We introduce a simple and efficient majorize-minimize algorithm, which decouples the original criterion into three simpler subproblems. An alternating minimization strategy is used, where we cycle through the minimization of three simpler problems. This algorithm is seen to be considerably faster than approaches that alternates between sparse coding and dictionary estimation, as well as the extension of K-SVD dictionary learning scheme. The use of the l1 penalty and Frobenius norm dictionary constraint enables the attenuation of insignificant basis functions compared to the l0 norm and column norm constraint assumed in most dictionary learning algorithms; this is especially important since the number of basis functions that can be reliably estimated is restricted by the available measurements. We also observe that the proposed scheme is more robust to local minima compared to K-SVD method, which relies on greedy sparse coding. Our

  16. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Neena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness provides valid estimates in a short period of time to assess the magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness. The study determined magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness in India in 2007 among the 50+ population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixteen randomly selected districts where blindness surveys were undertaken 7 to 10 years earlier were identified for a follow up survey. Stratified cluster sampling was used and 25 clusters (20 rural and 5 urban were randomly picked in each district.. After a random start, 100 individuals aged 50+ were enumerated and examined sequentially in each cluster. All those with presenting vision = 50 years were enumerated, and 94.7% examined. Based on presenting vision,, 4.4% (95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 4.1,4.8 were severely visually impaired (vision<6/60 to 3/60 in the better eye and 3.6% (95% CI: 3.3,3.9 were blind (vision<3/60 in the better eye. Prevalence of low vision (<6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye was 16.8% (95% CI: 16.0,17.5. Prevalence of blindness and severe visual impairment (<6/60 in the better eye was higher among rural residents (8.2%; 95% CI: 7.9,8.6 compared to urban (7.1%; 95% CI: 5.0, 9.2, among females (9.2%; 95% CI: 8.6,9.8 compared to males (6.5%; 95% CI: 6.0,7.1 and people above 70 years (20.6%; 95% CI: 19.1,22.0 compared to people aged 50-54 years (1.3%; 95% CI: 1.1,1.6. Of all blindness, 88.2% was avoidable. of which 81.9% was due to cataract and 7.1% to uncorrected refractive errors/uncorrected aphakia. CONCLUSIONS: Cataract and refractive errors are major causes of blindness and low vision and control strategies should prioritize them. Most blindness and low vision burden is avoidable.

  17. Turning the tide of corneal blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Oliva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world′s largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind.

  18. Turning the tide of corneal blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Matthew S; Schottman, Tim; Gulati, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world's largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind.

  19. Non-blind watermarking of network flows

    CERN Document Server

    Houmansadr, Amir; Borisov, Nikita

    2012-01-01

    Linking network flows is an important problem in intrusion detection as well as anonymity. Passive traffic analysis can link flows but requires long periods of observation to reduce errors. Active traffic analysis, also known as flow watermarking, allows for better precision and is more scalable. Previous flow watermarks introduce significant delays to the traffic flow as a side effect of using a blind detection scheme; this enables attacks that detect and remove the watermark, while at the same time slowing down legitimate traffic. We propose the first non-blind approach for flow watermarking, called RAINBOW, that improves watermark invisibility by inserting delays hundreds of times smaller than previous blind watermarks, hence reduces the watermark interference on network flows. We derive and analyze the optimum detectors for RAINBOW as well as the passive traffic analysis under different traffic models by using hypothesis testing. Comparing the detection performance of RAINBOW and the passive approach we o...

  20. Experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joe; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-02-01

    Quantum computers are among the most promising applications of quantum-enhanced technologies. Quantum effects such as superposition and entanglement enable computational speed-ups that are unattainable using classical computers. The challenges in realising quantum computers suggest that in the near future, only a few facilities worldwide will be capable of operating such devices. In order to exploit these computers, users would seemingly have to give up their privacy. It was recently shown that this is not the case and that, via the universal blind quantum computation protocol, quantum mechanics provides a way to guarantee that the user's data remain private. Here, we demonstrate the first experimental version of this protocol using polarisation-entangled photonic qubits. We demonstrate various blind one- and two-qubit gate operations as well as blind versions of the Deutsch's and Grover's algorithms. When the technology to build quantum computers becomes available, this will become an important privacy-preserving feature of quantum information processing.

  1. Brief mindfulness induction reduces inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Creswell, J David; Denson, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Prior research has linked mindfulness to improvements in attention, and suggested that the effects of mindfulness are particularly pronounced when individuals are cognitively depleted or stressed. Yet, no studies have tested whether mindfulness improves declarative awareness of unexpected stimuli in goal-directed tasks. Participants (N=794) were either depleted (or not) and subsequently underwent a brief mindfulness induction (or not). They then completed an inattentional blindness task during which an unexpected distractor appeared on the computer monitor. This task was used to assess declarative conscious awareness of the unexpected distractor's presence and the extent to which its perceptual properties were encoded. Mindfulness increased awareness of the unexpected distractor (i.e., reduced rates of inattentional blindness). Contrary to predictions, no mindfulness×depletion interaction emerged. Depletion however, increased perceptual encoding of the distractor. These results suggest that mindfulness may foster awareness of unexpected stimuli (i.e., reduce inattentional blindness).

  2. No such thing as a "blind culture".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisleder, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    Cochlear implant technology has altered the landscape for the Deaf and for those who provide services to the profoundly hearing impaired. As indicated by Teagle in one of the companion articles, cochlear implants afford the profoundly hearing impaired child the ability to circumvent the effects of deafness. Cochlear implants, as indicated by Lee in the other companion article, are regarded differently by members of the Deaf Community where some see the technology as a threat to Deaf Culture. Members of a different community, which comprises the visually impaired, cite lack of a common language as the main argument against the existence of a "Blind Culture." As indicated by Pierce "We [the blind] often enjoy each other's company, and we certainly spend time together working on the problems that face what we often call the 'blind community,' but I would argue that this community is different from an actual culture."

  3. Blindness and cataract in children in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Gogate

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Blindness in children is considered a priority area for VISION 2020, as visually impaired children have a lifetime of blindness ahead of them. Various studies across the globe show that one-third to half of childhood blindness is either preventable or treatable1 and that cataract is the leading treatable cause of blindness in children.The 8th General Assembly of the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB provided an opportunity to be acquainted with recent research and programme development work in the prevention of childhood blindness.

  4. Size variation in Tachyoryctes splendens (East African mole-rat) and its implications for late Quaternary temperature change in equatorial East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, J. Tyler; Patterson, David B.; Blegen, Nick; O'Neill, Chris J.; Marean, Curtis W.; Peppe, Daniel J.; Tryon, Christian A.

    2016-05-01

    This study develops a new proxy for Quaternary temperature change in tropical Africa through analysis of size variation in East African mole-rat (Tachyoryctes splendens). In modern mole-rats, mandibular alveolar length is unrelated to annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality, temperature seasonality, or primary productivity. However, it is inversely correlated with mean annual temperature, in agreement with Bergmann's rule. This relationship is observed at temperatures below ˜17.3 °C, but not at higher temperatures. We apply these observations to late Quaternary mole-rats from Wakondo (˜100 ka) and Kisaaka (˜50 ka) in the Lake Victoria region and Enkapune ya Muto (EYM; ˜7.2-3.2 ka) in Kenya's central rift. The Lake Victoria mole-rats are larger than expected for populations from warm climates typical of the area today, implying cooler temperatures in the past. The magnitude of temperature decline needed to drive the size shift is substantial (˜4-6 °C), similar in magnitude to the degree of change between the Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene, but is consistent with regional temperature records and with scenarios linking equatorial African temperature to northern hemisphere summer insolation. Size changes through time at EYM indicate that rising temperatures during the middle Holocene accompanied and potentially contributed to a decline in Lake Naivasha and expansion of grassland vegetation.

  5. Natural Gradient Approach to Multichannel Blind Deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we study the geometrical structures of FIR filters and their application to multichannel blind deconvolution.First we introduce a Lie group structure and a Riemannian structure on the manifolds of the FIR filters.Then we derive the natural gradients on the manifolds using the isometry of the Riemannian metric.Using the natural gradient,we present a novel learning algorithm for blind deconvolution based on the minimization of mutual information.Some properties of the learning algorithm,such as equivariance and stability are also studied.Finally,the simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness and validity of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Transform domain steganography with blind source separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouny, Ismail

    2015-05-01

    This paper applies blind source separation or independent component analysis for images that may contain mixtures of text, audio, or other images for steganography purposes. The paper focuses on separating mixtures in the transform domain such as Fourier domain or the Wavelet domain. The study addresses the effectiveness of steganography when using linear mixtures of multimedia components and the ability of standard blind sources separation techniques to discern hidden multimedia messages. Mixing in the space, frequency, and wavelet (scale) domains is compared. Effectiveness is measured using mean square error rate between original and recovered images.

  7. Blind source separation theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xianchuan; Xu, Jindong

    2013-01-01

    A systematic exploration of both classic and contemporary algorithms in blind source separation with practical case studies    The book presents an overview of Blind Source Separation, a relatively new signal processing method.  Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the subject, the book has been written so as to appeal to an audience from very different backgrounds. Basic mathematical skills (e.g. on matrix algebra and foundations of probability theory) are essential in order to understand the algorithms, although the book is written in an introductory, accessible style. This book offers

  8. Contrast-induced transient cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parth R; Yohendran, Jayshan; Parker, Geoffrey D; McCluskey, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    We present a case of transient cortical blindness secondary to contrast medium toxicity. A 58-year-old man had successful endovascular coiling of a right posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm but became confused and unable to see after the procedure. His visual acuity was no light perception bilaterally. Clinically, there was no new intra-ocular pathology. An urgent non-contrast computed tomography scan of the brain showed cortical hyperdensity in both parieto-occipital cortices, consistent with contrast medium leakage through the blood-brain barrier from the coiling procedure. The man remained completely blind for 72 hours, after which his visual acuity improved gradually back to his baseline level.

  9. INK4 locus of the tumor-resistant rodent, the naked mole rat, expresses a functional p15/p16 hybrid isoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Ke, Zhonghe; Augereau, Adeline; Zhang, Zhengdong D; Vijg, Jan; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2015-01-27

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a long-lived and tumor-resistant rodent. Tumor resistance in the naked mole rat is mediated by the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan of very high molecular weight (HMW-HA). HMW-HA triggers hypersensitivity of naked mole rat cells to contact inhibition, which is associated with induction of the INK4 (inhibitors of cyclin dependent kinase 4) locus leading to cell-cycle arrest. The INK4a/b locus is among the most frequently mutated in human cancer. This locus encodes three distinct tumor suppressors: p15(INK4b), p16(INK4a), and ARF (alternate reading frame). Although p15(INK4b) has its own ORF, p16(INK4a) and ARF share common second and third exons with alternative reading frames. Here, we show that, in the naked mole rat, the INK4a/b locus encodes an additional product that consists of p15(INK4b) exon 1 joined to p16(INK4a) exons 2 and 3. We have named this isoform pALT(INK4a/b) (for alternative splicing). We show that pALT(INK4a/b) is present in both cultured cells and naked mole rat tissues but is absent in human and mouse cells. Additionally, we demonstrate that pALT(INK4a/b) expression is induced during early contact inhibition and upon a variety of stresses such as UV, gamma irradiation-induced senescence, loss of substrate attachment, and expression of oncogenes. When overexpressed in naked mole rat or human cells, pALT(INK4a/b) has stronger ability to induce cell-cycle arrest than either p15(INK4b) or p16(INK4a). We hypothesize that the presence of the fourth product, pALT(INK4a/b) of the INK4a/b locus in the naked mole rat, contributes to the increased resistance to tumorigenesis of this species.

  10. Mola hidatiforme completa e eclâmpsia: relato de caso Complete hydatidiform mole and eclampsia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izildinha Maestá

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de pré-eclâmpsia ou eclâmpsia antes da 20ª semana deve levar à suspeita de mola hidatiforme. Descrevemos um caso de mola hidatiforme completa (MHC e eclâmpsia concomitante em paciente com 20 anos que apresentava sangramento genital, anemia, tamanho uterino excessivo e cistos de ovário, associados a hipertensão arterial e proteinúria. Os níveis de b-hCG estavam elevados e a função tiroidiana, alterada. A ultra-sonografia mostrou-se compatível com MHC. Após o esvaziamento uterino apresentou cefaléia e alterações visuais, seguidas por convulsões tônico-clônicas que cessaram com sulfato de magnésio hepta-hidratado a 50%. No seguimento pós-molar foi diagnosticado tumor trofoblástico gestacional (TTG prontamente tratado com quimioterapia. A associação de MHC e eclâmpsia determina esvaziamento uterino imediato e seguimento pós-molar rigoroso, pelo risco aumentado de desenvolvimento de TTG.Development of preeclampsia/eclampsia prior to 20 weeks of pregnancy should raise the suspicion of hydatidiform mole. We report a case of complete hydatidiform mole (CHM concurrent with eclampsia in a 20-year-old patient with vaginal bleeding, anemia, large uterine size, and ovary cysts associated with hypertension and proteinuria. Plasmatic b-hCG levels were high and there was abnormal thyroid function. The ultrasonographic findings were compatible with CHM. After uterine evacuation, the patient had headache and visual alterations, followed by tonic-clonic seizures, which ceased with the administration of 50% magnesium sulfate. At post-molar follow-up, a gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTT was diagnosed and promptly treated with chemotherapy. Association between CHM and eclampsia requires immediate uterine evacuation and strict post-molar follow-up, due to increased risk of GTT development.

  11. Blind parents and nutrition of children: experiences and care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kariane Gomes Cezario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand the experiences of blind parents in care related to breastfeeding and complementary feeding of children. Methods: qualitative research with the participation of four blind mothers and five blind fathers. Home interviews were carried out to address the experience of feeding children in the context of blindness, categorized by the technique of thematic analysis. Results: three categories emerged: Breastfeeding and complementary feeding offered by blind mothers; Blind fathers and the feeding of children; and Care of the children and blindness: coping strategies, in which difficulties and alternatives developed to feed the children were highlighted. Conclusion: blind parents have difficulties similar to those seer parents but with specific demands associated with the handling of utensils in safe and satisfactory supply of food.

  12. Navigation with a sensory substitution device in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Schneider, Fabien C; Kupers, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Vision allows for obstacle detection and avoidance. The compensatory mechanisms involved in maintaining these functions in blind people using their remaining intact senses are poorly understood. We investigated the ability of congenitally blind participants to detect and avoid obstacles using...

  13. Warming Endotracheal Tube in Blind Nasotracheal Intubation throughout Maxillofacial Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Hosseinzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, our study showed that using an endotracheal tube softened by warm water could reduce the incidence and severity of epistaxis during blind nasotracheal intubation; however it could not facilitate blind nasotracheal intubation.

  14. If I am Blind or Deaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新颖

    2005-01-01

    For some time,l wished to be blind or deaf so that I could avoid the sight or the sound from having driven me mad.The majority of people must object the idea that the dark life maybe more beautiful than the life full of limitations and unhappiness.

  15. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see colors properly. When your cones don't work properly, or you don't have the right combination, your brain doesn't get the right message about which colors you're seeing. To someone who's color blind, a green leaf might look tan or gray. ...

  16. The Mediterranean blind: less light, better vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coch, H.; Serra, R.; Isalgue, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Escola d`Arquitectura de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    1998-09-01

    The mediterranean blind is one of the most efficient and sophisticated technical system to allow natural illumination in building. A simple solution permits good visual conditions with low heat gains and high ventilation. This solution shows how in architecture, simple designs following thoroughly understood principles can achieve far more suitable environment results than high-tech solution applied without criteria. (Author)

  17. Blind quantum computing with weak coherent pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-18

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ϵ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ϵ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ϵ-blind UBQC for any ϵ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  18. Blind Quantum Computing with Weak Coherent Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-01

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ɛ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ɛ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ɛ-blind UBQC for any ɛ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  19. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  20. Young Blind Children: Towards Assessment for Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Iain F. W. K.; Simmons, Joyce Nesker

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses the unique assessment needs of young blind children and discourages dependence on standardized tests for this population. Principles of one assessment approach (involving observation; clinical examination of mobility, language, play, socioemotional development, and academic skills; and interviews with mother and social…

  1. Potentials of Rubella Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin F.

    Potentials of three classifications of rubella deaf blind children are discussed. Potentials for children at the middle trainable level and below are discussed for the areas of communication skills, daily living skills, mobility and orientation, vocational effort, and self-control and social interaction. For children in the upper trainable through…

  2. Vision after 53 Years of Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Šikl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that visual recovery after blindness that occurs early in life is never complete. The current study investigated whether an extremely long period of blindness might also cause a permanent impairment of visual performance, even in a case of adult-onset blindness. We examined KP, a 71-year-old man who underwent a successful sight-restoring operation after 53 years of blindness. A set of psychophysical tests designed to assess KP's face perception, object recognition, and visual space perception abilities were conducted six months and eight months after the surgery. The results demonstrate that regardless of a lengthy period of normal vision and rich pre-accident perceptual experience, KP did not fully integrate this experience, and his visual performance remained greatly compromised. This was particularly evident when the tasks targeted finer levels of perceptual processing. In addition to the decreased robustness of his memory representations, which was hypothesized as the main factor determining visual impairment, other factors that may have affected KP's performance were considered, including compromised visual functions, problems with perceptual organization, deficits in the simultaneous processing of visual information, and reduced cognitive abilities.

  3. Automatic Blind Syllable Segmentation for Continuous Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Villing, Rudi; Timoney, Joseph; Ward, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a simple practical method for blind segmentation of continuous speech into its constituent syllables is presented. This technique which uses amplitude onset velocity and coarse spectral makeup to identify syllable boundaries is tested on a corpus of continuous speech and compared with an established segmentation algorithm. The results show substantial performance benefit using the proposed algorithm.

  4. Functional rehabilitation of partial cortical blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoerig, Petra

    2008-01-01

    The current doctrine regards fields of partial cortical blindness as permanent once a temporally restricted window for spontaneous recovery has passed. Accordingly, neuropsychological rehabilitation mainly applies compensatory procedures that train patients to make better use of their sighted field. The more ambitious goal of functional recovery depends on the survival of pathways that continue to transmit retinal information from the blind field. Although wide-spread antero- and retrograde degeneration follows lesions that destroy or denervate the primary visual cortex and cause partial cortical blindness, several retinofugal pathways survive in cats, monkeys, and humans. In all three species, they subserve a variety of visual functions which develop and improve with practice. Post lesion plasticity is greater when the lesion occurs early in life, but changes in behavioural performance and brain responses have also been demonstrated in late lesion subjects. Although the extent of functional improvement is variable, and the most effective approaches still need to be established across cohorts, the evidence for perceptual learning in fields of cortical blindness indicates that the visual processes mediated by the surviving parts of the visual system can be harnessed to improve functional outcome.

  5. Methane and Dissolved Organic Carbon Sustain an Ecosystem within a Density Stratified Coastal Aquifer of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Evidence for a Subterranean Microbial Loop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankovits, David; Pohlman, John W.; Niemann, Helge; Leigh, Mary Beth; Casso, Michael; Alvarez Noguera, Fernando; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Iliffe, Thomas M.

    2016-04-01

    In coastal karst terrains, anchialine caves that meander in density stratified aquifers provide an exceptional opportunity for scientists to study in situ biogeochemical processes within the groundwater. The Caribbean coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula contains over 1000 km of mapped cave passages, the densest known accumulation of anchialine caves in the world. A decades-old study based on the simple observation of 13C-depleted biomass in the cave-adapted fauna suggested biogeochemical processes related to methane-linked carbon cycling and/or other chemoautotrophic pathways as a source of energy and carbon. In this study, we utilized cave diving and a novel sampling device (the Octopipi) to obtain cm-scale water column profiles of methane, DOC and DIC concentrations and stable carbon isotope ratios to identify the energy sources and microbial processes that sustain life in these subterranean estuaries. High concentrations (up to 9522 nM) low-δ13C (as low as -67.5 permil) methane near the ceiling of the cave (in the fresh water section of the stratified water column) and evidence for methane oxidation in the brackish water portion of the water column suggest methane availability and consumption. Profiles obtained by the Octopipi demonstrate that virtually all of the methane (˜99%) is oxidized at the interface of anoxic freshwater and hypoxic brackish water masses. The high-methane water mass near the ceiling also contained elevated concentrations of DOC (851 μM) that displayed comparatively high δ13C (-27.8 to -28.2 permil), suggesting terrestrial organic matter input from the overlying soils. Low-methane brackish and saline water was characterized by lower DOC concentration (15 to 97 μM), yet with similar δ13C (-25.9 to -27.2 permil), suggesting significant terrestrial organic matter consumption or removal with increasing depth, from fresh to saline water, within the water column. The presence of 13C-depleted fatty acids (e.g., C16:1ω7c with δ13C

  6. Twin pregnancy and partial hydatidiform mole following in vitro fertilization and embryos transfer: a novel case of placental mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng-juan; Zhao, You-ping; Yu, Song; Fan, Ling; Wu, Qing-qing; Li, Guang-hui; Zhang, Wei-yuan

    2012-12-01

    Twin pregnancy with mosaic partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) and survival of two healthy fetuses following in vitro fertilization and embryos transfer (IVF-ET) is a rare situation and is considered a challenge for management. A 32-year-old Chinese woman conceived twin pregnancy following IVF-ET. At 22 weeks' gestation, an additional intrauterine echogenic mass with features of PHM were shown by successive ultrasound examinations. At 35 weeks' gestation, two live male infants and two placentas were delivered by caesarean section (CS). Histologic examination of the abnormal placenta confirmed mosaic PHM. Genetic study showed the abnormal placental mosaicism (expressed in molar-69XXY and normal vili-46XY), co-existing with a hypospadia new-born (46XY) in one amniotic sac. However, the other one was normal. Serial serum β-hCG levels showed a declining trend and serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were undetectable at 6 months after delivery. The case demonstrated that it is possible to prolonged gestation by PHM under close surveillance during the entire pregnancy.

  7. Twin pregnancy and partial hydatidiform mole following in vitro fertilization and embryos transfer: a novel case of placental mosaicism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cheng-juan; ZHAO You-ping; YU Song; FAN Ling; WU Qing-qing; LI Guang-hui; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2012-01-01

    Twin pregnancy with mosaic partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) and survival of two healthy fetuses following in vitro fertilization and embryos transfer (IVF-ET) is a rare situation and is considered a challenge for management.A 32-year-old Chinese woman conceived twin pregnancy following IVF-ET.At 22 weeks' gestation,an additional intrauterine echogenic mass with features of PHM were shown by successive ultrasound examinations.At 35 weeks'gestation,two live male infants and two placentas were delivered by caesarean section (CS).Histologic examination of the abnormal placenta confirmed mosaic PHM.Genetic study showed the abnormal placental mosaicism (expressed in molar-69XXY and normal vili-46XY),co-existing with a hypospadia new-born (46XY) in one amniotic sac.However,the other one was normal.Serial serum β-hCG levels showed a declining trend and serum 3-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were undetectable at 6 months after delivery.The case demonstrated that it is possible to prolonged gestation by PHM under close surveillance during the entire pregnancy.

  8. Seasonality and interannual variability of CH4 fluxes from the eastern Amazon Basin inferred from atmospheric mole fraction profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Luana S.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Gloor, Manuel; Miller, John B.; Domingues, Lucas G.; Correia, Caio S. C.; Borges, Viviane F.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon Basin is an important region for global CH4 emissions. It hosts the largest area of humid tropical forests, and around 20% of this area is seasonally flooded. In a warming climate it is possible that CH4 emissions from the Amazon will increase both as a result of increased temperatures and precipitation. To examine if there are indications of first signs of such changes we present here a 13 year (2000-2013) record of regularly measured vertical CH4 mole fraction profiles above the eastern Brazilian Amazon, sensitive to fluxes from the region upwind of Santarém (SAN), between SAN and the Atlantic coast. Using a simple mass balance approach, we find substantial CH4 emissions with an annual average flux of 52.8 ± 6.8 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 over an area of approximately 1 × 106 km2. Fluxes are highest in two periods of the year: in the beginning of the wet season and during the dry season. Using a CO:CH4 emission factor estimated from the profile data, we estimated a contribution of biomass burning of around 15% to the total flux in the dry season, indicating that biogenic emissions dominate the CH4 flux. This 13 year record shows that CH4 emissions upwind of SAN varied over the years, with highest emissions in 2008 (around 25% higher than in 2007), mainly during the wet season, representing 19% of the observed global increase in this year.

  9. A distinct role of the queen in coordinated workload and soil distribution in eusocial naked mole-rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kutsukake

    Full Text Available We investigated how group members achieve collective decision-making, by considering individual intrinsic behavioural rules and behavioural mechanisms for maintaining social integration. Using a simulated burrow environment, we investigated the behavioural rules of coordinated workload for soil distribution in a eusocial mammal, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber. We tested two predictions regarding a distinct role of the queen, a socially dominant individual in the caste system: the presence of a queen would increase the workload of other caste individuals, and the cues by a queen would affect the soil distribution. In experiment 1, we placed four individuals of various castes from the same colony into an experimental burrow. Workers exhibited the highest frequency of workload compared to other castes. The presence of a queen activated the workload by other individuals. Individuals showed a consistent workload in a particular direction so as to bias the soil distribution. These results suggest that individuals have a consensus on soil distribution and that the queen plays a distinct role. In experiment 2, we placed the odour of a queen in one of four cells and observed its effect on other individuals' workload and soil distribution. Relative to other cells, individuals frequently dug in the queen cell so the amount of soil in the queen cell decreased. These results suggest that queen odour is an important cue in coordinated workload and soil distribution in this species.

  10. A microfluidic platform for transcription- and amplification-free detection of zepto-mole amounts of nucleic acid molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Reinhard; Haider, Michaela; Thünauer, Roland; Haselgrübler, Thomas; Schütz, Gerhard J; Sonnleitner, Alois; Hesse, Jan

    2016-04-15

    Here we report the development of a device for the transcription- and amplification-free detection of DNA and RNA molecules down to the zepto-mole range. A microfluidic chip with a built-in microarray was used for manipulation of nano-liter sample volumes. Specific staining and immobilization of the target molecules was achieved via a double hybridization approach thereby avoiding bias due to enzymatic processes like reverse transcription and PCR amplification. Therefore, target molecules were indirectly labeled by pre-hybridization to complementary Cy5-labeled probes. The remaining single-stranded portion of each target molecule could subsequently hybridize to complementary capture probes of a microarray. Thus a target-mediated immobilization of labeled DNA took place. By means of an ultra-sensitive fluorescence readout, all molecules hybridized to the microarray could be detected. The combination of minimized sample volume and single molecule detection yielded a detection limit of 39 fM (831 molecules in 35.4 nl assay volume) for target DNA and 16 fM (338 molecules) for target RNA after 1h on-chip hybridization.

  11. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Western Rwanda: blindness in a postconflict setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjiku Mathenge

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization estimates that there were 37 million blind people in 2002 and that the prevalence of blindness was 9% among adults in Africa aged 50 years or older. Recent surveys indicate that this figure may be overestimated, while a survey from southern Sudan suggested that postconflict areas are particularly vulnerable to blindness. The aim of this study was to conduct a Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness to estimate the magnitude and causes of visual impairment in people aged > or = 50 y in the postconflict area of the Western Province of Rwanda, which includes one-quarter of the population of Rwanda. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Clusters of 50 people aged > or = 50 y were selected through probability proportionate to size sampling. Households within clusters were selected through compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA was measured with a tumbling "E" chart, and those with VA below 6/18 in either eye were examined by an ophthalmologist. The teams examined 2,206 people (response rate 98.0%. The unadjusted prevalence of bilateral blindness was 1.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2%-2.4%, 1.3% (0.8%-1.7% for severe visual impairment, and 5.3% (4.2%-6.4% for visual impairment. Most bilateral blindness (65% was due to cataract. Overall, the vast majority of cases of blindness (80.0%, severe visual impairment (67.9%, and visual impairment (87.2% were avoidable (i.e.. due to cataract, refractive error, aphakia, trachoma, or corneal scar. The cataract surgical coverage was moderate; 47% of people with bilateral cataract blindness (VA < 3/60 had undergone surgery. Of the 29 eyes that had undergone cataract surgery, nine (31% had a best-corrected poor outcome (i.e., VA < 6/60. Extrapolating these estimates to Rwanda's Western Province, among the people aged 50 years or above 2,565 are expected to be blind, 1,824 to have severe visual impairment, and 8,055 to have visual impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of

  12. 34 CFR 395.11 - Training program for blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... education and additional training or retraining for improved work opportunities) for all blind licensees... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training program for blind individuals. 395.11 Section... BLIND ON FEDERAL AND OTHER PROPERTY The State Licensing Agency § 395.11 Training program for...

  13. 77 FR 42187 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010, Section 105, Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals, Order... Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals, CG Docket No. 10-210. Form Number: N/A. Type of Review: Revision of...

  14. 76 FR 31261 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... to establish the National Deaf-Blind Equipment Distribution Program (NDBEDP) pilot program in... environments shall be considered when determining whether the individual is deaf-blind under clauses...

  15. Ya "See" What We Mean: Teaching the Blind to Ski.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Doug; Winthers, Jim

    The illustrated manual contains instructions for teaching blind and partially sighted students to ski. It is noted that blind students should be coached, instructed, and encouraged in the same manner as sighted students although additional safety precautions should be employed. Psychological implications for the blind student learning to ski are…

  16. Transport process of arsenic in karst subterranean stream and analysis on the influence factors:A case in Lihu subterranean stream of Nandan county,Guangxi%岩溶地下河中砷迁移过程及其影响因素分析--以广西南丹县里湖地下河为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连凯; 杨慧

    2013-01-01

    以广西南丹县里湖地下河作为研究区,对砷在地下河中的存在形态,迁移过程及其影响因素进行了分析。结果发现,里湖地下河中砷浓度较高且与人类活动密切相关;由于地下河中相对较低的氧化还原环境,使毒性更强的 As(III)含量超过 As(V),占总无机砷的53%,增加了该地区发生砷中毒的风险;总 As、As (III)和 As(V)在地下河中衰减了51%、36%、59%。相关性分析结果表明,沉积物中的 Fe、Ca、Mn、有机质及水体中的 Ca2+与沉积物中的砷呈现显著正相关关系,有助于水体中砷的吸收;而水体中的 Cl-、SO 2-4、HCO -3与沉积物中的砷呈现负相关关系,不利于砷的吸附,其中 HCO -3的抑制作用最为明显。与非岩溶区水体相比,Ca 和 HCO -3成为影响砷迁移转化的主要因素,因此在岩溶地下河砷污染治理中应考虑岩溶区的水文地质特点,提高砷的污染治理效率。%The arsenic pollutants generated by the arsenic industries and mining enterprises in karst area flow into subterranean streams and contaminate groundwater easily because of the unique hydrogeological charac-teristics of karst area,which is a serious threat to the water ecologic security and local residents’health.In order to elucidate the geochemistry reaction mechanisms of arsenic in karst subterranean streams,the Lihu subterranean stream in Nandan county,Guangxi Province,Southwest China,is selected for the study.The main outcropped lithology in the Lihu subterranean stream catchment is Carboniferous-Triassic limestone and the karstification rate is 31.67 %.Arsenic species,sediment physical-chemical properties and hydro-chemical characteristics of the water are analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS),X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF)and plasma spectrometer (ICP)respectively.The results show that arsenic concentration in the Lihu subterranean stream is high and it is closely related to human

  17. Subterranean fragmentation of magma during conduit initiation and evolution in the shallow plumbing system of the small-volume Jagged Rocks volcanoes (Hopi Buttes Volcanic Field, Arizona, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Giuseppe; White, James D. L.; Muirhead, James D.; Ort, Michael H.

    2016-08-01

    Monogenetic volcanoes have limited magma supply and lack long-lived sustained magma plumbing systems. They erupt once, often from multiple vents and sometimes over several years, and are rarely or never re-activated. Eruptive behavior is very sensitive to physical processes (e.g., volatile exsolution, magma-water interaction) occurring in the later stages of magma ascent at shallow crustal depths (flowing through dikes fragmented and conduits were formed. We have identified three main types of fragmental deposits, (1) buds (which emerge from dikes), (2) pyroclastic massifs, and (3) diatremes; these represent three different styles and intensities of shallow-depth magma fragmentation. They may develop successively and at different sites during the evolution of a monogenetic volcano. The deposits consist of a mixture of pyroclasts with varying degrees of welding and country-rock debris in various proportions. Pyroclasts are commonly welded together, but also reveal in places features consistent with phreatomagmatism, such as blocky shapes, dense groundmasses, and composite clasts (loaded and cored). The extent of fragmentation and the formation of subterranean open space controlled the nature of the particles and the architecture and geometry of these conduit structures and their deposits.

  18. PHYSIOCHEMICAL LIGNOCELLULOSE MODIFICATION IN THE FORMOSAN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE COPTOTERMES FORMOSANUS SHIRAKI (ISOPTERA: RHINOTERMITIDAE AND POTENTIAL USES IN THE PRODUCTION OF BIOFUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Li,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Formosan subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and other wood-feeding insects have the ability to digest cellulose and structurally modify or degrade lignin. We examined the physical and chemical changes to lignocellulosic components of Chinese red pine (Pinus massoniana after passing through the termite (C. formosanus digestive system. The purpose of this research was to evaluate biochemical digestive processes in the C. formosanus gut as potential models for biofuels processing. Results suggest that demethylation, demethoxylation, and propyl side-chain modification are responsible for higher lignin removal and cellulose crystallinity reduction after structural alteration. SEM images also further indicated that unlike the fungus- growing termites Odontotermes formosanus, the lower termites C. formosanus disrupted the lignocellulose structure, and thus resulted in an increase of surface area to cellulase. Comparative enzymatic hydrolysis tests between raw wood and C. formosanus faeces revealed an enhanced level of enzymatic digestibility in digested material. Based on the results, C. formosanus can efficiently modify lignin at ambient temperatures and pressures in contrast to current methods used in biofuels production.

  19. Tunnel geometry of the subterranean termite Reticulitermes grassei (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in response to sand bulk density and the presence of food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T(A)NIA NOBRE; LINA NUNES; DAVID E. BIGNELL

    2007-01-01

    The cryptic habits of subterranean termites restricts detailed analysis of their foraging patterns in situ, but the process is evidently dominated by tunnel constructions connecting the nest with woody resources discovered within the territory of each colony.In this study, tunnel formation and orientation were studied experimentally in the termite taining fine sand as the substratum. The building of exploratory tunnels over a 10-day period and the geometry of the resulting network are described. Fractal analysis showed that tunnel geometry had a fractal dimension, regardless of the total length tunnelled whether foragers encountered the food source or not. The bulk density of the sand in the arenas affected the distances tunnelled, with higher density reducing construction, but did not affect tunnel geometry. Tunnels were not discernibly orientated with respect to the positioning of the food source, even in a situation where termites had failed to find the food source at a distance of less than 50 mm, suggesting that volatiles from wood are not attractants.

  20. Diversity and distribution of subterranean bacteria in groundwater at Oklo in Gabon, Africa, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K; Arlinger, J; Hallbeck, L; Pettersson, C

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes how ground water was sampled, DNA extracted, amplified and cloned and how information available in the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene was used for mapping diversity and distribution of subterranean bacteria in groundwater at the Bangombé site in the Oklo region. The results showed that this site was inhabited by a diversified population of bacteria. Each borehole was dominated by species that did not dominate in any of the other boreholes; a result that probably reflects documented differences in the geochemical environment. Two of the sequences obtained were identified at genus level to represent Acinetobacter and Zoogloea, but most of the 44 sequences found were only distantly related to species in the DNA database. The deepest borehole, BAX01 (105 m), had the highest number of bacteria and also total organic carbon (TOC). This borehole harboured only Proteobacteria beta group sequences while sequences related to Proteobacteria beta, gamma and delta groups and Gram-positive bacteria were found in the other four boreholes. Two of the boreholes, BAX02 (34 m) and BAX04 (10 m) had many 16S rRNA gene sequences in common and also had similar counts of bacteria, content of TOC, pH and equal conductivity, suggesting a hydraulic connection between them.

  1. A new semi-subterranean diving beetle of the Hydroporus normandi-complex from south-eastern France, with notes on other taxa of the complex (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Hydroporus galloprovincialis sp. n. is described from Jouques, north-east of Aix-en-Provence in south-eastern France (Provence). The new species belongs to the Hydroporus memnonius-group, within which it is the only ascertained normandi-complex species of the French fauna. The habitat (small springs) and morphological features of the species suggest a semi-subterranean life style. It can be separated from the other species of the complex notably by its more elongated and parallel-sided habitus, by its wider pronotum and flatter dorsal surface, and furthermore differs from H. normandi Régimbart, 1903 by a different shape of the gonocoxa. Illustrations are provided for other described normandi-complex species and subspecies for comparison. Analyses of partial cox1 sequences indicate that the three sampled H. normandi-complex species (H. galloprovincialis sp. n., H. normandi and H. lluci Fery, 1999) diverged recently; their relationships are unresolved. H. galloprovincialis sp. n. is for the moment the only species of the genus Hydroporus Clairville, 1806 endemic to continental France.

  2. Left-handedness in blind and sighted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Erkan; Dane, Senol

    2009-03-01

    Rates of left-handedness were compared in 1387 blind and 831 sighted children. The rate in male blind children was higher than in female blind children. The incidence of left-handedness was significantly higher in blind than in sighted children in both boys and girls. The percentages of left-handedness were 18.23% and 17.02% in male and female blind children, and 11.02% and 7.52% in male and female sighted children, respectively. It can be stated that sighting is important in the development of normal typical cerebral lateralisation or hand preference.

  3. A New ID-Based Proxy Blind Signature Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Wei-min; YANG Zong-kai; CHENG Wen-qing; TAN Yun-meng

    2005-01-01

    An identity-based proxy blind signature scheme from bilinear pairings is introduced, which combines the advantages of proxy signature and blind signature. Furthermore, our scheme can prevent the original signer from generating the proxy blind signature, thus the profits of the proxy signer are guaranteed. We introduce bilinear pairings to minimize computational overhead and to improve the related performance of our scheme. In addition, the proxy blind signature presented is non-repudiable and it fulfills perfectly the security requirements of a proxy blind signature.

  4. Body Mole Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6 AAD Examine body front and back in mirror, especially legs. Bend elbows, look carefully at forearms, ... back of neck and scalp with a hand mirror. Part hair and lift. Finally, check back and ...

  5. Long-term analysis of carbon dioxide and methane column-averaged mole fractions retrieved from SCIAMACHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schneising

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launch 2002 was the first and is now with TANSO onboard GOSAT (launch 2009 one of only two satellite instruments currently in space whose measurements are sensitive to CO2 and CH4 concentration changes in the lowest atmospheric layers where the variability due to sources and sinks is largest.

    We present long-term SCIAMACHY retrievals (2003–2009 of column-averaged dry air mole fractions of both gases (denoted XCO2 and XCH4 derived from absorption bands in the near-infrared/shortwave-infrared (NIR/SWIR spectral region focusing on large-scale features. The results are obtained using an upgraded version (v2 of the retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS including several improvements, while simultaneously maintaining its high processing speed. The retrieved mole fractions are compared to global model simulations (CarbonTracker XCO2 and TM5 XCH4 being optimised by assimilating highly accurate surface measurements from the NOAA/ESRL network and taking the SCIAMACHY averaging kernels into account. The comparisons address seasonal variations and long-term characteristics.

    The steady increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide primarily caused by the burning of fossil fuels can be clearly observed with SCIAMACHY globally. The retrieved global annual mean XCO2 increase agrees with CarbonTracker within the error bars (1.80±0.13 ppm yr−1 compared to 1.81±0.09 ppm yr−1. The amplitude of the XCO2 seasonal cycle as retrieved by SCIAMACHY, which is 4.3±0.2 ppm for the Northern Hemisphere and 1.4±0.2 ppm for the Southern Hemisphere, is on average about 1 ppm larger than for CarbonTracker.

    An investigation of the boreal forest carbon uptake during the

  6. Retrieval and phenomenology of autobiographical memories in blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekcan, Ali Í; Yılmaz, Engin; Kızılöz, Burcu Kaya; Karadöller, Dilay Z; Mutafoğlu, Merve; Erciyes, Aslı Aktan

    2015-01-01

    Although visual imagery is argued to be an essential component of autobiographical memory, there have been surprisingly few studies on autobiographical memory processes in blind individuals, who have had no or limited visual input. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how blindness affects retrieval and phenomenology of autobiographical memories. We asked 48 congenital/early blind and 48 sighted participants to recall autobiographical memories in response to six cue words, and to fill out the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire measuring a number of variables including imagery, belief and recollective experience associated with each memory. Blind participants retrieved fewer memories and reported higher auditory imagery at retrieval than sighted participants. Moreover, within the blind group, participants with total blindness reported higher auditory imagery than those with some light perception. Blind participants also assigned higher importance, belief and recollection ratings to their memories than sighted participants. Importantly, these group differences remained the same for recent as well as childhood memories.

  7. Effect of Na2O/SiO2 mole ratio on the crystal type of zeolite synthesized from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PREDRAG LAZIC

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal fly ash was modified to zeolitic materials by hydrothermal treatment at 90ºC. The zeolite synthesis was studied as a function of the mole ratio of Na2O/SiO2 in the reaction mixtures. The results showed that NaP1 zeolite is obtained when the Na2O/SiO2 mole ratio was 0.7. Hydroxysodalite is the dominant zeolite phase in modified fly ash treated with a higher Na2O concentration solution (Na2O/SiO2 = 1.3. The IR and XRD methods were used to determine the phases present in the starting sample and in the zeolitic materials.

  8. Latent Images, Blind Comments on Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Feray

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Photographs, or images as the final result of a process, merely mark out the moment when the eye is helplessly limited to what it sees. Thus, what escapes the eye in the physical sense, i.e. what the eye will never see, is what occurs before the product- image, within the act itself. The latent image, the desire-image, unfolds throughout the duration of the photographic act. When the picture is ‘taken’, then the desire subsides until the next desire for another image arises. Based on the photographic experiment by Jerry Chan, member of a group of blind people, this article aims at rethinking the photographic act as the real- life experience of an impression process, leading the blind apprentice photographer to experience sightedness within his very flesh.  

  9. Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Dunai Dunai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively.

  10. Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai Dunai, Larisa; Chillarón Pérez, Mónica; Peris-Fajarnés, Guillermo; Lengua Lengua, Ismael

    2017-01-20

    This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter) dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF) technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively.

  11. Kalman filtering approach to blind equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Mehmet

    1993-12-01

    Digital communication systems suffer from the channel distortion problem which introduces errors due to intersymbol interference. The solution to this problem is provided by equalizers which use a training sequence to adapt to the channel. However in many cases in which a training sequence is unfeasible, the channel must be adapted blindly. Most of the blind equalization algorithms known so far have problems of convergence to local minima. Our intention is to offer an alternative approach by using extended Kalman filtering and hidden Markov models. They seem to yield more efficient algorithms which take the statistics of the transmitted sequence into consideration. The theoretical development of these new algorithms is discussed in this thesis. Also these algorithms have been simulated under different conditions. The results of simulations and comparisons with existing systems are provided. The models for simulations are presented as MATLAB codes.

  12. Emergence of Blind Areas in Information Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zi-Ke; Han, Xiao-Pu; Liu, Chuang

    2013-01-01

    Recently, contagion-based (disease, information, etc.) spreading on social networks has been extensively studied. In this paper, other than traditional full interaction, we propose a partial interaction based spreading model, considering that the informed individuals would transmit information to only a certain fraction of their neighbors due to the transmission ability in real-world social networks. Simulation results on three representative networks (BA, ER, WS) indicate that the spreading efficiency is highly correlated with the network heterogeneity. In addition, a special phenomenon, namely \\emph{Information Blind Areas} where the network is separated by several information-unreachable clusters, will emerge from the spreading process. Furthermore, we also find that the size distribution of such information blind areas obeys power-law-like distribution, which has very similar exponent with that of site percolation. Detailed analyses show that the critical value is decreasing along with the network heterog...

  13. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  14. Sensing Structures Inspired by Blind Cave Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Michael E.; Chen, Nannan; Lu, David; Anderson, Kyle D.; Hu, Huan; Liu, Chang; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-03-01

    Blind cave fish, with degenerated non-functioning eyes, have evolved to ``see'' their hydrodynamic environment by using the flow receptors of the lateral line system. The hair-cell receptors are encapsulated in a hydrogel-like material, called a cupula, which increases the sensitivity of the hair-cell receptors by coupling their motion to the surrounding flowing media. We characterized the viscoelastic properties and of blind cave fish cupulae by using colloidal-probe spectroscopy in fluid. A photo-patternable hydrogel with similar properties was developed to mimic the fish receptor coupling structure. Flow-based measurements indicated that the hydrogels enhance drag through increased surface area, but also inherent material properties. These bio-inspired structures endowed micro-fabricated flow sensors with sensitivities rivaling that of fish.

  15. Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai Dunai, Larisa; Chillarón Pérez, Mónica; Peris-Fajarnés, Guillermo; Lengua Lengua, Ismael

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter) dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF) technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively. PMID:28117703

  16. Autobiographic narratives of congenital blind people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out in Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, intended at investigating, together with men and women who suffer from congenital visual impairment, how they felt about diversity, body image, self-esteem and vanity. The investigation of autobiographical accounts was the option for this study. Initially, 20 (twenty interviews were analyzed and 6 (six autobiographical accounts, selected from the peculiarities of each single interviewee – each one containing his/her single life lessons - followed suit. The conclusion reached is that the subjects had undergone an exhausting process of acceptance of their own impairment. If, on the one hand, the blindness comes with angst, uncertainties, and many difficulties, on the other hand, these circumstances lead the blind to face the ups and downs of life with courage, determination and will to live. Surprisingly, in the study the body was not approached at a source of concern or are which should be emphasized.

  17. Sociocultural theory and blind taste-tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Paul Gee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his entertaining 1986 book, The Real Coke, the Real Story, Thomas Oliver tells the story of the now infamous “New Coke”, a story retold in Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005 best-seller Blink. In the early 1980s, Pepsi began running commercials in which people took a sip from two glasses, not knowing which was Coke and which Pepsi. The majority preferred Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company replicated these blind taste-tests and found the same result. Losing market share, Coke—long the dominant brand—changed its old formula and came out with “New Coke”, a soda made to a new formula, one that in a new round of blind taste-tests came out above Pepsi. But New Coke was a disaster.Consumers hated it. Coke not only returned to its old formula, but Pepsi never did overtake Coke, which remains today the dominant brand world-wide.

  18. Experimental Demonstration of Blind Quantum Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Barz, Stefanie; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to provide the possibility of preserving the privacy of a computation. Here we show the first such experimental demonstration of blind quantum computation where the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. We demonstrate various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover algorithms. Remarkably, the client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for future unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  19. Blind integrity verification of medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Shu, Huazhong; Luo, Limin; Roux, Christian

    2012-11-01

    This work presents the first method of digital blind forensics within the medical imaging field with the objective to detect whether an image has been modified by some processing (e.g. filtering, lossy compression and so on). It compares two image features: the Histogram statistics of Reorganized Block-based Discrete cosine transform coefficients (HRBD), originally proposed for steganalysis purposes, and the Histogram statistics of Reorganized Block-based Tchebichef moments (HRBT). Both features serve as input of a set of SVM classifiers built in order to discriminate tampered images from original ones as well as to identify the nature of the global modification one image may have undergone. Performance evaluation, conducted in application to different medical image modalities, shows that these image features can help, independently or jointly, to blindly distinguish image processing or modifications with a detection rate greater than 70%. They also underline the complementarity of these features.

  20. Blind Stereoscopy of the Coronal Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Aschwanden, Markus J; Malanushenko, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We test the feasibility of 3D coronal-loop tracing in stereoscopic EUV image pairs, with the ultimate goal of enabling efficient 3D reconstruction of the coronal magnetic field that drives flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We developed an automated code designed to perform triangulation of coronal loops in pairs (or triplets) of EUV images recorded from different perspectives. The automated (or blind) stereoscopy code includes three major tasks: (i) automated pattern recognition of coronal loops in EUV images, (ii) automated pairing of corresponding loop patterns from two different aspect angles, and (iii) stereoscopic triangulation of 3D loop coordinates. We perform tests with simulated stereoscopic EUV images and quantify the accuracy of all three procedures. In addition we test the performance of the blind stereoscopy code as a function of the spacecraft-separation angle and as a function of the spatial resolution. We also test the sensitivity to magnetic non-potentiality. The automated code develo...

  1. Relearning to See in Cortical Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Michael D; Tadin, Duje; Huxlin, Krystel R

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of cortically induced blindness is increasing as our population ages. The major cause of cortically induced blindness is stroke affecting the primary visual cortex. While the impact of this form of vision loss is devastating to quality of life, the development of principled, effective rehabilitation strategies for this condition lags far behind those used to treat motor stroke victims. Here we summarize recent developments in the still emerging field of visual restitution therapy, and compare the relative effectiveness of different approaches. We also draw insights into the properties of recovered vision, its limitations and likely neural substrates. We hope that these insights will guide future research and bring us closer to the goal of providing much-needed rehabilitation solutions for this patient population.

  2. Permanent cortical blindness after bronchial artery embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Colette S; De Boo, Diederick W; Weersink, Els J M; van Delden, Otto M; Reekers, Jim A; van Lienden, Krijn P

    2013-12-01

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  3. The blind loop syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, B A; Karrer, F M; Hall, R J; Lilly, J R

    1990-08-01

    Anatomical abnormalities of the small bowel that cause intestinal stagnation result in bacterial overgrowth and a blind loop syndrome (BLS). Bacterial breakdown of bile salts and deamination of protein lead to malabsorption, steatorrhea, and fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies. Four children developed BLS as a complication of necrotizing enterocolitis, jejunal atresia, gastroschisis, and biliary atresia. BLS was suggested by abdominal pain, feculent vomiting, steatorrhea, and hypoalbuminemia. Dilated, stagnant bowel loops were demonstrated in each instance by upper gastrointestinal contrast study. Positive intestinal bacterial aspirates were confirmatory. Antibiotic treatment in two patients improved symptomatology but all children ultimately required surgery. Surgical procedures consisted of blind loop resection, intestinal plication, and catheterization of the bilioenteric conduit. All patients are now asymptomatic but one child suffers from parenteral nutrition-related cirrhosis and another requires chronic antibiotic therapy.

  4. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of C/O Mole Ratio on the Performance of Rotary Hearth Furnace Using a Combined Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wen, Zhi; Lou, Guofeng; Li, Zhi; Yong, Haiquan; Feng, Xiaohong

    2014-12-01

    In a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) the direct reduction of composite pellets and processes of heat and mass transfer as well as combustion in the chamber of RHF influence each other. These mutual interactions should be considered when an accurate model of RHF is established. This paper provides a combined model that incorporates two sub-models to investigate the effects of C/O mole ratio in the feed pellets on the reduction kinetics and heat and mass transfer as well as combustion processes in the chamber of a pilot-scale RHF. One of the sub-models is established to describe the direct reduction process of composite pellets on the hearth of RHF. Heat and mass transfer within the pellet, chemical reactions, and radiative heat transfer from furnace walls and combustion gas to the surface of the pellet are considered in the model. The other sub-model is used to simulate gas flow and combustion process in the chamber of RHF by using commercial CFD software, FLUENT. The two sub-models were linked through boundary conditions and heat, mass sources. Cases for pellets with different C/O mole ratio were calculated by the combined model. The calculation results showed that the degree of metallization, the total amounts of carbon monoxide escaping from the pellet, and heat absorbed by chemical reactions within the pellet as well as CO and CO2 concentrations in the furnace increase with the increase of C/O mole ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.0, when calculation conditions are the same except for C/O molar ratio. Carbon content in the pellet has little influence on temperature distribution in the furnace under the same calculation conditions except for C/O mole ratio in the feed pellets.

  5. Blind recognition of punctured convolutional codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Peizhong; LI Shen; ZOU Yan; LUO Xiangyang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for blind recognition of punctured convolutional codes which is an important problem in adaptive modulation and coding. For a given finite sequence of convolutional code, the parity check matrix of the convolutional code is first computed by solving a linear system with adequate error tolerance. Then a minimal basic encoding matrix of the original convolutional code and its puncturing pattern are determined according to the known parity check matrix of the punctured convolutional code.

  6. Ivermectin for onchocercal eye disease (river blindness)

    OpenAIRE

    Ejere, HO; Schwartz, E; Wormald, R; Evans, JR

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is believed that ivermectin (a microfilaricide) could prevent blindness due to onchocerciasis. However, when given to everyone in communities where onchocerciasis is common, the effects of ivermectin on lesions affecting the eye are uncertain and data on whether the drug prevents visual loss are unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ivermectin in preventing visual impairment and visual field loss in onchocercal eye disease. The secondary...

  7. Application of Array Measurement in Blind Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 孙连明; 刘文江

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with blind identification and deconvolution algorithm for an arbitrary, possibly white or colored, stationary or nonstationary signal, which is observed through array sensors. By using multiple sensors with their individual outputs sampled at a rate 1/T, one can obtain cyclostationary signals. They can be considered as a single-input multiple-output model with an identical but unknown input signal. With the array measurement, an algorithm for estimating the system transfer function model and its parameters is presented.

  8. BLIND NASAL INTUBATION IN CRANIOROFACIAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R.DavidThakaran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Restricted mouth opening presents one of the greatest challenges to the anesthetist for endotracheal intubation and ventilation. Awake blind nasal intubation has been one of the finest and favored techniques for intubation in previous decades for restricted mouth opening patients. A coordinated team approach, monitoring and adequate counseling of the patient is mandatory for the airway management to carry out a safe surgical procedure

  9. Transient cortical blindness after coronary artery angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlecki, Michał; Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Rajzer, Marek; Jurczyszyn, Artur; Bazan-Socha, Stanisława; Bryniarski, Leszek; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    Coronary angiography is the current gold standard for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease and therefore the prevalence of percutaneous coronary procedures such as angiography and angioplasty is high. The occurrence of cerebral complications after coronary angiography and coronary angioplasty is low and it mainly includes transient ischemic attack and stroke. The prevalence of transient cortical blindness after X-ray contrast media is low and it is usually seen after cerebral angiography. Until now only a few cases of transient cortical blindness have been described after coronary artery angiography. Regarding the spread of coronary angiography worldwide and in Poland this complication is uniquely rare. A 32-year-old man with multiple extrasystolic ventricular arrhythmia suggesting Brugada syndrome diagnosis according to morphology of the left bundle branch block and with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction was admitted to the First Department of Cardiology and Hypertension, Medical College of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. Coronary angiography was performed in order to exclude ischemic etiology of the observed abnormalities. No arteriosclerotic lesions were found in coronary arteries. Transient cortical blindness was observed directly after angiography which may have been caused by the neurotoxic effect of the used X-ray contrast medium. In ophthalmologic and neurologic examination as well as in the cerebral computed tomography scan no pathologies were found. Visual impairment disappeared totally within several hours.

  10. IMPROVED COVARIANCE DRIVEN BLIND SUBSPACE IDENTIFICATION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhiyi; FAN Jiangling; HUA Hongxing

    2006-01-01

    An improved covariance driven subspace identification method is presented to identify the weakly excited modes. In this method, the traditional Hankel matrix is replaced by a reformed one to enhance the identifiability of weak characteristics. The robustness of eigenparameter estimation to noise contamination is reinforced by the improved Hankel matrix. In combination with component energy index (CEI) which indicates the vibration intensity of signal components, an alternative stabilization diagram is adopted to effectively separate spurious and physical modes. Simulation of a vibration system of multiple-degree-of-freedom and experiment of a frame structure subject to wind excitation are presented to demonstrate the improvement of the proposed blind method. The performance of this blind method is assessed in terms of its capability in extracting the weak modes as well as the accuracy of estimated parameters. The results have shown that the proposed blind method gives a better estimation of the weak modes from response signals of small signal to noise ratio (SNR)and gives a reliable separation of spurious and physical estimates.

  11. Phase diagram of R-Fe-Co pseudoternary system with R≤33.3 %(mole fraction, R=Sm0.5Dy0.5)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博文; 刘炜丽; 封文江; 金光; 郝延明; 李养贤

    2002-01-01

    Phase equilibria of the R-Fe-Co pseudoternary system with R≤33.3%(mole fraction, R=Sm0.5Dy0.5) were determined in an isothermal section at 1073K and a vertical section of RFe2-RCo2 by using OM, X-ray diffractometer, EPMA DTA techniques. There are seven intermetallic phases: (Sm, Dy)(Fe, Co)2, (Sm, Dy)(Fe, Co)3, (Sm, Dy)6(Fe, Co)23, (Sm, Dy)2(Fe, Co)7, (Sm, Dy)(Fe, Co)5, Th2Ni17-type and Th2Zn17-type (Sm, Dy)2(Fe, Co)17. The (Sm, Dy)6(Fe, Co)23 phase dissolves 36% Co(mole fraction) at 1073K. However, the (Sm, Dy)2(Fe, Co)7 phase in R2(Fe1-xCox)7 alloys dissolves about 19% Fe(mole fraction) at 1073K.

  12. Effect of SiO2/Na2O mole ratio on the properties of foam geopolymers fabricated from circulating fluidized bed fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze; Shao, Ning-ning; Huang, Tian-yong; Qin, Jun-feng; Wang, Dong-min; Yang, Yu

    2014-06-01

    Geopolymers are three-dimensional aluminosilicates formed in a short time at low temperature by geopolymerization. In this paper, alkali-activated foam geopolymers were fabricated from circulating fluidized bed fly ash (CFA), and the effect of SiO2/Na2O mole ratio (0.91-1.68) on their properties was studied. Geopolymerization products were characterized by mechanical testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that SiO2/Na2O mole ratio plays an important role in the mechanical and morphological characteristics of geopolymers. Foam samples prepared in 28 d with a SiO2/Na2O mole ratio of 1.42 exhibit the greatest compressive strength of 2.52 MPa. Morphological analysis reveals that these foam geopolymers appear the relatively optimized pore structure and distribution, which are beneficial to the structure stability. Moreover, a combination of the Si/Al atomic ratio ranging between 1.47 and 1.94 with the Na/Al atomic ratio of about 1 produces the samples with high strength.

  13. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM in the long-lived naked mole-rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Dziegelewska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS, an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration.

  14. Effect of SiO2/Na2O mole ratio on the properties of foam geopolymers fabricated from circulating fluidized bed fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze Liu; Ning-ning Shao; Tian-yong Huang; Jun-feng Qin; Dong-min Wang; Yu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Geopolymers are three-dimensional aluminosilicates formed in a short time at low temperature by geopolymerization. In this pa-per, alkali-activated foam geopolymers were fabricated from circulating fluidized bed fly ash (CFA), and the effect of SiO2/Na2O mole ratio (0.91-1.68) on their properties was studied. Geopolymerization products were characterized by mechanical testing, scanning electron mi-croscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that SiO2/Na2O mole ratio plays an important role in the mechanical and morphological characteristics of geopolymers. Foam samples prepared in 28 d with a SiO2/Na2O mole ratio of 1.42 exhibit the greatest compressive strength of 2.52 MPa. Morphological analysis reveals that these foam geo-polymers appear the relatively optimized pore structure and distribution, which are beneficial to the structure stability. Moreover, a combina-tion of the Si/Al atomic ratio ranging between 1.47 and 1.94 with the Na/Al atomic ratio of about 1 produces the samples with high strength.

  15. An energy stable evolution method for simulating two-phase equilibria of multi-component fluids at constant moles, volume and temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2016-02-25

    In this paper, we propose an energy-stable evolution method for the calculation of the phase equilibria under given volume, temperature, and moles (VT-flash). An evolution model for describing the dynamics of two-phase fluid system is based on Fick’s law of diffusion for multi-component fluids and the Peng-Robinson equation of state. The mobility is obtained from diffusion coefficients by relating the gradient of chemical potential to the gradient of molar density. The evolution equation for moles of each component is derived using the discretization of diffusion equations, while the volume evolution equation is constructed based on the mechanical mechanism and the Peng-Robinson equation of state. It is proven that the proposed evolution system can well model the VT-flash problem, and moreover, it possesses the property of total energy decay. By using the Euler time scheme to discretize this evolution system, we develop an energy stable algorithm with an adaptive choice strategy of time steps, which allows us to calculate the suitable time step size to guarantee the physical properties of moles and volumes, including positivity, maximum limits, and correct definition of the Helmhotz free energy function. The proposed evolution method is also proven to be energy-stable under the proposed time step choice. Numerical examples are tested to demonstrate efficiency and robustness of the proposed method.

  16. Application prospects of naked mole rats in biomedical research%裸鼹鼠在生物医学研究中的应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔淑芳

    2016-01-01

    裸鼹鼠是一种奇特的动物,具有寿命长、抗肿瘤、耐缺氧、新陈代谢率低、痛觉缺失、触觉灵敏、视觉功能低下、骨骼再生能力强等诸多特点。本文在概述裸鼹鼠上述生物学特点的基础上,结合当前肿瘤、衰老、低氧适应以及疼痛等领域研究趋势,对裸鼹鼠在生物医学研究中的应用前景进行分析与展望。%Naked mole rats are unique animals with long lifetime, anti-tumor properties, hypoxia tolerance, low metabolic rate, analgesia, tactile sensitiveness, poor eyesight and strong bone regeneration ability. Based on the basic bio-logical characteristics of naked mole rats, and the current research trends in the field of cancer, aging, hypoxia tolerance, as well as algesia, this review focuses on the application prospects of naked mole rats in biomedical research.

  17. The spatiotopic 'visual' cortex of the blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likova, Lora

    2012-03-01

    Visual cortex activity in the blind has been shown in sensory tasks. Can it be activated in memory tasks? If so, are inherent features of its organization meaningfully employed? Our recent results in short-term blindfolded subjects imply that human primary visual cortex (V1) may operate as a modality-independent 'sketchpad' for working memory (Likova, 2010a). Interestingly, the spread of the V1 activation approximately corresponded to the spatial extent of the images in terms of their angle of projection to the subject. We now raise the questions of whether under long-term visual deprivation V1 is also employed in non-visual memory task, in particular in congenitally blind individuals, who have never had visual stimulation to guide the development of the visual area organization, and whether such spatial organization is still valid for the same paradigm that was used in blindfolded individuals. The outcome has implications for an emerging reconceptualization of the principles of brain architecture and its reorganization under sensory deprivation. Methods: We used a novel fMRI drawing paradigm in congenitally and late-onset blind, compared with sighted and blindfolded subjects in three conditions of 20s duration, separated by 20s rest-intervals, (i) Tactile Exploration: raised-line images explored and memorized; (ii) Tactile Memory Drawing: drawing the explored image from memory; (iii) Scribble: mindless drawing movements with no memory component. Results and Conclusions: V1 was strongly activated for Tactile Memory Drawing and Tactile Exploration in these totally blind subjects. Remarkably, after training, even in the memory task, the mapping of V1 activation largely corresponded to the angular projection of the tactile stimuli relative to the ego-center (i.e., the effective visual angle at the head); beyond this projective boundary, peripheral V1 signals were dramatically reduced or even suppressed. The matching extent of the activation in the congenitally blind

  18. Blindness and the age of enlightenment: Diderot's letter on the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, Curtis E; Harman, Lynn E; Smith, Don B

    2013-01-01

    Several months after anonymously publishing an essay in 1749 with the title "Letter on the Blind for the Use of Those Who Can See," the chief editor of the French Encyclopédie was arrested and taken to the prison fortress of Vincennes just east of Paris, France. The correctly assumed author, Denis Diderot, was 35 years old and had not yet left his imprint on the Age of Enlightenment. His letter, which recounted the life of Nicolas Saunderson, a blind mathematician, was intended to advance secular empiricism and disparage the religiously tinged rationalism put forward by Rene Descartes. The letter's discussion of sensory perception in men born blind dismissed the supposed primacy of visual imagery in abstract thinking. The essay did little to resolve any philosophical controversy, but it marked a turning point in Western attitudes toward visual disability.

  19. The sensory construction of dreams and nightmare frequency in congenitally blind and late blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaidi, Amani; Jennum, Poul; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    . Every morning participants filled in a questionnaire related to the sensory construction of the dream, its emotional and thematic content, and the possible occurrence of nightmares. We also assessed participants' ability of visual imagery during waking cognition, sleep quality, and depression...... and anxiety levels. RESULTS: All blind participants had fewer visual dream impressions compared to SC participants. In LB participants, duration of blindness was negatively correlated with duration, clarity, and color content of visual dream impressions. CB participants reported more auditory, tactile......, gustatory, and olfactory dream components compared to SC participants. In contrast, LB participants only reported more tactile dream impressions. Blind and SC participants did not differ with respect to emotional and thematic dream content. However, CB participants reported more aggressive interactions...

  20. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Methane Mole Fractions and Exchanges in and Between Soil, Snow, and the Atmosphere in a Tundra System in Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnan, Y.; Obrist, D.; Edwards, G. C.; Moore, C.; Hedge, C.; Helmig, D.; Paxton, D.; Jacques, H.

    2015-12-01

    An important global source of atmospheric methane (CH4) is production in tundra soils (an important global source). To place constraints on the potential role that tundra soils play in global CH4 cycling, we have been continuously measuring mole the air space in soils, snow, and the atmosphere as gradient-based surface-atmosphere fluxes for arctic tundra at Toolik Field Station (68° 38' N) starting in October 2014. We have found that atmospheric CH4 mole fractions were, on average, relatively constant during the first 9 months of sampling (averaging 1.93 µmol mol-1), with pronounced diel patterns starting in May and nighttime exceeding daytime mole fractions. However, gradients measured within the soil profile showed high variability in air withdrawn from different locations of these tundra soils (Typic Aquiturbels), with one soil profile indicating a CH4 sink during fall until January; mole fractions were similar to the atmospheric measurements during winter indicating no source or sink (average 1.89 µmol mol-1). A second soil profile 5 m away showed production of CH4 (average 2.48 µmol mol-1, two-times higher than atmospheric levels), even during mid-winter when soil temperatures were below -10 °C. Measurements of CH4 in interstitial snowpack air also exhibited a similar combination of sources and sinks. We used micrometeorological gradient surface flux measurements to confirm that the area was a net source of CH4 in fall, winter, and spring, with emissions averaging 26.6, 25.2, and 16.8 mg m-2 d-1, respectively. In the summer months, we saw strong diel flux patterns with deposition during day and emission at night, corresponding with observed diel variability in CH4 snowpack mole fractions. Our results indicated a high variability of tundra landscape CH4 fluxes, which locally shift from sources to sinks with high temporal variability. CH4 oxidation by methanotrophic bacteria probably occurs in tundra soils, confirming observations in one soil, snowpack, and