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Sample records for blind source separation

  1. Convolutive Blind Source Separation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Larsen, Jan; Kjems, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, much attention has been given to the separation of mixed sources, in particular for the blind case where both the sources and the mixing process are unknown and only recordings of the mixtures are available. In several situations it is desirable to recover all sources from...... the recorded mixtures, or at least to segregate a particular source. Furthermore, it may be useful to identify the mixing process itself to reveal information about the physical mixing system. In some simple mixing models each recording consists of a sum of differently weighted source signals. However, in many...... real-world applications, such as in acoustics, the mixing process is more complex. In such systems, the mixtures are weighted and delayed, and each source contributes to the sum with multiple delays corresponding to the multiple paths by which an acoustic signal propagates to a microphone...

  2. Blind source separation dependent component analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yang, Zuyuan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers a complete and self-contained set of knowledge about dependent source separation, including the latest development in this field. The book gives an overview on blind source separation where three promising blind separation techniques that can tackle mutually correlated sources are presented. The book further focuses on the non-negativity based methods, the time-frequency analysis based methods, and the pre-coding based methods, respectively.

  3. Blind source separation theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xianchuan; Xu, Jindong

    2013-01-01

    A systematic exploration of both classic and contemporary algorithms in blind source separation with practical case studies    The book presents an overview of Blind Source Separation, a relatively new signal processing method.  Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the subject, the book has been written so as to appeal to an audience from very different backgrounds. Basic mathematical skills (e.g. on matrix algebra and foundations of probability theory) are essential in order to understand the algorithms, although the book is written in an introductory, accessible style. This book offers

  4. Joint Matrices Decompositions and Blind Source Separation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chabriel, G.; Kleinsteuber, M.; Moreau, E.; Shen, H.; Tichavský, Petr; Yeredor, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2014), s. 34-43 ISSN 1053-5888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/09/1278 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : joint matrices decomposition * tensor decomposition * blind source separation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 5.852, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/SI/tichavsky-0427607.pdf

  5. Blind Source Separation For Ion Mobility Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, S.; Pomareda, V.; Pardo, A.; Kessler, M.; Goebel, J.; Mueller, G.

    2009-01-01

    Miniaturization is a powerful trend for smart chemical instrumentation in a diversity of applications. It is know that miniaturization in IMS leads to a degradation of the system characteristics. For the present work, we are interested in signal processing solutions to mitigate limitations introduced by limited drift tube length that basically involve a loss of chemical selectivity. While blind source separation techniques (BSS) are popular in other domains, their application for smart chemical instrumentation is limited. However, in some conditions, basically linearity, BSS may fully recover the concentration time evolution and the pure spectra with few underlying hypothesis. This is extremely helpful in conditions where non-expected chemical interferents may appear, or unwanted perturbations may pollute the spectra. SIMPLISMA has been advocated by Harrington et al. in several papers. However, more modern methods of BSS for bilinear decomposition with the restriction of positiveness have appeared in the last decade. In order to explore and compare the performances of those methods a series of experiments were performed.

  6. Concepts and Criteria for Blind Quantum Source Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Deville, Alain; Deville, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Blind Source Separation (BSS) is an active domain of Classical Information Processing. The development of Quantum Information Processing has made possible the appearance of Blind Quantum Source Separation (BQSS). This article discusses some consequences of the existence of the entanglement phenomenon, and of the probabilistic aspect of quantum measurements, upon BQSS solutions. It focuses on a pair of spins initially separately prepared in a pure state, and then with an undesired coupling bet...

  7. Underdetermined Blind Source Separation in Echoic Environments Using DESPRIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melia Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The DUET blind source separation algorithm can demix an arbitrary number of speech signals using anechoic mixtures of the signals. DUET however is limited in that it relies upon source signals which are mixed in an anechoic environment and which are sufficiently sparse such that it is assumed that only one source is active at a given time frequency point. The DUET-ESPRIT (DESPRIT blind source separation algorithm extends DUET to situations where sparsely echoic mixtures of an arbitrary number of sources overlap in time frequency. This paper outlines the development of the DESPRIT method and demonstrates its properties through various experiments conducted on synthetic and real world mixtures.

  8. Blind separation of more sources than sensors in convolutive mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Rasmus Kongsgaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate that blind separation of more sources than sensors can be performed based solely on the second order statistics of the observed mixtures. This a generalization of well-known robust algorithms that are suited for equal number of sources and sensors. It is assumed that the sources...

  9. Gradient Flow Convolutive Blind Source Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Nielsen, Chinton Møller

    2004-01-01

    Experiments have shown that the performance of instantaneous gradient flow beamforming by Cauwenberghs et al. is reduced significantly in reverberant conditions. By expanding the gradient flow principle to convolutive mixtures, separation in a reverberant environment is possible. By use...... of a circular four microphone array with a radius of 5 mm, and applying convolutive gradient flow instead of just applying instantaneous gradient flow, experimental results show an improvement of up to around 14 dB can be achieved for simulated impulse responses and up to around 10 dB for a hearing aid...

  10. Single channel blind source separation based on ICA feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new technique is proposed to solve the blind source separation (BSS) given only a single channel observation. The basis functions and the density of the coefficients of source signals learned by ICA are used as the prior knowledge. Based on the learned prior information the learning rules of single channel BSS are presented by maximizing the joint log likelihood of the mixed sources to obtain source signals from single observation,in which the posterior density of the given measurements is maximized. The experimental results exhibit a successful separation performance for mixtures of speech and music signals.

  11. Blind source separation advances in theory, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    Blind Source Separation intends to report the new results of the efforts on the study of Blind Source Separation (BSS). The book collects novel research ideas and some training in BSS, independent component analysis (ICA), artificial intelligence and signal processing applications. Furthermore, the research results previously scattered in many journals and conferences worldwide are methodically edited and presented in a unified form. The book is likely to be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in computer science and electronics who wish to learn the core principles, methods, algorithms, and applications of BSS. Dr. Ganesh R. Naik works at University of Technology, Sydney, Australia; Dr. Wenwu Wang works at University of Surrey, UK.

  12. Underdetermined Blind Audio Source Separation Using Modal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeldjalil Aïssa-El-Bey

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new algorithms for the blind separation of audio sources using modal decomposition. Indeed, audio signals and, in particular, musical signals can be well approximated by a sum of damped sinusoidal (modal components. Based on this representation, we propose a two-step approach consisting of a signal analysis (extraction of the modal components followed by a signal synthesis (grouping of the components belonging to the same source using vector clustering. For the signal analysis, two existing algorithms are considered and compared: namely the EMD (empirical mode decomposition algorithm and a parametric estimation algorithm using ESPRIT technique. A major advantage of the proposed method resides in its validity for both instantaneous and convolutive mixtures and its ability to separate more sources than sensors. Simulation results are given to compare and assess the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  13. Underdetermined Blind Audio Source Separation Using Modal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïssa-El-Bey Abdeldjalil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new algorithms for the blind separation of audio sources using modal decomposition. Indeed, audio signals and, in particular, musical signals can be well approximated by a sum of damped sinusoidal (modal components. Based on this representation, we propose a two-step approach consisting of a signal analysis (extraction of the modal components followed by a signal synthesis (grouping of the components belonging to the same source using vector clustering. For the signal analysis, two existing algorithms are considered and compared: namely the EMD (empirical mode decomposition algorithm and a parametric estimation algorithm using ESPRIT technique. A major advantage of the proposed method resides in its validity for both instantaneous and convolutive mixtures and its ability to separate more sources than sensors. Simulation results are given to compare and assess the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  14. Blind source separation problem in GPS time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualandi, A.; Serpelloni, E.; Belardinelli, M. E.

    2016-04-01

    A critical point in the analysis of ground displacement time series, as those recorded by space geodetic techniques, is the development of data-driven methods that allow the different sources of deformation to be discerned and characterized in the space and time domains. Multivariate statistic includes several approaches that can be considered as a part of data-driven methods. A widely used technique is the principal component analysis (PCA), which allows us to reduce the dimensionality of the data space while maintaining most of the variance of the dataset explained. However, PCA does not perform well in finding the solution to the so-called blind source separation (BSS) problem, i.e., in recovering and separating the original sources that generate the observed data. This is mainly due to the fact that PCA minimizes the misfit calculated using an L2 norm (χ 2), looking for a new Euclidean space where the projected data are uncorrelated. The independent component analysis (ICA) is a popular technique adopted to approach the BSS problem. However, the independence condition is not easy to impose, and it is often necessary to introduce some approximations. To work around this problem, we test the use of a modified variational Bayesian ICA (vbICA) method to recover the multiple sources of ground deformation even in the presence of missing data. The vbICA method models the probability density function (pdf) of each source signal using a mix of Gaussian distributions, allowing for more flexibility in the description of the pdf of the sources with respect to standard ICA, and giving a more reliable estimate of them. Here we present its application to synthetic global positioning system (GPS) position time series, generated by simulating deformation near an active fault, including inter-seismic, co-seismic, and post-seismic signals, plus seasonal signals and noise, and an additional time-dependent volcanic source. We evaluate the ability of the PCA and ICA decomposition

  15. Noise source separation of diesel engine by combining binaural sound localization method and blind source separation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiachi; Xiang, Yang; Qian, Sichong; Li, Shengyang; Wu, Shaowei

    2017-11-01

    In order to separate and identify the combustion noise and the piston slap noise of a diesel engine, a noise source separation and identification method that combines a binaural sound localization method and blind source separation method is proposed. During a diesel engine noise and vibration test, because a diesel engine has many complex noise sources, a lead covering method was carried out on a diesel engine to isolate other interference noise from the No. 1-5 cylinders. Only the No. 6 cylinder parts were left bare. Two microphones that simulated the human ears were utilized to measure the radiated noise signals 1 m away from the diesel engine. First, a binaural sound localization method was adopted to separate the noise sources that are in different places. Then, for noise sources that are in the same place, a blind source separation method is utilized to further separate and identify the noise sources. Finally, a coherence function method, continuous wavelet time-frequency analysis method, and prior knowledge of the diesel engine are combined to further identify the separation results. The results show that the proposed method can effectively separate and identify the combustion noise and the piston slap noise of a diesel engine. The frequency of the combustion noise and the piston slap noise are respectively concentrated at 4350 Hz and 1988 Hz. Compared with the blind source separation method, the proposed method has superior separation and identification effects, and the separation results have fewer interference components from other noise.

  16. Blind Source Separation of Event-Related EEG/MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsomaa, Johanna; Sarvas, Jukka; Ilmoniemi, Risto Juhani

    2017-09-01

    Blind source separation (BSS) can be used to decompose complex electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography data into simpler components based on statistical assumptions without using a physical model. Applications include brain-computer interfaces, artifact removal, and identifying parallel neural processes. We wish to address the issue of applying BSS to event-related responses, which is challenging because of nonstationary data. We introduce a new BSS approach called momentary-uncorrelated component analysis (MUCA), which is tailored for event-related multitrial data. The method is based on approximate joint diagonalization of multiple covariance matrices estimated from the data at separate latencies. We further show how to extend the methodology for autocovariance matrices and how to apply BSS methods suitable for piecewise stationary data to event-related responses. We compared several BSS approaches by using simulated EEG as well as measured somatosensory and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) evoked EEG. Among the compared methods, MUCA was the most tolerant one to noise, TMS artifacts, and other challenges in the data. With measured somatosensory data, over half of the estimated components were found to be similar by MUCA and independent component analysis. MUCA was also stable when tested with several input datasets. MUCA is based on simple assumptions, and the results suggest that MUCA is robust with nonideal data. Event-related responses and BSS are valuable and popular tools in neuroscience. Correctly designed BSS is an efficient way of identifying artifactual and neural processes from nonstationary event-related data.

  17. Concepts and Criteria for Blind Quantum Source Separation and Blind Quantum Process Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Deville

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blind Source Separation (BSS is an active domain of Classical Information Processing, with well-identified methods and applications. The development of Quantum Information Processing has made possible the appearance of Blind Quantum Source Separation (BQSS, with a recent extension towards Blind Quantum Process Tomography (BQPT. This article investigates the use of several fundamental quantum concepts in the BQSS context and establishes properties already used without justification in that context. It mainly considers a pair of electron spins initially separately prepared in a pure state and then submitted to an undesired exchange coupling between these spins. Some consequences of the existence of the entanglement phenomenon, and of the probabilistic aspect of quantum measurements, upon BQSS solutions, are discussed. An unentanglement criterion is established for the state of an arbitrary qubit pair, expressed first with probability amplitudes and secondly with probabilities. The interest of using the concept of a random quantum state in the BQSS context is presented. It is stressed that the concept of statistical independence of the sources, widely used in classical BSS, should be used with care in BQSS, and possibly replaced by some disentanglement principle. It is shown that the coefficients of the development of any qubit pair pure state over the states of an orthonormal basis can be expressed with the probabilities of results in the measurements of well-chosen spin components.

  18. Decentralized modal identification using sparse blind source separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadhu, A; Hazra, B; Narasimhan, S; Pandey, M D

    2011-01-01

    Popular ambient vibration-based system identification methods process information collected from a dense array of sensors centrally to yield the modal properties. In such methods, the need for a centralized processing unit capable of satisfying large memory and processing demands is unavoidable. With the advent of wireless smart sensor networks, it is now possible to process information locally at the sensor level, instead. The information at the individual sensor level can then be concatenated to obtain the global structure characteristics. A novel decentralized algorithm based on wavelet transforms to infer global structure mode information using measurements obtained using a small group of sensors at a time is proposed in this paper. The focus of the paper is on algorithmic development, while the actual hardware and software implementation is not pursued here. The problem of identification is cast within the framework of under-determined blind source separation invoking transformations of measurements to the time–frequency domain resulting in a sparse representation. The partial mode shape coefficients so identified are then combined to yield complete modal information. The transformations are undertaken using stationary wavelet packet transform (SWPT), yielding a sparse representation in the wavelet domain. Principal component analysis (PCA) is then performed on the resulting wavelet coefficients, yielding the partial mixing matrix coefficients from a few measurement channels at a time. This process is repeated using measurements obtained from multiple sensor groups, and the results so obtained from each group are concatenated to obtain the global modal characteristics of the structure

  19. Decentralized modal identification using sparse blind source separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, A.; Hazra, B.; Narasimhan, S.; Pandey, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    Popular ambient vibration-based system identification methods process information collected from a dense array of sensors centrally to yield the modal properties. In such methods, the need for a centralized processing unit capable of satisfying large memory and processing demands is unavoidable. With the advent of wireless smart sensor networks, it is now possible to process information locally at the sensor level, instead. The information at the individual sensor level can then be concatenated to obtain the global structure characteristics. A novel decentralized algorithm based on wavelet transforms to infer global structure mode information using measurements obtained using a small group of sensors at a time is proposed in this paper. The focus of the paper is on algorithmic development, while the actual hardware and software implementation is not pursued here. The problem of identification is cast within the framework of under-determined blind source separation invoking transformations of measurements to the time-frequency domain resulting in a sparse representation. The partial mode shape coefficients so identified are then combined to yield complete modal information. The transformations are undertaken using stationary wavelet packet transform (SWPT), yielding a sparse representation in the wavelet domain. Principal component analysis (PCA) is then performed on the resulting wavelet coefficients, yielding the partial mixing matrix coefficients from a few measurement channels at a time. This process is repeated using measurements obtained from multiple sensor groups, and the results so obtained from each group are concatenated to obtain the global modal characteristics of the structure.

  20. Synthesis of blind source separation algorithms on reconfigurable FPGA platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongtao; Qi, Hairong; Szu, Harold H.

    2005-03-01

    Recent advances in intelligence technology have boosted the development of micro- Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) including Sliver Fox, Shadow, and Scan Eagle for various surveillance and reconnaissance applications. These affordable and reusable devices have to fit a series of size, weight, and power constraints. Cameras used on such micro-UAVs are therefore mounted directly at a fixed angle without any motion-compensated gimbals. This mounting scheme has resulted in the so-called jitter effect in which jitter is defined as sub-pixel or small amplitude vibrations. The jitter blur caused by the jitter effect needs to be corrected before any other processing algorithms can be practically applied. Jitter restoration has been solved by various optimization techniques, including Wiener approximation, maximum a-posteriori probability (MAP), etc. However, these algorithms normally assume a spatial-invariant blur model that is not the case with jitter blur. Szu et al. developed a smart real-time algorithm based on auto-regression (AR) with its natural generalization of unsupervised artificial neural network (ANN) learning to achieve restoration accuracy at the sub-pixel level. This algorithm resembles the capability of the human visual system, in which an agreement between the pair of eyes indicates "signal", otherwise, the jitter noise. Using this non-statistical method, for each single pixel, a deterministic blind sources separation (BSS) process can then be carried out independently based on a deterministic minimum of the Helmholtz free energy with a generalization of Shannon's information theory applied to open dynamic systems. From a hardware implementation point of view, the process of jitter restoration of an image using Szu's algorithm can be optimized by pixel-based parallelization. In our previous work, a parallelly structured independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm has been implemented on both Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Application

  1. Blind separation of positive sources by globally convergent gradient search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oja, Erkki; Plumbley, Mark

    2004-09-01

    The instantaneous noise-free linear mixing model in independent component analysis is largely a solved problem under the usual assumption of independent nongaussian sources and full column rank mixing matrix. However, with some prior information on the sources, like positivity, new analysis and perhaps simplified solution methods may yet become possible. In this letter, we consider the task of independent component analysis when the independent sources are known to be nonnegative and well grounded, which means that they have a nonzero pdf in the region of zero. It can be shown that in this case, the solution method is basically very simple: an orthogonal rotation of the whitened observation vector into nonnegative outputs will give a positive permutation of the original sources. We propose a cost function whose minimum coincides with nonnegativity and derive the gradient algorithm under the whitening constraint, under which the separating matrix is orthogonal. We further prove that in the Stiefel manifold of orthogonal matrices, the cost function is a Lyapunov function for the matrix gradient flow, implying global convergence. Thus, this algorithm is guaranteed to find the nonnegative well-grounded independent sources. The analysis is complemented by a numerical simulation, which illustrates the algorithm.

  2. Overcomplete Blind Source Separation by Combining ICA and Binary Time-Frequency Masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    a novel method for over-complete blind source separation. Two powerful source separation techniques have been combined, independent component analysis and binary time-frequency masking. Hereby, it is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture. By using merely two microphones we...

  3. Blind Source Separation Based on Covariance Ratio and Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The computation amount in blind source separation based on bioinspired intelligence optimization is high. In order to solve this problem, we propose an effective blind source separation algorithm based on the artificial bee colony algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, the covariance ratio of the signals is utilized as the objective function and the artificial bee colony algorithm is used to solve it. The source signal component which is separated out, is then wiped off from mixtures using the deflation method. All the source signals can be recovered successfully by repeating the separation process. Simulation experiments demonstrate that significant improvement of the computation amount and the quality of signal separation is achieved by the proposed algorithm when compared to previous algorithms.

  4. Cultured Cortical Neurons Can Perform Blind Source Separation According to the Free-Energy Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomura, Takuya; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Blind source separation is the computation underlying the cocktail party effect––a partygoer can distinguish a particular talker’s voice from the ambient noise. Early studies indicated that the brain might use blind source separation as a signal processing strategy for sensory perception and numerous mathematical models have been proposed; however, it remains unclear how the neural networks extract particular sources from a complex mixture of inputs. We discovered that neurons in cultures of dissociated rat cortical cells could learn to represent particular sources while filtering out other signals. Specifically, the distinct classes of neurons in the culture learned to respond to the distinct sources after repeating training stimulation. Moreover, the neural network structures changed to reduce free energy, as predicted by the free-energy principle, a candidate unified theory of learning and memory, and by Jaynes’ principle of maximum entropy. This implicit learning can only be explained by some form of Hebbian plasticity. These results are the first in vitro (as opposed to in silico) demonstration of neural networks performing blind source separation, and the first formal demonstration of neuronal self-organization under the free energy principle. PMID:26690814

  5. Cultured Cortical Neurons Can Perform Blind Source Separation According to the Free-Energy Principle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Isomura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blind source separation is the computation underlying the cocktail party effect--a partygoer can distinguish a particular talker's voice from the ambient noise. Early studies indicated that the brain might use blind source separation as a signal processing strategy for sensory perception and numerous mathematical models have been proposed; however, it remains unclear how the neural networks extract particular sources from a complex mixture of inputs. We discovered that neurons in cultures of dissociated rat cortical cells could learn to represent particular sources while filtering out other signals. Specifically, the distinct classes of neurons in the culture learned to respond to the distinct sources after repeating training stimulation. Moreover, the neural network structures changed to reduce free energy, as predicted by the free-energy principle, a candidate unified theory of learning and memory, and by Jaynes' principle of maximum entropy. This implicit learning can only be explained by some form of Hebbian plasticity. These results are the first in vitro (as opposed to in silico demonstration of neural networks performing blind source separation, and the first formal demonstration of neuronal self-organization under the free energy principle.

  6. Blind Separation of Nonstationary Sources Based on Spatial Time-Frequency Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yimin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Blind source separation (BSS based on spatial time-frequency distributions (STFDs provides improved performance over blind source separation methods based on second-order statistics, when dealing with signals that are localized in the time-frequency (t-f domain. In this paper, we propose the use of STFD matrices for both whitening and recovery of the mixing matrix, which are two stages commonly required in many BSS methods, to provide robust BSS performance to noise. In addition, a simple method is proposed to select the auto- and cross-term regions of time-frequency distribution (TFD. To further improve the BSS performance, t-f grouping techniques are introduced to reduce the number of signals under consideration, and to allow the receiver array to separate more sources than the number of array sensors, provided that the sources have disjoint t-f signatures. With the use of one or more techniques proposed in this paper, improved performance of blind separation of nonstationary signals can be achieved.

  7. Iterative algorithm for joint zero diagonalization with application in blind source separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Tao; Lou, Shun-Tian

    2011-07-01

    A new iterative algorithm for the nonunitary joint zero diagonalization of a set of matrices is proposed for blind source separation applications. On one hand, since the zero diagonalizer of the proposed algorithm is constructed iteratively by successive multiplications of an invertible matrix, the singular solutions that occur in the existing nonunitary iterative algorithms are naturally avoided. On the other hand, compared to the algebraic method for joint zero diagonalization, the proposed algorithm requires fewer matrices to be zero diagonalized to yield even better performance. The extension of the algorithm to the complex and nonsquare mixing cases is also addressed. Numerical simulations on both synthetic data and blind source separation using time-frequency distributions illustrate the performance of the algorithm and provide a comparison to the leading joint zero diagonalization schemes.

  8. Estimation of Input Function from Dynamic PET Brain Data Using Bayesian Blind Source Separation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, Ondřej; Šmídl, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2015), s. 1273-1287 ISSN 1820-0214 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : blind source separation * Variational Bayes method * dynamic PET * input function * deconvolution Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.623, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/AS/tichy-0450509.pdf

  9. Online Artifact Removal for Brain-Computer Interfaces Using Support Vector Machines and Blind Source Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Halder, Sebastian; Bensch, Michael; Mellinger, Jürgen; Bogdan, Martin; Kübler, Andrea; Birbaumer, Niels; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    We propose a combination of blind source separation (BSS) and independent component analysis (ICA) (signal decomposition into artifacts and nonartifacts) with support vector machines (SVMs) (automatic classification) that are designed for online usage. In order to select a suitable BSS/ICA method, three ICA algorithms (JADE, Infomax, and FastICA) and one BSS algorithm (AMUSE) are evaluated to determine their ability to isolate electromyographic (EMG) and electrooculographic...

  10. Weight adjusted tensor method for blind separation of underdetermined mixtures of nonstationary sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichavský, Petr; Koldovský, Zbyněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2011), s. 1037-1047 ISSN 1053-587X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/09/1278 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : blind source separation * tensor decomposition * Cramer-Rao lower bound Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.628, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/SI/tichavsky-0356666. pdf

  11. Gearbox Fault Diagnosis in a Wind Turbine Using Single Sensor Based Blind Source Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuning Qian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single sensor based blind source separation approach, namely, the wavelet-assisted stationary subspace analysis (WSSA, for gearbox fault diagnosis in a wind turbine. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT is used as a preprocessing tool to decompose a single sensor measurement data into a set of wavelet coefficients to meet the multidimensional requirement of the stationary subspace analysis (SSA. The SSA is a blind source separation technique that can separate the multidimensional signals into stationary and nonstationary source components without the need for independency and prior information of the source signals. After that, the separated nonstationary source component with the maximum kurtosis value is analyzed by the enveloping spectral analysis to identify potential fault-related characteristic frequencies. Case studies performed on a wind turbine gearbox test system verify the effectiveness of the WSSA approach and indicate that it outperforms independent component analysis (ICA and empirical mode decomposition (EMD, as well as the spectral-kurtosis-based enveloping, for wind turbine gearbox fault diagnosis.

  12. Blind source separation analysis of PET dynamic data: a simple method with exciting MR-PET applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oros-Peusquens, Ana-Maria; Silva, Nuno da [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Weiss, Carolin [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Cologne, 50924 Cologne (Germany); Stoffels, Gabrielle; Herzog, Hans; Langen, Karl J [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Shah, N Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    Denoising of dynamic PET data improves parameter imaging by PET and is gaining momentum. This contribution describes an analysis of dynamic PET data by blind source separation methods and comparison of the results with MR-based brain properties.

  13. Blind Source Separation and Dynamic Fuzzy Neural Network for Fault Diagnosis in Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haifeng; Ouyang, Huajiang; Gao, Hongli

    2015-01-01

    Many assessment and detection methods are used to diagnose faults in machines. High accuracy in fault detection and diagnosis can be achieved by using numerical methods with noise-resistant properties. However, to some extent, noise always exists in measured data on real machines, which affects the identification results, especially in the diagnosis of early- stage faults. In view of this situation, a damage assessment method based on blind source separation and dynamic fuzzy neural network (DFNN) is presented to diagnose the early-stage machinery faults in this paper. In the processing of measurement signals, blind source separation is adopted to reduce noise. Then sensitive features of these faults are obtained by extracting low dimensional manifold characteristics from the signals. The model for fault diagnosis is established based on DFNN. Furthermore, on-line computation is accelerated by means of compressed sensing. Numerical vibration signals of ball screw fault modes are processed on the model for mechanical fault diagnosis and the results are in good agreement with the actual condition even at the early stage of fault development. This detection method is very useful in practice and feasible for early-stage fault diagnosis. (paper)

  14. PWC-ICA: A Method for Stationary Ordered Blind Source Separation with Application to EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Mullen, Tim; Robbins, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a class of algorithms widely applied to separate sources in EEG data. Most ICA approaches use optimization criteria derived from temporal statistical independence and are invariant with respect to the actual ordering of individual observations. We propose a method of mapping real signals into a complex vector space that takes into account the temporal order of signals and enforces certain mixing stationarity constraints. The resulting procedure, which we call Pairwise Complex Independent Component Analysis (PWC-ICA), performs the ICA in a complex setting and then reinterprets the results in the original observation space. We examine the performance of our candidate approach relative to several existing ICA algorithms for the blind source separation (BSS) problem on both real and simulated EEG data. On simulated data, PWC-ICA is often capable of achieving a better solution to the BSS problem than AMICA, Extended Infomax, or FastICA. On real data, the dipole interpretations of the BSS solutions discovered by PWC-ICA are physically plausible, are competitive with existing ICA approaches, and may represent sources undiscovered by other ICA methods. In conjunction with this paper, the authors have released a MATLAB toolbox that performs PWC-ICA on real, vector-valued signals. PMID:27340397

  15. Blind source separation of ex-vivo aorta tissue multispectral images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, July; Perez, Sandra; Montoya, Yonatan; Botina, Deivid; Garzón, Johnson

    2015-05-01

    Blind Source Separation methods (BSS) aim for the decomposition of a given signal in its main components or source signals. Those techniques have been widely used in the literature for the analysis of biomedical images, in order to extract the main components of an organ or tissue under study. The analysis of skin images for the extraction of melanin and hemoglobin is an example of the use of BSS. This paper presents a proof of concept of the use of source separation of ex-vivo aorta tissue multispectral Images. The images are acquired with an interference filter-based imaging system. The images are processed by means of two algorithms: Independent Components analysis and Non-negative Matrix Factorization. In both cases, it is possible to obtain maps that quantify the concentration of the main chromophores present in aortic tissue. Also, the algorithms allow for spectral absorbance of the main tissue components. Those spectral signatures were compared against the theoretical ones by using correlation coefficients. Those coefficients report values close to 0.9, which is a good estimator of the method's performance. Also, correlation coefficients lead to the identification of the concentration maps according to the evaluated chromophore. The results suggest that Multi/hyper-spectral systems together with image processing techniques is a potential tool for the analysis of cardiovascular tissue.

  16. PWC-ICA: A Method for Stationary Ordered Blind Source Separation with Application to EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kenneth; Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Mullen, Tim; Robbins, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a class of algorithms widely applied to separate sources in EEG data. Most ICA approaches use optimization criteria derived from temporal statistical independence and are invariant with respect to the actual ordering of individual observations. We propose a method of mapping real signals into a complex vector space that takes into account the temporal order of signals and enforces certain mixing stationarity constraints. The resulting procedure, which we call Pairwise Complex Independent Component Analysis (PWC-ICA), performs the ICA in a complex setting and then reinterprets the results in the original observation space. We examine the performance of our candidate approach relative to several existing ICA algorithms for the blind source separation (BSS) problem on both real and simulated EEG data. On simulated data, PWC-ICA is often capable of achieving a better solution to the BSS problem than AMICA, Extended Infomax, or FastICA. On real data, the dipole interpretations of the BSS solutions discovered by PWC-ICA are physically plausible, are competitive with existing ICA approaches, and may represent sources undiscovered by other ICA methods. In conjunction with this paper, the authors have released a MATLAB toolbox that performs PWC-ICA on real, vector-valued signals.

  17. Online artifact removal for brain-computer interfaces using support vector machines and blind source separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Sebastian; Bensch, Michael; Mellinger, Jürgen; Bogdan, Martin; Kübler, Andrea; Birbaumer, Niels; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    We propose a combination of blind source separation (BSS) and independent component analysis (ICA) (signal decomposition into artifacts and nonartifacts) with support vector machines (SVMs) (automatic classification) that are designed for online usage. In order to select a suitable BSS/ICA method, three ICA algorithms (JADE, Infomax, and FastICA) and one BSS algorithm (AMUSE) are evaluated to determine their ability to isolate electromyographic (EMG) and electrooculographic (EOG) artifacts into individual components. An implementation of the selected BSS/ICA method with SVMs trained to classify EMG and EOG artifacts, which enables the usage of the method as a filter in measurements with online feedback, is described. This filter is evaluated on three BCI datasets as a proof-of-concept of the method.

  18. Blind Source Separation Algorithms Using Hyperbolic and Givens Rotations for High-Order QAM Constellations

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, Syed Awais Wahab

    2017-11-24

    This paper addresses the problem of blind demixing of instantaneous mixtures in a multiple-input multiple-output communication system. The main objective is to present efficient blind source separation (BSS) algorithms dedicated to moderate or high-order QAM constellations. Four new iterative batch BSS algorithms are presented dealing with the multimodulus (MM) and alphabet matched (AM) criteria. For the optimization of these cost functions, iterative methods of Givens and hyperbolic rotations are used. A pre-whitening operation is also utilized to reduce the complexity of design problem. It is noticed that the designed algorithms using Givens rotations gives satisfactory performance only for large number of samples. However, for small number of samples, the algorithms designed by combining both Givens and hyperbolic rotations compensate for the ill-whitening that occurs in this case and thus improves the performance. Two algorithms dealing with the MM criterion are presented for moderate order QAM signals such as 16-QAM. The other two dealing with the AM criterion are presented for high-order QAM signals. These methods are finally compared with the state of art batch BSS algorithms in terms of signal-to-interference and noise ratio, symbol error rate and convergence rate. Simulation results show that the proposed methods outperform the contemporary batch BSS algorithms.

  19. Blind Source Separation Algorithms Using Hyperbolic and Givens Rotations for High-Order QAM Constellations

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, Syed Awais Wahab; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of blind demixing of instantaneous mixtures in a multiple-input multiple-output communication system. The main objective is to present efficient blind source separation (BSS) algorithms dedicated to moderate or high-order QAM constellations. Four new iterative batch BSS algorithms are presented dealing with the multimodulus (MM) and alphabet matched (AM) criteria. For the optimization of these cost functions, iterative methods of Givens and hyperbolic rotations are used. A pre-whitening operation is also utilized to reduce the complexity of design problem. It is noticed that the designed algorithms using Givens rotations gives satisfactory performance only for large number of samples. However, for small number of samples, the algorithms designed by combining both Givens and hyperbolic rotations compensate for the ill-whitening that occurs in this case and thus improves the performance. Two algorithms dealing with the MM criterion are presented for moderate order QAM signals such as 16-QAM. The other two dealing with the AM criterion are presented for high-order QAM signals. These methods are finally compared with the state of art batch BSS algorithms in terms of signal-to-interference and noise ratio, symbol error rate and convergence rate. Simulation results show that the proposed methods outperform the contemporary batch BSS algorithms.

  20. System identification through nonstationary data using Time-Frequency Blind Source Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanlin; Kareem, Ahsan

    2016-06-01

    Classical output-only system identification (SI) methods are based on the assumption of stationarity of the system response. However, measured response of buildings and bridges is usually non-stationary due to strong winds (e.g. typhoon, and thunder storm etc.), earthquakes and time-varying vehicle motions. Accordingly, the response data may have time-varying frequency contents and/or overlapping of modal frequencies due to non-stationary colored excitation. This renders traditional methods problematic for modal separation and identification. To address these challenges, a new SI technique based on Time-Frequency Blind Source Separation (TFBSS) is proposed. By selectively utilizing "effective" information in local regions of the time-frequency plane, where only one mode contributes to energy, the proposed technique can successfully identify mode shapes and recover modal responses from the non-stationary response where the traditional SI methods often encounter difficulties. This technique can also handle response with closely spaced modes which is a well-known challenge for the identification of large-scale structures. Based on the separated modal responses, frequency and damping can be easily identified using SI methods based on a single degree of freedom (SDOF) system. In addition to the exclusive advantage of handling non-stationary data and closely spaced modes, the proposed technique also benefits from the absence of the end effects and low sensitivity to noise in modal separation. The efficacy of the proposed technique is demonstrated using several simulation based studies, and compared to the popular Second-Order Blind Identification (SOBI) scheme. It is also noted that even some non-stationary response data can be analyzed by the stationary method SOBI. This paper also delineates non-stationary cases where SOBI and the proposed scheme perform comparably and highlights cases where the proposed approach is more advantageous. Finally, the performance of the

  1. Nonnegative Matrix Factor 2-D Deconvolution for Blind Single Channel Source Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel N.; Mørup, Morten

    2006-01-01

    We present a novel method for blind separation of instruments in polyphonic music based on a non-negative matrix factor 2-D deconvolution algorithm. Using a model which is convolutive in both time and frequency we factorize a spectrogram representation of music into components corresponding...

  2. Modal parameter identification based on combining transmissibility functions and blind source separation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Iván Gómez; Sánchez, Jesús Antonio García; Andersen, Palle

    2018-05-01

    Transmissibility-based operational modal analysis is a recent and alternative approach used to identify the modal parameters of structures under operational conditions. This approach is advantageous compared with traditional operational modal analysis because it does not make any assumptions about the excitation spectrum (i.e., white noise with a flat spectrum). However, common methodologies do not include a procedure to extract closely spaced modes with low signal-to-noise ratios. This issue is relevant when considering that engineering structures generally have closely spaced modes and that their measured responses present high levels of noise. Therefore, to overcome these problems, a new combined method for modal parameter identification is proposed in this work. The proposed method combines blind source separation (BSS) techniques and transmissibility-based methods. Here, BSS techniques were used to recover source signals, and transmissibility-based methods were applied to estimate modal information from the recovered source signals. To achieve this combination, a new method to define a transmissibility function was proposed. The suggested transmissibility function is based on the relationship between the power spectral density (PSD) of mixed signals and the PSD of signals from a single source. The numerical responses of a truss structure with high levels of added noise and very closely spaced modes were processed using the proposed combined method to evaluate its ability to identify modal parameters in these conditions. Colored and white noise excitations were used for the numerical example. The proposed combined method was also used to evaluate the modal parameters of an experimental test on a structure containing closely spaced modes. The results showed that the proposed combined method is capable of identifying very closely spaced modes in the presence of noise and, thus, may be potentially applied to improve the identification of damping ratios.

  3. A review of output-only structural mode identification literature employing blind source separation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, A.; Narasimhan, S.; Antoni, J.

    2017-09-01

    Output-only modal identification has seen significant activity in recent years, especially in large-scale structures where controlled input force generation is often difficult to achieve. This has led to the development of new system identification methods which do not require controlled input. They often work satisfactorily if they satisfy some general assumptions - not overly restrictive - regarding the stochasticity of the input. Hundreds of papers covering a wide range of applications appear every year related to the extraction of modal properties from output measurement data in more than two dozen mechanical, aerospace and civil engineering journals. In little more than a decade, concepts of blind source separation (BSS) from the field of acoustic signal processing have been adopted by several researchers and shown that they can be attractive tools to undertake output-only modal identification. Originally intended to separate distinct audio sources from a mixture of recordings, mathematical equivalence to problems in linear structural dynamics have since been firmly established. This has enabled many of the developments in the field of BSS to be modified and applied to output-only modal identification problems. This paper reviews over hundred articles related to the application of BSS and their variants to output-only modal identification. The main contribution of the paper is to present a literature review of the papers which have appeared on the subject. While a brief treatment of the basic ideas are presented where relevant, a comprehensive and critical explanation of their contents is not attempted. Specific issues related to output-only modal identification and the relative advantages and limitations of BSS methods both from theoretical and application standpoints are discussed. Gap areas requiring additional work are also summarized and the paper concludes with possible future trends in this area.

  4. Feature Selection and Blind Source Separation in an EEG-Based Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Thaut

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Most EEG-based BCI systems make use of well-studied patterns of brain activity. However, those systems involve tasks that indirectly map to simple binary commands such as “yes” or “no” or require many weeks of biofeedback training. We hypothesized that signal processing and machine learning methods can be used to discriminate EEG in a direct “yes”/“no” BCI from a single session. Blind source separation (BSS and spectral transformations of the EEG produced a 180-dimensional feature space. We used a modified genetic algorithm (GA wrapped around a support vector machine (SVM classifier to search the space of feature subsets. The GA-based search found feature subsets that outperform full feature sets and random feature subsets. Also, BSS transformations of the EEG outperformed the original time series, particularly in conjunction with a subset search of both spaces. The results suggest that BSS and feature selection can be used to improve the performance of even a “direct,” single-session BCI.

  5. A Hybrid Technique for Blind Separation of Non-Gaussian and Time-Correlated Sources Using a Multicomponent Approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichavský, Petr; Koldovský, Zbyněk; Yeredor, A.; Gómez-Herrero, G.; Doron, E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2008), s. 421-430 ISSN 1045-9227 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP102/07/P384 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : blind source separation * independent component analysis Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.726, year: 2008

  6. Nonnegative Tensor Factorization Approach Applied to Fission Chamber’s Output Signals Blind Source Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laassiri, M.; Hamzaoui, E.-M.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.

    2018-02-01

    Inside nuclear reactors, gamma-rays emitted from nuclei together with the neutrons introduce unwanted backgrounds in neutron spectra. For this reason, powerful extraction methods are needed to extract useful neutron signal from recorded mixture and thus to obtain clearer neutron flux spectrum. Actually, several techniques have been developed to discriminate between neutrons and gamma-rays in a mixed radiation field. Most of these techniques, tackle using analogue discrimination methods. Others propose to use some organic scintillators to achieve the discrimination task. Recently, systems based on digital signal processors are commercially available to replace the analog systems. As alternative to these systems, we aim in this work to verify the feasibility of using a Nonnegative Tensor Factorization (NTF) to blind extract neutron component from mixture signals recorded at the output of fission chamber (WL-7657). This last have been simulated through the Geant4 linked to Garfield++ using a 252Cf neutron source. To achieve our objective of obtaining the best possible neutron-gamma discrimination, we have applied the two different NTF algorithms, which have been found to be the best methods that allow us to analyse this kind of nuclear data.

  7. Blind source separation based on time-frequency morphological characteristics for rigid acoustic scattering by underwater objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Xiukun

    2016-06-01

    Separation of the components of rigid acoustic scattering by underwater objects is essential in obtaining the structural characteristics of such objects. To overcome the problem of rigid structures appearing to have the same spectral structure in the time domain, time-frequency Blind Source Separation (BSS) can be used in combination with image morphology to separate the rigid scattering components of different objects. Based on a highlight model, the separation of the rigid scattering structure of objects with time-frequency distribution is deduced. Using a morphological filter, different characteristics in a Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) observed for single auto term and cross terms can be simplified to remove any cross-term interference. By selecting time and frequency points of the auto terms signal, the accuracy of BSS can be improved. An experimental simulation has been used, with changes in the pulse width of the transmitted signal, the relative amplitude and the time delay parameter, in order to analyzing the feasibility of this new method. Simulation results show that the new method is not only able to separate rigid scattering components, but can also separate the components when elastic scattering and rigid scattering exist at the same time. Experimental results confirm that the new method can be used in separating the rigid scattering structure of underwater objects.

  8. Mixing Matrix Estimation of Underdetermined Blind Source Separation Based on Data Field and Improved FCM Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern electronic warfare, multiple input multiple output (MIMO radar has become an important tool for electronic reconnaissance and intelligence transmission because of its anti-stealth, high resolution, low intercept and anti-destruction characteristics. As a common MIMO radar signal, discrete frequency coding waveform (DFCW has a serious overlap of both time and frequency, so it cannot be directly used in the current radar signal separation problems. The existing fuzzy clustering algorithms have problems in initial value selection, low convergence rate and local extreme values which will lead to the low accuracy of the mixing matrix estimation. Consequently, a novel mixing matrix estimation algorithm based on data field and improved fuzzy C-means (FCM clustering is proposed. First of all, the sparsity and linear clustering characteristics of the time–frequency domain MIMO radar signals are enhanced by using the single-source principal value of complex angular detection. Secondly, the data field uses the potential energy information to analyze the particle distribution, thus design a new clustering number selection scheme. Then the particle swarm optimization algorithm is introduced to improve the iterative clustering process of FCM, and finally get the estimated value of the mixing matrix. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm improves both the estimation accuracy and the robustness of the mixing matrix.

  9. Source-based neurofeedback methods using EEG recordings: training altered brain activity in a functional brain source derived from blind source separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David J.; Congedo, Marco; Ciorciari, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A developing literature explores the use of neurofeedback in the treatment of a range of clinical conditions, particularly ADHD and epilepsy, whilst neurofeedback also provides an experimental tool for studying the functional significance of endogenous brain activity. A critical component of any neurofeedback method is the underlying physiological signal which forms the basis for the feedback. While the past decade has seen the emergence of fMRI-based protocols training spatially confined BOLD activity, traditional neurofeedback has utilized a small number of electrode sites on the scalp. As scalp EEG at a given electrode site reflects a linear mixture of activity from multiple brain sources and artifacts, efforts to successfully acquire some level of control over the signal may be confounded by these extraneous sources. Further, in the event of successful training, these traditional neurofeedback methods are likely influencing multiple brain regions and processes. The present work describes the use of source-based signal processing methods in EEG neurofeedback. The feasibility and potential utility of such methods were explored in an experiment training increased theta oscillatory activity in a source derived from Blind Source Separation (BSS) of EEG data obtained during completion of a complex cognitive task (spatial navigation). Learned increases in theta activity were observed in two of the four participants to complete 20 sessions of neurofeedback targeting this individually defined functional brain source. Source-based EEG neurofeedback methods using BSS may offer important advantages over traditional neurofeedback, by targeting the desired physiological signal in a more functionally and spatially specific manner. Having provided preliminary evidence of the feasibility of these methods, future work may study a range of clinically and experimentally relevant brain processes where individual brain sources may be targeted by source-based EEG neurofeedback. PMID

  10. Removal of power line interference of space bearing vibration signal based on the morphological filter and blind source separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shaojiang; Sun, Dihua; Xu, Xiangyang; Tang, Baoping

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at the problem that it is difficult to extract the feature information from the space bearing vibration signal because of different noise, for example the running trend information, high-frequency noise and especially the existence of lot of power line interference (50Hz) and its octave ingredients of the running space simulated equipment in the ground. This article proposed a combination method to eliminate them. Firstly, the EMD is used to remove the running trend item information of the signal, the running trend that affect the signal processing accuracy is eliminated. Then the morphological filter is used to eliminate high-frequency noise. Finally, the components and characteristics of the power line interference are researched, based on the characteristics of the interference, the revised blind source separation model is used to remove the power line interferences. Through analysis of simulation and practical application, results suggest that the proposed method can effectively eliminate those noise.

  11. Time-domain beamforming and blind source separation speech input in the car environment

    CERN Document Server

    Bourgeois, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The development of computer and telecommunication technologies led to a revolutioninthewaythatpeopleworkandcommunicatewitheachother.One of the results is that large amount of information will increasingly be held in a form that is natural for users, as speech in natural language. In the presented work, we investigate the speech signal capture problem, which includes the separation of multiple interfering speakers using microphone arrays. Adaptive beamforming is a classical approach which has been developed since the seventies. However it requires a double-talk detector (DTD) that interrupts th

  12. MAP-Based Underdetermined Blind Source Separation of Convolutive Mixtures by Hierarchical Clustering and -Norm Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellermann Walter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of underdetermined BSS. While most previous approaches are designed for instantaneous mixtures, we propose a time-frequency-domain algorithm for convolutive mixtures. We adopt a two-step method based on a general maximum a posteriori (MAP approach. In the first step, we estimate the mixing matrix based on hierarchical clustering, assuming that the source signals are sufficiently sparse. The algorithm works directly on the complex-valued data in the time-frequency domain and shows better convergence than algorithms based on self-organizing maps. The assumption of Laplacian priors for the source signals in the second step leads to an algorithm for estimating the source signals. It involves the -norm minimization of complex numbers because of the use of the time-frequency-domain approach. We compare a combinatorial approach initially designed for real numbers with a second-order cone programming (SOCP approach designed for complex numbers. We found that although the former approach is not theoretically justified for complex numbers, its results are comparable to, or even better than, the SOCP solution. The advantage is a lower computational cost for problems with low input/output dimensions.

  13. Improved Tensor-Based Singular Spectrum Analysis Based on Single Channel Blind Source Separation Algorithm and Its Application to Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of multi-fault blind source separation (BSS in the case that the observed signals are under-determined, a novel approach for single channel blind source separation (SCBSS based on the improved tensor-based singular spectrum analysis (TSSA is proposed. As the most natural representation of high-dimensional data, tensor can preserve the intrinsic structure of the data to the maximum extent. Thus, TSSA method can be employed to extract the multi-fault features from the measured single-channel vibration signal. However, SCBSS based on TSSA still has some limitations, mainly including unsatisfactory convergence of TSSA in many cases and the number of source signals is hard to accurately estimate. Therefore, the improved TSSA algorithm based on canonical decomposition and parallel factors (CANDECOMP/PARAFAC weighted optimization, namely CP-WOPT, is proposed in this paper. CP-WOPT algorithm is applied to process the factor matrix using a first-order optimization approach instead of the original least square method in TSSA, so as to improve the convergence of this algorithm. In order to accurately estimate the number of the source signals in BSS, EMD-SVD-BIC (empirical mode decomposition—singular value decomposition—Bayesian information criterion method, instead of the SVD in the conventional TSSA, is introduced. To validate the proposed method, we applied it to the analysis of the numerical simulation signal and the multi-fault rolling bearing signals.

  14. A Novel Partial Discharge Ultra-High Frequency Signal De-Noising Method Based on a Single-Channel Blind Source Separation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Wei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To effectively de-noise the Gaussian white noise and periodic narrow-band interference in the background noise of partial discharge ultra-high frequency (PD UHF signals in field tests, a novel de-noising method, based on a single-channel blind source separation algorithm, is proposed. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method can effectively de-noise the noise interference, and the distortion of the de-noising PD signal is smaller. Firstly, the PD UHF signal is time-frequency analyzed by S-transform to obtain the number of source signals. Then, the single-channel detected PD signal is converted into multi-channel signals by singular value decomposition (SVD, and background noise is separated from multi-channel PD UHF signals by the joint approximate diagonalization of eigen-matrix method. At last, the source PD signal is estimated and recovered by the l1-norm minimization method. The proposed de-noising method was applied on the simulation test and field test detected signals, and the de-noising performance of the different methods was compared. The simulation and field test results demonstrate the effectiveness and correctness of the proposed method.

  15. A new method for quantifying the performance of EEG blind source separation algorithms by referencing a simultaneously recorded ECoG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosugi, Naoya; Kitajo, Keiichi; Hasegawa, Naomi; Nagasaka, Yasuo; Okanoya, Kazuo; Fujii, Naotaka

    2017-09-01

    Blind source separation (BSS) algorithms extract neural signals from electroencephalography (EEG) data. However, it is difficult to quantify source separation performance because there is no criterion to dissociate neural signals and noise in EEG signals. This study develops a method for evaluating BSS performance. The idea is neural signals in EEG can be estimated by comparison with simultaneously measured electrocorticography (ECoG). Because the ECoG electrodes cover the majority of the lateral cortical surface and should capture most of the original neural sources in the EEG signals. We measured real EEG and ECoG data and developed an algorithm for evaluating BSS performance. First, EEG signals are separated into EEG components using the BSS algorithm. Second, the EEG components are ranked using the correlation coefficients of the ECoG regression and the components are grouped into subsets based on their ranks. Third, canonical correlation analysis estimates how much information is shared between the subsets of the EEG components and the ECoG signals. We used our algorithm to compare the performance of BSS algorithms (PCA, AMUSE, SOBI, JADE, fastICA) via the EEG and ECoG data of anesthetized nonhuman primates. The results (Best case >JADE = fastICA >AMUSE = SOBI ≥ PCA >random separation) were common to the two subjects. To encourage the further development of better BSS algorithms, our EEG and ECoG data are available on our Web site (http://neurotycho.org/) as a common testing platform. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of blind signal separation methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schobben, D.W.E.; Torkkola, K.; Smaragdis, P.

    1999-01-01

    Recently many new Blind Signal Separation BSS algorithms have been introduced Authors evaluate the performance of their algorithms in various ways Among these are speech recognition rates plots of separated signals plots of cascaded mixingunmixing impulse responses and signal to noise ratios Clearly

  17. A Novel Blind Source Separation Algorithm and Performance Analysis of Weak Signal against Strong Interference in Passive Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjie Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Passive Radar System, obtaining the mixed weak object signal against the super power signal (jamming is still a challenging task. In this paper, a novel framework based on Passive Radar System is designed for weak object signal separation. Firstly, we propose an Interference Cancellation algorithm (IC-algorithm to extract the mixed weak object signals from the strong jamming. Then, an improved FastICA algorithm with K-means cluster is designed to separate each weak signal from the mixed weak object signals. At last, we discuss the performance of the proposed method and verify the novel method based on several simulations. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Blind speech separation system for humanoid robot with FastICA for audio filtering and separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiharto, Widodo; Santoso Gunawan, Alexander Agung

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays, there are many developments in building intelligent humanoid robot, mainly in order to handle voice and image. In this research, we propose blind speech separation system using FastICA for audio filtering and separation that can be used in education or entertainment. Our main problem is to separate the multi speech sources and also to filter irrelevant noises. After speech separation step, the results will be integrated with our previous speech and face recognition system which is based on Bioloid GP robot and Raspberry Pi 2 as controller. The experimental results show the accuracy of our blind speech separation system is about 88% in command and query recognition cases.

  19. Blind identification and separation of complex-valued signals

    CERN Document Server

    Moreau, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Blind identification consists of estimating a multi-dimensional system only through the use of its output, and source separation, the blind estimation of the inverse of the system. Estimation is generally carried out using different statistics of the output. The authors of this book consider the blind identification and source separation problem in the complex-domain, where the available statistical properties are richer and include non-circularity of the sources - underlying components. They define identifiability conditions and present state-of-the-art algorithms that are based on algebraic methods as well as iterative algorithms based on maximum likelihood theory. Contents 1. Mathematical Preliminaries. 2. Estimation by Joint Diagonalization. 3. Maximum Likelihood ICA. About the Authors Eric Moreau is Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Toulon, France. His research interests concern statistical signal processing, high order statistics and matrix/tensor decompositions with applic...

  20. A new nonlinear blind source separation method with chaos indicators for decoupling diagnosis of hybrid failures: A marine propulsion gearbox case with a large speed variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhixiong; Peng, Z

    2016-01-01

    The normal operation of propulsion gearboxes ensures the ship safety. Chaos indicators could efficiently indicate the state change of the gearboxes. However, accurate detection of gearbox hybrid faults using Chaos indicators is a challenging task and the detection under speed variation conditions is attracting considerable attentions. Literature review suggests that the gearbox vibration is a kind of nonlinear mixture of variant vibration sources and the blind source separation (BSS) is reported to be a promising technique for fault vibration analysis, but very limited work has addressed the nonlinear BSS approach for hybrid faults decoupling diagnosis. Aiming to enhance the fault detection performance of Chaos indicators, this work presents a new nonlinear BSS algorithm for gearbox hybrid faults detection under a speed variation condition. This new method appropriately introduces the kernel spectral regression (KSR) framework into the morphological component analysis (MCA). The original vibration data are projected into the reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) where the instinct nonlinear structure in the original data can be linearized by KSR. Thus the MCA is able to deal with nonlinear BSS in the KSR space. Reliable hybrid faults decoupling is then achieved by this new nonlinear MCA (NMCA). Subsequently, by calculating the Chaos indicators of the decoupled fault components and comparing them with benchmarks, the hybrid faults can be precisely identified. Two specially designed case studies were implemented to evaluate the proposed NMCA-Chaos method on hybrid gear faults decoupling diagnosis. The performance of the NMCA-Chaos was compared with state of art techniques. The analysis results show high performance of the proposed method on hybrid faults detection in a marine propulsion gearbox with large speed variations.

  1. Probabilistic blind deconvolution of non-stationary sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Rasmus Kongsgaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We solve a class of blind signal separation problems using a constrained linear Gaussian model. The observed signal is modelled by a convolutive mixture of colored noise signals with additive white noise. We derive a time-domain EM algorithm `KaBSS' which estimates the source signals...

  2. Source Signals Separation and Reconstruction Following Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Cheng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For separation and reconstruction of source signals from observed signals problem, the physical significance of blind source separation modal and independent component analysis is not very clear, and its solution is not unique. Aiming at these disadvantages, a new linear and instantaneous mixing model and a novel source signals separation reconstruction solving method from observed signals based on principal component analysis (PCA are put forward. Assumption of this new model is statistically unrelated rather than independent of source signals, which is different from the traditional blind source separation model. A one-to-one relationship between linear and instantaneous mixing matrix of new model and linear compound matrix of PCA, and a one-to-one relationship between unrelated source signals and principal components are demonstrated using the concept of linear separation matrix and unrelated of source signals. Based on this theoretical link, source signals separation and reconstruction problem is changed into PCA of observed signals then. The theoretical derivation and numerical simulation results show that, in despite of Gauss measurement noise, wave form and amplitude information of unrelated source signal can be separated and reconstructed by PCA when linear mixing matrix is column orthogonal and normalized; only wave form information of unrelated source signal can be separated and reconstructed by PCA when linear mixing matrix is column orthogonal but not normalized, unrelated source signal cannot be separated and reconstructed by PCA when mixing matrix is not column orthogonal or linear.

  3. Gradient method for blind chaotic signal separation based on proliferation exponent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü Shan-Xiang; Wang Zhao-Shan; Hu Zhi-Hui; Feng Jiu-Chao

    2014-01-01

    A new method to perform blind separation of chaotic signals is articulated in this paper, which takes advantage of the underlying features in the phase space for identifying various chaotic sources. Without incorporating any prior information about the source equations, the proposed algorithm can not only separate the mixed signals in just a few iterations, but also outperforms the fast independent component analysis (FastICA) method when noise contamination is considerable. (general)

  4. Real-time adaptive concepts in acoustics blind signal separation and multichannel echo cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Schobben, Daniel W E

    2001-01-01

    Blind Signal Separation (BSS) deals with recovering (filtered versions of) source signals from an observed mixture thereof. The term `blind' relates to the fact that there are no reference signals for the source signals and also that the mixing system is unknown. This book presents a new method for blind signal separation, which is developed to work on microphone signals. Acoustic Echo Cancellation (AEC) is a well-known technique to suppress the echo that a microphone picks up from a loudspeaker in the same room. Such acoustic feedback occurs for example in hands-free telephony and can lead to a perceived loud tone. For an application such as a voice-controlled television, a stereo AEC is required to suppress the contribution of the stereo loudspeaker setup. A generalized AEC is presented that is suited for multi-channel operation. New algorithms for Blind Signal Separation and multi-channel Acoustic Echo Cancellation are presented. A background is given in array signal processing methods, adaptive filter the...

  5. Bayesian Blind Separation and Deconvolution of Dynamic Image Sequences Using Sparsity Priors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, Ondřej; Šmídl, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2015), s. 258-266 ISSN 0278-0062 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S Keywords : Functional imaging * Blind source separation * Computer-aided detection and diagnosis * Probabilistic and statistical methods Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.756, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/AS/tichy-0431090.pdf

  6. Blind instantaneous noisy mixture separation with best interference-plus-noise rejection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koldovský, Zbyněk; Tichavský, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, Č. 4666 (2007), s. 730-737 ISSN 0302-9743. [Independent Component Analysis and Signal Separation. Londyn, 09.09.2007-12.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP102/07/P384 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : blind source separation * independent component analysis Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005

  7. Blind source deconvolution for deep Earth seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, W.; Renaut, R.; Garnero, E. J.; Lay, T.

    2007-12-01

    We present an approach to automatically estimate an empirical source characterization of deep earthquakes recorded teleseismically and subsequently remove the source from the recordings by applying regularized deconvolution. A principle goal in this work is to effectively deblur the seismograms, resulting in more impulsive and narrower pulses, permitting better constraints in high resolution waveform analyses. Our method consists of two stages: (1) we first estimate the empirical source by automatically registering traces to their 1st principal component with a weighting scheme based on their deviation from this shape, we then use this shape as an estimation of the earthquake source. (2) We compare different deconvolution techniques to remove the source characteristic from the trace. In particular Total Variation (TV) regularized deconvolution is used which utilizes the fact that most natural signals have an underlying spareness in an appropriate basis, in this case, impulsive onsets of seismic arrivals. We show several examples of deep focus Fiji-Tonga region earthquakes for the phases S and ScS, comparing source responses for the separate phases. TV deconvolution is compared to the water level deconvolution, Tikenov deconvolution, and L1 norm deconvolution, for both data and synthetics. This approach significantly improves our ability to study subtle waveform features that are commonly masked by either noise or the earthquake source. Eliminating source complexities improves our ability to resolve deep mantle triplications, waveform complexities associated with possible double crossings of the post-perovskite phase transition, as well as increasing stability in waveform analyses used for deep mantle anisotropy measurements.

  8. Jammer Suppression in DS-CDMA Communications using Parafac-based Blind Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lingyun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to apply parafac-based source separation techniques for jammer suppression in direct spread spectrum communication systems. The jammer excision is formulated as an optimization problem and a new algorithm is presented which is based on the parafac tri-iterative least square algorithm. By jointly diagonalizing the time delay correlation matrix of the observed signals and using the new proposed method, a better solution is achieved. The proposed algorithm can successfully separate communication signals and jamming signals. Simulation results reveal that our proposed algorithm has the better blind signal separation performance than joint diagonalization method. Our proposed algorithm doesn’t require whitening processing. Moreover our proposed algorithm works well in the underdetermined condition, where the number of sources exceeds than the number of antennas.

  9. Blind Component Separation in Wavelet Space: Application to CMB Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Delabrouille

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available It is a recurrent issue in astronomical data analysis that observations are incomplete maps with missing patches or intentionally masked parts. In addition, many astrophysical emissions are nonstationary processes over the sky. All these effects impair data processing techniques which work in the Fourier domain. Spectral matching ICA (SMICA is a source separation method based on spectral matching in Fourier space designed for the separation of diffuse astrophysical emissions in cosmic microwave background observations. This paper proposes an extension of SMICA to the wavelet domain and demonstrates the effectiveness of wavelet-based statistics for dealing with gaps in the data.

  10. Blind Separation of Two Users Based on User Delays and Optimal Pulse-Shape Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poor HVincent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless network is considered, in which two spatially distributed users transmit narrow-band signals simultaneously over the same channel using the same power. User separation is achieved by oversampling the received signal and formulating a virtual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO system based on the resulting polyphase components. Because of oversampling, high correlations can occur between the columns of the virtual MIMO system matrix which can be detrimental to user separation. A novel pulse-shape waveform design is proposed that results in low correlation between the columns of the system matrix, while it exploits all available bandwidth as dictated by a spectral mask. It is also shown that the use of successive interference cancelation in combination with blind source separation further improves the separation performance.

  11. Blind Separation of Event-Related Brain Responses into Independent Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makeig, Scott

    1996-01-01

    .... We report here a method for the blind separation of event-related brain responses into spatially stationary and temporally independent subcomponents using an Independent Component Analysis algorithm...

  12. Removal of micropollutants in source separated sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Source separated sanitation is an innovative sanitation method designed for minimizing use of energy and clean drinking water, and maximizing reuse of water, organics and nutrients from waste water. This approach is based on separate collection and treatment of toilet wastewater (black water) and

  13. FPGA implementation of ICA algorithm for blind signal separation and adaptive noise canceling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Min; Park, Hyung-Min; Kim, Taesu; Choi, Yoon-Kyung; Lee, Soo-Young

    2003-01-01

    An field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm is reported for blind signal separation (BSS) and adaptive noise canceling (ANC) in real time. In order to provide enormous computing power for ICA-based algorithms with multipath reverberation, a special digital processor is designed and implemented in FPGA. The chip design fully utilizes modular concept and several chips may be put together for complex applications with a large number of noise sources. Experimental results with a fabricated test board are reported for ANC only, BSS only, and simultaneous ANC/BSS, which demonstrates successful speech enhancement in real environments in real time.

  14. Blind Separation of Acoustic Signals Combining SIMO-Model-Based Independent Component Analysis and Binary Masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiekata Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new two-stage blind source separation (BSS method for convolutive mixtures of speech is proposed, in which a single-input multiple-output (SIMO-model-based independent component analysis (ICA and a new SIMO-model-based binary masking are combined. SIMO-model-based ICA enables us to separate the mixed signals, not into monaural source signals but into SIMO-model-based signals from independent sources in their original form at the microphones. Thus, the separated signals of SIMO-model-based ICA can maintain the spatial qualities of each sound source. Owing to this attractive property, our novel SIMO-model-based binary masking can be applied to efficiently remove the residual interference components after SIMO-model-based ICA. The experimental results reveal that the separation performance can be considerably improved by the proposed method compared with that achieved by conventional BSS methods. In addition, the real-time implementation of the proposed BSS is illustrated.

  15. Removal of micropollutants in source separated sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Butkovskyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Source separated sanitation is an innovative sanitation method designed for minimizing use of energy and clean drinking water, and maximizing reuse of water, organics and nutrients from waste water. This approach is based on separate collection and treatment of toilet wastewater (black water) and the rest of the domestic wastewater (grey water). Different characteristics of wastewater streams facilitate recovery of energy, nutrients and fresh water. To ensure agricultural or ecological reuse ...

  16. Low Complexity Bayesian Single Channel Source Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Thomas; Pedersen, Brian Dam; Winther, Ole

    2004-01-01

    can be estimated quite precisely using ML-II, but the estimation is quite sensitive to the accuracy of the priors as opposed to the source separation quality for known mixing coefficients, which is quite insensitive to the accuracy of the priors. Finally, we discuss how to improve our approach while...

  17. Constrained Null Space Component Analysis for Semiblind Source Separation Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wen-Liang; Lu, Keng-Shih; Ho, Jinn

    2018-02-01

    The blind source separation (BSS) problem extracts unknown sources from observations of their unknown mixtures. A current trend in BSS is the semiblind approach, which incorporates prior information on sources or how the sources are mixed. The constrained independent component analysis (ICA) approach has been studied to impose constraints on the famous ICA framework. We introduced an alternative approach based on the null space component (NCA) framework and referred to the approach as the c-NCA approach. We also presented the c-NCA algorithm that uses signal-dependent semidefinite operators, which is a bilinear mapping, as signatures for operator design in the c-NCA approach. Theoretically, we showed that the source estimation of the c-NCA algorithm converges with a convergence rate dependent on the decay of the sequence, obtained by applying the estimated operators on corresponding sources. The c-NCA can be formulated as a deterministic constrained optimization method, and thus, it can take advantage of solvers developed in optimization society for solving the BSS problem. As examples, we demonstrated electroencephalogram interference rejection problems can be solved by the c-NCA with proximal splitting algorithms by incorporating a sparsity-enforcing separation model and considering the case when reference signals are available.

  18. Higher-Order Blind Signal Feature Separation: An Enabling Technology for Battlefield Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Su, Wei; Kosinski, John A

    2006-01-01

    Higher-order transform blind signal feature classification is discussed for separating bar-shaped, circular, squared, circular-squared, and offset-diamonded constellation patterns of digital linear signals...

  19. How Many Separable Sources? Model Selection In Independent Components Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Roger P.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Strother, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Unlike mixtures consisting solely of non-Gaussian sources, mixtures including two or more Gaussian components cannot be separated using standard independent components analysis methods that are based on higher order statistics and independent observations. The mixed Independent Components Analysis/Principal Components Analysis (mixed ICA/PCA) model described here accommodates one or more Gaussian components in the independent components analysis model and uses principal components analysis to characterize contributions from this inseparable Gaussian subspace. Information theory can then be used to select from among potential model categories with differing numbers of Gaussian components. Based on simulation studies, the assumptions and approximations underlying the Akaike Information Criterion do not hold in this setting, even with a very large number of observations. Cross-validation is a suitable, though computationally intensive alternative for model selection. Application of the algorithm is illustrated using Fisher's iris data set and Howells' craniometric data set. Mixed ICA/PCA is of potential interest in any field of scientific investigation where the authenticity of blindly separated non-Gaussian sources might otherwise be questionable. Failure of the Akaike Information Criterion in model selection also has relevance in traditional independent components analysis where all sources are assumed non-Gaussian. PMID:25811988

  20. A Separation Algorithm for Sources with Temporal Structure Only Using Second-order Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike conventional blind source separation (BSS deals with independent identically distributed (i.i.d. sources, this paper addresses the separation from mixtures of sources with temporal structure, such as linear autocorrelations. Many sequential extraction algorithms have been reported, resulting in inevitable cumulated errors introduced by the deflation scheme. We propose a robust separation algorithm to recover original sources simultaneously, through a joint diagonalizer of several average delayed covariance matrices at positions of the optimal time delay and its integers. The proposed algorithm is computationally simple and efficient, since it is based on the second-order statistics only. Extensive simulation results confirm the validity and high performance of the algorithm. Compared with related extraction algorithms, its separation signal-to-noise rate for a desired source can reach 20dB higher, and it seems rather insensitive to the estimation error of the time delay.

  1. Blind separation of overlapping partials in harmonic musical notes using amplitude and phase reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, Jesús Ponce; Beltrán, José Ramón

    2012-12-01

    In this study, a new method of blind audio source separation (BASS) of monaural musical harmonic notes is presented. The input (mixed notes) signal is processed using a flexible analysis and synthesis algorithm (complex wavelet additive synthesis, CWAS), which is based on the complex continuous wavelet transform. When the harmonics from two or more sources overlap in a certain frequency band (or group of bands), a new technique based on amplitude similarity criteria is used to obtain an approximation to the original partial information. The aim is to show that the CWAS algorithm can be a powerful tool in BASS. Compared with other existing techniques, the main advantages of the proposed algorithm are its accuracy in the instantaneous phase estimation, its synthesis capability and that the only input information needed is the mixed signal itself. A set of synthetically mixed monaural isolated notes have been analyzed using this method, in eight different experiments: the same instrument playing two notes within the same octave and two harmonically related notes (5th and 12th intervals), two different musical instruments playing 5th and 12th intervals, two different instruments playing non-harmonic notes, major and minor chords played by the same musical instrument, three different instruments playing non-harmonically related notes and finally the mixture of a inharmonic instrument (piano) and one harmonic instrument. The results obtained show the strength of the technique.

  2. Separation of Correlated Astrophysical Sources Using Multiple-Lag Data Covariance Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baccigalupi C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new strategy to separate astrophysical sources that are mutually correlated. This strategy is based on second-order statistics and exploits prior information about the possible structure of the mixing matrix. Unlike ICA blind separation approaches, where the sources are assumed mutually independent and no prior knowledge is assumed about the mixing matrix, our strategy allows the independence assumption to be relaxed and performs the separation of even significantly correlated sources. Besides the mixing matrix, our strategy is also capable to evaluate the source covariance functions at several lags. Moreover, once the mixing parameters have been identified, a simple deconvolution can be used to estimate the probability density functions of the source processes. To benchmark our algorithm, we used a database that simulates the one expected from the instruments that will operate onboard ESA's Planck Surveyor Satellite to measure the CMB anisotropies all over the celestial sphere.

  3. Blind I/Q Signal Separation-Based Solutions for Receiver Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visa Koivunen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces some novel digital signal processing (DSP-based approaches to some of the most fundamental tasks of radio receivers, namely, channel equalization, carrier synchronization, and I/Q mismatch compensation. The leading principle is to show that all these problems can be solved blindly (i.e., without training signals by forcing the I and Q components of the observed data as independent as possible. Blind signal separation (BSS is then introduced as an efficient tool to carry out these tasks, and simulation examples are used to illustrate the performance of the proposed approaches. The main application area of the presented carrier synchronization and I/Q mismatch compensation techniques is in direct-conversion type receivers, while the proposed channel equalization principles basically apply to any radio architecture.

  4. Blind source identification from the multichannel surface electromyogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holobar, A; Farina, D

    2014-01-01

    The spinal circuitries combine the information flow from the supraspinal centers with the afferent input to generate the neural codes that drive the human skeletal muscles. The muscles transform the neural drive they receive from alpha motor neurons into motor unit action potentials (electrical activity) and force. Thus, the output of the spinal cord circuitries can be examined noninvasively by measuring the electrical activity of skeletal muscles at the surface of the skin i.e. the surface electromyogram (EMG). The recorded multi-muscle EMG activity pattern is generated by mixing processes of neural sources that need to be identified from the recorded signals themselves, with minimal or no a priori information available. Recently, multichannel source separation techniques that rely minimally on a priori knowledge of the mixing process have been developed and successfully applied to surface EMG. They act at different scales of information extraction to identify: (a) the activation signals shared by synergistic skeletal muscles, (b) the specific neural activation of individual muscles, separating it from that of nearby muscles i.e. from crosstalk, and (c) the spike trains of the active motor neurons. This review discusses the assumptions made by these methods, the challenges and limitations, as well as examples of their current applications. (topical review)

  5. Effect of indirect dependencies on "Maximum likelihood blind separation of two quantum states (qubits) with cylindrical-symmetry Heisenberg spin coupling"

    OpenAIRE

    Deville, Yannick; Deville, Alain

    2009-01-01

    In a previous paper [1], we investigated the Blind Source Separation (BSS) problem, for the nonlinear mixing model that we introduced in that paper. We proposed to solve this problem by using a maximum likelihood (ML) approach. When applying the ML approach to BSS problems, one usually determines the analytical expressions of the derivatives of the log-likelihood with respect to the parameters of the considered mixing model. In the literature, these calculations were mainly considered for lin...

  6. Multiple Speech Source Separation Using Inter-Channel Correlation and Relaxed Sparsity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoshen Jia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a multiple speech source separation method using inter-channel correlation and relaxed sparsity is proposed. A B-format microphone with four spatially located channels is adopted due to the size of the microphone array to preserve the spatial parameter integrity of the original signal. Specifically, we firstly measure the proportion of overlapped components among multiple sources and find that there exist many overlapped time-frequency (TF components with increasing source number. Then, considering the relaxed sparsity of speech sources, we propose a dynamic threshold-based separation approach of sparse components where the threshold is determined by the inter-channel correlation among the recording signals. After conducting a statistical analysis of the number of active sources at each TF instant, a form of relaxed sparsity called the half-K assumption is proposed so that the active source number in a certain TF bin does not exceed half the total number of simultaneously occurring sources. By applying the half-K assumption, the non-sparse components are recovered by regarding the extracted sparse components as a guide, combined with vector decomposition and matrix factorization. Eventually, the final TF coefficients of each source are recovered by the synthesis of sparse and non-sparse components. The proposed method has been evaluated using up to six simultaneous speech sources under both anechoic and reverberant conditions. Both objective and subjective evaluations validated that the perceptual quality of the separated speech by the proposed approach outperforms existing blind source separation (BSS approaches. Besides, it is robust to different speeches whilst confirming all the separated speeches with similar perceptual quality.

  7. Comparison of methods for separating vibration sources in rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Renata

    2017-12-01

    Vibro-acoustic signatures are widely used for diagnostics of rotating machinery. Vibration based automatic diagnostics systems need to achieve a good separation between signals generated by different sources. The separation task may be challenging, since the effects of the different vibration sources often overlap. In particular, there is a need to separate between signals related to the natural frequencies of the structure and signals resulting from the rotating components (signal whitening), as well as a need to separate between signals generated by asynchronous components like bearings and signals generated by cyclo-stationary components like gears. Several methods were proposed to achieve the above separation tasks. The present study compares between some of these methods. The paper also presents a new method for whitening, Adaptive Clutter Separation, as well as a new efficient algorithm for dephase, which separates between asynchronous and cyclo-stationary signals. For whitening the study compares between liftering of the high quefrencies and adaptive clutter separation. For separating between the asynchronous and the cyclo-stationary signals the study compares between liftering in the quefrency domain and dephase. The methods are compared using both simulated signals and real data.

  8. Source separation of household waste: A case study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Ying; Wu Songwei; Wang Yunlong; Wu Weixiang; Chen Yingxu

    2008-01-01

    A pilot program concerning source separation of household waste was launched in Hangzhou, capital city of Zhejiang province, China. Detailed investigations on the composition and properties of household waste in the experimental communities revealed that high water content and high percentage of food waste are the main limiting factors in the recovery of recyclables, especially paper from household waste, and the main contributors to the high cost and low efficiency of waste disposal. On the basis of the investigation, a novel source separation method, according to which household waste was classified as food waste, dry waste and harmful waste, was proposed and performed in four selected communities. In addition, a corresponding household waste management system that involves all stakeholders, a recovery system and a mechanical dehydration system for food waste were constituted to promote source separation activity. Performances and the questionnaire survey results showed that the active support and investment of a real estate company and a community residential committee play important roles in enhancing public participation and awareness of the importance of waste source separation. In comparison with the conventional mixed collection and transportation system of household waste, the established source separation and management system is cost-effective. It could be extended to the entire city and used by other cities in China as a source of reference

  9. Practically Efficient Blind Speech Separation Using Frequency Band Selection Based on Magnitude Squared Coherence and a Small Dodecahedral Microphone Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunobu Kondo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small agglomerative microphone array systems have been proposed for use with speech communication and recognition systems. Blind source separation methods based on frequency domain independent component analysis have shown significant separation performance, and the microphone arrays are small enough to make them portable. However, the level of computational complexity involved is very high because the conventional signal collection and processing method uses 60 microphones. In this paper, we propose a band selection method based on magnitude squared coherence. Frequency bands are selected based on the spatial and geometric characteristics of the microphone array device which is strongly related to the dodecahedral shape, and the selected bands are nonuniformly spaced. The estimated reduction in the computational complexity is 90% with a 68% reduction in the number of frequency bands. Separation performance achieved during our experimental evaluation was 7.45 (dB (signal-to-noise ratio and 2.30 (dB (cepstral distortion. These results show improvement in performance compared to the use of uniformly spaced frequency band.

  10. Fixed-Point Algorithms for the Blind Separation of Arbitrary Complex-Valued Non-Gaussian Signal Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive new fixed-point algorithms for the blind separation of complex-valued mixtures of independent, noncircularly symmetric, and non-Gaussian source signals. Leveraging recently developed results on the separability of complex-valued signal mixtures, we systematically construct iterative procedures on a kurtosis-based contrast whose evolutionary characteristics are identical to those of the FastICA algorithm of Hyvarinen and Oja in the real-valued mixture case. Thus, our methods inherit the fast convergence properties, computational simplicity, and ease of use of the FastICA algorithm while at the same time extending this class of techniques to complex signal mixtures. For extracting multiple sources, symmetric and asymmetric signal deflation procedures can be employed. Simulations for both noiseless and noisy mixtures indicate that the proposed algorithms have superior finite-sample performance in data-starved scenarios as compared to existing complex ICA methods while performing about as well as the best of these techniques for larger data-record lengths.

  11. Extended nonnegative tensor factorisation models for musical sound source separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Derry; Cranitch, Matt; Coyle, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Recently, shift-invariant tensor factorisation algorithms have been proposed for the purposes of sound source separation of pitched musical instruments. However, in practice, existing algorithms require the use of log-frequency spectrograms to allow shift invariance in frequency which causes problems when attempting to resynthesise the separated sources. Further, it is difficult to impose harmonicity constraints on the recovered basis functions. This paper proposes a new additive synthesis-based approach which allows the use of linear-frequency spectrograms as well as imposing strict harmonic constraints, resulting in an improved model. Further, these additional constraints allow the addition of a source filter model to the factorisation framework, and an extended model which is capable of separating mixtures of pitched and percussive instruments simultaneously.

  12. Extended Nonnegative Tensor Factorisation Models for Musical Sound Source Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derry FitzGerald

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, shift-invariant tensor factorisation algorithms have been proposed for the purposes of sound source separation of pitched musical instruments. However, in practice, existing algorithms require the use of log-frequency spectrograms to allow shift invariance in frequency which causes problems when attempting to resynthesise the separated sources. Further, it is difficult to impose harmonicity constraints on the recovered basis functions. This paper proposes a new additive synthesis-based approach which allows the use of linear-frequency spectrograms as well as imposing strict harmonic constraints, resulting in an improved model. Further, these additional constraints allow the addition of a source filter model to the factorisation framework, and an extended model which is capable of separating mixtures of pitched and percussive instruments simultaneously.

  13. Separating Underdetermined Convolutive Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    a method for underdetermined blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. The proposed framework is applicable for separation of instantaneous as well as convolutive speech mixtures. It is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture by combining blind source separation...

  14. Carbon footprint of urban source separation for nutrient recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerstadius, H; Bernstad Saraiva, A; Spångberg, J; Davidsson, Å

    2017-07-15

    Source separation systems for the management of domestic wastewater and food waste has been suggested as more sustainable sanitation systems for urban areas. The present study used an attributional life cycle assessment to investigate the carbon footprint and potential for nutrient recovery of two sanitation systems for a hypothetical urban area in Southern Sweden. The systems represented a typical Swedish conventional system and a possible source separation system with increased nutrient recovery. The assessment included the management chain from household collection, transport, treatment and final return of nutrients to agriculture or disposal of the residuals. The results for carbon footprint and nutrient recovery (phosphorus and nitrogen) concluded that the source separation system could increase nutrient recovery (0.30-0.38 kg P capita -1 year -1 and 3.10-3.28 kg N capita -1 year -1 ), while decreasing the carbon footprint (-24 to -58 kg CO 2 -eq. capita -1 year -1 ), compared to the conventional system. The nutrient recovery was increased by the use of struvite precipitation and ammonium stripping at the wastewater treatment plant. The carbon footprint decreased, mainly due to the increased biogas production, increased replacement of mineral fertilizer in agriculture and less emissions of nitrous oxide from wastewater treatment. In conclusion, the study showed that source separation systems could potentially be used to increase nutrient recovery from urban areas, while decreasing the climate impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. BAYESIAN SEMI-BLIND COMPONENT SEPARATION FOR FOREGROUND REMOVAL IN INTERFEROMETRIC 21 cm OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Le; Timbie, Peter T. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bunn, Emory F. [Physics Department, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA 23173 (United States); Karakci, Ata; Korotkov, Andrei; Tucker, Gregory S. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Sutter, P. M. [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wandelt, Benjamin D., E-mail: lzhang263@wisc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, we present a new Bayesian semi-blind approach for foreground removal in observations of the 21 cm signal measured by interferometers. The technique, which we call H i Expectation–Maximization Independent Component Analysis (HIEMICA), is an extension of the Independent Component Analysis technique developed for two-dimensional (2D) cosmic microwave background maps to three-dimensional (3D) 21 cm cosmological signals measured by interferometers. This technique provides a fully Bayesian inference of power spectra and maps and separates the foregrounds from the signal based on the diversity of their power spectra. Relying only on the statistical independence of the components, this approach can jointly estimate the 3D power spectrum of the 21 cm signal, as well as the 2D angular power spectrum and the frequency dependence of each foreground component, without any prior assumptions about the foregrounds. This approach has been tested extensively by applying it to mock data from interferometric 21 cm intensity mapping observations under idealized assumptions of instrumental effects. We also discuss the impact when the noise properties are not known completely. As a first step toward solving the 21 cm power spectrum analysis problem, we compare the semi-blind HIEMICA technique to the commonly used Principal Component Analysis. Under the same idealized circumstances, the proposed technique provides significantly improved recovery of the power spectrum. This technique can be applied in a straightforward manner to all 21 cm interferometric observations, including epoch of reionization measurements, and can be extended to single-dish observations as well.

  16. BLUES from Music: BLind Underdetermined Extraction of Sources from Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose to use an instantaneous ICA method (BLUES) to separate the instruments in a real music stereo recording. We combine two strong separation techniques to segregate instruments from a mixture: ICA and binary time-frequency masking. By combining the methods, we are able to make...

  17. Evaluating source separation of plastic waste using conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Jun; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2008-11-01

    Using conjoint analysis, we estimated the willingness to pay (WTP) of households for source separation of plastic waste and the improvement of related environmental impacts, the residents' loss of life expectancy (LLE), the landfill capacity, and the CO2 emissions. Unreliable respondents were identified and removed from the sample based on their answers to follow-up questions. It was found that the utility associated with reducing LLE and with the landfill capacity were both well expressed by logarithmic functions, but that residents were indifferent to the level of CO2 emissions even though they approved of CO2 reduction. In addition, residents derived utility from the act of separating plastic waste, irrespective of its environmental impacts; that is, they were willing to practice the separation of plastic waste at home in anticipation of its "invisible effects", such as the improvement of citizens' attitudes toward solid waste issues.

  18. Blind Source Parameters for Performance Evaluation of Despeckling Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagashettappa Biradar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The speckle noise is inherent to transthoracic echocardiographic images. A standard noise-free reference echocardiographic image does not exist. The evaluation of filters based on the traditional parameters such as peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean square error, and structural similarity index may not reflect the true filter performance on echocardiographic images. Therefore, the performance of despeckling can be evaluated using blind assessment metrics like the speckle suppression index, speckle suppression and mean preservation index (SMPI, and beta metric. The need for noise-free reference image is overcome using these three parameters. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of eleven types of despeckling filters for echocardiographic images in terms of blind and traditional performance parameters along with clinical validation. The noise is effectively suppressed using the logarithmic neighborhood shrinkage (NeighShrink embedded with Stein’s unbiased risk estimation (SURE. The SMPI is three times more effective compared to the wavelet based generalized likelihood estimation approach. The quantitative evaluation and clinical validation reveal that the filters such as the nonlocal mean, posterior sampling based Bayesian estimation, hybrid median, and probabilistic patch based filters are acceptable whereas median, anisotropic diffusion, fuzzy, and Ripplet nonlinear approximation filters have limited applications for echocardiographic images.

  19. Blind Source Parameters for Performance Evaluation of Despeckling Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, Nagashettappa; Dewal, M L; Rohit, ManojKumar; Gowre, Sanjaykumar; Gundge, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    The speckle noise is inherent to transthoracic echocardiographic images. A standard noise-free reference echocardiographic image does not exist. The evaluation of filters based on the traditional parameters such as peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean square error, and structural similarity index may not reflect the true filter performance on echocardiographic images. Therefore, the performance of despeckling can be evaluated using blind assessment metrics like the speckle suppression index, speckle suppression and mean preservation index (SMPI), and beta metric. The need for noise-free reference image is overcome using these three parameters. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of eleven types of despeckling filters for echocardiographic images in terms of blind and traditional performance parameters along with clinical validation. The noise is effectively suppressed using the logarithmic neighborhood shrinkage (NeighShrink) embedded with Stein's unbiased risk estimation (SURE). The SMPI is three times more effective compared to the wavelet based generalized likelihood estimation approach. The quantitative evaluation and clinical validation reveal that the filters such as the nonlocal mean, posterior sampling based Bayesian estimation, hybrid median, and probabilistic patch based filters are acceptable whereas median, anisotropic diffusion, fuzzy, and Ripplet nonlinear approximation filters have limited applications for echocardiographic images.

  20. Energy conversion of source separated packaging; Energiutvinning ur kaellsorterade foerpackningsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blidholm, O; Wiklund, S E [AaF-Energikonsult (Sweden); Bauer, A C [Energikonsult A. Bauer (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    The basic idea of this project is to study the possibilities to use source separated combustible material for energy conversion in conventional solid fuel boilers (i.e. not municipal waste incineration plants). The project has been carried out in three phases. During phase 1 and 2 a number of fuel analyses of different fractions were carried out. During phase 3 two combustion tests were carried out; (1) a boiler with grate equipped with cyclone, electrostatic precipitator and flue gas condenser, and (2) a bubbling fluidized bed boiler with electrostatic precipitator and flue gas condenser. During the tests source separated paper and plastic packagings were co-fired with biomass fuels. The mixing rate of packagings was approximately 15%. This study reports the results of phase 3 and the conclusions of the whole project. The technical terms of using packaging as fuel are good. The technique is available for shredding both paper and plastic packaging. The material can be co-fired with biomass. The economical terms of using source separated packaging for energy conversion can be very advantageous, but can also form obstacles. The result is to a high degree guided by such facts as how the fuel is collected, transported, reduced in size and handled at the combustion plant. The results of the combustion tests show that the environmental terms of using source separated packaging for energy conversion are good. The emissions of heavy metals into the atmosphere are very low. The emissions are well below the emission standards for waste incineration plants. 35 figs, 13 tabs, 8 appendices

  1. Source signature estimation from multimode surface waves via mode-separated virtual real source method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingli; Pan, Yudi

    2018-05-01

    The correct estimation of the seismic source signature is crucial to exploration geophysics. Based on seismic interferometry, the virtual real source (VRS) method provides a model-independent way for source signature estimation. However, when encountering multimode surface waves, which are commonly seen in the shallow seismic survey, strong spurious events appear in seismic interferometric results. These spurious events introduce errors in the virtual-source recordings and reduce the accuracy of the source signature estimated by the VRS method. In order to estimate a correct source signature from multimode surface waves, we propose a mode-separated VRS method. In this method, multimode surface waves are mode separated before seismic interferometry. Virtual-source recordings are then obtained by applying seismic interferometry to each mode individually. Therefore, artefacts caused by cross-mode correlation are excluded in the virtual-source recordings and the estimated source signatures. A synthetic example showed that a correct source signature can be estimated with the proposed method, while strong spurious oscillation occurs in the estimated source signature if we do not apply mode separation first. We also applied the proposed method to a field example, which verified its validity and effectiveness in estimating seismic source signature from shallow seismic shot gathers containing multimode surface waves.

  2. Vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces for nutrient recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kunwar D; Tare, Vinod; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the suitability of vermicomposting technology for processing source-separated human faeces. Since the earthworm species Eisenia fetida could not survive in fresh faeces, modification in the physical characteristics of faeces was necessary before earthworms could be introduced to faeces. A preliminary study with six different combinations of faeces, soil and bulking material (vermicompost) in different layers was conducted to find out the best condition for biomass growth and reproduction of earthworms. The results indicated that SVFV combination (soil, vermicompost, faeces and vermicompost - bottom to top layers) was the best for earthworm biomass growth indicating the positive role of soil layer in earthworm biomass growth. Further studies with SVFV and VFV combinations, however, showed that soil layer did not enhance vermicompost production rate. Year-long study conducted with VFV combination to assess the quality and quantity of vermicompost produced showed an average vermicompost production rate of 0.30kg-cast/kg-worm/day. The vermicompost produced was mature as indicated by low dissolved organic carbon (2.4+/-0.43mg/g) and low oxygen uptake rate (0.15+/-0.09mg O(2)/g VS/h). Complete inactivation of total coliforms was noted during the study, which is one of the important objectives of human faeces processing. Results of the study thus indicated the potential of vermicomposting for processing of source-separated human faeces.

  3. Blind estimation of the number of speech source in reverberant multisource scenarios based on binaural signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; van de Par, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for estimating the number of active speech sources in the presence of interfering noise sources and reverberation. First, a binaural front-end is used to detect the spatial positions of all active sound sources, resulting in a binary mask for each candidate...... on a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. A systematic analysis shows that the proposed algorithm is able to blindly determine the number and the corresponding spatial positions of speech sources in multisource scenarios and generalizes well to unknown acoustic conditions...

  4. Reverse osmosis brine for phosphorus recovery from source separated urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiujun; Wang, Guotian; Guan, Detian; Li, Jiuyi; Wang, Aimin; Li, Jin; Yu, Zhe; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Zhongguo

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from waste streams has recently been recognized as a key step in the sustainable supply of this indispensable and non-renewable resource. The feasibility of using brine from a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane unit treating cooling water as a precipitant for P recovery from source separated urine was evaluated in the present study. P removal efficiency, process parameters and precipitate properties were investigated in batch and continuous flow experiments. More than 90% of P removal was obtained from both undiluted fresh and hydrolyzed urines by mixing with RO brine (1:1, v/v) at a pH over 9.0. Around 2.58 and 1.24 Kg of precipitates could be recovered from 1 m 3 hydrolyzed and fresh urine, respectively, and the precipitated solids contain 8.1-19.0% of P, 10.3-15.2% of Ca, 3.7-5.0% of Mg and 0.1-3.5% of ammonium nitrogen. Satisfactory P removal performance was also achieved in a continuous flow precipitation reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 3-6 h. RO brine could be considered as urinal and toilet flush water despite of a marginally higher precipitation tendency than tap water. This study provides a widely available, low - cost and efficient precipitant for P recovery in urban areas, which will make P recovery from urine more economically attractive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effects of Environmental Management Systems on Source Separation in the Work and Home Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris von Borgstede

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Measures that challenge the generation of waste are needed to address the global problem of the increasing volumes of waste that are generated in both private homes and workplaces. Source separation at the workplace is commonly implemented by environmental management systems (EMS. In the present study, the relationship between source separation at work and at home was investigated. A questionnaire that maps psychological and behavioural predictors of source separation was distributed to employees at different workplaces. The results show that respondents with awareness of EMS report higher levels of source separation at work, stronger environmental concern, personal and social norms, and perceive source separation to be less difficult. Furthermore, the results support the notion that after the adoption of EMS at the workplace, source separation at work spills over into source separation in the household. The potential implications for environmental management systems are discussed.

  6. Back-trajectory modeling of high time-resolution air measurement data to separate nearby sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strategies to isolate air pollution contributions from sources is of interest as voluntary or regulatory measures are undertaken to reduce air pollution. When different sources are located in close proximity to one another and have similar emissions, separating source emissions ...

  7. Asymmetric Joint Source-Channel Coding for Correlated Sources with Blind HMM Estimation at the Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ser Javier Del

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the case of two correlated sources, and . The correlation between them has memory, and it is modelled by a hidden Markov chain. The paper studies the problem of reliable communication of the information sent by the source over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel when the output of the other source is available as side information at the receiver. We assume that the receiver has no a priori knowledge of the correlation statistics between the sources. In particular, we propose the use of a turbo code for joint source-channel coding of the source . The joint decoder uses an iterative scheme where the unknown parameters of the correlation model are estimated jointly within the decoding process. It is shown that reliable communication is possible at signal-to-noise ratios close to the theoretical limits set by the combination of Shannon and Slepian-Wolf theorems.

  8. Bayesian mixture models for source separation in MEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvetti, Daniela; Homa, Laura; Somersalo, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of imaging electromagnetic brain activity from measurements of the induced magnetic field outside the head. This imaging modality, magnetoencephalography (MEG), is known to be severely ill posed, and in order to obtain useful estimates for the activity map, complementary information needs to be used to regularize the problem. In this paper, a particular emphasis is on finding non-superficial focal sources that induce a magnetic field that may be confused with noise due to external sources and with distributed brain noise. The data are assumed to come from a mixture of a focal source and a spatially distributed possibly virtual source; hence, to differentiate between those two components, the problem is solved within a Bayesian framework, with a mixture model prior encoding the information that different sources may be concurrently active. The mixture model prior combines one density that favors strongly focal sources and another that favors spatially distributed sources, interpreted as clutter in the source estimation. Furthermore, to address the challenge of localizing deep focal sources, a novel depth sounding algorithm is suggested, and it is shown with simulated data that the method is able to distinguish between a signal arising from a deep focal source and a clutter signal. (paper)

  9. Separation of source and propagation effects at regional distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, P.; Jarpe, S.; Mayeda, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Improved estimates of the contributions of source and propagation effects to regional seismic signals are needed to explain the performance of existing discriminants and to help develop more robust methods for identifying underground explosions. In this paper, we use close-in, local, and regional estimates of explosion source time functions to remove source effects from regional recordings of the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), a one kiloton chemical explosion in N-tunnel at Rainier Mesa on the Nevada Test Site, and nearby nuclear explosions and earthquakes. Using source corrected regional waveforms, we find that regional Pg and Lg spectra of shallow explosions have significant low frequency ({approximately}1Hz) enhancements when compared to normal depth earthquakes. Data and simulations suggest that such enhancements are most sensitive to source depth, but may also be a function of mechanism, source receiver distance, and regional structure.

  10. Residents’ Household Solid Waste (HSW Source Separation Activity: A Case Study of Suzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the Suzhou government has provided household solid waste (HSW source separation since 2000, the program remains largely ineffective. Between January and March 2014, the authors conducted an intercept survey in five different community groups in Suzhou, and 505 valid surveys were completed. Based on the survey, the authors used an ordered probit regression to study residents’ HSW source separation activities for both Suzhou and for the five community groups. Results showed that 43% of the respondents in Suzhou thought they knew how to source separate HSW, and 29% of them have source separated HSW accurately. The results also found that the current HSW source separation pilot program in Suzhou is valid, as HSW source separation facilities and residents’ separation behavior both became better and better along with the program implementation. The main determinants of residents’ HSW source separation behavior are residents’ age, HSW source separation facilities and government preferential policies. The accessibility to waste management service is particularly important. Attitudes and willingness do not have significant impacts on residents’ HSW source separation behavior.

  11. A harmonic excitation state-space approach to blind separation of speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Rasmus Kongsgaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2005-01-01

    We discuss an identification framework for noisy speech mixtures. A block-based generative model is formulated that explicitly incorporates the time-varying harmonic plus noise (H+N) model for a number of latent sources observed through noisy convolutive mixtures. All parameters including...

  12. Source Separation of Heartbeat Sounds for Effective E-Auscultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethu, R. S.; Krishnakumar, M.; Pramod, K. V.; George, Sudhish N.

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a cost effective solution for improving the effectiveness of e-auscultation. Auscultation is the most difficult skill for a doctor, since it can be acquired only through experience. The heart sound mixtures are captured by placing the four numbers of sensors at appropriate auscultation area in the body. These sound mixtures are separated to its relevant components by a statistical method independent component analysis. The separated heartbeat sounds can be further processed or can be stored for future reference. This idea can be used for making a low cost, easy to use portable instrument which will be beneficial to people living in remote areas and are unable to take the advantage of advanced diagnosis methods.

  13. Blind Channel Equalization with Colored Source Based on Constrained Optimization Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayong Zhou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tsatsanis and Xu have applied the constrained minimum output variance (CMOV principle to directly blind equalize a linear channel—a technique that has proven effective with white inputs. It is generally assumed in the literature that their CMOV method can also effectively equalize a linear channel with a colored source. In this paper, we prove that colored inputs will cause the equalizer to incorrectly converge due to inadequate constraints. We also introduce a new blind channel equalizer algorithm that is based on the CMOV principle, but with a different constraint that will correctly handle colored sources. Our proposed algorithm works for channels with either white or colored inputs and performs equivalently to the trained minimum mean-square error (MMSE equalizer under high SNR. Thus, our proposed algorithm may be regarded as an extension of the CMOV algorithm proposed by Tsatsanis and Xu. We also introduce several methods to improve the performance of our introduced algorithm in the low SNR condition. Simulation results show the superior performance of our proposed methods.

  14. Source separation on hyperspectral cube applied to dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, J.; Jolivot, R.; Vabres, P.; Marzani, F. S.

    2010-03-01

    This paper proposes a method of quantification of the components underlying the human skin that are supposed to be responsible for the effective reflectance spectrum of the skin over the visible wavelength. The method is based on independent component analysis assuming that the epidermal melanin and the dermal haemoglobin absorbance spectra are independent of each other. The method extracts the source spectra that correspond to the ideal absorbance spectra of melanin and haemoglobin. The noisy melanin spectrum is fixed using a polynomial fit and the quantifications associated with it are reestimated. The results produce feasible quantifications of each source component in the examined skin patch.

  15. Separation of non-stationary multi-source sound field based on the interpolated time-domain equivalent source method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chuan-Xing; Geng, Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Zheng

    2016-05-01

    In the sound field with multiple non-stationary sources, the measured pressure is the sum of the pressures generated by all sources, and thus cannot be used directly for studying the vibration and sound radiation characteristics of every source alone. This paper proposes a separation model based on the interpolated time-domain equivalent source method (ITDESM) to separate the pressure field belonging to every source from the non-stationary multi-source sound field. In the proposed method, ITDESM is first extended to establish the relationship between the mixed time-dependent pressure and all the equivalent sources distributed on every source with known location and geometry information, and all the equivalent source strengths at each time step are solved by an iterative solving process; then, the corresponding equivalent source strengths of one interested source are used to calculate the pressure field generated by that source alone. Numerical simulation of two baffled circular pistons demonstrates that the proposed method can be effective in separating the non-stationary pressure generated by every source alone in both time and space domains. An experiment with two speakers in a semi-anechoic chamber further evidences the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. How Many Separable Sources? Model Selection In Independent Components Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, Roger P.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Strother, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    among potential model categories with differing numbers of Gaussian components. Based on simulation studies, the assumptions and approximations underlying the Akaike Information Criterion do not hold in this setting, even with a very large number of observations. Cross-validation is a suitable, though....../Principal Components Analysis (mixed ICA/PCA) model described here accommodates one or more Gaussian components in the independent components analysis model and uses principal components analysis to characterize contributions from this inseparable Gaussian subspace. Information theory can then be used to select from...... might otherwise be questionable. Failure of the Akaike Information Criterion in model selection also has relevance in traditional independent components analysis where all sources are assumed non-Gaussian....

  17. A robust physiology-based source separation method for QRS detection in low amplitude fetal ECG recordings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vullings, R; Bergmans, J W M; Peters, C H L; Hermans, M J M; Wijn, P F F; Oei, S G

    2010-01-01

    The use of the non-invasively obtained fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) in fetal monitoring is complicated by the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ECG signals. Even after removal of the predominant interference (i.e. the maternal ECG), the SNR is generally too low for medical diagnostics, and hence additional signal processing is still required. To this end, several methods for exploiting the spatial correlation of multi-channel fetal ECG recordings from the maternal abdomen have been proposed in the literature, of which principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) are the most prominent. Both PCA and ICA, however, suffer from the drawback that they are blind source separation (BSS) techniques and as such suboptimum in that they do not consider a priori knowledge on the abdominal electrode configuration and fetal heart activity. In this paper we propose a source separation technique that is based on the physiology of the fetal heart and on the knowledge of the electrode configuration. This technique operates by calculating the spatial fetal vectorcardiogram (VCG) and approximating the VCG for several overlayed heartbeats by an ellipse. By subsequently projecting the VCG onto the long axis of this ellipse, a source signal of the fetal ECG can be obtained. To evaluate the developed technique, its performance is compared to that of both PCA and ICA and to that of augmented versions of these techniques (aPCA and aICA; PCA and ICA applied on preprocessed signals) in generating a fetal ECG source signal with enhanced SNR that can be used to detect fetal QRS complexes. The evaluation shows that the developed source separation technique performs slightly better than aPCA and aICA and outperforms PCA and ICA and has the main advantage that, with respect to aPCA/PCA and aICA/ICA, it performs more robustly. This advantage renders it favorable for employment in automated, real-time fetal monitoring applications

  18. Empirical Study on Factors Influencing Residents' Behavior of Separating Household Wastes at Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Ying; Zhu Qinghua; Murray Haight

    2007-01-01

    Source separation is the basic premise for making effective use of household wastes. In eight cities of China, however, several pilot projects of source separation finally failed because of the poor participation rate of residents. In order to solve this problem, identifying those factors that influence residents' behavior of source separation becomes crucial. By means of questionnaire survey, we conducted descriptive analysis and exploratory factor analysis. The results show that trouble-feeling, moral notion, environment protection, public education, environment value and knowledge deficiency are the main factors that play an important role for residents in deciding to separate their household wastes. Also, according to the contribution percentage of the six main factors to the total behavior of source separation, their influencing power is analyzed, which will provide suggestions on household waste management for policy makers and decision makers in China.

  19. Single-channel source separation using non-negative matrix factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    -determined and its solution relies on making appropriate assumptions concerning the sources. This dissertation is concerned with model-based probabilistic single-channel source separation based on non-negative matrix factorization, and consists of two parts: i) three introductory chapters and ii) five published...... papers. The first part introduces the single-channel source separation problem as well as non-negative matrix factorization and provides a comprehensive review of existing approaches, applications, and practical algorithms. This serves to provide context for the second part, the published papers......, in which a number of methods for single-channel source separation based on non-negative matrix factorization are presented. In the papers, the methods are applied to separating audio signals such as speech and musical instruments and separating different types of tissue in chemical shift imaging....

  20. Separation of radiation from two sources from their known radiated sum field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Pivnenko, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for complete and exact separation of the radiated fields of two sources (at the same frequency) from the knowledge of their radiated sum field. The two sources can be arbitrary but it must be possible to enclose the sources inside their own non-intersecting minimum...

  1. An incentive-based source separation model for sustainable municipal solid waste management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanying; Zhou, Chuanbin; Lan, Yajun; Jin, Jiasheng; Cao, Aixin

    2015-05-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management (MSWM) is most important and challenging in large urban communities. Sound community-based waste management systems normally include waste reduction and material recycling elements, often entailing the separation of recyclable materials by the residents. To increase the efficiency of source separation and recycling, an incentive-based source separation model was designed and this model was tested in 76 households in Guiyang, a city of almost three million people in southwest China. This model embraced the concepts of rewarding households for sorting organic waste, government funds for waste reduction, and introducing small recycling enterprises for promoting source separation. Results show that after one year of operation, the waste reduction rate was 87.3%, and the comprehensive net benefit under the incentive-based source separation model increased by 18.3 CNY tonne(-1) (2.4 Euros tonne(-1)), compared to that under the normal model. The stakeholder analysis (SA) shows that the centralized MSW disposal enterprises had minimum interest and may oppose the start-up of a new recycling system, while small recycling enterprises had a primary interest in promoting the incentive-based source separation model, but they had the least ability to make any change to the current recycling system. The strategies for promoting this incentive-based source separation model are also discussed in this study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Stationary plasma source of heavy ions for imitating research at the separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuferov, V.B.; Sharyj, S.V.; Seroshtanov, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    The imitation gas mix choice for experimenting on the demonstration imitation separator have been grounded. The construction of plasma source is changed. The research of operating conditions and contrastive analysis of received characteristics have been carry out

  3. Online Artifact Removal for Brain-Computer Interfaces Using Support Vector Machines and Blind Source Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Halder

    2007-01-01

    that are designed for online usage. In order to select a suitable BSS/ICA method, three ICA algorithms (JADE, Infomax, and FastICA and one BSS algorithm (AMUSE are evaluated to determine their ability to isolate electromyographic (EMG and electrooculographic (EOG artifacts into individual components. An implementation of the selected BSS/ICA method with SVMs trained to classify EMG and EOG artifacts, which enables the usage of the method as a filter in measurements with online feedback, is described. This filter is evaluated on three BCI datasets as a proof-of-concept of the method.

  4. Fate of pharmaceuticals in full-scale source separated sanitation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Zeeman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Removal of 14 pharmaceuticals and 3 of their transformation products was studied in a full-scale source separated sanitation system with separate collection and treatment of black water and grey water. Black water is treated in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by

  5. Rhythmic entrainment source separation: Optimizing analyses of neural responses to rhythmic sensory stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, M.S.; Gulbinaite, R.

    2017-01-01

    Steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs) are rhythmic brain responses to rhythmic sensory stimulation, and are often used to study perceptual and attentional processes. We present a data analysis method for maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the narrow-band steady-state response in the frequency and time-frequency domains. The method, termed rhythmic entrainment source separation (RESS), is based on denoising source separation approaches that take advantage of the simultaneous but differen...

  6. Factors influencing source separation intention and willingness to pay for improving waste management in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujitra Vassanadumrongdee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Source separation for recycling has been recognized as a way to achieve sustainable municipal solid waste (MSW management. However, most developing countries including Thailand have been facing with lack of recycling facilities and low level of source separation practice. By employing questionnaire surveys, this study investigated Bangkok residents' source separation intention and willingness to pay (WTP for improving MSW service and recycling facilities (n = 1076. This research extended the theory of planned behavior to explore the effects of both internal and external factors. The survey highlighted perceived inconvenience and mistrust on MSW collection being major barriers to carrying out source separation in Bangkok. Promoting source separation at workplace may possibly create spill-over effect to people's intention to recycle their waste at home. Both subjective norms and knowledge on MSW situation were found to be a positive correlation with Bangkok residents' source separation intention and WTP (p < 0.001. Besides, the average WTP values are higher than the existing rate of waste collection service, which shows that Bangkok residents have preference for recycling programs. However, the WTP figures are still much lower than the average MSW management cost. These findings suggest that Bangkok Metropolitan Administration targets improving people knowledge on waste problems that could have adverse impact on the economy and well-being of Bangkok residents and improve its MSW collection service as these factors have positive influence on residents' WTP.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of pretreatment technologies for anaerobic digestion of source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The environmental performance of two pretreatment technologies for source-separated organic waste was compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). An innovative pulping process where source-separated organic waste is pulped with cold water forming a volatile solid rich biopulp was compared to a more...... including a number of non-toxic and toxic impact categories were assessed. No big difference in the overall performance of the two technologies was observed. The difference for the separate life cycle steps was, however, more pronounced. More efficient material transfer in the scenario with waste pulping...

  8. Materials recovery system for source-separated noncombustible rubbish and bulky waste in Nishinomiya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Yoshihiro

    1987-01-01

    Since 1980, the city of Nishinomiya has been recovering materials from source-separated non-combustible and bulky waste to reduce the amount of final disposal. Materials amounting to 33-39% of the throughput are recovered in the Shredding and Separation Facility, which consists of a manual separation system, a mechanical separation system, a shredder, a pair of shears and incinerators. The facility system is shown in order of processing of the waste. The secondary pollution control, safety equipment, instrumentation, etc., are also described. The recovery percentage and use of revenues are explained in detail.

  9. Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cees Buisman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on literature data to compare energy and water balance, nutrient recovery, chemical use, effluent quality and land area requirement in four different sanitation concepts: (1 centralized; (2 centralized with source-separation of urine; (3 source-separation of black water, kitchen refuse and grey water; and (4 source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. The highest primary energy consumption of 914 MJ/capita(cap/year was attained within the centralized sanitation concept, and the lowest primary energy consumption of 437 MJ/cap/year was attained within source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. Grey water bio-flocculation and subsequent grey water sludge co-digestion decreased the primary energy consumption, but was not energetically favorable to couple with grey water effluent reuse. Source-separation of urine improved the energy balance, nutrient recovery and effluent quality, but required larger land area and higher chemical use in the centralized concept.

  10. A particle velocity based method for separating all multi incoherent sound sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, J.C.; Yntema, Doekle Reinder; Druyvesteyn, W.F.; de Bree, H.E.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to separate the contributions of different uncorrelated sound sources to the total sound field. When the contribution of each sound source to the total sound field is known, techniques with array-applications like direct sound field measurements or inverse acoustics

  11. Using spatiotemporal source separation to identify prominent features in multichannel data without sinusoidal filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X

    2017-09-27

    The number of simultaneously recorded electrodes in neuroscience is steadily increasing, providing new opportunities for understanding brain function, but also new challenges for appropriately dealing with the increase in dimensionality. Multivariate source separation analysis methods have been particularly effective at improving signal-to-noise ratio while reducing the dimensionality of the data and are widely used for cleaning, classifying and source-localizing multichannel neural time series data. Most source separation methods produce a spatial component (that is, a weighted combination of channels to produce one time series); here, this is extended to apply source separation to a time series, with the idea of obtaining a weighted combination of successive time points, such that the weights are optimized to satisfy some criteria. This is achieved via a two-stage source separation procedure, in which an optimal spatial filter is first constructed and then its optimal temporal basis function is computed. This second stage is achieved with a time-delay-embedding matrix, in which additional rows of a matrix are created from time-delayed versions of existing rows. The optimal spatial and temporal weights can be obtained by solving a generalized eigendecomposition of covariance matrices. The method is demonstrated in simulated data and in an empirical electroencephalogram study on theta-band activity during response conflict. Spatiotemporal source separation has several advantages, including defining empirical filters without the need to apply sinusoidal narrowband filters. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Audio Source Separation in Reverberant Environments Using β-Divergence-Based Nonnegative Factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakhry, Mahmoud; Svaizer, Piergiorgio; Omologo, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    -maximization algorithm and used to separate the signals by means of multichannel Wiener filtering. We propose to estimate these parameters by applying nonnegative factorization based on prior information on source variances. In the nonnegative factorization, spectral basis matrices can be defined as the prior...... information. The matrices can be either extracted or indirectly made available through a redundant library that is trained in advance. In a separate step, applying nonnegative tensor factorization, two algorithms are proposed in order to either extract or detect the basis matrices that best represent......In Gaussian model-based multichannel audio source separation, the likelihood of observed mixtures of source signals is parametrized by source spectral variances and by associated spatial covariance matrices. These parameters are estimated by maximizing the likelihood through an expectation...

  13. Separation of zeros for source signature identification under reverberant path conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomomi; Tohyama, Mikio

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents an approach to distinguishing the zeros representing a sound source from those representing the transfer function on the basis of Lyon's residue-sign model. In machinery noise diagnostics, the source signature must be separated from observation records under reverberant path conditions. In numerical examples and an experimental piano-string vibration analysis, the modal responses could be synthesized by using clustered line-spectrum modeling. The modeling error represented the source signature subject to the source characteristics being given by a finite impulse response. The modeling error can be interpreted as a remainder function necessary for the zeros representing the source signature. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  14. Life cycle assessment of a household solid waste source separation programme: a Swedish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-10-01

    The environmental impact of an extended property close source-separation system for solid household waste (i.e., a systems for collection of recyclables from domestic properties) is investigated in a residential area in southern Sweden. Since 2001, households have been able to source-separate waste into six fractions of dry recyclables and food waste sorting. The current system was evaluated using the EASEWASTE life cycle assessment tool. Current status is compared with an ideal scenario in which households display perfect source-separation behaviour and a scenario without any material recycling. Results show that current recycling provides substantial environmental benefits compared to a non-recycling alternative. The environmental benefit varies greatly between recyclable fractions, and the recyclables currently most frequently source-separated by households are often not the most beneficial from an environmental perspective. With optimal source-separation of all recyclables, the current net contribution to global warming could be changed to a net-avoidance while current avoidance of nutrient enrichment, acidification and photochemical ozone formation could be doubled. Sensitivity analyses show that the type of energy substituted by incineration of non-recycled waste, as well as energy used in recycling processes and in the production of materials substituted by waste recycling, is of high relevance for the attained results.

  15. Municipal solid waste source-separated collection in China: A comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai Jun; Zhang Weiqian; Che Yue; Feng Di

    2011-01-01

    A pilot program focusing on municipal solid waste (MSW) source-separated collection was launched in eight major cities throughout China in 2000. Detailed investigations were carried out and a comprehensive system was constructed to evaluate the effects of the eight-year implementation in those cities. This paper provides an overview of different methods of collection, transportation, and treatment of MSW in the eight cities; as well as making a comparative analysis of MSW source-separated collection in China. Information about the quantity and composition of MSW shows that the characteristics of MSW are similar, which are low calorific value, high moisture content and high proportion of organisms. Differences which exist among the eight cities in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) are presented in this paper. Only Beijing and Shanghai demonstrated a relatively effective result in the implementation of MSW source-separated collection. While the six remaining cities result in poor performance. Considering the current status of MSWM, source-separated collection should be a key priority. Thus, a wider range of cities should participate in this program instead of merely the eight pilot cities. It is evident that an integrated MSWM system is urgently needed. Kitchen waste and recyclables are encouraged to be separated at the source. Stakeholders involved play an important role in MSWM, thus their responsibilities should be clearly identified. Improvement in legislation, coordination mechanisms and public education are problematic issues that need to be addressed.

  16. Design of Smart Ion-Selective Electrode Arrays Based on Source Separation through Nonlinear Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte L.T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of chemical sensor arrays based on Blind Source Separation (BSS provides a promising solution to overcome the interference problem associated with Ion-Selective Electrodes (ISE. The main motivation behind this new approach is to ease the time-demanding calibration stage. While the first works on this problem only considered the case in which the ions under analysis have equal valences, the present work aims at developing a BSS technique that works when the ions have different charges. In this situation, the resulting mixing model belongs to a particular class of nonlinear systems that have never been studied in the BSS literature. In order to tackle this sort of mixing process, we adopted a recurrent network as separating system. Moreover, concerning the BSS learning strategy, we develop a mutual information minimization approach based on the notion of the differential of the mutual information. The method works requires a batch operation, and, thus, can be used to perform off-line analysis. The validity of our approach is supported by experiments where the mixing model parameters were extracted from actual data.

  17. Kurtosis based blind source extraction of complex noncircular signals with application in EEG artifact removal in real-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush eJavidi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new class of complex domain blind source extraction (BSE algorithms suitable for the extraction of both circular and noncircular complex signals is proposed. This is achieved through sequential extraction based on the degree of kurtosis and in the presence of noncircular measurement noise. The existence and uniqueness analysis of the solution is followed by a study of fast converging variants of the algorithm. The performance is first assessed through simulations on well understood benchmark signals, followed by a case study on real-time artifact removal from EEG signals, verified using both qualitative and quantitative metrics. The results illustrate the power of the proposed approach in real-time blind extraction of general complex-valued sources.

  18. Treatment of Source-Separated Blackwater: A Decentralized Strategy for Nutrient Recovery towards a Circular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Melesse Eshetu Moges; Daniel Todt; Arve Heistad

    2018-01-01

    Using a filter medium for organic matter removal and nutrient recovery from blackwater treatment is a novel concept and has not been investigated sufficiently to date. This paper demonstrates a combined blackwater treatment and nutrient-recovery strategy and establishes mechanisms for a more dependable source of plant nutrients aiming at a circular economy. Source-separated blackwater from a student dormitory was used as feedstock for a sludge blanket anaerobic-baffled reactor. The effluent f...

  19. Residents’ Preferences for Household Kitchen Waste Source Separation Services in Beijing: A Choice Experiment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A source separation program for household kitchen waste has been in place in Beijing since 2010. However, the participation rate of residents is far from satisfactory. This study was carried out to identify residents’ preferences based on an improved management strategy for household kitchen waste source separation. We determine the preferences of residents in an ad hoc sample, according to their age level, for source separation services and their marginal willingness to accept compensation for the service attributes. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the data, collected from 394 residents in Haidian and Dongcheng districts of Beijing City through a choice experiment. The results show there are differences of preferences on the services attributes between young, middle, and old age residents. Low compensation is not a major factor to promote young and middle age residents accept the proposed separation services. However, on average, most of them prefer services with frequent, evening, plastic bag attributes and without instructor. This study indicates that there is a potential for local government to improve the current separation services accordingly.

  20. Survival of enteric bacteria in source-separated human urine used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MAKAYA

    Urine in Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) Cultivation. Agric. Food Sci. 18:57-68. Pronk W, Koné D (2010). Options for urine treatment in developing countries. Desalination 251:360-368. Schönning C, Leeming R, Stenström TA (2002). Faecal contamination of source-separated human urine based on the content of faecal sterols ...

  1. Source Separation and Treament of Anthropogenic Urine (WERF Report INFR4SG09b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Anthropogenic urine, although only 1% of domestic wastewater flow, is responsible for 50-80% of the nutrients and a substantial portion of the pharmaceuticals and hormones present in the influent to wastewater treatment plants. Source separation and treatment of urine...

  2. Technologies for the treatment of source-separated urine in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technologies for the treatment of source-separated urine in the eThekwini ... This practice can lead to environmental pollution, since urine contains high amounts of ... produces only distilled water and a small amount of sludge as by-products.

  3. Basic studies of a gas-jet-coupled ion source for on-line isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Novick, V.J.; Greenwood, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    A hollow-cathode ion source was used in a gas-jet-coupled configuration to produce ion beams of fission products transported to it from a 252 Cf fission source. Solid aerosols of NaCl and Ag were used effectively as activity carriers in the gas-jet system. Flat-plate skimmers provided an effective coupling of the ion source to the gas jet. Ge(Li) spectrometric measurements of the activity deposited on an ion-beam collector relative to that deposited on a pre-skimmer collector were used to obtain separation efficiencies ranging from 0.1% to > 1% for Sr, Y, Tc, Te, Cs, Ba, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm. The use of CCl 4 as a support gas resulted in a significant enhancement of the alkaline-earth and rare-earth separation efficiencies

  4. Development of the high temperature ion-source for the Grenoble electromagnetic isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouriant, M.

    1968-01-01

    The production of high purity stable or radioactive isotopes (≥ 99.99 per cent) using electromagnetic separation require for equipment having a high resolving power. Besides, and in order to collect rare or short half-life isotopes, the efficiency of the ion-source must be high (η > 5 to 10 per cent). With this in view, the source built operates at high temperatures (2500-3000 C) and makes use of ionisation by electronic bombardment or of thermo-ionisation. A summary is given in the first part of this work on the essential characteristics of the isotope separator ion Sources; a diagram of the principle of the source built is then given together with its characteristics. In the second part are given the values of the resolving power and of the efficiency of the Grenoble isotope separator fitted with such a source. The resolving power measured at 10 per cent of the peak height is of the order of 200. At the first magnetic stage the efficiency is between 1 and 26 per cent for a range of elements evaporating between 200 and 3000 C. Thus equipped, the separator has for example given, at the first stage, 10 mg of 180 Hf at (99.69 ± 0.1) per cent corresponding to an enrichment coefficient of 580; recently 2 mg of 150 Nd at (99.996 ± 0.002) per cent corresponding to an enrichment coefficient of 4.2 x 10 5 has been obtained at the second stage. (author) [fr

  5. Effectiveness of the custom-mold room temperature vulcanizing silicone toe separator on hallux valgus: A prospective, randomized single-blinded controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadchavalpanichaya, Navaporn; Prakotmongkol, Voraluck; Polhan, Nattapong; Rayothee, Pitchaya; Seng-Iad, Sirirat

    2018-04-01

    Silicone toe separator is considered as a conservative treatment for hallux valgus. The prefabricated toe separator does not fit all. However, effectiveness in prescription of the custom-mold toe separator is still unknown. To investigate the effect of using a custom-mold room temperature vulcanizing silicone toe separator to decrease hallux valgus angle and hallux pain. The compliances, complications, and satisfactions of toe separator were also explored. A prospective, randomized single-blinded controlled trial. A total of 90 patients with a moderate degree of hallux valgus were enrolled in a study at the Foot Clinic, Siriraj Hospital, Thailand. Patients were randomized into two groups; the study group was prescribed a custom-mold room temperature vulcanizing silicone toe separator for 6 h per night for 12 months. Patients in both groups received proper foot care and shoes and were permitted to continue drug treatment. In total, 40 patients in the study group and 39 patients in the control group completed the study. The hallux valgus angle was obtained through radiographic measurement. At month 12, both groups had significant differences in mean hallux valgus angle with a decrease of 3.3° ± 2.4° for the study group and increase of 1.9° ± 1.9° for the control group. There were statistically significant differences of hallux valgus angle between the two groups ( p Hallux pain was decreased in the study group. A custom-mold room temperature vulcanizing silicone toe separator can decrease hallux valgus angle and pain with no serious complications. Clinical relevance The custom-mold room temperature vulcanizing silicone toe separator for treatment of hallux valgus reduces deformity and hallux pain.

  6. Separation of simultaneous sources using a structural-oriented median filter in the flattened dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Shuwei; Wang, Shoudong; Chen, Yangkang; Chen, Xiaohong; Xiang, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous-source shooting can help tremendously shorten the acquisition period and improve the quality of seismic data for better subsalt seismic imaging, but at the expense of introducing strong interference (blending noise) to the acquired seismic data. We propose to use a structural-oriented median filter to attenuate the blending noise along the structural direction of seismic profiles. The principle of the proposed approach is to first flatten the seismic record in local spatial windows and then to apply a traditional median filter (MF) to the third flattened dimension. The key component of the proposed approach is the estimation of the local slope, which can be calculated by first scanning the NMO velocity and then transferring the velocity to the local slope. Both synthetic and field data examples show that the proposed approach can successfully separate the simultaneous-source data into individual sources. We provide an open-source toy example to better demonstratethe proposed methodology.

  7. Efficient image enhancement using sparse source separation in the Retinex theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jongsu; Choi, Jangwon; Choe, Yoonsik

    2017-11-01

    Color constancy is the feature of the human vision system (HVS) that ensures the relative constancy of the perceived color of objects under varying illumination conditions. The Retinex theory of machine vision systems is based on the HVS. Among Retinex algorithms, the physics-based algorithms are efficient; however, they generally do not satisfy the local characteristics of the original Retinex theory because they eliminate global illumination from their optimization. We apply the sparse source separation technique to the Retinex theory to present a physics-based algorithm that satisfies the locality characteristic of the original Retinex theory. Previous Retinex algorithms have limited use in image enhancement because the total variation Retinex results in an overly enhanced image and the sparse source separation Retinex cannot completely restore the original image. In contrast, our proposed method preserves the image edge and can very nearly replicate the original image without any special operation.

  8. Rhythmic entrainment source separation: Optimizing analyses of neural responses to rhythmic sensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X; Gulbinaite, Rasa

    2017-02-15

    Steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs) are rhythmic brain responses to rhythmic sensory stimulation, and are often used to study perceptual and attentional processes. We present a data analysis method for maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the narrow-band steady-state response in the frequency and time-frequency domains. The method, termed rhythmic entrainment source separation (RESS), is based on denoising source separation approaches that take advantage of the simultaneous but differential projection of neural activity to multiple electrodes or sensors. Our approach is a combination and extension of existing multivariate source separation methods. We demonstrate that RESS performs well on both simulated and empirical data, and outperforms conventional SSEP analysis methods based on selecting electrodes with the strongest SSEP response, as well as several other linear spatial filters. We also discuss the potential confound of overfitting, whereby the filter captures noise in absence of a signal. Matlab scripts are available to replicate and extend our simulations and methods. We conclude with some practical advice for optimizing SSEP data analyses and interpreting the results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ion source development for the on-line isotope separator at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, R.; Burkard, K.; Hueller, W.; Klepper, O.

    1991-08-01

    The progress in the understanding of ion sources for isotope separation on-line and the feasibility of bunched beams of relatively refractory elements is reported. The ultra-high temperature FEBIAD-H ion source, facilitating the mounting of catchers and window compared to the earlier F-version, enables bunched beams of the elements with adsorption enthalpies up to almost 6 eV, e.g. of Be, Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Sr, Pd, Ba, Yb, and Au. This way also chemical selectivity for these elements may be achieved, at least to some extent, for isotopes with halflives > or approx.1 minute, including especially the difficult separation of alkaline-earth isotopes from isobaric alkalines. These studies reveal, however, also a principal difficulty in the on-line separation of refractory elements, namely their tendency, increasing with ΔH a , to re-diffuse after release from the catcher into the bulk of the hot source enclosure. (orig.)

  10. Acetaminophen Versus Liquefied Ibuprofen for Control of Pain During Separation in Orthodontic Patients: A Randomized Triple Blinded Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Hosseinzadeh Nik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this randomized clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of acetaminophen 650 mg or liquefied ibuprofen 400 mg in pain control of orthodontic patients during separation with an elastic separator. A total of 101 patients with specific inclusion criteria were divided randomly into three groups (acetaminophen, liquefied ibuprofen, and placebo. They were instructed to take their drugs one hour before separator placement and every six hours afterward (five doses in total. They recorded their discomfort on visual analog scales immediately after separator placement, 2 hours later, 6 hours later, at bedtime, and 24 hours after separator placement. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to compare the mean pain scores between the three groups. Data were collected from 89 patients. The pain increased with time in all groups. Pain scores were statistically lower in the analgesic groups compared with the placebo group (P.value<0.001, but no statistically significant difference was found in mean pain scores between the two drug groups (acetaminophen and liquefied ibuprofen (P.value=1. Acetaminophen and liquefied ibuprofen have similar potential in pain reduction during separation.

  11. An approach for evaluating the effects of source separation on municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanskanen, J.H. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    An approach was developed for integrated analysis of recovery rates, waste streams, costs and emissions of municipal solid waste management (MSWM). The approach differs from most earlier models used in the strategic planning of MSWM because of a comprehensive analysis of on-site collection systems of waste materials separated at source for recovery. As a result, the recovery rates and sizes of waste streams can be calculated on the basis of the characteristics of separation strategies instead of giving them as input data. The modelling concept developed can also be applied in other regions, municipalities and districts. This thesis consists of four case studies. Three of these were performed to test the approach developed and to evaluate the effects of separation on MSWM in Finland. In these case studies the approach was applied for modelling: (1) Finland's national separation strategy for municipal solid waste, (2) the effects of separation on MSWM systems in the Helsinki region and (3) the efficiency of various waste collection methods in the Helsinki region. The models developed for these three case studies are static and linear simulation models which were constructed in the format of an Excel spreadsheet. In addition, a new version of the original Swedish MIMES/Waste model was constructed and applied in one of the case studies. The case studies proved that the approach is an applicable tool for various research settings and circumstances in the strategic planning of MSWM. The following main results were obtained from the case studies: A high recovery rate level (around 70 %wt) can be achieved in MSWM without incineration; Central sorting of mixed waste must be included in Finland's national separation strategy in order to reach the recovery rate targets of 50 %wt (year 2000) and 70 %wt (year 2005) adopted for municipal solid waste in the National Waste Plan. The feasible source separation strategies result in recovery rates around 35-40 %wt with the

  12. Full-Scale Turbofan Engine Noise-Source Separation Using a Four-Signal Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Arechiga, Rene O.

    2016-01-01

    Contributions from the combustor to the overall propulsion noise of civilian transport aircraft are starting to become important due to turbofan design trends and expected advances in mitigation of other noise sources. During on-ground, static-engine acoustic tests, combustor noise is generally sub-dominant to other engine noise sources because of the absence of in-flight effects. Consequently, noise-source separation techniques are needed to extract combustor-noise information from the total noise signature in order to further progress. A novel four-signal source-separation method is applied to data from a static, full-scale engine test and compared to previous methods. The new method is, in a sense, a combination of two- and three-signal techniques and represents an attempt to alleviate some of the weaknesses of each of those approaches. This work is supported by the NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program, Advanced Air Transport Technology Project, Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject and the NASA Glenn Faculty Fellowship Program.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Separation Techniques for Gasification-based Power Generation Point Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Jones, K.L.; Morsi, B.I. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA); Heintz, Y.J. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA); Ilconich, J.B. (Parsons)

    2007-06-01

    The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and reduced costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (post-combustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle or IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Pertaining to another separation technology, fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. Finally, dry, regenerable processes based on sorbents are additional techniques for CO2 capture from fuel gas. An overview of these novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of technologies related to membranes and physical solvents.

  14. A chemically selective laser ion source for the on-line isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheerer, F.

    1993-03-01

    In this thesis a laser ion source is presented. In a hot chamber the atoms of the elements to be studied are resonantly by light of pulsed dye lasers, which are pumped by pulsed copper-vapor lasers with extremely high pulse repetition rate (ν rep ∼ 10 kHz), stepwise excited and ionized. By the storage of the atoms in a hot chamber and the high pulse repetition rate of the copper-vapor lasers beyond the required high efficiency (ε ∼ 10%) can be reached. First preparing measurements were performed at the off-line separator at CERN with the rare earth elements ytterbium and thulium. Starting from the results of these measurements further tests of the laser ion source were performed at the on-line separator with in a thick tantalum target produced neutron-deficient ytterbium isotopes. Under application of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer in Mainz an efficient excitation scheme on the resonance ionization of tin was found. This excitation scheme is condition for an experiment at the GSI for the production of the extremely neutron-deficient, short-lived nucleus 102 Sn. In the summer 1993 is as first application of the newly developed laser ion source at the PSB-ISOLDE at CERN an astrophysically relevant experiment for the nuclear spectroscopy of the neutron-rich silver isotopes 124-129 Ag is planned. This experiment can because of the lacking selectivity of conventional ion sources only be performed by means of the here presented laser ion source. The laser ion source shall at the PSB-ISOLDE 1993 also be applied for the selective ionization of manganese. (orig./HSI) [de

  15. Resonance ionization laser ion sources for on-line isotope separators (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    A Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is today considered an essential component of the majority of Isotope Separator On Line (ISOL) facilities; there are seven laser ion sources currently operational at ISOL facilities worldwide and several more are under development. The ionization mechanism is a highly element selective multi-step resonance photo-absorption process that requires a specifically tailored laser configuration for each chemical element. For some isotopes, isomer selective ionization may even be achieved by exploiting the differences in hyperfine structures of an atomic transition for different nuclear spin states. For many radioactive ion beam experiments, laser resonance ionization is the only means of achieving an acceptable level of beam purity without compromising isotope yield. Furthermore, by performing element selection at the location of the ion source, the propagation of unwanted radioactivity downstream of the target assembly is reduced. Whilst advances in laser technology have improved the performance and reliability of laser ion sources and broadened the range of suitable commercially available laser systems, many recent developments have focused rather on the laser/atom interaction region in the quest for increased selectivity and/or improved spectral resolution. Much of the progress in this area has been achieved by decoupling the laser ionization from competing ionization processes through the use of a laser/atom interaction region that is physically separated from the target chamber. A new application of gas catcher laser ion source technology promises to expand the capabilities of projectile fragmentation facilities through the conversion of otherwise discarded reaction fragments into high-purity low-energy ion beams. A summary of recent RILIS developments and the current status of laser ion sources worldwide is presented

  16. Sources and speciation of heavy metals in municipal solid waste (MSW) and its effect on the separation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biollaz, S; Ludwig, Ch; Stucki, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    A literature search was carried out to determine sources and speciation of heavy metals in MSW. A combination of thermal and mechanical separation techniques is necessary to achieve the required high degrees of metal separation. Metallic goods should be separated mechanically, chemically bound heavy metals by a thermal process. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 6 refs.

  17. Generation of dynamo waves by spatially separated sources in the Earth and other celestial bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, E.

    2017-12-01

    The amplitude and the spatial configuration of the planetary and stellar magnetic field can changing over the years. Celestial bodies can have cyclic, chaotic or unchanging in time magnetic activity which is connected with a dynamo mechanism. This mechanism is based on the consideration of the joint influence of the alpha-effect and differential rotation. Dynamo sources can be located at different depths (active layers) of the celestial body and can have different intensities. Application of this concept allows us to get different forms of solutions and some of which can include wave propagating inside the celestial body. We analytically showed that in the case of spatially separated sources of magnetic field each source generates a wave whose frequency depends on the physical parameters of its source. We estimated parameters of sources required for the generation nondecaying waves. We discus structure of such sources and matter motion (including meridional circulation) in the liquid outer core of the Earth and active layers of other celestial bodies.

  18. Investigation of gas discharge ion sources for on-line mass separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, R.

    1976-03-01

    The development of efficient gas discharge ion sources with axial beam extraction for on-line mass separation is described. The aim of the investigation was to increase the ion source temperature, the lifetime and the ionisation yield in comparison to present low-pressure are discharge ion sources and to reduce the ion current density from usually 1 to 100 mA/cm 3 . In all ion sources the pressure range below the minimal ignition pressure of the arc discharge was investigated. As a result an ion source was developed which works at small changes in geometry and in electric device of a Nielsen source with high ionization yield (up to 50% for xenon) stabil and without ignition difficulties up to 10 -5 Torr. At a typical pressure of 3 x 10 -5 Torr ion current and ion current density are about 1 μA and 0.1 mA/cm 3 respectively besides high yield and a great emission aperture (diameter 1.2 mm). (orig.) [de

  19. Carbon dioxide capture and separation techniques for advanced power generation point sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Morsi, B.I.; Heintz, Y.J.; Jones, K.L.; Ilconich, J.B.

    2006-09-01

    The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (postcombustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle – IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for hybrid membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic silanes incorporated into an alumina support or ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. An overview of two novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of each technology.

  20. PSFGAN: a generative adversarial network system for separating quasar point sources and host galaxy light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Dominic; Launet, Barthelemy; Schawinski, Kevin; Zhang, Ce; Koss, Michael; Turp, M. Dennis; Sartori, Lia F.; Zhang, Hantian; Chen, Yiru; Weigel, Anna K.

    2018-06-01

    The study of unobscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars depends on the reliable decomposition of the light from the AGN point source and the extended host galaxy light. The problem is typically approached using parametric fitting routines using separate models for the host galaxy and the point spread function (PSF). We present a new approach using a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) trained on galaxy images. We test the method using Sloan Digital Sky Survey r-band images with artificial AGN point sources added that are then removed using the GAN and with parametric methods using GALFIT. When the AGN point source is more than twice as bright as the host galaxy, we find that our method, PSFGAN, can recover point source and host galaxy magnitudes with smaller systematic error and a lower average scatter (49 per cent). PSFGAN is more tolerant to poor knowledge of the PSF than parametric methods. Our tests show that PSFGAN is robust against a broadening in the PSF width of ± 50 per cent if it is trained on multiple PSFs. We demonstrate that while a matched training set does improve performance, we can still subtract point sources using a PSFGAN trained on non-astronomical images. While initial training is computationally expensive, evaluating PSFGAN on data is more than 40 times faster than GALFIT fitting two components. Finally, PSFGAN is more robust and easy to use than parametric methods as it requires no input parameters.

  1. CO2 emission factors for waste incineration: Influence from source separation of recyclable materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    variations between emission factors for different incinerators, but the background for these variations has not been thoroughly examined. One important reason may be variations in collection of recyclable materials as source separation alters the composition of the residual waste incinerated. The objective...... routed to incineration. Emission factors ranged from 27 to 40kg CO2/GJ. The results appeared most sensitive towards variations in waste composition and water content. Recycling rates and lower heating values could not be used as simple indicators of the resulting emission factors for residual household...... different studies and when using the values for environmental assessment purposes....

  2. In vivo time-gated diffuse correlation spectroscopy at quasi-null source-detector separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliazzi, M; Sekar, S Konugolu Venkata; Di Sieno, L; Colombo, L; Durduran, T; Contini, D; Torricelli, A; Pifferi, A; Mora, A Dalla

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate time domain diffuse correlation spectroscopy at quasi-null source-detector separation by using a fast time-gated single-photon avalanche diode without the need of time-tagging electronics. This approach allows for increased photon collection, simplified real-time instrumentation, and reduced probe dimensions. Depth discriminating, quasi-null distance measurement of blood flow in a human subject is presented. We envision the miniaturization and integration of matrices of optical sensors of increased spatial resolution and the enhancement of the contrast of local blood flow changes.

  3. Light mesons and separated J(PC) sources in N-antiN annihilations at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaci-Timoce, Angela; Lazanu, I.

    2002-01-01

    N-antiN annihilations at rest and in flight are the most productive physics tools to investigate the spectroscopy of light mesons. The annihilations proceed from more sources of initial states, with different J (PC) quantum numbers. This makes the interpretation of the experimental data much more difficult than in the case of other annihilation process, as for example the e + e - annihilations, and introduces ambiguities in the results. In this talk, the possibilities to separate the N-antiN contributions of initial quantum states in different annihilation channels, are analyzed. The interference phenomena that appear are also discussed. (authors)

  4. Blind Time-Frequency Analysis for Source Discrimination in Multisensor Array Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amin, Moeness

    1999-01-01

    .... We have clearly demonstrated, through analysis and simulations, the offerings of time-frequency distributions in solving key problems in sensor array processing, including direction finding, source...

  5. PSFGAN: a generative adversarial network system for separating quasar point sources and host galaxy light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Dominic; Launet, Barthelemy; Schawinski, Kevin; Zhang, Ce; Koss, Michael; Turp, M. Dennis; Sartori, Lia F.; Zhang, Hantian; Chen, Yiru; Weigel, Anna K.

    2018-03-01

    The study of unobscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars depends on the reliable decomposition of the light from the AGN point source and the extended host galaxy light. The problem is typically approached using parametric fitting routines using separate models for the host galaxy and the point spread function (PSF). We present a new approach using a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) trained on galaxy images. We test the method using Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) r-band images with artificial AGN point sources added which are then removed using the GAN and with parametric methods using GALFIT. When the AGN point source PS is more than twice as bright as the host galaxy, we find that our method, PSFGAN, can recover PS and host galaxy magnitudes with smaller systematic error and a lower average scatter (49%). PSFGAN is more tolerant to poor knowledge of the PSF than parametric methods. Our tests show that PSFGAN is robust against a broadening in the PSF width of ±50% if it is trained on multiple PSF's. We demonstrate that while a matched training set does improve performance, we can still subtract point sources using a PSFGAN trained on non-astronomical images. While initial training is computationally expensive, evaluating PSFGAN on data is more than 40 times faster than GALFIT fitting two components. Finally, PSFGAN it is more robust and easy to use than parametric methods as it requires no input parameters.

  6. Sources of variability among replicate samples separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Alison M; Janech, Michael G; Almeida, Jonas S; Arthur, John M

    2010-04-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) offers high-resolution separation for intact proteins. However, variability in the appearance of spots can limit the ability to identify true differences between conditions. Variability can occur at a number of levels. Individual samples can differ because of biological variability. Technical variability can occur during protein extraction, processing, or storage. Another potential source of variability occurs during analysis of the gels and is not a result of any of the causes of variability named above. We performed a study designed to focus only on the variability caused by analysis. We separated three aliquots of rat left ventricle and analyzed differences in protein abundance on the replicate 2D gels. As the samples loaded on each gel were identical, differences in protein abundance are caused by variability in separation or interpretation of the gels. Protein spots were compared across gels by quantile values to determine differences. Fourteen percent of spots had a maximum difference in intensity of 0.4 quantile values or more between replicates. We then looked individually at the spots to determine the cause of differences between the measured intensities. Reasons for differences were: failure to identify a spot (59%), differences in spot boundaries (13%), difference in the peak height (6%), and a combination of these factors (21). This study demonstrates that spot identification and characterization make major contributions to variability seen with 2DE. Methods to highlight why measured protein spot abundance is different could reduce these errors.

  7. Fate of pharmaceuticals in full-scale source separated sanitation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkovskyi, A; Hernandez Leal, L; Rijnaarts, H H M; Zeeman, G

    2015-11-15

    Removal of 14 pharmaceuticals and 3 of their transformation products was studied in a full-scale source separated sanitation system with separate collection and treatment of black water and grey water. Black water is treated in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification in a rotating biological contactor and struvite precipitation. Grey water is treated in an aerobic activated sludge process. Concentration of 10 pharmaceuticals and 2 transformation products in black water ranged between low μg/l to low mg/l. Additionally, 5 pharmaceuticals were also present in grey water in low μg/l range. Pharmaceutical influent loads were distributed over two streams, i.e. diclofenac was present for 70% in grey water, while the other compounds were predominantly associated to black water. Removal in the UASB reactor fed with black water exceeded 70% for 9 pharmaceuticals out of the 12 detected, with only two pharmaceuticals removed by sorption to sludge. Ibuprofen and the transformation product of naproxen, desmethylnaproxen, were removed in the rotating biological contactor. In contrast, only paracetamol removal exceeded 90% in the grey water treatment system while removal of other 7 pharmaceuticals was below 40% or even negative. The efficiency of pharmaceutical removal in the source separated sanitation system was compared with removal in the conventional sewage treatment plants. Furthermore, effluent concentrations of black water and grey water treatment systems were compared with predicted no-effect concentrations to assess toxicity of the effluent. Concentrations of diclofenac, ibuprofen and oxazepam in both effluents were higher than predicted no-effect concentrations, indicating the necessity of post-treatment. Ciprofloxacin, metoprolol and propranolol were found in UASB sludge in μg/g range, while pharmaceutical concentrations in struvite did not exceed the detection limits. Copyright © 2015

  8. Surface-ionization ion source designed for in-beam operation with the BEMS-2 isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, D.D.; Voboril, J.; Demyanov, A.V.; Karnaukhov, V.A.; Petrov, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    A surface-ionization ion source designed to operate in combination with the BEMS-2 isotope separator in a heavy ion beam is described. The ion source is adjusted for the separation of rare-earth elements. The separation efficiency for 150 Dy is determined to be equal to about 20% at the ionizer temperature of 2600 deg K. The hold-up times for praseodymium, promethium and dysprosium in the ion source range from 5 to 10 sec at the ionizer temperature of 2500-2700 deg K

  9. Effects of Sleep on Word Pair Memory in Children – Separating Item and Source Memory Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Word paired-associate learning is a well-established task to demonstrate sleep-dependent memory consolidation in adults as well as children. Sleep has also been proposed to benefit episodic features of memory, i.e., a memory for an event (item bound into the spatiotemporal context it has been experienced in (source. We aimed to explore if sleep enhances word pair memory in children by strengthening the episodic features of the memory, in particular. Sixty-one children (8–12 years studied two lists of word pairs with 1 h in between. Retrieval testing comprised cued recall of the target word of each word pair (item memory and recalling in which list the word pair had appeared in (source memory. Retrieval was tested either after 1 h (short retention interval or after 11 h, with this long retention interval covering either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness. Compared with the wake interval, sleep enhanced separate recall of both word pairs and the lists per se, while recall of the combination of the word pair and the list it had appeared in remained unaffected by sleep. An additional comparison with adult controls (n = 37 suggested that item-source bound memory (combined recall of word pair and list is generally diminished in children. Our results argue against the view that the sleep-induced enhancement in paired-associate learning in children is a consequence of sleep specifically enhancing the episodic features of the memory representation. On the contrary, sleep in children might strengthen item and source representations in isolation, while leaving the episodic memory representations (item-source binding unaffected.

  10. Instantaneous and Frequency-Warped Signal Processing Techniques for Auditory Source Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Avery Li-Chun

    This thesis summarizes several contributions to the areas of signal processing and auditory source separation. The philosophy of Frequency-Warped Signal Processing is introduced as a means for separating the AM and FM contributions to the bandwidth of a complex-valued, frequency-varying sinusoid p (n), transforming it into a signal with slowly-varying parameters. This transformation facilitates the removal of p (n) from an additive mixture while minimizing the amount of damage done to other signal components. The average winding rate of a complex-valued phasor is explored as an estimate of the instantaneous frequency. Theorems are provided showing the robustness of this measure. To implement frequency tracking, a Frequency-Locked Loop algorithm is introduced which uses the complex winding error to update its frequency estimate. The input signal is dynamically demodulated and filtered to extract the envelope. This envelope may then be remodulated to reconstruct the target partial, which may be subtracted from the original signal mixture to yield a new, quickly-adapting form of notch filtering. Enhancements to the basic tracker are made which, under certain conditions, attain the Cramer -Rao bound for the instantaneous frequency estimate. To improve tracking, the novel idea of Harmonic -Locked Loop tracking, using N harmonically constrained trackers, is introduced for tracking signals, such as voices and certain musical instruments. The estimated fundamental frequency is computed from a maximum-likelihood weighting of the N tracking estimates, making it highly robust. The result is that harmonic signals, such as voices, can be isolated from complex mixtures in the presence of other spectrally overlapping signals. Additionally, since phase information is preserved, the resynthesized harmonic signals may be removed from the original mixtures with relatively little damage to the residual signal. Finally, a new methodology is given for designing linear-phase FIR filters

  11. Localization and separation of acoustic sources by using a 2.5-dimensional circular microphone array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mingsian R; Lai, Chang-Sheng; Wu, Po-Chen

    2017-07-01

    Circular microphone arrays (CMAs) are sufficient in many immersive audio applications because azimuthal angles of sources are considered more important than the elevation angles in those occasions. However, the fact that CMAs do not resolve the elevation angle well can be a limitation for some applications which involves three-dimensional sound images. This paper proposes a 2.5-dimensional (2.5-D) CMA comprised of a CMA and a vertical logarithmic-spacing linear array (LLA) on the top. In the localization stage, two delay-and-sum beamformers are applied to the CMA and the LLA, respectively. The direction of arrival (DOA) is estimated from the product of two array output signals. In the separation stage, Tikhonov regularization and convex optimization are employed to extract the source amplitudes on the basis of the estimated DOA. The extracted signals from two arrays are further processed by the normalized least-mean-square algorithm with the internal iteration to yield the source signal with improved quality. To validate the 2.5-D CMA experimentally, a three-dimensionally printed circular array comprised of a 24-element CMA and an eight-element LLA is constructed. Objective perceptual evaluation of speech quality test and a subjective listening test are also undertaken.

  12. Adaptation to sensory-motor reflex perturbations is blind to the source of errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Todd E; Landy, Michael S

    2012-01-06

    In the study of visual-motor control, perhaps the most familiar findings involve adaptation to externally imposed movement errors. Theories of visual-motor adaptation based on optimal information processing suppose that the nervous system identifies the sources of errors to effect the most efficient adaptive response. We report two experiments using a novel perturbation based on stimulating a visually induced reflex in the reaching arm. Unlike adaptation to an external force, our method induces a perturbing reflex within the motor system itself, i.e., perturbing forces are self-generated. This novel method allows a test of the theory that error source information is used to generate an optimal adaptive response. If the self-generated source of the visually induced reflex perturbation is identified, the optimal response will be via reflex gain control. If the source is not identified, a compensatory force should be generated to counteract the reflex. Gain control is the optimal response to reflex perturbation, both because energy cost and movement errors are minimized. Energy is conserved because neither reflex-induced nor compensatory forces are generated. Precision is maximized because endpoint variance is proportional to force production. We find evidence against source-identified adaptation in both experiments, suggesting that sensory-motor information processing is not always optimal.

  13. A system dynamics model to evaluate effects of source separation of municipal solid waste management: A case of Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukholthaman, Pitchayanin; Sharp, Alice

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste has been considered as one of the most immediate and serious problems confronting urban government in most developing and transitional economies. Providing solid waste performance highly depends on the effectiveness of waste collection and transportation process. Generally, this process involves a large amount of expenditures and has very complex and dynamic operational problems. Source separation has a major impact on effectiveness of waste management system as it causes significant changes in quantity and quality of waste reaching final disposal. To evaluate the impact of effective source separation on waste collection and transportation, this study adopts a decision support tool to comprehend cause-and-effect interactions of different variables in waste management system. A system dynamics model that envisages the relationships of source separation and effectiveness of waste management in Bangkok, Thailand is presented. Influential factors that affect waste separation attitudes are addressed; and the result of change in perception on waste separation is explained. The impacts of different separation rates on effectiveness of provided collection service are compared in six scenarios. 'Scenario 5' gives the most promising opportunities as 40% of residents are willing to conduct organic and recyclable waste separation. The results show that better service of waste collection and transportation, less monthly expense, extended landfill life, and satisfactory efficiency of the provided service at 60.48% will be achieved at the end of the simulation period. Implications of how to get public involved and conducted source separation are proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Blind Angle? News Sources, Gender and Ethnicity in Danish TV News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, Christina

    The paper will present and discuss a framework for grasping some of the democratic consequences of biased TV news programs. In line with Jürgen Habermas, one can ask what consequences it has for a democratic public sphere that the national TV news landscape is biased in term of source diversity (...

  15. Separation of mycotoxin-containing sources in grain dust and determination of their mycotoxin potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, M S; Lee, L S

    1986-01-01

    Two distinct reservoirs of mycotoxins exist in fungal-infected cereal grains--the fungal spores and the spore-free mycelium-substrate matrix. Many fungal spores are of respirable size and the mycelium-substrate matrix can be pulverized to form particles of respirable size during routine handling of grain. In order to determine the contribution of each source to the level of mycotoxin contamination of dust, we developed techniques to harvest and separate mycelium-substrate matrices from spores of fungi. Conventional quantitative chromatographic analyses of separated materials indicated that aflatoxin from Aspergillus parasiticus, norsolorinic acid from a mutant of A. parasiticus, and secalonic acid D from Penicillium oxalicum were concentrated in the mycelium-substrate matrices and not in the spores. In contrast, spores of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus contained significant concentrations of aurasperone C and fumigaclavine C, respectively; only negligible amounts of the toxins were detected in the mycelium-substrate matrices of these two fungi. PMID:3709472

  16. Saline sewage treatment and source separation of urine for more sustainable urban water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A; Wilsenach, J A; Chen, G H

    2011-01-01

    While energy consumption and its associated carbon emission should be minimized in wastewater treatment, it has a much lower priority than human and environmental health, which are both closely related to efficient water quality management. So conservation of surface water quality and quantity are more important for sustainable development than green house gas (GHG) emissions per se. In this paper, two urban water management strategies to conserve fresh water quality and quantity are considered: (1) source separation of urine for improved water quality and (2) saline (e.g. sea) water toilet flushing for reduced fresh water consumption in coastal and mining cities. The former holds promise for simpler and shorter sludge age activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (no nitrification and denitrification), nutrient (Mg, K, P) recovery and improved effluent quality (reduced endocrine disruptor and environmental oestrogen concentrations) and the latter for significantly reduced fresh water consumption, sludge production and oxygen demand (through using anaerobic bioprocesses) and hence energy consumption. Combining source separation of urine and saline water toilet flushing can reduce sewer crown corrosion and reduce effluent P concentrations. To realize the advantages of these two approaches will require significant urban water management changes in that both need dual (fresh and saline) water distribution and (yellow and grey/brown) wastewater collection systems. While considerable work is still required to evaluate these new approaches and quantify their advantages and disadvantages, it would appear that the investment for dual water distribution and wastewater collection systems may be worth making to unlock their benefits for more sustainable urban development.

  17. Life cycle assessment and costing of urine source separation: Focus on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kelly A; Boyer, Treavor H

    2016-11-15

    Urine source separation has the potential to reduce pharmaceutical loading to the environment, while enhancing nutrient recovery. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) was to evaluate the environmental impacts and economic costs to manage nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (i.e., diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) and nutrients in human urine. Urine source separation was compared with centralized wastewater treatment (WWT) (biological or upgraded with ozonation). The current treatment method (i.e., centralized biological WWT) was compared with hypothetical treatment scenarios (i.e., centralized biological WWT upgraded with ozonation, and urine source separation). Alternative urine source separation scenarios included varying collection and handling methods (i.e., collection by vacuum truck, vacuum sewer, or decentralized treatment), pharmaceuticals removal by ion-exchange, and struvite precipitation. Urine source separation scenarios had 90% lower environmental impact (based on the TRACI impact assessment method) compared with the centralized wastewater scenarios due to reduced potable water production for flush water, reduced electricity use at the wastewater treatment plant, and nutrient offsets from struvite precipitation. Despite the greatest reduction of pharmaceutical toxicity, centralized treatment upgraded with ozone had the greatest ecotoxicity impacts due to ozonation operation and infrastructure. Among urine source separation scenarios, decentralized treatment of urine and centralized treatment of urine collected by vacuum truck had negligible cost differences compared with centralized wastewater treatment. Centralized treatment of urine collected by vacuum sewer and centralized treatment with ozone cost 30% more compared with conventional wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of Source-Separated Blackwater: A Decentralized Strategy for Nutrient Recovery towards a Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melesse Eshetu Moges

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Using a filter medium for organic matter removal and nutrient recovery from blackwater treatment is a novel concept and has not been investigated sufficiently to date. This paper demonstrates a combined blackwater treatment and nutrient-recovery strategy and establishes mechanisms for a more dependable source of plant nutrients aiming at a circular economy. Source-separated blackwater from a student dormitory was used as feedstock for a sludge blanket anaerobic-baffled reactor. The effluent from the reactor, with 710 mg L−1 NH4–N and 63 mg L−1 PO4–P, was treated in a sequence of upflow and downflow filtration columns using granular activated carbon, Cocos char and polonite as filter media at a flow rate of 600 L m−2 day−1 and organic loading rate of 430 g chemical oxygen demand (COD m−2 day−1. Filtration treatment of the anaerobic effluent with carbon adsorbents removed 80% of the residual organic matter, more than 90% of suspended solids, and turbidity while releasing more than 76% NH4–N and 85% of PO4–P in the liquid phase. The treatment train also removed total coliform bacteria and E. coli in the effluent, achieving concentrations below detection limit after the integration of ultraviolet (UV light. These integrated technological pathways ensure simultaneous nutrient recovery as a nutrient solution, pathogen inactivation, and reduction of active organic substances. The treated nutrient-rich water can be applied as a source of value creation for various end-use options.

  19. The Crowding-Out Effects of Garbage Fees and Voluntary Source Separation Programs on Waste Reduction: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how and to what degree government policies of garbage fees and voluntary source separation programs, with free indoor containers and garbage bags, can affect the effectiveness of municipal solid waste (MSW management, in the sense of achieving a desirable reduction of per capita MSW generation. Based on city-level panel data for years 1998–2012 in China, our empirical analysis indicates that per capita MSW generated is increasing with per capita disposable income, average household size, education levels of households, and the lagged per capita MSW. While both garbage fees and source separation programs have separately led to reductions in per capita waste generation, the interaction of the two policies has resulted in an increase in per capita waste generation due to the following crowding-out effects: Firstly, the positive effect of income dominates the negative effect of the garbage fee. Secondly, there are crowding-out effects of mandatory charging system and the subsidized voluntary source separation on per capita MSW generation. Thirdly, small subsidies and tax punishments have reduced the intrinsic motivation for voluntary source separation of MSW. Thus, compatible fee charging system, higher levels of subsidies, and well-designed public information and education campaigns are required to promote household waste source separation and reduction.

  20. Developing methodologies for source attribution. Glass phase separation in Trinitite using NF{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeman, Elizabeth C.; Simonetti, Antonio [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences; McNamara, Bruce K.; Smith, Frances N. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States). Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering; Burns, Peter C. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences; Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2017-08-01

    separation of silica from minerals (i.e. naturally occurring crystalline materials) and glasses (i.e. amorphous materials), leaving behind non-volatile fluorinated species and refractory phases. The results from our investigation clearly indicate that the NF{sub 3} treatment of nuclear materials is a technique that provides effective separation of bomb components from complex matrices (e.g. post-detonation samples), which will aid with rapid and accurate source attribution.

  1. Fate of personal care and household products in source separated sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkovskyi, A; Rijnaarts, H H M; Zeeman, G; Hernandez Leal, L

    2016-12-15

    Removal of twelve micropollutants, namely biocides, fragrances, ultraviolet (UV)-filters and preservatives in source separated grey and black water treatment systems was studied. All compounds were present in influent grey water in μg/l range. Seven compounds were found in influent black water. Their removal in an aerobic activated sludge system treating grey water ranged from 59% for avobenzone to >99% for hexylcinnamaldehyde. High concentrations of hydrophobic micropollutants in sludge of aerobic activated sludge system indicated the importance of sorption for their removal. Six micropollutants were found in sludge of an Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating black water, with four of them being present at significantly higher concentrations after addition of grey water sludge to the reactor. Hence, addition of grey water sludge to the UASB reactor is likely to increase micropollutant content in UASB sludge. This approach should not be followed when excess UASB sludge is designed to be reused as soil amendment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Insects associated with the composting process of solid urban waste separated at the source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Estela Morales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcosaprophagous macroinvertebrates (earthworms, termites and a number of Diptera larvae enhance changes in the physical and chemical properties of organic matter during degradation and stabilization processes in composting, causing a decrease in the molecular weights of compounds. This activity makes these organisms excellent recyclers of organic matter. This article evaluates the succession of insects associated with the decomposition of solid urban waste separated at the source. The study was carried out in the city of Medellin, Colombia. A total of 11,732 individuals were determined, belonging to the classes Insecta and Arachnida. Species of three orders of Insecta were identified, Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Diptera corresponding to 98.5% of the total, was the most abundant and diverse group, with 16 families (Calliphoridae, Drosophilidae, Psychodidae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Milichiidae, Ulidiidae, Scatopsidae, Sepsidae, Sphaeroceridae, Heleomyzidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae, Phoridae, Tephritidae and Curtonotidae followed by Coleoptera with five families (Carabidae, Staphylinidae, Ptiliidae, Hydrophilidae and Phalacaridae. Three stages were observed during the composting process, allowing species associated with each stage to be identified. Other species were also present throughout the whole process. In terms of number of species, Diptera was the most important group observed, particularly Ornidia obesa, considered a highly invasive species, and Hermetia illuscens, both reported as beneficial for decomposition of organic matter.

  3. Perturbed invariant subspaces and approximate generalized functional variable separation solution for nonlinear diffusion-convection equations with weak source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ya-Rong; Zhang, Shun-Li; Xin, Xiang-Peng

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose the concept of the perturbed invariant subspaces (PISs), and study the approximate generalized functional variable separation solution for the nonlinear diffusion-convection equation with weak source by the approximate generalized conditional symmetries (AGCSs) related to the PISs. Complete classification of the perturbed equations which admit the approximate generalized functional separable solutions (AGFSSs) is obtained. As a consequence, some AGFSSs to the resulting equations are explicitly constructed by way of examples.

  4. A multilevel reuse system with source separation process for printing and dyeing wastewater treatment: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Jin, Xin; Wang, Ziyuan; Gu, Wantao; Wei, Zhechao; Huang, Yuanjie; Qiu, Zhuang; Jin, Pengkang

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a new system of multilevel reuse with source separation in printing and dyeing wastewater (PDWW) treatment in order to dramatically improve the water reuse rate to 35%. By analysing the characteristics of the sources and concentrations of pollutants produced in different printing and dyeing processes, special, highly, and less contaminated wastewaters (SCW, HCW, and LCW, respectively) were collected and treated separately. Specially, a large quantity of LCW was sequentially reused at multiple levels to meet the water quality requirements for different production processes. Based on this concept, a multilevel reuse system with a source separation process was established in a typical printing and dyeing enterprise. The water reuse rate increased dramatically to 62%, and the reclaimed water was reused in different printing and dyeing processes based on the water quality. This study provides promising leads in water management for wastewater reclamation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Life cycle comparison of centralized wastewater treatment and urine source separation with struvite precipitation: Focus on urine nutrient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2015-08-01

    Alternative approaches to wastewater management including urine source separation have the potential to simultaneously improve multiple aspects of wastewater treatment, including reduced use of potable water for waste conveyance and improved contaminant removal, especially nutrients. In order to pursue such radical changes, system-level evaluations of urine source separation in community contexts are required. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) is managing nutrients from urine produced in a residential setting with urine source separation and struvite precipitation, as compared with a centralized wastewater treatment approach. The life cycle impacts evaluated in this study pertain to construction of the urine source separation system and operation of drinking water treatment, decentralized urine treatment, and centralized wastewater treatment. System boundaries include fertilizer offsets resulting from the production of urine based struvite fertilizer. As calculated by the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI), urine source separation with MgO addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with high P recovery (Scenario B) has the smallest environmental cost relative to existing centralized wastewater treatment (Scenario A) and urine source separation with MgO and Na3PO4 addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with concurrent high P and N recovery (Scenario C). Preliminary economic evaluations show that the three urine management scenarios are relatively equal on a monetary basis (<13% difference). The impacts of each urine management scenario are most sensitive to the assumed urine composition, the selected urine storage time, and the assumed electricity required to treat influent urine and toilet water used to convey urine at the centralized wastewater treatment plant. The importance of full nutrient recovery from urine in combination with the substantial chemical inputs required for N recovery

  6. The management challenge for household waste in emerging economies like Brazil: realistic source separation and activation of reverse logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, M

    2014-09-01

    Business opportunities in the household waste sector in emerging economies still evolve around the activities of bulk collection and tipping with an open material balance. This research, conducted in Brazil, pursued the objective of shifting opportunities from tipping to reverse logistics in order to close the balance. To do this, it illustrated how specific knowledge of sorted waste composition and reverse logistics operations can be used to determine realistic temporal and quantitative landfill diversion targets in an emerging economy context. Experimentation constructed and confirmed the recycling trilogy that consists of source separation, collection infrastructure and reverse logistics. The study on source separation demonstrated the vital difference between raw and sorted waste compositions. Raw waste contained 70% biodegradable and 30% inert matter. Source separation produced 47% biodegradable, 20% inert and 33% mixed material. The study on collection infrastructure developed the necessary receiving facilities. The study on reverse logistics identified private operators capable of collecting and processing all separated inert items. Recycling activities for biodegradable material were scarce and erratic. Only farmers would take the material as animal feed. No composting initiatives existed. The management challenge was identified as stimulating these activities in order to complete the trilogy and divert the 47% source-separated biodegradable discards from the landfills. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Estimation of nitrite in source-separated nitrified urine with UV spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašić, Alma; Santos, Ana T L; Etter, Bastian; Udert, Kai M; Villez, Kris

    2015-11-15

    Monitoring of nitrite is essential for an immediate response and prevention of irreversible failure of decentralized biological urine nitrification reactors. Although a few sensors are available for nitrite measurement, none of them are suitable for applications in which both nitrite and nitrate are present in very high concentrations. Such is the case in collected source-separated urine, stabilized by nitrification for long-term storage. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry in combination with chemometrics is a promising option for monitoring of nitrite. In this study, an immersible in situ UV sensor is investigated for the first time so to establish a relationship between UV absorbance spectra and nitrite concentrations in nitrified urine. The study focuses on the effects of suspended particles and saturation on the absorbance spectra and the chemometric model performance. Detailed analysis indicates that suspended particles in nitrified urine have a negligible effect on nitrite estimation, concluding that sample filtration is not necessary as pretreatment. In contrast, saturation due to very high concentrations affects the model performance severely, suggesting dilution as an essential sample preparation step. However, this can also be mitigated by simple removal of the saturated, lower end of the UV absorbance spectra, and extraction of information from the secondary, weaker nitrite absorbance peak. This approach allows for estimation of nitrite with a simple chemometric model and without sample dilution. These results are promising for a practical application of the UV sensor as an in situ nitrite measurement in a urine nitrification reactor given the exceptional quality of the nitrite estimates in comparison to previous studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Complete nutrient recovery from source-separated urine by nitrification and distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udert, K M; Wächter, M

    2012-02-01

    In this study we present a method to recover all nutrients from source-separated urine in a dry solid by combining biological nitrification with distillation. In a first process step, a membrane-aerated biofilm reactor was operated stably for more than 12 months, producing a nutrient solution with a pH between 6.2 and 7.0 (depending on the pH set-point), and an ammonium to nitrate ratio between 0.87 and 1.15 gN gN(-1). The maximum nitrification rate was 1.8 ± 0.3 gN m(-2) d(-1). Process stability was achieved by controlling the pH via the influent. In the second process step, real nitrified urine and synthetic solutions were concentrated in lab-scale distillation reactors. All nutrients were recovered in a dry powder except for some ammonia (less than 3% of total nitrogen). We estimate that the primary energy demand for a simple nitrification/distillation process is four to five times higher than removing nitrogen and phosphorus in a conventional wastewater treatment plant and producing the equivalent amount of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers. However, the primary energy demand can be reduced to values very close to conventional treatment, if 80% of the water is removed with reverse osmosis and distillation is operated with vapor compression. The ammonium nitrate content of the solid residue is below the limit at which stringent EU safety regulations for fertilizers come into effect; nevertheless, we propose some additional process steps that will increase the thermal stability of the solid product. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Thinking about Seeing: perceptual sources of knowledge are encoded in the theory of mind brain regions of sighted and blind adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster-Hale, Jorie; Bedny, Marina; Saxe, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Blind people's inferences about how other people see provide a window into fundamental questions about the human capacity to think about one another's thoughts. By working with blind individuals, we can ask both what kinds of representations people form about others’ minds, and how much these representations depend on the observer having had similar mental states themselves. Thinking about others’ mental states depends on a specific group of brain regions, including the right temporo-parietal junction (RTPJ). We investigated the representations of others’ mental states in these brain regions, using multivoxel pattern analyses (MVPA). We found that, first, in the RTPJ of sighted adults, the pattern of neural response distinguished the source of the mental state (did the protagonist see or hear something?) but not the valence (did the protagonist feel good or bad?). Second, these neural representations were preserved in congenitally blind adults. These results suggest that the temporo-parietal junction contains explicit, abstract representations of features of others’ mental states, including the perceptual source. The persistence of these representations in congenitally blind adults, who have no first-person experience with sight, provides evidence that these representations emerge even in the absence of first-person perceptual experiences. PMID:24960530

  10. Thinking about seeing: perceptual sources of knowledge are encoded in the theory of mind brain regions of sighted and blind adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster-Hale, Jorie; Bedny, Marina; Saxe, Rebecca

    2014-10-01

    Blind people's inferences about how other people see provide a window into fundamental questions about the human capacity to think about one another's thoughts. By working with blind individuals, we can ask both what kinds of representations people form about others' minds, and how much these representations depend on the observer having had similar mental states themselves. Thinking about others' mental states depends on a specific group of brain regions, including the right temporo-parietal junction (RTPJ). We investigated the representations of others' mental states in these brain regions, using multivoxel pattern analyses (MVPA). We found that, first, in the RTPJ of sighted adults, the pattern of neural response distinguished the source of the mental state (did the protagonist see or hear something?) but not the valence (did the protagonist feel good or bad?). Second, these neural representations were preserved in congenitally blind adults. These results suggest that the temporo-parietal junction contains explicit, abstract representations of features of others' mental states, including the perceptual source. The persistence of these representations in congenitally blind adults, who have no first-person experience with sight, provides evidence that these representations emerge even in the absence of relevant first-person perceptual experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment - A Swedish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstad, Anna; Cour Jansen, Jes la; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Through an agreement with EEE producers, Swedish municipalities are responsible for collection of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In most Swedish municipalities, collection of these waste fractions is concentrated to waste recycling centres where households can source-separate and deposit hazardous waste and WEEE free of charge. However, the centres are often located on the outskirts of city centres and cars are needed in order to use the facilities in most cases. A full-scale experiment was performed in a residential area in southern Sweden to evaluate effects of a system for property-close source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE. After the system was introduced, results show a clear reduction in the amount of hazardous waste and WEEE disposed of incorrectly amongst residual waste or dry recyclables. The systems resulted in a source separation ratio of 70 wt% for hazardous waste and 76 wt% in the case of WEEE. Results show that households in the study area were willing to increase source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE when accessibility was improved and that this and similar collection systems can play an important role in building up increasingly sustainable solid waste management systems.

  12. Chemical characteristics and methane potentials of source-separated and pre-treated organic municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Svärd, Å; Angelidaki, Irini

    2003-01-01

    A research project has investigated the biogas potential of pre-screened source-separated organic waste. Wastes from five Danish cities have been pre-treated by three methods: screw press; disc screen; and shredder and magnet. This paper outlines the sampling procedure used, the chemical...... composition of the wastes and the estimated methane potentials....

  13. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water from source-separated domestic waste(water)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.; Kujawa, K.; Mes, de T.Z.D.; Graaff, de M.S.; Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Mels, A.R.; Meulman, B.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Lier, van J.B.; Lettinga, G.

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas

  14. Pathogens and pharmaceuticals in source-separated urine in eThekwini, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischel, Heather N; Özel Duygan, Birge D; Strande, Linda; McArdell, Christa S; Udert, Kai M; Kohn, Tamar

    2015-11-15

    In eThekwini, South Africa, the production of agricultural fertilizers from human urine collected from urine-diverting dry toilets is being evaluated at a municipality scale as a way to help finance a decentralized, dry sanitation system. The present study aimed to assess a range of human and environmental health hazards in source-separated urine, which was presumed to be contaminated with feces, by evaluating the presence of human pathogens, pharmaceuticals, and an antibiotic resistance gene. Composite urine samples from households enrolled in a urine collection trial were obtained from urine storage tanks installed in three regions of eThekwini. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeted 9 viral and 10 bacterial human pathogens transmitted by the fecal-oral route. The most frequently detected viral pathogens were JC polyomavirus, rotavirus, and human adenovirus in 100%, 34% and 31% of samples, respectively. Aeromonas spp. and Shigella spp. were frequently detected gram negative bacteria, in 94% and 61% of samples, respectively. The gram positive bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, which is known to survive for extended times in urine, was found in 72% of samples. A screening of 41 trace organic compounds in the urine facilitated selection of 12 priority pharmaceuticals for further evaluation. The antibiotics sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, which are frequently prescribed as prophylaxis for HIV-positive patients, were detected in 95% and 85% of samples, reaching maximum concentrations of 6800 μg/L and 1280 μg/L, respectively. The antiretroviral drug emtricitabine was also detected in 40% of urine samples. A sulfonamide antibiotic resistance gene (sul1) was detected in 100% of urine samples. By coupling analysis of pathogens and pharmaceuticals in geographically dispersed samples in eThekwini, this study reveals a range of human and environmental health hazards in urine intended for fertilizer production. Collection of urine offers the benefit of

  15. Waste disposal and households' heterogeneity. Identifying factors shaping attitudes towards source-separated recycling in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Padilla, Alcides; Trujillo, Juan C

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste management in many cities of developing countries is not environmentally sustainable. People traditionally dispose of their solid waste in unsuitable urban areas like sidewalks and satellite dumpsites. This situation nowadays has become a serious public health problem in big Latin American conurbations. Among these densely-populated urban spaces, the Colombia's capital and main city stands out as a special case. In this study, we aim to identify the factors that shape the attitudes towards source-separated recycling among households in Bogotá. Using data from the Colombian Department of Statistics and Bogotá's multi-purpose survey, we estimated a multivariate Probit model. In general, our results show that the higher the household's socioeconomic class, the greater its effort for separating solid wastes. Likewise, our findings also allowed us to characterize household profiles regarding solid waste separation and considering each socioeconomic class. Among these profiles, we found that at lower socioeconomic classes, the attitudes towards solid waste separation are influenced by the use of Internet, the membership to an environmentalist organization, the level of education of the head of household and the homeownership. Hence, increasing the education levels within the poorest segment of the population, promoting affordable housing policies and facilitating Internet access for the vulnerable population could reinforce households' attitudes towards a greater source-separated recycling effort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Trang Hoang,; Hernández, L.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on literature data

  17. Raw mechanically separated chicken meat and salmon protein hydrolysate as protein sources in extruded dog food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, A. H.; Kraugerud, O. F.

    2017-01-01

    Protein quality was evaluated for mechanically separated chicken meat (MSC) and salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH), and for extruded dog foods where MSC or SPH partially replaced poultry meal (PM). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in the protein...

  18. A radiochemical separation of spallogenic 88Zr in the carrier-free state for radioisotopic photoneutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, R.E.; Grant, P.M.; Daniels, R.J.; Daniels, W.R.; O'Brien, H.A.Jr.

    1976-01-01

    As the precursor of its 88 Y daughter, 88 Zr could be advantageously included in the active component of the 88 Y-Be photoneutron source for several reasons. The spallation of Mo targets with medium-energy protons at LAMPF procedure has been developed to separate radiozirconium from the target material and various spallogenic impurities. 88 Zr can consequently be obtained carrier-free and in quantitative yield. (author)

  19. Method and apparatus for suppressing electron generation in a vapor source for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janes, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    A system for applying accelerating forces to ionized particles of a vapor in a manner to suppress the flow of electron current from the vapor source. The accelerating forces are applied as an electric field in a configuration orthogonal to a magnetic field. The electric field is applied between one or more anodes in the plasma and one or more cathodes operated as electron emitting surfaces. The circuit for applying the electric field floats the cathodes with respect to the vapor source, thereby removing the vapor source from the circuit of electron flow through the plasma and suppressing the flow of electrons from the vapor source. The potential of other conducting structures contacting the plasma is controlled at or permitted to seek a level which further suppresses the flow of electron currents from the vapor source. Reducing the flow of electrons from the vapor source is particularly useful where the vapor is ionized with isotopic selectivity because it avoids superenergization of the vapor by the electron current

  20. Multi-Antenna Data Collector for Smart Metering Networks with Integrated Source Separation by Spatial Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quednau, Philipp; Trommer, Ralph; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter

    2016-03-01

    Wireless transmission systems in smart metering networks share the advantage of lower installation costs due to the expandability of separate infrastructure but suffer from transmission problems. In this paper the issue of interference of wireless transmitted smart meter data with third party systems and data from other meters is investigated and an approach for solving the problem is presented. A multi-channel wireless m-bus receiver was developed to separate the desired data from unwanted interferers by spatial filtering. The according algorithms are presented and the influence of different antenna types on the spatial filtering is investigated. The performance of the spatial filtering is evaluated by extensive measurements in a realistic surrounding with several hundreds of active wireless m-bus transponders. These measurements correspond to the future environment for data-collectors as they took place in rural and urban areas with smart gas meters equipped with wireless m-bus transponders installed in almost all surrounding buildings.

  1. Use of oleaginous plants in phytotreatment of grey water and yellow water from source separation of sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Malagoli, Mario; Alibardi, Luca; Garbo, Francesco; Pivato, Alberto; Cossu, Raffaello

    2017-05-01

    Efficient and economic reuse of waste is one of the pillars of modern environmental engineering. In the field of domestic sewage management, source separation of yellow (urine), brown (faecal matter) and grey waters aims to recover the organic substances concentrated in brown water, the nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) in the urine and to ensure an easier treatment and recycling of grey waters. With the objective of emphasizing the potential of recovery of resources from sewage management, a lab-scale research study was carried out at the University of Padova in order to evaluate the performances of oleaginous plants (suitable for biodiesel production) in the phytotreatment of source separated yellow and grey waters. The plant species used were Brassica napus (rapeseed), Glycine max (soybean) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower). Phytotreatment tests were carried out using 20L pots. Different testing runs were performed at an increasing nitrogen concentration in the feedstock. The results proved that oleaginous species can conveniently be used for the phytotreatment of grey and yellow waters from source separation of domestic sewage, displaying high removal efficiencies of nutrients and organic substances (nitrogen>80%; phosphorous >90%; COD nearly 90%). No inhibition was registered in the growth of plants irrigated with different mixtures of yellow and grey waters, where the characteristics of the two streams were reciprocally and beneficially integrated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Separating contributions from natural and anthropogenic sources in atmospheric methane from the Black Sea region, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuna, Stela; Pendall, Elise; Miller, John B.; Tans, Pieter P.; Dlugokencky, Ed; White, James W.C.

    2008-01-01

    The Danube Delta-Black Sea region of Romania is an important wetland, and this preliminary study evaluates the significance of this region as a source of atmospheric CH 4 . Measurements of the mixing ratio and δ 13 C in CH 4 are reported from air and water samples collected at eight sites in the Danube Delta. High mixing ratios of CH 4 were found in air (2500-14,000 ppb) and dissolved in water samples (∼1-10 μmol L -1 ), demonstrating that the Danube Delta is an important natural source of CH 4 . The intercepts on Keeling plots of about -62 per mille show that the main source of CH 4 in this region is microbial, probably resulting primarily from acetate fermentation. Atmospheric CH 4 and CO data from the NOAA/ESRL (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory) were used to make a preliminary estimate of biogenic CH 4 at the Black Sea sampling site at Constanta (BSC). These data were used to calculate ratios of CH 4 /CO in air samples, and using an assumed CH 4 /CO anthropogenic emissions ratio of 0.6, fossil fuel emissions at BSC were estimated. Biogenic CH 4 emissions were then estimated by a simple mass balance approach. Keeling plots of well-mixed air from the BSC site suggested a stronger wetland source in summer and a stronger fossil fuel source in winter

  3. Gaussian process based independent analysis for temporal source separation in fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Ditte Høvenhoff; Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) gives us a unique insight into the processes of the brain, and opens up for analyzing the functional activation patterns of the underlying sources. Task-inferred supervised learning with restrictive assumptions in the regression set-up, restricts...... the exploratory nature of the analysis. Fully unsupervised independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms, on the other hand, can struggle to detect clear classifiable components on single-subject data. We attribute this shortcoming to inadequate modeling of the fMRI source signals by failing to incorporate its...

  4. Separation of blended impulsive sources using an iterative estimation-subtraction algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doulgeris, P.; Mahdad, A.; Blacquière, G.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional data acquisition practice dictates the existence of sufficient time intervals between the firing of sequential impulsive sources in the field. However, much attention has been drawn recently to the possibility of shooting in an overlapping fashion. Numerous publications have addressed

  5. Ion-source dependence of the distributions of internuclear separations in 2-MeV HeH+ beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanter, E.P.; Gemmell, D.S.; Plesser, I.; Vager, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments involving the use of MeV molecular-ion beams have yielded new information on atomic collisions in solids. A central part of the analyses of such experiments is a knowledge of the distribution of internuclear separations contained in the incident beam. In an attempt to determine how these distributions depend on ion-source gas conditions, we have studied foil-induced dissociations of H 2+ , H 3+ , HeH + , and OH 2+ ions. Although changes of ion-source gas compositions and pressure were found to have no measurable influence on the vibrational state populations of the beams reaching our target, for HeH + we found that beams produced in our rf source were vibrationally hotter than beams produced in a duoplasmatron. This was also seen in studies of neutral fragments and transmitted molecules

  6. A simple alkali-metal and noble gas ion source for SIMS equipments with mass separation of the primary ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duesterhoeft, H.; Pippig, R.

    1986-01-01

    An alkali-metal ion source working without a store of alkali-metals is described. The alkali-metal ions are produced by evaporation of alkali salts and ionization in a low-voltage arc discharge stabilized with a noble gas plasma or in the case of small alkali-metal ion currents on the base of the well known thermic ionization at a hot tungsten wire. The source is very simple in construction and produces a stable ion current of 0.3 μA for more than 100 h. It is possible to change the ion species in a short time. This source is applicable to all SIMS equipments using mass separation for primary ions. (author)

  7. Separation of mouse testis cells on a Celsep (TM) apparatus and their usefulness as a source of high molecular weight DNA or RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolgemuth, D. J.; Gizang-Ginsberg, E.; Engelmyer, E.; Gavin, B. J.; Ponzetto, C.

    1985-01-01

    The use of a self-contained unit-gravity cell separation apparatus for separation of populations of mouse testicular cells is described. The apparatus, a Celsep (TM), maximizes the unit area over which sedimentation occurs, reduces the amount of separation medium employed, and is quite reproducible. Cells thus isolated have been good sources for isolation of DNA, and notably, high molecular weight RNA.

  8. Recent Administrative and Judicial Decisions Regarding Consideration of Source Separation in Determining BACT Under PSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  9. Depth sensitivity and source-detector separations for near infrared spectroscopy based on the Colin27 brain template.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial and depth sensitivity of non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS measurements to brain tissue-i.e., near-infrared neuromonitoring (NIN - is essential for designing experiments as well as interpreting research findings. However, a thorough characterization of such sensitivity in realistic head models has remained unavailable. In this study, we conducted 3,555 Monte Carlo (MC simulations to densely cover the scalp of a well-characterized, adult male template brain (Colin27. We sought to evaluate: (i the spatial sensitivity profile of NIRS to brain tissue as a function of source-detector separation, (ii the NIRS sensitivity to brain tissue as a function of depth in this realistic and complex head model, and (iii the effect of NIRS instrument sensitivity on detecting brain activation. We found that increasing the source-detector (SD separation from 20 to 65 mm provides monotonic increases in sensitivity to brain tissue. For every 10 mm increase in SD separation (up to ~45 mm, sensitivity to gray matter increased an additional 4%. Our analyses also demonstrate that sensitivity in depth (S decreases exponentially, with a "rule-of-thumb" formula S=0.75*0.85(depth. Thus, while the depth sensitivity of NIRS is not strictly limited, NIN signals in adult humans are strongly biased towards the outermost 10-15 mm of intracranial space. These general results, along with the detailed quantitation of sensitivity estimates around the head, can provide detailed guidance for interpreting the likely sources of NIRS signals, as well as help NIRS investigators design and plan better NIRS experiments, head probes and instruments.

  10. Query-by-Example Music Information Retrieval by Score-Informed Source Separation and Remixing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto Masataka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel query-by-example (QBE approach in music information retrieval that allows a user to customize query examples by directly modifying the volume of different instrument parts. The underlying hypothesis of this approach is that the musical mood of retrieved results changes in relation to the volume balance of different instruments. On the basis of this hypothesis, we aim to clarify the relationship between the change in the volume balance of a query and the genre of the retrieved pieces, called genre classification shift. Such an understanding would allow us to instruct users in how to generate alternative queries without finding other appropriate pieces. Our QBE system first separates all instrument parts from the audio signal of a piece with the help of its musical score, and then it allows users remix these parts to change the acoustic features that represent the musical mood of the piece. Experimental results showed that the genre classification shift was actually caused by the volume change in the vocal, guitar, and drum parts.

  11. Investigation of A = 152 radioactivities with mass-separated sources: Identification of /sup 152/Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, K.S.; Sousa, D.C.; Nitschke, J.M.; Wilmarth, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclides with A = 152 were produced in /sup 58/Ni bombardments of /sup 96/Ru and their decay properties were investigated following on-line mass separation. The isotope /sup 152/Lu (T/sub 1/2/ = 0.7 +- 0.1 s) was identified by γ rays in its β-decay daughter, /sup 152/Yb. Based on its decay characteristics, the parent state has a probable spin and parity assignment of (4,5,6 - ). Several new transitions were observed to follow the β decays of /sup 152/Yb and the /sup 152/Tm low-spin isomer; they established previously unknown levels in both /sup 152/Tm and /sup 152/Er. The additional γ rays in /sup 152/Yb decay reduce from 100% to 88% the direct feeding to the one excited state in /sup 152/Tm that had been known earlier. Nevertheless, the corresponding logft value is calculated to be 3.5, indicating that this is an allowed β transition which connects the 0 + parent with a 1 + excited state in /sup 152/Tm. By comparing the β-decay rates of /sup 148/Dy and /sup 152/Ho, and the α- and β-decay rates of /sup 152/Er, an α branch of 90 +- 4 % was deduced for /sup 152/Er

  12. Noise-Source Separation Using Internal and Far-Field Sensors for a Full-Scale Turbofan Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Miles, Jeffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    Noise-source separation techniques for the extraction of the sub-dominant combustion noise from the total noise signatures obtained in static-engine tests are described. Three methods are applied to data from a static, full-scale engine test. Both 1/3-octave and narrow-band results are discussed. The results are used to assess the combustion-noise prediction capability of the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). A new additional phase-angle-based discriminator for the three-signal method is also introduced.

  13. APPLICATION OF COMPENSATION METHOD FOR SEPARATION USEFUL SIGNAL AND INTERFERENCE FROM NEARBY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of the known methods of noise suppression the ratios for the angular measurements are obtained. A mathematical model experiment to estimate the dependence of measurement error on the relative position of interference source and useful signal has been conducted. The modified method of interfer- ence compensation is tested experimentally. The analysis of obtained angular measurements for the considered methods shows that the modified method of compensation allows obtaining more precise estimates. The analyzed methodsallow considerably eliminating the useful signal from the antenna additional channel which reduces errors of angular misalignment.To determine the degree of the radar error analytically is not always possible, and in future comparison of the ef- fectiveness of various methods of interference compensation will be expected to conduct by means of mathematical model-ing of radar closed contour.

  14. The separation of control variables in an H/sup /minus// ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowling, P.S.; Brown, S.K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a successful methodology which was used to classify a series if waveforms taken from a 100 ma H/sup /minus// ion source at Los Alamos. The series of 260 waveforms was divided into a ''training'' set and a ''test'' set. A sequence of mathematical transformations was performed on the ''training'' waveforms data and then it was subjected to discriminant analysis. The analysis generates a set of filters which will allow classification of an unknown waveform in the ''test'' set as being either stable or unstable; if stable, whether optimal or not; if not optimal, which of the six control parameters should be adjusted to bring it to an optimal condition. We have found that the probability of successful classification using this methodology is 91.5%. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  15. A mathematical model for source separation of MMG signals recorded with a coupled microphone-accelerometer sensor pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jorge; Chau, Tom

    2005-09-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology for muscle activity monitoring have resulted in the development of a coupled microphone-accelerometer sensor pair for physiological acousti signal recording. This sensor can be used to eliminate interfering sources in practical settings where the contamination of an acoustic signal by ambient noise confounds detection but cannot be easily removed [e.g., mechanomyography (MMG), swallowing sounds, respiration, and heart sounds]. This paper presents a mathematical model for the coupled microphone-accelerometer vibration sensor pair, specifically applied to muscle activity monitoring (i.e., MMG) and noise discrimination in externally powered prostheses for below-elbow amputees. While the model provides a simple and reliable source separation technique for MMG signals, it can also be easily adapted to other aplications where the recording of low-frequency (< 1 kHz) physiological vibration signals is required.

  16. Models for the blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Jan-Eric

    2014-01-01

    person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical......When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind...... background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material...

  17. An investigation of the usability of sound recognition for source separation of packaging wastes in reverse vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucu, M Kemal; Kaplan, Özgür; Büyük, Osman; Güllü, M Kemal

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigate the usability of sound recognition for source separation of packaging wastes in reverse vending machines (RVMs). For this purpose, an experimental setup equipped with a sound recording mechanism was prepared. Packaging waste sounds generated by three physical impacts such as free falling, pneumatic hitting and hydraulic crushing were separately recorded using two different microphones. To classify the waste types and sizes based on sound features of the wastes, a support vector machine (SVM) and a hidden Markov model (HMM) based sound classification systems were developed. In the basic experimental setup in which only free falling impact type was considered, SVM and HMM systems provided 100% classification accuracy for both microphones. In the expanded experimental setup which includes all three impact types, material type classification accuracies were 96.5% for dynamic microphone and 97.7% for condenser microphone. When both the material type and the size of the wastes were classified, the accuracy was 88.6% for the microphones. The modeling studies indicated that hydraulic crushing impact type recordings were very noisy for an effective sound recognition application. In the detailed analysis of the recognition errors, it was observed that most of the errors occurred in the hitting impact type. According to the experimental results, it can be said that the proposed novel approach for the separation of packaging wastes could provide a high classification performance for RVMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Animal Husbandry: Chemical Compositions, Separation of Sources and Animal Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B.; Coggon, M.; Koss, A.; Warneke, C.; Eilerman, S. J.; Neuman, J. A.; Peischl, J.; Aikin, K. C.; Ryerson, T. B.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are important sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere. We used a hydronium ion time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS) to measure VOC emissions from CAFOs in the Northern Front Range of Colorado during an aircraft campaign (SONGNEX) for regional contributions and from a mobile laboratory sampling for chemical characterizations of individual animal feedlots. The main VOCs emitted from CAFOs include carboxylic acids, alcohols, carbonyls, phenolic species, sulfur- and nitrogen-containing species. Alcohols and carboxylic acids dominate VOC concentrations. Sulfur-containing and phenolic species become more important in terms of odor activity values and NO3 reactivity, respectively. The high time-resolution mobile measurements allow the separation of the sources of VOCs from different parts of the operations occurring within the facilities. We show that the increase of ethanol concentrations were primarily associated with feed storage and handling. We apply a multivariate regression analysis using NH3 and ethanol as tracers to attribute the relative importance of animal-related emissions (animal exhalation and waste) and feed-related emissions (feed storage and handling) for different VOC species. Feed storage and handling contribute significantly to emissions of alcohols, carbonyls and carboxylic acids. Phenolic species and nitrogen-containing species are predominantly associated with animals and their waste. VOC ratios can be potentially used as indicators for the separation of emissions from dairy and beef cattle from the regional aircraft measurements.

  19. Global warming potential of material fractions occurring in source-separated organic household waste treated by anaerobic digestion or incineration under different framework conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the environmental profiles of anaerobic digestion (AD) and incineration, in relation to global warming potential (GWP), for treating individual material fractions that may occur in source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). Different framework conditions representative...

  20. Evaluation of a new pulping technology for pre-treating source-separated organic household waste prior to anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Larsen, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A new technology for pre-treating source-separated organic household waste prior to anaerobic digestion was assessed, and its performance was compared to existing alternative pre-treatment technologies. This pre-treatment technology is based on waste pulping with water, using a specially developed...... screw mechanism. The pre-treatment technology rejects more than 95% (wet weight) of non-biodegradable impurities in waste collected from households and generates biopulp ready for anaerobic digestion. Overall, 84-99% of biodegradable material (on a dry weight basis) in the waste was recovered...... in the biopulp. The biochemical methane potential for the biopulp was 469±7mL CH4/g ash-free mass. Moreover, all Danish and European Union requirements regarding the content of hazardous substances in biomass intended for land application were fulfilled. Compared to other pre-treatment alternatives, the screw...

  1. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water recovery from source-separated domestic waste(water).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Grietje; Kujawa, Katarzyna; de Mes, Titia; Hernandez, Lucia; de Graaff, Marthe; Abu-Ghunmi, Lina; Mels, Adriaan; Meulman, Brendo; Temmink, Hardy; Buisman, Cees; van Lier, Jules; Lettinga, Gatze

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas production. Post-treatment of the effluent is providing recovery of phosphorus and removal of remaining COD and nitrogen. The total energy saving of the new sanitation concept amounts to 200 MJ/year in comparison with conventional sanitation, moreover 0.14 kg P/p/year and 90 litres of potential reusable water are produced. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  2. Characterisation of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in Danish source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study is dedicated to characterising the chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in untreated Danish source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). First, data on SSOHW in different countries, available in the literature, were evaluated...... and then, secondly, laboratory analyses for eight organic material fractions comprising Danish SSOHW were conducted. No data were found in the literature that fully covered the objectives of the present study. Based on laboratory analyses, all fractions were assigned according to their specific properties......) and material degradability (BMP from laboratory incubation tests divided by TBMP) were expressed. Moreover, the degradability of lignocellulose biofibres (the share of volatile lignocellulose biofibre solids degraded in laboratory incubation tests) was calculated. Finally, BMP for average SSOHW composition...

  3. Guide for the recovery of high grade waste paper from federal office buildings through at-source separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This guide is intended to serve as a manual for organizing and managing office waste paper recovery programs in Canadian federal buildings. Waste paper generated in such buildings is of particular interest for recycling as it is produced in sufficiently large amounts, and contains large amounts of high-grade waste paper which obtain good prices from paper mills. The key to successful recovery of such paper is separation, at the source of waste generation, from other less-valuable papers and non-paper materials. In recommending ways to do this, the manual covers assessment of the viability of a collection program in a particular building, estimating the quantities of waste generated, calculating storage space necessary, marketing the paper collected, using proper collection and storage containers, promoting employee awareness, and administering and monitoring the program. A sample cost-benefit analysis is given for a general office building with 1,000 employees. Includes glossary. 14 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Color Blindness? Who Is at Risk for Color Blindness? Color Blindness Causes Color Blindness Diagnosis and Treatment How Color Blindness Is Tested What Is Color Blindness? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el daltonismo? Written ...

  5. Direct electrochemical oxidation of ammonia on graphite as a treatment option for stored source-separated urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöllig, Hanspeter; Fritzsche, Cristina; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Udert, Kai M

    2015-02-01

    Electrolysis can be a viable technology for ammonia removal from source-separated urine. Compared to biological nitrogen removal, electrolysis is more robust and is highly amenable to automation, which makes it especially attractive for on-site reactors. In electrolytic wastewater treatment, ammonia is usually removed by indirect oxidation through active chlorine which is produced in-situ at elevated anode potentials. However, the evolution of chlorine can lead to the formation of chlorate, perchlorate, chlorinated organic by-products and chloramines that are toxic. This study focuses on using direct ammonia oxidation on graphite at low anode potentials in order to overcome the formation of toxic by-products. With the aid of cyclic voltammetry, we demonstrated that graphite is active for direct ammonia oxidation without concomitant chlorine formation if the anode potential is between 1.1 and 1.6 V vs. SHE (standard hydrogen electrode). A comparison of potentiostatic bulk electrolysis experiments in synthetic stored urine with and without chloride confirmed that ammonia was removed exclusively by continuous direct oxidation. Direct oxidation required high pH values (pH > 9) because free ammonia was the actual reactant. In real stored urine (pH = 9.0), an ammonia removal rate of 2.9 ± 0.3 gN·m(-2)·d(-1) was achieved and the specific energy demand was 42 Wh·gN(-1) at an anode potential of 1.31 V vs. SHE. The measurements of chlorate and perchlorate as well as selected chlorinated organic by-products confirmed that no chlorinated by-products were formed in real urine. Electrode corrosion through graphite exfoliation was prevented and the surface was not poisoned by intermediate oxidation products. We conclude that direct ammonia oxidation on graphite electrodes is a treatment option for source-separated urine with three major advantages: The formation of chlorinated by-products is prevented, less energy is consumed than in indirect ammonia oxidation and

  6. Life cycle and economic assessment of source-separated MSW collection with regard to greenhouse gas emissions: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Ni, Mingjiang; Chi, Yong; Zou, Daoan; Fu, Chao

    2013-08-01

    In China, the continuously increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has resulted in an urgent need for changing the current municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system based on mixed collection. A pilot program focusing on source-separated MSW collection was thus launched (2010) in Hangzhou, China, to lessen the related environmental loads. And greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Kyoto Protocol) are singled out in particular. This paper uses life cycle assessment modeling to evaluate the potential environmental improvement with regard to GHG emissions. The pre-existing MSWM system is assessed as baseline, while the source separation scenario is compared internally. Results show that 23 % GHG emissions can be decreased by source-separated collection compared with the base scenario. In addition, the use of composting and anaerobic digestion (AD) is suggested for further optimizing the management of food waste. 260.79, 82.21, and -86.21 thousand tonnes of GHG emissions are emitted from food waste landfill, composting, and AD, respectively, proving the emission reduction potential brought by advanced food waste treatment technologies. Realizing the fact, a modified MSWM system is proposed by taking AD as food waste substitution option, with additional 44 % GHG emissions saved than current source separation scenario. Moreover, a preliminary economic assessment is implemented. It is demonstrated that both source separation scenarios have a good cost reduction potential than mixed collection, with the proposed new system the most cost-effective one.

  7. Isomer separation of $^{70g}Cu$ and $^{70m}Cu$ with a resonance ionization laser ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Köster, U; Mishin, V I; Weissman, L; Huyse, M; Kruglov, K; Müller, W F; Van Duppen, P; Van Roosbroeck, J; Thirolf, P G; Thomas, H C; Weisshaar, D W; Schulze, W; Borcea, R; La Commara, M; Schatz, H; Schmidt, K; Röttger, S; Huber, G; Sebastian, V; Kratz, K L; Catherall, R; Georg, U; Lettry, Jacques; Oinonen, M; Ravn, H L; Simon, H

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive copper isotopes were ionized with the resonance ionization laser ion source at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE (CERN). Using the different hyperfine structure in the 3d/sup 10/ 4s /sup 2/S/sub 1/2/-3d/sup 10/ 4p /sup 2/P/sub 1/2//sup 0/ transition the low- and high-spin isomers of /sup 70/Cu were selectively enhanced by tuning the laser wavelength. The light was provided by a narrow-bandwidth dye laser pumped by copper vapor lasers and frequency doubled in a BBO crystal. The ground state to isomeric state intensity ratio could be varied by a factor of 30, allowing to assign gamma transitions unambiguously to the decay of the individual isomers. It is shown that the method can also be used to determine magnetic moments. In a first experiment for the 1/sup +/ ground state of /sup 70/Cu a magnetic moment of (+)1.8(3) mu /sub N/ and for the high-spin isomer of /sup 70/Cu a magnetic moment of (+or-)1.2(3) mu /sub N/ could be deduced. (20 refs).

  8. Determining the Source of Water Vapor in a Cerium Oxide Electrochemical Oxygen Separator to Achieve Aviator Grade Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John; Taylor, Dale; Martinez, James

    2014-01-01

    ]. Combined with a mechanical compressor, a Solid Electrolyte Oxygen Separator (SEOS) should be capable of producing ABO grade oxygen at pressures >2400 psia, on the space station. Feasibility tests using a SEOS integrated with a mechanical compressor identified an unexpected contaminant in the oxygen: water vapour was found in the oxygen product, sometimes at concentrations higher than 40 ppm (the ABO limit for water vapour is 7 ppm). If solid electrolyte membranes are really "infinitely selective" to oxygen as they are reported to be, where did the water come from? If water is getting into the oxygen, what other contaminants might get into the oxygen? Microscopic analyses of wafers, welds, and oxygen delivery tubes were performed in an attempt to find the source of the water vapour contamination. Hot and cold pressure decay tests were performed. Measurements of water vapour as a function of O2 delivery rate, O2 delivery pressure, and process air humidity levels were the most instructive in finding the source of water contamination (Fig 3). Water contamination was directly affected by oxygen delivery rate (doubling the oxygen production rate cut the water level in half). Water was affected by process air humidity levels and delivery pressure in a way that indicates the water was diffusing into the oxygen delivery system.

  9. Vitamin E and fish oil, separately or in combination, on treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Narges; Paknezhad, Farnoush; Rashidi Nooshabadi, Mohamadreza; Kavianpour, Maria; Jafari Rad, Sima; Khadem Haghighian, Hossein

    2018-03-15

    Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common complaints of women. The aim of this study was to investigate the adjuvant effect of vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids, separately or in combination, supplements on pain in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. This clinical trial conducted on students of university. Qualified girls completed the VAS before randomization. Arrangement was determined according to the severity of the pain (mild 0-3; moderate 3.1-6; severe 6.1-10). One hundred patients were randomly assigned to four groups receiving omega-3 (n = 25), vitamin E (n = 25), vitamin E- omega-3 (n = 25), or placebo (n = 25). Three hundred milligrams of omega-3 capsules (180 mg EPA and 120 mg DHA) and 200 international units (IU) vitamin E were administered daily. Severity of the pain measured in the beginning and the end of the study. Omega-3 and vitamin E supplements effectively relieved menstrual pain compared with the placebo. But in group with combination of vitamin E + omega-3 has a considerable effect on menstrual pain when compared with other groups (p E are helpful in reducing of dysmenorrhea pain and can be replaced with them.

  10. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs): chemical compositions and separation of sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Coggon, Matthew M.; Koss, Abigail R.; Warneke, Carsten; Eilerman, Scott; Peischl, Jeff; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2017-04-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. In this study, we conducted mobile laboratory measurements of VOCs, methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) downwind of dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep and chicken CAFO facilities in northeastern Colorado using a hydronium ion time-of-flight chemical-ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS), which can detect numerous VOCs. Regional measurements of CAFO emissions in northeastern Colorado were also performed using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) campaign. Alcohols and carboxylic acids dominate VOC concentrations and the reactivity of the VOCs with hydroxyl (OH) radicals. Sulfur-containing and phenolic species provide the largest contributions to the odor activity values and the nitrate radical (NO3) reactivity of VOC emissions, respectively. VOC compositions determined from mobile laboratory and aircraft measurements generally agree well with each other. The high time-resolution mobile measurements allow for the separation of the sources of VOCs from different parts of the operations occurring within the facilities. We show that the emissions of ethanol are primarily associated with feed storage and handling. Based on mobile laboratory measurements, we apply a multivariate regression analysis using NH3 and ethanol as tracers to determine the relative importance of animal-related emissions (animal exhalation and waste) and feed-related emissions (feed storage and handling) for different VOC species. Feed storage and handling contribute significantly to emissions of alcohols, carbonyls, carboxylic acids and sulfur-containing species. Emissions of phenolic species and nitrogen-containing species are predominantly associated with animals and their waste.

  11. Characterisation of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in Danish source-separated organic household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    This study is dedicated to characterising the chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in untreated Danish source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). First, data on SSOHW in different countries, available in the literature, were evaluated and then, secondly, laboratory analyses for eight organic material fractions comprising Danish SSOHW were conducted. No data were found in the literature that fully covered the objectives of the present study. Based on laboratory analyses, all fractions were assigned according to their specific properties in relation to BMP, protein content, lipids, lignocellulose biofibres and easily degradable carbohydrates (carbohydrates other than lignocellulose biofibres). The three components in lignocellulose biofibres, i.e. lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, were differentiated, and theoretical BMP (TBMP) and material degradability (BMP from laboratory incubation tests divided by TBMP) were expressed. Moreover, the degradability of lignocellulose biofibres (the share of volatile lignocellulose biofibre solids degraded in laboratory incubation tests) was calculated. Finally, BMP for average SSOHW composition in Denmark (untreated) was calculated, and the BMP contribution of the individual material fractions was then evaluated. Material fractions of the two general waste types, defined as "food waste" and "fibre-rich waste," were found to be anaerobically degradable with considerable BMP. Material degradability of material fractions such as vegetation waste, moulded fibres, animal straw, dirty paper and dirty cardboard, however, was constrained by lignin content. BMP for overall SSOHW (untreated) was 404 mL CH4 per g VS, which might increase if the relative content of material fractions, such as animal and vegetable food waste, kitchen tissue and dirty paper in the waste, becomes larger. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth and yield of tomato cultivated on composted duck excreta enriched wood shavings and source-separated municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Zoes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of growth substrates, made with duck excreta enriched wood shaving compost (DMC and the organic fraction of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW compost, on the growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv. Campbell 1327. Substrate A consisted of 3:2 (W/W proportion of DMC and MSW composts. Substrates B and C were the same as A but contained 15% (W/W ratio of brick dust and shredded plastic, respectively. Three control substrates consisted of the commercially available peat-based substrate (Pr, an in-house sphagnum peat-based substrate (Gs, and black earth mixed with sandy loam soil (BE/S in a 1:4 (W/W ratio. Substrates (A, B, C and controls received nitrogen (N, phosphate (P and potassium (K at equivalent rates of 780 mg/pot, 625 mg/pot, and 625 mg/pot, respectively, or were used without mineral fertilizers. Compared to the controls (Pr, Gs and BE/S, tomato plants grown on A, B, and C produced a greater total number and dry mass of fruits, with no significant differences between them. On average, total plant dry-matter biomass in substrate A, B, and C was 19% lower than that produced on Pr, but 28% greater than biomass obtained for plant grown, on Gs and BE/S. Plant height, stem diameter and chlorophyll concentrations indicate that substrates A, B, and C were particularly suitable for plant growth. Although the presence of excess N in composted substrates favoured vegetative rather than reproductive growth, the continuous supply of nutrients throughout the growing cycle, as well as the high water retention capacity that resulted in a reduced watering by 50%, suggest that substrates A, B, and C were suitable growing mixes, offering environmental and agronomic advantages.

  13. Blind deconvolution of seismograms regularized via minimum support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, A A; Bostock, M G; Haber, E

    2012-01-01

    The separation of earthquake source signature and propagation effects (the Earth’s ‘Green’s function’) that encode a seismogram is a challenging problem in seismology. The task of separating these two effects is called blind deconvolution. By considering seismograms of multiple earthquakes from similar locations recorded at a given station and that therefore share the same Green’s function, we may write a linear relation in the time domain u i (t)*s j (t) − u j (t)*s i (t) = 0, where u i (t) is the seismogram for the ith source and s j (t) is the jth unknown source. The symbol * represents the convolution operator. From two or more seismograms, we obtain a homogeneous linear system where the unknowns are the sources. This system is subject to a scaling constraint to deliver a non-trivial solution. Since source durations are not known a priori and must be determined, we augment our system by introducing the source durations as unknowns and we solve the combined system (sources and source durations) using separation of variables. Our solution is derived using direct linear inversion to recover the sources and Newton’s method to recover source durations. This method is tested using two sets of synthetic seismograms created by convolution of (i) random Gaussian source-time functions and (ii) band-limited sources with a simplified Green’s function and signal to noise levels up to 10% with encouraging results. (paper)

  14. An application of the theory of planned behaviour to study the influencing factors of participation in source separation of food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim Ghani, Wan Azlina Wan Ab.; Rusli, Iffah Farizan; Biak, Dayang Radiah Awang; Idris, Azni

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been conducted to identify the influencing factors for participation in source separation of food waste using self administered questionnaires. ► The findings suggested several implications for the development and implementation of waste separation at home programme. ► The analysis indicates that the attitude towards waste separation is determined as the main predictors where this in turn could be a significant predictor of the repondent’s actual food waste separation behaviour. ► To date, none of similar have been reported elsewhere and this finding will be beneficial to local Authorities as indicator in designing campaigns to promote the use of waste separation programmes to reinforce the positive attitudes. - Abstract: Tremendous increases in biodegradable (food waste) generation significantly impact the local authorities, who are responsible to manage, treat and dispose of this waste. The process of separation of food waste at its generation source is identified as effective means in reducing the amount food waste sent to landfill and can be reused as feedstock to downstream treatment processes namely composting or anaerobic digestion. However, these efforts will only succeed with positive attitudes and highly participations rate by the public towards the scheme. Thus, the social survey (using questionnaires) to analyse public’s view and influencing factors towards participation in source separation of food waste in households based on the theory of planned behaviour technique (TPB) was performed in June and July 2011 among selected staff in Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor. The survey demonstrates that the public has positive intention in participating provided the opportunities, facilities and knowledge on waste separation at source are adequately prepared by the respective local authorities. Furthermore, good moral values and situational factors such as storage convenience and

  15. An application of the theory of planned behaviour to study the influencing factors of participation in source separation of food waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim Ghani, Wan Azlina Wan Ab., E-mail: wanaz@eng.upm.edu.my [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Rusli, Iffah Farizan, E-mail: iffahrusli@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Biak, Dayang Radiah Awang, E-mail: dayang@eng.upm.edu.my [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Idris, Azni, E-mail: azni@eng.upm.edu.my [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been conducted to identify the influencing factors for participation in source separation of food waste using self administered questionnaires. ► The findings suggested several implications for the development and implementation of waste separation at home programme. ► The analysis indicates that the attitude towards waste separation is determined as the main predictors where this in turn could be a significant predictor of the repondent’s actual food waste separation behaviour. ► To date, none of similar have been reported elsewhere and this finding will be beneficial to local Authorities as indicator in designing campaigns to promote the use of waste separation programmes to reinforce the positive attitudes. - Abstract: Tremendous increases in biodegradable (food waste) generation significantly impact the local authorities, who are responsible to manage, treat and dispose of this waste. The process of separation of food waste at its generation source is identified as effective means in reducing the amount food waste sent to landfill and can be reused as feedstock to downstream treatment processes namely composting or anaerobic digestion. However, these efforts will only succeed with positive attitudes and highly participations rate by the public towards the scheme. Thus, the social survey (using questionnaires) to analyse public’s view and influencing factors towards participation in source separation of food waste in households based on the theory of planned behaviour technique (TPB) was performed in June and July 2011 among selected staff in Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor. The survey demonstrates that the public has positive intention in participating provided the opportunities, facilities and knowledge on waste separation at source are adequately prepared by the respective local authorities. Furthermore, good moral values and situational factors such as storage convenience and

  16. An application of the theory of planned behaviour to study the influencing factors of participation in source separation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim Ghani, Wan Azlina Wan Ab; Rusli, Iffah Farizan; Biak, Dayang Radiah Awang; Idris, Azni

    2013-05-01

    Tremendous increases in biodegradable (food waste) generation significantly impact the local authorities, who are responsible to manage, treat and dispose of this waste. The process of separation of food waste at its generation source is identified as effective means in reducing the amount food waste sent to landfill and can be reused as feedstock to downstream treatment processes namely composting or anaerobic digestion. However, these efforts will only succeed with positive attitudes and highly participations rate by the public towards the scheme. Thus, the social survey (using questionnaires) to analyse public's view and influencing factors towards participation in source separation of food waste in households based on the theory of planned behaviour technique (TPB) was performed in June and July 2011 among selected staff in Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor. The survey demonstrates that the public has positive intention in participating provided the opportunities, facilities and knowledge on waste separation at source are adequately prepared by the respective local authorities. Furthermore, good moral values and situational factors such as storage convenience and collection times are also encouraged public's involvement and consequently, the participations rate. The findings from this study may provide useful indicator to the waste management authorities in Malaysia in identifying mechanisms for future development and implementation of food waste source separation activities in household programmes and communication campaign which advocate the use of these programmes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Blind Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arka Chattopadhyay

    2015-08-01

    There’s no way to know whether he was blind from birth or blindness was something he had picked up from his fights with other cats. He wasn’t an urban cat. He lived in a little village, soaked in the smell of fish with a river running right beside it. Cats like these have stories of a different kind. The two-storied hotel where he lived had a wooden floor. It stood right on the riverbank and had more than a tilt towards the river, as if deliberately leaning on the water.

  18. A Prospective Randomized, Double-Blind, Two-Period Crossover Pharmacokinetic Trial Comparing Green Coffee Bean Extract-A Botanically Sourced Caffeine-With a Synthetic USP Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kayce; Knight, Katelin; Kalman, Douglas; Hewlings, Susan

    2018-04-16

    Coffee is a primary dietary source of the chlorogenic acids (CGAs) of phenolic compounds. Coffee contains caffeine and other phytonutrients, including CGAs. Caffeine on its own has been well characterized and descried pharmacokinetically in the literature, less so for CGAs. The purpose of this double-blind crossover study was to determine the comparative pharmacokinetics of CGAs with caffeine (natural extract) with synthetic caffeine (US Pharmacopeia [USP] standard). Sixteen healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to take 1 dose of product 1, 60 mg of botanically sourced caffeine from 480 mg of green coffee bean extract, or product 2, 60 mg of synthetic USP caffeine, with 5 days between. Blood analysis was done to determine the levels of CGA compounds, more specifically 3-, 4-, and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), and serum caffeine. The natural caffeine extract exhibited mean peak concentrations (C max ) of 3-CQA (11.4 ng/mL), 4-CQA (6.84 ng/mL), and 5-CQA (7.20 ng/mL). The mean systemic 4-hour exposure (AUC 0-4 h ) was 3-CQA (27.3 ng·h/mL), 4-CQA (16.1 ng·h/mL), and 5-CQA (15.7 ng·h/mL). The median t max was 3-CQA (1.00 hour), 4-CQA (1.00 hour), and 5-CQA (1.50 hours). The t max of caffeine was 0.75 hours (natural extract) and 0.63 hours (synthetic caffeine). C max and AUC 0-4 h of serum caffeine were statistically equivalent between products. The geometric least-squares mean ratios (GMRs) of C max and AUC 0-4 h of caffeine were 97.77% (natural extract) and 98.33% (synthetic caffeine). It would appear that CGA compounds from the natural caffeine extract are bioavailable, and 3-CGA may be the compound most absorbed. In addition, caffeine sourced from natural extract versus synthetic were statistically similar for pharmacokinetic parameters. There were no adverse events or safety concerns. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  19. Blind Ambition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    No matter how dedicated they may be, some teachers are daunted by extreme challenges. Carol Agler, music director at the Ohio State School for the Blind (OSSB), is not one of those teachers. Since joining the OSSB staff 11 years ago, Agler has revived the school's long-dormant band program and created its first marching band. Next January, she…

  20. Residents’ Waste Separation Behaviors at the Source: Using SEM with the Theory of Planned Behavior in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongliang; Huang, Guangqing; Yin, Xiaoling; Gong, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect residents’ waste separation behaviors helps in constructing effective environmental campaigns for a community. Using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examines factors associated with waste separation behaviors by analyzing responses to questionnaires distributed in Guangzhou, China. Data drawn from 208 of 1000-field questionnaires were used to assess socio-demographic factors and the TPB constructs (i.e., attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and situational factors). The questionnaire data revealed that attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and situational factors significantly predicted household waste behaviors in Guangzhou, China. Through a structural equation modeling analysis, we concluded that campaigns targeting moral obligations may be particularly effective for increasing the participation rate in waste separation behaviors. PMID:26274969

  1. Classical-processing and quantum-processing signal separation methods for qubit uncoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Yannick; Deville, Alain

    2012-12-01

    The Blind Source Separation problem consists in estimating a set of unknown source signals from their measured combinations. It was only investigated in a non-quantum framework up to now. We propose its first quantum extensions. We thus introduce the Quantum Source Separation field, investigating both its blind and non-blind configurations. More precisely, we show how to retrieve individual quantum bits (qubits) only from the global state resulting from their undesired coupling. We consider cylindrical-symmetry Heisenberg coupling, which e.g. occurs when two electron spins interact through exchange. We first propose several qubit uncoupling methods which typically measure repeatedly the coupled quantum states resulting from individual qubits preparations, and which then statistically process the classical data provided by these measurements. Numerical tests prove the effectiveness of these methods. We then derive a combination of quantum gates for performing qubit uncoupling, thus avoiding repeated qubit preparations and irreversible measurements.

  2. Separation of radiated sound field components from waves scattered by a source under non-anechoic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    to the source. Thus the radiated free-field component is estimated simultaneously with solving the inverse problem of reconstructing the sound field near the source. The method is particularly suited to cases in which the overall contribution of reflected sound in the measurement plane is significant....

  3. Characterising the vertical separation of shale-gas source rocks and aquifers across England and Wales (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Sian E.; Bloomfield, John P.; Ward, Robert S.; Hart, Alwyn J.; Davey, Ian R.; Lewis, Melinda A.

    2018-03-01

    Shale gas is considered by many to have the potential to provide the UK with greater energy security, economic growth and jobs. However, development of a shale gas industry is highly contentious due to environmental concerns including the risk of groundwater pollution. Evidence suggests that the vertical separation between exploited shale units and aquifers is an important factor in the risk to groundwater from shale gas exploitation. A methodology is presented to assess the vertical separation between different pairs of aquifers and shales that are present across England and Wales. The application of the method is then demonstrated for two of these pairs—the Cretaceous Chalk Group aquifer and the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, and the Triassic sandstone aquifer and the Carboniferous Bowland Shale Formation. Challenges in defining what might be considered criteria for `safe separation' between a shale gas formation and an overlying aquifer are discussed, in particular with respect to uncertainties in geological properties, aquifer extents and determination of socially acceptable risk levels. Modelled vertical separations suggest that the risk of aquifer contamination from shale exploration will vary greatly between shale-aquifer pairs and between regions and this will need to be considered carefully as part of the risk assessment and management for any shale gas development.

  4. In Search of the Sources of Psychologically Controlling Parenting: The Role of Parental Separation Anxiety and Parental Maladaptive Perfectionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Duriez, Bart; Goossens, Luc

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of two dimensions of parental separation anxiety--Anxiety about Adolescent Distancing (AAD) and Comfort with Secure Base Role (CSBR)--and parental maladaptive perfectionism in the prediction of psychologically controlling parenting. In a sample of middle adolescents and their parents (N=677), it was found that…

  5. Acute Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekins, Jessica M

    2015-09-01

    Sudden loss of vision is an ophthalmic emergency with numerous possible causes. Abnormalities may occur at any point within the complex vision pathway, from retina to optic nerve to the visual center in the occipital lobe. This article reviews specific prechiasm (retina and optic nerve) and cerebral cortical diseases that lead to acute blindness. Information regarding specific etiologies, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for vision is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Blind Signal Classification via Spare Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-10

    Blind Signal Classification via Sparse Coding Youngjune Gwon MIT Lincoln Laboratory gyj@ll.mit.edu Siamak Dastangoo MIT Lincoln Laboratory sia...achieve blind signal classification with no prior knowledge about signals (e.g., MCS, pulse shaping) in an arbitrary RF channel. Since modulated RF...classification method. Our results indicate that we can separate different classes of digitally modulated signals from blind sampling with 70.3% recall and 24.6

  7. Development of an Ionization Scheme for Gold using the Selective Laser Ion Source at the On-Line Isotope Separator ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Fedosseev, V; Marsh, B A; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2006-01-01

    At the ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility, the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) can be used to ionize reaction products as they effuse from the target. The RILIS process of laser step-wise resonance ionization of atoms in a hot metal cavity provides a highly element selective stage in the preparation of the radioactive ion beam. As a result, the ISOLDE mass separators can provide beams of a chosen isotope with greatly reduced isobaric contamination. The number of elements available at RILIS has been extended to 26, with the addition of a new three-step ionization scheme for gold. The optimal ionization scheme was determined during an extensive study of the atomic energy levels and auto-ionizing states of gold, carried out by means of in-source resonance ionization spectroscopy. Details of the ionization scheme and a summary of the spectroscopy study are presented.

  8. Connection experiments with a hollow cathode ion source and a helium gas jet system for on-line isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, A.K.; Wagner, H.; Walcher, W.; Lund, T.

    1976-01-01

    A helium jet system was connected to a hollow cathode ion source. Using fission products the efficiencies of the different steps were measured by β-, X-ray and γ-counting while the mass spectrum and the focussing of the extracted ion beam were observed with a small deflecting magnet. Mean transport efficiencies of 50% through the 12 m capillary were obtained and ion source efficiencies in the percent range for several elements. (Auth.)

  9. Estimating the number of sources in a noisy convolutive mixture using BIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Rasmus Kongsgaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    The number of source signals in a noisy convolutive mixture is determined based on the exact log-likelihoods of the candidate models. In (Olsson and Hansen, 2004), a novel probabilistic blind source separator was introduced that is based solely on the time-varying second-order statistics of the s......The number of source signals in a noisy convolutive mixture is determined based on the exact log-likelihoods of the candidate models. In (Olsson and Hansen, 2004), a novel probabilistic blind source separator was introduced that is based solely on the time-varying second-order statistics...

  10. A Two-Stage MMSE Beamformer for Underdetermined Signal Separation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koldovský, Zbyněk; Tichavský, Petr; Phan, A. H.; Cichocki, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 12 (2013), s. 1227-1230 ISSN 1070-9908 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/1947 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : beamforming * underdetermined mixtures * blind source separation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.639, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/SI/koldovsky-0424112.pdf

  11. Improved separability of dipole sources by tripolar versus conventional disk electrodes: a modeling study using independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, H; Besio, W; Jones, S; Medvedev, A

    2009-01-01

    Tripolar electrodes have been shown to have less mutual information and higher spatial resolution than disc electrodes. In this work, a four-layer anisotropic concentric spherical head computer model was programmed, then four configurations of time-varying dipole signals were used to generate the scalp surface signals that would be obtained with tripolar and disc electrodes, and four important EEG artifacts were tested: eye blinking, cheek movements, jaw movements, and talking. Finally, a fast fixed-point algorithm was used for signal independent component analysis (ICA). The results show that signals from tripolar electrodes generated better ICA separation results than from disc electrodes for EEG signals with these four types of artifacts.

  12. Modeling of the charge-state separation at ITEP experimental facility for material science based on a Bernas ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barminova, H Y; Saratovskyh, M S

    2016-02-01

    The experiment automation system is supposed to be developed for experimental facility for material science at ITEP, based on a Bernas ion source. The program CAMFT is assumed to be involved into the program of the experiment automation. CAMFT is developed to simulate the intense charged particle bunch motion in the external magnetic fields with arbitrary geometry by means of the accurate solution of the particle motion equation. Program allows the consideration of the bunch intensity up to 10(10) ppb. Preliminary calculations are performed at ITEP supercomputer. The results of the simulation of the beam pre-acceleration and following turn in magnetic field are presented for different initial conditions.

  13. Separation of fission produced 106Ru from simulated high level nuclear wastes for production of brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blicharska, Magdalena; Bartoś, Barbara; Krajewski, Seweryn; Bilewicz, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    Brachytherapy is the common method for treating various tumors, and currently 106 Ru and 125 I applicators are the most frequently used. Considering that 106 Ru is a β emitter with maximum energy of 3.54 MeV, it is best indicated in the treatment of small melanomas, with up to 20 mm tissue range. 106 Ru is commercially obtained from neutron irradiated high enrichment 235 U target in process of production 99 Mo. At present, there are only a handful of ageing reactors worldwide capable of producing the 99 Mo, therefore alternative strategies for production of this key medical isotope are explored. In our work, we propose to use liquid high-level radioactive waste as a source of high activity of 106 Ru. Simple calculations indicate that 1 dm 3 of HLLW solution after 4 years of cooling contains about 500 GBq of 106 Ru. This amount of activity is enough for production of about few thousands of brachytherapy sources. Present communication reports results of our process development studies on the recovery of ruthenium radioisotopes from simulated solution of high level radioactive waste using oxidation-extraction method

  14. Mass separation of rare-earth elements by a high-temperature thermal ion source coupled with a He-jet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Y.; Okano, K.; Aoki, K.

    1987-01-01

    By using a high-temperature thermal ion source coupled to a He-jet system, neutron-rich isotopes of rare-earth elements such as cerium, praseodymium, neodymium and promethium produced by the thermal-neutron fission of /sup 235/U were ionized and successfully separated. The temperature dependence of the ionization efficiency has been measured and found to be explained qualitatively by the vapour pressure of the relevant elements. The characteristic temperature dependence of the ionization efficiency has been utilized for Z-identification of several isobars of rare-earth elements. The heaviest isotopes of neodymium and promethium, /sup 155/Nd and /sup 156/Pm, have recently been identified

  15. Subjective and Objective Quality Assessment of Single-Channel Speech Separation Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Saeidi, Rahim; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on performance evaluation of single-channel speech separation (SCSS) algorithms mostly focused on automatic speech recognition (ASR) accuracy as their performance measure. Assessing the separated signals by different metrics other than this has the benefit that the results...... are expected to carry on to other applications beyond ASR. In this paper, in addition to conventional speech quality metrics (PESQ and SNRloss), we also evaluate the separation systems output using different source separation metrics: blind source separation evaluation (BSS EVAL) and perceptual evaluation...... that PESQ and PEASS quality metrics predict well the subjective quality of separated signals obtained by the separation systems. From the results it is observed that the short-time objective intelligibility (STOI) measure predict the speech intelligibility results....

  16. Fate of PCBs, PAHs and their source characteristic ratios during composting and digestion of source-separated organic waste in full-scale plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braendli, Rahel C.; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Kupper, Thomas; Mayer, Jochen; Stadelmann, Franz X.; Tarradellas, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Composting and digestion are important waste management strategies. However, the resulting products can contain significant amounts of organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study we followed the concentration changes of PCBs and PAHs during composting and digestion on field-scale for the first time. Concentrations of low-chlorinated PCBs increased during composting (about 30%), whereas a slight decrease was observed for the higher chlorinated congeners (about 10%). Enantiomeric fractions of atropisomeric PCBs were essentially racemic and stable over time. Levels of low-molecular-weight PAHs declined during composting (50-90% reduction), whereas high-molecular-weight compounds were stable. The PCBs and PAHs concentrations did not seem to vary during digestion. Source apportionment by applying characteristic PAH ratios and molecular markers in input material did not give any clear results. Some of these parameters changed considerably during composting. Hence, their diagnostic potential for finished compost must be questioned. - During field-scale composting, low molecular weight PCBs and PAHs increased and decreased, respectively, whereas high molecular weight compounds remained stable

  17. Development of the high temperature ion-source for the Grenoble electromagnetic isotope separator; Etude et realisation de la source d'ions a haute temperature du separateur electromagnetique d'isotopes de Grenoble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouriant, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-12-01

    The production of high purity stable or radioactive isotopes ({>=} 99.99 per cent) using electromagnetic separation require for equipment having a high resolving power. Besides, and in order to collect rare or short half-life isotopes, the efficiency of the ion-source must be high ({eta} > 5 to 10 per cent). With this in view, the source built operates at high temperatures (2500-3000 C) and makes use of ionisation by electronic bombardment or of thermo-ionisation. A summary is given in the first part of this work on the essential characteristics of the isotope separator ion Sources; a diagram of the principle of the source built is then given together with its characteristics. In the second part are given the values of the resolving power and of the efficiency of the Grenoble isotope separator fitted with such a source. The resolving power measured at 10 per cent of the peak height is of the order of 200. At the first magnetic stage the efficiency is between 1 and 26 per cent for a range of elements evaporating between 200 and 3000 C. Thus equipped, the separator has for example given, at the first stage, 10 mg of {sup 180}Hf at (99.69 {+-} 0.1) per cent corresponding to an enrichment coefficient of 580; recently 2 mg of {sup 150}Nd at (99.996 {+-} 0.002) per cent corresponding to an enrichment coefficient of 4.2 x 10{sup 5} has been obtained at the second stage. (author) [French] La production d'isotopes stables ou radioactifs de haute purete isotopique ({>=} 99.99 pour cent), par separation electromagnetique, exige des appareils de haut pouvoir de resolution. En outre, et en vue de collecter des isotopes de tres faible abondance ou de periode tres courte, le rendement des sources d'ions doit etre eleve ({eta} > 5 a 10 pour cent). Dans ce but, la source realisee fonctionne a haute temperature (2500-3000 C) et utilise l'ionisation par bombardement electronique, ou la thermoionisation. Dans la premiere partie de ce travail, on resume d'abord les caracteristiques

  18. Investigation of natural phosphatidylcholine sources: separation and identification by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS2) of molecular species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grandois, Julie; Marchioni, Eric; Zhao, Minjie; Giuffrida, Francesca; Ennahar, Saïd; Bindler, Françoise

    2009-07-22

    This study is a contribution to the exploration of natural phospholipid (PL) sources rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) with nutritional interest. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were purified from total lipid extracts of different food matrices, and their molecular species were separated and identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS(2)). Fragmentation of lithiated adducts allowed for the identification of fatty acids linked to the glycerol backbone. Soy PC was particularly rich in species containing essential fatty acids, such as (18:2-18:2)PC (34.0%), (16:0-18:2)PC (20.8%), and (18:1-18:2)PC (16.3%). PC from animal sources (ox liver and egg yolk) contained major molecular species, such as (16:0-18:2)PC, (16:0-18:1)PC, (18:0-18:2)PC, or (18:0-18:1)PC. Finally, marine source (krill oil), which was particularly rich in (16:0-20:5)PC and (16:0-22:6)PC, appeared to be an interesting potential source for food supplementation with LC-PUFA-PLs, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  19. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  20. Preparation and characterization of alpha sources as standards in the actinides separation; Preparacion y caracterizacion de fuentes alfa como estandares en la separacion de actinidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy G, F.; Escobar A, L.; Zepeda R, C. P.; Balcazar, M., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    The radioisotopes Am-243, Cm-244, Pu-242 and U-232 are used as radioactive tracers in the processes of separation and quantification of the radioisotopes of Am, Cm, Pu and U contained in radioactive and nuclear wastes, with the purpose of determining the efficiency of said processes. For this, in this work, alpha sources of Am-243, Cm-244, Pu-242 and U-232 standards were prepared by two methods: evaporation and electro-deposition, and they were analyzed by means of alpha spectrometry to verify the properties of these radioactive standards. The alpha sources prepared by electro-deposition were analyzed by Raman spectrometry to determine the chemical form in which the actinide was deposited; the good homogeneity in the distribution of the deposit was determined with solid nuclear trace detectors. The resolution of the alpha spectra obtained with surface barrier detectors of the standards is greater when deposited by electro-deposition. The FWHM of the alpha sources prepared by electro-deposition is always lower than that prepared by evaporation. Actinides are electrodeposited in the form of hydroxides and oxo compounds. (Author)

  1. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF A 1.9 kpc SEPARATION DOUBLE X-RAY SOURCE IN A CANDIDATE DUAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS GALAXY AT z = 0.16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comerford, Julia M.; Pooley, David; Gerke, Brian F.; Madejski, Greg M.

    2011-01-01

    We report Chandra observations of a double X-ray source in the z = 0.1569 galaxy SDSS J171544.05+600835.7. The galaxy was initially identified as a dual active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidate based on the double-peaked [O III] λ5007 emission lines, with a line-of-sight velocity separation of 350 km s -1 , in its Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum. We used the Kast Spectrograph at Lick Observatory to obtain two long-slit spectra of the galaxy at two different position angles, which reveal that the two Type 2 AGN emission components have not only a velocity offset, but also a projected spatial offset of 1.9 h -1 70 kpc on the sky. Chandra/ACIS observations of two X-ray sources with the same spatial offset and orientation as the optical emission suggest that the galaxy most likely contains Compton-thick dual AGNs, although the observations could also be explained by AGN jets. Deeper X-ray observations that reveal Fe K lines, if present, would distinguish between the two scenarios. The observations of a double X-ray source in SDSS J171544.05+600835.7 are a proof of concept for a new, systematic detection method that selects promising dual AGN candidates from ground-based spectroscopy that exhibits both velocity and spatial offsets in the AGN emission features.

  2. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  3. Vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces by Eisenia fetida: effect of stocking density on feed consumption rate, growth characteristics and vermicompost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kunwar D; Tare, Vinod; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2011-06-01

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the optimum stocking density for feed consumption rate, biomass growth and reproduction of earthworm Eisenia fetida as well as determining and characterising vermicompost quantity and product, respectively, during vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces. For this, a number of experiments spanning up to 3 months were conducted using soil and vermicompost as support materials. Stocking density in the range of 0.25-5.00 kg/m(2) was employed in different tests. The results showed that 0.40-0.45 kg-feed/kg-worm/day was the maximum feed consumption rate by E. fetida in human faeces. The optimum stocking densities were 3.00 kg/m(2) for bioconversion of human faeces to vermicompost, and 0.50 kg/m(2) for earthworm biomass growth and reproduction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for separation of uranium isotopes by selective isotopic excitation of photochemically reactive uranyl salt source material at cryogenic temperatures, followed by chemical separation of selectively photochemically reduced U+4 thereby produced from remaining uranyl source material

  5. Study of the feasibility of distributed cathodic arc as a plasma source for development of the technology for plasma separation of SNF and radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirov, R. Kh.; Vorona, N. A.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Liziakin, G. D.; Polistchook, V. P.; Samoylov, I. S.; Smirnov, V. P.; Usmanov, R. A., E-mail: ravus46@yandex.ru; Yartsev, I. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    One of the key problems in the development of plasma separation technology is designing a plasma source which uses condensed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or nuclear wastes as a raw material. This paper covers the experimental study of the evaporation and ionization of model materials (gadolinium, niobium oxide, and titanium oxide). For these purposes, a vacuum arc with a heated cathode on the studied material was initiated and its parameters in different regimes were studied. During the experiment, the cathode temperature, arc current, arc voltage, and plasma radiation spectra were measured, and also probe measurements were carried out. It was found that the increase in the cathode heating power leads to the decrease in the arc voltage (to 3 V). This fact makes it possible to reduce the electron energy and achieve singly ionized plasma with a high degree of ionization to fulfill one of the requirements for plasma separation of SNF. This finding is supported by the analysis of the plasma radiation spectrum and the results of the probe diagnostics.

  6. Separation of hepatic iron and fat by dual-source dual-energy computed tomography based on material decomposition: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Song, Zhi-Qiang; Yan, Fu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of dual-source dual-energy computed tomography (DSDECT) for hepatic iron and fat separation in vivo. All of the procedures in this study were approved by the Research Animal Resource Center of Shanghai Ruijin Hospital. Sixty rats that underwent DECT scanning were divided into the normal group, fatty liver group, liver iron group, and coexisting liver iron and fat group, according to Prussian blue and HE staining. The data for each group were reconstructed and post-processed by an iron-specific, three-material decomposition algorithm. The iron enhancement value and the virtual non-iron contrast value, which indicated overloaded liver iron and residual liver tissue, respectively, were measured. Spearman's correlation and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed, respectively, to analyze statistically the correlations with the histopathological results and differences among groups. The iron enhancement values were positively correlated with the iron pathology grading (r = 0.729, pVNC) values were negatively correlated with the fat pathology grading (r = -0.642,pVNC values (F = 25.308,pVNC values were only observed between the fat-present and fat-absent groups. Separation of hepatic iron and fat by dual energy material decomposition in vivo was feasible, even when they coexisted.

  7. Representing vision and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Patrick L; Cox, Alexander P; Jensen, Mark; Allen, Travis; Duncan, William; Diehl, Alexander D

    2016-01-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to represent vision or blindness ontologically. This is unsurprising as the related phenomena of sight and blindness are difficult to represent ontologically for a variety of reasons. Blindness has escaped ontological capture at least in part because: blindness or the employment of the term 'blindness' seems to vary from context to context, blindness can present in a myriad of types and degrees, and there is no precedent for representing complex phenomena such as blindness. We explore current attempts to represent vision or blindness, and show how these attempts fail at representing subtypes of blindness (viz., color blindness, flash blindness, and inattentional blindness). We examine the results found through a review of current attempts and identify where they have failed. By analyzing our test cases of different types of blindness along with the strengths and weaknesses of previous attempts, we have identified the general features of blindness and vision. We propose an ontological solution to represent vision and blindness, which capitalizes on resources afforded to one who utilizes the Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level ontology. The solution we propose here involves specifying the trigger conditions of a disposition as well as the processes that realize that disposition. Once these are specified we can characterize vision as a function that is realized by certain (in this case) biological processes under a range of triggering conditions. When the range of conditions under which the processes can be realized are reduced beyond a certain threshold, we are able to say that blindness is present. We characterize vision as a function that is realized as a seeing process and blindness as a reduction in the conditions under which the sight function is realized. This solution is desirable because it leverages current features of a major upper-level ontology, accurately captures the phenomenon of blindness, and can be

  8. Tactile spatial resolution in blind braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, R W; Hamilton, R H; Kauffman, T; Keenan, J P; Pascual-Leone, A

    2000-06-27

    To determine if blind people have heightened tactile spatial acuity. Recently, studies using magnetic source imaging and somatosensory evoked potentials have shown that the cortical representation of the reading fingers of blind Braille readers is expanded compared to that of fingers of sighted subjects. Furthermore, the visual cortex is activated during certain tactile tasks in blind subjects but not sighted subjects. The authors hypothesized that the expanded cortical representation of fingers used in Braille reading may reflect an enhanced fidelity in the neural transmission of spatial details of a stimulus. If so, the quantitative limit of spatial acuity would be superior in blind people. The authors employed a grating orientation discrimination task in which threshold performance is accounted for by the spatial resolution limits of the neural image evoked by a stimulus. The authors quantified the psychophysical limits of spatial acuity at the middle and index fingers of 15 blind Braille readers and 15 sighted control subjects. The mean grating orientation threshold was significantly (p = 0.03) lower in the blind group (1.04 mm) compared to the sighted group (1.46 mm). The self-reported dominant reading finger in blind subjects had a mean grating orientation threshold of 0.80 mm, which was significantly better than other fingers tested. Thresholds at non-Braille reading fingers in blind subjects averaged 1.12 mm, which were also superior to sighted subjects' performances. Superior tactile spatial acuity in blind Braille readers may represent an adaptive, behavioral correlate of cortical plasticity.

  9. Mothers 'don't like it; never tried it': Blind Sensory Test of a Homemade Chicken Liver Baby Food, a Source of Iron, by Infants and their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Viviani Jaques; Morais, Tania Beninga

    2015-08-01

    A homemade chicken liver baby food (CLBF) that meets infants' nutritional requirements was developed and its acceptance by children and their mothers determined. CLBF's nutritional content was determined by chemical analyses. A blind sensory test (ST) by 50 infants 7-12 months old and their mothers of CLBF and ground beef baby food (GBBF) was applied. Mothers' preferences for liver and beef, answers of an hedonic scale and infants' acceptance were investigated. CLBF met the nutritional requirements for infants. There were no significant differences in the ST between the CLBF and GBBF, either for infants or for their mothers. There was no correlation between mothers' like or dislike of liver and the ST scores. Infants tried and liked the CLBF that match dietary recommendations and could help prevent iron deficiency. Mothers, on the other hand, demonstrated an 'I don't like it; I never tried it' attitude. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Séparation Aveugle de Mélanges Convolutifs de Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Boumaraf , Hakim

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, Blind Source Separation (BSS) of Convolutive Mixtures of Sources is addressed. For separating audio mixtures, we have developed new methods for cases without noise and with noise in propagation environment. The method for case without noise is based on joint diagonalization of spectral matrices and exploit the non stationarity of signals. We have proposed two techniques in order to solve permutation problem. The second method where an additive noise is present, is based on max...

  11. Simulations of cm-wavelength Sunyaev-Zel'dovich galaxy cluster and point source blind sky surveys and predictions for the RT32/OCRA-f and the Hevelius 100-m radio telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, Bartosz; Kus, Andrzej [Toruń Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 11, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Birkinshaw, Mark [HH Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Peter, E-mail: blew@astro.uni.torun.pl, E-mail: Mark.Birkinshaw@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: peter.wilkinson@manchester.ac.uk, E-mail: ajk@astro.uni.torun.pl [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, The University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of blind surveys for radio sources and galaxy cluster thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (TSZEs) using the four-pair, beam-switched OCRA-f radiometer on the 32-m radio telescope in Poland. The predictions are based on mock maps that include the cosmic microwave background, TSZEs from hydrodynamical simulations of large scale structure formation, and unresolved radio sources. We validate the mock maps against observational data, and examine the limitations imposed by simplified physics. We estimate the effects of source clustering towards galaxy clusters from NVSS source counts around Planck-selected cluster candidates, and include appropriate correlations in our mock maps. The study allows us to quantify the effects of halo line-of-sight alignments, source confusion, and telescope angular resolution on the detections of TSZEs. We perform a similar analysis for the planned 100-m Hevelius radio telescope (RTH) equipped with a 49-beam radio camera and operating at frequencies up to 22 GHz.We find that RT32/OCRA-f will be suitable for small-field blind radio source surveys, and will detect 33{sup +17}{sub −11} new radio sources brighter than 0.87 mJy at 30 GHz in a 1 deg{sup 2} field at > 5σ CL during a one-year, non-continuous, observing campaign, taking account of Polish weather conditions. It is unlikely that any galaxy cluster will be detected at 3σ CL in such a survey. A 60-deg{sup 2} survey, with field coverage of 2{sup 2} beams per pixel, at 15 GHz with the RTH, would find <1.5 galaxy clusters per year brighter than 60 μJy (at 3σ CL), and would detect about 3.4 × 10{sup 4} point sources brighter than 1 mJy at 5σ CL, with confusion causing flux density errors ∼< 2% (20%) in 68% (95%) of the detected sources.A primary goal of the planned RTH will be a wide-area (π sr) radio source survey at 15 GHz. This survey will detect nearly 3 × 10{sup 5} radio sources at 5σ CL down to 1.3 mJy, and tens of galaxy

  12. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  13. A Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Vocal-Tract-Related Filter Characteristics for Single Channel Speech Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dansereau Richard M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for separating two speech signals from a single recording. The proposed method bridges the gap between underdetermined blind source separation techniques and those techniques that model the human auditory system, that is, computational auditory scene analysis (CASA. For this purpose, we decompose the speech signal into the excitation signal and the vocal-tract-related filter and then estimate the components from the mixed speech using a hybrid model. We first express the probability density function (PDF of the mixed speech's log spectral vectors in terms of the PDFs of the underlying speech signal's vocal-tract-related filters. Then, the mean vectors of PDFs of the vocal-tract-related filters are obtained using a maximum likelihood estimator given the mixed signal. Finally, the estimated vocal-tract-related filters along with the extracted fundamental frequencies are used to reconstruct estimates of the individual speech signals. The proposed technique effectively adds vocal-tract-related filter characteristics as a new cue to CASA models using a new grouping technique based on an underdetermined blind source separation. We compare our model with both an underdetermined blind source separation and a CASA method. The experimental results show that our model outperforms both techniques in terms of SNR improvement and the percentage of crosstalk suppression.

  14. A Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Vocal-Tract-Related Filter Characteristics for Single Channel Speech Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Radfar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for separating two speech signals from a single recording. The proposed method bridges the gap between underdetermined blind source separation techniques and those techniques that model the human auditory system, that is, computational auditory scene analysis (CASA. For this purpose, we decompose the speech signal into the excitation signal and the vocal-tract-related filter and then estimate the components from the mixed speech using a hybrid model. We first express the probability density function (PDF of the mixed speech's log spectral vectors in terms of the PDFs of the underlying speech signal's vocal-tract-related filters. Then, the mean vectors of PDFs of the vocal-tract-related filters are obtained using a maximum likelihood estimator given the mixed signal. Finally, the estimated vocal-tract-related filters along with the extracted fundamental frequencies are used to reconstruct estimates of the individual speech signals. The proposed technique effectively adds vocal-tract-related filter characteristics as a new cue to CASA models using a new grouping technique based on an underdetermined blind source separation. We compare our model with both an underdetermined blind source separation and a CASA method. The experimental results show that our model outperforms both techniques in terms of SNR improvement and the percentage of crosstalk suppression.

  15. Separation of hepatic iron and fat by dual-source dual-energy computed tomography based on material decomposition: an animal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of dual-source dual-energy computed tomography (DSDECT for hepatic iron and fat separation in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All of the procedures in this study were approved by the Research Animal Resource Center of Shanghai Ruijin Hospital. Sixty rats that underwent DECT scanning were divided into the normal group, fatty liver group, liver iron group, and coexisting liver iron and fat group, according to Prussian blue and HE staining. The data for each group were reconstructed and post-processed by an iron-specific, three-material decomposition algorithm. The iron enhancement value and the virtual non-iron contrast value, which indicated overloaded liver iron and residual liver tissue, respectively, were measured. Spearman's correlation and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were performed, respectively, to analyze statistically the correlations with the histopathological results and differences among groups. RESULTS: The iron enhancement values were positively correlated with the iron pathology grading (r = 0.729, p<0.001. Virtual non-iron contrast (VNC values were negatively correlated with the fat pathology grading (r = -0.642,p<0.0001. Different groups showed significantly different iron enhancement values and VNC values (F = 25.308,p<0.001; F = 10.911, p<0.001, respectively. Among the groups, significant differences in iron enhancement values were only observed between the iron-present and iron-absent groups, and differences in VNC values were only observed between the fat-present and fat-absent groups. CONCLUSION: Separation of hepatic iron and fat by dual energy material decomposition in vivo was feasible, even when they coexisted.

  16. Fair quantum blind signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian-Yin, Wang; Qiao-Yan, Wen

    2010-01-01

    We present a new fair blind signature scheme based on the fundamental properties of quantum mechanics. In addition, we analyse the security of this scheme, and show that it is not possible to forge valid blind signatures. Moreover, comparisons between this scheme and public key blind signature schemes are also discussed. (general)

  17. Assessment of GHG Emission Reduction Potential from Source-separated Organic Waste (SOW) Management: Case Study in a Higher Educational Institution in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.G.; Sumiani Yusoff

    2015-01-01

    In Malaysia, the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions reduction via composting of source-separated organic waste (SOW) in municipal solid waste (MSW) has not been assessed. Assessment of GHG emissions reduction via composting of SOW is important as environmental impacts from waste management are waste-specific and local-specific. The study presents the case study for potential carbon reduction via composting of SOW in University of Malaya (UM). In this study, a series of calculations were used to evaluate the GHG emission of different SOW management scenarios. The calculations based on IPCC calculation methods (AM0025) include GHGs emissions from land filling, fuel consumption in transportation and SOW composting activity. The methods were applied to assess the GHG emissions from five alternative SOW management scenarios in UM. From the baseline scenario (S0), a total of 1,636.18 tCO2e was generated. In conjunction with target of 22 % recycling rate, as shown in S1, 14 % reduction in potential GHG emission can be achieved. The carbon reduction can be further enhanced by increasing the SOW composting capacity. The net GHG emission for S1, S2, S3 and S4 were 1,399.52, 1,161.29, 857.70 and 1,060.48 tCO2e, respectively. In general, waste diversion for composting proved a significant net GHG emission reduction as shown in S3 (47 %), S4 (35 %) and S2 (29 %). Despite the emission due to direct on-site activity, the significant reduction in methane generation at landfill has reduced the net GHG emission. The emission source of each scenario was studied and analysed. (author)

  18. Life-Cycle Cost and Environmental Assessment of Decentralized Nitrogen Recovery Using Ion Exchange from Source-Separated Urine through Spatial Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvada, Olga; Tarpeh, William A; Horvath, Arpad; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-11-07

    Nitrogen standards for discharge of wastewater effluent into aquatic bodies are becoming more stringent, requiring some treatment plants to reduce effluent nitrogen concentrations. This study aimed to assess, from a life-cycle perspective, an innovative decentralized approach to nitrogen recovery: ion exchange of source-separated urine. We modeled an approach in which nitrogen from urine at individual buildings is sorbed onto resins, then transported by truck to regeneration and fertilizer production facilities. To provide insight into impacts from transportation, we enhanced the traditional economic and environmental assessment approach by combining spatial analysis, system-scale evaluation, and detailed last-mile logistics modeling using the city of San Francisco as an illustrative case study. The major contributor to energy intensity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was the production of sulfuric acid to regenerate resins, rather than transportation. Energy and GHG emissions were not significantly sensitive to the number of regeneration facilities. Cost, however, increased with decentralization as rental costs per unit area are higher for smaller areas. The metrics assessed (unit energy, GHG emissions, and cost) were not significantly influenced by facility location in this high-density urban area. We determined that this decentralized approach has lower cost, unit energy, and GHG emissions than centralized nitrogen management via nitrification-denitrification if fertilizer production offsets are taken into account.

  19. Production of radioactive ion beams and resonance ionization spectroscopy with the laser ion source at on-line isotope separator ISOLDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedosseev, V.N.; )

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The resonance ionisation laser ion source (RILIS) of the ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility at CERN is based on the method of laser step-wise resonance ionisation of atoms in a hot metal cavity. Using the system of dye lasers pumped by copper vapour lasers the ion beams of many different metallic elements have been produced at ISOLDE with an ionization efficiency of up to 27%. The high selectivity of the resonance ionization is an important asset for the study of short-lived nuclides produced in targets bombarded by the proton beam of the CERN Booster accelerator. Radioactive ion beams of Be, Mg, Al, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Tb, Yb, Tl, Pb and Bi have been generated with the RILIS. Setting the RILIS laser in the narrow line-width mode provides conditions for a high-resolution study of hyperfine structure and isotopic shifts of atomic lines for short-lived isotopes. The isomer selective ionization of Cu, Ag and Pb isotopes has been achieved by appropriate tuning of laser wavelengths

  20. Global data on blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thylefors, B.; Négrel, A. D.; Pararajasegaram, R.; Dadzie, K. Y.

    1995-01-01

    Globally, it is estimated that there are 38 million persons who are blind. Moreover, a further 110 million people have low vision and are at great risk of becoming blind. The main causes of blindness and low vision are cataract, trachoma, glaucoma, onchocerciasis, and xerophthalmia; however, insufficient data on blindness from causes such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration preclude specific estimations of their global prevalence. The age-specific prevalences of the major causes of blindness that are related to age indicate that the trend will be for an increase in such blindness over the decades to come, unless energetic efforts are made to tackle these problems. More data collected through standardized methodologies, using internationally accepted (ICD-10) definitions, are needed. Data on the incidence of blindness due to common causes would be useful for calculating future trends more precisely. PMID:7704921

  1. Blind Multiuser Detection by Kurtosis Maximization for Asynchronous Multirate DS/CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chun-Hsien

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chi et al. proposed a fast kurtosis maximization algorithm (FKMA for blind equalization/deconvolution of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO linear time-invariant systems. This algorithm has been applied to blind multiuser detection of single-rate direct-sequence/code-division multiple-access (DS/CDMA systems and blind source separation (or independent component analysis. In this paper, the FKMA is further applied to blind multiuser detection for multirate DS/CDMA systems. The ideas are to properly formulate discrete-time MIMO signal models by converting real multirate users into single-rate virtual users, followed by the use of FKMA for extraction of virtual users' data sequences associated with the desired user, and recovery of the data sequence of the desired user from estimated virtual users' data sequences. Assuming that all the users' spreading sequences are given a priori, two multirate blind multiuser detection algorithms (with either a single receive antenna or multiple antennas, which also enjoy the merits of superexponential convergence rate and guaranteed convergence of the FKMA, are proposed in the paper, one based on a convolutional MIMO signal model and the other based on an instantaneous MIMO signal model. Some simulation results are then presented to demonstrate their effectiveness and to provide a performance comparison with some existing algorithms.

  2. Application of independent component analysis for speech-music separation using an efficient score function estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishravian, Arash; Aghabozorgi Sahaf, Masoud Reza

    2012-12-01

    In this paper speech-music separation using Blind Source Separation is discussed. The separating algorithm is based on the mutual information minimization where the natural gradient algorithm is used for minimization. In order to do that, score function estimation from observation signals (combination of speech and music) samples is needed. The accuracy and the speed of the mentioned estimation will affect on the quality of the separated signals and the processing time of the algorithm. The score function estimation in the presented algorithm is based on Gaussian mixture based kernel density estimation method. The experimental results of the presented algorithm on the speech-music separation and comparing to the separating algorithm which is based on the Minimum Mean Square Error estimator, indicate that it can cause better performance and less processing time

  3. UWIS isotope separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtasiewicz, A. [Warsaw Univ., Inst. of Experimental Physics, Nuclear Physics Div., Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Since 1995 the University of Warsaw Isotope Separator group has participated in the ISOL/IGISOL project at the Heavy Ion Cyclotron. This project consists in installation of an isotope separator (on line with cyclotron heavy ion beam) with a hot plasma ion source (ISOL system) and/or with an ion guide source (IGISOL system). In the report the short description of the present status of the project is presented. 2 figs, 10 refs.

  4. A systematic approach to evaluate parameter consistency in the inlet stream of source separated biowaste composting facilities: A case study in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Ocaña, E R; Torres-Lozada, P; Marmolejo-Rebellon, L F; Torres-López, W A; Dominguez, I; Komilis, D; Sánchez, A

    2017-04-01

    Biowaste is commonly the largest fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries. Although composting is an effective method to treat source separated biowaste (SSB), there are certain limitations in terms of operation, partly due to insufficient control to the variability of SSB quality, which affects process kinetics and product quality. This study assesses the variability of the SSB physicochemical quality in a composting facility located in a small town of Colombia, in which SSB collection was performed twice a week. Likewise, the influence of the SSB physicochemical variability on the variability of compost parameters was assessed. Parametric and non-parametric tests (i.e. Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney test) showed no significant differences in the quality parameters of SSB among collection days, and therefore, it was unnecessary to establish specific operation and maintenance regulations for each collection day. Significant variability was found in eight of the twelve quality parameters analyzed in the inlet stream, with corresponding coefficients of variation (CV) higher than 23%. The CVs for the eight parameters analyzed in the final compost (i.e. pH, moisture, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, total phosphorus, total potassium and ash) ranged from 9.6% to 49.4%, with significant variations in five of those parameters (CV>20%). The above indicate that variability in the inlet stream can affect the variability of the end-product. Results suggest the need to consider variability of the inlet stream in the performance of composting facilities to achieve a compost of consistent quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Global warming potential of material fractions occurring in source-separated organic household waste treated by anaerobic digestion or incineration under different framework conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    This study compared the environmental profiles of anaerobic digestion (AD) and incineration, in relation to global warming potential (GWP), for treating individual material fractions that may occur in source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). Different framework conditions representative for the European Union member countries were considered. For AD, biogas utilisation with a biogas engine was considered and two potential situations investigated - biogas combustion with (1) combined heat and power production (CHP) and (2) electricity production only. For incineration, four technology options currently available in Europe were covered: (1) an average incinerator with CHP production, (2) an average incinerator with mainly electricity production, (3) an average incinerator with mainly heat production and (4) a state-of-the art incinerator with CHP working at high energy recovery efficiencies. The study was performed using a life cycle assessment in its consequential approach. Furthermore, the role of waste-sorting guidelines (defined by the material fractions allowed for SSOHW) in relation to GWP of treating overall SSOHW with AD was investigated. A case-study of treating 1tonne of SSOHW under framework conditions in Denmark was conducted. Under the given assumptions, vegetable food waste was the only material fraction which was always better for AD compared to incineration. For animal food waste, kitchen tissue, vegetation waste and dirty paper, AD utilisation was better unless it was compared to a highly efficient incinerator. Material fractions such as moulded fibres and dirty cardboard were attractive for AD, albeit only when AD with CHP and incineration with mainly heat production were compared. Animal straw, in contrast, was always better to incinerate. Considering the total amounts of individual material fractions in waste generated within households in Denmark, food waste (both animal and vegetable derived) and kitchen tissue are the main material

  6. Postictal blindness in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeh, M; Goldhammer, Y; Kuritsky, A

    1983-01-01

    Cortical blindness following grand mal seizures occurred in five adult patients. The causes of seizures included idiopathic epilepsy, vascular accident, brain cyst, acute encephalitis and chronic encephalitis. Blindness was permanent in one patients, but the others recovered within several days. Since most of the patients were either unaware of or denied their blindness, it is possible that this event often goes unrecognised. Cerebral hypoxia is considered the most likely mechanism.

  7. Blind Analysis in Particle Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roodman, A

    2003-01-01

    A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of and the advantages of a blind analysis are described. Three distinct kinds of blind analysis in particle physics are presented in detail. Finally, the BABAR collaboration's experience with the blind analysis technique is discussed

  8. Individual differences in fluid intelligence predicts inattentional blindness in a sample of older adults: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Deirdre M; Fieo, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has shown that aging increases susceptibility to inattentional blindness (Graham and Burke, Psychol Aging 26:162, 2011) as well as individual differences in cognitive ability related to working memory and executive functions in separate studies. Therefore, the present study was conducted in an attempt to bridge a gap that involved investigating 'age-sensitive' cognitive abilities that may predict inattentional blindness in a sample of older adults. We investigated whether individual differences in general fluid intelligence and speed of processing would predict inattentional blindness in our sample of older adults. Thirty-six healthy older adults took part in the study. Using the inattentional blindness paradigm developed by Most et al. (Psychol Rev 112:217, 2005), we investigated whether rates of inattentional blindness could be predicted by participant's performance on the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices and a choice-reaction time task. A Mann-Whitney U test revealed that a higher score on the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices was significantly associated with lower incidences of inattentional blindness. However, a t test revealed that choice-reaction times were not significantly associated with inattentional blindness. Preliminary results from the present study suggest that individual differences in general fluid intelligence are predictive of inattentional blindness in older adults but not speed of processing. Moreover, our findings are consistent with previous studies that have suggested executive attention control may be the source of these individual differences. These findings also highlight the association between attention and general fluid intelligence and how it may impact environmental awareness. Future research would benefit from repeating these analyses in a larger sample and also including a younger comparison group.

  9. A separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopyuk, S.G.; Dyachenko, A.Ye.; Mukhametov, M.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    A separator is proposed which contains separating slanted plates and baffle plates installed at a distance to them at an acute angle to them. To increase the effectiveness of separating a gas and liquid stream and the throughput through reducing the secondary carry away of the liquid drops and to reduce the hydraulic resistance, as well, openings are made in the plates. The horizontal projections of each opening from the lower and upper surfaces of the plate do not overlap each other.

  10. Blinding for unanticipated signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Chaum (David)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractPreviously known blind signature systems require an amount of computation at least proportional to the number of signature types, and also that the number of such types be fixed in advance. These requirements are not practical in some applications. Here, a new blind signature technique

  11. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  12. Separation and capture of CO2 from large stationary sources and sequestration in geological formations--coalbeds and deep saline aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Curt M; Strazisar, Brian R; Granite, Evan J; Hoffman, James S; Pennline, Henry W

    2003-06-01

    The topic of global warming as a result of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration is arguably the most important environmental issue that the world faces today. It is a global problem that will need to be solved on a global level. The link between anthropogenic emissions of CO2 with increased atmospheric CO2 levels and, in turn, with increased global temperatures has been well established and accepted by the world. International organizations such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have been formed to address this issue. Three options are being explored to stabilize atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and global temperatures without severely and negatively impacting standard of living: (1) increasing energy efficiency, (2) switching to less carbon-intensive sources of energy, and (3) carbon sequestration. To be successful, all three options must be used in concert. The third option is the subject of this review. Specifically, this review will cover the capture and geologic sequestration of CO2 generated from large point sources, namely fossil-fuel-fired power gasification plants. Sequestration of CO2 in geological formations is necessary to meet the President's Global Climate Change Initiative target of an 18% reduction in GHG intensity by 2012. Further, the best strategy to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO2 results from a multifaceted approach where sequestration of CO2 into geological formations is combined with increased efficiency in electric power generation and utilization, increased conservation, increased use of lower carbon-intensity fuels, and increased use of nuclear energy and renewables. This review covers the separation and capture of CO2 from both flue gas and fuel gas using wet scrubbing technologies, dry regenerable sorbents, membranes, cryogenics, pressure and temperature swing adsorption, and other advanced concepts. Existing

  13. Blinded by Irrelevance: Pure Irrelevance Induced "Blindness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitam, Baruch; Yeshurun, Yaffa; Hassan, Kinneret

    2013-01-01

    To what degree does our representation of the immediate world depend solely on its relevance to what we are currently doing? We examined whether relevance per se can cause "blindness," even when there is no resource limitation. In a novel paradigm, people looked at a colored circle surrounded by a differently colored ring--the task relevance of…

  14. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  15. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  16. Microparticle Separation by Cyclonic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karback, Keegan; Leith, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The ability to separate particles based on their size has wide ranging applications from the industrial to the medical. Currently, cyclonic separators are primarily used in agriculture and manufacturing to syphon out contaminates or products from an air supply. This has led us to believe that cyclonic separation has more applications than the agricultural and industrial. Using the OpenFoam computational package, we were able to determine the flow parameters of a vortex in a cyclonic separator in order to segregate dust particles to a cutoff size of tens of nanometers. To test the model, we constructed an experiment to separate a test dust of various sized particles. We filled a chamber with Arizona test dust and utilized an acoustic suspension technique to segregate particles finer than a coarse cutoff size and introduce them into the cyclonic separation apparatus where they were further separated via a vortex following our computational model. The size of the particles separated from this experiment will be used to further refine our model. Metropolitan State University of Denver, Colorado University of Denver, Dr. Randall Tagg, Dr. Richard Krantz.

  17. The blind hens’ challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Hocking, Paul M.; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    about breeding blind hens. But we also argue that alternative views, which (for example) claim that it is important to respect the telos or rights of an animal, do not offer a more convincing solution to questions raised by the possibility of disenhancing animals for their own benefit.......Animal ethicists have recently debated the ethical questions raised by disenhancing animals to improve their welfare. Here, we focus on the particular case of breeding blind hens for commercial egg-laying systems, in order to benefit their welfare. Many people find breeding blind hens intuitively...

  18. Color-Blindness Study: Color Discrimination on the TICCIT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asay, Calvin S.; Schneider, Edward W.

    The question studied whether the specific seven TICCIT system colors used within color coding schemes can be a source of confusion, or not seen at all, by the color-blind segment of target populations. Subjects were 11 color-blind and three normally sighted students at Brigham Young University. After a preliminary training exercise to acquaint the…

  19. Parallelization of a blind deconvolution algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Charles L.; Borelli, Kathy J.

    2006-09-01

    Often it is of interest to deblur imagery in order to obtain higher-resolution images. Deblurring requires knowledge of the blurring function - information that is often not available separately from the blurred imagery. Blind deconvolution algorithms overcome this problem by jointly estimating both the high-resolution image and the blurring function from the blurred imagery. Because blind deconvolution algorithms are iterative in nature, they can take minutes to days to deblur an image depending how many frames of data are used for the deblurring and the platforms on which the algorithms are executed. Here we present our progress in parallelizing a blind deconvolution algorithm to increase its execution speed. This progress includes sub-frame parallelization and a code structure that is not specialized to a specific computer hardware architecture.

  20. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  1. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  2. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies on the photochemistry of aqueous Pu solutions and the stability of iodine in liquid and gaseous CO 2 are reported. Progress is reported in studies on: the preparation of macroporous bodies filled with oxides and sulfides to be used as adsorbents; the beneficiation of photographic wastes; the anion exchange adsorption of transition elements from thiosulfate solutions; advanced filtration applications of energy significance; high-resolution separations; and, the examination of the separation agents, octylphenylphosphoric acid (OPPA) and trihexyl phosphate (THP)

  3. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for separating isotopes in which photo-excitation of selected isotope species is used together with the reaction of the excited species with postive ions of predetermined ionization energy, other excited species, or free electrons to produce ions or ion fragments of the selected species. Ions and electrons are produced by an electrical discharge, and separation is achieved through radial ambipolar diffusion, electrostatic techniques, or magnetohydrodynamic methods

  4. Blind loop syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001146.htm Blind loop syndrome To use the sharing features on ... Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David ...

  5. Wavelet-based blind identification of the UCLA Factor building using ambient and earthquake responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, B; Narasimhan, S

    2010-01-01

    Blind source separation using second-order blind identification (SOBI) has been successfully applied to the problem of output-only identification, popularly known as ambient system identification. In this paper, the basic principles of SOBI for the static mixtures case is extended using the stationary wavelet transform (SWT) in order to improve the separability of sources, thereby improving the quality of identification. Whereas SOBI operates on the covariance matrices constructed directly from measurements, the method presented in this paper, known as the wavelet-based modified cross-correlation method, operates on multiple covariance matrices constructed from the correlation of the responses. The SWT is selected because of its time-invariance property, which means that the transform of a time-shifted signal can be obtained as a shifted version of the transform of the original signal. This important property is exploited in the construction of several time-lagged covariance matrices. The issue of non-stationary sources is addressed through the formation of several time-shifted, windowed covariance matrices. Modal identification results are presented for the UCLA Factor building using ambient vibration data and for recorded responses from the Parkfield earthquake, and compared with published results for this building. Additionally, the effect of sensor density on the identification results is also investigated

  6. Separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A disposal container is described for use in disposal of radioactive waste materials consisting of: top wall structure, bottom wall structure, and circumferential side wall structure interconnecting the top and bottom wall structures to define an enclosed container, separation structure in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure for allowing passage of liquid and retention of solids, inlet port structure in the top wall structure, discharge port structure at the periphery of the container in communication with the outer surface of the separation structure for receiving liquid that passes through the separation structure, first centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the inlet port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the inlet port structure, second centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the discharge port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the discharge port structure, and coupling structure integral with wall structure of the container for releasable engagement with centrifugal drive structure

  7. Separable algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory of separable algebras over commutative rings. After a thorough introduction to the general theory, the fundamental roles played by separable algebras are explored. For example, Azumaya algebras, the henselization of local rings, and Galois theory are rigorously introduced and treated. Interwoven throughout these applications is the important notion of étale algebras. Essential connections are drawn between the theory of separable algebras and Morita theory, the theory of faithfully flat descent, cohomology, derivations, differentials, reflexive lattices, maximal orders, and class groups. The text is accessible to graduate students who have finished a first course in algebra, and it includes necessary foundational material, useful exercises, and many nontrivial examples.

  8. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  9. Simultaneous Quantification of Free Cholesterol, Cholesteryl Esters, and Triglycerides without Ester Hydrolysis by UHPLC Separation and In-Source Collision Induced Dissociation Coupled MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Michael S.; McWilliams, Lisa G.; Jones, Jeffrey I.; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Pirkle, James L.; Barr, John R.

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate the application of in-source nitrogen collision-induced dissociation (CID) that eliminates the need for ester hydrolysis before simultaneous analysis of esterified cholesterol (EC) and triglycerides (TG) along with free cholesterol (FC) from human serum, using normal phase liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The analysis requires only 50 μL of 1:100 dilute serum with a high-throughput, precipitation/evaporation/extraction protocol in one pot. Known representative mixtures of EC and TG species were used as calibrators with stable isotope labeled analogs as internal standards. The APCI MS source was operated with nitrogen source gas. Reproducible in-source CID was achieved with the use of optimal cone voltage (declustering potential), generating FC, EC, and TG lipid class-specific precursor fragment ions for multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Using a representative mixture of purified FC, CE, and TG species as calibrators, the method accuracy was assessed with analysis of five inter-laboratory standardization materials, showing -10% bias for Total-C and -3% for Total-TG. Repeated duplicate analysis of a quality control pool showed intra-day and inter-day variation of 5% and 5.8% for FC, 5.2% and 8.5% for Total-C, and 4.1% and 7.7% for Total-TG. The applicability of the method was demonstrated on 32 serum samples and corresponding lipoprotein sub-fractions collected from normolipidemic, hypercholesterolemic, hypertriglyceridemic, and hyperlipidemic donors. The results show that in-source CID coupled with isotope dilution UHPLC-MS/MS is a viable high precision approach for translational research studies where samples are substantially diluted or the amounts of archived samples are limited. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Laser separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for separating uranium isotopes are claimed. The method comprises the steps of irradiating a uranyl source material at a wavelength selective to a desired isotope and at an effective temperature for isotope spectral line splitting below about 77 deg.K., further irradiating the source material within the fluorescent lifetime of the source material to selectively photochemically reduce the excited isotopic species, and chemically separating the reduced isotope species from the remaining uranyl salt compound

  11. Using Pitch, Amplitude Modulation, and Spatial Cues for Separation of Harmonic Instruments from Stereo Music Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Pardo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in blind source separation applied to anechoic mixtures of speech allows for improved reconstruction of sources that rarely overlap in a time-frequency representation. While the assumption that speech mixtures do not overlap significantly in time-frequency is reasonable, music mixtures rarely meet this constraint, requiring new approaches. We introduce a method that uses spatial cues from anechoic, stereo music recordings and assumptions regarding the structure of musical source signals to effectively separate mixtures of tonal music. We discuss existing techniques to create partial source signal estimates from regions of the mixture where source signals do not overlap significantly. We use these partial signals within a new demixing framework, in which we estimate harmonic masks for each source, allowing the determination of the number of active sources in important time-frequency frames of the mixture. We then propose a method for distributing energy from time-frequency frames of the mixture to multiple source signals. This allows dealing with mixtures that contain time-frequency frames in which multiple harmonic sources are active without requiring knowledge of source characteristics.

  12. Study of the applicability of Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to the statistical separation of electron sources via the impact parameter for ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittner, Manuel [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    One particularly interesting measurement detected by the ALICE set-up at the LHC are electrons from charm and beauty hadron decays. Heavy quarks originate from initial hard scattering processes and thus experience the whole history of a heavy ion collision. Therefore, they are valuable probes to study the mechanisms of energy loss and hadronization in the hot and dense state of matter, that is expected to be formed in a heavy-ion collision at LHC. One important task is the distinction of the different electron sources, for which a method was developed. Hereby, the impact parameter distribution of the measurement data is compared with impact parameter distributions for the individual sources, which are created through Monte Carlo simulations. Afterwards, a maximum likelihood fit is applied. However, creating a posterior distribution of the likelihood according to Bayes' theorem and sampling it with Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms provides several advantages, e.g. a mathematically correct estimation of the uncertainties or the usage of prior knowledge. Hence for the first time in this particular problem, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm, namely the Metropolis algorithm, was implemented and investigated for its applicability in heavy flavor physics. First studies indicate its great usefulness in this field of physics.

  13. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  14. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.; Sims, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    sup(195m)Au for medical usage is separated from sup(195m)Hg in a solution containing ions of sup(195m)Hg by contacting the solution with an adsorbing agent to adsorb 195 Hgsup(H) thereon, followed by selective elution of sup(195m)Au generated by radioactive decay of the sup(195m)Hg. The adsorbing agent comprises a composite material in the form of an inert porous inorganic substrate (e.g. Kieselguhr),the pores of which are occupied by a hydrogel of a polysaccharide (e.g. agarose) carrying terminal thiol groups for binding Hgsup(H) ions. (author)

  15. Oplysningens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  16. Leading Causes of Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in the world. By age 80, more than half of all people in the United States either will have a cataract or have had cataract surgery. Common symptoms are: Blurry vision Colors that seem faded Glare Not being able to ...

  17. Blind Loop Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or scleroderma involving the small intestine History of radiation therapy to the abdomen Diabetes Diverticulosis of the small intestine Complications A blind loop can cause escalating problems, including: Poor absorption of fats. Bacteria in your small intestine break down the bile ...

  18. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei; Gregson, James; Heide, Felix; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non

  19. Postural control in blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Oliveira, Cláudia Silva Remor de; Knabben, Rodrigo José; Domenech, Susana Cristina; Borges Junior, Noe Gomes

    2011-12-01

    To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  20. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  1. Enhancement of Twins Fetal ECG Signal Extraction Based on Hybrid Blind Extraction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kareem Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ECG machines are noninvasive system used to measure the heartbeat signal. It’s very important to monitor the fetus ECG signals during pregnancy to check the heat activity and to detect any problem early before born, therefore the monitoring of ECG signals have clinical significance and importance. For multi-fetal pregnancy case the classical filtering algorithms are not sufficient to separate the ECG signals between mother and fetal. In this paper the mixture consists of mixing from three ECG signals, the first signal is the mother ECG (M-ECG signal, second signal the Fetal-1 ECG (F1-ECG, and third signal is the Fetal-2 ECG (F2-ECG, these signals are extracted based on modified blind source extraction (BSE techniques. The proposed work based on hybridization between two BSE techniques to ensure that the extracted signals separated well. The results demonstrate that the proposed work very efficiently to extract the useful ECG signals

  2. Unconditionally verifiable blind quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Joseph F.; Kashefi, Elham

    2017-07-01

    Blind quantum computing (BQC) allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for them such that the client's input, output, and computation remain private. A desirable property for any BQC protocol is verification, whereby the client can verify with high probability whether the server has followed the instructions of the protocol or if there has been some deviation resulting in a corrupted output state. A verifiable BQC protocol can be viewed as an interactive proof system leading to consequences for complexity theory. We previously proposed [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, Atlanta, 2009 (IEEE, Piscataway, 2009), p. 517] a universal and unconditionally secure BQC scheme where the client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits in separable states randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. In this paper we extend that protocol with additional functionality allowing blind computational basis measurements, which we use to construct another verifiable BQC protocol based on a different class of resource states. We rigorously prove that the probability of failing to detect an incorrect output is exponentially small in a security parameter, while resource overhead remains polynomial in this parameter. This resource state allows entangling gates to be performed between arbitrary pairs of logical qubits with only constant overhead. This is a significant improvement on the original scheme, which required that all computations to be performed must first be put into a nearest-neighbor form, incurring linear overhead in the number of qubits. Such an improvement has important consequences for efficiency and fault-tolerance thresholds.

  3. The blind leading the blind: use and misuse of blinding in randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E; Stewart, Morgan E

    2011-03-01

    The use of blinding strengthens the credibility of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by minimizing bias. However, there is confusion surrounding the definition of blinding as well as the terms single, double, and triple blind. It has been suggested that these terms should be discontinued due to their broad misinterpretation. We recommend that, instead of abandoning the use of these terms, explicit definitions of blinding should be adopted. We address herein the concept of blinding, propose standard definitions for the consistent use of these terms, and detail when different types of blinding should be utilized. Standardizing the definition of blinding and utilizing proper blinding methods will improve the quality and clarity of reporting in RCTs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fast Monaural Separation of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Dyrholm, Mads

    2003-01-01

    a Factorial Hidden Markov Model, with non-stationary assumptions on the source autocorrelations modelled through the Factorial Hidden Markov Model, leads to separation in the monaural case. By extending Hansens work we find that Roweis' assumptions are necessary for monaural speech separation. Furthermore we...

  5. INTRODUCTION Childhood blindness is increasingly becoming a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number of blind years resulting from blindness in children is also equal to the number of blind years due to age related cataract.10 The burden of disability in terms of blind years in these children represents a major. CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AT THE SCHOOL FOR THE. BLIND OWO, NIGERIA.

  6. Consequences of Choice Blindness on Memory: Altered Self-Reports Cause Memory-Blindness Distortion

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on the misinformation effect has demonstrated that memory for events can be distorted by suggestive information presented after the fact. A separate line of research on choice blindness has shown that after making a choice between multiple alternatives, if people are told they chose something different from what they actually chose, they often fail to notice the discrepancy. In a methodological marriage of these two paradigms, participants first witnessed an event, and wer...

  7. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Infrared spectra of Pu(IV) polymer show effects of CO 2 adsorption and of aging. Uv light (300 nm) increases the rate of reduction of PuO 2 2+ and Pu 4+ to Pu 3+ and the Pu--U separation factor using TBP. Distribution ratios for Zr and Hf between Dowex 50W--X8 resin and H 2 SO 4 solutions were found to decrease sharply with H 2 SO 4 content. Octylphenyl acid phosphate, a mixture of monooctylphenyl and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids, is being studied for U recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid. A study of HNO 3 leaching of Ra from U ores was completed. Effects of particle size of the packed bed on the dispersion of the boundary of the miscible phase used in oil recovery are being studied. Effects of sulfonates on toluene--n-butanol--water phase relations were determined, as were the effects of salts and solutes on the max water content of 1:1 toluene--alcohol solutions. A study was begun of hydrocarbon solubility in water--surfactant--alcohol. The mechanism of the formation of hydrous ZrO 2 --polyacrylate membranes and their use for sulfate rejection were studied. Salt rejection through hyperfiltration by clay membranes (bentonite and kaolin) was also investigated. Preliminary results are given for hyperfiltration of wood-pulping wastes by ZrO 2 membranes. 13 figures

  8. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  9. A Charrelation Matrix-Based Blind Adaptive Detector for DS-CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqiang Luo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a blind adaptive detector is proposed for blind separation of user signals and blind estimation of spreading sequences in DS-CDMA systems. The blind separation scheme exploits a charrelation matrix for simple computation and effective extraction of information from observation signal samples. The system model of DS-CDMA signals is modeled as a blind separation framework. The unknown user information and spreading sequence of DS-CDMA systems can be estimated only from the sampled observation signals. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the improved performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison with the existing conventional algorithms used in DS-CDMA systems. Especially, the proposed scheme is suitable for when the number of observation samples is less and the signal to noise ratio (SNR is low.

  10. A Charrelation Matrix-Based Blind Adaptive Detector for DS-CDMA Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongqiang; Zhu, Lidong

    2015-08-14

    In this paper, a blind adaptive detector is proposed for blind separation of user signals and blind estimation of spreading sequences in DS-CDMA systems. The blind separation scheme exploits a charrelation matrix for simple computation and effective extraction of information from observation signal samples. The system model of DS-CDMA signals is modeled as a blind separation framework. The unknown user information and spreading sequence of DS-CDMA systems can be estimated only from the sampled observation signals. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the improved performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison with the existing conventional algorithms used in DS-CDMA systems. Especially, the proposed scheme is suitable for when the number of observation samples is less and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is low.

  11. Memory distorions resulting from a choice blindness task

    OpenAIRE

    Pärnamets, Philip; Hall, Lars; Johansson, Petter

    2015-01-01

    Using a choice blindness paradigm, it is possible to switch decisions and outcomes in simple choice tasks. Such switches have been found to carry over into later choices, hypothesized to be mediated by beliefs about earlier decisions. Here we investigated participants’ memories for stimuli in a simple choice blindness task involving preferential choices between pairs of faces. We probed participants’ recognition and source memory following a round of choices where on some trials participants ...

  12. Solid-phase extraction and separation procedure for trace aluminum in water samples and its determination by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Harun; Er, Cigdem

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, a separation/preconcentration procedure for determination of aluminum in water samples has been developed by using a new atomic absorption spectrometer concept with a high-intensity xenon short-arc lamp as continuum radiation source, a high-resolution double-echelle monochromator, and a charge-coupled device array detector. Sample solution pH, sample volume, flow rate of sample solution, volume, and concentration of eluent for solid-phase extraction of Al chelates with 4-[(dicyanomethyl)diazenyl] benzoic acid on polymeric resin (Duolite XAD-761) have been investigated. The adsorbed aluminum on resin was eluted with 5 mL of 2 mol L(-1) HNO(3) and its concentration was determined by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS). Under the optimal conditions, limit of detection obtained with HR-CS FAAS and Line Source FAAS (LS-FAAS) were 0.49 μg L(-1) and 3.91 μg L(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the procedure was confirmed by analyzing certified materials (NIST SRM 1643e, Trace elements in water) and spiked real samples. The developed procedure was successfully applied to water samples.

  13. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of acquired blindness in Japan. One reason that it often leads to blindness is that it can continue to worsen even after effective medical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only evidence-based treatment. The limitations of current treatments make it critical to identify IOP-independent factors that can cause glaucoma and develop new drugs to target these factors. This is a challenging task, as the pathology of glaucoma is thought to be very complex, with different combinations of factors underlying its development and progression in different patients. Additionally, there is a deficiency in methods to efficiently perform clinical evaluations and reliably probe the state of the disease over relatively short periods. In addition, newly developed drugs need to be evaluated with clinical trials, for which human and financial resources are limited, before they can be widely used for treatment. Taking all these issues into consideration, it is evident that there are two urgent issues to consider: the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on its pathology, and the improvement of clinical evaluation methods. In this review, we discuss some of our efforts to develop new neuroprotective agents for glaucoma, with a focus on the following three areas: 1. Clinical research and development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP-independent factors, and the exploration of possibilities for the improvement of clinical evaluation of glaucoma. 2. Pathology-based research and development of new drugs for glaucoma, focusing on comprehensive gene expression analysis and the development of molecule-targeting drugs, using murine optic nerve crush as a disease model. 3. Development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities and the establishment of infrastructure enabling "big-data" analysis. First, we discuss our clinical research and the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP

  14. Reflections on a Visit to the Union of the Blind of Croatia, Zagreb, Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylke, Frank Kurt; Hanke, Peter

    The paper reports a visit to the Union of the Blind in Croatia, an organization serving the needs of 4,500 blind individuals in this part of Yugoslavia. Briefly considered are personnel, financial support, and services (such as braille and talking book production). A separate section describes the organization's library, recorded and braille…

  15. Perception of blindness and blinding eye conditions in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashaye, Adeyinka; Ajuwon, Ademola Johnson; Adeoti, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the causes and management of blindness and blinding eye conditions as perceived by rural dwellers of two Yoruba communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. METHODS: Four focus group discussions were conducted among residents of Iddo and Isale Oyo, two rural Yoruba communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Participants consisted of sighted, those who were partially or totally blind and community leaders. Ten patent medicine sellers and 12 traditional healers were also interviewed on their perception of the causes and management of blindness in their communities. FINDINGS: Blindness was perceived as an increasing problem among the communities. Multiple factors were perceived to cause blindness, including germs, onchocerciasis and supernatural forces. Traditional healers believed that blindness could be cured, with many claiming that they had previously cured blindness in the past. However, all agreed that patience was an important requirement for the cure of blindness. The patent medicine sellers' reports were similar to those of the traditional healers. The barriers to use of orthodox medicine were mainly fear, misconception and perceived high costs of care. There was a consensus of opinion among group discussants and informants that there are severe social and economic consequences of blindness, including not been able to see and assess the quality of what the sufferer eats, perpetual sadness, loss of sleep and dependence on other persons for daily activities. CONCLUSION: Local beliefs associated with causation, symptoms and management of blindness and blinding eye conditions among rural Yoruba communities identified have provided a bridge for understanding local perspectives and basis for implementing appropriate primary eye care programs. PMID:16775910

  16. Heavy Water - Industrial Separation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculea, M.

    1984-01-01

    This monograph devoted to the heavy water production mainly presents the Romanian experience in the field which started in early sixties from the laboratory scale production and reached now the level of large scale industrial production at ROMAG-Drobeta, Romania. The book is structured in eleven chapters entitled: Overview, The main physical properties, Sources, Uses, Separation factor and equilibrium constant, Mathematical modelling of the separation process, Thermodynamical considerations on the isotope separation, Selection criteria for heavy water separation processes, Industrial installations for heavy water production, Prospects, Acknowledgements. 200 Figs., 90 Tabs., 135 Refs

  17. Guide for the recovery of high grade waste paper from federal office buildings through at-source separation. Guide de recuperation du papier de rebut de qualite superieur dans les immeubles administratifs federaux au moyen d'une collecte selective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This guide is intended to serve as a manual for organizing and managing office waste paper recovery programs in Canadian federal buildings. Waste paper generated in such buildings is of particular interest for recycling as it is produced in sufficiently large amounts, and contains large amounts of high-grade waste paper which obtain good prices from paper mills. The key to successful recovery of such paper is separation, at the source of waste generation, from other less-valuable papers and non-paper materials. In recommending ways to do this, the manual covers assessment of the viability of a collection program in a particular building, estimating the quantities of waste generated, calculating storage space necessary, marketing the paper collected, using proper collection and storage containers, promoting employee awareness, and administering and monitoring the program. A sample cost-benefit analysis is given for a general office building with 1,000 employees. Includes glossary. 14 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Constrained variable projection method for blind deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelio, A; Piccolomini, E Loli; Nagy, J G

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the solution of the blind deconvolution problem, here modeled as a separable nonlinear least squares problem. The well known ill-posedness, both on recovering the blurring operator and the true image, makes the problem really difficult to handle. We show that, by imposing appropriate constraints on the variables and with well chosen regularization parameters, it is possible to obtain an objective function that is fairly well behaved. Hence, the resulting nonlinear minimization problem can be effectively solved by classical methods, such as the Gauss-Newton algorithm.

  19. Electromagnetic separator of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasilin, V.V.; Nezovibatko, Yu.N.; Poklepach, G.S.; Shvets, O.M.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The progress in the widespread utilization of the PVD methods is determined in many respects by the plasma quality and, therefore, the necessity of an application of plasma separators, in particular magnetic separators. One needs to note that traditional magnetic separators have a number of problems their using, namely their unwieldiness, the presence of the isolated cameras and so on. We have proposed, manufactured and investigated the simple separator of plasma that doesn't require using additional cameras. As a source of metallic plasma the standard cathode vaporizer in the installation 'BULAT 6' was in use. Plasma stream from the cathode flowed through the not protected by isolation spiral solenoid. The solenoid input (from the cathode side) was under floating potential. The solenoid output was connected to the autonomous power supply system. The solenoid was prepared with stride winding and 90 degree turn. The solenoid current was 20-90 A and the solenoid voltage with respect to the vessel (earth) was +15 V. In this case drifting charged particles could freely fly out from the interior solenoid region to its boundary. The glow of the turned flow of plasma was observed during the supplying of the cathode and the solenoid. Plasma flow was separated from the coils and extended along the axis of solenoid. One can assume that this device ensures radial electric with respect to the bulk of plasma (the diameter of the bulk of plasma is comparable with the cathode diameter), the toroidal magnetic field, produced by solenoid, was of an order of 20 Oe. Magnetic field strength was sufficient for the magnetization of electrons, but it was rather small for magnetizing the ions and charged micro-droplets. The experiments carried out with aluminum cathode on the deposition of coatings at the stainless steel substrate have shown the high effectiveness of this separator operation. Coatings without droplets were obtained also on the glass substrate with HF- displacement

  20. The effects of extrinsic motivation on signature authorship opinions in forensic signature blind trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Tahnee N; Found, Bryan; Ballantyne, Kaye N; Rogers, Doug

    2014-03-01

    Expertise studies in forensic handwriting examination involve comparisons of Forensic Handwriting Examiners' (FHEs) opinions with lay-persons on blind tests. All published studies of this type have reported real and demonstrable skill differences between the specialist and lay groups. However, critics have proposed that any difference shown may be indicative of a lack of motivation on the part of lay participants, rather than a real difference in skill. It has been suggested that qualified FHEs would be inherently more motivated to succeed in blinded validation trials, as their professional reputations could be at risk, should they perform poorly on the task provided. Furthermore, critics suggest that lay-persons would be unlikely to be highly motivated to succeed, as they would have no fear of negative consequences should they perform badly. In an effort to investigate this concern, a blind signature trial was designed and administered to forty lay-persons. Participants were required to compare known (exemplar) signatures of an individual to questioned signatures and asked to express an opinion regarding whether the writer of the known signatures wrote each of the questioned signatures. The questioned signatures comprised a mixture of genuine, disguised and simulated signatures. The forty participants were divided into two separate groupings. Group 'A' were requested to complete the trial as directed and were advised that for each correct answer they would be financially rewarded, for each incorrect answer they would be financially penalized, and for each inconclusive opinion they would receive neither penalty nor reward. Group 'B' was requested to complete the trial as directed, with no mention of financial recompense or penalty. The results of this study do not support the proposition that motivation rather than skill difference is the source of the statistical difference in opinions between individuals' results in blinded signature proficiency trials. Crown

  1. Motor development of blind toddler

    OpenAIRE

    Likar, Petra

    2013-01-01

    For blind toddlers, development of motor skills enables possibilities for learning and exploring the environment. The purpose of this graduation thesis is to systematically mark the milestones in development of motor skills in blind toddlers, to establish different factors which affect this development, and to discover different ways for teachers for visually impaired and parents to encourage development of motor skills. It is typical of blind toddlers that they do not experience a wide varie...

  2. Blind Quantum Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvail, Louis; Arrighi, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of "having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input". Say Alice wants Bob to compute some known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x. The situa......We investigate the possibility of "having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input". Say Alice wants Bob to compute some known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x....... The situation arises for instance if client Alice has limited computational resources in comparison with mistrusted server Bob, or if x is an inherently mobile piece of data. Could there be a protocol whereby Bob is forced to compute f(x) "blindly", i.e. without observing x? We provide such a blind computation...... protocol for the class of functions which admit an efficient procedure to generate random input-output pairs, e.g. factorization. The cheat-sensitive security achieved relies only upon quantum theory being true. The security analysis carried out assumes the eavesdropper performs individual attacks....

  3. Autobiographic narratives of congenital blind people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out in Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, intended at investigating, together with men and women who suffer from congenital visual impairment, how they felt about diversity, body image, self-esteem and vanity. The investigation of autobiographical accounts was the option for this study. Initially, 20 (twenty interviews were analyzed and 6 (six autobiographical accounts, selected from the peculiarities of each single interviewee – each one containing his/her single life lessons - followed suit. The conclusion reached is that the subjects had undergone an exhausting process of acceptance of their own impairment. If, on the one hand, the blindness comes with angst, uncertainties, and many difficulties, on the other hand, these circumstances lead the blind to face the ups and downs of life with courage, determination and will to live. Surprisingly, in the study the body was not approached at a source of concern or are which should be emphasized.

  4. POSTERIOR SEGMENT CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN IN BLIND SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is estimated that there are 1.4 million irreversibly blind children in the world out of which 1 million are in Asia alone. India has the highest number of blind children than any other country. Nearly 70% of the childhood blindness is avoidable. There i s paucity of data available on the causes of childhood blindness. This study focuses on the posterior segment causes of blindness among children attending blind schools in 3 adjacent districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a cross sectiona l study conducted among 204 blind children aged 6 - 16 years age. Detailed eye examination was done by the same investigator to avoid bias. Posterior segment examination was done using a direct and/or indirect ophthalmoscope after dilating pupil wherever nec essary. The standard WHO/PBL for blindness and low vision examination protocol was used to categorize the causes of blindness. A major anatomical site and underlying cause was selected for each child. The study was carried out during July 2014 to June 2015 . The results were analyzed using MS excel software and Epi - info 7 software version statistical software. RESULTS: Majority of the children was found to be aged 13 - 16 years (45.1% and males (63.7%. Family history of blindness was noted in 26.0% and consa nguinity was reported in 29.9% cases. A majority of them were belonged to fulfill WHO grade of blindness (73.0% and in majority of the cases, the onset of blindness was since birth (83.7%. The etiology of blindness was unknown in majority of cases (57.4% while hereditary causes constituted 25.4% cases. Posterior segment causes were responsible in 33.3% cases with retina being the most commonly involved anatomical site (19.1% followed by optic nerve (14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for mandatory oph thalmic evaluation, refraction and assessment of low vision prior to admission into blind schools with periodic evaluation every 2 - 3 years

  5. Sound field separation with cross measurement surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Mao

    Full Text Available With conventional near-field acoustical holography, it is impossible to identify sound pressure when the coherent sound sources are located on the same side of the array. This paper proposes a solution, using cross measurement surfaces to separate the sources based on the equivalent source method. Each equivalent source surface is built in the center of the corresponding original source with a spherical surface. According to the different transfer matrices between equivalent sources and points on holographic surfaces, the weighting of each equivalent source from coherent sources can be obtained. Numerical and experimental studies have been performed to test the method. For the sound pressure including noise after separation in the experiment, the calculation accuracy can be improved by reconstructing the pressure with Tikhonov regularization and the L-curve method. On the whole, a single source can be effectively separated from coherent sources using cross measurement.

  6. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Leer en Español: Pruebas para Detectar Daltonismo en ... study shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  7. Culture and change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takahiko; Nisbett, Richard E

    2006-03-04

    Research on perception and cognition suggests that whereas East Asians view the world holistically, attending to the entire field and relations among objects, Westerners view the world analytically, focusing on the attributes of salient objects. These propositions were examined in the change-blindness paradigm. Research in that paradigm finds American participants to be more sensitive to changes in focal objects than to changes in the periphery or context. We anticipated that this would be less true for East Asians and that they would be more sensitive to context changes than would Americans. We presented participants with still photos and with animated vignettes having changes in focal object information and contextual information. Compared to Americans, East Asians were more sensitive to contextual changes than to focal object changes. These results suggest that there can be cultural variation in what may seem to be basic perceptual processes. 2006 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

  8. Independent EEG sources are dipolar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Delorme

    Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA and blind source separation (BSS methods are increasingly used to separate individual brain and non-brain source signals mixed by volume conduction in electroencephalographic (EEG and other electrophysiological recordings. We compared results of decomposing thirteen 71-channel human scalp EEG datasets by 22 ICA and BSS algorithms, assessing the pairwise mutual information (PMI in scalp channel pairs, the remaining PMI in component pairs, the overall mutual information reduction (MIR effected by each decomposition, and decomposition 'dipolarity' defined as the number of component scalp maps matching the projection of a single equivalent dipole with less than a given residual variance. The least well-performing algorithm was principal component analysis (PCA; best performing were AMICA and other likelihood/mutual information based ICA methods. Though these and other commonly-used decomposition methods returned many similar components, across 18 ICA/BSS algorithms mean dipolarity varied linearly with both MIR and with PMI remaining between the resulting component time courses, a result compatible with an interpretation of many maximally independent EEG components as being volume-conducted projections of partially-synchronous local cortical field activity within single compact cortical domains. To encourage further method comparisons, the data and software used to prepare the results have been made available (http://sccn.ucsd.edu/wiki/BSSComparison.

  9. Sight and blindness in the same person: Gating in the visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Hans; Waldvogel, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    We present the case of a patient having dissociative identity disorder (DID) who-after 15 years of misdiagnosed cortical blindness--step-by-step regained sight during psychotherapeutic treatment. At first only a few personality states regained vision whereas others remained blind. This could be confirmed by electrophysiological measurement, in which visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were absent in the blind personality states but were normal and stable in the seeing states. A switch between these states could happen within seconds. We assume a top-down modulation of activity in the primary visual pathway as a neural basis of such psychogenic blindness, possibly at the level of the thalamus. VEPs therefore do not allow separating psychogenic blindness from organic disruption of the visual pathway. In summary, psychogenic blindness seems to suppress visual information at an early neural stage. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Trace elements determination in high salinity petroleum produced formation water by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after matrix separation using Chelex-100 Registered-Sign resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Aline Soares [Departamento de Geoquimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ, 24020-150 (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos 149, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, 21941-909 (Brazil); Santelli, Ricardo Erthal, E-mail: santelli@iq.ufrj.br [Departamento de Geoquimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ, 24020-150 (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos 149, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, 21941-909 (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    This study describes a procedure used for the determination of trace metals (Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb) in high salinity petroleum produced formation water (PFW) employing high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for detection and Chelex-100 Registered-Sign resin for matrix elimination and analytes preconcentration. Using 15.0 mL of PFW for the separation/preconcentration, detection limits of 0.006, 0.07, 0.03, 0.08 and 0.02 {mu}g L{sup -1} were obtained for Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing three seawater certified reference materials and by recovery tests, and the data indicate that the methodology can be successfully applied to this kind of samples. The precision values, expressed as relative standard deviation (% RSD, n = 10) for 2.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}, were found to be 3.5, 4.0, 9.0, 5.3 and 5.9 for Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb, respectively. The proposed procedure was applied for the determination of these metals in medium and high salinity PFW samples obtained from Brazilian offshore petroleum exploration platforms. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Petroleum-produced formation water were analyzed for Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb determination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In batch analyte preconcentration/matrix separation using Chelex-100 Registered-Sign was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection limits between 0.006 and 0.08 {mu}g L{sup -1} were found by using HR-CS-GFAAS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trace elements characterization is possible using the developed method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum trace element concentrations found could support future Brazilian directives.

  11. Separation of gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the separation of a gaseous plasma mixture into components in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, comprising: a source for converting the gaseous mixture into a train of plasma packets; an open-ended vessel with a main section and at least one branch section, adapted to enclose along predetermined tracks the original plasma packets in the main section, and the separated plasma components in the branch sections; drive means for generating travelling magnetic waves along the predetermined tracks with the magnetic flux vector of the waves transverse to each of the tracks; and means for maintaining phase coherence between the plasma packets and the magnetic waves at a value needed for accelerating the components of the packets to different velocities and in such different directions that the plasma of each packet is divided into distinctly separate packets in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, and which plasma packets are collected from the branch sections of the vessels. (author)

  12. The spatiotopic 'visual' cortex of the blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likova, Lora

    2012-03-01

    Visual cortex activity in the blind has been shown in sensory tasks. Can it be activated in memory tasks? If so, are inherent features of its organization meaningfully employed? Our recent results in short-term blindfolded subjects imply that human primary visual cortex (V1) may operate as a modality-independent 'sketchpad' for working memory (Likova, 2010a). Interestingly, the spread of the V1 activation approximately corresponded to the spatial extent of the images in terms of their angle of projection to the subject. We now raise the questions of whether under long-term visual deprivation V1 is also employed in non-visual memory task, in particular in congenitally blind individuals, who have never had visual stimulation to guide the development of the visual area organization, and whether such spatial organization is still valid for the same paradigm that was used in blindfolded individuals. The outcome has implications for an emerging reconceptualization of the principles of brain architecture and its reorganization under sensory deprivation. Methods: We used a novel fMRI drawing paradigm in congenitally and late-onset blind, compared with sighted and blindfolded subjects in three conditions of 20s duration, separated by 20s rest-intervals, (i) Tactile Exploration: raised-line images explored and memorized; (ii) Tactile Memory Drawing: drawing the explored image from memory; (iii) Scribble: mindless drawing movements with no memory component. Results and Conclusions: V1 was strongly activated for Tactile Memory Drawing and Tactile Exploration in these totally blind subjects. Remarkably, after training, even in the memory task, the mapping of V1 activation largely corresponded to the angular projection of the tactile stimuli relative to the ego-center (i.e., the effective visual angle at the head); beyond this projective boundary, peripheral V1 signals were dramatically reduced or even suppressed. The matching extent of the activation in the congenitally blind

  13. Isotope separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.-C.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of an isotope separation device comprising a system for converting into gaseous form a first and second isotope to be separated, a monochromatic excitation light source to excite the gaseous molecules of these two isotopes in a distinct manner, a first and second receiver to collect selectively the molecules of the first and second distinctly excited isotopes. The frequency FL of the excitation light is selected between a lower limit and a higher limit F2 + 1/2 LD, depending on the frequences F1 and F2 of two absorption lines near this first and second isotope. The difference DF between these two frequencies F1 and F2 is less than the Doppler width LD of each one of these lines and greater than the natural width LN of each of these two lines and also the width of line LR of the excitation light source. The probability that the molecules will be excited by this light depends on the direction of their displacement to a major and different extent for both isotopes. An ionising light source LI is set up to irradiate the seat of interaction between the excitation light and the gaseous molecules with an ionisation light able to ionise the excited molecules without ionising the molecules that are not excited. The receivers are able to collect selectively the ionised molecules. A sufficiently low gas pressure is selected for the distance between the place of interaction and the first receiver to be less than double the free mean travel of the molecules in the gas [fr

  14. Clinical governance breakdown: Australian cases of wilful blindness and whistleblowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Sonja; Duke, Maxine

    2017-01-01

    After their attempts to have patient safety concerns addressed internally were ignored by wilfully blind managers, nurses from Bundaberg Base Hospital and Macarthur Health Service felt compelled to 'blow the whistle'. Wilful blindness is the human desire to prefer ignorance to knowledge; the responsibility to be informed is shirked. To provide an account of instances of wilful blindness identified in two high-profile cases of nurse whistleblowing in Australia. Critical case study methodology using Fay's Critical Social Theory to examine, analyse and interpret existing data generated by the Commissions of Inquiry held into Bundaberg Base Hospital and Macarthur Health Service patient safety breaches. All data was publicly available and assessed according to the requirements of unobtrusive research methods and secondary data analysis. Ethical considerations: Data collection for the case studies relied entirely on publicly available documentary sources recounting and detailing past events. Data from both cases reveal managers demonstrating wilful blindness towards patient safety concerns. Concerns were unaddressed; nurses, instead, experienced retaliatory responses leading to a 'social crisis' in the organisation and to whistleblowing. Managers tasked with clinical governance must be aware of mechanisms with the potential to blind them. The human tendency to favour positive news and avoid conflict is powerful. Understanding wilful blindness can assist managers' awareness of the competing emotions occurring in response to ethical challenges, such as whistleblowing.

  15. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The steam-water separator connected downstream of a steam generator consists of a vertical centrifugal separator with swirl blades between two concentric pipes and a cyclone separator located above. The water separated in the cyclone separator is collected in the inner tube of the centrifugal separator which is closed at the bottom. This design allows the overall height of the separator to be reduced. (DG) [de

  16. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Deaf-Blind Education Transition to Adulthood > Transition Self Determination Person Centered Planning Postsecondary Education Independent Living Employment Customized Employment Sex Education Adult Services Technology Personnel > Intervener Services Support ...

  17. American Foundation for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss Text Size Smaller Type Larger Type Change Colors My AFB Search Donate to AFB Shop AFB ... and More Public Policy and Research Statistics on Blindness DirectConnect: Public Policy and Advocacy News Research Navigator: ...

  18. Simple pendulum for blind students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, A. M. B.; Cena, C. R.; Alves, D. C. B.; Errobidart, N. C. G.; Jardim, M. I. A.; Queiros, W. P.

    2017-09-01

    Faced with the need to teach physics to the visually impaired, in this paper we propose a way to demonstrate the dependence of distance and time in a pendulum experiment to blind students. The periodic oscillation of the pendulum is translated, by an Arduino and an ultrasonic sensor, in a periodic variation of frequency in a speaker. The main advantage of this proposal is the possibility that a blind student understands the movement without necessity of touching it.

  19. Individual differences in change blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Katharina Verena

    2016-01-01

    The present work shows the existence of systematic individual differences in change blindness. It can be concluded that the sensitivity for changes is a trait. That is, persons differ in their ability to detect changes, independent from the situation or the measurement method. Moreover, there are two explanations for individual differences in change blindness: a) capacity differences in visual selective attention that may be influenced by top-down activated attention helping to focus attentio...

  20. Separation and preconcentration of platinum-group metals from spent autocatalysts solutions using a hetero-polymeric S, N-containing sorbent and determination by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskina, Vasilina V; Dalnova, Olga A; Filatova, Daria G; Baranovskaya, Vasilisa B; Karpov, Yuri A

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the potential of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of Pt, Pd and Rh after separation and concentration by original in-house developed heterochain polymer S, N-containing sorbent. The methods of sample preparation of spent ceramic-based autocatalysts were considered, two of which were used: autoclave decomposition in mixture of acids HCl:HNO3 (3:1) and high-temperature melting with K2S2O7. Both methods anyway limit the direct determination of analytes by HR CS GFAAS. Using the first method it is an incomplete digestion of spent autocatalysts samples, since the precipitate is Si, and the rhodium metal dissolves with difficulty and partially passes into solution. In contrast to the first method, the second method allow to completely transfer analytes into solution, however, the background signal produced by the chemical composition of the flux, overlaps the analytical zone. It was found, that Pt, Pd and Rh contained in the spent ceramic automotive catalysts could be effectively separated and concentrated by heterochain polymer S, N-containing sorbent, which has high sorption capacity, selectivity and resistant to dilute acids. The chosen HR CS GFAAS analysis conditions enable us to determine Pt, Pd and Rh with good metrological characteristics. The concentrations of Pt, Pd and Rh in two samples of automobile exhaust catalysts were found in range of 0.00015-0.00050; 0.170-0.189; 0.0180-0.0210wt%, respectively. The relative standard deviation obtained by HR CS GFAAS was not more than 5%. Limits of detection by HR CS GFAAS achieved were 6.2·10(-6)wt% for Pt, 1.8·10(-6)wt% for Pd, and 3.4·10(-6)wt% for Rh. Limits of determination achieved by HR CS GFAAS were 1.1·10(-5)wt% for Pt, 6.9·10(-5)wt% for Pd, and 8.3·10(-5)wt% for Rh. To control the accuracy of PGM in sorption concentrates by HR CS GFAAS method, it was appropriate to conduct an inter-method comparative experiment. The

  1. Fictional Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    , separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...

  2. Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding from two groups of blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... Background: Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of the blind. Adjustment is often ...

  3. Blinded trials taken to the test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Forfang, E; Haahr, M T

    2007-01-01

    Blinding can reduce bias in randomized clinical trials, but blinding procedures may be unsuccessful. Our aim was to assess how often randomized clinical trials test the success of blinding, the methods involved and how often blinding is reported as being successful....

  4. The global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten L Armstrong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ′backlog′ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods : Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results : The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$. As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world′s inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions : This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector.

  5. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Separation Anxiety KidsHealth / For Parents / Separation Anxiety What's in this ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  6. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierenberg, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A diffuser separator apparatus is described which comprises a plurality of flow channels in a single stage. Each of said channels has an inlet port and an outlet port and a constant cross sectional area between said ports. At least a portion of the defining surface of each of said channels is a diffusion separation membrane, and each of said channels is a different cross sectional area. Means are provided for connecting said channels in series so that each successive channel of said series has a smaller cross sectional area than the previous channel of said series. Also provided are a source of gaseous mixture, individual means for flowing said gaseous mixture to the inlet port of each of said channels, gas receiving and analyzing means, individual means for flowing gas passing from each of said outlet ports and means for flowing gas passing through said membranes to said receiving and analyzing means, and individual means for connecting the outlet port of each channel with the inlet port of the channel having the next smaller cross sectional area

  7. Causes of blindness in blind unit of the school for the handicapped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To describe the causes of blindness in pupils and staff in the blind unit of the School for the Handicapped in Kwara State. 2. To identify problems in the blind school and initiate intervention. All the blind or visually challenged people in the blind unit of the school for the handicapped were interviewed and examined using a ...

  8. Blind column selection protocol for two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Niki K; Andrighetto, Luke M; Conlan, Xavier A; Purcell, Stuart D; Barnett, Neil W; Denning, Jacquie; Francis, Paul S; Stevenson, Paul G

    2016-07-01

    The selection of two orthogonal columns for two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography (LC×LC) separation of natural product extracts can be a labour intensive and time consuming process and in many cases is an entirely trial-and-error approach. This paper introduces a blind optimisation method for column selection of a black box of constituent components. A data processing pipeline, created in the open source application OpenMS®, was developed to map the components within the mixture of equal mass across a library of HPLC columns; LC×LC separation space utilisation was compared by measuring the fractional surface coverage, fcoverage. It was found that for a test mixture from an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) extract, the combination of diphenyl and C18 stationary phases provided a predicted fcoverage of 0.48 and was matched with an actual usage of 0.43. OpenMS®, in conjunction with algorithms designed in house, have allowed for a significantly quicker selection of two orthogonal columns, which have been optimised for a LC×LC separation of crude extractions of plant material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Memory Processes in Repetition Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James C.; Hochhaus, Larry; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We investigated whether Repetition Blindness (RB) in processing RSVP strings depends critically on memory demands. When all items in the sequence had to be reported, strong RB was found. When only the 2 critical items (cued by color) had to be reported, no RB was found. Preliminary results show that imposing a separate memory load, while reporting only the critical items, also produces little RB. Implications for the processing locus of RB will be discussed.

  10. Ammonia producing engine utilizing oxygen separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Jr., William Lanier; Coleman, Gerald Nelson [Petersborough, GB; Robel, Wade James [Peoria, IL

    2008-12-16

    A power system is provided having a power source, a first power source section with a first intake passage and a first exhaust passage, a second power source section with a second intake passage and a second exhaust passage, and an oxygen separator. The second intake passage may be fluidly isolated from the first intake passage.

  11. Future trends in global blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Resnikoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to discuss the available data on the prevalence and causes of global blindness, and some of the associated trends and limitations seen. A literature search was conducted using the terms "global AND blindness" and "global AND vision AND impairment", resulting in seven appropriate articles for this review. Since 1990 the estimate of global prevalence of blindness has gradually decreased when considering the best corrected visual acuity definition: 0.71% in 1990, 0.59% in 2002, and 0.55% in 2010, corresponding to a 0.73% reduction per year over the 2002-2010 period. Significant limitations were found in the comparability between the global estimates in prevalence or causes of blindness or visual impairment. These limitations arise from various factors such as uncertainties about the true cause of the impairment, the use of different definitions and methods, and the absence of data from a number of geographical areas, leading to various extrapolation methods, which in turn seriously limit comparability. Seminal to this discussion on limitations in the comparability of studies and data, is that blindness has historically been defined using best corrected visual acuity.

  12. Micropollutants in source separated wastewater streams and recovered resources of source separated sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkovskyi, A; Leal, L Hernandez; Zeeman, G; Rijnaarts, H H M

    2017-07-01

    The quality of anaerobic sludge and struvite from black water treatment system, aerobic sludge from grey water treatment system and effluents of both systems was assessed for organic micropollutant content in order to ensure safety when reusing these products. Use of anaerobic black water sludge and struvite as soil amendments is recommended based on the low micropollutant content. Aerobic grey water sludge is recommended for disposal, because of the relatively high micropollutant concentrations, exceeding those in sewage sludge. Effluents of black and grey water treatment systems require post-treatment prior to reuse, because the measured micropollutant concentrations in the effluents are above ecotoxicological thresholds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Micropollutants in source separated wastewater streams and recovered resources of source separated sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Zeeman, G.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The quality of anaerobic sludge and struvite from black water treatment system, aerobic sludge from grey water treatment system and effluents of both systems was assessed for organic micropollutant content in order to ensure safety when reusing these products. Use of anaerobic black water sludge

  14. New separation technique. Catalytically functionated separation membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgami, Tadashi [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1989-02-01

    This report introduces research examples, showing the fundamental principle of the membrane by separating the catalytically functionated separation membrane into enzyme fixing separation membrane, polymerized metal complex separation membrane and polymer catalyst separation membrane. This membrane can achieve both functions of separation and catalytic reaction simultaneously and has sufficient possibility to combine powerful functions. Enzyme fixing separation membrane is prepared by carrier combination method, bridging method or covering method and the enzyme fixing method with polymerized complex in which enzyme is controlled to prevent the activity lowering as much as possible and enzyme is fixed from an aqueous solution into polymer membrane. This membrane is applied to the continuous manufacturing of invert sugar from cane sugar and adsorption and removing of harmful substances from blood by utilizing both micro-capsuled urease and active carbon. Alginic acid-copper (II) complex membrane is used for the polymerized metal complex membrane and polystyrene sulfonate membrane is used for the polymer catalyst separation membrane. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tabs.

  15. Controlling Separation in Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon; Himmel, Christoph; Power, Bronwyn; Wakelam, Christian; Xu, Liping; Hynes, Tom; Hodson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Four examples of flow control: 1) Passive control of LP turbine blades (Laminar separation control). 2) Aspiration of a conventional axial compressor blade (Turbulent separation control). 3) Compressor blade designed for aspiration (Turbulent separation control). 4.Control of intakes in crosswinds (Turbulent separation control).

  16. New treatments of hereditary blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Rosenberg, Thomas; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life and a structura......Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life...... and a structurally intact retinal tissue to adult life with a complete loss of photoreceptors. It must be assumed that some of the trials will succeed in producing new therapies and action must be taken to refine and accelerate diagnostics and to preserve therapeutic potential in blind people....

  17. Working memory and inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Keith; Simons, Daniel J

    2012-04-01

    Individual differences in working memory predict many aspects of cognitive performance, especially for tasks that demand focused attention. One negative consequence of focused attention is inattentional blindness, the failure to notice unexpected objects when attention is engaged elsewhere. Yet, the relationship between individual differences in working memory and inattentional blindness is unclear; some studies have found that higher working memory capacity is associated with greater noticing, but others have found no direct association. Given the theoretical and practical significance of such individual differences, more definitive tests are needed. In two studies with large samples, we tested the relationship between multiple working memory measures and inattentional blindness. Individual differences in working memory predicted the ability to perform an attention-demanding tracking task, but did not predict the likelihood of noticing an unexpected object present during the task. We discuss the reasons why we might not expect such individual differences in noticing and why other studies may have found them.

  18. 20 CFR 416.983 - How we evaluate statutory blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we evaluate statutory blindness. 416.983... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.983 How we evaluate statutory blindness. We will find that you are blind if you are statutorily blind within the meaning of...

  19. 20 CFR 416.982 - Blindness under a State plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blindness under a State plan. 416.982 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.982 Blindness under a State... plan because of your blindness for the month of December 1973; and (c) You continue to be blind as...

  20. Epidemiology of blindness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solebo, Ameenat Lola; Teoh, Lucinda; Rahi, Jugnoo

    2017-09-01

    An estimated 14 million of the world's children are blind. A blind child is more likely to live in socioeconomic deprivation, to be more frequently hospitalised during childhood and to die in childhood than a child not living with blindness. This update of a previous review on childhood visual impairment focuses on emerging therapies for children with severe visual disability (severe visual impairment and blindness or SVI/BL).For children in higher income countries, cerebral visual impairment and optic nerve anomalies remain the most common causes of SVI/BL, while retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and cataract are now the most common avoidable causes. The constellation of causes of childhood blindness in lower income settings is shifting from infective and nutritional corneal opacities and congenital anomalies to more resemble the patterns seen in higher income settings. Improvements in maternal and neonatal health and investment in and maintenance of national ophthalmic care infrastructure are the key to reducing the burden of avoidable blindness. New therapeutic targets are emerging for childhood visual disorders, although the safety and efficacy of novel therapies for diseases such as ROP or retinal dystrophies are not yet clear. Population-based epidemiological research, particularly on cerebral visual impairment and optic nerve hypoplasia, is needed in order to improve understanding of risk factors and to inform and support the development of novel therapies for disorders currently considered 'untreatable'. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Combined failure acoustical diagnosis based on improved frequency domain blind deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Nan; Wu, Xing; Chi, YiLin; Liu, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    According to gear box combined failure extraction in complex sound field, an acoustic fault detection method based on improved frequency domain blind deconvolution was proposed. Follow the frequency-domain blind deconvolution flow, the morphological filtering was firstly used to extract modulation features embedded in the observed signals, then the CFPA algorithm was employed to do complex-domain blind separation, finally the J-Divergence of spectrum was employed as distance measure to resolve the permutation. Experiments using real machine sound signals was carried out. The result demonstrate this algorithm can be efficiently applied to gear box combined failure detection in practice.

  2. Arsanilic acid blindness in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, R.W.; Kintner, L.D.; Selby, L.A.; Stewart, R.W.; Marlenfeld, C.J.

    1970-06-01

    Blindness in pigs that were given an overdosage of arsanilic acid is reported. A 0.0375% level of arsanilic acid was fed to 640 pigs for 90 days beginning when the animals were 3 months old. Approximately one month after the start of feeding, partial or complete blindness was observed in 50 of the pigs. Clinical signs, pathologic findings and the chemical analysis of hair are discussed. The level of arsanilic acid used was that recommended for the control of swine dysentery, to be fed for only five or six days. The overdosage resulted from a misunderstanding between the farmer and the feed mill.

  3. Sound lateralization test in adolescent blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Takao; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2005-06-21

    Blind individuals require to compensate for the lack of visual information by other sensory inputs. In particular, auditory inputs are crucial to such individuals. To investigate whether blind individuals localize sound in space better than sighted individuals, we tested the auditory ability of adolescent blind individuals using a sound lateralization method. The interaural time difference discrimination thresholds of blind individuals were statistically significantly shorter than those of blind individuals with residual vision and controls. These findings suggest that blind individuals have better auditory spatial ability than individuals with visual cues; therefore, some perceptual compensation occurred in the former.

  4. Method and apparatus for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    Isotope separation is achieved between species A and B having an absorption resonance separated by an isotopic shift by selectively exciting a portion of species A using a tunable photon source of narrow emission line with and subsequently causing collisions with an optically excited third species to selectively ionize the excited portion of species A. When ionized, species A is easily separated by any technique, using its ionized condition to distinguish it from species B. 18 claims, 3 drawing figures

  5. Blind Naso-Endotracheal Intubation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Difficult endotracheal intubation techniques include, use of fiberoptic bronchoscope, intubating laryngeal mask airway, tracheostomy, blind nasotracheal and retrograde intubation. According to the Difficult Airway Society guidelines, intubating with the aid of a fiberoptic scope has taken its place as the standard adjuvant for.

  6. Metro Navigation for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Saenz, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of using the software program AudioMetro, a tool that supports the orientation and mobility of people who are blind in the Metro system of Santiago de Chile. A quasi-experimental study considering experimental and control groups and using the paired Student's t in a two sample test analysis (pretest-posttest) was…

  7. Vesicouterine fistula and blind vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M.; Hameed, S.; Asif, S.

    2003-01-01

    A case of vesicouterine fistula with blind vagina following cesarean section for obstructed labor is presented. It was surgically treated by fistulectomy, cervicoplasty and maintenance of bladder and cervical potency by catheterization. Intrauterine synechiae formation was prevented by copper T insertion and oral contraceptive pills. The patient is making uneventful a symptomatic progress planning to conceive. (author)

  8. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News ... series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ...

  9. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ... optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a ...

  10. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ... an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a ...

  11. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ... an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a ...

  12. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos ...

  13. Blinding in randomized clinical trials: imposed impartiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I

    2011-01-01

    Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations...

  14. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? ... Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. ...

  15. On imitation among young and blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Campello Rodrigues

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the imitation among young and blind children. The survey was conducted as a mosaic in the time since the field considerations were taken from two areas: a professional experience with early stimulation of blind babies and a workshop with blind and low vision young between 13-18 years. By statingthe situated trace of knowledge, theresearch indicates that imitation among blind young people can be one of the ways of creating a common world among young blind and sighted people. Imitation among blind young is a multi-sensory process that requires a body experience, including both blind and people who see. The paper concludes with an indication of the unique character of imitation and at the same time, with the affirmation of its relevance to the development and inclusion process of both the child and the young blind.

  16. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  17. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in which ...

  18. "VisionTouch Phone" for the Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Robest

    2013-10-01

    Our objective is to enable the blind to use smartphones with touchscreens to make calls and to send text messages (sms) with ease, speed, and accuracy. We believe that with our proposed platform, which enables the blind to locate the position of the keypads, new games and education, and safety applications will be increasingly developed for the blind. This innovative idea can also be implemented on tablets for the blind, allowing them to use information websites such as Wikipedia and newspaper portals.

  19. Chromatographic separations of stereoisomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souter, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This text covers both diastereomers and enantiomers; describes techniques for GC, HPLC, and other chromatographic methods; and tabulates results of various applications by both techniques and compound class. It provides current knowledge about separation mechanisms and interactions of asymmetric molecules, as well as experimental and commercial materials such as columns, instruments, and derivatization reagents. The contents also include stereoisomer separations by gas chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by other chromatographic techniques.

  20. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  1. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    A two-stage steam-water separating device is introduced, where the second stage is made as a cyclone separator. The water separated here is collected in the first stage of the inner tube and is returned to the steam raising unit. (TK) [de

  2. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  3. Meniscus membranes for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  4. Sequential blind identification of underdetermined mixtures using a novel deflation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingjian; Yu, Simin; Wei, Gang

    2013-09-01

    In this brief, we consider the problem of blind identification in underdetermined instantaneous mixture cases, where there are more sources than sensors. A new blind identification algorithm, which estimates the mixing matrix in a sequential fashion, is proposed. By using the rank-1 detecting device, blind identification is reformulated as a constrained optimization problem. The identification of one column of the mixing matrix hence reduces to an optimization task for which an efficient iterative algorithm is proposed. The identification of the other columns of the mixing matrix is then carried out by a generalized eigenvalue decomposition-based deflation method. The key merit of the proposed deflation method is that it does not suffer from error accumulation. The proposed sequential blind identification algorithm provides more flexibility and better robustness than its simultaneous counterpart. Comparative simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed algorithm over the simultaneous blind identification algorithm.

  5. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a green leaf might look tan or gray. Color Blindness Is Passed Down Color blindness is almost always an inherited (say: in-HER- ... Eye doctors (and some school nurses) test for color blindness by showing a picture made up of different ...

  6. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  7. Safety shutdown separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  8. Outage analysis of blind cooperative diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    Mobile users with single antennas can still take advantage of spatial diversity through cooperative space-time-encoded transmission. In this paper, we considered a scheme in which a relay chooses to cooperate only if its source-relay channel is of an acceptable quality, and we evaluate the usefulness of relaying when the source acts blindly and ignores the decision of the relays whether they may cooperate or not. In our study, we consider the regenerative relays in which the decisions to cooperate are based on a targeted end-to-end data rate R. We derived the end-to-end outage probability for a transmission rate R and a code rate ρ and look at a power allocation strategy between the source and the relays in order to minimize the end-to-end outage probability at the destination for high signal-to-noise ratio, by using the golden section search method. Performance results show that the computer simulations-based results coincide with our analytical results. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Outage analysis of blind cooperative diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-06-06

    Mobile users with single antennas can still take advantage of spatial diversity through cooperative space-time-encoded transmission. In this paper, we considered a scheme in which a relay chooses to cooperate only if its source-relay channel is of an acceptable quality, and we evaluate the usefulness of relaying when the source acts blindly and ignores the decision of the relays whether they may cooperate or not. In our study, we consider the regenerative relays in which the decisions to cooperate are based on a targeted end-to-end data rate R. We derived the end-to-end outage probability for a transmission rate R and a code rate ρ and look at a power allocation strategy between the source and the relays in order to minimize the end-to-end outage probability at the destination for high signal-to-noise ratio, by using the golden section search method. Performance results show that the computer simulations-based results coincide with our analytical results. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  11. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sixing; Huang, Tony Jun; Ma, Fen; Zeng, Xiangqun; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device. (paper)

  12. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixing; Ma, Fen; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E.; Zeng, Xiangqun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device.

  13. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in Western Rwanda: Blindness in a Postconflict Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Mathenge, Wanjiku; Nkurikiye, John; Limburg, Hans; Kuper, Hannah

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. VISION 2020, a global initiative that aims to eliminate avoidable blindness, has estimated that 75% of blindness worldwide is treatable or preventable. The WHO estimates that in Africa, around 9% of adults aged over 50 are blind. Some data suggest that people living in regions affected by violent conflict are more likely to be blind than those living in unaffected regions. Currently no data exist on the likely prevalence of blindness in Rwanda, a central African c...

  14. An alternating minimization method for blind deconvolution from Poisson data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prato, Marco; La Camera, Andrea; Bonettini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Blind deconvolution is a particularly challenging inverse problem since information on both the desired target and the acquisition system have to be inferred from the measured data. When the collected data are affected by Poisson noise, this problem is typically addressed by the minimization of the Kullback-Leibler divergence, in which the unknowns are sought in particular feasible sets depending on the a priori information provided by the specific application. If these sets are separated, then the resulting constrained minimization problem can be addressed with an inexact alternating strategy. In this paper we apply this optimization tool to the problem of reconstructing astronomical images from adaptive optics systems, and we show that the proposed approach succeeds in providing very good results in the blind deconvolution of nondense stellar clusters

  15. Contact Lenses for Color Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Abdel-Rahman; Hassan, Muhammad Umair; Elsherif, Mohamed; Ahmed, Zubair; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider

    2018-06-01

    Color vision deficiency (color blindness) is an inherited genetic ocular disorder. While no cure for this disorder currently exists, several methods can be used to increase the color perception of those affected. One such method is the use of color filtering glasses which are based on Bragg filters. While these glasses are effective, they are high cost, bulky, and incompatible with other vision correction eyeglasses. In this work, a rhodamine derivative is incorporated in commercial contact lenses to filter out the specific wavelength bands (≈545-575 nm) to correct color vision blindness. The biocompatibility assessment of the dyed contact lenses in human corneal fibroblasts and human corneal epithelial cells shows no toxicity and cell viability remains at 99% after 72 h. This study demonstrates the potential of the dyed contact lenses in wavelength filtering and color vision deficiency management. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  17. Blind Deconvolution With Model Discrepancies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotera, Jan; Šmídl, Václav; Šroubek, Filip

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2017), s. 2533-2544 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S; GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : blind deconvolution * variational Bayes * automatic relevance determination Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics OBOR OECD: Computer hardware and architecture Impact factor: 4.828, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/ZOI/kotera-0474858.pdf

  18. Multichannel blind iterative image restoration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šroubek, Filip; Flusser, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 9 (2003), s. 1094-1106 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/1711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : conjugate gradient * half-quadratic regularization * multichannel blind deconvolution Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.642, year: 2003 http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20030104.pdf

  19. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Distribution characteristics of radon and its progeny in blind roadway with forced ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yongjun; Zhou Xinghuo; Li Xiangyang; Zhong Yongming; Liu Dong; Ding Dexin

    2012-01-01

    The blind roadway is not only the important workplaces, but also is important site of radon and its progeny generating and gathering, it is an important guiding significance for ventilation protection design to study distribution characteristics of radon and its progeny in blind roadway. Therefore, at first, the paper expounded the mathematical relationship between radon activity concentration with alpha potential concentration of radon progeny. Then, analyzed the sources of radon and its progeny, and established mathematical calculation model of Distribution characteristics of radon and its progeny in blind roadway with forced ventilation, respectively. Finally, using mathematical calculation models to analyze the influence law of multiple factors. (authors)

  1. A simple iterative independent component analysis algorithm for vibration source signal identification of complex structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sup Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Independent Component Analysis (ICA, one of the blind source separation methods, can be applied for extracting unknown source signals only from received signals. This is accomplished by finding statistical independence of signal mixtures and has been successfully applied to myriad fields such as medical science, image processing, and numerous others. Nevertheless, there are inherent problems that have been reported when using this technique: insta- bility and invalid ordering of separated signals, particularly when using a conventional ICA technique in vibratory source signal identification of complex structures. In this study, a simple iterative algorithm of the conventional ICA has been proposed to mitigate these problems. The proposed method to extract more stable source signals having valid order includes an iterative and reordering process of extracted mixing matrix to reconstruct finally converged source signals, referring to the magnitudes of correlation coefficients between the intermediately separated signals and the signals measured on or nearby sources. In order to review the problems of the conventional ICA technique and to vali- date the proposed method, numerical analyses have been carried out for a virtual response model and a 30 m class submarine model. Moreover, in order to investigate applicability of the proposed method to real problem of complex structure, an experiment has been carried out for a scaled submarine mockup. The results show that the proposed method could resolve the inherent problems of a conventional ICA technique.

  2. Funding Sources for Visually Impaired Students in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traber, M.

    1987-01-01

    Financial aid sources available to visually handicapped students for postsecondary educational, vocational, or technical programs are outlined. Sources include national and state blindness agencies, colleges and universities, state vocational rehabilitation agencies, and the federal government. (Author/JDD)

  3. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for separating different isotopes of elements from each other by contacting a feed solution containing the different isotopes with a macrocyclic polyether to preferentially form a macrocyclic polyether complex with the lighter of the different isotopes. The macrocyclic polyether complex is then separated from the lighter isotope depleted feed solution. A chemical separation of isotopes is carried out in which a constant refluxing system permits a continuous countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction. (LL)

  4. Exogenous vs. Endogenous Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramey, Garey

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses how various approaches to modelling the separation margin a¤ect the ability of the Mortensen-Pissarides job matching model to explain key facts about the aggregate labor market. Allowing for realistic time variation in the separation rate, whether exogenous or endogenous, greatly in- creases the unemployment variability generated by the model. Speci…cations with exogenous separation rates, whether constant or time-varying, fail to pro- duce realistic volatility and prod...

  5. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    A vortex tube for separating isotopes is described. A gas mixture containing the isotopic molecules enters the vortex tube under pressure and is separated into a hot discharge flow stream and a cold discharge flow stream. The hot discharge is enriched in lighter isotopic molecules whereas the cold discharge flow stream is enriched in the heavier isotopic molecules. The vortex tube can be used in a single stage or multistage isotope separation apparatus

  6. Wavelet-transform-based time–frequency domain reflectometry for reduction of blind spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sin Ho; Park, Jin Bae; Choi, Yoon Ho

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, wavelet-transform-based time–frequency domain reflectometry (WTFDR) is proposed to reduce the blind spot in reflectometry. TFDR has a blind spot problem when the time delay between the reference signal and the reflected signal is short enough compared with the time duration of the reference signal. To solve the blind spot problem, the wavelet transform (WT) is used because the WT has linearity. Using the characteristics of the WT, the overlapped reference signal at the measured signal can be separated and the blind spot is reduced by obtaining the difference of the wavelet coefficients for the reference and reflected signals. In the proposed method, the complex wavelet is utilized as a mother wavelet because the reference signal in WTFDR has a complex form. Finally, the computer simulations and the real experiments are carried out to confirm the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. (paper)

  7. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M

    1970-03-27

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art.

  8. Entrainment separator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.; Leith, D.

    1976-01-01

    Clean and dust-loaded ACS entrainment separators mounted upstream of HEPA filters were exposed to a combination of fine water mist and steam at about 70 0 C from one to four hours. In every trial, the ACS entrainment separator prevented measurable deterioration of performance in the following HEPA filter. Droplet size-efficiency evaluation of the ACS entrainment separators showed that, within the accuracy of the measurements, they meet all service requirements and are fully equal to the best separator units available for service on pressurized water reactors

  9. Centrifugal gas separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mitsuo.

    1970-01-01

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art. (K.J. Owens)

  10. Separation of flow

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 3: Separation of Flow presents the problem of the separation of fluid flow. This book provides information covering the fields of basic physical processes, analyses, and experiments concerning flow separation.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the flow separation on the body surface as discusses in various classical examples. This text then examines the analytical and experimental results of the laminar boundary layer of steady, two-dimensional flows in the subsonic speed range. Other chapt

  11. Blind Decoding of Multiple Description Codes over OFDM Systems via Sequential Monte Carlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Dong

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of transmitting a continuous source through an OFDM system. Multiple description scalar quantization (MDSQ is applied to the source signal, resulting in two correlated source descriptions. The two descriptions are then OFDM modulated and transmitted through two parallel frequency-selective fading channels. At the receiver, a blind turbo receiver is developed for joint OFDM demodulation and MDSQ decoding. Transformation of the extrinsic information of the two descriptions are exchanged between each other to improve system performance. A blind soft-input soft-output OFDM detector is developed, which is based on the techniques of importance sampling and resampling. Such a detector is capable of exchanging the so-called extrinsic information with the other component in the above turbo receiver, and successively improving the overall receiver performance. Finally, we also treat channel-coded systems, and a novel blind turbo receiver is developed for joint demodulation, channel decoding, and MDSQ source decoding.

  12. [Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Rosso, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light.

  13. Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. This website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed ...

  14. Separation of ionic solutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 44 papers of which 19 were incorporated in INIS. The subject of these is the use of solvent extraction or emulsion membrane extraction for separation of fission products, rare earth compounds and actinide compunds; the sorption of radionuclides; and the use of adsorbents and chelating agents in separation processes. (J.P.)

  15. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, E.; Kersting, A.; Gebauhr, W.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope separation in UF 6 gas takes place on the principle of selective excitation by laser irradiation and separation by chemical conversion with a partner in a reaction. Atomic H, N or O or the CH 3 or CHO radicals are suitable partners in the reaction. The recombination takes place by catalytic acceleration on leaving the reaction area. (DG) [de

  16. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption after which more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  17. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular

  18. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1975-01-01

    Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether

  19. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  20. A blind algorithm for recovering articulator positions from acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, John E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    MIMICRI is a signal-processing algorithm that has been shown to blindly infer and invert memoryless nonlinear functions of unobservable bandlimited signals, such as the mapping from the unobservable positions of the speech articulators to observable speech sounds. We review results of using MIMICRI on toy problems and on human speech data. We note that MIMICRI requires that the user specify two parameters: the dimensionality and pass-band of the unobservable signals. We show how to use cross-validation to help estimate the passband. An unexpected consequence of this work is that it helps separate signals with overlapping frequency bands.

  1. Stable Blind Deconvolution over the Reals from Additional Autocorrelations

    KAUST Repository

    Walk, Philipp

    2017-10-22

    Recently the one-dimensional time-discrete blind deconvolution problem was shown to be solvable uniquely, up to a global phase, by a semi-definite program for almost any signal, provided its autocorrelation is known. We will show in this work that under a sufficient zero separation of the corresponding signal in the $z-$domain, a stable reconstruction against additive noise is possible. Moreover, the stability constant depends on the signal dimension and on the signals magnitude of the first and last coefficients. We give an analytical expression for this constant by using spectral bounds of Vandermonde matrices.

  2. Change blindness, aging, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Matthew; Sparks, Jondavid; McEvoy, Sean; Viamonte, Sarah; Kellison, Ida; Vecera, Shaun P

    2009-02-01

    Change blindness (CB), the inability to detect changes in visual scenes, may increase with age and early Alzheimer's disease (AD). To test this hypothesis, participants were asked to localize changes in natural scenes. Dependent measures were response time (RT), hit rate, false positives (FP), and true sensitivity (d'). Increased age correlated with increased sensitivity and RT; AD predicted even slower RT. Accuracy and RT were negatively correlated. Differences in FP were nonsignificant. CB correlated with impaired attention, working memory, and executive function. Advanced age and AD were associated with increased CB, perhaps due to declining memory and attention. CB could affect real-world tasks, like automobile driving.

  3. BLIND TRIALS EVALUATING IN VITRO INFECTIVITY OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS USING CELL CULTURE IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An optimized cell culture-immunofluorescence (IFA) procedure, using the HCT-8 cell line, was evaluated in 'blind' trials to determine the sensitivity and reproducibility for measuring infectivity of flow cytometry prepared inocula of C. parvum oocysts. In separate trials, suspens...

  4. Adapting Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Lecture and Laboratory Instruction for a Legally Blind Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznikowski, John R.; Guberman-Pfeffer, Matthew J.; Butrick, Elizabeth E.; Colangelo, Julie A.; Donaruma, Cristine E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the strategies and techniques used to successfully teach advanced inorganic chemistry, in the lecture and laboratory, to a legally blind student are described. At Fairfield University, these separate courses, which have a physical chemistry corequisite or a prerequisite, are taught for junior and senior chemistry and biochemistry…

  5. Tactile maze solving in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C

    2010-01-01

    and environmental cues such as temperature and echolocation. We hypothesize that by limiting these cues, blind individuals will lose their advantage compared with controls in spatial navigation tasks. We therefore evaluated the performance of blind and sighted individuals in small-scale, tactile multiple T mazes....... Our results show that blindfolded sighted controls outperformed blind participants in the route-learning tasks. This suggests that, contrary to indoor large-scale spaces, navigational skills inside small-scale spaces benefit from visual experience....

  6. Finding Objects for Assisting Blind People

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Chucai; Flores, Roberto W.; Chincha, Ricardo; Tian, YingLi

    2013-01-01

    Computer vision technology has been widely used for blind assistance, such as navigation and wayfinding. However, few camera-based systems are developed for helping blind or visually-impaired people to find daily necessities. In this paper, we propose a prototype system of blind-assistant object finding by camera-based network and matching-based recognition. We collect a dataset of daily necessities and apply Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) featu...

  7. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.M.; Maas, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    Processes are disclosed for the separation of isotopes of an element comprising vaporizing uranyl compounds having the formula (UO2a2)n, where a is a monovalent anion and n in an integer from 2 to 4, the compounds having an isotopically shifted infrared absorption spectrum associated with uranyl ions containing said element which is to be separated, and then irradiating the uranyl compound with infrared radiation which is preferentially absorbed by a molecular vibration of uranyl ions of the compound containing a predetermined isotope of that element so that excited molecules of the compound are provided which are enriched in the molecules of the compound containing that predetermined isotope, thus enabling separation of these excited molecules. The processes disclosed include separation of the excited molecules by irradiating under conditions such that the excited molecules dissociate, and also separating the excited molecules by a discrete separation step. The latter includes irradiating the excited molecules by a second infrared laser in order to convert the excited molecules into a separable product, or also by chemically converting the excited molecules, preferably by reaction with a gaseous reactant

  8. Deuterium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Deuterium-containing molecules are separated and enriched by exposing commercially available ethylene, vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane or propylene to the radiation of tuned infrared lasers to selectively decompose these compounds into enriched molecular products containing deuterium atoms. The deuterium containing molecules can be easily separated from the starting material by absorption, distillation or other simple chemical separation techniques and methods. After evaporation such deuterium containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content or pyrolyzed to form hydrogen gas with an enriched deuterium content. (author)

  9. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  10. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure , particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  11. Magnetic separations in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlido, L; Azevedo, A M; Roque, A C A; Aires-Barros, M R

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic separations are probably one of the most versatile separation processes in biotechnology as they are able to purify cells, viruses, proteins and nucleic acids directly from crude samples. The fast and gentle process in combination with its easy scale-up and automation provide unique advantages over other separation techniques. In the midst of this process are the magnetic adsorbents tailored for the envisioned target and whose complex synthesis spans over multiple fields of science. In this context, this article reviews both the synthesis and tailoring of magnetic adsorbents for bioseparations as well as their ultimate application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 290

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  13. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 293

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George; Archiable, Robert; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  14. Congenital color blindness in young Turkish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirik, Mehmet; Acaroglu, Golge; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2005-04-01

    We investigated a healthy population of men from different regions of Turkey for the presence of congenital red-green color blindness. Using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, 941 healthy men from the Turkish army were tested for congenital red-green color blindness. The prevalence of red-green color blindness was 7.33 +/- 0.98% (5.10% protans and 2.23% deutans). These ratios were higher than other reported samples from Mediterranean Europe. Higher percentages of color blindness were found in regions with a lower education level and more consanguineous marriages.

  15. Blindness and Insight in King Lear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳元玉

    2008-01-01

    This paper intends to explore how William Shakespeare illustrates the theme of blindness and insight in his great tragedy "King Lear".Four characters’ deeds and their fate are used as a case study to examine what blindness is,what insight is,and the relationship between the two.The writer finds that by depicting the characters’ deeds and their fate in a double plot,Shakespeare renders the folly of blindness,the transition from blindness to insight,and the use of reason and thought to understand the truth.

  16. Causes of blindness and career choice among pupils in a blind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    available eye care services Furthermore there is need for career talk in schools for the blind to ... career where their potential can be fully maximized. .... tropicamide 1% eye drops. .... Foster A, Gilbert C. Epidemiology of childhood blindness.

  17. Four different ways of philanthropic aid to the blind in medieval eastern Christendom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandopoulou-Drummond, A H; Diamandopoulos, A A; Marketos, S G

    1995-11-01

    The care of the blind, either as medical treatment or as divine therapy, has probably been the most ancient form of help for ill people. However, it was during the Byzantine Empire (325-1453 AD) that the state organized a 'blindness relief' plan as part of a widespread public health system. Our sources for the subject include medical writings, state decrees, Saint's 'vitae' and representations of relevant works of art. Based on the above data we classify the health care for the blind in Byzantium as: (a) support of ophthalmological education as evidenced by an abundance of medical writings on the subject; (b) establishment of charitable institutions exclusively or partially for the blind, where there was not only medical care but also provision for a wide range of social aid - the most advanced being specially trained escorts for each blind person; and (c) support by the state of an extended chain of religious institutions where miraculous help for the blind was promised. We conclude that the public health policy in Byzantium made adequate and very early provision for the blind.

  18. Spontaneous facial expressions of emotion of congenitally and noncongenitally blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Willingham, Bob

    2009-01-01

    The study of the spontaneous expressions of blind individuals offers a unique opportunity to understand basic processes concerning the emergence and source of facial expressions of emotion. In this study, the authors compared the expressions of congenitally and noncongenitally blind athletes in the 2004 Paralympic Games with each other and with those produced by sighted athletes in the 2004 Olympic Games. The authors also examined how expressions change from 1 context to another. There were no differences between congenitally blind, noncongenitally blind, and sighted athletes, either on the level of individual facial actions or in facial emotion configurations. Blind athletes did produce more overall facial activity, but these were isolated to head and eye movements. The blind athletes' expressions differentiated whether they had won or lost a medal match at 3 different points in time, and there were no cultural differences in expression. These findings provide compelling evidence that the production of spontaneous facial expressions of emotion is not dependent on observational learning but simultaneously demonstrates a learned component to the social management of expressions, even among blind individuals.

  19. Separations by centrifugal phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    The technical information presented herein emphasizes the uniqueness of the centrifugal separations methodology and pertinent theory for various kinds of centrifugation. The topics are arranged according to gas, liquid, and solid phases, in the order of increasing densities. Much space is devoted to liquid centrifugation because of the importance of this technique in chemical and biological laboratories. Many separational and characterizational examples are illustrated in detail. The material has been divided into 7 chapters entitled: 1) Introduction, 2) Basic Theory of Centrifugation, 3) Gas Centrifuges, 4) Preparative Liquid Centrifuges, 5) Analytical Liquid Centrifuges, 6) Liquid Centrifuges in Practice, and 7) Mechanical Separations by Centrifuges. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each chapter except the introduction

  20. Partially separable t matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, T.; Okuno, H.; Ishikawa, S.; Sawada, T.

    1982-01-01

    The off-shell t matrix is expressed as a sum of one nonseparable and one separable terms so that it is useful for applications to more-than-two body problems. All poles are involved in this one separable term. Both the nonseparable and the separable terms of the kernel G 0 t are regular at the origin. The nonseparable term of this kernel vanishes at large distances, while the separable term behaves asymptotically as the spherical Hankel function. These properties make our expression free from defects inherent in the Jost or the K-matrix expressions, and many applications are anticipated. As the application, a compact expression of the many-level formula is presented. Also the application is suggested to the breakup threebody problem based on the Faddeev equation. It is demonstrated that the breakup amplitude is expressed in a simple and physically interesting form and we can calculate it in coordinate space

  1. Separation by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, C.H. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    In a process for separating fission product values from U and Pu values contained in an aqueous solution, an oxidizing agent is added to the solution to secure U and Pu in their hexavalent state. The aqueous solution is contacted with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent with agitation while the temperature is maintained at from -1 to -2 0 C until the major part of the water present is frozen. The solid ice phase is continuously separated as it is formed and a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing Pu and U values are separated from each other. The last obtained part of the ice phase is melted and added to the separated liquid phase. The resulting liquid is treated with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of U and Pu

  2. CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND SPECTRO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four different fractions having colours yellow, grey, orange and ... Two different dyes vis a vis: methylene blue and malachite green dyes have been separated .... hydrogen carbonate of alkaline and alkaline earth metals in the samples.

  3. Hydrogen separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael [Longmont, CO; Xie, Xiaobing [Foster City, CA; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul [Longmont, CO; Wright, Harold [Longmont, CO

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  4. Separating oil from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C

    1991-04-11

    The technology available to deal with oil spills has assumed many new faces in recent years. Methods of dealing with small-scale pollution in the process industries and vast oil slicks such as that in the Gulf have developed in parallel. The progress being made in finding new means of separating oil from water is reported and the relative merits of bioremediation, hydrocylones, horizontal separators and gas flotation are discussed. (author).

  5. Definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness: Do we need to revise it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashist, Praveen; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Gupta, Vivek; Gupta, Noopur; Kumar, Atul

    2017-02-01

    A review appropriateness of the current definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB), Government of India. Online search of peer-reviewed scientific published literature and guidelines using PubMed, the World Health Organization (WHO) IRIS, and Google Scholar with keywords, namely blindness and visual impairment, along with offline examination of reports of national and international organizations, as well as their cross-references was done until December 2016, to identify relevant documents on the definition of blindness. The evidence for the historical and currently adopted definition of blindness under the NPCB, the WHO, and other countries was reviewed. Differences in the NPCB and WHO definitions were analyzed to assess the impact on the epidemiological status of blindness and visual impairment in India. The differences in the criteria for blindness under the NPCB and the WHO definitions cause an overestimation of the prevalence of blindness in India. These variations are also associated with an over-representation of refractive errors as a cause of blindness and an under-representation of other causes under the NPCB definition. The targets for achieving elimination of blindness also become much more difficult to achieve under the NPCB definition. Ignoring differences in definitions when comparing the global and Indian prevalence of blindness will cause erroneous interpretations. We recommend that the appropriate modifications should be made in the NPCB definition of blindness to make it consistent with the WHO definition.

  6. Childhood Fears among Children Who Are Blind: The Perspective of Teachers Who Are Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zboon, Eman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate childhood fears in children who are blind from the perspective of teachers who are blind. The study was conducted in Jordan. Forty-six teachers were interviewed. Results revealed that the main fear content in children who are blind includes fear of the unknown; environment-, transportation- and…

  7. Definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness: Do we need to revise it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Vashist

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A review appropriateness of the current definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB, Government of India. Online search of peer-reviewed scientific published literature and guidelines using PubMed, the World Health Organization (WHO IRIS, and Google Scholar with keywords, namely blindness and visual impairment, along with offline examination of reports of national and international organizations, as well as their cross-references was done until December 2016, to identify relevant documents on the definition of blindness. The evidence for the historical and currently adopted definition of blindness under the NPCB, the WHO, and other countries was reviewed. Differences in the NPCB and WHO definitions were analyzed to assess the impact on the epidemiological status of blindness and visual impairment in India. The differences in the criteria for blindness under the NPCB and the WHO definitions cause an overestimation of the prevalence of blindness in India. These variations are also associated with an over-representation of refractive errors as a cause of blindness and an under-representation of other causes under the NPCB definition. The targets for achieving elimination of blindness also become much more difficult to achieve under the NPCB definition. Ignoring differences in definitions when comparing the global and Indian prevalence of blindness will cause erroneous interpretations. We recommend that the appropriate modifications should be made in the NPCB definition of blindness to make it consistent with the WHO definition.

  8. On separable Pauli equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhalij, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    We classify (1+3)-dimensional Pauli equations for a spin-(1/2) particle interacting with the electro-magnetic field, that are solvable by the method of separation of variables. As a result, we obtain the 11 classes of vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field A(t,x(vector sign))=(A 0 (t,x(vector sign)), A(vector sign)(t,x(vector sign))) providing separability of the corresponding Pauli equations. It is established, in particular, that the necessary condition for the Pauli equation to be separable into second-order matrix ordinary differential equations is its equivalence to the system of two uncoupled Schroedinger equations. In addition, the magnetic field has to be independent of spatial variables. We prove that coordinate systems and the vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field providing the separability of the corresponding Pauli equations coincide with those for the Schroedinger equations. Furthermore, an efficient algorithm for constructing all coordinate systems providing the separability of Pauli equation with a fixed vector-potential of the electro-magnetic field is developed. Finally, we describe all vector-potentials A(t,x(vector sign)) that (a) provide the separability of Pauli equation, (b) satisfy vacuum Maxwell equations without currents, and (c) describe non-zero magnetic field

  9. On the blind recovery of cardiac and respiratory sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ghafoor; Koch, Peter; Papadias, Constantinos B.

    2015-01-01

    or semi-supervised fashion depending upon the applications. A modified NMF technique is proposed which enforces the spectral structure of the target sources in mixture factorization, resulting in good separation of target sources even in the presence of nonstationary noise. Moreover, data is processed...

  10. Rapid ion-exchange separations of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuda, Shigekazu

    1988-01-01

    For the purpose of studying short-lived actinide nuclides, three methods for rapid ion exchange separation of actinide elements with mineral acid-alcohol mixed media were developed: anion exchange with nitric acid-methyl alcohol mixed media to separate the transplutonium and rare earth elements from target material, U or Pu and Al catcher foils; anion exchange with hydrochloric acid-methyl alcohol media to separate Am+Cm, Bk and Cf+Fm from the target, catcher foils and major fission products; and cation exchange with hydrochloric acid-methyl alcohol media and with concentrated hydrochloric acid to separate the transplutonium elements as a group from the rare earths after eliminating the large amounts of U, Al, Cu, Fe etc. The methods enable one to perform rapid and effective separation at elevated temperature (90 deg C) and immediate source preparation for alpha-ray spectrometry. (author) 47 refs.; 10 figs

  11. Response spectra by blind faults for design purpose of stiff structures on rock site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroyuki Mizutani; Kenichi Kato; Masayuki Takemura; Kazuhiko Yashiro; Kazuo Dan

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to propose the response spectra by blind faults for seismic design of nuclear power facilities. It is impossible to evaluate earthquake ground motions from blind faults, because the size and the location of blind fault cannot be identified even if the detailed geological surveys are conducted. From the viewpoint of seismic design, it is crucial to investigate the upper level of earthquake ground motions due to blind faults. In this paper, 41 earthquakes that occurred in the upper crust in Japan and California are selected and classified into the active and the blind fault types. On the basis of near-source strong motion records observed on rock sites, upper level of response spectra by blind faults is examined. The estimated upper level is as follows: the peak ground acceleration is 450 cm/s 2 , the flat level of the acceleration response spectra is 1200 cm/s 2 , and the flat level of the velocity response spectra is 100 cm/s on rock sites with shear wave velocity Vs of about 700 m/s. The upper level can envelop the observed response spectra in near-source region on rock sites. (authors)

  12. 42 CFR 436.531 - Determination of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of blindness. 436.531 Section 436.531... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.531 Determination of blindness. In determining blindness... determine on behalf of the agency— (1) Whether the individual meets the definition of blindness; and (2...

  13. Nasa Unveils Cosmic Images Book in Braille for Blind Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    at NASA Headquarters, Washington. "About 10 million visually impaired people live in the United States," Grice said. "I hope this book will be a unique resource for people who are sighted or blind to better understand the part of the universe that is invisible to all of us." The book will be available to the public through a wide variety of sources, including NASA libraries, the National Federation of the Blind, Library of Congress repositories, schools for the blind, libraries, museums, science centers and Ozone Publishing. "We wanted to show that the beauty and complexity of the universe goes far beyond what we can see with our eyes!" Daou said. "The study of the universe is a detective story, a cosmic 'CSI,' where clues to the inner workings of the universe are revealed by the amazing technology of modern telescopes," Steel said. "This book invites everyone to join in the quest to unlock the secrets of the cosmos." "One of the greatest challenges faced by blind students who are interested in scientific study is that certain kinds of information are not available to them in a non-visual form," said Marc Maurer, president of the National Federation of the Blind. "Books like this one are an invaluable resource because they allow the blind access to information that is normally presented through visual observation and media. Given access to this information, blind students can study and compete in scientific fields as well as their sighted peers." The prototype for this book was funded by an education grant from the Chandra mission and production was a collaborative effort by the NASA space science missions, which provide the images, and other agency sources.

  14. Novel PEFC Application for Deuterium Isotope Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayoshi Matsushima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC with a Nafion membrane for isotopic separation of deuterium (D was investigated. Mass analysis at the cathode side indicated that D diffused through the membrane and participated in an isotope exchange reaction. The exchange of D with protium (H in H2O was facilitated by a Pt catalyst. The anodic data showed that the separation efficiency was dependent on the D concentration in the source gas, whereby the water produced during the operation of the PEFC was more enriched in D as the D concentration of the source gas was increased.

  15. Congenital blindness is associated with large-scale reorganization of anatomical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Uri; Andric, Michael; Atilgan, Hicret; Collignon, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    Blindness is a unique model for understanding the role of experience in the development of the brain's functional and anatomical architecture. Documenting changes in the structure of anatomical networks for this population would substantiate the notion that the brain's core network-level organization may undergo neuroplasticity as a result of life-long experience. To examine this issue, we compared whole-brain networks of regional cortical-thickness covariance in early blind and matched sighted individuals. This covariance is thought to reflect signatures of integration between systems involved in similar perceptual/cognitive functions. Using graph-theoretic metrics, we identified a unique mode of anatomical reorganization in the blind that differed from that found for sighted. This was seen in that network partition structures derived from subgroups of blind were more similar to each other than they were to partitions derived from sighted. Notably, after deriving network partitions, we found that language and visual regions tended to reside within separate modules in sighted but showed a pattern of merging into shared modules in the blind. Our study demonstrates that early visual deprivation triggers a systematic large-scale reorganization of whole-brain cortical-thickness networks, suggesting changes in how occipital regions interface with other functional networks in the congenitally blind. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Superior serial memory in the blind: a case of cognitive compensatory adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Noa; Striem, Ella; Pundak, Golan; Orlov, Tanya; Zohary, Ehud

    2007-07-03

    In the absence of vision, perception of space is likely to be highly dependent on memory. As previously stated, the blind tend to code spatial information in the form of "route-like" sequential representations [1-3]. Thus, serial memory, indicating the order in which items are encountered, may be especially important for the blind to generate a mental picture of the world. In accordance, we find that the congenitally blind are remarkably superior to sighted peers in serial memory tasks. Specifically, subjects heard a list of 20 words and were instructed to recall the words according to their original order in the list. The blind recalled more words than the sighted (indicating better item memory), but their greatest advantage was in recalling longer word sequences (according to their original order). We further show that the serial memory superiority of the blind is not merely a result of their advantage in item recall per se (as we additionally confirm via a separate recognition memory task). These results suggest the refinement of a specific cognitive ability to compensate for blindness in humans.

  17. 33 CFR 117.861 - Blind Slough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blind Slough. 117.861 Section 117.861 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.861 Blind Slough. The draws of the Portland and...

  18. Mentoring Transition-Age Youth with Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a mentoring project designed for transition-age youth (ages 16-26) who are persons with legal blindness. Youth were matched with adult mentors who were also persons with blindness but who have achieved academic and career success. Results demonstrate that youth who participated in the project for 2 years had significant…

  19. Blindness and visual impairment in opera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Pinar; Ritch, Robert; O'Dwyer, John

    2018-01-01

    The performing arts mirror the human condition. This study sought to analyze the reasons for inclusion of visually impaired characters in opera, the cause of the blindness or near blindness, and the dramatic purpose of the blindness in the storyline. We reviewed operas from the 18 th century to 2010 and included all characters with ocular problems. We classified the cause of each character's ocular problem (organic, nonorganic, and other) in relation to the thematic setting of the opera: biblical and mythical, blind beggars or blind musicians, historical (real or fictional characters), and contemporary or futuristic. Cases of blindness in 55 characters (2 as a choir) from 38 operas were detected over 3 centuries of repertoire: 11 had trauma-related visual impairment, 5 had congenital blindness, 18 had visual impairment of unknown cause, 9 had psychogenic or malingering blindness, and 12 were symbolic or miracle-related. One opera featured an ophthalmologist curing a patient. The research illustrates that visual impairment was frequently used as an artistic device to enhance the intent and situate an opera in its time.

  20. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. What do my eyes do when I’m sleeping? Click to Watch What does it mean to be nearsighted or farsighted? Click to Watch Do fish have eyelids? Click to Watch Why don’t all animal eyes look the same? Click to Watch Why ...

  1. A Taxonomy for Mannerisms of Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichel, Valerie J.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation involving 24 blind children (2-11 years old) set out to develop and validate a coding procedure which employed a set of 34 descriptors with their corresponding definitions. The use of the taxonomy enabled a detailed, systematic study of manneristic behavior in blind children. (Author/SBH)

  2. 45 CFR 233.70 - Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...). Such physician is responsible for making the agency's decision that the applicant or recipient does or... XVI of the Social Security Act must: (1) Contain a definition of blindness in terms of ophthalmic measurement. The following definition is recommended: An individual is considered blind if he has central...

  3. Tackling the high burden of blindness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... care delivery, and tackling the five major eye conditions that contribute to most blindness could reduce the current burden of blindness. This would open the window for addressing glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and macula degeneration which are the new emerging global consequences of non-communicable diseases.

  4. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” ... DeMott, Media Relations Kathryn.DeMott@nih.gov NEI Office of Communications ( ...

  5. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  6. Deaf-Blind Perspectives, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Peggy, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These three issues of "Deaf-Blind Perspectives" feature the following articles: (1) "A Group for Students with Usher Syndrome in South Louisiana" (Faye Melancon); (2) "Simply Emily," which discusses a budding friendship between a girl with deaf-blindness and a peer; (3) "Intervener Update" (Peggy Malloy and…

  7. Relevance of Spectral Cues for Auditory Spatial Processing in the Occipital Cortex of the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Patrice; Lepore, Franco; Gougoux, Frédéric; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that some blind individuals can localize sounds more accurately than their sighted counterparts when one ear is obstructed, and that this ability is strongly associated with occipital cortex activity. Given that spectral cues are important for monaurally localizing sounds when one ear is obstructed, and that blind individuals are more sensitive to small spectral differences, we hypothesized that enhanced use of spectral cues via occipital cortex mechanisms could explain the better performance of blind individuals in monaural localization. Using positron-emission tomography (PET), we scanned blind and sighted persons as they discriminated between sounds originating from a single spatial position, but with different spectral profiles that simulated different spatial positions based on head-related transfer functions. We show here that a sub-group of early blind individuals showing superior monaural sound localization abilities performed significantly better than any other group on this spectral discrimination task. For all groups, performance was best for stimuli simulating peripheral positions, consistent with the notion that spectral cues are more helpful for discriminating peripheral sources. PET results showed that all blind groups showed cerebral blood flow increases in the occipital cortex; but this was also the case in the sighted group. A voxel-wise covariation analysis showed that more occipital recruitment was associated with better performance across all blind subjects but not the sighted. An inter-regional covariation analysis showed that the occipital activity in the blind covaried with that of several frontal and parietal regions known for their role in auditory spatial processing. Overall, these results support the notion that the superior ability of a sub-group of early-blind individuals to localize sounds is mediated by their superior ability to use spectral cues, and that this ability is subserved by cortical processing in

  8. Blindness in designing intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    New investigations of the foundations of artificial intelligence are challenging the hypothesis that problem solving is the cornerstone of intelligence. New distinctions among three domains of concern for humans--description, action, and commitment--have revealed that the design process for programmable machines, such as expert systems, is based on descriptions of actions and induces blindness to nonanalytic action and commitment. Design processes focusing in the domain of description are likely to yield programs like burearcracies: rigid, obtuse, impersonal, and unable to adapt to changing circumstances. Systems that learn from their past actions, and systems that organize information for interpretation by human experts, are more likely to be successful in areas where expert systems have failed.

  9. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  10. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  11. Subcortical functional reorganization due to early blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coullon, Gaelle S L; Jiang, Fang; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E; Bridge, Holly

    2015-04-01

    Lack of visual input early in life results in occipital cortical responses to auditory and tactile stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether cross-modal plasticity also occurs in subcortical pathways. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, auditory responses were compared across individuals with congenital anophthalmia (absence of eyes), those with early onset (in the first few years of life) blindness, and normally sighted individuals. We find that the superior colliculus, a "visual" subcortical structure, is recruited by the auditory system in congenital and early onset blindness. Additionally, auditory subcortical responses to monaural stimuli were altered as a result of blindness. Specifically, responses in the auditory thalamus were equally strong to contralateral and ipsilateral stimulation in both groups of blind subjects, whereas sighted controls showed stronger responses to contralateral stimulation. These findings suggest that early blindness results in substantial reorganization of subcortical auditory responses. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Preserved sleep microstructure in blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, Sébrina; Christensen, Julie A.E.; Jennum, Poul

    2018-01-01

    , as light is the primary zeitgeber of the master biological clock found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a greater number of sleep disturbances is often reported in blind individuals. Here, we examined various electroencephalographic microstructural components of sleep, both...... during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep, between blind individuals, including both of early and late onset, and normal-sighted controls. During wakefulness, occipital alpha oscillations were lower, or absent in blind individuals. During sleep, differences were observed across...... electrode derivations between the early and late blind samples, which may reflect altered cortical networking in early blindness. Despite these differences in power spectra density, the electroencephalography microstructure of sleep, including sleep spindles, slow wave activity, and sawtooth waves, remained...

  13. In blind pursuit of racial equality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, Evan P; Pauker, Kristin; Sommers, Samuel R; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-11-01

    Despite receiving little empirical assessment, the color-blind approach to managing diversity has become a leading institutional strategy for promoting racial equality, across domains and scales of practice. We gauged the utility of color blindness as a means to eliminating future racial inequity--its central objective--by assessing its impact on a sample of elementary-school students. Results demonstrated that students exposed to a color-blind mind-set, as opposed to a value-diversity mind-set, were actually less likely both to detect overt instances of racial discrimination and to describe such events in a manner that would prompt intervention by certified teachers. Institutional messages of color blindness may therefore artificially depress formal reporting of racial injustice. Color-blind messages may thus appear to function effectively on the surface even as they allow explicit forms of bias to persist.

  14. User-centered Technologies For Blind Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review, summarize, and illustrate research work involving four audio-based games created within a user-centered design methodology through successive usability tasks and evaluations. These games were designed by considering the mental model of blind children and their styles of interaction to perceive and process data and information. The goal of these games was to enhance the cognitive development of spatial structures, memory, haptic perception, mathematical skills, navigation and orientation, and problem solving of blind children. Findings indicate significant improvements in learning and cognition from using audio-based tools specially tailored for the blind. That is, technologies for blind children, carefully tailored through user-centered design approaches, can make a significant contribution to cognitive development of these children. This paper contributes new insight into the design and implementation of audio-based virtual environments to facilitate learning and cognition in blind children.

  15. Separation by electrostatic equipments; Separacion por medios electrostaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, R.; Larrauri, E.; Arnaiz, S.; Cacho, S.; Robertson, C.; Smallwood, J.; Coilt, J.; Ufer, R.; Kohnlecher, R.

    2000-07-01

    Development of automated separation technologies is essential in increasing recovery rates, particularly from highly mixed sources such municipal solid wastes and wastes from electric and electronic equipment, and in reducing recycling costs. This frame moved GAIKER Technological Centre to look for new technologies that allow to recover materials such metals, plastics, papers from those waste sources. Electrostatic separation technology has been successfully applied to separate these materials collaborating to get the targets specified by legislation. (Author)

  16. Blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils at schools for the blind in Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhagaze, Patrick; Njuguna, Kahaki Kimani Margaret; Kandeke, Lévi; Courtright, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils attending schools for the blind in Burundi in order to assist planning for services in the country. All pupils attending three schools for the blind in Burundi were examined. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision was used to record the findings. Data was analyzed for those who became blind or severely visually impaired before the age of 16 years. Overall, 117 pupils who became visually impaired before 16 years of age were examined. Of these, 109 (93.2%) were blind or severely visually impaired. The major anatomical cause of blindness or severe visual impairment was cornea pathology/phthisis (23.9%), followed by lens pathology (18.3%), uveal lesions (14.7%) and optic nerve lesions (11.9%). In the majority of pupils with blindness or severe visual impairment, the underlying etiology of visual loss was unknown (74.3%). More than half of the pupils with lens related blindness had not had surgery; among those who had surgery, outcomes were generally poor. The causes identified indicate the importance of continuing preventive public health strategies, as well as the development of specialist pediatric ophthalmic services in the management of childhood blindness in Burundi. The geographic distribution of pupils at the schools for the blind indicates a need for community-based programs to identify and refer children in need of services.

  17. Gas separation with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, G.; Michele, H.; Werner, U.

    1982-01-01

    Gas separation with membranes has already been tested in numerous fields of application, e.g. uranium enrichment of H 2 separation. In many of these processes the mass transfer units, so-called permeators, have to be connected in tandem in order to achieve high concentrations. A most economical operating method provides for each case an optimization of the cascades with regard to the membrane materials, construction and design of module. By utilization of the concentration gradient along the membrane a new process development has been accomplished - the continuously operating membrane rectification unit. Investment and operating costs can be reduced considerably for a number of separating processes by combining a membrane rectification unit with a conventional recycling cascade. However, the new procedure requires that the specifications for the module construction, flow design, and membrane properties be reconsidered. (orig.) [de

  18. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The instant invention relates to a process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by a step wherein more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium. 15 claims, 1 figure

  19. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The instant invention relates to an improved process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same element in said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by a step wherein more of the excited molecules than non-excited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  20. Separable quadratic stochastic operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozikov, U.A.; Nazir, S.

    2009-04-01

    We consider quadratic stochastic operators, which are separable as a product of two linear operators. Depending on properties of these linear operators we classify the set of the separable quadratic stochastic operators: first class of constant operators, second class of linear and third class of nonlinear (separable) quadratic stochastic operators. Since the properties of operators from the first and second classes are well known, we mainly study the properties of the operators of the third class. We describe some Lyapunov functions of the operators and apply them to study ω-limit sets of the trajectories generated by the operators. We also compare our results with known results of the theory of quadratic operators and give some open problems. (author)