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Sample records for blind randomised controlled

  1. Comparison of laparoscopic and mini incision open donor nephrectomy: Single blind, randomised controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F.M. Kok (Niels); M.Y. Smits-Lind (May); B.M.E. Hansson (Birgitta); D. Pilzecker (Desiree); I.R.A.M. Mertens Zur Borg (Ingrid); B.C. Knipscheer (Ben); E.J. Hazebroek (Eric Jasper); I.M. Dooper (Ine); W. Weimar (Willem); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); E.M.M. Adang (Eddy); G.-J. van der Wilt (Gert-Jan); H.J. Bonjer (Jaap); J.A. van der Vliet (Adam); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan)

    2006-01-01

    markdownabstractOBJECTIVES: To determine the best approach for live donor nephrectomy to minimise discomfort to the donor and to provide good graft function. DESIGN: Single blind, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Two university medical centres, the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 100 living

  2. Comparison of laparoscopic and mini incision open donor nephrectomy: single blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, N.F.; Lind, M.Y.; Hansson, B.M.; Pilzecker, D.; Mertens zur Borg, I.R.; Knipscheer, B.C.; Hazebroek, E.J.; Dooper, P.M.M.; Weimar, W.; Hop, W.C.J.; Adang, E.M.M.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Bonjer, H.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der; Ijzermans, J.N.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the best approach for live donor nephrectomy to minimise discomfort to the donor and to provide good graft function. DESIGN: Single blind, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Two university medical centres, the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 100 living kidney donors.

  3. Acupuncture reduces crying in infants with infantile colic: a randomised, controlled, blind clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Landgren, Kajsa; Kvorning, Nina; Hallstr?m, Inger

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether acupuncture reduces the duration and intensity of crying in infants with colic. Patients and methods 90 otherwise healthy infants, 2?8 weeks old, with infantile colic were randomised in this controlled blind study. 81 completed a structured programme consisting of six visits during 3 weeks to an acupuncture clinic in Sweden. Parents blinded to the allocation of their children met a blinded nurse. The infant was subsequently given to another nurse in a separate...

  4. Single-blind, placebo controlled randomised clinical study of chitosan for body weight reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, VR; Satia, MC; Deschamps, A.; Maquet, V.; Shah, RB; Zinzuwadia, PH; Trivedi, JV

    2016-01-01

    Background Chitosan is a dietary fibre which acts by reducing fat absorption and thus used as a means for controlling weight. Weight loss clinical trial outcomes, however, have contradictory results regarding its efficacy. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a chitosan from fungal origin in treatment of excess weight in the absence of dietary restrictions. Methods A phase IV, randomised, multicentre, single-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical ...

  5. Short course prednisolone for adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder or stiff painful shoulder): a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchbinder, R.; Hoving, J. L.; Green, S.; Hall, S.; Forbes, A.; Nash, P.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a short course of prednisolone is superior to placebo for improving pain, function, and range of motion in adhesive capsulitis. DESIGN: Double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Community based rheumatology practice in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 50

  6. Temporary sympathectomy in chronic refractory angina: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby, Christine; Groves, David G; Eleuteri, Antonio; Tsang, Hoo Kee; Leach, Austin; Hammond, Clare; Bridson, John D; Fisher, Michael; Elt, Matthew; Laflin, Robert; Fisher, Anthony C

    2015-08-01

    Temporary sympathectomy by injection of bupivacaine at the site of the left stellate ganglion is used in the management of refractory angina at several UK centres. Although patients frequently report significant reduction in symptoms, efficacy has not been established by double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial (RCT). To investigate the efficacy of the procedure for the first time by a double-blind RCT. Consecutive patients referred to the authors' National Health Service (NHS) angina centre who were candidates for temporary sympathectomy were invited to participate in a trial. A total of 65 patients were randomised to receive either bupivacaine or saline injections. Identical syringes were prepared remotely, blinding patients and staff from randomisation. Cardiac autonomic function was measured 3 hours pre- and post-injection using new heart rate variability (HRV) analyses. Angina episodes were recorded contemporaneously by patients in study diaries in the 7-day periods pre- and post-injection. In 51 patients suitable for analysis, no significant differences between the active and placebo groups were found in patient-recorded frequency or intensity of angina episodes pre- and post-injection. However, across both groups combined, a significant difference was found in the frequency of angina episodes pre- and post-injection. The reduction in frequency of angina episodes produced by this procedure may not be due to drug pharmacology. It may be a placebo response or due to the mechanical effects of the injection of fluid. There is a need for further work using a larger patient cohort considering both mechanical and psychological factors.

  7. Published and not fully published double-blind, randomised, controlled trials with oral naratriptan in the treatment of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Naratriptan 2.5 mg is now an over-the-counter drug in Germany. This should increase the interest in drug. The GSK Trial Register was searched for published and unpublished double-blind, randomised, controlled trials (RCTs) concerning the use of naratriptan in migraine. Only 7 of 17 RCTs...

  8. Topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment of chronic patellar tendinopathy : a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steunebrink, Mirjam; Zwerver, Johannes; Brandsema, Ruben; Groenenboom, Petra; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Weir, Adam

    Objectives To assess if continuous topical glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) treatment improves outcome in patients with chronic patellar tendinopathy when compared with eccentric training alone. Methods Randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing a 12-week programme of using a GTN

  9. Prospective single blinded randomised controlled trial of two orally administered activated charcoal preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R; Hanson, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare two activated charcoal preparations (Carbomix and Actidose-Aqua) in terms of amount ingested and incidence of vomiting after ingestion. METHODS: Single blinded prospective randomised controlled trial. RESULTS: The mean amount of charcoal ingested was Carbomix 26.5 g, Actidose-Aqua 19.5 g. The mean difference was 7 g (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 12.4 g). The incidence of vomiting was for the Carbomix 6% and the Actidose-Aqua 8%. The mean difference in vomiting was 2% (95% CI -0.8 to 4.8) CONCLUSIONS: Carbomix administration results in an increased amount of activated charcoal ingested after oral administration. Rates of vomiting after activated charcoal administration were low when compared with previously reported rates. PMID:9918281

  10. Homoeopathic pathogenetic trial of Withania somnifera: A multicentric, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritha Mehra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homoeopathic drug proving being the first step in finding the pathogenetic powers of a drug is an integral part of Homoeopathic system of medicine. Objective: To elicit the pathogenetic response of Withania somnifera in homoeopathic potencies on healthy human provers. Materials and Methods: A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at four centres under Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy. Proving was conducted on 63 relatively healthy provers. All the provers were given 12 doses of placebo divided into 4 doses/day for 3 days during the first phase of the trial. After randomisation, 43 provers in the intervention group were given W. somnifera in 6C and 30C potencies in two phases. In the placebo group, 20 provers were administered unmedicated globules. The symptoms and signs manifested during the trial were noted down by the provers, elaborated by the proving masters and the data compilation on W. somnifera was done at proving-cum-data processing cell. Results: Out of 43 provers who were on actual drug trial, only 15 provers manifested 39 symptoms. The symptoms have been manifested predominantly in 30C potency. Among the objective findings, the drug has shown its effect on kidney, ovaries and helminthic infestation. Conclusion: The pathogenetic response elicited during this trial expands the scope of the use of W. somnifera and needs to be further validated by clinical verification study.

  11. Prevention of postpartum haemorrhage with sublingual misoprostol or oxytocin: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellad, M B; Tara, D; Ganachari, M S; Mallapur, M D; Goudar, S S; Kodkany, B S; Sloan, N L; Derman, R

    2012-07-01

    Sublingual misoprostol produces a rapid peak concentration, and is more effective than oral administration. We compared the postpartum measured blood loss with 400 μg powdered sublingual misoprostol and after standard care using 10 iu intramuscular (IM) oxytocin. Double-blind randomised controlled trial. A teaching hospital: J N Medical College, Belgaum, India. A cohort of 652 consenting eligible pregnant women admitted to the labour room. Subjects were assigned to receive the study medications and placebos within 1 minute of clamping and cutting the cord by computer-generated randomisation. Chi-square and bootstrapped Student's t-tests were used to test categorical and continuous outcomes, respectively. Measured mean postpartum blood loss and haemorrhage (PPH, loss ≥ 500 ml), >10% pre- to post-partum decline in haemoglobin, and reported side effects. The mean blood loss with sublingual misoprostol was 192 ± 124 ml (n=321) and 366 ± 136 ml with oxytocin IM (n=331, P ≤ 0.001). The incidence of PPH was 3.1% with misoprostol and 9.1% with oxytocin (P=0.002). No woman lost ≥ 1000 ml of blood. We observed that 9.7% and 45.6% of women experienced a haemoglobin decline of >10% after receiving misoprostol and oxytocin, respectively (P ≤ 0.001). Side effects were significantly greater in the misoprostol group than in the oxytocin group. Unlike other studies, this trial found sublingual misoprostol more effective than intramuscular oxytocin in reducing PPH, with only transient side effects being greater in the misoprostol group. The sublingual mode and/or powdered formulation may increase the effectiveness of misoprostol, and render it superior to injectable oxytocin for the prevention of PPH. Further research is needed to confirm these results. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  12. Effects of tonabersat on migraine with aura: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Anne W; Asghar, Mohammed S; Schytz, Henrik W

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Migraine with aura is thought likely to be caused by cortical spreading depression (CSD). Tonabersat inhibits CSD, and we therefore investigated whether tonabersat has a preventive effect in migraine with aura. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover tr...... inhibitory effect on CSD. The results support the theory that auras are caused by CSD and that this phenomenon is not involved in attacks without aura. FUNDING: Minster Pharmaceuticals; Lundbeck Foundation....

  13. Comparison of laparoscopic and mini incision open donor nephrectomy: single blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Niels F M; Lind, May Y; Hansson, Birgitta M E; Pilzecker, Desiree; Mertens zur Borg, Ingrid R A M; Knipscheer, Ben C; Hazebroek, Eric J; Dooper, Ine M; Weimar, Willem; Hop, Wim C J; Adang, Eddy M M; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Bonjer, Hendrik J; van der Vliet, Jordanus A; IJzermans, Jan N M

    2006-07-29

    To determine the best approach for live donor nephrectomy to minimise discomfort to the donor and to provide good graft function. Single blind, randomised controlled trial. Two university medical centres, the Netherlands. 100 living kidney donors. Participants were randomly assigned to either laparoscopic donor nephrectomy or to mini incision muscle splitting open donor nephrectomy. The primary outcome was physical fatigue using the multidimensional fatigue inventory 20 (MFI-20). Secondary outcomes were physical function using the SF-36, hospital stay after surgery, pain, operating times, recipient graft function, and graft survival. Conversions did not occur. Compared with mini incision open donor nephrectomy, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy resulted in longer skin to skin time (median 221 v 164 minutes, P fatigue was less (difference - 1.3, 95% confidence interval - 2.4 to - 0.1) and physical function was better (difference 6.2, 2.0 to 10.3) after laparoscopic nephrectomy. Function of the graft and graft survival rate of the recipient at one year censored for death did not differ (100% after laparoscopic nephrectomy and 98% after open nephrectomy). Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy results in a better quality of life compared with mini incision open donor nephrectomy but equal safety and graft function.

  14. Tramadol relieves pain and allodynia in polyneuropathy: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindrup, S H; Andersen, G; Madsen, C; Smith, T; Brøsen, K; Jensen, T S

    1999-10-01

    It is generally believed that opioids relieve neuropathic pain less effectively than nociceptive pain and that they have no effect on some of the key characteristics of neuropathic pain such as touch-evoked pain (allodynia). Tramadol is an analgesic drug acting directly on opioid receptors and indirectly on monoaminergic receptor systems. The aim of this trial was to determine whether tramadol relieved painful polyneuropathy and reduced allodynia. The study design was randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled and cross-over. After baseline observations, 45 patients were assigned to one of the two treatment sequences. The dose of tramadol slow-release tablets was titrated to at least 200 mg/day and at highest 400 mg/day. During the two treatment periods of 4 weeks duration, patients rated pain, paraesthesia and touch-evoked pain by use of 0-10 point numeric rating scales. Mechanical allodynia induced by stimulation with an electronic toothbrush was rated at the end of each treatment period with a similar scale. Thirty-four patients completed the study. Their ratings for pain (median 4 vs. 6, P=0.001), paraesthesia (4 vs. 6, P=0.001) and touch-evoked pain (3 vs. 5, P/=50% pain relief was 4.3 (95% confidence interval 2.4-20). It is concluded that tramadol appears to relieve both ongoing pain symptoms and the key neuropathic pain feature allodynia in polyneuropathy.

  15. Randomised, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Echinacea Supplementation in Air Travellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tiralongo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify whether a standardised Echinacea formulation is effective in the prevention of respiratory and other symptoms associated with long-haul flights. Methods. 175 adults participated in a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial travelling back from Australia to America, Europe, or Africa for a period of 1–5 weeks on commercial flights via economy class. Participants took Echinacea (root extract, standardised to 4.4 mg alkylamides or placebo tablets. Participants were surveyed before, immediately after travel, and at 4 weeks after travel regarding upper respiratory symptoms and travel-related quality of life. Results. Respiratory symptoms for both groups increased significantly during travel (P<0.0005. However, the Echinacea group had borderline significantly lower respiratory symptom scores compared to placebo (P=0.05 during travel. Conclusions. Supplementation with standardised Echinacea tablets, if taken before and during travel, may have preventive effects against the development of respiratory symptoms during travel involving long-haul flights.

  16. Acupuncture point injection treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a randomised, double blind, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C; Wang, L; Zhao, W J; Cardini, F; Kronenberg, F; Gui, S Q; Ying, Z; Zhao, N Q; Chao, M T; Yu, J

    2016-01-05

    To determine if injection of vitamin K3 in an acupuncture point is optimal for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, when compared with 2 other injection treatments. A Menstrual Disorder Centre at a public hospital in Shanghai, China. Chinese women aged 14-25 years with severe primary dysmenorrhoea for at least 6 months not relieved by any other treatment were recruited. Exclusion criteria were the use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices or anticoagulant drugs, pregnancy, history of abdominal surgery, participation in other therapies for pain and diagnosis of secondary dysmenorrhoea. Eighty patients with primary dysmenorrhoea, as defined on a 4-grade scale, completed the study. Two patients withdrew after randomisation. A double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial compared vitamin K3 acupuncture point injection to saline acupuncture point injection and vitamin K3 deep muscle injection. Patients in each group received 3 injections at a single treatment visit. The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by an 11 unit Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Secondary measurements were Cox Pain Intensity and Duration scales and the consumption of analgesic tablets before and after treatment and during 6 following cycles. Patients in all 3 groups experienced pain relief from the injection treatments. Differences in NRS measured mean pain scores between the 2 active control groups were less than 1 unit (-0.71, CI -1.37 to -0.05) and not significant, but the differences in average scores between the treatment hypothesised to be optimal and both active control groups (1.11, CI 0.45 to 1.78) and (1.82, CI 1.45 to 2.49) were statistically significant in adjusted mixed-effects models. Menstrual distress and use of analgesics were diminished for 6 months post-treatment. Acupuncture point injection of vitamin K3 relieves menstrual pain rapidly and is a useful treatment in an urban outpatient clinic. NCT00104546; Results

  17. Efficacy of memantine for agitation in Alzheimer's dementia: a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Fox

    Full Text Available Agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD is common and associated with poor patient life-quality and carer distress. The best evidence-based pharmacological treatments are antipsychotics which have limited benefits with increased morbidity and mortality. There are no memantine trials in clinically significant agitation but post-hoc analyses in other populations found reduced agitation. We tested the primary hypothesis, memantine is superior to placebo for clinically significant agitation, in patients with moderate-to-severe AD.We recruited 153 participants with AD and clinically significant agitation from care-homes or hospitals for a double-blind randomised-controlled trial and 149 people started the trial of memantine versus placebo. The primary outcome was 6 weeks mixed model autoregressive analysis of Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI. Secondary outcomes were: 12 weeks CMAI; 6 and 12 weeks Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI, Clinical Global Impression Change (CGI-C, Standardised Mini Mental State Examination, Severe Impairment Battery. Using a mixed effects model we found no significant differences in the primary outcome, 6 weeks CMAI, between memantine and placebo (memantine lower -3.0; -8.3 to 2.2, p = 0.26; or 12 weeks CMAI; or CGI-C or adverse events at 6 or 12 weeks. NPI mean difference favoured memantine at weeks 6 (-6.9; -12.2 to -1.6; p = 0.012 and 12 (-9.6; -15.0 to -4.3 p = 0.0005. Memantine was significantly better than placebo for cognition. The main study limitation is that it still remains to be determined whether memantine has a role in milder agitation in AD.Memantine did not improve significant agitation in people with in moderate-to-severe AD. Future studies are urgently needed to test other pharmacological candidates in this group and memantine for neuropsychiatric symptoms.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00371059.International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial 24953404.

  18. Targeted physiotherapy for patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis: A protocol for a randomised, single-blind controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schache Anthony G

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patellofemoral joint (PFJ is one compartment of the knee that is frequently affected by osteoarthritis (OA and is a potent source of OA symptoms. However, there is a dearth of evidence for compartment-specific treatments for PFJ OA. Therefore, this project aims to evaluate whether a physiotherapy treatment, targeted to the PFJ, results in greater improvements in pain and physical function than a physiotherapy education intervention in people with symptomatic and radiographic PFJ OA. Methods 90 people with PFJ OA (PFJ-specific history, signs and symptoms and radiographic evidence of PFJ OA will be recruited from the community and randomly allocated into one of two treatments. A randomised controlled trial adhering to CONSORT guidelines will evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy (8 individual sessions over 12 weeks, as well as a home exercise program 4 times/week compared to a physiotherapist-delivered OA education control treatment (8 individual sessions over 12 weeks. Physiotherapy treatment will consist of (i quadriceps muscle retraining; (ii quadriceps and hip muscle strengthening; (iii patellar taping; (iv manual PFJ and soft tissue mobilisation; and (v OA education. Resistance and dosage of exercises will be tailored to the participant's functional level and clinical state. Primary outcomes will be evaluated by a blinded examiner at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months using validated and reliable pain, physical function and perceived global effect scales. All analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis using linear mixed regression models, including respective baseline scores as a covariate, subjects as a random effect, treatment condition as a fixed factor and the covariate by treatment interaction. Conclusion This RCT is targeting PFJ OA, an important sub-group of knee OA patients, with a specifically designed conservative intervention. The project's outcome will influence PFJ OA rehabilitation, with the

  19. Targeted physiotherapy for patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis: A protocol for a randomised, single-blind controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Kay M; Vicenzino, Bill; Pandy, Marcus G; Schache, Anthony G; Hinman, Rana S

    2008-01-01

    Background The patellofemoral joint (PFJ) is one compartment of the knee that is frequently affected by osteoarthritis (OA) and is a potent source of OA symptoms. However, there is a dearth of evidence for compartment-specific treatments for PFJ OA. Therefore, this project aims to evaluate whether a physiotherapy treatment, targeted to the PFJ, results in greater improvements in pain and physical function than a physiotherapy education intervention in people with symptomatic and radiographic PFJ OA. Methods 90 people with PFJ OA (PFJ-specific history, signs and symptoms and radiographic evidence of PFJ OA) will be recruited from the community and randomly allocated into one of two treatments. A randomised controlled trial adhering to CONSORT guidelines will evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy (8 individual sessions over 12 weeks, as well as a home exercise program 4 times/week) compared to a physiotherapist-delivered OA education control treatment (8 individual sessions over 12 weeks). Physiotherapy treatment will consist of (i) quadriceps muscle retraining; (ii) quadriceps and hip muscle strengthening; (iii) patellar taping; (iv) manual PFJ and soft tissue mobilisation; and (v) OA education. Resistance and dosage of exercises will be tailored to the participant's functional level and clinical state. Primary outcomes will be evaluated by a blinded examiner at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months using validated and reliable pain, physical function and perceived global effect scales. All analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis using linear mixed regression models, including respective baseline scores as a covariate, subjects as a random effect, treatment condition as a fixed factor and the covariate by treatment interaction. Conclusion This RCT is targeting PFJ OA, an important sub-group of knee OA patients, with a specifically designed conservative intervention. The project's outcome will influence PFJ OA rehabilitation, with the potential to reduce

  20. Methylprednisolone in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (SIRS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Richard P; Devereaux, P J; Teoh, Kevin H; Lamy, Andre; Vincent, Jessica; Pogue, Janice; Paparella, Domenico; Sessler, Daniel I; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Villar, Juan Carlos; Zuo, Yunxia; Avezum, Álvaro; Quantz, Mackenzie; Tagarakis, Georgios I; Shah, Pallav J; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin; Zheng, Hong; Pettit, Shirley; Chrolavicius, Susan; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-09-26

    Cardiopulmonary bypass initiates a systemic inflammatory response syndrome that is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Steroids suppress inflammatory responses and might improve outcomes in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. We aimed to assess the effects of steroids in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. The Steroids In caRdiac Surgery (SIRS) study is a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. We used a central computerised phone or interactive web system to randomly assign (1:1) patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality from 80 hospital or cardiac surgery centres in 18 countries undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass to receive either methylprednisolone (250 mg at anaesthetic induction and 250 mg at initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass) or placebo. Patients were assigned with block randomisation with random block sizes of 2, 4, or 6 and stratified by centre. Patients aged 18 years or older were eligible if they had a European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation of at least 6. Patients were excluded if they were taking or expected to receive systemic steroids in the immediate postoperative period or had a history of bacterial or fungal infection in the preceding 30 days. Patients, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. The primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and a composite of death and major morbidity (ie, myocardial injury, stroke, renal failure, or respiratory failure) within 30 days, both analysed by intention to treat. Safety outcomes were also analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00427388. Patients were recruited between June 21, 2007, and Dec 19, 2013. Complete 30-day data was available for all 7507 patients randomly assigned to methylprednisolone (n=3755) and to placebo (n=3752). Methylprednisolone, compared

  1. Double blind randomised controlled trial of two different breathing techniques in the management of asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slader, C A; Reddel, H K; Spencer, L M; Belousova, E G; Armour, C L; Bosnic‐Anticevich, S Z; Thien, F C K; Jenkins, C R

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that breathing techniques reduce short acting β2 agonist use and improve quality of life (QoL) in asthma. The primary aim of this double blind study was to compare the effects of breathing exercises focusing on shallow nasal breathing with those of non‐specific upper body exercises on asthma symptoms, QoL, other measures of disease control, and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose. This study also assessed the effect of peak flow monitoring on outcomes in patients using breathing techniques. Methods After a 2 week run in period, 57 subjects were randomised to one of two breathing techniques learned from instructional videos. During the following 30 weeks subjects practised their exercises twice daily and as needed for relief of symptoms. After week 16, two successive ICS downtitration steps were attempted. The primary outcome variables were QoL score and daily symptom score at week 12. Results Overall there were no clinically important differences between the groups in primary or secondary outcomes at weeks 12 or 28. The QoL score remained unchanged (0.7 at baseline v 0.5 at week 28, p = 0.11 both groups combined), as did lung function and airway responsiveness. However, across both groups, reliever use decreased by 86% (p0.10 between groups). Peak flow monitoring did not have a detrimental effect on asthma outcomes. Conclusion Breathing techniques may be useful in the management of patients with mild asthma symptoms who use a reliever frequently, but there is no evidence to favour shallow nasal breathing over non‐specific upper body exercises. PMID:16517572

  2. Double blind randomised controlled trial of two different breathing techniques in the management of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slader, C A; Reddel, H K; Spencer, L M; Belousova, E G; Armour, C L; Bosnic-Anticevich, S Z; Thien, F C K; Jenkins, C R

    2006-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that breathing techniques reduce short acting beta(2) agonist use and improve quality of life (QoL) in asthma. The primary aim of this double blind study was to compare the effects of breathing exercises focusing on shallow nasal breathing with those of non-specific upper body exercises on asthma symptoms, QoL, other measures of disease control, and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose. This study also assessed the effect of peak flow monitoring on outcomes in patients using breathing techniques. After a 2 week run in period, 57 subjects were randomised to one of two breathing techniques learned from instructional videos. During the following 30 weeks subjects practised their exercises twice daily and as needed for relief of symptoms. After week 16, two successive ICS downtitration steps were attempted. The primary outcome variables were QoL score and daily symptom score at week 12. Overall there were no clinically important differences between the groups in primary or secondary outcomes at weeks 12 or 28. The QoL score remained unchanged (0.7 at baseline v 0.5 at week 28, p = 0.11 both groups combined), as did lung function and airway responsiveness. However, across both groups, reliever use decreased by 86% (p0.10 between groups). Peak flow monitoring did not have a detrimental effect on asthma outcomes. Breathing techniques may be useful in the management of patients with mild asthma symptoms who use a reliever frequently, but there is no evidence to favour shallow nasal breathing over non-specific upper body exercises.

  3. Curcumin for the treatment of major depression: a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresti, Adrian L; Maes, Michael; Maker, Garth L; Hood, Sean D; Drummond, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, the principal curcuminoid derived from the spice turmeric, influences several biological mechanisms associated with major depression, namely those associated with monoaminergic activity, immune-inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and neuroprogression. We hypothesised that curcumin would be effective for the treatment of depressive symptoms in individuals with major depressive disorder. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 56 individuals with major depressive disorder were treated with curcumin (500 mg twice daily) or placebo for 8 weeks. The primary measure was the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology self-rated version (IDS-SR30). Secondary outcomes included IDS-SR30 factor scores and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). From baseline to week 4, both curcumin and placebo were associated with improvements in IDS-SR30 total score and most secondary outcome measures. From weeks 4 to 8, curcumin was significantly more effective than placebo in improving several mood-related symptoms, demonstrated by a significant group x time interaction for IDS-SR30 total score (F1, 53=4.22, p=.045) and IDS-SR30 mood score (F1, 53=6.51, p=.014), and a non-significant trend for STAI trait score (F1, 48=2.86, p=.097). Greater efficacy from curcumin treatment was identified in a subgroup of individuals with atypical depression. Partial support is provided for the antidepressant effects of curcumin in people with major depressive disorder, evidenced by benefits occurring 4 to 8 weeks after treatment. Investigations with larger sample sizes, over extended treatment periods, and with varying curcumin dosages are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Single-blind, placebo controlled randomised clinical study of chitosan for body weight reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, V R; Satia, M C; Deschamps, A; Maquet, V; Shah, R B; Zinzuwadia, P H; Trivedi, J V

    2016-01-08

    Chitosan is a dietary fibre which acts by reducing fat absorption and thus used as a means for controlling weight. Weight loss clinical trial outcomes, however, have contradictory results regarding its efficacy. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a chitosan from fungal origin in treatment of excess weight in the absence of dietary restrictions. A phase IV, randomised, multicentre, single-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study was conducted by administering chitosan capsules (500 mg, five/day) and indistinguishable placebo capsules as daily supplements to 96 overweight and obese subjects for 90 days. The study participants were divided in 2:1 ratio to receive either chitosan (n = 64) or placebo (n = 32). Efficacy was assessed by measuring body weight, body composition parameters, anthropometric measurements, HbA1C level and lipid profile at day 45 and day 90. Also, short form-36 quality of life (QoL) questionnaire was assessed to evaluate improvement in life-style and dietary habits were recorded for calorie intake. Safety was assessed by evaluating safety parameters and monitoring adverse events. The mean changes in body weight were -1.78 ± 1.37 kg and -3.10 ± 1.95 kg at day 45 and day 90 respectively in chitosan group which were significantly different (p reduction in body composition and anthropometric parameters together with improvement in QoL score. Chitosan was also able to reduce HbA1C levels (below 6 %) in subjects who had initial higher values. The mean caloric intake shows that there was no change in dietary habits of subjects in both groups. Lipid levels were unaffected and all adverse events were mild in nature and unrelated to study treatment. Chitosan from fungal origin was able to reduce the mean body weight up to 3 kg during the 90 day study period. Together with this, there was also improvement in body composition, anthropometric parameters and HbA1C, reflecting overall benefits for the

  5. Conductive Education as a Method of Stroke Rehabilitation: A Single Blinded Randomised Controlled Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Bek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Conductive Education for stroke survivors has shown promise but randomised evidence is unavailable. This study assessed the feasibility of a definitive randomised controlled trial to evaluate efficacy. Methods. Adult stroke survivors were recruited through local community notices. Those completing the baseline assessment were randomised using an online program and group allocation was independent. Intervention group participants received 10 weekly 1.5-hour sessions of Conductive Education at the National Institute of Conductive Education in Birmingham, UK. The control group participants attended two group meetings. The study evaluated the feasibility of recruitment procedures, delivery of the intervention, retention of participants, and appropriateness of outcome measures and data collection methods. Independent assessments included the Barthel Index, the Stroke Impact Scale, the Timed Up and Go test, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results. Eighty-two patients were enrolled; 77 completed the baseline assessment (46 men, mean age 62.1 yrs. and were randomised. 70 commenced the intervention (n=37 or an equivalent waiting period (n=33. 32/37 completed the 10-week training and 32/33 the waiting period. There were no missing items from completed questionnaires and no adverse events. Discussion. Recruitment, intervention, and assessment methods worked well. Transport issues for intervention and assessment appointments require review. Conclusion. A definitive trial is feasible. This trial is registered with ISRCTN84064492.

  6. Therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Jesper; Andersson, Erik; Mataix-Cols, David; Lichtenstein, Linn; Alström, Katarina; Andersson, Gerhard; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Rück, Christian

    2016-02-02

    To evaluate the efficacy of therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-NET) compared with online supportive therapy. A 12 week single blind parallel group randomised controlled trial. Academic medical centre. 94 self referred adult outpatients with a diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder and a modified Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (BDD-YBOCS) score of ≥ 20. Concurrent psychotropic drug treatment was permitted if the dose had been stable for at least two months before enrolment and remained unchanged during the trial. Participants received either BDD-NET (n=47) or supportive therapy (n=47) delivered via the internet for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the BDD-YBOCS score after treatment and follow-up (three and six months from baseline) as evaluated by a masked assessor. Responder status was defined as a ≥ 30% reduction in symptoms on the scale. Secondary outcomes were measures of depression (MADRS-S), global functioning (GAF), clinical global improvement (CGI-I), and quality of life (EQ5D). The six month follow-up time and all outcomes other than BDD-YBOCS and MADRS-S at 3 months were not pre-specified in the registration at clinicaltrials.gov because of an administrative error but were included in the original trial protocol approved by the regional ethics committee before the start of the trial. BDD-NET was superior to supportive therapy and was associated with significant improvements in severity of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-YBOCS group difference -7.1 points, 95% confidence interval -9.8 to -4.4), depression (MADRS-S group difference -4.5 points, -7.5 to -1.4), and other secondary measures. At follow-up, 56% of those receiving BDD-NET were classed as responders, compared with 13% receiving supportive therapy. The number needed to treat was 2.34 (1.71 to 4.35). Self reported satisfaction was high. CBT can be delivered safely via the internet to patients with body

  7. The Women's wellness after cancer program: a multisite, single-blinded, randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Debra; Seib, Charrlotte; Tjondronegoro, Dian; Turner, Jane; Monterosso, Leanne; McGuire, Amanda; Porter-Steele, Janine; Song, Wei; Yates, Patsy; King, Neil; Young, Leonie; White, Kate; Lee, Kathryn; Hall, Sonj; Krishnasamy, Mei; Wells, Kathy; Balaam, Sarah; McCarthy, Alexandra L

    2017-02-03

    Despite advances in cancer diagnosis and treatment have significantly improved survival rates, patients post-treatment-related health needs are often not adequately addressed by current health services. The aim of the Women's Wellness after Cancer Program (WWACP), which is a digitised multimodal lifestyle intervention, is to enhance health-related quality of life in women previously treated for blood, breast and gynaecological cancers. A single-blinded, multi-centre randomized controlled trial recruited a total of 351 women within 24 months of completion of chemotherapy (primary or adjuvant) and/or radiotherapy. Women were randomly assigned to either usual care or intervention using computer-generated permuted-block randomisation. The intervention comprises an evidence-based interactive iBook and journal, web interface, and virtual health consultations by an experienced cancer nurse trained in the delivery of the WWACP. The 12 week intervention focuses on evidence-based health education and health promotion after a cancer diagnosis. Components are drawn from the American Cancer Research Institute and the World Cancer Research Fund Guidelines (2010), incorporating promotion of physical activity, good diet, smoking cessation, reduction of alcohol intake, plus strategies for sleep and stress management. The program is based on Bandura's social cognitive theoretical framework. The primary outcome is health-related quality of life, as measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G). Secondary outcomes are menopausal symptoms as assessed by Greene Climacteric Scale; physical activity elicited with the Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF); sleep measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; habitual dietary intake monitored with the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ); alcohol intake and tobacco use measured by the Australian Health Survey and anthropometric measures including height, weight and waist-to-hip ratio. All

  8. Antidepressant Controlled Trial For Negative Symptoms In Schizophrenia (ACTIONS): a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Thomas R E; Leeson, Verity C; Paton, Carol; Costelloe, Céire; Simon, Judit; Kiss, Noemi; Osborn, David; Killaspy, Helen; Craig, Tom K J; Lewis, Shôn; Keown, Patrick; Ismail, Shajahan; Crawford, Mike; Baldwin, David; Lewis, Glyn; Geddes, John; Kumar, Manoj; Pathak, Rudresh; Taylor, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Negative symptoms of schizophrenia represent deficiencies in emotional responsiveness, motivation, socialisation, speech and movement. When persistent, they are held to account for much of the poor functional outcomes associated with schizophrenia. There are currently no approved pharmacological treatments. While the available evidence suggests that a combination of antipsychotic and antidepressant medication may be effective in treating negative symptoms, it is too limited to allow any firm conclusions. To establish the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of augmentation of antipsychotic medication with the antidepressant citalopram for the management of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. A multicentre, double-blind, individually randomised, placebo-controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. Adult psychiatric services, treating people with schizophrenia. Inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia, on continuing, stable antipsychotic medication, with persistent negative symptoms at a criterion level of severity. Eligible participants were randomised 1 : 1 to treatment with either placebo (one capsule) or 20 mg of citalopram per day for 48 weeks, with the clinical option at 4 weeks to increase the daily dosage to 40 mg of citalopram or two placebo capsules for the remainder of the study. The primary outcomes were quality of life measured at 12 and 48 weeks assessed using the Heinrich's Quality of Life Scale, and negative symptoms at 12 weeks measured on the negative symptom subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. No therapeutic benefit in terms of improvement in quality of life or negative symptoms was detected for citalopram over 12 weeks or at 48 weeks, but secondary analysis suggested modest improvement in the negative symptom domain, avolition/amotivation, at 12 weeks (mean difference -1.3, 95% confidence interval -2.5 to -0.09). There were no statistically significant differences between the two treatment arms over 48-week

  9. Effects of personalised exposure on self-rated electromagnetic hypersensitivity and sensibility - A double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Moorselaar, Imke; Slottje, Pauline; Heller, Pia; van Strien, Rob; Kromhout, Hans; Murbach, Manuel; Kuster, Niels; Vermeulen, Roel; Huss, Anke

    2017-02-01

    Previous provocation experiments with persons reporting electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) have been criticised because EHS persons were obliged to travel to study locations (seen as stressful), and that they were unable to select the type of signal they reported reacting to. In our study we used mobile exposure units that allow double-blind exposure conditions with personalised exposure settings (signal type, strength, duration) at home. Our aim was to evaluate whether subjects were able to identify exposure conditions, and to assess if providing feedback on personal test results altered the level of self-reported EHS. We used double-blind randomised controlled exposure testing with questionnaires at baseline, immediately before and after testing, and at two and four months post testing. Participants were eligible if they reported sensing either radiofrequency or extremely low frequency fields within minutes of exposure. Participants were visited at home or another location where they felt comfortable to undergo testing. Before double-blind testing, we verified together with participants in an unblinded exposure session that the exposure settings were selected were ones that the participant responded to. Double-blind testing consisted of a series of 10 exposure and sham exposures in random sequence, feedback on test results was provided directly after testing. 42 persons participated, mean age was 55years (range 29-78), 76% were women. During double-blind testing, no participant was able to correctly identify when they were being exposed better than chance. There were no statistically significant differences in the self-reported level of EHS at follow-up compared to baseline, but during follow-up participants reported reduced certainty in reacting within minutes to exposure and reported significantly fewer symptoms compared to baseline. Our results suggest that a subgroup of persons exist who profit from participation in a personalised testing procedure

  10. Probiotics and respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections in Finnish military conscripts - a randomised placebo-controlled double-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalima, K; Lehtoranta, L; He, L; Pitkäniemi, J; Lundell, R; Julkunen, I; Roivainen, M; Närkiö, M; Mäkelä, M J; Siitonen, S; Korpela, R; Pitkäranta, A

    2016-09-01

    Military conscripts are susceptible to respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. In previous studies probiotics have shown potency to reduce upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The aim was to study whether probiotic intervention has an impact on seasonal occurrence of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in two different conscript groups. In a randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled study (https://clinicaltrials.gov NCT01651195), a total of 983 healthy adults were enrolled from two intakes of conscripts. Conscripts were randomised to receive either a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB12 (BB12) or a control chewing tablet twice daily for 150 days (recruits) or for 90 days (reserve officer candidates). Clinical examinations were carried out and daily symptom diaries were collected. Outcome measures were the number of days with respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and symptom incidence, number and duration of infection episodes, number of antibiotic treatments received and number of days out of service because of the infection. Statistically no significant differences were found between the intervention groups either in the risk of symptom incidence or duration. However, probiotic intervention was associated with reduction of specific respiratory infection symptoms in military recruits, but not in reserve officer candidates. Probiotics did not significantly reduce overall respiratory and gastrointestinal infection morbidity.

  11. Moderate salt restriction with or without paricalcitol in type 2 diabetes and losartan-resistant macroalbuminuria (PROCEED) : A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvanova, Aneliya; Trillini, Matias; Podestà, Manuel A; Iliev, Ilian Petrov; Ruggiero, Barbara; Abbate, Manuela; Perna, Annalisa; Peraro, Francesco; Diadei, Olimpia; Rubis, Nadia; Gaspari, Flavio; Carrara, Fabiola; Stucchi, Nadia; Belviso, Antonio; Bossi, Antonio C; Trevisan, Roberto; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; de Borst, Martin; Ruggenenti, Piero

    BACKGROUND: Macroalbuminuria predicts renal and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the albuminuria-lowering effects of salt restriction, paricalcitol therapy, or both, in this population. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover

  12. Heart rate acceleration with GLP-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes patients : an acute and 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Mark M; Tonneijck, Lennart; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Hoekstra, T.; Kramer, Mark H H; Diamant, Michaela; van Raalte, Daniël H

    OBJECTIVE: To examine mechanisms underlying resting heart rate (RHR) increments of GLP-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes patients. DESIGN: Acute and 12-week randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, single-centre, parallel-group trial. METHODS: In total, 57 type 2 diabetes patients

  13. CT scan-evaluated outcome of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of acute scaphoid fractures: a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannemann, P.F.; van Wezenbeek, M.R.; Kolkman, K.A.; Twiss, E.L.; Berghmans, C.H.; Dirven, P.A.; Brink, P.R.; Poeze, M.

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesised that the use of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) bone growth stimulation in acute scaphoid fractures would significantly shorten the time to union and reduce the number of nonunions in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre trial. A total of 102 patients (78

  14. Low doses of mirtazapine or quetiapine for transient insomnia : A randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, Julie; Hagenauw, Loes A.; Kamphuis, Jeanine; Lancel, Marike

    Low doses of the antidepressant mirtazapine or the neuroleptic quetiapine are often prescribed off-label for insomnia. However, studies on the effects on sleep and hangover effects the following day are scarce. In this randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial, the influence of

  15. Adjunctive rifampicin for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (ARREST): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, Guy E; Scarborough, Matthew; Szubert, Alexander; Nsutebu, Emmanuel; Tilley, Robert; Greig, Julia; Wyllie, Sarah A; Wilson, Peter; Auckland, Cressida; Cairns, Janet; Ward, Denise; Lal, Pankaj; Guleri, Achyut; Jenkins, Neil; Sutton, Julian; Wiselka, Martin; Armando, Gonzalez-Ruiz; Graham, Clive; Chadwick, Paul R; Barlow, Gavin; Gordon, N Claire; Young, Bernadette; Meisner, Sarah; McWhinney, Paul; Price, David A; Harvey, David; Nayar, Deepa; Jeyaratnam, Dakshika; Planche, Tim; Minton, Jane; Hudson, Fleur; Hopkins, Susan; Williams, John; Török, M Estee; Llewelyn, Martin J; Edgeworth, Jonathan D; Walker, A Sarah

    2017-12-14

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a common cause of severe community-acquired and hospital-acquired infection worldwide. We tested the hypothesis that adjunctive rifampicin would reduce bacteriologically confirmed treatment failure or disease recurrence, or death, by enhancing early S aureus killing, sterilising infected foci and blood faster, and reducing risks of dissemination and metastatic infection. In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adults (≥18 years) with S aureus bacteraemia who had received ≤96 h of active antibiotic therapy were recruited from 29 UK hospitals. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via a computer-generated sequential randomisation list to receive 2 weeks of adjunctive rifampicin (600 mg or 900 mg per day according to weight, oral or intravenous) versus identical placebo, together with standard antibiotic therapy. Randomisation was stratified by centre. Patients, investigators, and those caring for the patients were masked to group allocation. The primary outcome was time to bacteriologically confirmed treatment failure or disease recurrence, or death (all-cause), from randomisation to 12 weeks, adjudicated by an independent review committee masked to the treatment. Analysis was intention to treat. This trial was registered, number ISRCTN37666216, and is closed to new participants. Between Dec 10, 2012, and Oct 25, 2016, 758 eligible participants were randomly assigned: 370 to rifampicin and 388 to placebo. 485 (64%) participants had community-acquired S aureus infections, and 132 (17%) had nosocomial S aureus infections. 47 (6%) had meticillin-resistant infections. 301 (40%) participants had an initial deep infection focus. Standard antibiotics were given for 29 (IQR 18-45) days; 619 (82%) participants received flucloxacillin. By week 12, 62 (17%) of participants who received rifampicin versus 71 (18%) who received placebo experienced treatment failure or disease recurrence, or died (absolute

  16. The effect of azithromycin in adults with stable neutrophilic COPD: a double blind randomised, placebo controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie L Simpson

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is a progressive airway disease characterised by neutrophilic airway inflammation or bronchitis. Neutrophilic bronchitis is associated with both bacterial colonisation and lung function decline and is common in exacerbations of COPD. Despite current available therapies to control inflammation, neutrophilic bronchitis remains common. This study tested the hypothesis that azithromycin treatment, as an add-on to standard medication, would significantly reduce airway neutrophil and neutrophils chemokine (CXCL8 levels, as well as bacterial load. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in COPD participants with stable neutrophilic bronchitis.Eligible participants (n = 30 were randomised to azithromycin 250 mg daily or placebo for 12 weeks in addition to their standard respiratory medications. Sputum was induced at screening, randomisation and monthly for a 12 week treatment period and processed for differential cell counts, CXCL8 and neutrophil elastase assessment. Quantitative bacteriology was assessed in sputum samples at randomisation and the end of treatment visit. Severe exacerbations where symptoms increased requiring unscheduled treatment were recorded during the 12 week treatment period and for 14 weeks following treatment. A sub-group of participants underwent chest computed tomography scans (n = 15.Nine participants with neutrophilic bronchitis had a potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated and the median total bacterial load of all participants was 5.22×107 cfu/mL. Azithromycin treatment resulted in a non-significant reduction in sputum neutrophil proportion, CXCL8 levels and bacterial load. The mean severe exacerbation rate was 0.33 per person per 26 weeks in the azithromycin group compared to 0.93 exacerbations per person in the placebo group (incidence rate ratio (95%CI: 0.37 (0.11,1.21, p = 0.062. For participants who underwent chest CT scans, no

  17. Effectiveness of Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) extract on pain control of cyclic mastalgia: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafi, N; Rhkhshandeh, H; Pourmoghadam, N; Pourali, L; Ghazanfarpour, M; Behrooznia, A; Vafisani, F

    2018-01-01

    Breast pain (mastalgia) often precedes menstrual period, which is of mild to moderate severity. This study was performed to determine the effectiveness of chamomile on pain control of cyclic mastalgia. This double-blind randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with mastalgia referred to the breast clinic of an academic hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups: chamomile (n = 30) and placebo (n = 30). Primary outcomes were: (1) assessment of the visual analogue scale (VAS) and (2) assessment of the breast pain chart (BPC) 8 weeks after initial intervention. All the participants were asked to take drops three times a day each time having five drops for two consecutive months. Significant decline was observed in both the groups (chamomile and placebo) after two months (p Chamomile was a well-tolerated, secure and effective drug for treating women with mild to moderate mastalgia. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Breast pain (mastalgia) is a common chief complaint reported by many women. The 'cyclic' type, which usually occurs monthly prior to the onset of menstrual period, is of moderate severity. In 30% of the cases, mastalgia is severe and disturbs normal life, leading to sexual, physical, and social dysfunction as well as depression and anxiety. The cause of cyclical mastalgia is not known, but given the fact that it begins in the luteal phase, it can be caused by hormonal stimulation. A variety of therapies have been recommended. Such therapies include prescription of vitamin B2, B6, E and C, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diuretics, thyroxin, progesterone, Tamoxifen, Danazol, Bromocriptine and plant extracts like vitexagnus castus, evening primrose oil (EPO). However, given the side effects of hormonal treatment, many women have developed a propensity towards the use of herbal medicine. What do the results of this study add

  18. Evaluation of homoeopathic treatment in polycystic ovary syndrome: A single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetna Deep Lamba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: This study was conducted with the primary objective of evaluating efficacy of Homoeopathy in establishing the menstrual regularity with improvement in either ultrasonological findings or hirsutism/acne. The quality of life was also assessed using polycystic ovary syndrome questionnaire (PCOSQ. Materials and Methods: A single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted from February 2014 to May 2015 at two research centres. The cases fulfilling the eligibility criteria were enrolled (n = 60 and randomised to either the homoeopathic intervention (HI (n = 30 or identical placebo (P (n = 30 with uniform lifestyle modification (LSM for 6 months. Results: The menstrual regularity with improvement in other signs/symptoms was observed in 60% of the cases (n = 18 in HI + LSM group and none (n = 0 in control group (P = 0.001. Statistically significant difference (P = 0.016 was observed in reduction of intermenstrual duration (from 76.1 ± 37.7 to 46.6 ± 38.7 days in HI + LSM in comparison to placebo + LSM group (from 93.0 ± 65.2 to 93.9 ± 96.2 days. In PCOSQ, also, significant improvement was observed in HI group in domains of weight, fertility, emotions and menstrual problems (P < 0.05 with no difference in body hair (P = 0.708. No change was observed in respect of improvement in the ultrasound findings. Pulsatilla was the most frequently indicated medicine (n = 12, 40%. Conclusion: HI along with LSM has shown promising outcome; further comparative study with standard conventional treatment on adequate sample size is desirable.

  19. The effects of oral garlic on vaginal candida colony counts: a randomised placebo controlled double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C J; Grando, D; Fairley, C K; Chondros, P; Garland, S M; Myers, S P; Pirotta, M

    2014-03-01

    Garlic is effective against Candida species in vitro, and along with other alternative therapies, is used by women with vulvovaginal candidiasis. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether oral garlic reduced vaginal candida counts during the second half of the menstrual cycle in asymptomatic women colonised with Candida species. A simple randomised double-blinded controlled trial. Melbourne, Australia. Sixty-three asymptomatic women who were culture-positive for Candida species at screening. Participants were randomised to three garlic tablets or placebo orally, twice daily, for 14 days. The primary outcome was the proportion of women with colony counts of candida >100 colony-forming units per ml in any given day during the last 7 days before menstruation, defined as a 'case'. Secondary outcomes included the mean quantitative colony counts of candida over 14 days prior to menses. There was no evidence of a difference between the proportion of cases in the garlic and placebo groups (76 versus 90%; relative risk, RR 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 0.67-1.08), in the mean colony counts in both groups (ratio of geometric means of candidal colony counts 0.63; 95% CI 0.39-10.03; P = 0.74), or difference in the number of women reporting abnormal vaginal symptoms during the 2 weeks before menstruation (RR 1.03; 95% CI 0.67-1.58; P = 0.91). The garlic group reported more adverse effects (83% compared 43% in the placebo group; difference in proportions 39%; 95% CI 17-%; P garlic, but provided no evidence to inform clinical practice regarding the use of garlic in vaginal candidiasis. Further studies might investigate longer courses or topical formulations. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Fusidic acid cream in the treatment of impetigo in general practice: double blind randomised placebo controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Koning (Sander); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette); J.L. Nouwen (Jan); C.M. Verduin (Cees); R.M.D. Bernsen (Roos); A.P. Oranje (Arnold); S. Thomas (Siep); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fusidic acid would not increase the treatment effect of disinfecting with povidone-iodine alone in children with impetigo. DESIGN: Randomised placebo controlled trial. SETTING: General practices in Greater Rotterdam.

  1. The efficacy of Femal in women with premenstrual syndrome: a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhardsen, G.; Hansen, A.V.; Killi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, parallel-group, multicentre study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a pollen-based herbal medicinal product, Femal (R) (Sea-Band Ltd, Leicestershire, UK), on premenstrual sleep disturbances (PSD) in women with premenstrual syndrome...... as the main symptom cluster makes this herbal medicinal product a promising addition to the therapeutic arsenal for women with PMS Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6...

  2. Sleep disruption in tetraplegia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of 3 mg melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, J; Kennedy, G A; Tseng, J; Brown, D J; Armstrong, S; Berlowitz, D J

    2014-08-01

    Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of melatonin supplementation to people with complete tetraplegia. To investigate the effect that 3 mg melatonin supplementation has on objective and subjective sleep, quality of life and mood of people living with complete tetraplegia. Austin Hospital Sleep Laboratory and participants' homes, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Two week run-in followed by 3 week nightly administration of 3 mg melatonin or placebo, 2-week washout and further 3 week administration of the opposite treatment. Four testing sessions were conducted; the last nights of the run-in, treatment and washout periods. Testing sessions involved recording full polysomnography, completing a questionnaire battery and collecting urine and blood samples. The questionnaires assessed mood, sleep symptoms and health-related quality of life, and the urine and plasma samples assayed 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) and melatonin levels, respectively. A sleep diary was completed throughout the study. Eight participants (mean (s.d.): age 49.5 years (16), postinjury 16.9 years (7.1)) were recruited in which seven concluded the protocol. Endogenous-circulating melatonin was significantly higher (P tetraplegia is beneficial, especially for subjective sleep. Investigation of the pharmacokinetics of melatonin metabolism in this population is warranted. This project is proudly supported by the Transport Accident Commission.

  3. Randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of ozone therapy as treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, A; Shreef, E; Behiry, E; Zalat, S; Noaman, M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the safety and efficacy of ozone therapy in adult patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel group, clinical trial. Forty-five adult patients presented with sudden sensorineural hearing loss, and were randomly allocated to receive either placebo (15 patients) or ozone therapy (auto-haemotherapy; 30 patients). For the latter treatment, 100 ml of the patient's blood was treated immediately with a 1:1 volume, gaseous mixture of oxygen and ozone (from an ozone generator) and re-injected into the patient by intravenous infusion. Treatments were administered twice weekly for 10 sessions. The following data were recorded: pre- and post-treatment mean hearing gains; air and bone pure tone averages; speech reception thresholds; speech discrimination scores; and subjective recovery rates. Significant recovery was observed in 23 patients (77 per cent) receiving ozone treatment, compared with six (40 per cent) patients receiving placebo (p ozone-treated patients compared with placebo-treated patients (p Ozone therapy is a significant modality for treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss; no complications were observed.

  4. Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of the effect of botulinum toxin on walking in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubhi, T; Bhakta, B B; Ives, H L; Allgar, V; Roussounis, S H

    2000-12-01

    Cerebral palsy is the commonest cause of severe physical disability in childhood. For many years treatment has centred on the use of physiotherapy and orthotics to overcome the problems of leg spasticity, which interferes with walking and can lead to limb deformity. Intramuscular botulinum toxin (BT-A) offers a targeted form of therapy to reduce spasticity in specific muscle groups. To determine whether intramuscular BT-A can improve walking in children with cerebral palsy. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Forty patients with spastic diplegia or hemiplegia were enrolled. Twenty two received botulinum toxin and 18 received placebo. The primary outcome measure was video gait analysis and secondary outcome measures were gross motor function measure (GMFM), physiological cost index (PCI), and passive ankle dorsiflexion. Video gait analysis showed clinically and statistically significant improvement in initial foot contact following BT-A at six weeks and 12 weeks compared to placebo. Forty eight per cent of BT-A treated children showed clinical improvement in VGA compared to 17% of placebo treated children. The GMFM (walking dimension) showed a statistically significant improvement in favour of the botulinum toxin treated group. Changes in PCI and passive ankle dorsiflexion were not statistically significant. The study gives further support to the use of intramuscular botulinum toxin type A as an adjunct to conventional physiotherapy and orthoses to reduce spasticity and improve functional mobility in children with spastic diplegic or hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

  5. The Tilburg double blind randomised controlled trial comparing inguinal hernia repair according to Lichtenstein and the transinguinal preperitoneal technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerritsen Pieter G

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anterior open treatment of the inguinal hernia with a tension free mesh has reduced the incidence of recurrence and direct postoperative pain. The Lichtenstein procedure rules nowadays as reference technique for hernia treatment. Not recurrences but chronic pain is the main postoperative complication in inguinal hernia repair after Lichtenstein's technique. Preliminary experiences with a soft mesh placed in the preperitoneal space showed good results and less chronic pain. Methods The TULIP is a double-blind randomised controlled trial in which 300 patients will be randomly allocated to anterior inguinal hernia repair according to Lichtenstein or the transinguinal preperitoneal technique with soft mesh. All unilateral primary inguinal hernia patients eligible for operation who meet inclusion criteria will be invited to participate in this trial. The primary endpoint will be direct postoperative- and chronic pain. Secondary endpoints are operation time, postoperative complications, hospital stay, costs, return to daily activities (e.g. work and recurrence. Both groups will be evaluated. Success rate of hernia repair and complications will be measured as safeguard for quality. To demonstrate that inguinal hernia repair according to the transinguinal preperitoneal (TIPP technique reduces postoperative pain to Discussion The TULIP trial is aimed to show a reduction in postoperative chronic pain after anterior hernia repair according to the transinguinal preperitoneal (TIPP technique, compared to Lichtenstein. In our hypothesis the TIPP technique reduces chronic pain compared to Lichtenstein. Trial registration ISRCTN 93798494

  6. Clinical benefits of oral nutritional supplementation for elderly hip fracture patients: a single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Ma Wai Wai; Wu, Jenny; Wong, Euann; Chan, Suk Ping; To, Tze Shing Jess; Chau, Mei Wa Rosanna; Ting, Kwai Hing; Fung, Pui Man; Au, Kit Sing Derrick

    2013-01-01

    malnutrition is an important risk factor for poor outcome in patients recovering after hip fracture surgery. This study aimed to investigate the clinical, nutritional and rehabilitation effects of an oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. this was an observer-blinded randomised controlled trial of elderly post-surgical proximal femoral fracture patients. A ready-to-use oral liquid nutritional supplementation (18-24 g protein and 500 kcal per day) in addition to hospital diet was compared with hospital diet only. Both groups received usual rehabilitation therapy and oral calcium and vitamin D supplements. Outcomes were compared at discharge from rehabilitation and after 4 weeks of discharge. The primary outcome parameters were the serum albumin level, the body mass index (BMI), the functional independence measure (FIM) and the elderly mobility scale (EMS). Secondary outcome parameters were frequency of complications, inpatient length of stay, mortality and acute hospital use within 6 months after discharge. a total of 126 patients were recruited, 65 in the supplementation arm and 61 in the control arm. There was a significant difference in change in BMI with a decrease of 0.25 and 0.03 kg/m(2) in the ONS group and 0.72 and 0.49 kg/m(2) in the control group at hospital discharge and follow-up, respectively (P = 0.012). The length of stay in rehabilitation ward was shortened by 3.80 (SE = 1.81, P = 0.04) days favouring the ONS group. The total number of infection episodes was also reduced significantly. No difference was observed in the rate of change of the serum albumin level, the FIM and the EMS. clinical and nutritional benefits were seen in this trial but rehabilitation benefits could not be demonstrated.

  7. Effects of culture-sensitive adaptation of patient information material on usefulness in migrants: a multicentre, blinded randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Lars P; Ries, Zivile; Kriston, Levente; Dirmaier, Jörg; Zill, Jördis M; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Niebling, Wilhelm; Bermejo, Isaac; Härter, Martin

    2016-11-23

    To evaluate the usefulness of culture-sensitive patient information material compared with standard translated material. Multicentre, double-blind randomised controlled trial. 37 primary care practices. 435 adult primary care patients with a migration background with unipolar depressive disorder or non-specific chronic low back pain were randomised. Patients who were unable to read in the language of their respective migration background were excluded. Sufficient data were obtained from 203 women and 106 men. The largest group was of Russian origin (202 patients), followed by those of Turkish (52), Polish (30) and Italian (25) origin. Intervention group: provision of culture-sensitive adapted material. provision of standard translated material. Primary outcome: patient-rated usefulness (USE) assessed immediately after patients received the material. patient-rated usefulness after 8 weeks and 6 months, symptoms of depression (PHQ-9), back pain (Back Pain Core Set) and quality of life (WHO-5) assessed at all time points. Usefulness was found to be significantly higher (t=1.708, one-sided p=0.04) in the intervention group (USE-score=65.08, SE=1.43), compared with the control group (61.43, SE=1.63), immediately after patients received the material, in the intention-to-treat analysis, with a mean difference of 3.65 (one-sided 95% lower confidence limit=0.13). No significant differences were found for usefulness at follow-up (p=0.16, p=0.71). No significant effect was found for symptom severity in depression (p=0.95, p=0.66, p=0.58), back pain (p=0.40, p=0.45, p=0.32) or quality of life (p=0.76, p=0.86, p=0.21), either immediately after receiving the material, or at follow-up (8 weeks; 6 months). Patients with a lower level of dominant society immersion benefited substantially and significantly more from the intervention than patients with a high level of immersion (p=0.005). Cultural adaptation of patient information material provides benefits over high quality

  8. A randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled trial in dementia patients continuing or stopping neuroleptics (the DART-AD trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Ballard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There have been increasing concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of neuroleptics in people with dementia, but there are very few long-term trials to inform clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of long-term treatment with neuroleptic agents upon global cognitive decline and neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Alzheimer disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: DESIGN: Randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled parallel two-group treatment discontinuation trial. SETTING: Oxfordshire, Newcastle and Gateshead, London and Edinburgh, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Patients currently prescribed the neuroleptics thioridazine, chlorpromazine, haloperidol trifluoperazine or risperidone for behavioural or psychiatric disturbance in dementia for at least 3 mo. INTERVENTIONS: Continue neuroleptic treatment for 12 mo or switch to an identical placebo. OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was total Severe Impairment Battery (SIB score. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. RESULTS: 165 patients were randomised (83 to continue treatment and 82 to placebo, i.e., discontinue treatment, of whom 128 (78% commenced treatment (64 continue/64 placebo. Of those, 26 were lost to follow-up (13 per arm, resulting in 51 patients per arm analysed for the primary outcome. There was no significant difference between the continue treatment and placebo groups in the estimated mean change in SIB scores between baseline and 6 mo; estimated mean difference in deterioration (favouring placebo -0.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] -6.4 to 5.5, adjusted for baseline value (p = 0.9. For neuropsychiatric symptoms, there was no significant difference between the continue treatment and placebo groups (n = 56 and 53, respectively in the estimated mean change in NPI scores between baseline and 6 mo; estimated mean difference in deterioration (favouring continue treatment -2.4 (95% CI -8.2 to 3.5, adjusted for

  9. Adjuvant denosumab in breast cancer (ABCSG-18): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnant, Michael; Pfeiler, Georg; Dubsky, Peter C; Hubalek, Michael; Greil, Richard; Jakesz, Raimund; Wette, Viktor; Balic, Marija; Haslbauer, Ferdinand; Melbinger, Elisabeth; Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna; Artner-Matuschek, Silvia; Fitzal, Florian; Marth, Christian; Sevelda, Paul; Mlineritsch, Brigitte; Steger, Günther G; Manfreda, Diether; Exner, Ruth; Egle, Daniel; Bergh, Jonas; Kainberger, Franz; Talbot, Susan; Warner, Douglas; Fesl, Christian; Singer, Christian F

    2015-08-01

    Adjuvant endocrine therapy compromises bone health in patients with breast cancer, causing osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fractures. Antiresorptive treatments such as bisphosphonates prevent and counteract these side-effects. In this trial, we aimed to investigate the effects of the anti-RANK ligand antibody denosumab in postmenopausal, aromatase inhibitor-treated patients with early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, postmenopausal patients with early hormone receptor-positive breast cancer receiving treatment with aromatase inhibitors were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either denosumab 60 mg or placebo administered subcutaneously every 6 months in 58 trial centres in Austria and Sweden. Patients were assigned by an interactive voice response system. The randomisation schedule used a randomly permuted block design with block sizes 2 and 4, stratified by type of hospital regarding Hologic device for DXA scans, previous aromatase inhibitor use, and baseline bone mineral density. Patients, treating physicians, investigators, data managers, and all study personnel were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was time from randomisation to first clinical fracture, analysed by intention to treat. As an additional sensitivity analysis, we also analysed the primary endpoint on the per-protocol population. Patients were treated until the prespecified number of 247 first clinical fractures was reached. This trial is ongoing (patients are in follow-up) and is registered with the European Clinical Trials Database, number 2005-005275-15, and with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00556374. Between Dec 18, 2006, and July 22, 2013, 3425 eligible patients were enrolled into the trial, of whom 3420 were randomly assigned to receive denosumab 60 mg (n=1711) or placebo (n=1709) subcutaneously every 6 months. Compared with the placebo group, patients in the denosumab group had a

  10. Low dose aspirin as adjuvant treatment for venous leg ulceration: pragmatic, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial (Aspirin4VLU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Andrew; Wadham, Angela; Bullen, Chris; Parag, Varsha; Kerse, Ngaire; Waters, Jill

    2017-11-24

    Objective  To determine the effect of low dose aspirin on ulcer healing in patients with venous leg ulcers. Design  Pragmatic, community based, parallel group, double blind, randomised controlled trial. Setting  Five community nursing centres in New Zealand. Participants  251 adults with venous leg ulcers who could safely be treated with aspirin or placebo: 125 were randomised to aspirin and 126 to placebo. Interventions  150 mg oral aspirin daily or matching placebo for up to 24 weeks treatment, with compression therapy as standard background treatment. Main outcome measures  The primary outcome was time to complete healing of the reference ulcer (largest ulcer if more than one ulcer was present). Secondary outcomes included proportion of participants healed, change in ulcer area, change in health related quality of life, and adverse events. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results  The median number of days to healing of the reference ulcer was 77 in the aspirin group and 69 in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 1.13, P=0.25). The number of participants healed at the endpoint was 88 (70%) in the aspirin group and 101 (80%) in the placebo group (risk difference -9.8%, 95% confidence interval -20.4% to 0.9%, P=0.07). Estimated change in ulcer area was 4.1 cm 2 in the aspirin group and 4.8 cm 2 in the placebo group (mean difference -0.7 cm 2 , 95% confidence interval -1.9 to 0.5 cm 2 , P=0.25). 40 adverse events occurred among 29 participants in the aspirin group and 37 adverse events among 27 participants in the placebo group (incidence rate ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 1.7, P=0.71). Conclusion  Our findings do not support the use of low dose aspirin as adjuvant treatment for venous leg ulcers. Trial registration  ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02158806. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. The effect of distant reiki on pain in women after elective Caesarean section: a double-blinded randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderVaart, Sondra; Berger, Howard; Tam, Carolyn; Goh, Y Ingrid; Gijsen, Violette M G J; de Wildt, Saskia N; Taddio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 25% of all babies in North America are delivered via Caesarean section (C-section). Though a common surgical procedure, C-section recovery can be painful. Opioids, specifically codeine, are commonly used to ease pain; however, its active metabolite, morphine, passes into breast milk, and may produce unwanted side effects in neonates; therefore, alternatives to opioids are being sought. Reiki is an ancient Japanese form of healing where practitioners transfer healing energy through light touch and positive healing intention. Although 1.2 million Americans use reiki to reduce pain or depression, there is a lack of strong evidence supporting its effectiveness. A recent systematic review showed existing studies to be of poor methodological quality, with the common limitation of lack of blinding. To overcome this issue, the authors used distant reiki to assess its effectiveness in reducing pain following an elective C-section. Methods In this randomised, double-blinded study, women who underwent an elective C-section were allocated to either usual care (control, n=40) or three distant reiki sessions in addition to usual care (n=40). Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The primary endpoint was the Area Under the VAS-Time Curve (AUC) for days 1–3. Secondary measures included: the proportion of women who required opioid medications and dose consumed, rate of healing and vital signs. Results AUC for pain was not significantly different in the distant reiki and control groups (mean±SD; 212.1±104.7 vs 223.1±117.8; p=0.96). There were no significant differences in opioid consumption or rate of healing; however, the distant reiki group had a significantly lower heart rate (74.3±8.1 bpm vs 79.8±7.9 bpm, p=0.003) and blood pressure (106.4±9.7 mm Hg vs 111.9±11.0 mm Hg, p=0.02) post surgery. Conclusion Distant reiki had no significant effect on pain following an elective C-section. Clinical Trial Registration

  12. Effect of aliskiren on proteinuria in non-diabetic chronic kidney disease: a double-blind, crossover, randomised, controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lizakowski, Sławomir; Tylicki, Leszek; Renke, Marcin; Rutkowski, Przemysław; Heleniak, Zbigniew; Sławińska-Morawska, Maja; Aleksandrowicz, Ewa; Łysiak-Szydłowska, Wieslawa; Rutkowski, Bolesław

    2012-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the proteinuria-lowering effect of a renin inhibitor (aliskiren), compared to placebo and to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (perindopril), in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease. Methods A randomised, double-blind, crossover trial was performed in 14 patients with nondiabetic chronic kidney disease with 24-h mean proteinuria of 2.01 g (95% CI, 1.36–2.66) and estimated creatinine clearance of 93 ± 6.8 ml/min. The study consisted of five treatment perio...

  13. Theobromine for the treatment of persistent cough: a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, Alyn H; McGarvey, Lorcan; Pavord, Ian D; Higgins, Bernard; Chung, Kian Fan; Birring, Surinder S

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effect of BC1036 on health-related quality of life (QOL) in subjects with persistent cough. The secondary objective was to investigate the effect of BC1036 on subjective cough severity. This was a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 289 subjects with persistent cough. Subjects received BC1036 or placebo twice daily for 14 days. The primary endpoint comprised cough-related QOL assessed using the validated Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) at Day 14. Secondary endpoints comprised the LCQ scores at Day 7 and Day 28, cough severity VAS scores at each visit and pulmonary function tests. At baseline, mean total LCQ score in the BC1036 group was lower (i.e., worse QOL) than placebo (P<0.001), indicating significant between-group heterogeneity. Mean baseline-adjusted change in LCQ score at Day 14 was greater for BC1036 [mean (SD) 2.4±3.5] compared to placebo [mean (SD) score 2.2±3.0], but did not reach statistical significance (P=0.60). Mean cough severity VAS score decreased to a greater extent in the BC1036 group compared to placebo, but again the results were not statistically significant (-12.2±23.28 in BC1036 group and -11.0±21.34 in placebo group at Day 14, P=0.688). There was no significant change in pulmonary function measurements. The adverse event (AE) profile was similar in both groups. This study showed that BC1036 was well tolerated and, although the primary endpoint did not achieve statistical significance, the magnitude of improvement was greater with BC1036 compared to placebo with respect to improving QOL and reducing cough severity. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01656668.

  14. A double-blind randomised controlled study comparing subacromial injection of tenoxicam or methylprednisolone in patients with subacromial impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, S; Kwong, H T; Upadhyay, P K; Parsons, N; Drew, S J; Griffin, D

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out a prospective double-blind randomised controlled trial to compare the efficacy of a single subacromial injection of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, tenoxicam, with a single injection of methylprednisolone in patients with subacromial impingement. A total of 58 patients were randomly allocated into two groups. Group A received 40 mg of methylprednisolone and group B 20 mg of tenoxicam as a subacromial injection along with lignocaine. The Constant-Murley shoulder score was used as the primary outcome measure and the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) as secondary measures. Six weeks after injection the improvement in the Constant-Murley score was significantly greater in the methylprednisolone group (p = 0.003) than in the tenoxicam group. The improvement in the DASH score was greater in the steroid group and the difference was statistically significant and consistent two (p < 0.01), four (p < 0.01) and six weeks (p < 0.020) after the injection. The improvement in the OSS was consistently greater in the steroid group than in the tenoxicam group. Although the difference was statistically significant at two (p < 0.001) and four (p = 0.003) weeks after the injection, it was not at six weeks (p = 0.055). Subacromial injection of tenoxicam does not offer an equivalent outcome to subacromial injection of corticosteroid at six weeks. Corticosteroid is significantly better than tenoxicam for improving shoulder function in tendonitis of the rotator cuff after six weeks.

  15. Lactobacillus reuteri influences regrowth of mutans streptococci after full-mouth disinfection: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani Vestman, N; Hasslöf, P; Keller, M K; Granström, E; Roos, S; Twetman, S; Stecksén-Blicks, C

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed whether the persistence of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289 in saliva could delay the regrowth of mutans streptococci (MS) after a full-mouth disinfection with chlorhexidine (CHX). A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with a 6-week intervention period and 3- and 6-month follow-up was performed. 62 healthy subjects with moderate to high counts of MS were randomly assigned to a test group (n = 32) or a placebo group (n = 30). Before onset of the intervention, subjects received two sessions of professional cleaning, flossing, and application of CHX varnish and rinsed their mouth with a CHX solution between the sessions (2 days). Thereafter, the test group used probiotic lozenges (2/day) containing L. reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289; 1 × 10(8) CFU of each strain), and the placebo group used identical lozenges lacking the lactobacilli. Saliva samples were collected and cultured onto selective media, and isolates of L. reuteri as well as DNA directly extracted from saliva were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers. Presence of salivary MS was analysed with a chair-side test. L. reuteri was frequently detected by culture during the intervention period but in only 3 test group subjects at follow-ups. Regrowth of MS statistically significantly differed depending on the presence or absence of L. reuteri DSM 17938 detected by PCR. We conclude that cultivable L. reuteri strains may only sporadically be confirmed after termination of the intervention, but subjects with PCR-detected L. reuteri demonstrated slower regrowth of MS. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Direct iodine supplementation of infants versus supplementation of their breastfeeding mothers: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhouch, Raschida R; Bouhouch, Sabir; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; Aboussad, Abdelmounaim; Stinca, Sara; Haldimann, Max; Andersson, Maria; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2014-03-01

    Iodine deficiency in infants can damage the developing brain and increase mortality. Present recommendations state that oral iodised oil should be given to breastfeeding mothers to correct iodine deficiency in infancy when iodised salt is not available, and that direct supplementation should be given to infants who are not being breastfed or receiving iodine-fortified complimentary foods. However, there is little evidence for these recommendations. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of direct versus indirect supplementation of the infant. We did this double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in Morocco. Healthy breastfeeding mothers and their term newborn babies (aged ≤8 weeks) were block randomised by clinic day to receive either: one dose of 400 mg iodine to the mother and placebo to the infant (indirect infant supplementation), or one dose of about 100 mg iodine to the infant and placebo to the mother (direct infant supplementation). Randomisation was masked to participants and investigators. Coprimary outcomes were: maternal and infant urinary iodine concentrations, breastmilk iodine concentration, maternal and infant thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations, maternal and infant thyroxine (T4) concentrations, and infant growth. These outcomes were measured at baseline, and when infants were aged about 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months, and the two groups were compared using mixed effects models. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01126125. We recruited 241 mother-infant pairs between Feb 25, and Aug 10, 2010, and completed data collection by Aug 6, 2011. At baseline, median urinary iodine concentration was 35 μg/L (IQR 29-40) in mothers and 73 μg/L (29-237) in infants, suggesting iodine deficiency. During the study, maternal urinary iodine concentration (p=0.011), breastmilk iodine concentration (pMaternal TSH (p=0.276) and T4 (p=0.074) concentrations did not differ between the groups over the course of the

  17. Eplerenone for early cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Subha V; Hor, Kan N; Mazur, Wojciech; Halnon, Nancy J; Kissel, John T; He, Xin; Tran, Tam; Smart, Suzanne; McCarthy, Beth; Taylor, Michael D; Jefferies, John L; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A; Lowe, Jeovanna; Roble, Sharon L; Cripe, Linda H

    2015-02-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a leading cause of death in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and myocardial damage precedes decline in left ventricular systolic function. We tested the efficacy of eplerenone on top of background therapy in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy with early myocardial disease. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, boys from three centres in the USA aged 7 years or older with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myocardial damage by late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MRI and preserved ejection fraction received either eplerenone 25 mg or placebo orally, every other day for the first month and once daily thereafter, in addition to background clinician-directed therapy with either angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). Computer-generated randomisation was done centrally using block sizes of four and six, and only the study statistician and the investigational pharmacy had the preset randomisation assignments. The primary outcome was change in left ventricular circumferential strain (Ecc) at 12 months, a measure of contractile dysfunction. Safety was established through serial serum potassium levels and measurement of cystatin C, a non-creatinine measure of kidney function. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01521546. Between Jan 26, 2012, and July 3, 2013, 188 boys were screened and 42 were enrolled. 20 were randomly assigned to receive eplerenone and 22 to receive placebo, of whom 20 in the eplerenone group and 20 in the placebo group completed baseline, 6-month, and 12-month visits. After 12 months, decline in left ventricular circumferential strain was less in those who received eplerenone than in those who received placebo (median ΔEcc 1·0 [IQR 0·3-2·2] vs 2·2 [1·3-3·1]; p=0·020). Cystatin C concentrations remained normal in both groups, and all non-haemolysed blood samples showed normal potassium concentrations. One 23-year-old patient in

  18. Preoperative physiotherapy for the prevention of respiratory complications after upper abdominal surgery: pragmatic, double blinded, multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Ianthe; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Browning, Laura; Reeve, Julie; Anderson, Lesley; Hill, Cat; Robertson, Iain K; Story, David; Denehy, Linda

    2018-01-24

    To assess the efficacy of a single preoperative physiotherapy session to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after upper abdominal surgery. Prospective, pragmatic, multicentre, patient and assessor blinded, parallel group, randomised placebo controlled superiority trial. Multidisciplinary preadmission clinics at three tertiary public hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. 441 adults aged 18 years or older who were within six weeks of elective major open upper abdominal surgery were randomly assigned through concealed allocation to receive either an information booklet (n=219; control) or preoperative physiotherapy (n=222; intervention) and followed for 12 months. 432 completed the trial. Preoperatively, participants received an information booklet (control) or an additional 30 minute physiotherapy education and breathing exercise training session (intervention). Education focused on PPCs and their prevention through early ambulation and self directed breathing exercises to be initiated immediately on regaining consciousness after surgery. Postoperatively, all participants received standardised early ambulation, and no additional respiratory physiotherapy was provided. The primary outcome was a PPC within 14 postoperative hospital days assessed daily using the Melbourne group score. Secondary outcomes were hospital acquired pneumonia, length of hospital stay, utilisation of intensive care unit services, and hospital costs. Patient reported health related quality of life, physical function, and post-discharge complications were measured at six weeks, and all cause mortality was measured to 12 months. The incidence of PPCs within 14 postoperative hospital days, including hospital acquired pneumonia, was halved (adjusted hazard ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 0.75, P=0.001) in the intervention group compared with the control group, with an absolute risk reduction of 15% (95% confidence interval 7% to 22%) and a number needed to treat of 7

  19. Preoperative physiotherapy for the prevention of respiratory complications after upper abdominal surgery: pragmatic, double blinded, multicentre randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Browning, Laura; Reeve, Julie; Anderson, Lesley; Hill, Cat; Robertson, Iain K; Story, David; Denehy, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the efficacy of a single preoperative physiotherapy session to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after upper abdominal surgery. Design Prospective, pragmatic, multicentre, patient and assessor blinded, parallel group, randomised placebo controlled superiority trial. Setting Multidisciplinary preadmission clinics at three tertiary public hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Participants 441 adults aged 18 years or older who were within six weeks of elective major open upper abdominal surgery were randomly assigned through concealed allocation to receive either an information booklet (n=219; control) or preoperative physiotherapy (n=222; intervention) and followed for 12 months. 432 completed the trial. Interventions Preoperatively, participants received an information booklet (control) or an additional 30 minute physiotherapy education and breathing exercise training session (intervention). Education focused on PPCs and their prevention through early ambulation and self directed breathing exercises to be initiated immediately on regaining consciousness after surgery. Postoperatively, all participants received standardised early ambulation, and no additional respiratory physiotherapy was provided. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was a PPC within 14 postoperative hospital days assessed daily using the Melbourne group score. Secondary outcomes were hospital acquired pneumonia, length of hospital stay, utilisation of intensive care unit services, and hospital costs. Patient reported health related quality of life, physical function, and post-discharge complications were measured at six weeks, and all cause mortality was measured to 12 months. Results The incidence of PPCs within 14 postoperative hospital days, including hospital acquired pneumonia, was halved (adjusted hazard ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 0.75, P=0.001) in the intervention group compared with the control group, with an absolute

  20. Injury risk in runners using standard or motion control shoes: a randomised controlled trial with participant and assessor blinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisoux, Laurent; Chambon, Nicolas; Delattre, Nicolas; Gueguen, Nils; Urhausen, Axel; Theisen, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    This randomised controlled trial investigated if the usage of running shoes with a motion control system modifies injury risk in regular leisure-time runners compared to standard shoes, and if this influence depends on foot morphology. Recreational runners (n=372) were given either the motion control or the standard version of a regular running shoe model and were followed up for 6 months regarding running activity and injury. Foot morphology was analysed using the Foot Posture Index method. Cox regression analyses were used to compare injury risk between the two groups, based on HRs and their 95% CIs, controlling for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of motion control system in runners with supinated, neutral and pronated feet. The overall injury risk was lower among the participants who had received motion control shoes (HR=0.55; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.85) compared to those receiving standard shoes. This positive effect was only observed in the stratum of runners with pronated feet (n=94; HR=0.34; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.84); there was no difference in runners with neutral (n=218; HR=0.78; 95% CI 0.44 to 1.37) or supinated feet (n=60; HR=0.59; 95% CI 0.20 to 1.73). Runners with pronated feet using standard shoes had a higher injury risk compared to those with neutral feet (HR=1.80; 95% CI 1.01 to 3.22). The overall injury risk was lower in participants who had received motion control shoes. Based on secondary analysis, those with pronated feet may benefit most from this shoe type. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. PEG 3350 (Transipeg) versus lactulose in the treatment of childhood functional constipation: a double blind, randomised, controlled, multicentre trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuijl, W.; de Lorijn, F.; Verwijs, W.; Hogeman, P.; Heijmans, J.; Mäkel, W.; Taminiau, J.; Benninga, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Recently, polyethylene glycol ( PEG 3350) has been suggested as a good alternative laxative to lactulose as a treatment option in paediatric constipation. However, no large randomised controlled trials exist evaluating the efficacy of either laxative. Aims: To compare PEG 3350 (

  2. Controlling hypertension and hypotension immediately post-stroke (CHHIPS): a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, John F; Robinson, Thompson G; Ford, Gary A; Mistri, Amit; James, Martin; Chernova, Julia; Jagger, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Raised blood pressure is common after acute stroke and is associated with an adverse prognosis. We sought to assess the feasibility, safety, and effects of two regimens for lowering blood pressure in patients who have had a stroke. Patients who had cerebral infarction or cerebral haemorrhage and were hypertensive (systolic blood pressure [SBP] >160 mm Hg) were randomly assigned by secure internet central randomisation to receive oral labetalol, lisinopril, or placebo if they were non-dysphagic, or intravenous labetalol, sublingual lisinopril, or placebo if they had dysphagia, within 36 h of symptom onset in this double-blind pilot trial. The doses were titrated up if target blood pressure was not reached. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the National Research Register, number N0484128008. 179 patients (mean age 74 [SD 11] years; SBP 181 [SD 16] mm Hg; diastolic blood pressure [DBP] 95 [SD 13] mm Hg; median National Institutes of Health stroke scale [NIHSS] score 9 [IQR 5-16] points) were randomly assigned to receive labetolol (n=58), lisinopril (n=58), or placebo (n=63) between January, 2005, and December, 2007. The primary outcome--death or dependency at 2 weeks--occurred in 61% (69) of the active and 59% (35) of the placebo group (relative risk [RR] 1.03, 95% CI 0.80-1.33; p=0.82). There was no evidence of early neurological deterioration with active treatment (RR 1.22, 0.33-4.54; p=0.76) despite the significantly greater fall in SBP within the first 24 h in this group compared with placebo (21 [17-25] mm Hg vs 11 [5-17] mm Hg; p=0.004). No increase in serious adverse events was reported with active treatment (RR 0.91, 0.69-1.12; p=0.50) but 3-month mortality was halved (9.7%vs 20.3%, hazard ratio [HR] 0.40, 95% CI 0.2-1.0; p=0.05). Labetalol and lisinopril are effective antihypertensive drugs in acute stroke that do not increase serious adverse events. Early lowering of blood pressure with lisinopril and labetalol after acute

  3. Learning communication from erroneous video-based examples: A double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Felix Michael; Schnabel, Kai Philipp; Stricker, Daniel; Fischer, Martin Rudolf; Guttormsen, Sissel

    2017-06-01

    Appropriate training strategies are required to equip undergraduate healthcare students to benefit from communication training with simulated patients. This study examines the learning effects of different formats of video-based worked examples on initial communication skills. First-year nursing students (N=36) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups (correct v. erroneous examples) or to the control group (no examples). All the groups were provided an identical introduction to learning materials on breaking bad news; the experimental groups also received a set of video-based worked examples. Each example was accompanied by a self-explanation prompt (considering the example's correctness) and elaborated feedback (the true explanation). Participants presented with erroneous examples broke bad news to a simulated patient significantly more appropriately than students in the control group. Additionally, they tended to outperform participants who had correct examples, while participants presented with correct examples tended to outperform the control group. The worked example effect was successfully adapted for learning in the provider-patient communication domain. Implementing video-based worked examples with self-explanation prompts and feedback can be an effective strategy to prepare students for their training with simulated patients, especially when examples are erroneous. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The matching quality of experimental and control interventions in blinded pharmacological randomised clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bello, Segun; Wei, Maoling; Hilden, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    to systematically identify and analyse studies of matching quality in drug trials. Our primary objective was to assess the proportion of studies that concluded that the matching was inadequate; our secondary objective was to describe mechanisms for inadequate matching. Methods: Systematic review. We searched Pub......Med, Google Scholar and Web of Science Citation Index for studies that assessed whether supposedly indistinguishable interventions (experimental and control) in randomized clinical drug trials could be distinguished based on physical properties (e.g. appearance or smell). Two persons decided on study...... eligibility and extracted data independently. Our primary analysis was based on the conclusions of each study. In supportive analyses, we defined a low and a high threshold for inadequate matching. We summarised results qualitatively. Results: We included studies of 36 trials, of which 28 (78 %) were...

  5. Azithromycin for prevention of exacerbations in severe asthma (AZISAST): a multicentre randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusselle, Guy G; Vanderstichele, Christine; Jordens, Paul; Deman, René; Slabbynck, Hans; Ringoet, Veerle; Verleden, Geert; Demedts, Ingel K; Verhamme, Katia; Delporte, Anja; Demeyere, Bénédicte; Claeys, Geert; Boelens, Jerina; Padalko, Elizaveta; Verschakelen, Johny; Van Maele, Georges; Deschepper, Ellen; Joos, Guy F P

    2013-04-01

    Patients with severe asthma are at increased risk of exacerbations and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Severe asthma is heterogeneous, encompassing eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic (mainly neutrophilic) phenotypes. Patients with neutropilic airway diseases may benefit from macrolides. We performed a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial in subjects with exacerbation-prone severe asthma. Subjects received low-dose azithromycin (n=55) or placebo (n=54) as add-on treatment to combination therapy of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2 agonists for 6 months. The primary outcome was the rate of severe exacerbations and LRTI requiring treatment with antibiotics during the 26-week treatment phase. Secondary efficacy outcomes included lung function and scores on the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The rate of primary endpoints (PEPs) during 6 months was not significantly different between the two treatment groups: 0.75 PEPs (95% CI 0.55 to 1.01) per subject in the azithromycin group versus 0.81 PEPs (95% CI 0.61 to 1.09) in the placebo group (p=0.682). In a predefined subgroup analysis according to the inflammatory phenotype, azithromycin was associated with a significantly lower PEP rate than placebo in subjects with non-eosinophilic severe asthma (blood eosinophilia ≤200/µl): 0.44 PEPs (95% CI 0.25 to 0.78) versus 1.03 PEPs (95% CI 0.72 to 1.48) (p=0.013). Azithromycin significantly improved the AQLQ score but there were no significant between-group differences in the ACQ score or lung function. Azithromycin was well tolerated, but was associated with increased oropharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant streptococci. Azithromycin did not reduce the rate of severe exacerbations and LRTI in patients with severe asthma. However, the significant reduction in the PEP rate in azithromycin-treated patients with non-eosinophilic severe asthma warrants further study. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV NUMBER

  6. Remote Ischaemic PrEconditioning of Human Myocardium (RIPE): study protocol for a double-blinded randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deja, Marek A; Wiaderkiewicz, Ryszard; Czekaj, Piotr; Czech, Ewa; Malinowski, Marcin; Machej, Leszek; Węglarzy, Andrzej; Kowalówka, Adam; Piekarska, Magda; Szurlej, Bartosz; Latusek, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Remote preconditioning has been shown to be a potent protective phenomenon in many animals. Several studies aimed to demonstrate it was feasible in humans by trying to show its protective effect during cardiac surgery. Of these, some small studies and one larger trial were positive while two other bigger studies showed no effectiveness of remote preconditioning as assessed by levels of postoperatively released cardiac markers. Recently, two large clinical trials also failed to prove the benefit of remote preconditioning in cardiac surgery. No study showed that remote preconditioning actually increases resistance of human myocardium to standardised ischaemic and reperfusion stimulus in experimental settings. In animal studies, remote preconditioning was shown to improve mitochondrial function and structure, but such data on human myocardium are scarce. The aim of the study is to determine whether remote preconditioning protects human myocardium against ischaemia-reperfusion injury in both in vivo and in vitro conditions. The trial is designed as a single-centre, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial of 120 patients. We randomise (1:1) patients referred for coronary artery bypass grafting for stable coronary artery disease to remote preconditioning or "sham" intervention. The remote preconditioning is obtained by three cycles of 5 min inflation and 5 min deflation of a blood pressure cuff on the right arm. Postoperative course including myocardial enzymes profile will be analysed. Moreover, in the in-vitro arm the clinically preconditioned myocardium will be assessed for function, mitochondria structure, and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. The informed consent of all patients is obtained before enrolment into the study by the investigator. The study conforms to the spirit and the letter of the declaration of Helsinki. In case the effect of remote preconditioning is not measurable in ex-vivo assessment, any future attempt at implementing this phenomenon in clinical

  7. Oral doxycycline for the prevention of postoperative trachomatous trichiasis in Ethiopia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtamu, Esmael; Wondie, Tariku; Aweke, Sintayehu; Tadesse, Zerihun; Zerihun, Mulat; Gashaw, Bizuayehu; Roberts, Chrissy H; Kello, Amir Bedri; Mabey, David C W; Rajak, Saul N; Callahan, E Kelly; Macleod, David; Weiss, Helen A; Burton, Matthew J

    2018-05-01

    Trachomatous trichiasis is treated surgically to prevent sight loss. Unfavourable surgical outcomes remain a major challenge. We investigated the hypothesis that doxycycline might reduce the risk of postoperative trichiasis following surgery in patients with trachomatous trichiasis through anti-matrix metalloproteinase and anti-inflammatory activity. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adults (aged >18 years) with upper lid trachomatous trichiasis in association with tarsal conjunctive scarring were recruited through community-based screening and surgical outreach campaigns in Ethiopia. Individuals who had previously had eyelid surgery were excluded. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), with random block sizes of four or six, to receive oral doxycycline (100 mg once a day) or placebo for 28 days immediately after trichiasis surgery. Randomisation was stratified by surgeon. Patients, investigators, surgeons, and all other study team members were masked to study group allocation and treatment. Participants were examined at 10 days, and 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The primary outcome was the cumulative proportion of individuals who developed postoperative trichiasis by 12 months. Primary analyses were done in all participants who attended at least one of the four follow-up assessments. Safety analyses were done in all participants who attended either the 10 day or 1 month follow-up assessments. This trial is registered with the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, number PACTR201512001370307. Between Dec 21, 2015, and April 6, 2016, 1000 patients with trichiasis were enrolled and randomly assigned to treatment (499 patients to doxycycline, 501 patients to placebo). All but one participant attended at least one follow-up assessment. Thus, 999 participants were assessed for the primary outcome: 498 in the doxycycline group and 501 in the placebo group. By month 12, 58 (12%) of 498 patients in the doxycycline group and 62 (12%) of

  8. Effect of tesofensine on bodyweight loss, body composition, and quality of life in obese patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Madsbad, Sten; Breum, Leif

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight-loss drugs produce an additional mean weight loss of only 3-5 kg above that of diet and placebo over 6 months, and more effective pharmacotherapy of obesity is needed. We assessed the efficacy and safety of tesofensine-an inhibitor of the presynaptic uptake of noradrenaline......, dopamine, and serotonin-in patients with obesity. METHODS: We undertook a phase II, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in five Danish obesity management centres. After a 2 week run-in phase, 203 obese patients (body-mass index 30-...

  9. Study protocol: Brief intervention for medication overuse headache - A double-blinded cluster randomised parallel controlled trial in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffersen Espen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic headache (headache ≥ 15 days/month for at least 3 months affects 2–5% of the general population. Medication overuse contributes to the problem. Medication-overuse headache (MOH can be identified by using the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS. A “brief intervention” scheme (BI has previously been used for detoxification from drug and alcohol overuse in other settings. Short, unstructured, individualised simple information may also be enough to detoxify a large portion of those with MOH. We have adapted the structured (BI scheme to be used for MOH in primary care. Methods/Design A double-blinded cluster randomised parallel controlled trial (RCT of BI vs. business as usual. Intervention will be performed in primary care by GPs trained in BI. Patients with MOH will be identified through a simple screening questionnaire sent to patients on the GPs lists. The BI method involves an approach for identifying patients with high likelihood of MOH using simple questions about headache frequency and the SDS score. Feedback is given to the individual patient on his/her score and consequences this might have regarding the individual risk of medication overuse contributing to their headache. Finally, advice is given regarding measures to be taken, how the patient should proceed and the possible gains for the patient. The participating patients complete a headache diary and receive a clinical interview and neurological examination by a GP experienced in headache diagnostics three months after the intervention. Primary outcomes are number of headache days and number of medication days per month at 3 months. Secondary outcomes include proportions with 25 and 50% improvement at 3 months and maintenance of improvement and quality of life after 12 months. Discussion There is a need for evidence-based and cost-effective strategies for treatment of MOH but so far no consensus has been reached regarding an optimal medication

  10. Antifatigue Effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sa-Ra; Lee, Jin-Seok; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Nam-Hun; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the antifatigue effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer in 90 subjects (21 men and 69 women) with idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF) in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled and parallel designed trial. A bespoke 20% ethanol extract of P. ginseng (1 g or 2 g day–1) or a placebo was administered to each group for 4 weeks, and then fatigue severity was monitored using a self-rating numeric scale (NRS) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) as a primary endpoint. Serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (GSH) contents and glutathione reductase (GSH-Rd) activity were determined. After 4-week, P. ginseng administration decreased the total NRS score, but they were not statistically significant compared with placebo (P>0.05). Mental NRS score was significantly improved by P. ginseng administrations as 20.4±5.0 to 15.1±6.5 [95% CI 2.3∼8.2] for 1 g and 20.7±6.3 to 13.8±6.2 [95% CI −0.1∼4.2] for 2 g compared with placebo 20.9±4.5 to 18.8±2.9 [95% CI 4.1∼9.9, Pginseng significantly reduced the VAS score from 7.3±1.3 to 4.4±1.8 [95% CI 0.7∼1.8] compared with the placebo 7.1±1.0 to 5.8±1.3 [95% CI 2.2 ∼3.7, Pginseng compared to placebo. P. ginseng 1 g increased GSH concentration and GSH-Rd activity. Our results provide the first evidence of the antifatigue effects of P. ginseng in patients with ICF, and we submit that these changes in antioxidant properties contribute in part to its mechanism. Trial Registration Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS) KCT0000048 PMID:23613825

  11. Vitamin C and E supplementation hampers cellular adaptation to endurance training in humans: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Gøran; Cumming, Kristoffer T; Holden, Geir; Hallén, Jostein; Rønnestad, Bent Ronny; Sveen, Ole; Skaug, Arne; Paur, Ingvild; Bastani, Nasser E; Østgaard, Hege Nymo; Buer, Charlotte; Midttun, Magnus; Freuchen, Fredrik; Wiig, Havard; Ulseth, Elisabeth Tallaksen; Garthe, Ina; Blomhoff, Rune; Benestad, Haakon B; Raastad, Truls

    2014-04-15

    In this double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, we investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on endurance training adaptations in humans. Fifty-four young men and women were randomly allocated to receive either 1000 mg of vitamin C and 235 mg of vitamin E or a placebo daily for 11 weeks. During supplementation, the participants completed an endurance training programme consisting of three to four sessions per week (primarily of running), divided into high-intensity interval sessions [4-6 × 4-6 min; >90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax)] and steady state continuous sessions (30-60 min; 70-90% of HRmax). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max ), submaximal running and a 20 m shuttle run test were assessed and blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected, before and after the intervention. Participants in the vitamin C and E group increased their VO2 max (mean ± s.d.: 8 ± 5%) and performance in the 20 m shuttle test (10 ± 11%) to the same degree as those in the placebo group (mean ± s.d.: 8 ± 5% and 14 ± 17%, respectively). However, the mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX4) and cytosolic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α) increased in the m. vastus lateralis in the placebo group by 59 ± 97% and 19 ± 51%, respectively, but not in the vitamin C and E group (COX4: -13 ± 54%; PGC-1α: -13 ± 29%; P ≤ 0.03, between groups). Furthermore, mRNA levels of CDC42 and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) in the trained muscle were lower in the vitamin C and E group than in the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Daily vitamin C and E supplementation attenuated increases in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis following endurance training. However, no clear interactions were detected for improvements in VO2 max and running performance. Consequently, vitamin C and E supplementation hampered cellular adaptations in the exercised muscles, and although this did not translate to the performance tests

  12. Intrathecal dexmedetomidine as adjuvant for spinal anaesthesia for perianal ambulatory surgeries: A randomised double-blind controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Nethra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The newer trend in regional anaesthesia for ambulatory anorectal surgeries advocate use of lower dose of local anaesthetic, providing segmental block with adjuvants such as opioids and α2 agonists to prolong analgesia. The current study investigated effects of addition of 5 μg of dexmedetomidine to 6 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine on duration of analgesia, sensory and motor block characteristics for perianal ambulatory surgeries. Methods: This study is a prospective randomised controlled double blind study. Forty adult patients between 18 and 55 years of age were divided into 2 groups. Group D received intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 6 mg (1.2 ml with injection dexmedetomidine 5 μg in 0.5 ml of normal saline and Group N received intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 6 mg (1.2 ml with 0.5 ml of normal saline. The parameters assessed were time to regression of sensory blockade, motor blockade, ambulation, time to void, first administration of analgesic. Statistical analysis was done using appropriate tests. Results: Time for regression of sensory level and time for first administration of analgesic were prolonged in Group D (430.05 ± 89.13 min, 459.8 ± 100.9 min, respectively in comparison to Group N (301.10 ± 94.86 min, 321.85 ± 95.08 min, respectively. However, the duration of motor blockade, time to ambulation, and time to void were also significantly prolonged in Group D (323.05 ± 54.58 min, 329.55 ± 54.06 min, 422.30 ± 87.59 min than in Group N (220.10 ± 63.61 min, 221.60 ± 63.84 min, 328.45 ± 113.38 min. Conclusion: Intrathecal dexmedetomidine 5 μg added to intrathecal bupivacaine 6 mg as adjuvant may not be suitable for ambulatory perianal surgeries due to prolongation of motor blockade.

  13. L-arginine and Vitamin D Adjunctive Therapies in Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Anna P.; Waramori, Govert; Pontororing, Gysje J.; Kenangalem, Enny; Wiguna, Andri; Tjitra, Emiliana; Sandjaja; Lolong, Dina B.; Yeo, Tsin W.; Chatfield, Mark D.; Soemanto, Retno K.; Bastian, Ivan; Lumb, Richard; Maguire, Graeme P.; Eisman, John; Price, Ric N.; Morris, Peter S.; Kelly, Paul M.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D (vitD) and L-arginine have important antimycobacterial effects in humans. Adjunctive therapy with these agents has the potential to improve outcomes in active tuberculosis (TB). Methods In a 4-arm randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled factorial trial in adults with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Timika, Indonesia, we tested the effect of oral adjunctive vitD 50,000 IU 4-weekly or matching placebo, and L-arginine 6.0 g daily or matching placebo, for 8 weeks, on proportions of participants with negative 4-week sputum culture, and on an 8-week clinical score (weight, FEV1, cough, sputum, haemoptysis). All participants with available endpoints were included in analyses according to the study arm to which they were originally assigned. Adults with new smear-positive PTB were eligible. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00677339. Results 200 participants were enrolled, less than the intended sample size: 50 received L-arginine + active vitD, 49 received L-arginine + placebo vit D, 51 received placebo L-arginine + active vitD and 50 received placebo L-arginine + placebo vitD. According to the factorial model, 99 people received arginine, 101 placebo arginine, 101 vitamin D, 99 placebo vitamin D. Results for the primary endpoints were available in 155 (4-week culture) and 167 (clinical score) participants. Sputum culture conversion was achieved by week 4 in 48/76 (63%) participants in the active L-arginine versus 48/79 (61%) in placebo L-arginine arms (risk difference −3%, 95% CI −19 to 13%), and in 44/75 (59%) in the active vitD versus 52/80 (65%) in the placebo vitD arms (risk difference 7%, 95% CI −9 to 22%). The mean clinical outcome score also did not differ between study arms. There were no effects of the interventions on adverse event rates including hypercalcaemia, or other secondary outcomes. Conclusion Neither vitD nor L-arginine supplementation, at the doses administered and with the power attained

  14. L-arginine and vitamin D adjunctive therapies in pulmonary tuberculosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P Ralph

    Full Text Available Vitamin D (vitD and L-arginine have important antimycobacterial effects in humans. Adjunctive therapy with these agents has the potential to improve outcomes in active tuberculosis (TB.In a 4-arm randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled factorial trial in adults with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in Timika, Indonesia, we tested the effect of oral adjunctive vitD 50,000 IU 4-weekly or matching placebo, and L-arginine 6.0 g daily or matching placebo, for 8 weeks, on proportions of participants with negative 4-week sputum culture, and on an 8-week clinical score (weight, FEV1, cough, sputum, haemoptysis. All participants with available endpoints were included in analyses according to the study arm to which they were originally assigned. Adults with new smear-positive PTB were eligible. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00677339.200 participants were enrolled, less than the intended sample size: 50 received L-arginine + active vitD, 49 received L-arginine + placebo vit D, 51 received placebo L-arginine + active vitD and 50 received placebo L-arginine + placebo vitD. According to the factorial model, 99 people received arginine, 101 placebo arginine, 101 vitamin D, 99 placebo vitamin D. Results for the primary endpoints were available in 155 (4-week culture and 167 (clinical score participants. Sputum culture conversion was achieved by week 4 in 48/76 (63% participants in the active L-arginine versus 48/79 (61% in placebo L-arginine arms (risk difference -3%, 95% CI -19 to 13%, and in 44/75 (59% in the active vitD versus 52/80 (65% in the placebo vitD arms (risk difference 7%, 95% CI -9 to 22%. The mean clinical outcome score also did not differ between study arms. There were no effects of the interventions on adverse event rates including hypercalcaemia, or other secondary outcomes.Neither vitD nor L-arginine supplementation, at the doses administered and with the power attained, affected TB outcomes

  15. Increasing work-place healthiness with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri: A randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Vlaicu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short term illnesses, usually caused by respiratory or gastrointestinal diseases are disruptive to productivity and there is relatively little focus on preventative measures. This study examined the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri protectis (ATCC55730 on its ability to improve work-place healthiness by reducing short term sick-leave caused by respiratory or gastrointestinal infections. Methods 262 employees at TetraPak in Sweden (day-workers and three-shift-workers that were healthy at study start were randomised in a double-blind fashion to receive either a daily dose of 108 Colony Forming Units of L. reuteri or placebo for 80 days. The study products were administered with a drinking straw. 181 subjects complied with the study protocol, 94 were randomised to receive L. reuteri and 87 received placebo. Results In the placebo group 26.4% reported sick-leave for the defined causes during the study as compared with 10.6% in the L. reuteri group (p L. reuteri group (p L. reuteri group(p

  16. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase II trial of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with radiation-induced breast induration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, Sonja; Martin, Susan; Pearson, Ann; Bagchi, Debasis; Earl, Judith; Gothard, Lone; Hall, Emma; Porter, Lucy; Yarnold, John

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tissue hardness (induration), pain and tenderness are common late adverse effects of curative radiotherapy for early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with tissue induration after high-dose radiotherapy for early breast cancer in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase II trial. Patients and methods: Sixty-six eligible research volunteers with moderate or marked breast induration at a mean 10.8 years since radiotherapy for early breast cancer were randomised to active drug (n=44) or placebo (n=22). All patients were given grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) 100 mg three times a day orally, or corresponding placebo capsules, for 6 months. The primary endpoint was percentage change in surface area (cm 2 ) of palpable breast induration measured at the skin surface 12 months after randomisation. Secondary endpoints included change in photographic breast appearance and patient self-assessment of breast hardness, pain and tenderness. Results: At 12 months post-randomisation, ≥50% reduction in surface area (cm 2 ) of breast induration was recorded in13/44 (29.5%) GSPE and 6/22 (27%) placebo group patients (NS). At 12 months post-randomisation, there was no significant difference between treatment and control groups in terms of external assessments of tissue hardness, breast appearance or patient self-assessments of breast hardness, pain or tenderness. Conclusions: The study failed to show efficacy of orally-adminstered GSPE in patients with breast induration following radiotherapy for breast cancer

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine administered at birth or in infancy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bines, Julie E; Danchin, Margaret; Jackson, Pamela; Handley, Amanda; Watts, Emma; Lee, Katherine J; West, Amanda; Cowley, Daniel; Chen, Mee-Yew; Barnes, Graeme L; Justice, Frances; Buttery, Jim P; Carlin, John B; Bishop, Ruth F; Taylor, Barry; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2015-12-01

    Despite the success of rotavirus vaccines, suboptimal vaccine efficacy in regions with a high burden of disease continues to present a challenge to worldwide implementation. A birth dose strategy with a vaccine developed from an asymptomatic neonatal rotavirus strain has the potential to address this challenge and provide protection from severe rotavirus disease from birth. This phase 2a randomised, double-blind, three-arm, placebo-controlled safety and immunogenicity trial was undertaken at a single centre in New Zealand between Jan 13, 2012, and April 17, 2014. Healthy, full-term (≥36 weeks gestation) babies, who weighed at least 2500 g, and were 0-5 days old at the time of randomisation were randomly assigned (1:1:1; computer-generated; telephone central allocation) according to a concealed block randomisation schedule to oral RV3-BB vaccine with the first dose given at 0-5 days after birth (neonatal schedule), to vaccine with the first dose given at about 8 weeks after birth (infant schedule), or to placebo. The primary endpoint was cumulative vaccine take (serum immune response or stool shedding of vaccine virus after any dose) after three doses. The immunogenicity analysis included all randomised participants with available outcome data. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12611001212943. 95 eligible participants were randomised, of whom 89 were included in the primary analysis. A cumulative vaccine take was detected in 27 (90%) of 30 participants in the neonatal schedule group after three doses of RV3-BB vaccine compared with four (13%) of 32 participants in the placebo group (difference in proportions 0·78, 95% CI 0·55-0·88; protavirus vaccines. Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, the New Zealand Health Research Council, and the Murdoch Childrens Research Institute. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modafinil In Debilitating fatigue After Stroke (MIDAS): study protocol for a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillicrap, Thomas; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; Attia, John; Nilsson, Michael; Levi, Christopher R; Parsons, Mark W; Bivard, Andrew

    2016-08-17

    Fatigue is a common symptom in stroke survivors for which there is currently no proven therapy. Modafinil is a wakefulness-promoting agent with established benefits in other disease models. We aim to test if modafinil will improve patient's self-reported fatigue scores when compared to placebo and if therapy results in increased quality of life. MIDAS is a phase II, single-centre, prospective, double-blinded, randomised, crossover trial of modafinil for the treatment of persistent fatigue in survivors of ischaemic stroke. The inclusion criteria will require an average score of 12 or more across all domains of the Multi-dimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) and the diagnosis of a stroke more than 6 months prior. Patients will be randomised 1:1 to receive either modafinil 200 mg daily or placebo for a period of 6 weeks, after which a crossover will occur where patients who are on modafinil will begin taking placebo and vice versa. The primary outcome will be improvement in fatigue as measured by the MFI-20. Secondary outcomes will include changes in the Fatigue Severity Scale, improved cognition measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, improvement in mood as determined by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and improvement in each patient's stroke-specific quality of life score. All participants will also undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline, crossover and study conclusion to measure cerebral blood flow on arterial spin labelling and brain activity on resting state functional MRI. This study will comply with the CONSORT guidelines. The projected sample size requirement is 36 participants in a crossover trial giving a power of 80 % and a type-1 error rate of 0.05. MIDAS seeks to enhance the quality of life in stroke survivors by assisting or resolving stroke-associated fatigue. ACTRN12615000350527 , registered on the 17 April 2015. Protocol version 3, approved 16 June 2015.

  19. Effects of laterally wedged insoles on symptoms and disease progression in medial knee osteoarthritis: a protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne Richard

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst laterally wedged insoles, worn inside the shoes, are advocated as a simple, inexpensive, non-toxic self-administered intervention for knee osteoarthritis (OA, there is currently limited evidence to support their use. The aim of this randomised, double-blind controlled trial is to determine whether laterally wedges insoles lead to greater improvements in knee pain, physical function and health-related quality of life, and slower structural disease progression as well as being more cost-effective, than control flat insoles in people with medial knee OA. Methods/Design Two hundred participants with painful radiographic medial knee OA and varus malalignment will be recruited from the community and randomly allocated to lateral wedge or control insole groups using concealed allocation. Participants will be blinded as to which insole is considered therapeutic. Blinded follow up assessment will be conducted at 12 months after randomisation. The outcome measures are valid and reliable measures recommended for OA clinical trials. Questionnaires will assess changes in pain, physical function and health-related quality-of-life. Magnetic resonance imaging will measure changes in tibial cartilage volume. To evaluate cost-effectiveness, participants will record the use of all health-related treatments in a log-book returned to the assessor on a monthly basis. To test the effect of the intervention using an intention-to-treat analysis, linear regression modelling will be applied adjusting for baseline outcome values and other demographic characteristics. Discussion Results from this trial will contribute to the evidence regarding the effectiveness of laterally wedged insoles for the management of medial knee OA. Trial registration ACTR12605000503628; NCT00415259.

  20. Ataluren in patients with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (ACT DMD): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Craig M; Campbell, Craig; Torricelli, Ricardo Erazo; Finkel, Richard S; Flanigan, Kevin M; Goemans, Nathalie; Heydemann, Peter; Kaminska, Anna; Kirschner, Janbernd; Muntoni, Francesco; Osorio, Andrés Nascimento; Schara, Ulrike; Sejersen, Thomas; Shieh, Perry B; Sweeney, H Lee; Topaloglu, Haluk; Tulinius, Már; Vilchez, Juan J; Voit, Thomas; Wong, Brenda; Elfring, Gary; Kroger, Hans; Luo, Xiaohui; McIntosh, Joseph; Ong, Tuyen; Riebling, Peter; Souza, Marcio; Spiegel, Robert J; Peltz, Stuart W; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2017-09-23

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe, progressive, and rare neuromuscular, X-linked recessive disease. Dystrophin deficiency is the underlying cause of disease; therefore, mutation-specific therapies aimed at restoring dystrophin protein production are being explored. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of ataluren in ambulatory boys with nonsense mutation DMD. We did this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial at 54 sites in 18 countries located in North America, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, and Latin America. Boys aged 7-16 years with nonsense mutation DMD and a baseline 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) of 150 m or more and 80% or less of the predicted normal value for age and height were randomly assigned (1:1), via permuted block randomisation (block size of four) using an interactive voice-response or web-response system, to receive ataluren orally three times daily (40 mg/kg per day) or matching placebo. Randomisation was stratified by age (DMD trials with the 6-minute walk test as the endpoint. PTC Therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High phenylalanine levels directly affect mood and sustained attention in adults with phenylketonuria: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Hoedt, Amber E; de Sonneville, Leo M J; Francois, Baudouin; ter Horst, Nienke M; Janssen, Mirian C H; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Wijburg, Frits A; Hollak, Carla E M; Bosch, Annet M

    2011-02-01

    The main debate in the treatment of Phenylketonuria (PKU) is whether adult patients need the strict phenylalanine (Phe)-restricted diet. Physicians and patients lack evidence-based guidelines to help them make well-informed choices. We have carried out the first randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial into the effects of short-term elevation of Phe levels on neuropsychological functions and mood of adults with PKU. Nine continuously treated adults with PKU underwent two 4-week supplementation periods: one with Phe, mimicking normal dietary intake, and one with placebo in randomly allocated order via a randomisation coding list in a double-blind cross-over design. A set of neuropsychological tests (Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks) was administered at the end of each study period. In addition, patients and for each patient a friend or relative, completed weekly Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaires, evaluating the patients' mood. Phe levels were measured twice weekly. Mean plasma Phe levels were significantly higher during Phe supplementation compared with placebo (p = 0.008). Neuropsychological tests demonstrated an impairment in sustained attention during Phe supplementation (p = 0.029). Both patients and their friend or relative reported lower scores on the POMS questionnaires during Phe supplementation (p = 0.017 and p = 0.040, respectively). High plasma Phe levels have a direct negative effect on both sustained attention and on mood in adult patients with PKU. A Phe-restricted "diet for life" might be an advisable option for many.

  2. Aluminium foil for the prevention of post-amputation pain: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnee, Robert C; Bosma, Jan; Lam, Kayan Y; Wisselink, Willem; Vahl, Anco C

    2013-05-01

    Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a painful sensation perceived in the missing limb after amputation. The underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. Until recently, only opioid analgesics have been proven to be effective in prospective studies. Anecdotally, patients with PLP employ self-help measures, sometimes including 'wrapping up' or rubbing their stump with aluminium foil for relief. Our hypothesis is that wrapping an amputation stump with aluminium foil perioperatively will prevent PLP in the postoperative period. From September 2007 to September 2009, 32 consecutive patients were included in a crossover, double-blinded, randomised clinical trial. Perioperative fitting of an aluminium stump bandage was compared with a placebo paper foil. Scores were noted daily in a variable diary. The observation period was 2 weeks: in the first week participants were double blinded, and in the second week there was a change of bandage from aluminium to placebo or vice versa. A visual analogue scale (VAS) score was used as primary research variable. Secondary variables were use of analgesics, VAS measures of wound pain and the incidence of wound infections. Statistical analysis was done by means of Student's t-test for non-paired observations. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. A period effect (p= 0.84) and treatment-period interaction (p = 0.79) were not present. There was no significant difference (mean difference 0.42) between both treatments in PLP VAS scores (95% CI -2.56 to -1.81, p = 0.71). VAS measure of wound pain showed no significant difference between both groups (mean difference 0.34, 95% CI -2.32 to -1.66, p = 0.72). Also, the other secondary endpoints did not differ. Patients receiving an aluminium foil stump wrapping do not experience less phantom pain than with a placebo.

  3. Sucrose octasulfate dressing versus control dressing in patients with neuroischaemic diabetic foot ulcers (Explorer): an international, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Michael; Lázaro-Martínez, José Luis; Alfayate-García, Jesus Manuel; Martini, Jacques; Petit, Jean-Michel; Rayman, Gerry; Lobmann, Ralf; Uccioli, Luigi; Sauvadet, Anne; Bohbot, Serge; Kerihuel, Jean-Charles; Piaggesi, Alberto

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are serious and challenging wounds associated with high risk of infection and lower-limb amputation. Ulcers are deemed neuroischaemic if peripheral neuropathy and peripheral artery disease are both present. No satisfactory treatment for neuroischaemic ulcers currently exists, and no evidence supports one particular dressing. We aimed to assess the effect of a sucrose octasulfate dressing versus a control dressing on wound closure in patients with neuroischaemic diabetic foot ulcers. We did a randomised, double-blind clinical trial (Explorer) in 43 hospitals with specialised diabetic foot clinics in France, Spain, Italy, Germany, and the UK. Eligible participants were inpatients or outpatients aged 18 years or older with diabetes and a non-infected neuroischaemic diabetic foot ulcer greater than 1 cm 2 and of grade IC or IIC (as defined by the University of Texas Diabetic Wound Classification system). We excluded patients with a severe illness that might lead to them discontinuing the trial and those who had surgical revascularisation in the month before study entry. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) via a computer-generated randomisation procedure (concealed block size two); stratified by study centre and wound area (1-5 cm 2 and 5-30 cm 2 ), to treatment with either a sucrose octasulfate wound dressing or a control dressing (the same dressing without sucrose octasulfate) for 20 weeks. Both groups otherwise received the same standard of care for a 2-week screening period before randomisation and throughout the 20-week trial. Dressings were applied by nursing staff (or by instructed relatives for some outpatients). Frequencies of dressing changes were decided by the investigator on the basis of the clinical condition of the wound. Patients were assessed 2 weeks after randomisation, then monthly until week 20 or occurrence of wound closure. The primary outcome, assessed by intention-to-treat, was proportion of patients with wound closure at

  4. Effect of aliskiren on proteinuria in non-diabetic chronic kidney disease: a double-blind, crossover, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizakowski, Sławomir; Tylicki, Leszek; Renke, Marcin; Rutkowski, Przemysław; Heleniak, Zbigniew; Sławińska-Morawska, Maja; Aleksandrowicz, Ewa; Łysiak-Szydłowska, Wieslawa; Rutkowski, Bolesław

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the proteinuria-lowering effect of a renin inhibitor (aliskiren), compared to placebo and to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (perindopril), in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease. A randomised, double-blind, crossover trial was performed in 14 patients with nondiabetic chronic kidney disease with 24-h mean proteinuria of 2.01 g (95% CI, 1.36–2.66) and estimated creatinine clearance of 93±6.8 ml/min. The study consisted of five treatment periods. The patients were randomly assigned to receive aliskiren (150 mg), aliskiren (300 mg), perindopril (5 mg), perindopril (10 mg) or placebo. Aliskiren and perindopril reduced proteinuria. These effects were dose-dependent. Furthermore, 24-h proteinuria was reduced by 23% (mean 95% CI; 2–44) by treatment with aliskiren (150 mg), by 36% (95% CI, 17–55; Pproteinuria. The antiproteinuric effect is probably similar to that of perindopril, for equivalent hypotensive dosages. The renin inhibitor provides a promising alternative approach for the treatment of patients with chronic proteinuric non-diabetic kidney disease.

  5. Effect of perioperative beta blockade in patients with diabetes undergoing major non-cardiac surgery: randomised placebo controlled, blinded multicentre trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anne Benedicte; Wetterslev, Jørn; Gluud, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the long term effects of perioperative blockade on mortality and cardiac morbidity in patients with diabetes undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. Design Randomised placebo controlled and blinded multicentre trial. Analyses were by intention to treat. Setting University...... anaesthesia and surgical centres and one coordinating centre. Participants 921 patients aged > 39 scheduled for major non-cardiac surgery. Interventions 100 mg metoprolol controlled and extended release or placebo administered from the day before surgery to a maximum of eight perioperative days. Main outcome...... with serious adverse events was 2.4% (- 0.8% to 5.6%). Conclusions Perioperative metoprolol did not significantly affect mortality and cardiac morbidity in these patients with diabetes. Confidence intervals, however, were wide, and the issue needs reassessment. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials...

  6. Aprotinin and transfusion requirements in orthotopic liver transplantation : a multicentre randomised double-blind study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porte, RJ; Molenaar, IQ; Begliomini, B; Groenland, THN; Januszkiewicz, A; Lindgren, L; Palareti, G; Hermans, J; Terpstra, OT

    2000-01-01

    Background Intraoperative hyperfibrinolysis contributes to bleeding during adult orthotopic liver transplantation. We aimed to find out whether aprotinin, a potent antifibrinolytic agent, reduces blood loss and transfusion requirements. Methods We did a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled

  7. Spa therapy together with supervised self-mobilisation improves pain, function and quality of life in patients with chronic shoulder pain: a single-blind randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary-Valckenaere, Isabelle; Loeuille, Damien; Jay, Nicolas; Kohler, François; Tamisier, Jean-Noë; Roques, Christian-François; Boulange, Michel; Gay, Gérard

    2018-02-01

    To determine whether spa therapy has a beneficial effect on pain and disability in patients with chronic shoulder pain, this single-blind randomised controlled clinical trial included patients with chronic shoulder pain due to miscellaneous conditions attending one of four spa centres as outpatients. Patients were randomised into two groups: spa therapy (18 days of standardised treatment combining thermal therapy together with supervised mobilisation in a thermal pool) and controls (spa therapy delayed for 6 months: `immediate versus delayed treatment' paradigm). All patients continued usual treatments during the 6-month follow-up period. The main endpoint was the mean change in the French-Quick DASH (F-QD) score at 6 months. The effect size of spa therapy was calculated, and the proportion of patients reaching minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) was compared. Secondary endpoints were the mean change in SF-36, treatment use and tolerance. One hundred eighty-six patients were included (94 patients as controls, 92 in the spa group) and analysed by intention to treat. At 6 months, the mean change in the F-QD score was statistically significantly greater among spa therapy patients than controls (- 32.6 versus - 8.15%; p pain, function and quality of life in patients with chronic shoulder pain after 6 months compared with usual care.

  8. Efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of muscle rupture with haematoma: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Zapata, Ma José; Orozco, Lluís; Balius, Ramon; Soler, Robert; Bosch, Alba; Rodas, Gil; Til, Lluís; Peirau, Xavier; Urrútia, Gerard; Gich, Ignasi; Bonfill, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Background The goals of the treatment of muscle injuries are to shorten the time of healing and to avoid relapses. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the healing of muscle injuries. Materials and methods A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel, controlled clinical trial was conducted in 71 patients (81.8% males) aged 45.6 (SD=10.0) years with muscle tears in the legs and haematoma. The haematoma was evacuated in all patients. Thirty-three patients were randomised to a single dose of autologous PRP and 38 patients to simulation of PRP administration. The primary end-point was time to complete recovery of muscle injury. Secondary end-points were pain, relapses, ultrasound parameters, and adverse events. The total follow-up per patient was 12 months. Results Time to complete recovery after the treatment was 31.63 days (SD=15.38) in the PRP group, and 38.43 days (SD=18.58) in the control group (p=0.261). Pain decreased over time in both groups without statistical differences between them. Eight patients relapsed (seven in the control group, and one in the PRP group). There were no adverse effects related to the interventions. Discussion Autologous PRP did not significantly improve the time to healing compared to that in the control group. PMID:26509827

  9. Antiplaque and antigingivitis efficacy of triphala and chlorhexidine mouthrinse among schoolchildren - a cross-over, double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainani, Swati H; Siddana, Sunitha; Reddy, Cvk; Manjunathappa, Thippeswamy H; Manjunath, Maurya; Rudraswamy, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the effect of triphala extract mouthrinse and chlorhexidine on dental plaque and gingivitis. In this double blind, crossover study, 120 qualifying boarding-school students aged 13-16 years were randomised into three groups: 10% triphala, 0.2% chlorhexidine and negative control. The study was conducted in 3 phases of 1-month duration each and a washout period of 15 days. During the experimental period, subjects rinsed with the allocated mouthrinse once daily for 30 s under supervision. The plaque and gingival status was assessed using the Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein plaque index (QHI) and the gingival index (Löe and Silness) at baseline and at the end of each phase. The results were tested for significance at P chlorhexidine yielded a significant reduction in plaque and gingival index scores as compared to negative control (P chlorhexidine mouthwashes. The antiplaque and antigingivitis activity of triphala closely parallels that of chlorhexidine.

  10. Randomised controlled single-blind study of conventional versus depot mydriatic drug delivery prior to cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madge Simon

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prerequisite for safe cataract surgery is an adequately dilated pupil. The authors conducted a trial to assess the efficacy (in terms of pupil diameter of a depot method of pre-operative pupil dilatation, as compared with repeated instillations of drops (which is time-consuming for the nursing staff and uncomfortable for the patient. Methods A prospective randomised masked trial was conducted comprising 130 patients with no significant ocular history undergoing elective clear corneal phacoemulsification. 65 patients had mydriatic drops (Tropicamide 1%, Phenylephrine 2.5%, Diclofenac sodium 0.1% instilled prior to surgery, 65 had a wick soaked in the same drop mixture placed in the inferior fornix. Horizontal pupil diameters were recorded on a millimetre scale immediately prior to surgery. Results There was no significant difference in pupil size between the two groups (p = 0.255, Student's t-test. Conclusion There was no significant difference between the mydriasis obtained with the depot system compared with conventional drop application. Use of a depot mydriatic delivery system appears to be a safe and efficient method of drug delivery. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register ISRCTN78047760

  11. Does transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) alleviate the pain experienced during bone marrow sampling in addition to standard techniques? A randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, David L; Rockett, Mark; Hasan, Mehedi; Poplar, Sarah; Rule, Simon A

    2015-06-01

    Bone marrow aspiration and trephine (BMAT) biopsies remain important tests in haematology. However, the procedures can be moderately to severely painful despite standard methods of pain relief. To test the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in alleviating the pain from BMAT in addition to standard analgesia using a numerical pain rating scale (NRS). 70 patients requiring BMAT were randomised (1:1) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. -35 patients received TENS impulses at a strong but comfortable amplitude (intervention group) and 35 patients received TENS impulses just above the sensory threshold (control group) (median pulse amplitude 20 and 7 mA, respectively). Patients and operators were blinded to group allocation. Pain assessments were made using a numerical pain scale completed after the procedure. No significant difference in NRS pain recalled after the procedure was detected (median pain score 5.7 (95% CI 4.8 to 6.6) in control vs 5.6 (95% CI 4.8 to 6.4) in the intervention group). However, 100% of patients who had previous experience of BMAT and >94% of participants overall felt they benefited from using TENS and would recommend it to others for this procedure. There were no side effects from the TENS device, and it was well tolerated. TENS is a safe, non-invasive adjunct to analgesia for reducing pain during bone marrow biopsy and provides a subjective benefit to most users; however, no objective difference in pain scores was detected when using TENS in this randomised controlled study. NCT02005354. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Oral paracetamol and/or ibuprofen for treating pain after soft tissue injuries: Single centre double-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kevin K C; Graham, Colin A; Lo, Ronson S L; Leung, Yuk Ki; Leung, Ling Yan; Man, S Y; Woo, W K; Cattermole, Giles N; Rainer, Timothy H

    2018-01-01

    Soft tissue injuries commonly present to the emergency department (ED), often with acute pain. They cause significant suffering and morbidity if not adequately treated. Paracetamol and ibuprofen are commonly used analgesics, but it remains unknown if either one or the combination of both is superior for pain control. To investigate the analgesic effect of paracetamol, ibuprofen and the combination of both in the treatment of soft tissue injury in an ED, and the side effect profile of these drugs. Double-blind, double dummy, placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial. 782 adult patients presenting with soft tissue injury without obvious fractures attending the ED of a university hospital in the New Territories of Hong Kong were recruited. Patients were randomised using a random number table into three parallel arms of paracetamol only, ibuprofen only and a combination of paracetamol and ibuprofen in a 1:1:1 ratio. The primary outcome measure was pain score at rest and on activity in the first 2 hours and first 3 days. Data was analysed on an intention to treat basis. There was no statistically significant difference in pain score in the initial two hours between the three groups, and no clinically significant difference in pain score in the first three days. There was no difference in analgesic effects or side effects observed using oral paracetamol, ibuprofen or a combination of both in patients with mild to moderate pain after soft tissue injuries attending the ED. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (no. NCT00528658).

  13. Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial on Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938: improvement in symptoms and bowel habit in functional constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riezzo, G; Orlando, A; D'Attoma, B; Linsalata, M; Martulli, M; Russo, F

    2018-01-29

    Dysbiosis may contribute to constipation and its symptoms, therefore probiotic administration could improve significantly gut health and functions. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a long-lasting administration of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (LR DSM 17938) on symptoms and quality of life (QoL) score in patients with functional constipation (FC). 56 FC patients with normal colonic transit time and without anorectal disorders and pelvic floor dysfunctions completed the study. LR DSM 17938 was administered for 105 days in a randomised double-blind clinical trial (28 patients per arm). Individual and cumulative scores including the Constipaq, a modified Constipation Scoring System (CSS) that considers the patient assessment of constipation-QoL (PAC-QoL), were calculated during the preliminary visit (V0), at day 15 (end of the induction period with a LR DSM 17938 double dosage, 4×10 8 cfu), day 60 (intermediate evaluation) and day 105 (V4) after a standard dosage (2×10 8 cfu). At the end of treatment, the beneficial effect of LR DSM 17938 compared to placebo was significantly evident for symptoms related to gas content and dysbiosis (abdominal discomfort, pain and bloating), incomplete defecation and helps for defecation (PDSM 17938 treatment, a marked and positive effect on both the CSS single and the cumulative items was evident with the exception of unfruitful attempt and Bristol score. Present findings indicate that LR DSM 17938 has an effect on symptoms different from stool consistency, and they suggest that this probiotic can effectively be used in association therapy rather than as single-drug therapy in the management of FC.

  14. Effects of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: A single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Til, A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults.Design: A single blind randomised controlled trial.Setting: Rehabilitation

  15. Effect of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Til, van A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; Schueren, van der D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. Design A single blind randomised controlled trial. Setting Rehabilitation centre.

  16. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who have previous experience with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: results of a long-term extension of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GO-AFTER study through week 160

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Landewé, Robert B. M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Murphy, Frederick T.; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Mittie K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who discontinued previous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor(s) for any reason. Results through week 24 of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of

  17. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study of the safety and efficacy of BIOBYPASS (AdGVVEGF121.10NH) gene therapy in patients with refractory advanced coronary artery disease: the NOVA trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Jens; Jørgensen, Erik; Fuchs, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    Genes encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can potentially augment myocardial perfusion in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled gene therapy study with the adenovirus carrying VEGF121 (BIOBYPASS [AdGVVEGF121.10NH])....

  18. CT scan-evaluated outcome of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of acute scaphoid fractures: a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, P F W; van Wezenbeek, M R; Kolkman, K A; Twiss, E L L; Berghmans, C H J; Dirven, P A M G M; Brink, P R G; Poeze, M

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesised that the use of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) bone growth stimulation in acute scaphoid fractures would significantly shorten the time to union and reduce the number of nonunions in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre trial. A total of 102 patients (78 male, 24 female; mean age 35 years (18 to 77)) from five different medical centres with a unilateral undisplaced acute scaphoid fracture were randomly allocated to PEMF (n = 51) or placebo (n = 51) and assessed with regard to functional and radiological outcomes (multiplanar reconstructed CT scans) at 6, 9, 12, 24 and 52 weeks. The overall time to clinical and radiological healing did not differ significantly between the active PEMF group and the placebo group. We concluded that the addition of PEMF bone growth stimulation to the conservative treatment of acute scaphoid fractures does not accelerate bone healing. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  19. Intra-articular hyaluronan is without clinical effect in knee osteoarthritis: a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of 337 patients followed for 1 year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anette; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Simonsen, Lars Ole

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the long-term efficacy and safety of five intra-articular injections with hyaluronan in knee osteoarthritis. Methods A multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled double-blind study of 337 patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for knee...... osteoarthritis (clinical and laboratory) and with a Lequesne algofunctional index score (LFI) of 10 or greater. Patients received a hyaluronan product (sodium hyaluronate; Hyalgan) (n= 167) or saline (n= 170) intra-articularly weekly for 5 weeks and were followed up to 1 year. Time to recurrence was the primary...... efficacy parameter. LFI, pain on walking 50 m based on visual analogue scale (VAS pain 50 m), paracetamol consumption, patients' global assessment, Nottingham health profile, joint effusion and number of responders were secondary efficacy parameters. The efficacy parameters were analysed by intention...

  20. Intra-articular hyaluronan is without clinical effect in knee osteoarthritis: a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of 337 patients followed for 1 year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anette; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Simonsen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term efficacy and safety of five intra-articular injections with hyaluronan in knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: A multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled double-blind study of 337 patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for knee...... osteoarthritis (clinical and laboratory) and with a Lequesne algofunctional index score (LFI) of 10 or greater. Patients received a hyaluronan product (sodium hyaluronate; Hyalgan) (n=167) or saline (n=170) intra-articularly weekly for 5 weeks and were followed up to 1 year. Time to recurrence was the primary...... the ACR criteria for osteoarthritis of the knee with moderate to severe disease activity (LFI > or = 10), five intra-articular injections of hyaluronan did not improve pain, function, paracetamol consumption or other efficacy parameters 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the treatment....

  1. Dexmedetomidine oromucosal gel for noise-associated acute anxiety and fear in dogs-a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpivaara, M; Laapas, K; Huhtinen, M; Schöning, B; Overall, K

    2017-04-08

    The aim of this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical-field study was to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine oromucosal gel at subsedative doses in alleviation of noise-associated acute anxiety and fear in dogs. On New Year's Eve, 182 dogs with a history of acute anxiety and fear associated with fireworks received treatment as needed up to five times: 89 dogs received dexmedetomidine and 93 dogs received placebo. For the primary efficacy variables, dog owners assessed the overall treatment effect as well as signs and extent of anxiety and fear. The overall treatment effect was statistically significant (Pdogs treated with dexmedetomidine (64/89, 72 per cent) than those receiving placebo (34/93, 37 per cent). Additionally, dexmedetomidine-treated dogs expressed significantly (Pdogs. British Veterinary Association.

  2. Towards evidence-based vitamin D supplementation in infants: vitamin D intervention in infants (VIDI) - study design and methods of a randomised controlled double-blinded intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helve, Otto; Viljakainen, Heli; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa; Rosendahl, Jenni; Hauta-Alus, Helena; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Valkama, Saara; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Hytinantti, Timo; Mäkitie, Outi; Andersson, Sture

    2017-03-29

    Vitamin D is important for bone mass accrual during growth. Additionally, it is considered a requirement for a multitude of processes associated with, for example, the development of immunity. Many countries apply vitamin D supplementation strategies in infants, but the guidelines are not based on scientific evidence and aim at prevention of rickets. It remains unclear whether the recommended doses are sufficient for the wide array of other effects of vitamin D. The VIDI trial performed in Finland is the first large randomised controlled study for evaluation of the effects of different vitamin D supplemental doses in infancy on: 1. bone strength 2. infections and immunity 3. allergy, atopy and asthma 4. cognitive development 5. genetic regulation of mineral homeostasis METHODS/DESIGN: VIDI, a randomised controlled double-blinded single-centre intervention study is conducted in infants from the age of 2 weeks to 24 months. Participants, recruited at Helsinki Maternity Hospital, are randomised to receive daily either 10 μg (400 IU) or 30 μg (1 200 IU) of vitamin D3 supplementation. Both groups are assessed at 6 months of age for calcium homeostasis, and at 12 and 24 months of age for parameters associated with bone strength, growth, developmental milestones, infections, immunity, atopy-related diseases, and genetic factors involved in these functions. The study enables evaluation of short and long term effects of supplemental vitamin D on growth, immune functions and skeletal and developmental parameters in infants, and the effects of genetic factors therein. The results enable institution of evidence-based guidelines for vitamin D supplementation in infancy. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01723852 , registration date 6.11.2012.

  3. Internet-accessed sexually transmitted infection (e-STI testing and results service: A randomised, single-blind, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Wilson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet-accessed sexually transmitted infection testing (e-STI testing is increasingly available as an alternative to testing in clinics. Typically this testing modality enables users to order a test kit from a virtual service (via a website or app, collect their own samples, return test samples to a laboratory, and be notified of their results by short message service (SMS or telephone. e-STI testing is assumed to increase access to testing in comparison with face-to-face services, but the evidence is unclear. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of an e-STI testing and results service (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, HIV, and syphilis on STI testing uptake and STI cases diagnosed.The study took place in the London boroughs of Lambeth and Southwark. Between 24 November 2014 and 31 August 2015, we recruited 2,072 participants, aged 16-30 years, who were resident in these boroughs, had at least 1 sexual partner in the last 12 months, stated willingness to take an STI test, and had access to the internet. Those unable to provide consent and unable to read English were excluded. Participants were randomly allocated to receive 1 text message with the web link of an e-STI testing and results service (intervention group or to receive 1 text message with the web link of a bespoke website listing the locations, contact details, and websites of 7 local sexual health clinics (control group. Participants were free to use any other services or interventions during the study period. The primary outcomes were self-reported STI testing at 6 weeks, verified by patient record checks, and self-reported STI diagnosis at 6 weeks, verified by patient record checks. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of participants prescribed treatment for an STI, time from randomisation to completion of an STI test, and time from randomisation to treatment of an STI. Participants were sent a £10 cash incentive on submission of self-reported data. We

  4. Comparative Efficacy of Aloe vera and Benzydamine Mouthwashes on Radiation-induced Oral Mucositis: A Triple-blind, Randomised, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebjamee, Mahnaz; Mansourian, Arash; Hajimirzamohammad, Mohammad; Mohammad, Haji Mirza Mohammad; Zadeh, Mohsen Taghi; Bekhradi, Reza; Kazemian, Ali; Manifar, Soheila; Ashnagar, Sajjad; Doroudgar, Kiavash

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of an Aloe vera mouthwash with a benzydamine mouthwash in the alleviation of radiation- induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients using a triple-blind, randomised controlled trial. Twenty-six eligible head and neck cancer patients who were to receive conventional radiation therapy at the radiation oncology department were randomised to receive an Aloe vera mouthwash or a benzydamine mouthwash. Mucositis severity was assessed during the course of radiation therapy using the WHO grading system. At baseline, there was no difference in the distribution of mucositis severity between the two groups. The mean interval between radiation therapy and onset of mucositis was similar for both groups (Aloe vera 15.69±7.77 days, benzydamine 15.85±12.96 days). The mean interval between the start of radiation therapy and the maximum severity of mucositis were was also similar in both the Aloe vera and benzydamine groups (Aloe vera 23.38±10.75 days, benzydamine 23.54±15.45 days). Mean changes of mucositis severity over time in both groups were statistically similar and the effect of both treatments did not change signficantly with time (p=0.09). Aloe vera mouthwash was as beneficial as benzydamine mouthwash in alleviating the severity of radiation-induced mucositis and showed no side effects. The Aloe vera mouthwash could be an alternative agent in the treatment of radiation-induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers.

  5. A Double-Blind, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial of EMLA® Cream (Eutectic Lidocaine/Prilocaine Cream) for Analgesia Prior to Cryotherapy of Plantar Warts in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siew Hui; Pakdeethai, Janthorn; Toh, Matthias P H S; Aw, Derrick C W

    2014-10-01

    Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen is an effective, safe and convenient form of treatment for plantar warts. EMLA® cream (eutectic mixture of lidocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5%) is a topical local anaesthetic agent that has proven to be effective and well tolerated in the relief of pain associated with various minor interventions in numerous clinical settings. In a single-centre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled study, 64 subjects were randomised into 2 groups. The subjects had a thick layer of EMLA® cream or placebo cream applied to pared plantar wart(s) and onto the surrounding margin of 1 mm to 2 mm under occlusion for 60 minutes prior to receiving cryotherapy. The pain of cryotherapy was evaluated by the subjects using a self-administered Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) immediately after the cryotherapy. There was no statistical difference between the mean VAS score for EMLA® cream (47.0 ± 21.4 mm) and placebo (48.9 ± 22.0 mm). Those with more than 1 wart had a significantly higher VAS score than those with only 1 wart (59.1 ± 21.8 vs. 44.3 ± 20.4, P cryotherapy. We conclude that the application of EMLA® cream prior to cryotherapy does not reduce the pain associated with cryotherapy.

  6. MD1003 (high-dose biotin) for the treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourbah, Ayman; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Edan, Gilles; Clanet, Michel; Papeix, Caroline; Vukusic, Sandra; De Sèze, Jerome; Debouverie, Marc; Gout, Olivier; Clavelou, Pierre; Defer, Gilles; Laplaud, David-Axel; Moreau, Thibault; Labauge, Pierre; Brochet, Bruno; Sedel, Frédéric; Pelletier, Jean

    2016-11-01

    Treatment with MD1003 (high-dose biotin) showed promising results in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) in a pilot open-label study. To confirm the efficacy and safety of MD1003 in progressive MS in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients (n = 154) with a baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of 4.5-7 and evidence of disease worsening within the previous 2 years were randomised to 12-month MD1003 (100 mg biotin) or placebo thrice daily, followed by 12-month MD1003 for all patients. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with disability reversal at month 9, confirmed at month 12, defined as an EDSS decrease of ⩾1 point (⩾0.5 for EDSS 6-7) or a ⩾20% decrease in timed 25-foot walk time compared with the best baseline among screening or randomisation visits. A total of 13 (12.6%) MD1003-treated patients achieved the primary endpoint versus none of the placebo-treated patients (p = 0.005). MD1003 treatment also reduced EDSS progression and improved clinical impression of change compared with placebo. Efficacy was maintained over follow-up, and the safety profile of MD1003 was similar to that of placebo. MD1003 achieves sustained reversal of MS-related disability in a subset of patients with progressive MS and is well tolerated. © The Author(s), 2016.

  7. The TRACTISS Protocol: a randomised double blind placebo controlled clinical TRial of Anti-B-Cell Therapy In patients with primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome (PSS) mainly affects women (9:1 female:male ratio) and is one of the commonest autoimmune diseases with a prevalence of 0.1 – 0.6% of adult women. For patients with PSS there is currently no effective therapy that can alter the progression of the disease. The aim of the TRACTISS study is to establish whether in patients with PSS, treatment with rituximab improves clinical outcomes. Methods/design TRACTISS is a UK multi-centre, double-blind, randomised, controlled, parallel group trial of 110 patients with PSS. Patients will be randomised on a 1:1 basis to receive two courses of either rituximab or placebo infusion in addition to standard therapy, and will be followed up for up to 48 weeks. The primary objective is to assess the extent to which rituximab improves symptoms of fatigue and oral dryness. Secondary outcomes include ocular dryness, salivary flow rates, lacrimal flow, patient quality of life, measures of disease damage and disease activity, serological and peripheral blood biomarkers, and glandular histology and composition. Discussion The TRACTISS trial will provide direct evidence as to whether rituximab in patients with PSS leads to an improvement in patient symptoms and a reduction in disease damage and activity. Trial registration UKCRN Portfolio ID: 9809 ISRCTN65360827. PMID:24438039

  8. Participant experiences from chronic administration of a multivitamin versus placebo on subjective health and wellbeing: a double-blind qualitative analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarris Jerome

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While many randomised controlled trials have been conducted on multivitamins, to our knowledge no qualitative research exploring the subjective experience of taking a multivitamin during a clinical trial has been reported. Methods Semi-structured and open-ended written questions were incorporated into a 16-week double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel groups trial of once-daily multivitamin administration. At the final study visit (week 16, three open-ended questions were posed to elucidate any positive, negative or unusual experiences from taking either the multivitamin or matched placebo. Qualitative thematic analysis was undertaken by researchers who were blind as to treatment condition of participants, and triangulation (independent analysis from three researchers was employed to ensure methodological rigour. Participant’s experiences were categorised as “positive” or “negative” and a Chi Square analysis was then applied to each of the experiential themes, to compare experiences between the multivitamin and placebo groups, (subdividing the groups by gender. Usual experiences were categorised and discussed separately. Results Of the 182 participants enrolled, 116 completed the study and qualitative data were available from 114 participants. Thematic analysis revealed significant effects in favour of the multivitamin over placebo for participants experiencing increased energy levels (p=.022 and enhanced mood (p=.027. The beneficial effect on energy levels was particularly evident among female participants. A trend was found for participants reporting better sleep in the multivitamin over placebo. The multivitamin and placebo groups did not significantly differ in perceived positive or negative effects in areas relating to other aspects of mental function or physical health. No significant negative effects were revealed, although there was a non-significant trend for more people in the multivitamin

  9. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klupp, Nerida L.; Kiat, Hosen; Bensoussan, Alan; Steiner, Genevieve Z.; Chang, Dennis H.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of hyperglycaemia and other cardiovascular risk components of metabolic syndrome using a prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Eighty-four participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were randomised to one of three intervention groups: Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma lucidum with Cordyceps sinensis, or placebo. The dosage was 3 g/day of Ganoderma lucidum, with or without Cordyceps sinensis, for 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure was blood glucose (glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c] and fasting plasma glucose [FPG]); a number of secondary outcome measures were also tested. Data from the two intervention groups were combined. The combined intervention had no effect on any of the primary (baseline-adjusted difference in means: HbA1c = 0.13%, 95% CI [−0.35, 0.60], p = 0.60; FPG = 0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI [−0.90, 0.96], p = 0.95) or secondary outcome measures over the course of the 16-week trial, and no overall increased risk of adverse events with either active treatment. Evidence from this randomised clinical trial does not support the use of Ganoderma lucidum for treatment of cardiovascular risk factors in people with diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. This Clinical Trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry on November 23, 2006. Trial ID: ACTRN12606000485538 and can be accessed here: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=81705. PMID:27511742

  10. A randomised controlled double-blind clinical trial of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate for the prevention of preterm birth in twin gestation (PROGESTWIN): evidence for reduced neonatal morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, J; Usta, I M; Ghazeeri, G; Yacoub, N; Succar, J; Hayek, S; Saasouh, W; Nassar, A H

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC) prolongs gestation beyond 37 weeks of gestation (primary outcome) and reduces neonatal morbidity (secondary outcome) in twin pregnancy. Randomised controlled double-blind clinical trial. Tertiary-care university medical centre. Unselected women with twin pregnancies. Participants received weekly injections of 250 mg 17OHPC (n = 194) or placebo (n = 94), from 16-20 to 36 weeks of gestation. Randomisation was performed using the permuted-block randomisation method. Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Preterm birth (PTB) rate before 37 weeks of gestation. There were no significant differences in the average gestational age at delivery, or in the rates of PTB before 37, 32, and 28 weeks of gestation, between the two groups. The proportion of very-low-birthweight neonates (<1500 g) was significantly lower in the 17OHPC group (7.6%) compared with placebo (14.3%) (relative risk, RR 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 0.3-0.9; P = 0.01). Progestogen-treated neonates had a significantly lower composite neonatal morbidity (19.1%) compared with placebo (30.9%) (odds ratio, OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.31-0.90; P = 0.02), with significantly lower odds for respiratory distress syndrome (14.4 versus 23.4%; OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.31-0.98; P = 0.04), retinopathy of prematurity (1.1 versus 4.6%; OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.05-0.96; P = 0.04), and culture-confirmed sepsis (3.4 versus 12.8%; OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.10-0.57; P = 0.00). Intramuscular 17OHPC therapy did not reduce PTB before 37 weeks of gestation in unselected twin pregnancies. Nonetheless, 17OHPC significantly reduced neonatal morbidity parameters and increased birthweight. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klupp, Nerida L; Kiat, Hosen; Bensoussan, Alan; Steiner, Genevieve Z; Chang, Dennis H

    2016-08-11

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of hyperglycaemia and other cardiovascular risk components of metabolic syndrome using a prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Eighty-four participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were randomised to one of three intervention groups: Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma lucidum with Cordyceps sinensis, or placebo. The dosage was 3 g/day of Ganoderma lucidum, with or without Cordyceps sinensis, for 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure was blood glucose (glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c] and fasting plasma glucose [FPG]); a number of secondary outcome measures were also tested. Data from the two intervention groups were combined. The combined intervention had no effect on any of the primary (baseline-adjusted difference in means: HbA1c = 0.13%, 95% CI [-0.35, 0.60], p = 0.60; FPG = 0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI [-0.90, 0.96], p = 0.95) or secondary outcome measures over the course of the 16-week trial, and no overall increased risk of adverse events with either active treatment. Evidence from this randomised clinical trial does not support the use of Ganoderma lucidum for treatment of cardiovascular risk factors in people with diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. This Clinical Trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry on November 23, 2006. Trial ID: ACTRN12606000485538 and can be accessed here: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=81705.

  12. Rituximab for childhood-onset, complicated, frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Kazumoto; Sako, Mayumi; Nozu, Kandai; Mori, Rintaro; Tuchida, Nao; Kamei, Koichi; Miura, Kenichiro; Aya, Kunihiko; Nakanishi, Koichi; Ohtomo, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Shori; Tanaka, Ryojiro; Kaito, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hidefumi; Ishikura, Kenji; Ito, Shuichi; Ohashi, Yasuo

    2014-10-04

    Rituximab could be an effective treatment for childhood-onset, complicated, frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). We investigated the efficacy and safety of rituximab in patients with high disease activity. We did a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at nine centres in Japan. We screened patients aged 2 years or older experiencing a relapse of FRNS or SDNS, which had originally been diagnosed as nephrotic syndrome when aged 1-18 years. Patients with complicated FRNS or SDNS who met all other criteria were eligible for inclusion after remission of the relapse at screening. We used a computer-generated sequence to randomly assign patients (1:1) to receive rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) or placebo once weekly for 4 weeks, with age, institution, treatment history, and the intervals between the previous three relapses as adjustment factors. Patients, guardians, caregivers, physicians, and individuals assessing outcomes were masked to assignments. All patients received standard steroid treatment for the relapse at screening and stopped taking immunosuppressive agents by 169 days after randomisation. Patients were followed up for 1 year. The primary endpoint was the relapse-free period. Safety endpoints were frequency and severity of adverse events. Patients who received their assigned intervention were included in analyses. This trial is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network clinical trials registry, number UMIN000001405. Patients were centrally registered between Nov 13, 2008, and May 19, 2010. Of 52 patients who underwent randomisation, 48 received the assigned intervention (24 were given rituximab and 24 placebo). The median relapse-free period was significantly longer in the rituximab group (267 days, 95% CI 223-374) than in the placebo group (101 days, 70-155; hazard ratio: 0·27, 0·14-0·53; pchildhood-onset, complicated FRNS and SDNS. Japanese Ministry of

  13. Effect of double dose oseltamivir on clinical and virological outcomes in children and adults admitted to hospital with severe influenza: double blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedyaningsih, Endang Rahayu; Malik, Moh Suhud; Setiawaty, Vivi; Trihono, Trihono; Burhan, Erlina; Aditama, Tjandra Yoga; Soepandi, Prijanti Z.; Partakusuma, Lia G.; Sutiyoso, Agung P.; Priatni, Ika; Bandung, Rumah Sakit Hasan Sadikan; Jusuf, Hadi; Pranggono, Emmy Hermiyanti; Soeroto, Arto Yuwono; Setiabudi, Djatnika; Somasetia, Dadang Hudaya; Sudarwati, Sri; Maskoen, Tini T.; Hartantri, Yovita; Parwati, Ida; Giriputro, Sardikin; Murniati, Dewi; Sirait, Sondang Maryutka; Soetanto, Tony; Sulastri, Sri; Agus, Rismali; Rusli, Adria; Wiweka, Sila; Wignall, Steve; Baird, Kevin; Safika, Iko; Sangsajja, Chariya; Manosuthi, Weerawat; Sutha, Patama; Chuchottaworn, Chareon; Sansayunh, Piamlarp; Bangpattanasiri, Kittima; Taylor, Walter R. J.; Stepniewska, Kasia; Fukuda, Caroline; Lindegardh, Niklas; White, Nicholas; Day, Nick; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Suntarattiwong, Piyarat; Chantbuddhiwet, Umaporn; Netsawang, Supichaya; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Vanprapar, Nirun; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Wittawatmongkol, Orasri; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Ratanasuwan, Winai; Rongrungruang, Yong; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Tambyah, Paul A.; Leo, Yee-Sin; Fisher, Dale; Chai, Louis; Lee, Lawrence; Lin, Raymond; Minh, Ngo Ngoc Quang; Khanh, Truong Huu; Thoa, Le Phan Kim; Tuan, Le Anh; Thi, Tran My Dung; Ha, Lam Thi Thuy; Qui, Le Minh; Thinh, Le Quoc; Anh, Nguyen Ngoc Tu; Tuan, Tran Anh; Nhien, Trinh Hong; Phuong, Bui Pham; Qui, Phan Tu; Thy, Tieu Chau; Vu, Bui Xuan; Tinh, Le Binh Bao; Thanh, Dang Thi; Khanh, Vo Phuong; Viet, Do Chau; Thuy, Tran Thi; Bao, Vo Quoc; Trung, Le Nguyen Nhat; Thoa, Ho Thi Kim; Anh, Tran thi Ngoc; Loan, Tran Thi Thu; Huong, Tran Quynh; Le, Nguyen Thi Hanh; Viet, Ho Lu; Tuan, Ha Manh; Ha, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau; Truong, Nguyen Thanh; Thao, Le Thi Thu; Phong, Nguyen Thanh; Hien, Pham Tran Dieu; Men, Pham Thi Hai; Tam, Cao Thi; Diet, Tran Vinh; van Hao, Nguyen; van Kinh, Nguyen; Hien, Nguyen Duc; Ha, Nguyen Hong; van Tuyet, Hoang; Phuc, Nguyen Ngoc; Thai, Nguyen Quoc; Chinh, Luong Quoc; Cap, Nguyen Trung; Phu, Vu Dinh; Ninh, Tran Thi Hai; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Huy, Bui Vu; San, Luong Thi; Phuc, Phan Huu; Tuan, Ho Anh; Tung, Cao Viet; Thanh, Doan Thi Mai; Ngoc, Le Xuan; Hung, Pham Viet; Hung, Dau Viet; Hien, Pham Thu; Beigel, John; Polis, Michael; Higgs, Elizabeth; Ngan, Tran Thuy; Tham, Nguyen Thi; Tam, Duong Thi; Bkrong, Nguyen Thi Thuy Chinh; Uyen, Le Thi Tam; Hang, Vu thi Ty; Thanh, Tran Tan; Bryant, Juliet E.; Ha, Do Quang; Hien, Vo Minh; Nguyet, Lam An; Nhu, Le Nguyen Truc; Khuong, Huynh Duy; Stockwell, Elaine; Merson, Laura; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Hayden, Frederick; Hien, Tran Tinh; Fox, Annette; de Jong, Menno D.; Horby, Peter; Wertheim, Heiman L.; van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the validity of recommendations in treatment guidelines to use higher than approved doses of oseltamivir in patients with severe influenza. Double blind randomised trial. Thirteen hospitals in Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. Patients aged ≥ 1 year admitted to hospital

  14. High phenylalanine levels directly affect mood and sustained attention in adults with phenylketonuria: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Hoedt, Amber E.; de Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Francois, Baudouin; ter Horst, Nienke M.; Janssen, Mirian C. H.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela; Wijburg, Frits A.; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Bosch, Annet M.

    2011-01-01

    The main debate in the treatment of Phenylketonuria (PKU) is whether adult patients need the strict phenylalanine (Phe)-restricted diet. Physicians and patients lack evidence-based guidelines to help them make well-informed choices. We have carried out the first randomised double-blind

  15. Short and long-term effects of irbesartan on intradialytic central haemodynamics: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled one-year intervention trial (the SAFIR study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Christian Daugaard; Kjærgaard, Krista Dybtved; Jensen, Jens Dam

    2014-01-01

    haemodynamic stability and this study describes short and long-term effects of ARB treatment vs. placebo on intradialytic haemodynamic parameters in a cohort of Danish HD patients. Methods Adult HD patients were randomised for double-blind treatment with the ARB irbesartan or placebo using a predialytic...

  16. A multicentre non-blinded randomised controlled trial to assess the impact of regular early specialist symptom control treatment on quality of life in malignant mesothelioma (RESPECT-MESO): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunatilake, Samal; Brims, Fraser J H; Fogg, Carole; Lawrie, Iain; Maskell, Nick; Forbes, Karen; Rahman, Najib; Morris, Steve; Ogollah, Reuben; Gerry, Stephen; Peake, Mick; Darlison, Liz; Chauhan, Anoop J

    2014-09-19

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an incurable cancer caused by exposure to asbestos. The United Kingdom has the highest death rate from mesothelioma in the world and this figure is increasing. Median survival is 8 to 12 months, and most patients have symptoms at diagnosis. The fittest patients may be offered chemotherapy with palliative intent. For patients not fit for systemic anticancer treatment, best supportive care remains the mainstay of management. A study from the United States examining advanced lung cancer showed that early specialist palliative care input improved patient health related quality of life and depression symptoms 12 weeks after diagnosis. While mesothelioma and advanced lung cancer share many symptoms and have a poor prognosis, oncology and palliative care services in the United Kingdom, and many other countries, vary considerably compared to the United States. The aim of this trial is to assess whether regular early symptom control treatment provided by palliative care specialists can improve health related quality of life in patients newly diagnosed with mesothelioma. This multicentre study is an non-blinded, randomised controlled, parallel group trial. A total of 174 patients with a new diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma will be minimised with a random element in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 4 weekly regular early specialist symptom control care, or standard care. The primary outcome is health related quality of life for patients at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include health related quality of life for patients at 24 weeks, carer health related quality of life at 12 and 24 weeks, patient and carer mood at 12 and 24 weeks, overall survival and analysis of healthcare utilisation and cost. Current practice in the United Kingdom is to involve specialist palliative care towards the final weeks or months of a life-limiting illness. This study aims to investigate whether early, regular specialist care input can result in significant

  17. Internet-accessed sexually transmitted infection (e-STI) testing and results service: A randomised, single-blind, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emma; Free, Caroline; Morris, Tim P; Syred, Jonathan; Ahamed, Irrfan; Menon-Johansson, Anatole S; Palmer, Melissa J; Barnard, Sharmani; Rezel, Emma; Baraitser, Paula

    2017-12-01

    Internet-accessed sexually transmitted infection testing (e-STI testing) is increasingly available as an alternative to testing in clinics. Typically this testing modality enables users to order a test kit from a virtual service (via a website or app), collect their own samples, return test samples to a laboratory, and be notified of their results by short message service (SMS) or telephone. e-STI testing is assumed to increase access to testing in comparison with face-to-face services, but the evidence is unclear. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of an e-STI testing and results service (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, HIV, and syphilis) on STI testing uptake and STI cases diagnosed. The study took place in the London boroughs of Lambeth and Southwark. Between 24 November 2014 and 31 August 2015, we recruited 2,072 participants, aged 16-30 years, who were resident in these boroughs, had at least 1 sexual partner in the last 12 months, stated willingness to take an STI test, and had access to the internet. Those unable to provide consent and unable to read English were excluded. Participants were randomly allocated to receive 1 text message with the web link of an e-STI testing and results service (intervention group) or to receive 1 text message with the web link of a bespoke website listing the locations, contact details, and websites of 7 local sexual health clinics (control group). Participants were free to use any other services or interventions during the study period. The primary outcomes were self-reported STI testing at 6 weeks, verified by patient record checks, and self-reported STI diagnosis at 6 weeks, verified by patient record checks. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of participants prescribed treatment for an STI, time from randomisation to completion of an STI test, and time from randomisation to treatment of an STI. Participants were sent a £10 cash incentive on submission of self-reported data. We completed all

  18. A double blind, randomised placebo controlled trial of topical 2% viscous lidocaine in improving oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Sandy M; Babl, Franz E; McCarthy, Michelle; Tancharoen, Chasari; Lee, Katherine J; Oakley, Ed

    2011-11-21

    Painful infectious mouth conditions are a common presentation to emergency departments. Although self limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and can lead to dehydration. Oral analgesia is of limited efficacy and is often refused by the patient. Despite widespread use of oral 2% viscous lidocaine for many years, there is little evidence for its efficacy as an analgesic and in aiding oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions. This study aims to establish the effectiveness of 2% viscous lidocaine in increasing oral intake in these children by comparing it with placebo. This study is a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of children between 6 months and 8 years of age with painful infectious mouth conditions defined as gingivostomatitis (herpetic or non herpetic), ulcerative pharyngitis, herpangina and hand foot and mouth disease as assessed by the treating clinician in association with a history of poor oral fluid intake. It will be conducted at a single tertiary paediatric emergency department in Melbourne Australia.20 patients have already been randomised to receive 2% lidocaine or placebo in a pilot study to determine the sample size in a preplanned adaptive design. A further 80 patients will be randomised to receive either 2% lidocaine or placebo. The placebo agent is identical to lidocaine in terms of appearance, flavour and smell. All clinical and research staff involved, patients and their parents will be blinded to treatment allocation.The primary endpoint is the amount of fluid ingested by each child, expressed in ml/kg, within 60 minutes from the time of administration of the study mixture. Secondary endpoints are the proportion of patients ingesting 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg at 30 and 60 minutes after drug administration and the incidence of adverse events. Longer term outcomes will include the proportion of patients requiring hospital admission and length of emergency department stay

  19. A double blind, randomised placebo controlled trial of topical 2% viscous lidocaine in improving oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopper Sandy M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Painful infectious mouth conditions are a common presentation to emergency departments. Although self limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and can lead to dehydration. Oral analgesia is of limited efficacy and is often refused by the patient. Despite widespread use of oral 2% viscous lidocaine for many years, there is little evidence for its efficacy as an analgesic and in aiding oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions. This study aims to establish the effectiveness of 2% viscous lidocaine in increasing oral intake in these children by comparing it with placebo. Methods/Design This study is a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of children between 6 months and 8 years of age with painful infectious mouth conditions defined as gingivostomatitis (herpetic or non herpetic, ulcerative pharyngitis, herpangina and hand foot and mouth disease as assessed by the treating clinician in association with a history of poor oral fluid intake. It will be conducted at a single tertiary paediatric emergency department in Melbourne Australia. 20 patients have already been randomised to receive 2% lidocaine or placebo in a pilot study to determine the sample size in a preplanned adaptive design. A further 80 patients will be randomised to receive either 2% lidocaine or placebo. The placebo agent is identical to lidocaine in terms of appearance, flavour and smell. All clinical and research staff involved, patients and their parents will be blinded to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint is the amount of fluid ingested by each child, expressed in ml/kg, within 60 minutes from the time of administration of the study mixture. Secondary endpoints are the proportion of patients ingesting 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg at 30 and 60 minutes after drug administration and the incidence of adverse events. Longer term outcomes will include the proportion of patients requiring

  20. CryptoDex: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial of adjunctive dexamethasone in HIV-infected adults with cryptococcal meningitis: study protocol for a randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jeremy; Imran, Darma; Ganiem, Ahmed Rizal; Tjahjani, Natriana; Wahyuningsih, Retno; Adawiyah, Robiatul; Dance, David; Mayxay, Mayfong; Newton, Paul; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Chan, Adrienne K; Heyderman, Robert; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Day, Nick; Kamali, Anatoli; Kibengo, Freddie; Ruzagira, Eugene; Gray, Alastair; Lalloo, David G; Beardsley, Justin; Binh, Tran Quang; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Cuc, Ngo Thi Kim; Farrar, Jeremy; Hien, Tran Tinh; Van Kinh, Nguyen; Merson, Laura; Phuong, Lan; Tho, Loc Truong; Thuy, Pham Thanh; Thwaites, Guy; Wertheim, Heiman; Wolbers, Marcel

    2014-11-12

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a severe AIDS-defining illness with 90-day case mortality as high as 70% in sub-Saharan Africa, despite treatment. It is the leading cause of death in HIV patients in Asia and Africa.No major advance has been made in the treatment of CM since the 1970s. The mainstays of induction therapy are amphotericin B and flucytosine, but these are often poorly available where the disease burden is highest. Adjunctive treatments, such as dexamethasone, have had dramatic effects on mortality in other neurologic infections, but are untested in CM. Given the high death rates in patients receiving current optimal treatment, and the lack of new agents on the horizon, adjuvant treatments, which offer the potential to reduce mortality in CM, should be tested.The principal research question posed by this study is as follows: does adding dexamethasone to standard antifungal therapy for CM reduce mortality? Dexamethasone is a cheap, readily available, and practicable intervention. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial with parallel arms in which patients are randomised to receive either dexamethasone or placebo, in addition to local standard of care. The study recruits patients in both Asia and Africa to ensure the relevance of its results to the populations in which the disease burden is highest. The 10-week mortality risk in the control group is expected to be between 30% and 50%, depending on location, and the target hazard ratio of 0.7 corresponds to absolute risk reductions in mortality from 30% to 22%, or from 50% to 38%. Assuming an overall 10-week mortality of at least 30% in our study population, recruitment of 824 patients will be sufficient to observe the expected number of deaths. Allowing for some loss to follow-up, the total sample size for this study is 880 patients. To generate robust evidence across both continents, we aim to recruit roughly similar numbers of patients from each continent. The primary end point is 10-week mortality

  1. Fusidic acid cream in the treatment of impetigo in general practice: double blind randomised placebo controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Sander; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Nouwen, Jan L; Verduin, Cees M; Bernsen, Roos M D; Oranje, Arnold P; Thomas, Siep; van der Wouden, Johannes C

    2002-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that fusidic acid would not increase the treatment effect of disinfecting with povidone-iodine alone in children with impetigo. Design Randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting General practices in Greater Rotterdam. Participants 184 children aged 0-12 years with impetigo. Main outcome measures Clinical cure and bacterial cure after one week. Results After one week of treatment 55% of the patients in the fusidic acid group were clinically cured compared with 13% in the placebo group (odds ratio 12.6, 95% confidence interval 5.0 to 31.5, number needed to treat 2.3). After two weeks and four weeks the differences in cure rates between the two groups had become smaller. More children in the placebo group were non-compliant (12 v 5) and received extra antibiotic treatment (11 v 3), and more children in the placebo group reported adverse effects (19 v 7). Staphylococcus aureus was found in 96% of the positive cultures; no strains were resistant to fusidic acid. Conclusions Fusidic acid is much more effective than placebo (when both are given in combination with povidone-iodine shampoo) in the treatment of impetigo. Because of the low rate of cure and high rate of adverse events in the placebo group, the value of povidone-iodine in impetigo can be questioned. What is already known on this topicImpetigo is the most common skin infection in childrenFusidic acid, which is advocated as topical treatment in several countries, has never been investigated in a placebo controlled studyWhat this study addsIn combination with povidone-iodine, treatment with fusidic acid is much more effective than placeboNone of the strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated at baseline showed resistance to fusidic acidThe value of treatment with povidone-iodine alone can be questioned PMID:11809642

  2. Efficacy of a polyphenolic extract from silver fir (Abies alba) bark on psoriasis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorko, M Starbek; Štrukelj, B; Švajger, U; Kreft, S; Lunder, T

    2018-01-02

    Silver fir (Abies alba) bark extract contains a mixture of bioactive polyphenols. We tested their effectiveness in the treatment of psoriasis in order to further investigate the potential topical anti-inflammatory activity of polyphenols by means of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled add-on clinical trial, after having examined their ability to downregulate the expression of IL-1β cytokine in monocyte/macrophage primary cell culture. 61 patients with mild psoriasis met the inclusion criteria and were willing to comply with protocol requirements, were enrolled in the study. The severity of the disease was measured by psoriasis area severity index (PASI). Treatment efficacy was evaluated by assessing erythema (E, 0 to 4-point scale), desquamation (D, 0 to 4-point scale) and induration (I, 0 to 4-point scale) of lesions before and after the treatment. All patients enrolled in the study had symmetrical psoriasis plaques on the skin. All patients received O/V ointment with 2% of silver fir bark extract and/or placebo, respectively. We compared medications by right/left intra-patient comparison, so that the control group was always contralateral of the tested one. Location of the tested or control site was randomised, using a computer-generated randomisation schedule. Silver fir extract was well-tolerated. A superiority of active treatment above placebo, based on the clinical investigational PASI score system was observed by 15 % in all volunteers and in 40% regarding the improvement of psoriasis on elbows. However, statistical analysis showed no significant differences between placebo and active treatment with the extract from silver fir bark (p < 0.05).

  3. A randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centric parallel arm trial to assess the effects of homoeopathic medicines on chronic rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K Manchanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is one of the most common illnesses interfering with patient′s quality of life and work. Observational studies conducted by the Council indicate positive outcome. This protocol has been developed to ascertain the usefulness of homoeopathic intervention in comparison with control group in a randomised control setting. Objectives: Primary objective is to evaluate the changes in TSS (Total Symptoms Score and SNOT-22 (Sino-nasal Outcome Test-22 within the two groups of the study (Homoeopathy + Placebo. Secondary objective is to evaluate changes in SNOT-22 at end of the trial, changes in Lund and Mackay staging of CT scan, rhinoscopy grading, absolute eosinophil count, global assessment by investigator and patient, and number of acute exacerbations of CRS (for frequency, duration and intensity as per TSS scale compared to placebo. Methods/Design: This is a randomised double blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centric parallel arm trial of 6 months (three months treatment and three months observation period with 14 days run-in period. The primary outcome is a composite of the changes in the TSS and SNOT-22 over 3 months from baseline with area under the curve and changes over 3 months in the Sinus Nasal Outcome Test 22 (SNOT-22 from baseline. Prescription shall be made as per the homoeopathic principles. Efficacy data will be analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Discussion: This trial will help to evaluate the efficacy of homoeopathic individualised treatment using LM-potencies versus placebo in patients suffering from CRS as per the homoeopathic dictum.

  4. Lidocaine and tenoxicam effectiveness for pain relief during Pipelle: Non-randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargin, Mehmet Akif; Yassa, Murat; Celik, Ayhan; Ergun, Emrah; Tug, Niyazi

    2017-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of intrauterine lidocaine infusion with lidocaine and intravenous tenoxicam for decreasing the pain levels associated with endometrial biopsy. This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from May to November 2015, and comprised patients undergoing endometrial biopsy with Pipelle. Intrauterine lidocaine infusion, paracervical block with lidocaine, intravenous tenoxicam or 4ml intravenous normal saline administered prior to biopsy. The main outcome measure was pain intensity immediately afterwards and 30minutes after biopsy, determined by a visual analogue scale score. Number Cruncher Statistical System 2007 was used for statistical analyses. Of the 232 participants, intrauterine lidocaine infusion group had 59(25.4%) patients, 57(24.6%) were controls while paracervical block group and intravenous tenoxicam group each had 58(25%) patients. Both visual analogue scale 0 and 30 scores of the control group were significantly higher than the other three groups (p<0.05). Also, the scores of intravenous tenoxicam group were significantly higher than both intrauterine lidocaine infusion and paracervical block with lidocaine groups (p<0.05 each). Intravenous tenoxicam had a significantly lower effect than intrauterine lidocaine infusion and paracervical block with lidocaine during the early period after the procedure.

  5. Exercise and manual auricular acupuncture: a pilot assessor-blind randomised controlled trial. (The acupuncture and personalised exercise programme (APEP Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurley D

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence supports the use of exercise for chronic low back pain (CLBP; however, adherence is often poor due to ongoing pain. Auricular acupuncture is a form of pain relief involving the stimulation of points on the outer ear corresponding with specific body parts. It may be a useful adjunct to exercise in managing CLBP; however, there is only limited evidence to support its use with this patient group. Methods/Design This study was designed to test the feasibility of an assessor-blind randomised controlled trial which assess the effects on clinical outcomes and exercise adherence of adding manual auricular acupuncture to a personalised and supervised exercise programme (PEP for CLBP. No sample size calculation has been carried out as this study aims to identify CLBP referral rates within the catchment area of the study site. The researchers aim to recruit four cohorts of n = 20 participants to facilitate a power analysis for a future randomised controlled trial. A computer generated random allocation sequence will be prepared centrally and used to allocate participants by cohort to one of the following interventions: 1 six weeks of PEP plus manual auricular acupuncture; 2 six weeks of PEP alone. Both groups will also complete a further six weeks of self-paced exercise with telephone follow-up support. In addition to a baseline and exit questionnaire at the beginning and end of the study, the following outcomes will be collected at baseline, and after 7, 13 and 25 weeks: pain frequency and bothersomeness, back-specific function, objective assessment and recall of physical activity, use of analgesia, perceived self-efficacy, fear avoidance beliefs, and beliefs about the consequences of back pain. Since this is a feasibility study, significance tests will not be presented, and treatment effects will be represented by point estimates and confidence intervals. For each outcome variable, analysis of covariance will be performed on

  6. Liraglutide efficacy and action in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (LEAN): study protocol for a phase II multicentre, double-blinded, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Matthew J; Barton, Darren; Gaunt, Piers; Hull, Diana; Guo, Kathy; Stocken, Deborah; Gough, Stephen C L; Tomlinson, Jeremy W; Brown, Rachel M; Hübscher, Stefan G; Newsome, Philip N

    2013-11-04

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is now the commonest cause of chronic liver disease. Despite this, there are no universally accepted pharmacological therapies for NASH. Liraglutide (Victoza), a human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, has been shown to improve weight loss, glycaemic control and liver enzymes in type 2 diabetes. There is currently a lack of prospective-controlled studies investigating the efficacy of GLP-1 analogues in patients with NASH. Liraglutide efficacy and action in NASH (LEAN) is a phase II, multicentre, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial designed to investigate whether a 48-week treatment with 1.8 mg liraglutide will result in improvements in liver histology in patients with NASH. Adult, overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)) patients with biopsy-confirmed NASH were assessed for eligibility at five recruitment centres in the UK. Patients who satisfied the eligibility criteria were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive once-daily subcutaneous injections of either 1.8 mg liraglutide or liraglutide-placebo (control). Using A'Hern's single stage phase II methodology (significance level 0.05; power 0.90) and accounting for an estimated 20% withdrawal rate, a minimum of 25 patients were randomised to each treatment group. The primary outcome measure will be centrally assessed using an intention-to-treat analysis of the proportion of evaluable patients achieving an improvement in liver histology between liver biopsies at baseline and after 48 weeks of treatment. Histological improvement will be defined as a combination of the disappearance of active NASH and no worsening in fibrosis. The protocol was approved by the National Research Ethics Service (East Midlands-Northampton committee; 10/H0402/32) and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Recruitment into the LEAN started in August 2010 and ended in May 2013, with 52 patients randomised. The treatment follow-up of LEAN participants is

  7. Secondary prevention of asthma by the use of Inhaled Fluticasone propionate in Wheezy INfants (IFWIN): double-blind, randomised, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Clare S; Woodcock, Ashley; Langley, Stephen J; Morris, Julie; Custovic, Adnan

    2006-08-26

    Wheezing and asthma often begins in early childhood, but it is difficult to predict whether or not a wheezy infant will develop asthma. Some researchers suggest that treatment with inhaled corticosteroids at the first signs of wheezing in childhood could prevent the development of asthma later in life. However, other investigators have reported that although such treatment could help control symptoms, the benefits can disappear within months of stopping treatment. We tested our hypothesis that to prevent loss of lung function and worsening asthma later in childhood, anti-inflammatory treatment needs to be started early in life. We did a randomised, double-blind, controlled study of inhaled fluticasone propionate 100 mug twice daily in young children who were followed prospectively and randomised after either one prolonged (>1 month) or two medically confirmed wheezy episodes. The dose of study drug was reduced every 3 months to the minimum needed. If the symptoms were not under control by 3 months, open-label fluticasone propionate 100 mug twice daily was added to the treatment. Children were followed-up to 5 years of age, at which point we gave their parents or guardians questionnaires, and measured the children's lung function (specific airways resistance [sR(aw)], forced expiratory volume in 1s [FEV1]) and airway reactivity (eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation [EVH] challenge). This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN86717853. We followed 1073 children prospectively, of whom 333 were eligible, and 200 of these began treatment (130 male, median age 1.2 years [range 0.5-4.9]; 101 placebo, 99 treatment); 173 (85 treatment, 88 placebo) completed the follow-up at age five years. The groups did not differ significantly in the proportion of children with current wheeze, physician-diagnosed asthma or use of asthma medication, lung function, or airway reactivity (percentage change in FEV1, adjusted mean for placebo

  8. Efficacy and safety of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide added to insulin therapy in poorly regulated patients with type 1 diabetes-a protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, Thomas Fremming; Knop, Filip Krag; Tarnow, Lise

    2015-01-01

    in this investigator initiated, double-blinded, placebo-controlled parallel study. The primary end point is glycaemic control as measured by changes in HbA1c. Secondary end points include changes in the insulin dose, hypoglyacemic events, body weight, lean body mass, fat mass, food preferences and adverse events...... receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) therapy has proven effective in reducing weight gain and insulin dose. The present publication describes a protocol for a study evaluating the efficacy and safety of adding a GLP-1RA to insulin treatment in overweight patients with T1D in a randomised, double-blinded, controlled...

  9. A Randomised Controlled Single-Blind Trial of the Efficacy of Reiki at Benefitting Mood and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Deborah; Goddard, Lorna; Gruzelier, John

    2011-01-01

    This is a constructive replication of a previous trial conducted by Bowden et al. (2010), where students who had received Reiki demonstrated greater health and mood benefits than those who received no Reiki. The current study examined impact on anxiety/depression. 40 university students—half with high depression and/or anxiety and half with low depression and/or anxiety—were randomly assigned to receive Reiki or to a non-Reiki control group. Participants experienced six 30-minute sessions over a period of two to eight weeks, where they were blind to whether noncontact Reiki was administered as their attention was absorbed in a guided relaxation. The efficacy of the intervention was assessed pre-post intervention and at five-week follow-up by self-report measures of mood, illness symptoms, and sleep. The participants with high anxiety and/or depression who received Reiki showed a progressive improvement in overall mood, which was significantly better at five-week follow-up, while no change was seen in the controls. While the Reiki group did not demonstrate the comparatively greater reduction in symptoms of illness seen in our earlier study, the findings of both studies suggest that Reiki may benefit mood. PMID:21584234

  10. A Randomised Controlled Single-Blind Trial of the Efficacy of Reiki at Benefitting Mood and Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bowden

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a constructive replication of a previous trial conducted by Bowden et al. (2010, where students who had received Reiki demonstrated greater health and mood benefits than those who received no Reiki. The current study examined impact on anxiety/depression. 40 university students—half with high depression and/or anxiety and half with low depression and/or anxiety—were randomly assigned to receive Reiki or to a non-Reiki control group. Participants experienced six 30-minute sessions over a period of two to eight weeks, where they were blind to whether noncontact Reiki was administered as their attention was absorbed in a guided relaxation. The efficacy of the intervention was assessed pre-post intervention and at five-week follow-up by self-report measures of mood, illness symptoms, and sleep. The participants with high anxiety and/or depression who received Reiki showed a progressive improvement in overall mood, which was significantly better at five-week follow-up, while no change was seen in the controls. While the Reiki group did not demonstrate the comparatively greater reduction in symptoms of illness seen in our earlier study, the findings of both studies suggest that Reiki may benefit mood.

  11. Diabetes Health, Residence & Metabolism in Asians: the DHRMA study, research into foods from the Indian subcontinent - a blinded, randomised, placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Jeetesh V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is highly prevalent amongst the South Asian communities in Britain. The reasons for this excess CHD risk are multifactorial, but in part relate to a susceptibility to diabetes mellitus - where the aberrant metabolism of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and glucose are likely to underpin vascular disease in this population. Dietary intervention is an important and first line approach to manage increased CHD risk. However, there is limited information on the impact of the South Asian diet on CHD risk. Methods/Design The Diabetes Health, Residence & Metabolism in Asians (DHRMA study is a blinded, randomised, placebo controlled trial that analyses the efficacy of reduced glycaemic index (GI staples of the South Asian diet, in relation to cardio-metabolic risk factors that are commonly perturbed amongst South Asian populations - primarily glucose, fatty acid and lipoprotein metabolism and central adiposity. Using a 10-week dietary intervention study, 50 healthy South Asians will be randomised to receive either a DHRMA (reduced GI supply of chapatti (bread, stone ground, high protein wheat flour and white basmati rice (high bran, unpolished or commercially available (leading brand versions chapatti wheat flour and basmati rice. Volunteers will be asked to complete a 75g oral glucose tolerance test at baseline and at 10-weeks follow-up, where blood metabolites and hormones, blood pressure and anthropometry will also be assessed in a standardised manner. Discussion It is anticipated that the information collected from this study help develop healthy diet options specific (but not exclusive for South Asian ethnic communities. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN02839188

  12. Clonidine versus sufentanil as an adjuvant to ropivacaine in patient-controlled epidural labour analgesia: A randomised double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, Fabienne; Lavand'homme, Patricia

    2015-11-01

    Adjuvants to local anaesthetics for epidural labour analgesia are useful if they reduce side-effects or personnel requirements. Epidural clonidine improves analgesia and provides a significant local anaesthetic-sparing effect. To compare the number of rescue doses administered by the anaesthesiologist when clonidine or sufentanil is added to epidural ropivacaine. A randomised double-blind trial. Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium, from June 2009 to June 2010. One hundred and ninety-five women in labour. Epidural analgesia initiated with 10 ml ropivacaine 0.1%, women randomised to receive patient-controlled epidural analgesia (5 ml demand bolus, 15 min lockout) with ropivacaine 0.1% and sufentanil 0.25 μg ml⁻¹ (RS group; n = 65), or ropivacaine 0.1% and clonidine 1.5 μg ml⁻¹ (RC1.5 group; n = 65) or ropivacaine 0.1% and clonidine 3 μg ml⁻¹ (RC3 group; n = 65). Rescue analgesia was available as needed – 10 ml ropivacaine 0.1% (numerical rating scale neonatal outcomes were similar among the groups. Compared with sufentanil 0.25 μg ml⁻¹, addition of clonidine (1.5 to 3 μg ml⁻¹) to patient-controlled epidural analgesia with ropivacaine 0.1% provided similar labour analgesia and a similar need for anaesthesiologist-administered rescue doses. Clonidine 3 μg ml⁻¹ did not offer any advantage over clonidine 1.5 μg ml⁻¹. The instrumentation rate was higher in both the clonidine groups.

  13. Efficacy and safety of the topical application of tranexamic acid in primary cementless hip arthroplasty: prospective, randomised, double-blind and controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Sánchez-Monge, F J; Aguado Maestro, I; Bañuelos Díaz, A; Martín Ferrero, M Á; García Alonso, M F

    To evaluate the efficacy of topical tranexamic acid topical in cementless total hip arthroplasty from the point of view of bleeding, transfusion requirements and length of stay, and describe the complications of use compared to a control group. A prospective, randomised, double-blinded and controlled study including all patients undergoing cementless total hip arthroplasty in our centre between June 2014 and July 2015. Blood loss was estimated using the formula described by Nadler and Good. The final analysis included 119 patients. The decrease in haemoglobin after surgery was lower in the tranexamic acid group (3.28±1.13g/dL) than in the controls (4.03±1.27g/dL, P=.001) and estimated blood loss (1,216.75±410.46mL vs. 1,542.12±498.97mL, P<.001), the percentage of transfused patients (35.9% vs. 19.3%, P<.05) and the number of transfused red blood cell units per patient (0.37±0.77 vs. 0.98±1.77; P<.05). There were no differences between groups in the occurrence of complications or length of stay. The use of topical tranexamic acid in cementless total hip arthroplasty results in a decrease in bleeding and transfusion requirements without increasing the incidence of complications. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of dimetinden and hydroxyzine/chlorpheniramine in atopic dogs: a randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenseer, M; Johansen, C; Mueller, R S

    2013-11-02

    Antihistaminic drugs are commonly used as symptomatic therapy of atopic dermatitis in dogs. Unfortunately, their clinical benefit is largely unsubstantiated. In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial, the influence of dimetinden and of a combination of chlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine on pruritus and lesions was evaluated in 19 dogs. They were treated with either product or a placebo orally for 14 days, each time followed by a 14-day washout period. Before and after each period, the dogs were examined and the Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI) determined by a clinician, and the pruritus and general condition by the owner. Dimetinden improved the pruritus significantly (P=0.014) but not the CADESI (P=0.087), the combination of hydroxyzine and chlorpheniramine improved the CADESI (P=0.049) and pruritus (P=0.05) significantly. Ten of 17 dogs improved by more than 25 per cent in pruritus with the combination of hydroxyzine and chlorpheniramine, 12 of 18 with dimetindenmaleate and only 2 of 19 with placebo. Antihistamines can help to reduce pruritus in atopic dogs, but in most cases, the improvement is limited and additional treatment may be needed.

  15. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a physiotherapy program for chronic rotator cuff pathology: A protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, Kim; Coburn, Sally; Wee, Elin; Green, Sally; Harris, Anthony; Forbes, Andrew; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic rotator cuff pathology (CRCP) is a common shoulder condition causing pain and disability. Physiotherapy is often the first line of management for CRCP yet there is little conclusive evidence to support or refute its effectiveness and no formal evaluation of its cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will involve 200 participants with CRCP recruited from medical practices, outpatient departments and the community via print and radio media. Participants will be randomly allocated to a physiotherapy or placebo group using concealed allocation stratified by treating physiotherapist. Both groups will receive 10 sessions of individual standardised treatment over 10 weeks from one of 10 project physiotherapists. For the following 12 weeks, the physiotherapy group will continue a home exercise program and the placebo group will receive no treatment. The physiotherapy program will comprise shoulder joint and spinal mobilisation, soft tissue massage, postural taping, and home exercises for scapular control, posture and rotator cuff strengthening. The placebo group will receive inactive ultrasound and gentle application of an inert gel over the shoulder region. Blinded assessment will be conducted at baseline and at 10 weeks and 22 weeks after randomisation. The primary outcome measures are self reported questionnaires including the shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI), average pain on an 11-point numeric rating scale and participant perceived global rating of change. Secondary measures include Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form (SF-36), Assessment of Quality of Life index, numeric rating scales for shoulder pain and stiffness, participant perceived rating of change for pain, strength and stiffness, and manual muscle testing for shoulder strength using a handheld dynamometer. To evaluate cost-effectiveness, participants will record the use of all health-related treatments in a log

  16. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a physiotherapy program for chronic rotator cuff pathology: A protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Anthony

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic rotator cuff pathology (CRCP is a common shoulder condition causing pain and disability. Physiotherapy is often the first line of management for CRCP yet there is little conclusive evidence to support or refute its effectiveness and no formal evaluation of its cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will involve 200 participants with CRCP recruited from medical practices, outpatient departments and the community via print and radio media. Participants will be randomly allocated to a physiotherapy or placebo group using concealed allocation stratified by treating physiotherapist. Both groups will receive 10 sessions of individual standardised treatment over 10 weeks from one of 10 project physiotherapists. For the following 12 weeks, the physiotherapy group will continue a home exercise program and the placebo group will receive no treatment. The physiotherapy program will comprise shoulder joint and spinal mobilisation, soft tissue massage, postural taping, and home exercises for scapular control, posture and rotator cuff strengthening. The placebo group will receive inactive ultrasound and gentle application of an inert gel over the shoulder region. Blinded assessment will be conducted at baseline and at 10 weeks and 22 weeks after randomisation. The primary outcome measures are self reported questionnaires including the shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI, average pain on an 11-point numeric rating scale and participant perceived global rating of change. Secondary measures include Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form (SF-36, Assessment of Quality of Life index, numeric rating scales for shoulder pain and stiffness, participant perceived rating of change for pain, strength and stiffness, and manual muscle testing for shoulder strength using a handheld dynamometer. To evaluate cost-effectiveness, participants will record the use of all health

  17. The effect of local anaesthetic wound infiltration on chronic pain after lower limb joint replacement: A protocol for a double-blind randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Alison J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the majority of patients with osteoarthritis (OA, joint replacement is a successful intervention for relieving chronic joint pain. However, between 10-30% of patients continue to experience chronic pain after joint replacement. Evidence suggests that a risk factor for chronic pain after joint replacement is the severity of acute post-operative pain. The aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT is to determine if intra-operative local anaesthethic wound infiltration additional to a standard anaethesia regimen can reduce the severity of joint pain at 12-months after total knee replacement (TKR and total hip replacement (THR for OA. Methods 300 TKR patients and 300 THR patients are being recruited into this single-centre double-blind RCT. Participants are recruited before surgery and randomised to either the standard care group or the intervention group. Participants and outcome assessors are blind to treatment allocation throughout the study. The intervention consists of an intra-operative local anaesthetic wound infiltration, consisting of 60 mls of 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 in 200,000 adrenaline. Participants are assessed on the first 5 days post-operative, and then at 3-months, 6-months and 12-months. The primary outcome is the WOMAC Pain Scale, a validated measure of joint pain at 12-months. Secondary outcomes include pain severity during the in-patient stay, post-operative nausea and vomiting, satisfaction with pain relief, length of hospital stay, joint pain and disability, pain sensitivity, complications and cost-effectiveness. A nested qualitative study within the RCT will examine the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention for both patients and healthcare professionals. Discussion Large-scale RCTs assessing the effectiveness of a surgical intervention are uncommon, particulary in orthopaedics. The results from this trial will inform evidence-based recommendations for both short-term and long-term pain

  18. Rivastigmine in apathetic but dementia and depression-free patients with Parkinson's disease: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, David; Moreau, Caroline; Maltête, David; Lefaucheur, Romain; Kreisler, Alexandre; Eusebio, Alexandre; Defer, Gilles; Ouk, Thavarak; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Witjas, Tatiana; Delliaux, Marie; Destée, Alain; Duhamel, Alain; Bordet, Régis; Defebvre, Luc; Dujardin, Kathy

    2014-06-01

    Even with optimal dopaminergic treatments, many patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are frequently incapacitated by apathy prior to the development of dementia. We sought to establish whether rivastigmine's ability to inhibit acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterases could relieve the symptoms of apathy in dementia-free, non-depressed patients with advanced PD. We performed a multicentre, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial (Protocol ID: 2008-002578-36; clinicaltrials.gov reference: NCT00767091) in patients with PD with moderate to severe apathy (despite optimised dopaminergic treatment) and without dementia. Patients from five French university hospitals were randomly assigned 1:1 to rivastigmine (transdermal patch of 9.5 mg/day) or placebo for 6 months. The primary efficacy criterion was the change over time in the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS) score. 101 consecutive patients were screened, 31 were eligible and 16 and 14 participants were randomised into the rivastigmine and placebo groups, respectively. Compared with placebo, rivastigmine improved the LARS score (from -11.5 (-15/-7) at baseline to -20 (-25/-12) after treatment; F(1, 25)=5.2; p=0.031; adjusted size effect: -0.9). Rivastigmine also improved the caregiver burden and instrumental activities of daily living but failed to improve quality of life. No severe adverse events occurred in the rivastigmine group. Rivastigmine may represent a new therapeutic option for moderate to severe apathy in advanced PD patients with optimised dopaminergic treatment and without depression dementia. These findings require confirmation in a larger clinical trial. Our results also confirmed that the presence of apathy can herald a pre-dementia state in PD. Clinicaltrials.gov reference: NCT00767091.

  19. Intermittent treatment with mesalazine in the prevention of diverticulitis recurrence: a randomised multicentre pilot double-blind placebo-controlled study of 24-month duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, F; Bargiggia, S; Prada, A; Bortoli, A; Giacosa, A; Germanà, B; Ferrari, A; Casella, G; De Pretis, G; Miori, G

    2013-10-01

    Recurrence of diverticulitis is frequent within 5 years from the uncomplicated first attack, and its prophylaxis is still unclear. We have undertaken a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study in order to evaluate the role of mesalazine in preventing diverticulitis recurrence as well as its effects on symptoms associated to diverticular disease. Ninety-six patients with the recent first episode of uncomplicated diverticulitis were randomised to receive mesalazine 800 mg twice daily for 10 days every month or placebo for 24 months. The primary efficacy end point was the diverticulitis recurrence at intention to treat analysis. Clinical evaluations were performed using the Therapy Impact Questionnaire (TIQ) for physical condition and quality of life at admission and at 3-month intervals. Treatment tolerability and routine biochemistry parameters as well as the use of additional drugs were also evaluated. Ninety-two patients (mean age, 61.5) completed the study, 45 of whom received mesalazine, and 47, placebo. Diverticulitis relapse incidence in mesalazine-treated group was 5/45 (11%) at the 12th month and 6/45 (13%) at the 24th month; in the placebo-treated group, the correspondent rates were 13% (6/47) and 28% (13/47), respectively. Mean values of TIQ at 24 months were significantly better in mesalazine-treated group than in placebo-treated group (p = 0.02); in addition, average additional drug consumption was significantly lower (-20.4%, p Diverticulitis recurrence occurred in as many as 28% of patients under placebo within 24 months from the initial episode. Intermittent prophylaxis with mesalazine did not significantly reduce the risk of relapse but induced a significant improvement of patients' physical conditions and significantly lowered the additional consumption of other gastrointestinal drugs.

  20. Supportive text messages for patients with alcohol use disorder and a comorbid depression: a protocol for a single-blind randomised controlled aftercare trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Dan; Murphy, Edel; Kehoe, Elizabeth; Agyapong, Vincent; McLoughlin, Declan M; Farren, Conor

    2017-05-29

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and mood disorders commonly co-occur, and are associated with a range of negative outcomes for patients. Mobile phone technology has the potential to provide personalised support for such patients and potentially improve outcomes in this difficult-to-treat cohort. The aim of this study is to examine whether receiving supporting SMS text messages, following discharge from an inpatient dual diagnosis treatment programme, has a positive impact on mood and alcohol abstinence in patients with an AUD and a comorbid mood disorder. The present study is a single-blind randomised controlled trial. Patients aged 18-70 years who meet the criteria for both alcohol dependency syndrome/alcohol abuse and either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder according to the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV Axis I will be randomised to receive twice-daily supportive SMS text messages for 6 months plus treatment as usual, or treatment as usual alone, and will be followed-up at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postdischarge. Primary outcome measures will include changes from baseline in cumulative abstinence duration, which will be expressed as the proportion of days abstinent from alcohol in the preceding 90 days, and changes from baseline in Beck Depression Inventory scores. The trial has received full ethical approval from the St. Patrick's Hospital Research Ethics Committee (protocol 13/14). Results of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal articles and at academic conferences. NCT02404662; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Sublingual ketorolac versus sublingual tramadol for moderate to severe post-traumatic bone pain in children: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Elena; Maestro, Alessandra; Minen, Federico; Montico, Marcella; Ronfani, Luca; Zanon, Davide; Favret, Anna; Messi, Gianni; Barbi, Egidio

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sublingual ketorolac versus sublingual tramadol in reducing the pain associated with fracture or dislocation of extremities in children. A double-blind, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted in the paediatric emergency department of a research institute. One hundred and thirty-one children aged 4-17 years with suspected bone fracture or dislocation were enrolled. Eligible children were randomised to ketorolac (0.5 mg/kg) and placebo, or to tramadol (2 mg/kg) and placebo by sublingual administration, using a double-dummy technique. Pain was assessed by the patients every 20 min, for a maximum period of 2 h, using the McGrath scale for patients up to 6 years of age, and the Visual Analogue Scale for those older than 6 years of age. The mean pain scores fell significantly from eight to four and five in the ketorolac and tramadol groups, respectively, by 100 min (Wilcoxon sign rank test, p<0.001). The mean pain scores for ketorolac were lower than those for tramadol, but these differences were not significant at any time point (Mann-Whitney U Test, p values: 0-20 min: 0.167; 20-40 min: 0.314; 40-60 min: 0.223; 60-80 min: 0.348; 80-100 min: 0.166; 100-120 min: 0.08). The rescue dose of paracetamol-codeine was administered in 2/60 children in the ketorolac group versus 8/65 in the tramadol group (Fisher exact test, p=0.098). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in the frequency of adverse effects. Both sublingual ketorolac and tramadol were equally effective for pain management in children with suspected fractures or dislocations.

  2. A multi-centre, blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled, laboratory-based study of MQX-503, a novel topical gel formulation of nitroglycerine, in patients with Raynaud phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummers, Laura K; Dugowson, Carin E; Dechow, Frederick J; Wise, Robert A; Gregory, Jeffrey; Michalek, Joel; Yenokyan, Gayane; McGready, John; Wigley, Fredrick M

    2013-12-01

    MQX-503 is a novel nitroglycerine preparation designed to absorb quickly and allow local vasodilatation in the skin. We examined the efficacy and tolerability of this medication in Raynaud phenomenon (RP) in a laboratory-based study. In this multi-centre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, subjects were treated with 0.5% or 1.25% nitroglycerine or placebo gel. Subjects received each dose twice in a randomised order. Each study session consisted of baseline laser Doppler measurements, study gel application and 5 min of cold chamber exposure (-20°C). Blood flow (BF) was measured at the end of exposure and for the next 120 min at set intervals. Other outcome measures included achievement of baseline BF; the time to achieve 50% and 70% baseline skin temperature (ST); and pain, tingling and numbness scores. 37 subjects completed 214 treatment periods. Time to achieve baseline BF was significantly shorter in the two treated groups (HR=1.77 and 2.02 for 0.5% and 1.25% vs placebo, respectively). The proportion of subjects achieving baseline BF was 45.8% for placebo, 66.2% for 0.5% and 69% for 1.25% (p=0.01 and p=0.002 for 0.5% and 1.25% vs placebo, respectively). No meaningful differences were seen in ST or pain/numbness/tingling scores. Treatment was well tolerated with no serious adverse events. Treatment with MQX-503 caused a significant improvement in skin BF compared with placebo. Data from this proof of concept study suggest benefit of MQX-503 in subjects with RP.

  3. Effect of adrenaline on survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ian G; Finn, Judith C; Jelinek, George A; Oxer, Harry F; Thompson, Peter L

    2011-09-01

    There is little evidence from clinical trials that the use of adrenaline (epinephrine) in treating cardiac arrest improves survival, despite adrenaline being considered standard of care for many decades. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of adrenaline on patient survival to hospital discharge in out of hospital cardiac arrest. We conducted a double blind randomised placebo-controlled trial of adrenaline in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Identical study vials containing either adrenaline 1:1000 or placebo (sodium chloride 0.9%) were prepared. Patients were randomly allocated to receive 1 ml aliquots of the trial drug according to current advanced life support guidelines. Outcomes assessed included survival to hospital discharge (primary outcome), pre-hospital return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and neurological outcome (Cerebral Performance Category Score - CPC). A total of 4103 cardiac arrests were screened during the study period of which 601 underwent randomisation. Documentation was available for a total of 534 patients: 262 in the placebo group and 272 in the adrenaline group. Groups were well matched for baseline characteristics including age, gender and receiving bystander CPR. ROSC occurred in 22 (8.4%) of patients receiving placebo and 64 (23.5%) who received adrenaline (OR=3.4; 95% CI 2.0-5.6). Survival to hospital discharge occurred in 5 (1.9%) and 11 (4.0%) patients receiving placebo or adrenaline respectively (OR=2.2; 95% CI 0.7-6.3). All but two patients (both in the adrenaline group) had a CPC score of 1-2. Patients receiving adrenaline during cardiac arrest had no statistically significant improvement in the primary outcome of survival to hospital discharge although there was a significantly improved likelihood of achieving ROSC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of eltrombopag on platelet counts and bleeding during treatment of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussel, James B; Provan, Drew; Shamsi, Tahir; Cheng, Gregory; Psaila, Bethan; Kovaleva, Lidia; Salama, Abdulgabar; Jenkins, Julian M; Roychowdhury, Debasish; Mayer, Bhabita; Stone, Nicole; Arning, Michael

    2009-02-21

    Eltrombopag is an oral, non-peptide, thrombopoietin-receptor agonist that stimulates thrombopoiesis, leading to increased platelet production. This study assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of once daily eltrombopag 50 mg, and explored the efficacy of a dose increase to 75 mg. In this phase III, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, adults from 63 sites in 23 countries with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), platelet counts less than 30 000 per muL of blood, and one or more previous ITP treatment received standard care plus once-daily eltrombopag 50 mg (n=76) or placebo (n=38) for up to 6 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio of eltrombopag:placebo by a validated randomisation system. After 3 weeks, patients with platelet counts less than 50 000 per microL could increase study drug to 75 mg. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving platelet counts 50 000 per microL or more at day 43. All participants who received at least one dose of their allocated treatment were included in the analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00102739. 73 patients in the eltrombopag group and 37 in the placebo group were included in the efficacy population and were evaluable for day-43 analyses. 43 (59%) eltrombopag patients and six (16%) placebo patients responded (ie, achieved platelet counts >/=50 000 per microL; odds ratio [OR] 9.61 [95% CI 3.31-27.86]; pevents during treatment (eltrombopag, two [3%]; placebo, one [3%]) and adverse events leading to study discontinuation (eltrombopag, three [4%]; placebo, two [5%]), were similar in both groups. Eltrombopag is an effective treatment for managment of thrombocytopenia in chronic ITP.

  5. Effect of hookworm infection on wheat challenge in celiac disease--a randomised double-blinded placebo controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A James Daveson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The association between hygiene and prevalence of autoimmune disease has been attributed in part to enteric helminth infection. A pilot study of experimental infection with the hookworm Necator americanus was undertaken among a group of otherwise healthy people with celiac disease to test the potential of the helminth to suppress the immunopathology induced by gluten. METHODS: In a 21-week, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we explored the effects of N. americanus infection in 20 healthy, helminth-naïve adults with celiac disease well controlled by diet. Staged cutaneous inoculations with 10 and 5 infective 3(rd stage hookworm larvae or placebo were performed at week-0 and -12 respectively. At week-20, a five day oral wheat challenge equivalent to 16 grams of gluten per day was undertaken. Primary outcomes included duodenal Marsh score and quantification of the immunodominant α-gliadin peptide (QE65-specific systemic interferon-γ-producing cells by ELISpot pre- and post-wheat challenge. RESULTS: Enteric colonisation with hookworm established in all 10 cases, resulting in transiently painful enteritis in 5. Chronic infection was asymptomatic, with no effect on hemoglobin levels. Although some duodenal eosinophilia was apparent, hookworm-infected mucosa retained a healthy appearance. In both groups, wheat challenge caused deterioration in both primary and several secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Experimental N. americanus infection proved to be safe and enabled testing its effect on a range of measures of the human autoimmune response. Infection imposed no obvious benefit on pathology. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00671138.

  6. A Placebo-Controlled, Blinded and Randomised Study on the Effects of Recombinant Human Thyrotropin on Quality of Life in the Treatment of Thyroid Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte; Bastholt, Lars; Bennedbæk, Finn Noe

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) in thyroid cancer patients can induce a decrease in quality of life (QOL). Recombinant human thyrotropin (rh-TSH) has been used to avoid this; however, no blinded studies have ever documented the effect. OBJECTIVE: To compare QOL...... in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) treated with either rh-TSH or liothyronine (L-T3) THW for 10 days. STUDY DESIGN: Double-blind, randomised cross-over. PATIENTS: Fifty-six patients with DTC treated by total thyroidectomy and indication for postsurgery radioiodine (RI) ablation therapy...

  7. Exchanging a few commercial, regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulven, Stine M; Leder, Lena; Elind, Elisabeth; Ottestad, Inger; Christensen, Jacob J; Telle-Hansen, Vibeke H; Skjetne, Anne J; Raael, Ellen; Sheikh, Navida A; Holck, Marianne; Torvik, Kristin; Lamglait, Amandine; Thyholt, Kari; Byfuglien, Marte G; Granlund, Linda; Andersen, Lene F; Holven, Kirsten B

    2016-10-01

    The healthy Nordic diet has been previously shown to have health beneficial effects among subjects at risk of CVD. However, the extent of food changes needed to achieve these effects is less explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exchanging a few commercially available, regularly consumed key food items (e.g. spread on bread, fat for cooking, cheese, bread and cereals) with improved fat quality on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and inflammatory markers in a double-blind randomised, controlled trial. In total, 115 moderately hypercholesterolaemic, non-statin-treated adults (25-70 years) were randomly assigned to an experimental diet group (Ex-diet group) or control diet group (C-diet group) for 8 weeks with commercially available food items with different fatty acid composition (replacing SFA with mostly n-6 PUFA). In the Ex-diet group, serum total cholesterol (PLDL-cholesterol (Pcholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. No difference in change in plasma levels of inflammatory markers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, IL-6, soluble TNF receptor 1 and interferon-γ) was observed between the groups. In conclusion, exchanging a few regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol, with no negative effect on levels of inflammatory markers. This shows that an exchange of a few commercially available food items was easy and manageable and led to clinically relevant cholesterol reduction, potentially affecting future CVD risk.

  8. The value of herbal medicines in the treatment of acute non-purulent rhinosinusitis. Results of a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesche, Stefan; Metternich, Frank; Sonnemann, Uwe; Engelke, Jan-Christian; Dethlefsen, Uwe

    2008-11-01

    In a prospective, randomised, double-blinded controlled study, we compared the efficacy and safety of two different treatment options with the herbal medicines cineole and a combination of five different components for acute viral rhinosinusitis. One hundred and fifty patients with acute and viral rhinosinusitis (75 patients in each treatment group) were enrolled. The diagnosis rhinosinusitis was made according to a defined symptoms-sum-score which was based on rhinoscopic and clinical signs which are characteristic for rhinosinusitis. The primary endpoint was the amelioration of the symptoms-sum-score, which includes all relevant characteristics for rhinosinusitis as headache on bending, frontal headache, sensitivity of pressure points of trigeminal nerve, impairment of general condition, nasal obstruction, rhino-secretion, secretion quantity, secretion viscosity and fever in a treatment period of 7 days. The mean reduction of the symptoms-sum-score after 4 days was 6.7 (+/-3.4) and after 7 days 11.0 (+/-3.3) in the cineole group and 3.6 (+/-2.8) after 4 days and 8.0 (+/-3.0) after 7 days in the control group. The differences between both groups were clinically relevant and statistically significant after 4 and 7 days (P cineole is clinically relevant and statistically significant, more effective in comparison to the alternative herbal preparation with five different components.

  9. Intranasal oxytocin reduces heart rate variability during a mental arithmetic task: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Lincoln M; Gibson, Stephen J; Labuschagne, Izelle; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Giummarra, Melita J

    2018-02-02

    Heart rate variability (HRV) refers to variation in the interval between successive heart beats. Low HRV is an indicator of potential autonomic nervous system dysfunction. People with chronic pain often display autonomic dysregulation, especially in the parasympathetic nervous system. The hormone oxytocin has been shown to increase HRV in non-clinical samples, but its potential impact on HRV in persons with chronic pain is unknown. This study investigated the impact of intranasal oxytocin on HRV in persons with chronic neck and shoulder pain. Participants included 24 individuals with chronic neck and shoulder pain lasting >12months and 24 age- and sex-matched pain-free controls. In a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, participants self-administered intranasal oxytocin (24IU) in one session, and placebo in another, before HRV was recorded at rest and during a mental arithmetic task. Intranasal oxytocin did not influence HRV at rest. However, compared to placebo, intranasal oxytocin elicited small decreases in low-frequency and high-frequency HRV in both groups during the mental arithmetic task. These results suggest that intranasal oxytocin may enhance the salience of the mental arithmetic task, leading to reduced engagement of the parasympathetic nervous system when completing the task. Further investigation and replication of these findings are required to improve our understanding of the effects of intranasal oxytocin on autonomic functioning both at rest and under cognitive stress. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART) in at risk individuals: a randomised double blind, sham controlled, longitudinal trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Nicola J; Valenzuela, Michael; Sachdev, Perminder S; Singh, Nalin A; Baune, Bernhard T; Brodaty, Henry; Suo, Chao; Jain, Nidhi; Wilson, Guy C; Wang, Yi; Baker, Michael K; Williamson, Dominique; Foroughi, Nasim; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2011-04-21

    The extent to which mental and physical exercise may slow cognitive decline in adults with early signs of cognitive impairment is unknown. This article provides the rationale and methodology of the first trial to investigate the isolated and combined effects of cognitive training (CT) and progressive resistance training (PRT) on general cognitive function and functional independence in older adults with early cognitive impairment: Study of Mental and Regular Training (SMART). Our secondary aim is to quantify the differential adaptations to these interventions in terms of brain morphology and function, cardiovascular and metabolic function, exercise capacity, psychological state and body composition, to identify the potential mechanisms of benefit and broader health status effects. SMART is a double-blind randomized, double sham-controlled trial. One hundred and thirty-two community-dwelling volunteers will be recruited. Primary inclusion criteria are: at risk for cognitive decline as defined by neuropsychology assessment, low physical activity levels, stable disease, and age over 55 years. The two active interventions are computerized CT and whole body, high intensity PRT. The two sham interventions are educational videos and seated calisthenics. Participants are randomized into 1 of 4 supervised training groups (2 d/wk×6 mo) in a fully factorial design. Primary outcomes measured at baseline, 6, and 18 months are the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog), neuropsychological test scores, and Bayer Informant Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (B-IADLs). Secondary outcomes are psychological well-being, quality of life, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function, body composition, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and anabolic/neurotrophic hormones, and brain morphology and function via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (fMRS). SMART will provide a novel evaluation of the immediate and long term benefits of CT, PRT, and combined

  11. Double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of esomeprazole to treat early onset pre-eclampsia (PIE Trial): a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Catherine A; Walker, Susan P; Mol, Ben W; Theron, Gerard B; Hall, David R; Hiscock, Richard; Hannan, N; Tong, S

    2015-10-28

    Pre-eclampsia is a major complication of pregnancy, globally responsible for 60 000 maternal deaths per year, and far greater numbers of fetal losses. There is no definitive treatment other than delivery. A drug that can quench the disease process could be useful to treat early onset pre-eclampsia, as it could allow pregnancies to safely continue to a gestation where fetal outcomes are significantly improved. We have generated preclinical data to show esomeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor used for gastric reflux, has potent biological effects that makes it a worthwhile therapeutic candidate. Esomeprazole potently decreases soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin secretion from placenta and endothelial cells, and has biological actions to mitigate endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. We propose undertaking a phase II, double blind, randomised controlled clinical trial to examine whether administering 40 mg esomeprazole daily may prolong gestation in women with early onset pre-eclampsia. We will recruit 120 women (gestational age of 26+0 to 31+6 weeks) who will be randomised to receive either esomeprazole or an identical placebo. The primary outcome will be the number of days from randomisation to delivery. Secondary outcomes include maternal, fetal and neonatal composite and individual outcomes. Maternal outcomes include maternal death, eclampsia, pulmonary oedema, severe renal impairment, cerebral vascular events and liver haematoma or rupture. Neonatal outcomes include neonatal death within 6 weeks after the due date, intraventricular haemorrhage, necrotising enterocolitis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We will examine whether esomeprazole can decrease serum sFlt-1 and soluble endoglin levels and we will record the safety of esomeprazole in these pregnancies. This study has ethical approval (Protocol V.2.4, M14/09/038, Federal Wide assurance Number 00001372, IRB0005239), and is registered with NHREC (ID 3649) and the Pan

  12. Efficacy of early administration of escitalopram on depressive and emotional symptoms and neurological dysfunction after stroke: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong S; Lee, Eun-Jae; Chang, Dae-Il; Park, Jong-Ho; Ahn, Seong Hwan; Cha, Jae-Kwan; Heo, Ji Hoe; Sohn, Sung-Il; Lee, Byung-Chul; Kim, Dong-Eog; Kim, Hahn Young; Kim, Seongheon; Kwon, Do-Young; Kim, Jei; Seo, Woo-Keun; Lee, Jun; Park, Sang-Won; Koh, Seong-Ho; Kim, Jin Young; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2017-01-01

    Mood and emotional disturbances are common in patients with stroke, and adversely affect the clinical outcome. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of early administration of escitalopram to reduce moderate or severe depressive symptoms and improve emotional and neurological dysfunction in patients with stroke. This was a placebo controlled, double-blind trial done at 17 centres in South Korea. Patients who had had an acute stroke within the past 21 days were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive oral escitalopram (10 mg/day) or placebo for 3 months. Randomisation was done with permuted blocks stratified by centre, via a web-based system. The primary endpoint was the frequency of moderate or severe depressive symptoms (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] ≥16). Endpoints were assessed at 3 months after randomisation in the full analysis set (patients who took study medication and underwent assessment of primary endpoint after randomisation), in all patients who were enrolled and randomly assigned (intention to treat), and in all patients who completed the trial (per-protocol analysis). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01278498. Between Jan 27, 2011, and June 30, 2014, 478 patients were assigned to placebo (n=237) or escitalopram (n=241); 405 were included in the full analysis set (195 in the placebo group, 210 in the escitalopram group). The primary outcome did not differ by study group in the full analysis set (25 [13%] patients in the placebo group vs 27 [13%] in the escitalopram group; odds ratio [OR] 1·00, 95% CI 0·56-1·80; p>0·99) or in the intention-to-treat analysis (34 [14%] vs 35 [15%]; OR 1·01, 95% CI 0·61-1·69, p=0·96). The study medication was generally well tolerated; the most common adverse events were constipation (14 [6%] patients who received placebo vs 14 [6%] who received escitalopram), muscle pain (16 [7%] vs ten [4%]), and insomnia (12 [5%] vs 12 [5%]). Diarrhoea was more common in the

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel monovalent high-dose inactivated poliovirus type 2 vaccine in infants: a comparative, observer-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Clemens, Ralf; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Jimeno, José; Clemens, Sue Ann Costa; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Molina, Natanael; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S

    2016-03-01

    Following the proposed worldwide switch from trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent types 1 and 3 OPV (bOPV) in 2016, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) will be the only source of protection against poliovirus type 2. With most countries opting for one dose of IPV in routine immunisation schedules during this transition because of cost and manufacturing constraints, optimisation of protection against all poliovirus types will be a priority of the global eradication programme. We assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a novel monovalent high-dose inactivated poliovirus type 2 vaccine (mIPV2HD) in infants. This observer-blind, comparative, randomised controlled trial was done in a single centre in Panama. We enrolled healthy infants who had not received any previous vaccination against poliovirus. Infants were randomly assigned (1:1) by computer-generated randomisation sequence to receive a single dose of either mIPV2HD or standard trivalent IPV given concurrently with a third dose of bOPV at 14 weeks of age. At 18 weeks, all infants were challenged with one dose of monovalent type 2 OPV (mOPV2). Primary endpoints were seroconversion and median antibody titres to type 2 poliovirus 4 weeks after vaccination with mIPV2HD or IPV; and safety (as determined by the proportion and nature of serious adverse events and important medical events for 8 weeks after vaccination). The primary immunogenicity analyses included all participants for whom a post-vaccination blood sample was available. All randomised participants were included in the safety analyses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02111135. Between April 14 and May 9, 2014, 233 children were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive mIPV2HD (117 infants) or IPV (116 infants). 4 weeks after vaccination with mIPV2HD or IPV, seroconversion to poliovirus type 2 was recorded in 107 (93·0%, 95% CI 86·8-96·9) of 115 infants in the mIPV2HD group compared with 86 (74·8%, 65·8

  14. Efficacy of rotigotine for treatment of moderate-to-severe restless legs syndrome: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkwalder, Claudia; Benes, Heike; Poewe, Werner; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; de Weerd, Al W; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Montagna, Pasquale; Odin, Per; Stiasny-Kolster, Karin; Högl, Birgit; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Partinen, Markku; Schollmayer, Erwin; Kohnen, Ralf

    2008-07-01

    Continuous administration of a dopamine agonist could be used to treat patients with restless legs syndrome. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of transdermal rotigotine in the treatment of idiopathic restless legs syndrome. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 458 patients with moderate-to-severe idiopathic restless legs syndrome (average baseline International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group severity rating scale [IRLS] sum score of 28.1) were randomly assigned to receive transdermal rotigotine 1 mg over 24 h (n=115), 2 mg over 24 h (n=112), or 3 mg over 24 h (n=114), or to receive placebo (n=117). Study medication was delivered via patches, applied once a day for 6 months. Randomisation was done with a computer-generated randomisation list, stratified by centre. Primary efficacy outcomes were absolute change from baseline to end of maintenance in IRLS sum score and in the clinical global impressions (CGI) item 1 score, assessed by analysis of covariance in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00136045. Efficacy analyses were done on 112 patients in the 1 mg group, 109 in the 2 mg group, 112 in the 3 mg group, and 114 in the placebo group. Mean change in IRLS sum score from baseline at the end of the maintenance phase was -13.7 (SE 0.9) in the 1 mg group, -16.2 (0.9) in the 2 mg group, -16.8 (0.9) in the 3 mg group, and -8.6 (0.9) in the placebo group (pserious adverse event that were deemed to be related to rotigotine: elevation of liver enzymes (one patient), worsening of tinnitus (one patient), non-response to anticoagulation (one patient), electrocardiogram changes (one patient), and application-site reactions (six patients). No admissions to hospital were needed for the application-site reactions, and they all resolved within a short time of patch removal without any other therapeutic intervention. The rate of typical dopaminergic side-effects in patients who received

  15. Study Protocol: Phase III single-blinded fast-track pragmatic randomised controlled trial of a complex intervention for breathlessness in advanced disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brafman-Kennedy Barbara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breathlessness in advanced disease causes significant distress to patients and carers and presents management challenges to health care professionals. The Breathlessness Intervention Service (BIS seeks to improve the care of breathless patients with advanced disease (regardless of cause through the use of evidence-based practice and working with other healthcare providers. BIS delivers a complex intervention (of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments via a multi-professional team. BIS is being continuously developed and its impact evaluated using the MRC's framework for complex interventions (PreClinical, Phase I and Phase II completed. This paper presents the protocol for Phase III. Methods/Design Phase III comprises a pragmatic, fast-track, single-blind randomised controlled trial of BIS versus standard care. Due to differing disease trajectories, the service uses two broad service models: one for patients with malignant disease (intervention delivered over two weeks and one for patients with non-malignant disease (intervention delivered over four weeks. The Phase III trial therefore consists of two sub-protocols: one for patients with malignant conditions (four week protocol and one for patients with non-malignant conditions (eight week protocol. Mixed method interviews are conducted with patients and their lay carers at three to five measurement points depending on randomisation and sub-protocol. Qualitative interviews are conducted with referring and non-referring health care professionals (malignant disease protocol only. The primary outcome measure is 'patient distress due to breathlessness' measured on a numerical rating scale (0-10. The trial includes economic evaluation. Analysis will be on an intention to treat basis. Discussion This is the first evaluation of a breathlessness intervention for advanced disease to have followed the MRC framework and one of the first palliative care trials to use fast

  16. Advanced Cardiac Resuscitation Evaluation (ACRE: A randomised single-blind controlled trial of peer-led vs. expert-led advanced resuscitation training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Thomas C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advanced resuscitation skills training is an important and enjoyable part of medical training, but requires small group instruction to ensure active participation of all students. Increases in student numbers have made this increasingly difficult to achieve. Methods A single-blind randomised controlled trial of peer-led vs. expert-led resuscitation training was performed using a group of sixth-year medical students as peer instructors. The expert instructors were a senior and a middle grade doctor, and a nurse who is an Advanced Life Support (ALS Instructor. A power calculation showed that the trial would have a greater than 90% chance of rejecting the null hypothesis (that expert-led groups performed 20% better than peer-led groups if that were the true situation. Secondary outcome measures were the proportion of High Pass grades in each groups and safety incidents. The peer instructors designed and delivered their own course material. To ensure safety, the peer-led groups used modified defibrillators that could deliver only low-energy shocks. Blinded assessment was conducted using an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE. The checklist items were based on International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR guidelines using Ebel standard-setting methods that emphasised patient and staff safety and clinical effectiveness. The results were analysed using Exact methods, chi-squared and t-test. Results A total of 132 students were randomised: 58 into the expert-led group, 74 into the peer-led group. 57/58 (98% of students from the expert-led group achieved a Pass compared to 72/74 (97% from the peer-led group: Exact statistics confirmed that it was very unlikely (p = 0.0001 that the expert-led group was 20% better than the peer-led group. There were no safety incidents, and High Pass grades were achieved by 64 (49% of students: 33/58 (57% from the expert-led group, 31/74 (42% from the peer-led group. Exact

  17. Adjunctive sarcosine plus benzoate improved cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia patients with constant clinical symptoms: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yuan; Liang, Sun-Yuan; Chang, Yue-Cune; Ting, Shuo-Yen; Kao, Ching-Ling; Wu, Yu-Hsin; Tsai, Guochuan E; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Hypofunction of NMDA receptor is implicated in the pathophysiology, particularly cognitive impairment, of schizophrenia. Sarcosine, a glycine transporter I (GlyT-1) inhibitor, and sodium benzoate, a d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) inhibitor, can both enhance NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission. We proposed simultaneously inhibiting DAAO and GlyT-1 may be more effective than inhibition of either in improving the cognitive and global functioning of schizophrenia patients. Methods This study compared add-on sarcosine (2 g/day) plus benzoate (1 g/day) vs. sarcosine (2 g/day) for the clinical symptoms, as well as the cognitive and global functioning, of chronic schizophrenia patients in a 12-week, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale every 3 weeks. Seven cognitive domains, recommended by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Committee, were measured at weeks 0 and 12. Results Adjunctive sarcosine plus benzoate, but not sarcosine alone, improved the cognitive and global functioning of patients with schizophrenia, even when their clinical symptoms had not improved. Conclusions This finding suggests N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-enhancement therapy can improve the cognitive function of patients with schizophrenia, further indicating this pro-cognitive effect can be primary without improvement in clinical symptoms.

  18. Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk containing lactononadecapeptide (NIPPLTQTPVVVPPFLQPE) improves cognitive function in healthy middle-aged adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Fumiya; Uchida, Naoto; Mizuno, Seiichi; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2017-08-18

    This study aimed to determine the effects of a Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk drink containing lactononadecapeptide (NIPPLTQTPVVVPPFLQPE) on the cognitive function of healthy middle-aged adults. A randomised, double-blind controlled study was conducted in healthy participants who were randomly assigned to receive a L. helveticus-fermented milk drink (190 g/day) or the equivalent amount of a placebo drink once a day for eight weeks. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Japanese version of the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS) test. There was a statistically significant improvement in the total score, attention score, and delayed memory score of participants who received the L. helveticus-fermented milk drink. There was also a significant difference in the attention score between the placebo and test groups after eight weeks (p = .028). Therefore, supplementation of healthy middle-aged adults with a L. helveticus-fermented milk drink for eight weeks improved both attention and delayed memory.

  19. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone and vitamin D status among Pakistani immigrants in Denmark: a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Mølgaard, Christian; Skovgaard, Lene T.

    2008-01-01

    Severe vitamin D deficiency is common among Muslim immigrants. The dose necessary to correct the deficiency and its consequence for bone health are not known for immigrants. The aim was to assess the effect of relatively low dosages of supplemental vitamin D on vitamin D and bone status...... D (S-25OHD), parathyroid hormone, bone turnover markers and bone mass. The study showed that supplementation with 10 and 20 mu g vitamin D-3 per d increased S-25OHD concentrations similarly in vitamin D-deficient Pakistani women (4-fold), and that 10 mu g increased S-25OHD concentrations 2-fold...... in Pakistani immigrants. This 1-year-long randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled intervention with vitamin D-3 (10 and 20 mu g/d) included girls (10.1 - 14.7 years), women (18.1 - 52.7 years) and men (17.9-63.5 years) of Pakistani origin living in Denmark. The main endpoints were serum 25-hydroxyvitamin...

  20. The effects of resveratrol supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihzadeh, Forouzan; Adibi, Payman; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2015-09-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is usually associated with insulin resistance, central obesity, reduced glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertriacylglycerolaemia. The beneficial effects of resveratrol on metabolic disorders have been shown previously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resveratrol supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with NAFLD. In this randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial, fifty NAFLD patients were supplemented with either a 500-mg resveratrol capsule or a placebo capsule for 12 weeks. Both groups were advised to follow an energy-balanced diet and physical activity recommendations. resveratrol supplementation reduced alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and hepatic steatosis significantly more than placebo (P0·05). There were no significant changes in blood pressure, insulin resistance markers and TAG in either group (P>0·05). Our data have shown that 12-week supplementation of 500 mg resveratrol does not have any beneficial effect on anthropometric measurements, insulin resistance markers, lipid profile and blood pressure; however, it reduced ALT and hepatic steatosis in patients with NAFLD.

  1. Eight weeks of omeprazole 20 mg significantly reduces both laryngopharyngeal reflux and comorbid chronic rhinosinusitis signs and symptoms: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzić, S A; Turkalj, M; Župan, A; Labor, M; Plavec, D; Baudoin, T

    2018-04-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux recommended treatment (dose and duration) with proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) compared to placebo significantly reduces the signs and symptoms of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and comorbid chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. Eight weeks of treatment with omeprazole 20 mg once daily (OD). Sixty patients (28 women, aged 19-87 years) with diagnosed LPR and comorbid CRS. Significant reduction in signs and symptoms (reflux symptom index (RSI) score as subjective, and reflux finding score (RFS) as objective measure) of LPR after 8 weeks of treatment with omeprazole 20 mg OD when compared to placebo. Secondary objectives were significant reduction in signs and symptoms of comorbid CRS after 8 weeks of treatment with omeprazole 20 mg OD when compared to placebo and the association of the severity of signs and symptoms of LPR with the ones of CRS. RSI and RFS decreased significantly more in the active treatment group after 8 weeks compared to placebo (P < .001 for both). CRS and endoscopy scoring decreased both significantly more in the active group after 8 weeks compared to placebo (P < .001 for both). CRS scoring significantly correlated with RSI (R = 0.312, P = .015) but not with RFS (R = 0.199, P = .127). The results of our trial suggest that omeprazole 20 mg OD for 8 weeks was effective in reducing signs and symptoms of both LPR and CRS, although in most patients still present at the end of the trial. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The effect of prophylactic intravenous tranexamic acid on blood loss after vaginal delivery in women at low risk of postpartum haemorrhage: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Mohammad-Alizadeh, Sakineh; Abbasalizadeh, Fatemeh; Shirdel, Mina

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of prophylactic tranexamic acid (TA) on calculated and measured blood loss after vaginal delivery in women at low risk of postpartum haemorrhage. In this double-blind randomised controlled trial, 120 women with a singleton pregnancy were randomly allocated to receive either one gram intravenous TA or placebo in addition to 10 IU oxytocin after delivery of the fetus. Calculated blood loss was determined based on haematocrit before delivery and 12-24 h postdelivery. The quantity of blood loss was measured during two time periods: from delivery of the fetus to placental expulsion and from placental expulsion to the end of the second hour after childbirth. The mean (SD) calculated total blood loss (519 (320) vs 659 (402) mL, P = 0.036) and measured blood loss from placental delivery to 2 h postpartum (69 (39) vs 108 (53) mL, P  1000 mL was lower in the TA group (7% vs 18%, P = 0.048). Prophylactic TA reduces blood loss after vaginal delivery in women with a low risk of postpartum haemorrhage. The prophylactic use of TA may reduce blood loss complications and enhance maternal health. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Curcumin and major depression: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the potential of peripheral biomarkers to predict treatment response and antidepressant mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresti, Adrian L; Maes, Michael; Meddens, Marc J M; Maker, Garth L; Arnoldussen, Eddy; Drummond, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    A recent randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study conducted by our research group, provided partial support for the efficacy of supplementation with a patented curcumin extract (500 mg, twice daily) for 8 weeks in reducing depressive symptoms in people with major depressive disorder. In the present paper, a secondary, exploratory analysis of salivary, urinary and blood biomarkers collected during this study was conducted to identify potential antidepressant mechanisms of action of curcumin. Pre and post-intervention samples were provided by 50 participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder, and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology self-rated version (IDS-SR30) was used as the primary depression outcome measure. Compared to placebo, 8 weeks of curcumin supplementation was associated with elevations in urinary thromboxane B2 (pSR30 score after 8 weeks of treatment. Our findings demonstrate that curcumin supplementation influences several biomarkers that may be associated with its antidepressant mechanisms of action. Plasma concentrations of leptin and endothelin-1 seem to have particular relevance to treatment outcome. Further investigations using larger samples sizes are required to elucidate these findings, as the multiple statistical comparisons completed in this study increased the risk of type I errors. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of liraglutide in the treatment of obesity: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Arne; Rössner, Stephan; Van Gaal, Luc; Rissanen, Aila; Niskanen, Leo; Al Hakim, Mazin; Madsen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Mads F; Lean, Michael E J

    2009-11-07

    The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few safe and effective drugs are currently available. We assessed the effect of liraglutide on bodyweight and tolerability in obese individuals without type 2 diabetes. We did a double-blind, placebo-controlled 20-week trial, with open-label orlistat comparator in 19 sites in Europe. 564 individuals (18-65 years of age, body-mass index 30-40 kg/m2) were randomly assigned, with a telephone or web-based system, to one of four liraglutide doses (1.2 mg, 1.8 mg, 2.4 mg, or 3.0 mg, n=90-95) or to placebo (n=98) administered once a day subcutaneously, or orlistat (120 mg, n=95) three times a day orally. All individuals had a 500 kcal per day energy-deficit diet and increased their physical activity throughout the trial, including the 2-week run-in. Weight change analysed by intention to treat was the primary endpoint. An 84-week open-label extension followed. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00422058. Participants on liraglutide lost significantly more weight than did those on placebo (p=0.003 for liraglutide 1.2 mg and porlistat (p=0.003 for liraglutide 2.4 mg and porlistat, and was 2.1 kg (95% CI 0.6-3.6) to 4.4 kg (2.9-6.0) greater than that with placebo. More individuals (76%, n=70) lost more than 5% weight with liraglutide 3.0 mg that with placebo (30%, n=29) or orlistat (44%, n=42). Liraglutide reduced blood pressure at all doses, and reduced the prevalence of prediabetes (84-96% reduction) with 1.8-3.0 mg per day. Nausea and vomiting occurred more often in individuals on liraglutide than in those on placebo, but adverse events were mainly transient and rarely led to discontinuation of treatment. Liraglutide treatment over 20 weeks is well tolerated, induces weight loss, improves certain obesity-related risk factors, and reduces prediabetes. Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark.

  5. Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART in at risk individuals: A randomised double blind, sham controlled, longitudinal trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which mental and physical exercise may slow cognitive decline in adults with early signs of cognitive impairment is unknown. This article provides the rationale and methodology of the first trial to investigate the isolated and combined effects of cognitive training (CT and progressive resistance training (PRT on general cognitive function and functional independence in older adults with early cognitive impairment: Study of Mental and Regular Training (SMART. Our secondary aim is to quantify the differential adaptations to these interventions in terms of brain morphology and function, cardiovascular and metabolic function, exercise capacity, psychological state and body composition, to identify the potential mechanisms of benefit and broader health status effects. Methods SMART is a double-blind randomized, double sham-controlled trial. One hundred and thirty-two community-dwelling volunteers will be recruited. Primary inclusion criteria are: at risk for cognitive decline as defined by neuropsychology assessment, low physical activity levels, stable disease, and age over 55 years. The two active interventions are computerized CT and whole body, high intensity PRT. The two sham interventions are educational videos and seated calisthenics. Participants are randomized into 1 of 4 supervised training groups (2 d/wk × 6 mo in a fully factorial design. Primary outcomes measured at baseline, 6, and 18 months are the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog, neuropsychological test scores, and Bayer Informant Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (B-IADLs. Secondary outcomes are psychological well-being, quality of life, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function, body composition, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and anabolic/neurotrophic hormones, and brain morphology and function via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Spectroscopy (fMRS. Discussion SMART will provide a novel evaluation of the

  6. The effect of deep cross friction massage on spasticity of children with cerebral palsy: A double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Faisal; Memon, Aamir Raoof; Kiyani, Mubin Mustafa; Sajjad, Abdul Ghafoor

    2017-01-01

    To find out the effect of deep cross-friction massage on spasticity in children with cerebral palsy. This double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted at the National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Islamabad, Pakistan, from January to July 2013, and comprised paediatric patients with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. The participants were equally divided into control and treatment groups by a staff member unaware of the treatment (allocation ratio 1:1). The control group received routine physiotherapy, while the experimental group was additionally given deep cross-friction massage for 30 minutes, 5 times a week lasting 6 weeks. The outcome was measured using Modified Ashworth Scale and functional level scale before the treatment and 6 weeks later. Baseline information and characteristics of the patients were also recorded. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 60 patients, there were 30(50%) in each group. The control group consisted of 14(46.7%) males and 16(53.3%) females compared to 16(53.3%) males and 14(46.7%) females in the experimental group (p=0.72). The overall mean age was 6.03±1.73 years. All patients (100%) were followed up for a period of 6 weeks and there was not a significant (p=0.26) improvement in experimental group compared to control group evident on Modified Ashworth Scale. The experimental group, however, had significant improvement after 6 weeks compared to the baseline values (p<0.001). However, functional level did not improve (p=0.55) by the end of study. Deep cross-friction massage is an efficacious treatment option for the management of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy.

  7. Silk garments plus standard care compared with standard care for treating eczema in children: A randomised, controlled, observer-blind, pragmatic trial (CLOTHES Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim S Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of clothing in the management of eczema (also called atopic dermatitis or atopic eczema is poorly understood. This trial evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of silk garments (in addition to standard care for the management of eczema in children with moderate to severe disease.This was a parallel-group, randomised, controlled, observer-blind trial. Children aged 1 to 15 y with moderate to severe eczema were recruited from secondary care and the community at five UK medical centres. Participants were allocated using online randomisation (1:1 to standard care or to standard care plus silk garments, stratified by age and recruiting centre. Silk garments were worn for 6 mo. Primary outcome (eczema severity was assessed at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 mo, by nurses blinded to treatment allocation, using the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI, which was log-transformed for analysis (intention-to-treat analysis. A safety outcome was number of skin infections. Three hundred children were randomised (26 November 2013 to 5 May 2015: 42% girls, 79% white, mean age 5 y. Primary analysis included 282/300 (94% children (n = 141 in each group. The garments were worn more often at night than in the day (median of 81% of nights [25th to 75th centile 57% to 96%] and 34% of days [25th to 75th centile 10% to 76%]. Geometric mean EASI scores at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 mo were, respectively, 9.2, 6.4, 5.8, and 5.4 for silk clothing and 8.4, 6.6, 6.0, and 5.4 for standard care. There was no evidence of any difference between the groups in EASI score averaged over all follow-up visits adjusted for baseline EASI score, age, and centre: adjusted ratio of geometric means 0.95, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.07, (p = 0.43. This confidence interval is equivalent to a difference of -1.5 to 0.5 in the original EASI units, which is not clinically important. Skin infections occurred in 36/142 (25% and 39/141 (28% of children in the silk clothing and standard care groups

  8. Silk garments plus standard care compared with standard care for treating eczema in children: A randomised, controlled, observer-blind, pragmatic trial (CLOTHES Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kim S; Bradshaw, Lucy E; Sach, Tracey H; Batchelor, Jonathan M; Lawton, Sandra; Harrison, Eleanor F; Haines, Rachel H; Ahmed, Amina; Williams, Hywel C; Dean, Taraneh; Burrows, Nigel P; Pollock, Ian; Llewellyn, Joanne; Crang, Clare; Grundy, Jane D; Guiness, Juliet; Gribbin, Andrew; Mitchell, Eleanor J; Cowdell, Fiona; Brown, Sara J; Montgomery, Alan A

    2017-04-01

    The role of clothing in the management of eczema (also called atopic dermatitis or atopic eczema) is poorly understood. This trial evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of silk garments (in addition to standard care) for the management of eczema in children with moderate to severe disease. This was a parallel-group, randomised, controlled, observer-blind trial. Children aged 1 to 15 y with moderate to severe eczema were recruited from secondary care and the community at five UK medical centres. Participants were allocated using online randomisation (1:1) to standard care or to standard care plus silk garments, stratified by age and recruiting centre. Silk garments were worn for 6 mo. Primary outcome (eczema severity) was assessed at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 mo, by nurses blinded to treatment allocation, using the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI), which was log-transformed for analysis (intention-to-treat analysis). A safety outcome was number of skin infections. Three hundred children were randomised (26 November 2013 to 5 May 2015): 42% girls, 79% white, mean age 5 y. Primary analysis included 282/300 (94%) children (n = 141 in each group). The garments were worn more often at night than in the day (median of 81% of nights [25th to 75th centile 57% to 96%] and 34% of days [25th to 75th centile 10% to 76%]). Geometric mean EASI scores at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 mo were, respectively, 9.2, 6.4, 5.8, and 5.4 for silk clothing and 8.4, 6.6, 6.0, and 5.4 for standard care. There was no evidence of any difference between the groups in EASI score averaged over all follow-up visits adjusted for baseline EASI score, age, and centre: adjusted ratio of geometric means 0.95, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.07, (p = 0.43). This confidence interval is equivalent to a difference of -1.5 to 0.5 in the original EASI units, which is not clinically important. Skin infections occurred in 36/142 (25%) and 39/141 (28%) of children in the silk clothing and standard care groups

  9. The use of MElatonin in children with neurodevelopmental disorders and impaired sleep: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study (MENDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, R E; Jones, A P; Gamble, C; Williamson, P R; Wiggs, L; Montgomery, P; Sutcliffe, A; Barker, C; Gringras, P

    2012-01-01

    Difficulties in initiating and maintaining sleep are common in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Melatonin is unlicensed in children yet widely prescribed for sleep problems. To determine whether or not immediate-release melatonin is beneficial compared with placebo in improving total duration of night-time sleep in children with neurodevelopmental problems. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Hospitals throughout England and Wales recruited patients referred by community paediatricians and other clinical colleagues. Children with neurodevelopmental problems aged from 3 years to 15 years 8 months who did not fall asleep within 1 hour of lights out or who had sleep. Before randomisation, patients meeting eligibility criteria entered a 4- to 6-week behaviour therapy period in which a behaviour therapy advice booklet was provided. Sleep was measured using sleep diaries and actigraphy. After this period the sleep diaries were reviewed to determine if the sleep problem fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Eligible participants were randomised and followed for 12 weeks. Melatonin or placebo capsules in doses of 0.5 mg, 2 mg, 6 mg and 12 mg for a period of 12 weeks. The starting dose was 0.5 mg and the dose could be escalated through 2 mg and 6 mg to 12 mg during the first 4 weeks, at the end of which the child was maintained on that dose. The primary outcome was total night-time sleep time (TST) calculated using sleep diaries at 12 weeks compared with baseline. Secondary outcome measures included TST calculated using actigraphy data, sleep-onset latency (SOL) (time taken to fall asleep), sleep efficiency, Composite Sleep Disturbance Index score, global measure of child's sleep quality, Aberrant Behaviour Checklist, Family Impact Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, number and severity of seizures and adverse events. Salivary melatonin concentrations and association of genetic

  10. A randomised, double-blind controlled trial of intranasal midazolam for the palliation of dyspnoea in patients with life-limiting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Janet; Randall, Clare; Pinkerton, Eve; Flatley, Christopher; Gibbons, Kristen; Allan, Simon

    2016-07-01

    Anxiety is a major component of breathlessness and is often palliated with benzodiazepines. Midazolam is a short-acting water-soluble benzodiazepine with a rapid onset of action and short half-life. Intranasal midazolam had been shown to be of marked clinical benefit in an uncontrolled pilot study for the control of dyspnoea. A blinded randomised controlled study was therefore undertaken across four Australasian palliative care services. All participants received six numbered study nasal spray (SNS) bottles, three of which contained midazolam and three placebo. They were instructed to use one SNS bottle on each day they were breathless, for 6 days within 2 weeks. Dyspnoea scores were recorded before and at set time intervals following the first use of each SNS bottle. Across all SNS bottles, the maximum change of 2.1 on an 11-point numerical rating scale was seen at 60 min. There was no difference in dyspnoea score between the two arms. Approximately 50 % of participants in each arm had a positive response (i.e. ≥2 point change in dyspnoea score from baseline). Anxiety scores at baseline were low. The most common adverse event was local nasal reactions. Intranasal midazolam had no clinical benefit over intranasal placebo for the control of dyspnoea. The low level of anxiety at baseline and dose of active drug delivered may have been important factors. Many participants found the SNS bottles to be a challenging mode of drug delivery. This study confirms the importance of placebo-controlled trials for defining best clinical practise.

  11. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavender Tina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants ( Methods A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted during 2010. Healthy, term babies (n = 280, recruited within 48 hours of birth, were randomly assigned to have their napkin area cleansed with an alcohol-free baby wipe (140 babies or cotton wool and water (140 babies. Primary outcome was change in hydration from within 48 hours of birth to 4 weeks post-birth. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in trans-epidermal water loss, skin surface pH and erythema, presence of microbial skin contaminants/irritants at 4 weeks and napkin dermatitis reported by midwife at 4 weeks and mother during the 4 weeks. Results Complete hydration data were obtained for 254 (90.7 % babies. Wipes were shown to be equivalent to water and cotton wool in terms of skin hydration (intention-to-treat analysis: wipes 65.4 (SD 12.4 vs. water 63.5 (14.2, p = 0.47, 95 % CI -2.5 to 4.2; per protocol analysis: wipes 64.6 (12.4 vs. water 63.6 (14.3, p = 0.53, 95 % CI -2.4 to 4.2. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, except for maternal-reported napkin dermatitis, which was higher in the water group (p = 0.025 for complete responses. Conclusions Baby wipes had an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with cotton wool and water. We found no evidence of any adverse effects of using these wipes. These findings offer reassurance to parents who choose to use baby wipes and to health professionals who support their use. Trial registration Current Controlled

  12. Effect of household-based drinking water chlorination on diarrhoea among children under five in Orissa, India: a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Boisson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Boiling, disinfecting, and filtering water within the home can improve the microbiological quality of drinking water among the hundreds of millions of people who rely on unsafe water supplies. However, the impact of these interventions on diarrhoea is unclear. Most studies using open trial designs have reported a protective effect on diarrhoea while blinded studies of household water treatment in low-income settings have found no such effect. However, none of those studies were powered to detect an impact among children under five and participants were followed-up over short periods of time. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of in-home water disinfection on diarrhoea among children under five.We conducted a double-blind randomised controlled trial between November 2010 and December 2011. The study included 2,163 households and 2,986 children under five in rural and urban communities of Orissa, India. The intervention consisted of an intensive promotion campaign and free distribution of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC tablets during bi-monthly households visits. An independent evaluation team visited households monthly for one year to collect health data and water samples. The primary outcome was the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea (3-day point prevalence among children aged under five. Weight-for-age was also measured at each visit to assess its potential as a proxy marker for diarrhoea. Adherence was monitored each month through caregiver's reports and the presence of residual free chlorine in the child's drinking water at the time of visit. On 20% of the total household visits, children's drinking water was assayed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC, an indicator of faecal contamination. The primary analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Binomial regression with a log link function and robust standard errors was used to compare prevalence of diarrhoea between arms. We used generalised estimating equations to account

  13. REducing STEroids in Relapsing Nephrotic syndrome: the RESTERN study— protocol of a national, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority intervention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijvens, A M; Dorresteijn, E M; Roeleveld, N; ter Heine, R; van Wijk, J A E; Bouts, A H M; Keijzer-Veen, M G; van de Kar, N C A J; van den Heuvel, L P W J; Schreuder, M F

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Oral corticosteroids are the first-line treatment for idiopathic childhood nephrotic syndrome. Most children experience several relapses, needing repeated courses of corticosteroid therapy. This exposes them to side effects and long-term complications. For most patients, long-term prognosis is for complete resolution of the disease over time and maintenance of normal kidney function. Therefore, it is vital to focus on minimising adverse events of the disease and its therapy. Unfortunately, no randomised controlled trials are available to determine the optimal corticosteroid treatment of an infrequent relapse of nephrotic syndrome. Recent studies show that treatment schedules for the first episode can safely be shortened to 2 months. The hypothesis of the REducing STEroids in Relapsing Nephrotic syndrome (RESTERN) study is that a 4-week reduction of alternate-day steroids after inducing remission is effective and safe, reduces steroid exposure by 35% on average and is therefore preferable. Methods and analysis The RESTERN study is a nationwide, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority intervention study. Children aged 1–18 years with a relapse of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome are eligible for this study. Study subjects (n=144) will be randomly assigned to either current standard therapy in the Netherlands or a reduced prednisolone schedule. The primary outcome of the RESTERN study is the time to first relapse after the final prednisolone dose. The secondary outcomes are the number or relapses, progression to frequent relapsing or steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome and the cumulative dosage of prednisolone during the study period. Ethics and dissemination This non-inferiority trial will be performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and has been approved by the medical ethical committee of Arnhem-Nijmegen and the Dutch Competent Authority (Central Committee on Research Involving Human Subjects, CCMO

  14. REducing STEroids in Relapsing Nephrotic syndrome: the RESTERN study- protocol of a national, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijvens, A M; Dorresteijn, E M; Roeleveld, N; Ter Heine, R; van Wijk, J A E; Bouts, A H M; Keijzer-Veen, M G; van de Kar, N C A J; van den Heuvel, L P W J; Schreuder, M F

    2017-09-27

    Oral corticosteroids are the first-line treatment for idiopathic childhood nephrotic syndrome. Most children experience several relapses, needing repeated courses of corticosteroid therapy. This exposes them to side effects and long-term complications. For most patients, long-term prognosis is for complete resolution of the disease over time and maintenance of normal kidney function. Therefore, it is vital to focus on minimising adverse events of the disease and its therapy. Unfortunately, no randomised controlled trials are available to determine the optimal corticosteroid treatment of an infrequent relapse of nephrotic syndrome. Recent studies show that treatment schedules for the first episode can safely be shortened to 2 months. The hypothesis of the REducing STEroids in Relapsing Nephrotic syndrome (RESTERN) study is that a 4-week reduction of alternate-day steroids after inducing remission is effective and safe, reduces steroid exposure by 35% on average and is therefore preferable. The RESTERN study is a nationwide, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority intervention study. Children aged 1-18 years with a relapse of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome are eligible for this study. Study subjects (n=144) will be randomly assigned to either current standard therapy in the Netherlands or a reduced prednisolone schedule. The primary outcome of the RESTERN study is the time to first relapse after the final prednisolone dose. The secondary outcomes are the number or relapses, progression to frequent relapsing or steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome and the cumulative dosage of prednisolone during the study period. This non-inferiority trial will be performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and has been approved by the medical ethical committee of Arnhem-Nijmegen and the Dutch Competent Authority (Central Committee on Research Involving Human Subjects, CCMO). After completion of this study, results will be published in

  15. Analgesic control after hip arthroscopy: a randomised, double-blinded trial comparing portal with intra-articular infiltration of bupivacaine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baker, Joseph F

    2011-06-07

    Abstract: The optimum anaesthetic and analgesic management following hip arthroscopy is yet to be determined. There is, in addition, some concern over the use of intraarticular local anaesthetic. We compared the analgesic efficacy of intra-articular infiltration compared with portal infiltration of bupivacaine following hip arthroscopy. Patients were randomised to receive either 10ml of 0.25% bupivacaine either into the joint or around the portal sites following completion of surgery. 73 patients were recruited (40 intra-articular). The portal infiltration group required significantly more rescue analgesia immediately after surgery (2.33mg vs.0.57mg, p=0.036). Visual Analogue Scale pain scores were not significantly different at 1 and 2 hours following surgery, but at 6 hours the portal group had significantly lower VAS scores (p=0.0036). We believe that the initial pain following surgery results from capsular injury and this explains the need for more rescue analgesia in the portal infiltration group. Further work is needed to establish the ideal regimen. A combination of portal and intra-articular infiltration may be the most efficacious.

  16. A single-blind randomised controlled trial of the effects of a web-based decision aid on self-testing for cholesterol and diabetes. study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ickenroth Martine HP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-tests, tests on body materials to detect medical conditions, are widely available to the general public. Self-testing does have advantages as well as disadvantages, and the debate on whether self-testing should be encouraged or rather discouraged is still ongoing. One of the concerns is whether consumers have sufficient knowledge to perform the test and interpret the results. An online decision aid (DA with information on self-testing in general, and test specific information on cholesterol and diabetes self-testing was developed. The DA aims to provide objective information on these self-tests as well as a decision support tool to weigh the pros and cons of self-testing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the online decision aid on knowledge on self-testing, informed choice, ambivalence and psychosocial determinants. Methods/Design A single blind randomised controlled trial in which the online decision aid 'zelftestwijzer' is compared to short, non-interactive information on self-testing in general. The entire trial will be conducted online. Participants will be selected from an existing Internet panel. Consumers who are considering doing a cholesterol or diabetes self-test in the future will be included. Outcome measures will be assessed directly after participants have viewed either the DA or the control condition. Weblog files will be used to record participants' use of the decision aid. Discussion Self-testing does have important pros and cons, and it is important that consumers base their decision whether they want to do a self-test or not on knowledge and personal values. This study is the first to evaluate the effect of an online decision aid for self-testing. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register: NTR3149

  17. A single-blind randomised controlled trial of the effects of a web-based decision aid on self-testing for cholesterol and diabetes. Study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickenroth, Martine H P; Grispen, Janaica E J; de Vries, Nanne K; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Elwyn, Glyn; Ronda, Gaby; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2012-01-04

    Self-tests, tests on body materials to detect medical conditions, are widely available to the general public. Self-testing does have advantages as well as disadvantages, and the debate on whether self-testing should be encouraged or rather discouraged is still ongoing. One of the concerns is whether consumers have sufficient knowledge to perform the test and interpret the results. An online decision aid (DA) with information on self-testing in general, and test specific information on cholesterol and diabetes self-testing was developed. The DA aims to provide objective information on these self-tests as well as a decision support tool to weigh the pros and cons of self-testing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the online decision aid on knowledge on self-testing, informed choice, ambivalence and psychosocial determinants. A single blind randomised controlled trial in which the online decision aid 'zelftestwijzer' is compared to short, non-interactive information on self-testing in general. The entire trial will be conducted online. Participants will be selected from an existing Internet panel. Consumers who are considering doing a cholesterol or diabetes self-test in the future will be included. Outcome measures will be assessed directly after participants have viewed either the DA or the control condition. Weblog files will be used to record participants' use of the decision aid. Self-testing does have important pros and cons, and it is important that consumers base their decision whether they want to do a self-test or not on knowledge and personal values. This study is the first to evaluate the effect of an online decision aid for self-testing. Dutch Trial Register: NTR3149.

  18. Ginkgo biloba special extract LI 1370 improves dual-task walking in patients with MCI: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Yves J; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Reinhard, Sarah; Granacher, Urs; Monsch, Andreas U; Kressig, Reto W

    2017-08-01

    In patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), gait instability, particularly in dual-task situations, has been associated with impaired executive function and an increased fall risk. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) could be an effective mean to improve gait stability. This study investigated the effect of GBE on spatio-temporal gait parameters of MCI patients while walking under single and dual-task conditions. Fifty patients aged 50-85 years with MCI and associated dual-task-related gait impairment participated in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory phase IV drug trial. Intervention group (IG) patients received GBE (Symfona ® forte 120 mg) twice-daily for 6 months while control group (CG) patients received placebo capsules. A 6-month open-label phase with identical GBE dosage followed. Gait was quantified at months 0, 3, 6 and 12. After 6 months, dual-task-related cadence increased in the IG compared to the CG (p = 0.019, d = 0.71). No significant changes, but GBE-associated numerical non-significant trends were found after 6-month treatment for dual-task-related gait velocity and stride time variability. Findings suggest that 120 mg of GBE twice-daily for at least 6 months may improve dual-task-related gait performance in patients with MCI. The observed gait improvements add to the understanding of the self-reported unspecified improvements among MCI patients when treated with standardised GBE.

  19. Supplementation of standard antibiotic therapy with oral probiotics for bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heczko, Piotr B; Tomusiak, Anna; Adamski, Paweł; Jakimiuk, Artur J; Stefański, Grzegorz; Mikołajczyk-Cichońska, Aleksandra; Suda-Szczurek, Magdalena; Strus, Magdalena

    2015-12-03

    This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed to determine whether the use of oral probiotic preparation (prOVag®) containing three Lactobacillus strains together with standard metronidazole treatment and also targeted antibiotic treatment (following the failure of metronidazole therapy) could reduce the recurrence rates of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and aerobic vaginitis (AV). Patients at private gynaecological clinics in Poland with histories of recurrent BV/AV and current symptoms were randomly allocated to receive metronidazole and probiotic or placebo, and assessed monthly on visits II and III-V. The total number of study visits was 5-6 (I, II, II bis - if applicable, III, IV, V). One probiotic or placebo capsule was administered with metronidazole/targeted antibiotic twice daily for 10 days; during follow up, patients took one capsule daily for 10 days perimenstrually. Clinical examination and vaginal swabbing were performed at each visit. Primary outcomes were clinical or microbiological BV/AV recurrence and probiotic safety. Secondary outcomes were vaginal pH, Nugent score, and Lactobacillus counts in the vaginal microbiota. Safety analysis was performed in 578 (probiotic, n = 285; placebo, n = 293) 18-50-year-old women who were randomised. BV/AV was confirmed microbiologically in 241 (probiotic, n = 118; placebo, n = 123) participants, who continued the trial. Data from 154 (probiotic, n = 73; placebo, n = 81) participants who completed the study were analysed to determine the efficacy of prOVag. Additional analyses included 37 (probiotic, n = 22; placebo, n = 15) participants who received targeted antibiotics and probiotics or placebo. prOVag lengthened the time to clinical relapse of BV/AV symptoms up to 51 % (p Probiotic use also reduced and maintained low vaginal pH and Nugent score, and increased vaginal Lactobacillus counts following standard treatment. This study demonstrated that

  20. [Treating pain after dental surgery: a randomised, controlled, double-blind trial to assess a new formulation of paracetamol, opium powder and caffeine versus tramadol or placebo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Jean-François; Deschaumes, Christophe; Devoize, Laurent; Huard, Cédric; Orliaguet, Thierry; Dubray, Claude; Baudet-Pommel, Martine; Dallel, Radhouane

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and the safety of the association, paracetamol, opium prepared and caffeine, in two different dosages as compared to the conventional analgesic tramadol hydrochloride, on acute postoperative dental pain. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, multicentre, parallel-group clinical trial to test the efficacy and safety of single doses of two associations; paracetamol 500 mg, caffeine 50mg, opium prepared 25, and paracetamol 500 mg, caffeine 50mg, opium prepared 50mg, as compared to tramadol hydrochloride 100mg (called hereafter tramadol 100), and placebo, in the control of postoperative pain following the removal of 2 ipsilateral impacted third molars. The primary efficacy criterion was the sum of pain intensity differences as assessed every 30 minutes within 3 hours after the baseline assessment and administration of study treatment (SPID(0-3h)). Of the 232 randomised patients, 228 (98%) completed the study. Analysis of the primary efficacy criterion (SPID(0-3h)) established: (i) the superiority of the 3 active study treatments vs. placebo (popium 25mg, and paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 50mg vs. tramadol. Besides, both formulations of paracetamol, caffeine, and opium showed: (i) a faster onset of analgesic effect as compared to tramadol 100; (ii) a significantly stronger analgesic efficacy than tramadol 100, as measured 1 hour after the treatment intake; this superiority lasted all over the study duration for paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 50mg but not for paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 25mg. No unexpected safety concerns occurred, the two formulations of paracetamol, caffeine, and opium showed a good safety profile especially with paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 25mg as compared to tramadol. This study evidenced the non-inferiority of the paracetamol, caffeine, and opium 25mg or 50mg vs. tramadol 100, and even though the strengths of the tested formulations were higher than that of the 2009

  1. Efficacy and safety of celgosivir in patients with dengue fever (CELADEN): a phase 1b, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jenny G; Sung, Cynthia; Wijaya, Limin; Wei, Yuan; Rathore, Abhay P S; Watanabe, Satoru; Tan, Boon Hian; Toh, Liying; Chua, Lian Tee; Hou, Yan'an; Chow, Angelia; Howe, Shiqin; Chan, Wing Ki; Tan, Kah Hin; Chung, Jasmine S; Cherng, Benjamin P; Lye, David C; Tambayah, Paul A; Ng, Lee Ching; Connolly, John; Hibberd, Martin L; Leo, Yee Sin; Cheung, Yin Bun; Ooi, Eng Eong; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2014-08-01

    Dengue infection is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide, but no suitable antiviral drugs are available. We tested the α-glucosidase inhibitor celgosivir as a treatment for acute dengue fever. To establish eligibility for inclusion in a phase 1b, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial, individuals aged 21-65 years who had had a fever (≥38°C) for less than 48 h, met at least two criteria indicating probable dengue infection, and had a positive result on a dengue point-of-care test kit or PCR assay were referred for screening at a centre in Singapore between July 30, 2012, and March 4, 2013. Using a web-based system, we randomly assigned patients who met full inclusion criteria after screening (1:1; random permuted block length four) to celgosivir (initial 400 mg loading dose within 6 h of randomisation, followed by 200 mg every 12 h for a total of nine doses) or matched placebo. Patients and the entire study team were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoints were mean virological log reduction (VLR) from baseline for days 2, 3, and 4, and area under the fever curve (AUC) for a temperature above 37°C from 0 h to 96 h. Efficacy analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01619969. We screened 69 patients and randomly assigned 50 (24 to celgosivir, 26 to placebo). Mean VLR was greater in the celgosivir group (-1·86, SD 1·07) than in the placebo group (-1·64, 0·75), but the difference was non-significant (-0·22, 90% CI -0·65 to 0·22; one-sided p=0·203). The mean AUC was also higher in the celgosivir group (54·92, SD 31·04) than in the placebo group (40·72, 18·69), but again the difference was non-significant (14·20, 90% CI 2·16-26·25; one-sided p=0·973). We noted similar incidences of adverse events between groups. Although generally safe and well tolerated, celgosivir does not seem to reduce viral load or fever burden in patients with

  2. Efficacy and safety of colchicine for treatment of multiple recurrences of pericarditis (CORP-2): a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazio, Massimo; Belli, Riccardo; Brucato, Antonio; Cemin, Roberto; Ferrua, Stefania; Beqaraj, Federico; Demarie, Daniela; Ferro, Silvia; Forno, Davide; Maestroni, Silvia; Cumetti, Davide; Varbella, Ferdinando; Trinchero, Rita; Spodick, David H; Adler, Yehuda

    2014-06-28

    Colchicine is effective for the treatment of acute pericarditis and first recurrences. However, conclusive data are lacking for the efficacy and safety of colchicine for treatment of multiple recurrences of pericarditis. We did this multicentre, double-blind trial at four general hospitals in northern Italy. Adult patients with multiple recurrences of pericarditis (≥two) were randomly assigned (1:1) to placebo or colchicine (0·5 mg twice daily for 6 months for patients weighing more than 70 kg or 0·5 mg once daily for patients weighing 70 kg or less) in addition to conventional anti-inflammatory treatment with aspirin, ibuprofen, or indometacin. Permuted block randomisation (size four) was done with a central computer-based automated sequence. Patients and all investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was recurrent pericarditis in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00235079. 240 patients were enrolled and 120 were assigned to each group. The proportion of patients who had recurrent pericarditis was 26 (21·6%) of 120 in the colchicine group and 51 (42·5%) of 120 in the placebo group (relative risk 0·49; 95% CI 0·24-0·65; p=0·0009; number needed to treat 5). Adverse effects and discontinuation of study drug occurred in much the same proportions in each group. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal intolerance (nine patients in the colchicine group vs nine in the placebo group) and hepatotoxicity (three vs one). No serious adverse events were reported. Colchicine added to conventional anti-inflammatory treatment significantly reduced the rate of subsequent recurrences of pericarditis in patients with multiple recurrences. Taken together with results from other randomised controlled trials, these findings suggest that colchicine should be probably regarded as a first-line treatment for either acute or recurrent pericarditis in the absence of

  3. Vorinostat in patients with advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma who have progressed on previous chemotherapy (VANTAGE-014): a phase 3, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Lee M; Kindler, Hedy L; Calvert, Hilary; Manegold, Christian; Tsao, Anne S; Fennell, Dean; Öhman, Ronny; Plummer, Ruth; Eberhardt, Wilfried E E; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Gaafar, Rabab M; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Hillerdal, Gunnar; Chu, Quincy; Buikhuisen, Wieneke A; Lubiniecki, Gregory M; Sun, Xing; Smith, Margaret; Baas, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Vorinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that changes gene expression and protein activity. On the basis of the clinical benefit reported in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma treated in a phase 1 study of vorinostat, we designed this phase 3 trial to investigate whether vorinostat given as a second-line or third-line therapy improved patients' overall survival. This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial was done in 90 international centres. Patients with measurable advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma and disease progression after one or two previous systemic regimens were eligible. After stratification for Karnofsky performance status, histology, and number of previous chemotherapy regimens, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by use of an interactive voice response system with a block size of four to either treatment with vorinostat or placebo. Patients received oral vorinostat 300 mg (or matching placebo) twice daily on days 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, and 17 of a 21-day cycle. The primary endpoints were overall survival and safety and tolerability of vorinostat. The primary efficacy comparison was done in the intention-to-treat population, and safety and tolerability was assessed in the treated population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00128102. From July 12, 2005, to Feb 14, 2011, 661 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either vorinostat (n=329) or placebo (n=332) and included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Median overall survival for vorinostat was 30·7 weeks (95% CI 26·7-36·1) versus 27·1 weeks (23·1-31·9) for placebo (hazard ratio 0·98, 95% CI 0·83-1·17, p=0·86). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events for patients treated with vorinostat were fatigue or malaise (51 [16%] patients in the vorinostat group vs 25 [8%] in the placebo group]) and dyspnoea (35 [11%] vs 45 [14%]). In this randomised trial, vorinostat given as a second-line or third

  4. Maribavir prophylaxis for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in recipients of allogeneic stem-cell transplants: a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Francisco M; Ljungman, Per; Papanicolaou, Genovefa A; Winston, Drew J; Chemaly, Roy F; Strasfeld, Lynne; Young, Jo-Anne H; Rodriguez, Tulio; Maertens, Johan; Schmitt, Michael; Einsele, Hermann; Ferrant, Augustin; Lipton, Jeffrey H; Villano, Stephen A; Chen, Hongzi; Boeckh, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Available drugs against cytomegalovirus have adverse effects that compromise their prophylactic use in recipients of allogeneic stem-cell transplants. We assessed the safety, tolerability, and antiviral activity of oral maribavir in such patients. In this placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind, multicentre phase 3 study, we enrolled adult patients recipient-seropositive or donor-seropositive for cytomegalovirus who had undergone allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. Patients were recruited from 90 centres in Canada, Europe, and the USA. After engraftment, patients were stratified by recipient cytomegalovirus serostatus and conditioning regimen (myeloablative or reduced-intensity) and assigned (2:1) by masked computer-generated randomisation sequence to receive maribavir 100 mg twice daily or placebo for up to 12 weeks, with weekly blood cytomegalovirus surveillance. If the virus was detected, administration of study drug was stopped and pre-emptive anticytomegalovirus treatment started. The primary endpoint was cytomegalovirus disease within 6 months of transplantation. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00411645. Between December, 2006, and May, 2008, 681 patients were enrolled and assigned to receive maribavir (454) or placebo (227). The incidence of cytomegalovirus disease within 6 months was 20 of 454 (4%) for the maribavir group and 11 of 227 (5%) for the placebo group (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.42-1.92). During the 100 days following transplantation, cytomegalovirus infection rates as measured by pp65 antigenaemia were lower in the maribavir group (26.4%) than in the placebo group (34.8%; OR 0.67; 0.47-0.95), but not when measured by plasma cytomegalovirus DNA PCR (27.8%vs 30.4%; OR 0·88; 0.62-1.25), nor by initiation of treatment against cytomegalovirus (30.6%vs 37.4%; OR 0.73, 0.52-1.03). Maribavir was well tolerated: most adverse events, including incident acute graft-versus-host disease and neutropenia

  5. Intensive speech and language therapy in patients with chronic aphasia after stroke: a randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint, controlled trial in a health-care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenstein, Caterina; Grewe, Tanja; Flöel, Agnes; Ziegler, Wolfram; Springer, Luise; Martus, Peter; Huber, Walter; Willmes, Klaus; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Haeusler, Karl Georg; Abel, Stefanie; Glindemann, Ralf; Domahs, Frank; Regenbrecht, Frank; Schlenck, Klaus-Jürgen; Thomas, Marion; Obrig, Hellmuth; de Langen, Ernst; Rocker, Roman; Wigbers, Franziska; Rühmkorf, Christina; Hempen, Indra; List, Jonathan; Baumgaertner, Annette

    2017-04-15

    Treatment guidelines for aphasia recommend intensive speech and language therapy for chronic (≥6 months) aphasia after stroke, but large-scale, class 1 randomised controlled trials on treatment effectiveness are scarce. We aimed to examine whether 3 weeks of intensive speech and language therapy under routine clinical conditions improved verbal communication in daily-life situations in people with chronic aphasia after stroke. In this multicentre, parallel group, superiority, open-label, blinded-endpoint, randomised controlled trial, patients aged 70 years or younger with aphasia after stroke lasting for 6 months or more were recruited from 19 inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation centres in Germany. An external biostatistician used a computer-generated permuted block randomisation method, stratified by treatment centre, to randomly assign participants to either 3 weeks or more of intensive speech and language therapy (≥10 h per week) or 3 weeks deferral of intensive speech and language therapy. The primary endpoint was between-group difference in the change in verbal communication effectiveness in everyday life scenarios (Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test A-scale) from baseline to immediately after 3 weeks of treatment or treatment deferral. All analyses were done using the modified intention-to-treat population (those who received 1 day or more of intensive treatment or treatment deferral). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01540383. We randomly assigned 158 patients between April 1, 2012, and May 31, 2014. The modified intention-to-treat population comprised 156 patients (78 per group). Verbal communication was significantly improved from baseline to after intensive speech and language treatment (mean difference 2·61 points [SD 4·94]; 95% CI 1·49 to 3·72), but not from baseline to after treatment deferral (-0·03 points [4·04]; -0·94 to 0·88; between-group difference Cohen's d 0·58; p=0·0004). Eight patients had

  6. Quality of life and metabolic status in mildly depressed women with type 2 diabetes treated with paroxetine: A single-blind randomised placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahlbeck Kristian

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is prevalent in people with type 2 diabetes and affects both glycemic control and overall quality of life. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of the antidepressant paroxetine on metabolic control, quality of life and mental well-being in mildly depressed women with type 2 diabetes. Methods We randomised 15 mildly depressed women with non-optimally controlled type 2 diabetes to a 10-week single-blind treatment with either paroxetine 20 mg per day or placebo. Primary efficacy measurements were glycemic control and quality of life. Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (GHbA1c was used as a measure of glycemic control. Quality of life was evaluated using RAND-36. Mental state was assessed using two clinician-rated scoring instruments, Hamilton's Anxiety Scale (HAM-A and Montgomery-Åsberg's Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, and a patient-rated scoring instrument, Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Results At the end of the study no significant difference between groups in improvement of quality of life was found. A trend towards a superior improvement in glycemic control was found in the paroxetine group (p = 0.08. A superior increase in sex-hormone-binding-globuline (SHBG levels was evidenced in the paroxetine group (p = 0.01 as a sign of improved insulin sensitivity. There was also a trend for superior efficacy of paroxetine in investigator-rated anxiety and depression. This notion was supported by a trend for superior decrease of serum cortisol levels in the paroxetine group (p = 0.06. Conclusion Paroxetine has a beneficial effect on measures of insulin sensitivity and may improve glycemic control. Larger studies of longer duration are needed to verify the benefits of paroxetine in type 2 diabetes. While waiting for more conclusive evidence it seems sensible to augment standard care of type 2 diabetes with paroxetine even in patients who do not fulfil routine psychiatric criteria for initiation of antidepressant

  7. Quality of life and metabolic status in mildly depressed patients with type 2 diabetes treated with paroxetine: A double-blind randomised placebo controlled 6-month trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahlbeck Kristian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is prevalent in people with type 2 diabetes and affects both glycaemic control and overall quality of life. The aim of this investigator-initiated trial was to evaluate the effect of the antidepressant paroxetine on quality of life, metabolic control, and mental well-being in mildly depressed diabetics aged 50–70 years. Methods We randomised 49 mildly depressed primary care outpatients with non-optimally controlled diabetes to a 6-month double-blind treatment with either paroxetine 20 mg per day or matching placebo. Primary efficacy measurements were quality of life and glycaemic control. The primary global outcome of the study was defined as a 10 points improvement in the SF-36 quality of life score. The primary metabolic outcome of the study was defined as a 0.8%-units decrease in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c(GHbA1c. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results Six patients withdrew their consent before starting medication and six dropped out later in the study. We performed analysis of covariance with the baseline value as a covariate. Quality of life and glycaemic control as well as symptoms of depression and anxiety improved in both groups over the 6-month study period. After three months of treatment we found a statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups in GHbA1c (mean difference = 0.59%-units, p = 0.018 and in SF-36 score (mean difference = 11.0 points, p = 0.039. However, at the end of the study, no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups were observed. No severe adverse events occurred. Conclusion This pragmatic study of primary care patients did not confirm earlier preliminary findings indicating a beneficial effect of paroxetine on glycaemic control. The study indicates that in pragmatic circumstances any possible benefit from administration of paroxetine in diabetic patients with sub

  8. Quality of life and metabolic status in mildly depressed patients with type 2 diabetes treated with paroxetine: a double-blind randomised placebo controlled 6-month trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paile-Hyvärinen, Maria; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Eriksson, Johan G

    2007-06-15

    Depression is prevalent in people with type 2 diabetes and affects both glycaemic control and overall quality of life. The aim of this investigator-initiated trial was to evaluate the effect of the antidepressant paroxetine on quality of life, metabolic control, and mental well-being in mildly depressed diabetics aged 50-70 years. We randomised 49 mildly depressed primary care outpatients with non-optimally controlled diabetes to a 6-month double-blind treatment with either paroxetine 20 mg per day or matching placebo. Primary efficacy measurements were quality of life and glycaemic control. The primary global outcome of the study was defined as a 10 points improvement in the SF-36 quality of life score. The primary metabolic outcome of the study was defined as a 0.8%-units decrease in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c(GHbA1c). Psychiatric symptoms were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Six patients withdrew their consent before starting medication and six dropped out later in the study. We performed analysis of covariance with the baseline value as a covariate. Quality of life and glycaemic control as well as symptoms of depression and anxiety improved in both groups over the 6-month study period. After three months of treatment we found a statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups in GHbA1c (mean difference = 0.59%-units, p = 0.018) and in SF-36 score (mean difference = 11.0 points, p = 0.039). However, at the end of the study, no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups were observed. No severe adverse events occurred. This pragmatic study of primary care patients did not confirm earlier preliminary findings indicating a beneficial effect of paroxetine on glycaemic control. The study indicates that in pragmatic circumstances any possible benefit from administration of paroxetine in diabetic patients with sub-threshold depression is likely to be modest and of short duration. Routine

  9. BEMER Therapy Combined with Physiotherapy in Patients with Musculoskeletal Diseases: A Randomised, Controlled Double Blind Follow-Up Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciska Gyulai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study evaluates the effect of adjuvant BEMER therapy in patients with knee arthrosis and chronic low back pain in a randomized double blind design. Methods. A total of 50 patients with chronic low back pain and 50 patients with osteoarthritis of knee took part in this study and were randomized into 4 groups. Hospitalized patients received a standardized physiotherapy package for 3 weeks followed by BEMER therapy or placebo. Results. In patients with low back pain, the comparison of the results obtained at the first and second visit showed a significant improvement in resting VAS scores and Fatigue Scale scores. The Oswestry scores and Quality of Life Scale scores showed no change. In patients with knee arthrosis, the comparison of the first and second measurements showed no significant improvement in the abovementioned parameters, while the comparison of the first and third scores revealed a significant improvement in the Fatigue Scale scores and in the vitality test on the Quality of Life Scale. Conclusions. Our study showed that BEMER physical vascular therapy reduced pain and fatigue in the short term in patients with chronic low back pain, while long-term therapy appears to be beneficial in patients with osteoarthritis of knee.

  10. Piroxicam and laser phototherapy in the treatment of TMJ arthralgia: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carli, M L; Guerra, M B; Nunes, T B; di Matteo, R C; de Luca, C E P; Aranha, A C C; Bolzan, M C; Witzel, A L

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of piroxicam associated with low-level laser therapy compared with single therapies in 32 patients presenting temporomandibular joint arthralgia in a random and double-blind research design. The sample, divided into laser + piroxicam, laser + placebo piroxicam and placebo laser + piroxicam groups, was submitted to the treatment with infrared laser (830 nm, 100 mW, 28 s, 100 J cm(-2) ) at 10 temporomandibular joint and muscle points on each side during four sessions concomitant to take one capsule a day of piroxicam 20 mg during 10 days. The treatment was evaluated throughout four sessions and 30 days follow-up through visual analogue scale (VAS), maximum mouth opening and joint and muscle (temporal and masseter) pain on palpation. The results showed that all the study groups had a significant improvement in the VAS scores (P Piroxicam was effective in the reduction of joint and muscle pain on palpation (P piroxicam was not more effective than single therapies in the treatment of temporomandibular joint arthralgia. The use of piroxicam was more effective in the following 30 days. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The role of auditory feedback in music-supported stroke rehabilitation: A single-blinded randomised controlled intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, F T; Kafczyk, T; Kuhn, W; Rollnik, J D; Tillmann, B; Altenmüller, E

    2016-01-01

    Learning to play musical instruments such as piano was previously shown to benefit post-stroke motor rehabilitation. Previous work hypothesised that the mechanism of this rehabilitation is that patients use auditory feedback to correct their movements and therefore show motor learning. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating the auditory feedback timing in a way that should disrupt such error-based learning. We contrasted a patient group undergoing music-supported therapy on a piano that emits sounds immediately (as in previous studies) with a group whose sounds are presented after a jittered delay. The delay was not noticeable to patients. Thirty-four patients in early stroke rehabilitation with moderate motor impairment and no previous musical background learned to play the piano using simple finger exercises and familiar children's songs. Rehabilitation outcome was not impaired in the jitter group relative to the normal group. Conversely, some clinical tests suggests the jitter group outperformed the normal group. Auditory feedback-based motor learning is not the beneficial mechanism of music-supported therapy. Immediate auditory feedback therapy may be suboptimal. Jittered delay may increase efficacy of the proposed therapy and allow patients to fully benefit from motivational factors of music training. Our study shows a novel way to test hypotheses concerning music training in a single-blinded way, which is an important improvement over existing unblinded tests of music interventions.

  12. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study on the effects of a herbal toothpaste on gingival bleeding, oral hygiene and microbial variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayashankar, S; Panagoda, G J; Amaratunga, E A P D; Perera, K; Rajapakse, P S

    2011-03-01

    Different systems of traditional medicine of the Indian subcontinent, have used Acacia chundra Willd, Adhatoda vasica Nees., Mimusops elengi L., Piper nigrum L., Pongamia pinnata L. Pirerre, Quercus infectoria Olivier., Syzygium aromaticum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Zingiber officinale Roscoe., individually or in combinations, to cure oral diseases. To investigate the oral hygiene and gingival health benefits of toothpaste formulated with a mixture of the above herbs (15% w/w). Sixty participants (test n = 30, control n = 30, mean age 23.6 +/- 2.25 vs 23.9 +/- 3.2 years) who fulfilled the selection criteria and had similar plaque (1.734 +/- 0.29 vs 1.771 +/- 0.33) and percentage of sites with gingival bleeding (19.6 +/- 7 vs 20.7 +/- 8) were studied in a double blind randomised clinical trial. Brushing instructions to all and a scaling for those with calculus were provided two weeks before baseline examination. One ml of resting saliva was collected to ascertain anaerobic (SAnB) and aerobic (SAB) bacterial counts, plaque index (PI), percentage sites with bleeding on probing (BOP) and pocket depth (PD) (at 6 sites/tooth) were recorded at baseline, followed by home use of the allocated toothpaste (test or placebo) twice a day for 12 weeks. Measurements were repeated at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. PI, BOP and SAnB decreased significantly in the test group at 4, 8, and 12 weeks compared to baseline measurements (Wilcoxon-Signed Rank Test, p oral hygiene and gingival health variables when compared with the placebo. Further clinical trials using patients with gingivitis are necessary to confirm the therapeutic benefits of this herbal toothpaste.

  13. Treatment with L-citrulline in patients with post-polio syndrome: study protocol for a single-center, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simone; Gocheva, Vanya; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Rubino-Nacht, Daniela; Bonati, Ulrike; Fischer, Dirk; Hafner, Patricia

    2017-03-09

    Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that affects polio survivors years after recovery from an initial acute infection by the Poliomyelitis virus. Most often, patients who suffered from polio start to experience gradual new weakening in muscles, a gradual decrease in the size of muscles (muscle atrophy) and fatigue years after the acute illness. L-citrulline is known to change muscular metabolism synthesis by raising nitric oxide (NO) levels and increasing protein synthesis. This investigator-initiated, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, trial aims to demonstrate that L-citrulline positively influences muscle function and increases muscular energy production in patients with PPS. Thirty ambulant PPS patients will be recruited in Switzerland. Patients will be randomly allocated to one of the two arms of the study (placebo:verum 1:1). After a 24-week run-in phase to observe natural disease history and progression, participants will be treated either with L-citrulline or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint is change in the 6-min Walking Distance Test. Secondary endpoints will include motor function measure, quantitative muscle force, quantitative muscle magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy and serum biomarker laboratory analysis DISCUSSION: The aim of this phase IIa trial is to determine if treatment with L-citrulline shows a positive effect on clinical function and paraclinical biomarkers in PPS. If treatment with L-citrulline shows positive effects, this might represent a cost-efficient symptomatic therapy for PPS patients. ClinicalTrial.gov, ID: NCT02801071 . Registered on 6 June 2016.

  14. Prevention of preterm delivery with vaginal progesterone in women with preterm labour (4P): randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez de Tejada, B; Karolinski, A; Ocampo, M C; Laterra, C; Hösli, I; Fernández, D; Surbek, D; Huespe, M; Drack, G; Bunader, A; Rouillier, S; López de Degani, G; Seidenstein, E; Prentl, E; Antón, J; Krähenmann, F; Nowacki, D; Poncelas, M; Nassif, J C; Papera, R; Tuma, C; Espoile, R; Tiberio, O; Breccia, G; Messina, A; Peker, B; Schinner, E; Mol, B W; Kanterewicz, L; Wainer, V; Boulvain, M; Othenin-Girard, V; Bertolino, M V; Irion, O

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of 200 mg of daily vaginal natural progesterone to prevent preterm birth in women with preterm labour. Multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Twenty-nine centres in Switzerland and Argentina. A total of 385 women with preterm labour (24(0/7) to 33(6/7) weeks of gestation) treated with acute tocolysis. Participants were randomly allocated to either 200 mg daily of self-administered vaginal progesterone or placebo within 48 hours of starting acute tocolysis. Primary outcome was delivery before 37 weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes were delivery before 32 and 34 weeks, adverse effects, duration of tocolysis, re-admissions for preterm labour, length of hospital stay, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The study was ended prematurely based on results of the intermediate analysis. Preterm birth occurred in 42.5% of women in the progesterone group versus 35.5% in the placebo group (relative risk [RR] 1.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.93-1.5). Delivery at <32 and <34 weeks did not differ between the two groups (12.9 versus 9.7%; [RR 1.3; 95% CI 0.7-2.5] and 19.7 versus 12.9% [RR 1.5; 95% CI 0.9-2.4], respectively). The duration of tocolysis, hospitalisation, and recurrence of preterm labour were comparable between groups. Neonatal morbidity occurred in 44 (22.8%) cases on progesterone versus 35 (18.8%) cases on placebo (RR: 1.2; 95% CI 0.82-1.8), whereas there were 4 (2%) neonatal deaths in each study group. There is no evidence that the daily administration of 200 mg vaginal progesterone decreases preterm birth or improves neonatal outcome in women with preterm labour. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. A pilot double-blind randomised placebo-controlled dose-response trial assessing the effects of melatonin on infertility treatment (MIART): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Shavi; Osianlis, Tiki; Vollenhoven, Beverley; Wallace, Euan; Rombauts, Luk

    2014-09-01

    High levels of oxidative stress can have considerable impact on the outcomes of in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Recent studies have reported that melatonin, a neurohormone secreted from the pineal gland in response to darkness, has significant antioxidative capabilities which may protect against the oxidative stress of infertility treatment on gametes and embryos. Early studies of oral melatonin (3-4 mg/day) in IVF have suggested favourable outcomes. However, most trials were poorly designed and none have addressed the optimum dose of melatonin. We present a proposal for a pilot double-blind randomised placebo-controlled dose-response trial aimed to determine whether oral melatonin supplementation during ovarian stimulation can improve the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology. We will recruit 160 infertile women into one of four groups: placebo (n=40); melatonin 2 mg twice per day (n=40); melatonin 4 mg twice per day (n=40) and melatonin 8 mg twice per day (n=40). The primary outcome will be clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary clinical outcomes include oocyte number/quality, embryo number/quality and fertilisation rate. We will also measure serum melatonin and the oxidative stress marker, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine at baseline and after treatment and levels of these in follicular fluid at egg pick-up. We will investigate follicular blood flow with Doppler ultrasound, patient sleepiness scores and pregnancy complications, comparing outcomes between groups. This protocol has been designed in accordance with the SPIRIT 2013 Guidelines. Ethical approval has been obtained from Monash Health HREC (Ref: 13402B), Monash University HREC (Ref: CF14/523-2014000181) and Monash Surgical Private Hospital HREC (Ref: 14107). Data analysis, interpretation and conclusions will be presented at national and international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. ACTRN12613001317785. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  16. Immediate effect of electric point stimulation (TENS) in treating latent upper trapezius trigger points: a double blind randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Hugh; Hilland, Axel

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of electric point stimulation in treating latent upper trapezius trigger points compared to placebo. Double blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. Anglo-European College of Chiropractic. Sixty participants with latent upper trapezius trigger points. Electric point stimulator type of TENS, or detuned (inactive) electric point stimulator type of TENS. The three outcome measures were pressure pain threshold at the trigger point, a numerical rating scale for pain elicited over the trigger point, and lateral cervical flexion to the side opposite the trigger point. On the outcome of pressure pain threshold the electric point stimulator group had a mean change of 0.49 (0.99) kg/cm(2), while the placebo group had a mean change of 0.45 (0.98) kg/cm(2) (t = 0.16, df = 58, p = 0.88). For change in pain over the trigger point, the electric point stimulator group had a mean decrease of 0.93 (0.87) points, while the placebo group had a mean decrease of 0.23 (0.97) points (t = 0.70, df = 58, p = 0.005). On the outcome of change in lateral cervical flexion the electric point stimulator group had a mean increase of 2.87 (4.55) degrees, while the placebo group had a mean increase of 1.99 (2.49) degrees (t = 0.92, df = 58, p = 0.36). Electric point stimulator type of TENS is superior to placebo only in reduction of pain for treating latent upper trapezius trigger points. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of a Vero-cell-culture-derived trivalent influenza vaccine: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, P Noel; Berezuk, Gregory; Fritsch, Sandor; Aichinger, Gerald; Hart, Mary Kate; El-Amin, Wael; Kistner, Otfried; Ehrlich, Hartmut J

    2011-02-26

    The use of cell-culture technologies for the manufacture of influenza vaccines might contribute to improved strain selection and robust vaccine supplies. We investigated the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of a Vero-cell-culture-derived influenza vaccine, and assessed the correlation between vaccine efficacy and haemagglutination inhibition antibody titre. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial undertaken in 36 centres in the USA, healthy adults (aged 18-49 years) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to one injection of either placebo or Vero-cell-culture-derived influenza vaccine during the 2008-09 season. Randomisation was done in blocks by use of the random number generator algorithm, and participants were allocated by use of a centralised telephone system. The primary objective was the efficacy of the vaccine in preventing cell-culture-confirmed influenza infection with viruses that were antigenically matched to one of the vaccine strains. Analysis was by intention to treat. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00566345. 7250 participants were randomly assigned to vaccine (n=3626) and placebo (n=3624). 7236 were analysed for the primary outcome (n=3619 and n=3617, respectively). Overall protective efficacy for antigenically matched influenza infection was 78·5% (95% CI 60·8-88·2). The vaccine was well tolerated with no treatment-related serious adverse events. Adverse events were mainly mild and transient. An HI titre of at least 1:15 provided a reliable correlate of cell-culture-derived influenza vaccine-induced protection; no additional benefit was noted with titres greater than 1:30. The data indicate that existing correlates of protection afforded with egg-derived seasonal influenza vaccines also apply to this vaccine. Federal (US Government) funds from the Office for Preparedness and Response, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, under contract to DynPort Vaccine Company. Copyright

  18. Pain relief of sore throat with a new anti-inflammatory throat lozenge, ibuprofen 25 mg: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouroubi, Athmane; Donazzolo, Yves; Donath, Franck; Eccles, Ron; Russo, Marc; Harambillet, Nadine; Gautier, Stéphanie; Montagne, Agnès

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a new oromucosal ibuprofen form, ibuprofen 25 mg lozenge, in single and repeat dosing for up to 4 days, to the matched placebo, in the treatment of acute sore throat pain in adults. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients with non-streptococcal sore throat and signs of moderate-to-severe associated pain (≥5 on the objective Tonsillo-Pharyngitis Assessment 21-point scale and ≥60 mm on the subjective 0-100 mm visual analogue Sore Throat Pain Intensity Scale [STPIS]) were assigned ibuprofen 25 mg (n=194) or matching placebo (n=191) lozenge treatment. Efficacy was assessed (at the investigating centre up to 2 hours after first dosing, then on an ambulatory basis) by parameters derived from patient's scores on scales of pain relief, pain intensity, and global efficacy assessment. The primary efficacy end-point was the time-weighted TOTal PAin Relief (TOTPAR) over 2 hours after first dosing using the Sore Throat Relief Scale (STRS). Safety and local tolerability were assessed. Ibuprofen 25 mg was superior to placebo on numerous pain relief parameters; TOTPAR was significantly higher with ibuprofen 25 mg over 2 hours after first dosing (Ppain (n=128), after an average 4 days (Prelief of sore throat pain and is as well tolerated as placebo. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01785862. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The effect of probiotics on serum levels of cytokine and endotoxin in peritoneal dialysis patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-K; Wu, Y-Y; Yang, Y-F; Ting, I-W; Lin, C-C; Yen, T-H; Chen, J-H; Wang, C-H; Huang, C-C; Lin, H-C

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory markers such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are elevated in dialysis patients and can predict cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Endotoxin is an important source and also another marker of inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of oral probiotics on serum levels of endotoxemia and cytokines in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The decline of residual renal function, peritonitis episodes, and cardiovascular events were also recorded. From July 2011 to June 2012, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in PD patients. The intervention group received one capsule of probiotics containing 10(9) cfu Bifobacterium bifidum A218, 10(9) cfu Bifidobacterium catenulatum A302, 10(9) cfu Bifidobacterium longum A101, and 10(9) cfu Lactobacillus plantarum A87 daily for six months, while the placebo group received similar capsules containing maltodextrin for the same duration. Levels of serum TNF-α, interferon gamma, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, and endotoxin were measured before and six months after intervention. 39 patients completed the study (21 in the probiotics group and 18 in the placebo group). In patients receiving probiotics, levels of serum TNF-α, IL-5, IL-6, and endotoxin significantly decreased after six months of treatment, while levels of serum IL-10 significantly increased. In contrast, there were no significant changes in levels of serum cytokines and endotoxin in the placebo group after six months. In addition, the residual renal function was preserved in patients receiving probiotics. In conclusion, probiotics could significantly reduce the serum levels of endotoxin, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), IL-5, increase the serum levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and preserve residual renal function in PD patients.

  20. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial investigating the behavioural effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 fatty acid supplementation in typically developing adolescent schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammam, Jonathan D; Steinsaltz, David; Bester, D W; Semb-Andenaes, Turid; Stein, John F

    2016-01-28

    Nutrient deficiencies have been implicated in anti-social behaviour in schoolchildren; hence, correcting them may improve sociability. We therefore tested the effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 supplementation on behaviour in a 12-week double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in typically developing UK adolescents aged 13-16 years (n 196). Changes in erythrocyte n-3 and 6 fatty acids and some mineral and vitamin levels were measured and compared with behavioural changes, using Conners' teacher ratings and school disciplinary records. At baseline, the children's PUFA (n-3 and n-6), vitamin and mineral levels were low, but they improved significantly in the group treated with n-3, vitamins and minerals (P=0·0005). On the Conners disruptive behaviour scale, the group given the active supplements improved, whereas the placebo group worsened (F=5·555, d=0·35; P=0·02). The general level of disciplinary infringements was low, thus making it difficult to obtain improvements. However, throughout the school term school disciplinary infringements increased significantly (by 25 %; Bayes factor=115) in both the treated and untreated groups. However, when the subjects were split into high and low baseline infringements, the low subset increased their offences, whereas the high-misbehaviour subset appeared to improve after treatment. But it was not possible to determine whether this was merely a statistical artifact. Thus, when assessed using the validated and standardised Conners teacher tests (but less clearly when using school discipline records in a school where misbehaviour was infrequent), supplementary nutrition might have a protective effect against worsening behaviour.

  1. The effect of intravenous dextrose administration for prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A double-blind, randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Firouzian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV is a common and distressing complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravenous (IV dextrose administration for the prophylaxis of PONV after LC. Methods: In a double-blind, randomised controlled trial, a total of 150 female patients who were scheduled for elective LC were randomly assigned into two groups (A and B. Thirty minutes before induction of anaesthesia, patients received an infusion of 500 cc lactated Ringer's solution (Group A and 5% dextrose in lactated Ringer's solution (Group B and over a period of 30 min. All patients rated their nausea and vomiting intensity using the verbal rating scale immediately at post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU arrival; 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after arriving at the PACU and 6, 12 and 24 h after surgery. Results: There was a statistically significant time trend and group effect along with significant differences in time/group interaction effect in both groups for nausea and vomiting scores (P < 0.05. A low negative correlation coefficient was found (r = −0.394, P < 0.001 between blood glucose levels and nausea scores upon PACU arrival. Dextrose administration reduced the odds of vomiting events compared to placebo (estimate: −0.87, odds ratio = 0.42, 95% confidence interval: 0.28–0.64. Conclusion: Administration of IV dextrose before anaesthesia induction may be recommended as an effective, and safe method for the prophylaxis of PONV after LC.

  2. The impact of altering filling pressures in diagnostic outpatient hysteroscopy on the procedure completion rates and associated pain: a randomised double-blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggag, Hisham M; Hassan, AbdelGany M A

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have compared different distension media and analgesics to optimise the efficiency of outpatient hysteroscopy. However, studies comparing different uterine filling pressures are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare different uterine filling pressures during diagnostic outpatient hysteroscopy in an attempt to find the optimal pressure allowing adequate visualisation while minimising pain and increasing patient satisfaction. This was a double-blind randomised controlled trial. A total of 240 women who had diagnostic outpatient hysteroscopy were randomly divided into three equal groups: the uterine filling pressure was 30 mm Hg in group 1, 50 mm Hg in group 2 and 80 mm Hg in group 3. The primary outcome was adequate visualisation, and secondary outcomes were the proportion of completed procedures, pain perceived during the procedure, immediately after the procedure and 30 min later. Adequate visualisation was lower in group 1 (88.7% vs 97.5% and 98.7%; P = 0.009), but was not different between groups 2 and 3 (P > 0.999). The proportion of completed procedures was not different among the groups. There was a progressive increase in pain scores from the lower to the higher pressure groups during the procedure, immediately after the procedure and 30 min after completing the procedure. Uterine filling pressure of 50 mm Hg was associated with better visualisation than 30 mm Hg and lower pain scores than that of 80 mmHg with no difference in the proportion of completed procedures. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Recovery of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in tonsil tissue after oral administration: randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpu, Minna; Swanljung, Elisa; Tynkkynen, Soile; Hatakka, Katja; Kekkonen, Riina A; Järvenpää, Salme; Korpela, Riitta; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2013-06-28

    The present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine whether consumption of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) would lead to the recovery of GG in tonsil tissue. After 3 weeks’ daily consumption of GG as a single strain (n 20), GG as a part of a multispecies combination (n 17) or placebo (n 20), tonsil tissue samples were collected from fifty-seven young adults during tonsillectomy due to chronic or recurrent tonsillitis. Strain-specific real-time PCR was used to detect GG in the tonsil tissue. GG was recovered in the tonsil sample of 40% of the subjects in the GG group, 41% in the multispecies group and 30% in the placebo group (P value between groups 0.79). In all subjects with positive recovery of GG in the tonsil tissue, GG was also recovered in the faecal sample taken at the start of the intervention and at the time of the tissue sample collection, which indicates more persistent adherence of the probiotic. To conclude, GG can be recovered from tonsil tissue after oral administration as a singlestrain probiotic or as a part of a multispecies probiotic combination. The present results suggest that individual variation exists in the ability of GG to adhere to tonsil tissue. Persistence of GG appears to be high in tonsil tissue as well, in addition to persistence in faecal samples, which has been demonstrated previously. Further clinical trials are warranted to evaluate whether probiotic adherence in the tonsil tissue could have a role in respiratory symptom prevalence.

  4. The efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in the management of children with kerosene-associated pneumonitis: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, Kate H; Zar, Heather; Swift, Donne K; Mann, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocarbons, especially kerosene (paraffin), are the most common agents causing childhood poisoning in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Aspiration of kerosene causes an inflammatory sterile chemical pneumonitis, which may increase susceptibility to secondary lower respiratory tract bacterial infection. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in the management of kerosene-associated pneumonitis in children and to identify risk factors associated with severity or outcome. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of prophylactic antibiotics in the management of kerosene-associated pneumonitis of children presenting to a referral hospital was performed from July 2010 to September 2011. Sequential children with a history of kerosene ingestion and mild respiratory illness were randomised to receive placebo or amoxicillin. Each child was followed-up at Day 3 and Day 5 post-ingestion. The primary outcome measure was the number of treatment failures in each group, defined as any child who deteriorated within this time, necessitating a change in treatment regimen. Secondary outcome measures were length of hospital stay and symptoms and signs at follow-up. Seventy-four patients were enrolled. Thirty-five (47%) received placebo and 39 (53%) active treatment. There was no significant difference in treatment failures between placebo (3/35, 9%; 95% CI, 3-22) and active (2/39, 5%; 95% CI, 1-17) groups (relative risk, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.11-3.37). The median length of hospital stay was identical (placebo 0.5 days; IQR, 0-1.0 and active 0.5 days; IQR, 0.5-1.0). Symptoms and signs at Days 3 and 5 post-ingestion were similar. The only significant risk factor for treatment failure was residence in formal housing. Clinical severity at presentation was similar for treatment successes and failures. Prophylactic antibiotics do not improve the outcome in children with mild respiratory illness after kerosene ingestion.

  5. The IDvIP Trial: A two-centre randomised double-blind controlled trial comparing intramuscular diamorphine and intramuscular pethidine for labour analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peter

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intramuscular pethidine is routinely used throughout the UK for labour analgesia. Studies have suggested that pethidine provides little pain relief in labour and has a number of side effects affecting mother and neonate. It can cause nausea, vomiting and dysphoria in mothers and can cause reduced fetal heart rate variability and accelerations. Neonatal effects include respiratory depression and impaired feeding. There are few large studies comparing the relative side effects and efficacy of different opioids in labour. A small trial comparing intramuscular pethidine with diamorphine, showed diamorphine to have some benefits over pethidine when used for labour analgesia but the study did not investigate the adverse effects of either opioid. Methods The Intramuscular Diamorphine versus Intramuscular Pethidine (IDvIP trial is a randomised double-blind two centre controlled trial comparing intramuscular diamorphine and pethidine regarding their analgesic efficacy in labour and their side effects in mother, fetus and neonate. Information about the trial will be provided to women in the antenatal period or in early labour. Consent and recruitment to the trial will be obtained when the mother requests opioid analgesia. The sample size requirement is 406 women with data on primary outcomes. The maternal primary outcomes are pain relief during the first 3 hours after trial analgesia and specifically pain relief after 60 minutes. The neonatal primary outcomes are need for resuscitation and Apgar Score Discussion If the trial demonstrates that diamorphine provides better analgesia with fewer side effects in mother and neonate this could lead to a change in national practice and result in diamorphine becoming the preferred intramuscular opioid for analgesia in labour. Trial Registration ISRCTN14898678 Eudra No: 2006-003250-18, REC Reference No: 06/Q1702/95, MHRA Authorisation No: 1443/0001/001-0001, NIHR UKCRN reference 6895, RfPB grant

  6. COAST (Cisplatin ototoxicity attenuated by aspirin trial): A phase II double-blind, randomised controlled trial to establish if aspirin reduces cisplatin induced hearing-loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, Simon J; Martin, Karen; Abab, Julia; Ratcliffe, Ian; Thornton, Roger; Lineton, Ben; Ellis, Mary; Moody, Ronald; Stanton, Louise; Galanopoulou, Angeliki; Maishman, Tom; Geldart, Thomas; Bayne, Mike; Davies, Joe; Lamb, Carolynn; Popat, Sanjay; Joffe, Johnathan K; Nutting, Chris; Chester, John; Hartley, Andrew; Thomas, Gareth; Ottensmeier, Christian; Huddart, Robert; King, Emma

    2017-12-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most ototoxic chemotherapy drugs, resulting in a permanent and irreversible hearing loss in up to 50% of patients. Cisplatin and gentamicin are thought to damage hearing through a common mechanism, involving reactive oxygen species in the inner ear. Aspirin has been shown to minimise gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that aspirin could also reduce ototoxicity from cisplatin-based chemotherapy. A total of 94 patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy for multiple cancer types were recruited into a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and randomised in a ratio of 1:1 to receive aspirin 975 mg tid and omeprazole 20 mg od, or matched placebos from the day before, to 2 days after, their cisplatin dose(s), for each treatment cycle. Patients underwent pure tone audiometry before and at 7 and 90 days after their final cisplatin dose. The primary end-point was combined hearing loss (cHL), the summed hearing loss at 6 kHz and 8 kHz, in both ears. Although aspirin was well tolerated, it did not protect hearing in patients receiving cisplatin (p-value = 0.233, 20% one-sided level of significance). In the aspirin arm, patients demonstrated mean cHL of 49 dB (standard deviation [SD] 61.41) following cisplatin compared with placebo patients who demonstrated mean cHL of 36 dB (SD 50.85). Women had greater average hearing loss than men, and patients treated for head and neck malignancy experienced the greatest cHL. Aspirin did not protect from cisplatin-related ototoxicity. Cisplatin and gentamicin may therefore have distinct ototoxic mechanisms, or cisplatin-induced ototoxicity may be refractory to the aspirin regimen used here. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The effectiveness of ENAR® for the treatment of chronic neck pain in Australian adults: a preliminary single-blind, randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current evidence on electrotherapies for the management of chronic neck pain is either lacking or conflicting. New therapeutic devices being introduced to the market should be investigated for their effectiveness and efficacy. The ENAR® (Electro Neuro Adaptive Regulator therapy device combines Western biofeedback with Eastern energy medicine. Methods A small, preliminary randomised and controlled single-blinded trial was conducted on 24 participants (ten males, 14 females between the ages of 18 to 50 years (median age of 40.5 Consent was obtained and participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups – ENAR, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS, or control therapy – to test the hypothesis that ENAR therapy would result in superior pain reduction/disability and improvements in neck function compared with TENS or control intervention. The treatment regimen included twelve 15-minute treatment sessions over a six week period, followed by two assessment periods. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS pain scores, Neck Disability Index (NDI scores, Patient Specific Functional Scale (PSFS scores and Short Form 36v1 (SF-36 quality of life scores reported by participants were collected at each of the assessments points throughout the trial (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 weeks. Results Eligible participants (n = 30 were recruited and attended clinic visits for 6 months from the time of randomisation. Final trial sample (n = 24 comprised 9 within the ENAR group, 7 within the TENS group and 8 within the control group. With an overall study power of 0.92, the ENAR group showed a decrease in mean pain score from measurement at time zero (5.0 ± 0.79 95%CI to the first follow-up measurement at six weeks (1.4 ± 0.83 95%CI. Improvement was maintained until week 24 (1.75 ± 0.9 95%CI. The TENS and control groups showed consistent pain levels throughout the trial (3.4 ± 0.96 95%CI and 4.1 ± 0.9 95%CI respectively. Wald analysis for pain

  8. Safety and efficacy of multipotent adult progenitor cells in acute ischaemic stroke (MASTERS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, David C; Wechsler, Lawrence R; Clark, Wayne M; Savitz, Sean I; Ford, Gary A; Chiu, David; Yavagal, Dileep R; Uchino, Ken; Liebeskind, David S; Auchus, Alexander P; Sen, Souvik; Sila, Cathy A; Vest, Jeffrey D; Mays, Robert W

    2017-05-01

    Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a bone marrow-derived, allogeneic, cell therapy product that modulates the immune system, and represents a promising therapy for acute stroke. We aimed to identify the highest, well-tolerated, and safest single dose of multipotent adult progenitor cells, and if they were efficacious as a treatment for stroke recovery. We did a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial of intravenous multipotent adult progenitor cells in 33 centres in the UK and the USA. We used a computer-generated randomisation sequence and interactive voice and web response system to assign patients aged 18-83 years with moderately severe acute ischaemic stroke and a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 8-20 to treatment with intravenous multipotent adult progenitor cells (400 million or 1200 million cells) or placebo between 24 h and 48 h after symptom onset. Patients were ineligible if there was a change in NIHSS of four or more points during at least a 6 h period between screening and randomisation, had brainstem or lacunar infarct, a substantial comorbid disease, an inability to undergo an MRI scan, or had a history of splenectomy. In group 1, patients were enrolled and randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to receive 400 million cells or placebo and assessed for safety through 7 days. In group 2, patients were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to receive 1200 million cells or placebo and assessed for safety through the first 7 days. In group 3, patients were enrolled, randomly assigned, and stratified by baseline NIHSS score to receive 1200 million cells or placebo in a 1:1 ratio within 24-48 h. Patients, investigators, and clinicians were masked to treatment assignment. The primary safety outcome was dose-limiting toxicity effects. The primary efficacy endpoint was global stroke recovery, which combines dichotomised results from the modified Rankin scale, change in NIHSS score from baseline, and

  9. Delivering safe and effective analgesia for management of renal colic in the emergency department: a double-blind, multigroup, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, Sameer A; Mitra, Biswadev; Straney, Lahn D; Afzal, Muhammad Shuaib; Anjum, Shahzad; Shukla, Dharmesh; Morley, Kostantinos; Al Hilli, Shatha A; Al Rumaihi, Khalid; Thomas, Stephen H; Cameron, Peter A

    2016-05-14

    The excruciating pain of patients with renal colic on presentation to the emergency department requires effective analgesia to be administered in the shortest possible time. Trials comparing intramuscular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with intravenous opioids or paracetamol have been inconclusive because of the challenges associated with concealment of randomisation, small sample size, differences in outcome measures, and inadequate masking of participants and assessors. We did this trial to develop definitive evidence regarding the choice of initial analgesia and route of administration in participants presenting with renal colic to the emergency department. In this three-treatment group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial, adult participants (aged 18-65 years) presenting to the emergency department of an academic, tertiary care hospital in Qatar, with moderate to severe renal colic (Numerical pain Rating Scale ≥ 4) were recruited. With the use of computer-generated block randomisation (block sizes of six and nine), participants were assigned (1:1:1) to receive diclofenac (75 mg/3 mL intramuscular), morphine (0.1 mg/kg intravenous), or paracetamol (1 g/100 mL intravenous). Participants, clinicians, and trial personnel were masked to treatment assignment. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants achieving at least a 50% reduction in initial pain score at 30 min after analgesia, assessed by intention-to-treat analysis and per-protocol analysis, which included patients where a calculus in the urinary tract was detected with imaging. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02187614. Between Aug 5, 2014, and March 15, 2015, we randomly assigned 1645 participants, of whom 1644 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis (547 in the diclofenac group, 548 in the paracetemol group, and 549 in the morphine group). Ureteric calculi were detected in 1316 patients, who were analysed as the per-protocol population (438 in

  10. Safety and efficacy of ceftriaxone for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a multi-stage, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudkowicz, Merit E; Titus, Sarah; Kearney, Marianne; Yu, Hong; Sherman, Alexander; Schoenfeld, David; Hayden, Douglas; Shui, Amy; Brooks, Benjamin; Conwit, Robin; Felsenstein, Donna; Greenblatt, David J; Keroack, Myles; Kissel, John T; Miller, Robert; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Simpson, Ericka; Tolkoff-Rubin, Nina; Zinman, Lorne; Shefner, Jeremy M

    2014-11-01

    Glutamate excitotoxicity might contribute to the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In animal models, decreased excitatory aminoacid transporter 2 (EAAT2) overexpression delays disease onset and prolongs survival, and ceftriaxone increases EAAT2 activity. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of ceftriaxone for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a combined phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical trial. This three-stage randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was done at 59 clinical sites in the USA and Canada between Sept 4, 2006, and July 30, 2012. Eligible adult patients had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a vital capacity of more than 60% of that predicted for age and height, and symptom duration of less than 3 years. In stages 1 (pharmacokinetics) and 2 (safety), participants were randomly allocated (2:1) to ceftriaxone (2 g or 4 g per day) or placebo. In stage 3 (efficacy), participants assigned to ceftriaxone in stage 2 received 4 g ceftriaxone, participants assigned to placebo in stage 2 received placebo, and new participants were randomly assigned (2:1) to 4 g ceftriaxone or placebo. Participants, family members, and site staff were masked to treatment assignment. Randomisation was done by a computerised randomisation sequence with permuted blocks of 3. Participants received 2 g ceftriaxone or placebo twice daily through a central venous catheter administered at home by a trained caregiver. To minimise biliary side-effects, participants assigned to ceftriaxone also received 300 mg ursodeoxycholic acid twice daily and those assigned to placebo received matched placebo capsules. The coprimary efficacy outcomes were survival and functional decline, measured as the slope of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) scores. Analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00349622. Stage 3 included 66 participants from stages 1 and 2 and 448 new participants. In total

  11. Effect of metformin on maternal and fetal outcomes in obese pregnant women (EMPOWaR): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiswick, Carolyn; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Denison, Fiona; Drake, Amanda J; Forbes, Shareen; Newby, David E; Walker, Brian R; Quenby, Siobhan; Wray, Susan; Weeks, Andrew; Lashen, Hany; Rodriguez, Aryelly; Murray, Gordon; Whyte, Sonia; Norman, Jane E

    2015-10-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with increased birthweight, and obesity and premature mortality in adult offspring. The mechanism by which maternal obesity leads to these outcomes is not well understood, but maternal hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are both implicated. We aimed to establish whether the insulin sensitising drug metformin improves maternal and fetal outcomes in obese pregnant women without diabetes. We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in antenatal clinics at 15 National Health Service hospitals in the UK. Pregnant women (aged ≥16 years) between 12 and 16 weeks' gestation who had a BMI of 30 kg/m(2) or more and normal glucose tolerance were randomly assigned (1:1), via a web-based computer-generated block randomisation procedure (block size of two to four), to receive oral metformin 500 mg (increasing to a maximum of 2500 mg) or matched placebo daily from between 12 and 16 weeks' gestation until delivery of the baby. Randomisation was stratified by study site and BMI band (30-39 vs ≥40 kg/m(2)). Participants, caregivers, and study personnel were masked to treatment assignment. The primary outcome was Z score corresponding to the gestational age, parity, and sex-standardised birthweight percentile of liveborn babies delivered at 24 weeks or more of gestation. We did analysis by modified intention to treat. This trial is registered, ISRCTN number 51279843. Between Feb 3, 2011, and Jan 16, 2014, inclusive, we randomly assigned 449 women to either placebo (n=223) or metformin (n=226), of whom 434 (97%) were included in the final modified intention-to-treat analysis. Mean birthweight at delivery was 3463 g (SD 660) in the placebo group and 3462 g (548) in the metformin group. The estimated effect size of metformin on the primary outcome was non-significant (adjusted mean difference -0·029, 95% CI -0·217 to 0·158; p=0·7597). The difference in the number of women reporting the combined adverse outcome of miscarriage

  12. Safety and efficacy of AMG 334 for prevention of episodic migraine: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Dodick, David W; Silberstein, Stephen; Goadsby, Peter J; Reuter, Uwe; Ashina, Messoud; Saper, Joel; Cady, Roger; Chon, Yun; Dietrich, Julie; Lenz, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway is a promising target for preventive therapies in patients with migraine. We assessed the safety and efficacy of AMG 334, a fully human monoclonal antibody against the CGRP receptor, for migraine prevention. In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial, patients aged 18-60 years with 4 to 14 migraine days per month were enrolled at 59 headache and clinical research centres in North America and Europe, and randomly assigned in a 3:2:2:2 ratio to monthly subcutaneous placebo, AMG 334 7 mg, AMG 334 21 mg, or AMG 334 70 mg using a sponsor-generated randomisation sequence centrally executed by an interactive voice response or interactive web response system. Study site personnel, patients, and the sponsor study personnel were masked to the treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was the change in monthly migraine days from baseline to the last 4 weeks of the 12-week double-blind treatment phase. The primary endpoint was calculated using the least squares mean at each timepoint from a generalised linear mixed-effect model for repeated measures. Safety endpoints were adverse events, clinical laboratory values, vital signs, and anti-AMG 334 antibodies. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01952574. An open-label extension phase of up to 256 weeks is ongoing and will assess the long-term safety of AMG 334. From Aug 6, 2013, to June 30, 2014, 483 patients were randomly assigned to placebo (n=160), AMG 334 7 mg (n=108), AMG 334 21 mg (n=108), or AMG 334 70 mg (n=107). The mean change in monthly migraine days at week 12 was -3·4 (SE 0·4) days with AMG 334 70 mg versus -2·3 (0·3) days with placebo (difference -1·1 days [95% CI -2·1 to -0·2], p=0·021). The mean reductions in monthly migraine days with the 7 mg (-2·2 [SE 0·4]) and the 21 mg (-2·4 [0·4]) doses were not significantly different from that with placebo. Adverse events were recorded in 82 (54

  13. Impact of fortified versus unfortified lipid-based supplements on morbidity and nutritional status: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial in ill Gambian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Stefan A; Drammeh, Saikou; Hasan, Jahid; Ceesay, Kabiru; Sinjanka, Edrisa; Beyai, Sainey; Sonko, Bakary; Dondeh, Bai Lamin; Fulford, Anthony J; Moore, Sophie E; Prentice, Andrew M

    2017-08-01

    Multiple micronutrients (MMN) are commonly prescribed in pediatric primary healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa to improve nutritional status and appetite without evidence for their effectiveness or international clinical guidelines. Community-wide MMN supplementation has shown limited and heterogeneous impact on growth and morbidity. Short-term ready-to-use therapeutic foods in acutely sick children in a hospital setting also had limited efficacy regarding subsequent growth. The effectiveness of MMN in improving morbidity or growth in sick children presenting for primary care has not been assessed. We undertook a double-blind randomised controlled trial of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) fortified with 23 micronutrients in children aged 6 months (mo) to 5 years (y) presenting with an illness at a rural primary healthcare centre in The Gambia. Primary outcomes were repeat clinic presentations and growth over 24 wk. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 interventions: (1) supplementation with micronutrient-fortified SQ-LNS for 12 wk (MMN-12), (2) supplementation with micronutrient-fortified SQ-LNS for 6 wk followed by unfortified SQ-LNS for 6 wk (MMN-6), or (3) supplementation with unfortified SQ-LNS for 12 wk (MMN-0) to be consumed in daily portions. Treatment masking used 16 letters per 6-wk block in the randomisation process. Blinded intention-to-treat analysis based on a prespecified statistical analysis plan included all participants eligible and correctly enrolled. Between December 2009 and June 2011, 1,101 children (age 6-60 mo, mean 25.5 mo) were enrolled, and 1,085 were assessed (MMN-0 = 361, MMN-6 = 362, MMN-12 = 362). MMN supplementation was associated with a small increase in height-for-age z-scores 24 wk after recruitment (effect size for MMN groups combined: 0.084 SD/24 wk, 95% CI: 0.005, 0.168; p = 0.037; equivalent to 2-5 mm depending on age). No significant difference in frequency of morbidity measured by the

  14. Davunetide in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2/3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Adam L; Lang, Anthony E; Grossman, Murray; Knopman, David S; Miller, Bruce L; Schneider, Lon S; Doody, Rachelle S; Lees, Andrew; Golbe, Lawrence I; Williams, David R; Corvol, Jean-Cristophe; Ludolph, Albert; Burn, David; Lorenzl, Stefan; Litvan, Irene; Roberson, Erik D; Höglinger, Günter U; Koestler, Mary; Jack, Clifford R; Van Deerlin, Viviana; Randolph, Christopher; Lobach, Iryna V; Heuer, Hilary W; Gozes, Illana; Parker, Lesley; Whitaker, Steve; Hirman, Joe; Stewart, Alistair J; Gold, Michael; Morimoto, Bruce H

    2014-07-01

    In preclinical studies, davunetide promoted microtubule stability and reduced tau phosphorylation. Because progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is linked to tau pathology, davunetide could be a treatment for PSP. We assessed the safety and efficacy of davunetide in patients with PSP. In a double-blind, parallel group, phase 2/3 trial, participants were randomly assigned with permuted blocks in a 1:1 ratio to davunetide (30 mg twice daily, intranasally) or placebo for 52 weeks at 48 centres in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the UK, and the USA. Participants met the modified Neuroprotection and Natural History in Parkinson Plus Syndrome study criteria for PSP. Primary endpoints were the change from baseline in PSP Rating Scale (PSPRS) and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living (SEADL) scale at up to 52 weeks. All participants and study personnel were masked to treatment assignment. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT01110720. 313 participants were randomly assigned to davunetide (n=157) or to placebo (n=156), and 241 (77%) completed the study (118 and 156 in the davunetide and placebo groups, respectively). There were no differences in the davunetide and placebo groups in the baseline PSPRS and SEADL. The davunetide and placebo groups did not differ in the change from baseline in PSPRS (median 11·8 [95% CI 10·5 to 13·0] vs 11·8 [10·5 to 13·0], respectively, p=0·41) or SEADL (-0·20 [-0·20 to -0·17] vs -0·20 [-0·22 to -0·17], respectively, p=0·92). 54 serious adverse events were reported in each of the treatment groups, including 11 deaths in the davunetide group and ten in the placebo group. The frequency of nasal adverse events was greater in the davunetide group than in the placebo group (epistaxis 18 [12%] of 156 vs 13 [8%] of 156, rhinorrhoea 15 [10%] vs eight [5%], and nasal discomfort 15 [10%] vs one [<1%]). Davunetide is not an effective treatment for PSP. Clinical trials of

  15. Pilot study: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of pancrealipase for the treatment of postprandial irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Mary E; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Virgilio, Chris; Talley, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of pancrealipase (PEZ) compared with placebo in the reduction of postprandial irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhoea (IBS-D). DESIGN: An intention to treat, double blind, randomised, crossover trial comparing PEZ to placebo for reduction of postprandial IBS-D. Patients had to recognise at least two different triggering foods, be willing to consume six baseline 'trigger meals' and again blinded with PEZ and placebo. Patients then chose which drug they preferred for another 25 meals. SETTING: Outpatient internal medicine practice clinic. PATIENTS: 255 patients were screened; 83 met the criteria, including 5 years of symptoms, recognised 'food triggers', no other identifiable cause for the symptoms, either a normal colonoscopy or barium enema while symptomatic and able to discontinue all anticholinergic medications. 69 patients were enrolled, 20 withdrew before randomisation, leaving 49 patients: 14 men, 35 women, mean age 52 years (SD 15.3). Over 60% had experienced symptoms for 11-30 years and 16% for more than 40 years. INTERVENTIONS: After completing six baseline meals, patients were randomised in blocks of four to receive either identical PEZ or a placebo for another six meals, and after a washout period of time received the alternative drug. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary analysis was number of patients who chose PEZ over placebo for the extended use. RESULTS: Overall, 30/49 (61%) would have chosen PEZ (p=0.078), with first drug preference for PEZ at 0.002. Among the PEZ subgroup, PEZ use compared with placebo, demonstrated improvement in all symptoms (p≤0.001) for cramping, bloating, borborygami, urge to defecate, global pain and decrease stooling with increase in stool firmness. CONCLUSIONS: PEZ was found in a small group of patients to reduce postprandial IBS-D symptoms and deserves further evaluation.

  16. Outcome of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in chronic pain: short-term results of a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, J.; Boo, T.M. de; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Crul, B.J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of shortterm transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) treatment in chronic pain with respect to pain intensity and patients' satisfaction with treatment results. We therefore performed a randomised controlled trial comparing TENS and sham

  17. The role of immediate provisional restorations on implants with a hydrophilic surface: A randomised, single-blind controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Nikolaos; Horvath, Attila; Mezzomo, Luis André; Dedi, Dina; Calciolari, Elena; Mardas, Nikos

    2018-01-01

    To compare the radiographic bone changes, clinical parameters and aesthetic outcomes of immediately provisionalised and conventionally restored implants at 12- and 24-months post-implant placement. In 24 patients, 24 bone level implants with a hydrophilic (SLActive) surface were placed in healed sites and they were either immediately provisionalised with a non-occluding temporary crown (test group) or left without a crown (control group). In both groups, the definitive restoration was placed 16 weeks after implant placement. Clinical and radiographic parameters were calculated at 12- and 24-months post-implant placement, together with implant success/survival rates according to three different sets of criteria. The aesthetic outcome was evaluated through the Papilla Fill Index and the Pink Aesthetic Score. The mean marginal bone loss at 1 year was -0.73 mm (SD 0.83 mm) in the test group and -0.22 mm (SD 0.46 mm) in the control group (p > .05). Whilst 100% survival rate and positive aesthetic outcomes were recorded in both groups, three patients of the test group did not fulfil all success criteria. Immediate provisionalisation may represent a viable option for the replacement of single missing teeth, with radiographic, clinical and aesthetic results comparable to those of conventionally loaded implants at 2 years of follow-up. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effectiveness of a low-cost virtual reality system for children with developmental delay: a preliminary randomised single-blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Yasser; Gropack, Stacy Jaffee; Coffin, Dale; Godwin, Ellen M

    2012-09-01

    Physical and occupational therapists have started to use the Nintendo Wii™ gaming system with adults and children as part of their regular treatment. Despite the growing use of the Wii and trend towards evidence-based practice, limited evidence is available on the effectiveness of virtual reality using the Wii for children with developmental delay. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a low-cost gaming system for young children with developmental delay. Single-blind, randomised controlled trial. Forty children with developmental delay (age 39 to 58 months) who attended a segregated or integrated preschool participated in this study. All children's parents read and signed an informed consent form approved by the institutional review board. Children were assigned at random to an experimental (Wii) group (n=20) or a control group (n=20). Two weekly sessions for 10 weeks using Nintendo Wii Sports™ and Nintendo Wii Fit™, including balance, strength training and aerobics games. Participants were evaluated 1 week before and 1 week after the programme by a blinded investigator. Primary outcomes were gait speed, timed up and go test, single leg stance test, five-times-sit-to-stand test, timed up and down stairs test, 2-minute walk test and grip strength. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) was used to assess gross motor skills. The two groups were homogenous regarding all parameters at baseline. The Wii training was feasible and enjoyable for those in the experimental group. There were no adverse effects or injuries reported over 267 training sessions. Comparison of groups following the intervention indicated that the experimental group showed significant improvements compared with the control group in single leg stance test {mean difference 1.03 [standard deviation (SD) 1.7], 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2 to 1.9; P=0.017}, right grip strength [mean difference 1.11 (SD 1.84), 95% CI 0.15 to 2.06; P=0

  19. Study protocol for a single-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial of Tianjiu effects in patients with intradialytic hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Yen; Su, Yu-Jen; Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Chen, Shih-Yu; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Wu, Chien-Hsing; Chen, Yung-Hsiang

    2016-03-10

    Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is the most frequent complication of haemodialysis (HD) and may contribute to cardiovascular events and high mortality. The aetiology of IDH is multifactorial; therefore, it remains a challenging problem in the management of patients with HD. Since the application of Tianjiu at specific points can influence haemodynamics, we hypothesise that Tianjiu therapy at the traditionally used meridian points will reduce the severity of hypotension in patients who undergo HD. In this clinical trial, eligible patients with IDH will be divided randomly and equally into a Tianjiu group and a control group for 4 weeks. In the Tianjiu group, the patients will have Tianjiu applied at three points (conception vessel 4, and bilateral kidney 1) during each HD session. In the control group, patients will have clay patches applied in the same way as those in the Tianjiu treatment group. Both groups will be followed up for 2 weeks. The primary outcome measure will be the percentage of target ultrafiltration achieved, defined as the actual ultrafiltration volume divided by the target ultrafiltration volume. Secondary outcome measures, including frequency of IDH episodes and number of nursing interventions during HD sessions, predialysis and postdialysis blood pressure (BP), patient's participative assessment of the degree of fatigue after dialysis (scale from 0, not at all, to 10, extremely), and recovery time from fatigue after dialysis will be recorded at the 0th and 4th weeks. This trial has undergone ethical scrutiny and been approved by the ethics review board of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (Permission number: 102-4749A3 and 104-3156C). The pre-results of this trial will help to determine whether Tianjiu is an effective and safe treatment for IDH, and, if so, whether it is a therapeutic effect rather than a placebo effect. NCT02210377; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  20. The efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream for dry skin and itch relief: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial--study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyo; Seo, Eun-Sung; Hong, Jin-Tae; Lee, Gang-Tai; You, Young-Kyoung; Lee, Kun-Kook; Jo, Ga-Won; Kim, Nam-Kwen

    2013-11-25

    Moisturisers prevent and treat dry skin. They can also protect sensitive skin, improve skin tone and texture, and mask imperfections. Herbal medicines or their extracts have been available as topical formulations and cosmetics. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) has been used to treat inflammatory disorders and various skin problems. It could be a candidate herbal medicine for treating dry skin condition.This study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract, which has been approved by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for use in cosmetics. This study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with two parallel groups (proposed herbal moisturising cream vs. placebo cream). We will recruit 66 healthy male and female participants, aged 20 to 65 years, who have been diagnosed with dry skin conditions. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either the proposed herbal moisturising cream or a placebo cream for four weeks. Each participant will be examined for signs and symptoms before and after using the cream. Skin hydration, sebum (oily secretion) levels and transepidermal water loss (TEWL; constitutive loss of water from the skin surface) will be assessed. Participants will also be asked to fill out a health-related quality of life questionnaire. Safety will be assessed using blood tests, urine analysis, a pregnancy test, and the assessment of vital signs. This trial will utilise high-quality methodologies in accordance with both consolidated standards for reporting trials guidelines and the guidelines for clinical trials of cosmetics products that are aimed at expressions and advertisement approval in Korea. It will evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract to treat dry skin conditions and provide itch relief. Moreover, we will also employ health-related quality of life

  1. The efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream for dry skin and itch relief: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial- study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Moisturisers prevent and treat dry skin. They can also protect sensitive skin, improve skin tone and texture, and mask imperfections. Herbal medicines or their extracts have been available as topical formulations and cosmetics. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) has been used to treat inflammatory disorders and various skin problems. It could be a candidate herbal medicine for treating dry skin condition. This study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract, which has been approved by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for use in cosmetics. Methods/Designs This study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with two parallel groups (proposed herbal moisturising cream vs. placebo cream). We will recruit 66 healthy male and female participants, aged 20 to 65 years, who have been diagnosed with dry skin conditions. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either the proposed herbal moisturising cream or a placebo cream for four weeks. Each participant will be examined for signs and symptoms before and after using the cream. Skin hydration, sebum (oily secretion) levels and transepidermal water loss (TEWL; constitutive loss of water from the skin surface) will be assessed. Participants will also be asked to fill out a health-related quality of life questionnaire. Safety will be assessed using blood tests, urine analysis, a pregnancy test, and the assessment of vital signs. Discussion This trial will utilise high-quality methodologies in accordance with both consolidated standards for reporting trials guidelines and the guidelines for clinical trials of cosmetics products that are aimed at expressions and advertisement approval in Korea. It will evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract to treat dry skin conditions and provide itch relief. Moreover, we will also employ

  2. Randomised controlled double-blind non-inferiority trial of two antivenoms for saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus envenoming in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa S Abubakar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In West Africa, envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus causes great morbidity and mortality, but there is a crisis in supply of effective and affordable antivenom (ISRCTN01257358. METHODS: In a randomised, double-blind, controlled, non-inferiority trial, "EchiTAb Plus-ICP" (ET-Plus equine antivenom made by Instituto Clodomiro Picado was compared to "EchiTAb G" (ET-G ovine antivenom made by MicroPharm, which is the standard of care in Nigeria and was developed from the original EchiTAb-Fab introduced in 1998. Both are caprylic acid purified whole IgG antivenoms. ET-G is monospecific for Echis ocellatus antivenom (initial dose 1 vial and ET-Plus is polyspecific for E. ocellatus, Naja nigricollis and Bitis arietans (initial dose 3 vials. Both had been screened by pre-clinical and preliminary clinical dose-finding and safety studies. Patients who presented with incoagulable blood, indicative of systemic envenoming by E. ocellatus, were recruited in Kaltungo, north-eastern Nigeria. Those eligible and consenting were randomly allocated with equal probability to receive ET-Plus or ET-G. The primary outcome was permanent restoration of blood coagulability 6 hours after the start of treatment, assessed by a simple whole blood clotting test repeated 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 hr after treatment. Secondary (safety outcomes were the incidences of anaphylactic, pyrogenic and late serum sickness-type antivenom reactions. FINDINGS: Initial doses permanently restored blood coagulability at 6 hours in 161/194 (83.0% of ET-Plus and 156/206 (75.7% of ET-G treated patients (Relative Risk [RR] 1.10 one-sided 95% CI lower limit 1.01; P = 0.05. ET-Plus caused early reactions on more occasions than did ET-G [50/194 (25.8% and 39/206 (18.9% respectively RR (1.36 one-sided 95% CI 1.86 upper limit; P = 0.06. These reactions were classified as severe in 21 (10.8% and 11 (5.3% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: At these doses, ET-Plus was

  3. Efficacy and safety of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-84) in hypoparathyroidism (REPLACE): a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, phase 3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannstadt, Michael; Clarke, Bart L; Vokes, Tamara; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan; Fraser, William D; Lakatos, Peter; Bajnok, Laszlo; Garceau, Roger; Mosekilde, Leif; Lagast, Hjalmar; Shoback, Dolores; Bilezikian, John P

    2013-12-01

    Hypoparathyroidism results in impaired mineral homoeostasis, including hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia. Treatment with high-dose oral calcium and active vitamin D does not provide adequate or consistent control of biochemical indices and can lead to serious long-term complications. We aimed to test the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of once-daily recombinant human parathyroid hormone 1-84 (rhPTH[1-84]) in adults with hypoparathyroidism. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase 3 study (REPLACE), we recruited patients with hypoparathyroidism (≥ 18 months duration) aged 18-85 years from 33 sites in eight countries. After an optimisation period, during which calcium and active vitamin D doses were adjusted to achieve consistent albumin-corrected serum calcium, patients were randomly assigned (2:1) via an interactive voice response system to 50 μg per day of rhPTH(1-84) or placebo for 24 weeks. Active vitamin D and calcium were progressively reduced, while rhPTH(1-84) could be titrated up from 50 μg to 75 μg and then 100 μg (weeks 0-5). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients at week 24 who achieved a 50% or greater reduction from baseline in their daily dose of oral calcium and active vitamin D while maintaining a serum calcium concentration greater than or the same as baseline concentrations and less than or equal to the upper limit of normal, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00732615. Between June 23, 2009, and Feb 28, 2011, 134 eligible patients were recruited and randomly assigned to rhPTH(1-84) (n=90) or placebo (n=44). Six patients in the rhPTH(1-84) group and seven in the placebo group discontinued before study end. 48 (53%) patients in the rhPTH(1-84) group achieved the primary endpoint compared with one (2%) patient in the placebo group (percentage difference 51.1%, 95% CI 39.9-62.3; phypoparathyroidism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lidocaine 10% spray to the cervix reduces pain during intrauterine device insertion: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Hüseyin; Aksoy, Ülkü; Ozyurt, Sezin; Açmaz, Gökhan; Babayigit, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Fear of pain during intrauterine device (IUD) insertion can be a barrier to widespread use of this safe and highly effective contraceptive method. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of topical 10% lidocaine spray for pain control during IUD insertion. A total of 200 subjects with the request for IUD insertion were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: lidocaine spray (n=100) and placebo (n=100). The pain experienced during the procedure was measured immediately after insertion by a standard Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) administered by a separate researcher with maintenance of allocation concealment. The mean pain score during the procedure was 1.01±1.20 in the lidocaine spray group and 3.23±1.60 in the placebo spray group (pLidocaine spray treatment significantly lowered the overall procedural pain score compared with placebo. Significant pain reduction during IUD insertion can be achieved by using 10% lidocaine spray alone. Lidocaine spray can be accepted as a non-invasive, easy to apply and more comfortable local anaesthetic method for IUD insertion. NCT02020551. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Epitope-specific immunotherapy targeting CD4-positive T cells in coeliac disease: two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Gautam; King, Tim; Daveson, A James; Andrews, Jane M; Krishnarajah, Janakan; Krause, Richard; Brown, Gregor J E; Fogel, Ronald; Barish, Charles F; Epstein, Roger; Kinney, Timothy P; Miner, Philip B; Tye-Din, Jason A; Girardin, Adam; Taavela, Juha; Popp, Alina; Sidney, John; Mäki, Markku; Goldstein, Kaela E; Griffin, Patrick H; Wang, Suyue; Dzuris, John L; Williams, Leslie J; Sette, Alessandro; Xavier, Ramnik J; Sollid, Ludvig M; Jabri, Bana; Anderson, Robert P

    2017-07-01

    A gluten-free diet is the only means to manage coeliac disease, a permanent immune intolerance to gluten. We developed a therapeutic vaccine, Nexvax2, designed to treat coeliac disease. Nexvax2 is an adjuvant-free mix of three peptides that include immunodominant epitopes for gluten-specific CD4-positive T cells. The vaccine is intended to engage and render gluten-specific CD4-positive T cells unresponsive to further antigenic stimulation. We assessed the safety and pharmacodynamics of the vaccine in patients with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet. We did two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 studies at 12 community sites in Australia, New Zealand, and the USA, in HLA-DQ2·5-positive patients aged 18-70 years who had coeliac disease and were on a gluten-free diet. In the screening period for ascending dose cohorts, participants were randomly assigned (1:1) by central randomisation with a simple block method to a double-blind crossover, placebo-controlled oral gluten challenge. Participants with a negative interferon γ release assay to Nexvax2 peptides after the screening oral gluten challenge were discontinued before dosing. For the biopsy cohorts, the screening period included an endoscopy, and participants with duodenal histology who had a Marsh score of greater than 1 were discontinued before dosing. Participants were subsequently randomly assigned to either Nexvax2 or placebo in ascending dose cohorts (2:1) and in biopsy cohorts (1:1) by central randomisation with a simple block method. In the three-dose study, participants received either Nexvax2 60 μg, 90 μg, or 150 μg weekly, or placebo over 15 days; in a fourth biopsy cohort, patients received either Nexvax2 at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) or placebo. In the 16-dose study, participants received Nexvax2 150 μg or 300 μg or placebo twice weekly over 53 days; in a third biopsy cohort, patients also received either Nexvax2 at the MTD or placebo. In the 4-week post

  6. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin for maintenance treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (PATH): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Ivo N; Bril, Vera; van Geloven, Nan; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Lewis, Richard A; Sobue, Gen; Lawo, John-Philip; Praus, Michaela; Mielke, Orell; Durn, Billie L; Cornblath, David R; Merkies, Ingemar S J

    2018-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) need long-term intravenous immunoglobulin. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) is an alternative option for immunoglobulin delivery, but has not previously been investigated in a large trial of CIDP. The PATH study compared relapse rates in patients given SCIg versus placebo. Between March 12, 2012, and Sept 20, 2016, we studied patients from 69 neuromuscular centres in North America, Europe, Israel, Australia, and Japan. Adults with definite or probable CIDP who responded to intravenous immunoglobulin treatment were eligible. We randomly allocated participants to 0·2 g/kg or 0·4 g/kg of a 20% SCIg solution (IgPro20) weekly versus placebo (2% human albumin solution) for maintenance treatment for 24 weeks. We did randomisation in a 1:1:1 ratio with an interactive voice and web response system with a block size of six, stratified by region (Japan or non-Japan). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with a CIDP relapse or who were withdrawn for any other reason during 24 weeks of treatment. Patients, caregivers, and study personnel, including those assessing outcomes, were masked to treatment assignment. Analyses were done in the intention-to-treat and per-protocol sets. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01545076. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly allocated 172 patients: 57 (33%) to the placebo group, 57 (33%) to the low-dose group, and 58 (34%) to the high-dose group. In the intention-to-treat set, 36 (63% [95% CI 50-74]) patients on placebo, 22 (39% [27-52]) on low-dose SCIg, and 19 (33% [22-46]) on high-dose SCIg had a relapse or were withdrawn from the study for other reasons (p=0·0007). Absolute risk reductions were 25% (95% CI 6-41) for low-dose versus placebo (p=0·007), 30% (12-46) for high-dose versus placebo (p=0·001), and 6% (-11 to 23) for high-dose versus low-dose (p=0·32

  7. Efficacy and safety of primaquine and methylene blue for prevention of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in Mali: a phase 2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicko, Alassane; Roh, Michelle E; Diawara, Halimatou; Mahamar, Almahamoudou; Soumare, Harouna M; Lanke, Kjerstin; Bradley, John; Sanogo, Koualy; Kone, Daouda T; Diarra, Kalifa; Keita, Sekouba; Issiaka, Djibrilla; Traore, Sekou F; McCulloch, Charles; Stone, Will J R; Hwang, Jimee; Müller, Olaf; Brown, Joelle M; Srinivasan, Vinay; Drakeley, Chris; Gosling, Roly; Chen, Ingrid; Bousema, Teun

    2018-02-05

    Primaquine and methylene blue are gametocytocidal compounds that could prevent Plasmodium falciparum transmission to mosquitoes. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of primaquine and methylene blue in preventing human to mosquito transmission of P falciparum among glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-normal, gametocytaemic male participants. This was a phase 2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial done at the Clinical Research Centre of the Malaria Research and Training Centre (MRTC) of the University of Bamako (Bamako, Mali). We enrolled male participants aged 5-50 years with asymptomatic P falciparum malaria. G6PD-normal participants with gametocytes detected by blood smear were randomised 1:1:1:1 in block sizes of eight, using a sealed-envelope design, to receive either sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine plus a single dose of 0·25 mg/kg primaquine, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine plus 15 mg/kg per day methylene blue for 3 days. Laboratory staff, investigators, and insectary technicians were masked to the treatment group and gametocyte density of study participants. The study pharmacist and treating physician were not masked. Participants could request unmasking. The primary efficacy endpoint, analysed in all infected patients with at least one infectivity measure before and after treatment, was median within-person percentage change in mosquito infectivity 2 and 7 days after treatment, assessed by membrane feeding. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02831023. Between June 27, 2016, and Nov 1, 2016, 80 participants were enrolled and assigned to the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine (n=20), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine plus primaquine (n=20), dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (n=20), or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine plus methylene blue (n=20) groups. Among participants infectious at baseline (54 [68%] of 80), those in the

  8. Safety and tolerability of long-acting cabotegravir injections in HIV-uninfected men (ECLAIR): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2a trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Martin; Frank, Ian; Grant, Robert M; Mayer, Kenneth H; Elion, Richard; Goldstein, Deborah; Fisher, Chester; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Gallant, Joel E; Van Tieu, Hong; Weinberg, Winkler; Margolis, David A; Hudson, Krischan J; Stancil, Britt S; Ford, Susan L; Patel, Parul; Gould, Elizabeth; Rinehart, Alex R; Smith, Kimberly Y; Spreen, William R

    2017-08-01

    Cabotegravir (GSK1265744) is an HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor with potent antiviral activity and a long half-life when administered by injection that prevented simian-HIV infection upon repeat intrarectal challenge in male macaques. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of long-acting cabotegravir injections in healthy men not at high risk of HIV-1 infection. We did this multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2a trial at ten sites in the USA. Healthy men (aged 18-65 years) deemed not at high risk of acquiring HIV-1 at screening were randomly assigned (5:1), via computer-generated central randomisation schedules, to receive cabotegravir or placebo. Participants received oral cabotegravir 30 mg tablets or matching placebo once daily during a 4 week oral lead-in phase, followed by a 1 week washout period and, after safety assessment, three intramuscular injections of long-acting cabotegravir 800 mg or saline placebo at 12 week intervals. Study site staff and participants were masked to treatment assignment from enrolment through week 41 (time of the last injection). The primary endpoint was safety and tolerability from the first injection (week 5) to 12 weeks after the last injection. We did analysis in the safety population, defined as all individuals enrolled in the study who received at least one dose of the study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02076178. Between March 27, 2014, and Feb 23, 2016, we randomly assigned 127 participants to receive cabotegravir (n=106) or placebo (n=21); 126 (99%) participants comprised the safety population. Most participants were men who have sex with men (MSM; n=106 [83%]) and white (n=71 [56%]). 87 (82%) participants in the cabotegravir group and 20 (95%) participants in the placebo group completed the injection phase. Adverse events (n=7 [7%]) and injection intolerability (n=4 [4%]) were the main reasons for withdrawal in the

  9. Oral prenylation inhibition with lonafarnib in chronic hepatitis D infection: a proof-of-concept randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2A trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Christopher; Canini, Laetitia; Dahari, Harel; Zhao, Xiongce; Uprichard, Susan L; Haynes-Williams, Vanessa; Winters, Mark A; Subramanya, Gitanjali; Cooper, Stewart L; Pinto, Peter; Wolff, Erin F; Bishop, Rachel; Han, Ma Ai Thanda; Cotler, Scott J; Kleiner, David E; Keskin, Onur; Idilman, Ramazan; Yurdaydin, Cihan; Glenn, Jeffrey S; Heller, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Therapies for chronic hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection are unsatisfactory. Prenylation is essential for HDV and inhibition abrogates HDV production in experimental models. In a proof-of-concept study, we aimed to assess the effect on HDV RNA levels, safety, and tolerability of the prenylation inhibitor lonafarnib in patients with chronic delta hepatitis. Methods In this phase 2A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study, patients aged 18 years or older with chronic HDV infection were randomly assigned (3:1 in group 1 and 2:1 in group 2) to receive lonafarnib 100 mg (group 1) or lonafarnib 200 mg (group 2) twice daily for 28 days with 6 months’ follow-up. Participants were randomised by random-number tables blocked in groups of four without stratification. Both groups enrolled six treatment participants and two placebo participants. Group 1 placebo patients received open-label lonafarnib as group 2 participants. The primary therapeutic endpoint was a decrease in HDV RNA viral titre in serum and the primary safety endpoint was the ability to tolerate the drug at the prescribed dose for the full 4-week duration, defined as drug discontinuation due to intolerance or grade 3/4 adverse events. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01495585. Findings Between Jan 19, 2012, and April 28, 2014, 14 patients were enrolled, of whom eight were assigned to group 1 and six were assigned to group 2. At day 28, compared with placebo, mean log HDV RNA declines from baseline were −0.73 log IU/mL in group 1 (95% CI 0.17–1.31; p=0.03) and −1.54 log IU/mL in group 2 (1.21–1.93; p<0.0001). Lonafarnib serum concentrations correlated with HDV RNA change (r2=0.78, p<0.0001). Model fits show that hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) remained stable after a short pharmacological delay (0.75 days [SE 0.24]), lonafarnib effectiveness in blocking HDV production was greater in group 2 than in group 1 (0.952 [SE 0.06] vs 0.739 [0

  10. Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in patients with stable peripheral or carotid artery disease: an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sonia S; Bosch, Jackie; Eikelboom, John W; Connolly, Stuart J; Diaz, Rafael; Widimsky, Peter; Aboyans, Victor; Alings, Marco; Kakkar, Ajay K; Keltai, Katalin; Maggioni, Aldo P; Lewis, Basil S; Störk, Stefan; Zhu, Jun; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; O'Donnell, Martin; Commerford, Patrick J; Vinereanu, Dragos; Pogosova, Nana; Ryden, Lars; Fox, Keith A A; Bhatt, Deepak L; Misselwitz, Frank; Varigos, John D; Vanassche, Thomas; Avezum, Alvaro A; Chen, Edmond; Branch, Kelley; Leong, Darryl P; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Hart, Robert G; Yusuf, Salim

    2017-11-10

    Patients with peripheral artery disease have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Antiplatelet agents are widely used to reduce these complications. This was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial for which patients were recruited at 602 hospitals, clinics, or community practices from 33 countries across six continents. Eligible patients had a history of peripheral artery disease of the lower extremities (previous peripheral bypass surgery or angioplasty, limb or foot amputation, intermittent claudication with objective evidence of peripheral artery disease), of the carotid arteries (previous carotid artery revascularisation or asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis of at least 50%), or coronary artery disease with an ankle-brachial index of less than 0·90. After a 30-day run-in period, patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive oral rivaroxaban (2·5 mg twice a day) plus aspirin (100 mg once a day), rivaroxaban twice a day (5 mg with aspirin placebo once a day), or to aspirin once a day (100 mg and rivaroxaban placebo twice a day). Randomisation was computer generated. Each treatment group was double dummy, and the patient, investigators, and central study staff were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or stroke; the primary peripheral artery disease outcome was major adverse limb events including major amputation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01776424, and is closed to new participants. Between March 12, 2013, and May 10, 2016, we enrolled 7470 patients with peripheral artery disease from 558 centres. The combination of rivaroxaban plus aspirin compared with aspirin alone reduced the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (126 [5%] of 2492 vs 174 [7%] of 2504; hazard ratio [HR] 0·72, 95% CI 0·57-0·90, p=0·0047), and major adverse limb events including major amputation (32

  11. Oral prenylation inhibition with lonafarnib in chronic hepatitis D infection: a proof-of-concept randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2A trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Christopher; Canini, Laetitia; Dahari, Harel; Zhao, Xiongce; Uprichard, Susan L; Haynes-Williams, Vanessa; Winters, Mark A; Subramanya, Gitanjali; Cooper, Stewart L; Pinto, Peter; Wolff, Erin F; Bishop, Rachel; Ai Thanda Han, Ma; Cotler, Scott J; Kleiner, David E; Keskin, Onur; Idilman, Ramazan; Yurdaydin, Cihan; Glenn, Jeffrey S; Heller, Theo

    2015-10-01

    Therapies for chronic hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection are unsatisfactory. Prenylation is essential for HDV and inhibition abrogates HDV production in experimental models. In a proof-of-concept study, we aimed to assess the effect on HDV RNA levels, safety, and tolerability of the prenylation inhibitor lonafarnib in patients with chronic delta hepatitis. In this phase 2A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study, patients aged 18 years or older with chronic HDV infection were randomly assigned (3:1 in group 1 and 2:1 in group 2) to receive lonafarnib 100 mg (group 1) or lonafarnib 200 mg (group 2) twice daily for 28 days with 6 months' follow-up. Participants were randomised by random-number tables blocked in groups of four without stratification. Both groups enrolled six treatment participants and two placebo participants. Group 1 placebo patients received open-label lonafarnib as group 2 participants. The primary therapeutic endpoint was a decrease in HDV RNA viral titre in serum and the primary safety endpoint was the ability to tolerate the drug at the prescribed dose for the full 4-week duration, defined as drug discontinuation due to intolerance or grade 3/4 adverse events. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01495585. Between Jan 19, 2012, and April 28, 2014, 14 patients were enrolled, of whom eight were assigned to group 1 and six were assigned to group 2. At day 28, compared with placebo, mean log HDV RNA declines from baseline were -0·73 log IU/mL in group 1 (95% CI 0·17-1·31; p=0·03) and -1·54 log IU/mL in group 2 (1·21-1·93; p<0·0001). Lonafarnib serum concentrations correlated with HDV RNA change (r(2)=0·78, p<0·0001). Model fits show that hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) remained stable after a short pharmacological delay (0·75 days [SE 0·24]), lonafarnib effectiveness in blocking HDV production was greater in group 2 than in group 1 (0·952 [SE 0·06] vs 0·739 [0·05], p<0·001), and the HDV half

  12. Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of PBT2 in Huntington's disease: a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    PBT2 is a metal protein-attenuating compound that might reduce metal-induced aggregation of mutant huntingtin and has prolonged survival in a mouse model of Huntington's disease. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of PBT2 in patients with Huntington's disease. In this 26-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adults (≥25 years old) with early-stage to mid-stage Huntington's disease were randomly assigned (1:1:1) by a centralised interactive response system to once daily PBT2 250 mg, PBT2 100 mg, or placebo. Randomisation was stratified by site with a block size of three. Participants, carers, the steering committee, site investigators, study staff, and the study sponsor were masked to treatment assignment. Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability. The safety population consisted of all participants who were randomly assigned and had at least one dose of study drug. The principal secondary endpoint was cognition, measured by the change from baseline to week 26 in the main composite Z score of five cognitive tests (Category Fluency Test, Trail Making Test Part B, Map Search, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and Stroop Word Reading Test) and scores on eight individual cognitive tests (the five aforementioned plus the Trail Making Test Part A, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and the Speeded Tapping Test). The intention-to-treat population comprised participants who were randomly assigned and had at least one efficacy assessment after administration of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01590888. Between April 18, 2012, and Dec 14, 2012, 109 participants were randomly assigned to PBT2 250 mg (n=36), PBT2 100 mg (n=38), or placebo (n=35) at 19 research centres in Australia and the USA. 32 (89%) individuals on PBT2 250 mg, 38 (100%) on PBT2 100 mg, and 34 (97%) on placebo completed the study. Six serious adverse events (acute coronary syndrome, major depression, pneumonia, suicide attempt, viral

  13. Effects of Four-Week Supplementation with a Multi-Vitamin/Mineral Preparation on Mood and Blood Biomarkers in Young Adults: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David J; Cox, Katherine H M; Peters, Riccarda; Pipingas, Andrew; Scholey, Andrew B

    2015-10-30

    This study explored the effects of four-week multi-vitamin and mineral (MVM) supplementation on mood and neurocognitive function in healthy, young adults. Fifty-eight healthy adults, 18-40 years of age (M = 25.82 years, SD = 4.87) participated in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, in which mood and blood biomarkers were assessed at baseline and after four weeks of supplementation. Compared to placebo, MVM supplementation was associated with significantly lowered homocysteine and increased blood B-vitamin levels (p effects on mood, underpinned by elevated B-vitamins and lowered homocysteine in healthy young adults.

  14. Effects of long-term weekly iron and folic acid supplementation on lower genital tract infection - a double blind, randomised controlled trial in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabin, Loretta; Roberts, Stephen A; Gies, Sabine; Nelson, Andrew; Diallo, Salou; Stewart, Christopher J; Kazienga, Adama; Birtles, Julia; Ouedraogo, Sayouba; Claeys, Yves; Tinto, Halidou; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Faragher, E Brian; Brabin, Bernard

    2017-11-23

    Provision of routine iron supplements to prevent anaemia could increase the risk for lower genital tract infections as virulence of some pathogens depends on iron availability. This trial in Burkina Faso assessed whether weekly periconceptional iron supplementation increased the risk of lower genital tract infection in young non-pregnant and pregnant women. Genital tract infections were assessed within a double blind, controlled, non-inferiority trial of malaria risk among nulliparous women, randomised to receive either iron and folic acid or folic acid alone, weekly, under direct observation for 18 months. Women conceiving during this period entered the pregnancy cohort. End assessment (FIN) for women remaining non-pregnant was at 18 months. For the pregnancy cohort, end assessment was at the first scheduled antenatal visit (ANC1). Infection markers included Nugent scores for abnormal flora and bacterial vaginosis (BV), T. vaginalis PCR, vaginal microbiota, reported signs and symptoms, and antibiotic and anti-fungal prescriptions. Iron biomarkers were assessed at baseline, FIN and ANC1. Analysis compared outcomes by intention to treat and in iron replete/deficient categories. A total of 1954 women (mean 16.8 years) were followed and 478 (24.5%) became pregnant. Median supplement adherence was 79% (IQR 59-90%). Baseline BV prevalence was 12.3%. At FIN and ANC1 prevalence was 12.8% and 7.0%, respectively (P Iron-supplemented non-pregnant women received more antibiotic treatments for non-genital infections (P = 0.014; mainly gastrointestinal infections (P = 0.005), anti-fungal treatments for genital infections (P = 0.014) and analgesics (P = 0.008). Weekly iron did not significantly reduce iron deficiency prevalence. At baseline, iron-deficient women were more likely to have normal vaginal flora (P = 0.016). Periconceptional weekly iron supplementation of young women did not increase the risk of lower genital tract infections but did increase

  15. Normal saline versus a balanced crystalloid for goal-directed perioperative fluid therapy in major abdominal surgery: a double-blind randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfortmueller, C A; Funk, G-C; Reiterer, C; Schrott, A; Zotti, O; Kabon, B; Fleischmann, E; Lindner, G

    2018-02-01

    This double-blind randomised controlled trial investigated whether normal saline or a balanced crystalloid has distinct effects on vasopressor use in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Patients received either normal saline 0.9% or an acetate-buffered crystalloid for intraoperative volume replacement in a goal-directed fashion. The primary outcome was need for vasopressors; the secondary outcomes were the total dose of catecholamines, total perioperative fluid, and unplanned intensive care admissions. This study was terminated early for safety reasons. A total of 60 out of the planned 240 patients were randomized. Thirty patients received normal saline and 30 patients received the balanced crystalloid, with a total volume of 3427 (2732-4130) ml and 3144 (1673-4926), respectively. The normal-saline group developed hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis. More patients needed vasopressors for circulatory support in the normal-saline group compared with the buffered crystalloid group (97% vs 67%, respectively; P=0.033). The median weight and anaesthesia duration-adjusted dose of norepinephrine were 0.11 (0.00-0.45) ng kg -1  min -1 and 0.00 (0.00-0.00) kg -1  min -1 in the normal-saline and balanced-crystalloid groups, respectively (P=0.003). Cox regression revealed that the need for vasopressors was related to a high volume of administered fluid, normal-saline resuscitation, and lower mean arterial blood pressure. There was no difference between the groups in total perioperative fluid and unplanned intensive-care-unit admissions. Between-group differences in the duration of anaesthesia did not influence the necessity for a vasopressor. Compared with patients receiving a balanced crystalloid, normal saline in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery was associated with an increased need for vasopressor support. This should be interpreted in view of the large volume of fluid resuscitation and the small sample size because of the preliminary termination of

  16. Evaluation of Bacillus subtilis R0179 on gastrointestinal viability and general wellness: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifi, A; Culpepper, T; Mai, V; Anand, A; Ford, A L; Ukhanova, M; Christman, M; Tompkins, T A; Dahl, W J

    2015-03-01

    A probiotic formulation of Enterococcus faecium R0026 and Bacillus subtilis R0179 has been evaluated in previous clinical trials. However, B. subtilis R0179 has not been evaluated as a single probiotic strain or in combination with other strains at doses higher than 0.1×109 cfu. To establish oral dose-response tolerance and gastrointestinal (GI) viability of B. subtilis R0179, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in healthy adults (n=81; 18-50 years old) was conducted. Participants received B. subtilis R0179 at 0.1, 1.0 or 10×109 cfu/capsule/day or placebo for four weeks. General wellness was assessed using a daily questionnaire evaluating GI, cephalic, ear-nose-throat, behavioural, emetic, and epidermal symptoms. GI symptoms were further evaluated using a weekly gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS). GI transit viability of B. subtilis R0179 was assessed by plating and microbiota analysis by 16S rRNA at baseline, week 4 of the intervention and washout. General wellness and GI function were not affected by oral consumption of B. subtilis R0179 at any dose. Daily questionnaire syndrome scores were not different from baseline and did not exceed a clinically significant score of 1. GSRS syndrome scores were not different from baseline and ranged from 1.1±0.1 to 1.9±0.2. Faecal viable counts of B. subtilis R0179 demonstrated a dose response: the placebo group (1.1±0.1 log10 cfu/g) differed from 0.1×109 (4.6±0.1 log10 cfu/g), 1×109 (5.6±0.1 log10 cfu/g) and 10×109 (6.4±0.1 log10 cfu/g) (Pprobiotic supplementation. B. subtilis R0179 survives passage through the human GI tract and is well tolerated by healthy adults at intakes from 0.1 to 10×109 cfu/day. The trial has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01802151.

  17. The effect of antiretroviral intensification with dolutegravir on residual virus replication in HIV-infected individuals: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Thomas A; McMahon, James H; Chang, J Judy; Audsley, Jennifer; Rhodes, Ajantha; Tennakoon, Surekha; Dantanarayana, Ashanti; Spelman, Tim; Schmidt, Tina; Kent, Stephen J; Morcilla, Vincent; Palmer, Sarah; Elliott, Julian H; Lewin, Sharon R

    2018-04-06

    Whether ongoing virus replication occurs in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unclear; therefore, whether residual virus replication is a barrier to achieving a cure for HIV is also unknown. We aimed to establish whether ART intensification with dolutegravir would reveal or affect residual virus replication in HIV-infected individuals on suppressive treatment. In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, we enrolled HIV-infected adults (aged 18 years and older) receiving combination ART (at least three agents) for at least 3 years from the Alfred Hospital and Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Eligible participants had fewer than 50 copies per mL HIV-1 plasma RNA for more than 3 years and fewer than 20 copies per mL at screening and two CD4 counts higher than 350 cells per μL in the previous 24 months including screening. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 50 mg oral dolutegravir or placebo once a day for 56 days in addition to background ART. Follow-up was done at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 84. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in frequency of 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circles in peripheral blood CD4 cells at day 7. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02500446. Between Sept 21, 2015, and Sept 19, 2016, 46 individuals were screened for inclusion. 40 were eligible for inclusion and were randomly assigned to the dolutegravir (n=21) or placebo group (n=19). All enrolled participants completed the study procedures and no individuals were lost to follow up. All participants were on suppressive ART with 12% receiving protease inhibitors and the others non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Median 2-LTR circles fold-change from baseline to day 7 was -0·17 (IQR -0·90 to 0·90) in the dolutegravir group and -0·26 (-1·00 to 1·17) in the placebo group (p=0·17). The addition of dolutegravir to pre-existing ART regimens was safe and

  18. The IDvIP trial: a two-centre randomised double-blind controlled trial comparing intramuscular diamorphine and intramuscular pethidine for labour analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Michael Y K; Tuckey, Jenny P; Thomas, Peter; Burnard, Sara

    2011-07-08

    Intramuscular pethidine is routinely used throughout the UK for labour analgesia. Studies have suggested that pethidine provides little pain relief in labour and has a number of side effects affecting mother and neonate. It can cause nausea, vomiting and dysphoria in mothers and can cause reduced fetal heart rate variability and accelerations. Neonatal effects include respiratory depression and impaired feeding. There are few large studies comparing the relative side effects and efficacy of different opioids in labour. A small trial comparing intramuscular pethidine with diamorphine, showed diamorphine to have some benefits over pethidine when used for labour analgesia but the study did not investigate the adverse effects of either opioid. The Intramuscular Diamorphine versus Intramuscular Pethidine (IDvIP) trial is a randomised double-blind two centre controlled trial comparing intramuscular diamorphine and pethidine regarding their analgesic efficacy in labour and their side effects in mother, fetus and neonate. Information about the trial will be provided to women in the antenatal period or in early labour. Consent and recruitment to the trial will be obtained when the mother requests opioid analgesia. The sample size requirement is 406 women with data on primary outcomes. The maternal primary outcomes are pain relief during the first 3 hours after trial analgesia and specifically pain relief after 60 minutes. The neonatal primary outcomes are need for resuscitation and Apgar Score analgesia, whether method of analgesia would be used again, use of Entonox, umbilical arterial and venous pH, fetal heart rate, meconium staining, time from delivery to first breath, Apgar scores at 5 mins, naloxone requirement, transfer to neonatal intensive care unit, neonatal haemoglobin oxygen saturation at 30, 60, 90, and 120 mins after delivery, and neonatal sedation and feeding behaviour during first 2 hours. If the trial demonstrates that diamorphine provides better analgesia

  19. A randomised, controlled, double-blind trial of ultrasound-guided phrenic nerve block to prevent shoulder pain after thoracic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, M R; Laursen, C B; Berg, H

    2016-01-01

    Moderate to severe ipsilateral shoulder pain is a common complaint following thoracic surgery. In this prospective, parallel-group study at Odense University Hospital, 76 patients (aged > 18 years) scheduled for lobectomy or pneumonectomy were randomised 1:1 using a computer-generated list...... vials assuring that all participants, healthcare providers and data collectors were blinded. The primary outcome was the incidence of unilateral shoulder pain within the first 6 h after surgery. Pain was evaluated using a numeric rating scale. Nine of 38 patients in the ropivacaine group and 26 of 38...... patients in the placebo group experienced shoulder pain during the first 6 h after surgery (absolute risk reduction 44% (95% CI 22-67%), relative risk reduction 65% (95% CI 41-80%); p = 0.00009). No major complications, including respiratory compromise or nerve injury, were observed. We conclude...

  20. The safety, immunogenicity, and acceptability of inactivated influenza vaccine delivered by microneedle patch (TIV-MNP 2015): a randomised, partly blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouphael, Nadine G; Paine, Michele; Mosley, Regina; Henry, Sebastien; McAllister, Devin V; Kalluri, Haripriya; Pewin, Winston; Frew, Paula M; Yu, Tianwei; Thornburg, Natalie J; Kabbani, Sarah; Lai, Lilin; Vassilieva, Elena V; Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard W; Mulligan, Mark J; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2017-08-12

    Microneedle patches provide an alternative to conventional needle-and-syringe immunisation, and potentially offer improved immunogenicity, simplicity, cost-effectiveness, acceptability, and safety. We describe safety, immunogenicity, and acceptability of the first-in-man study on single, dissolvable microneedle patch vaccination against influenza. The TIV-MNP 2015 study was a randomised, partly blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 1, clinical trial at Emory University that enrolled non-pregnant, immunocompetent adults from Atlanta, GA, USA, who were aged 18-49 years, naive to the 2014-15 influenza vaccine, and did not have any significant dermatological disorders. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to four groups and received a single dose of inactivated influenza vaccine (fluvirin: 18 μg of haemagglutinin per H1N1 vaccine strain, 17 μg of haemagglutinin per H3N2 vaccine strain, and 15 μg of haemagglutinin per B vaccine strain) (1) by microneedle patch or (2) by intramuscular injection, or received (3) placebo by microneedle patch, all administered by an unmasked health-care worker; or received a single dose of (4) inactivated influenza vaccine by microneedle patch self-administered by study participants. A research pharmacist prepared the randomisation code using a computer-generated randomisation schedule with a block size of 4. Because of the nature of the study, participants were not masked to the type of vaccination method (ie, microneedle patch vs intramuscular injection). Primary safety outcome measures are the incidence of study product-related serious adverse events within 180 days, grade 3 solicited or unsolicited adverse events within 28 days, and solicited injection site and systemic reactogenicity on the day of study product administration through 7 days after administration, and secondary safety outcomes are new-onset chronic illnesses within 180 days and unsolicited adverse events within 28 days, all analysed by intention to treat

  1. Single blind, randomised controlled trial of pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no treatment in management of genuine stress incontinence in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Talseth, Trygve; Holme, Ingar

    1999-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no treatment for genuine stress incontinence. Design Stratified, single blind, randomised controlled trial. Setting Multicentre. Participants 107 women with clinically and urodynamically proved genuine stress incontinence. Mean (range) age was 49.5 (24-70) years, and mean (range) duration of symptoms 10.8 (1-45) years. Interventions Pelvic floor exercise (n=25) comprised 8-12 contractions 3 times a day and exercise in groups with skilled physical therapists once a week. The electrical stimulation group (n=25) used vaginal intermittent stimulation with the MS 106 Twin at 50 Hz 30 minutes a day. The vaginal cones group (n=27) used cones for 20 minutes a day. The untreated control group (n=30) was offered the use of a continence guard. Muscle strength was measured by vaginal squeeze pressure once a month. Main outcome measures Pad test with standardised bladder volume, and self report of severity. Results Improvement in muscle strength was significantly greater (P=0.03) after pelvic floor exercises (11.0 cm H2O (95% confidence interval 7.7 to 14.3) before v 19.2 cm H2O (15.3 to 23.1) after) than either electrical stimulation (14.8 cm H2O (10.9 to 18.7) v 18.6 cm H2O (13.3 to 23.9)) or vaginal cones (11.8 cm H2O (8.5 to 15.1) v 15.4 cm H2O (11.1 to 19.7)). Reduction in leakage on pad test was greater in the exercise group (−30.2 g; −43.3 to 16.9) than in the electrical stimulation group (−7.4 g; −20.9 to 6.1) and the vaginal cones group (−14.7 g; −27.6 to −1.8). On completion of the trial one participant in the control group, 14 in the pelvic floor exercise group, three in the electrical stimulation group, and two in the vaginal cones group no longer considered themselves as having a problem. Conclusion Training of the pelvic floor muscles is superior to electrical stimulation and vaginal cones in the treatment of genuine stress

  2. A double-blind randomised controlled trial of a natural oil-based emulsion (Moogoo Udder Cream®) containing allantoin versus aqueous cream for managing radiation-induced skin reactions in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond Javan; Keller, Jacqui; Cheuk, Robyn; Blades, Rae; Tripcony, Lee; Keogh, Samantha

    2012-07-31

    Radiation-induced skin reaction (RISR) is one of the most common and distressing side effects of radiotherapy in patients with cancer. It is featured with swelling, redness, itching, pain, breaks in skin, discomfort, and a burning sensation. There is a lack of convincing evidence supporting any single practice in the prevention or management of RISR. This double-blinded randomised controlled trial aims to investigate the effects of a natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin (as known as Moogoo Udder Cream®) versus aqueous cream in reducing RISR, improving pain, itching and quality of life in this patient group. One group will receive Moogoo Udder Cream®. Another group will receive aqueous cream. Outcome measures will be collected using patient self-administered questionnaire, interviewer administered questionnaire and clinician assessment at commencement of radiotherapy, weekly during radiotherapy, and four weeks after the completion of radiotherapy. Despite advances of radiologic advances and supportive care, RISR are still not well managed. There is a lack of efficacious interventions in managing RISR. While anecdotal evidence suggests that Moogoo Udder Cream® may be effective in managing RISR, research is needed to substantiate this claim. This paper presents the design of a double blind randomised controlled trial that will evaluate the effects of Moogoo Udder Cream® versus aqueous cream for managing in RISR in patients with cancer. ACTRN 12612000568819.

  3. A double-blind randomised controlled trial of a natural oil-based emulsion (Moogoo Udder Cream®) containing allantoin versus aqueous cream for managing radiation-induced skin reactions in patients with cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Raymond Javan; Keller, Jacqui; Cheuk, Robyn; Blades, Rae; Tripcony, Lee; Keogh, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced skin reaction (RISR) is one of the most common and distressing side effects of radiotherapy in patients with cancer. It is featured with swelling, redness, itching, pain, breaks in skin, discomfort, and a burning sensation. There is a lack of convincing evidence supporting any single practice in the prevention or management of RISR. This double-blinded randomised controlled trial aims to investigate the effects of a natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin (as known as Moogoo Udder Cream®) versus aqueous cream in reducing RISR, improving pain, itching and quality of life in this patient group. One group will receive Moogoo Udder Cream®. Another group will receive aqueous cream. Outcome measures will be collected using patient self-administered questionnaire, interviewer administered questionnaire and clinician assessment at commencement of radiotherapy, weekly during radiotherapy, and four weeks after the completion of radiotherapy. Despite advances of radiologic advances and supportive care, RISR are still not well managed. There is a lack of efficacious interventions in managing RISR. While anecdotal evidence suggests that Moogoo Udder Cream® may be effective in managing RISR, research is needed to substantiate this claim. This paper presents the design of a double blind randomised controlled trial that will evaluate the effects of Moogoo Udder Cream® versus aqueous cream for managing in RISR in patients with cancer. ACTRN 12612000568819

  4. A double-blind randomised controlled trial of a natural oil-based emulsion (Moogoo Udder Cream® containing allantoin versus aqueous cream for managing radiation-induced skin reactions in patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation-induced skin reaction (RISR is one of the most common and distressing side effects of radiotherapy in patients with cancer. It is featured with swelling, redness, itching, pain, breaks in skin, discomfort, and a burning sensation. There is a lack of convincing evidence supporting any single practice in the prevention or management of RISR. Methods/Designs This double-blinded randomised controlled trial aims to investigate the effects of a natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin (as known as Moogoo Udder Cream® versus aqueous cream in reducing RISR, improving pain, itching and quality of life in this patient group. One group will receive Moogoo Udder Cream®. Another group will receive aqueous cream. Outcome measures will be collected using patient self-administered questionnaire, interviewer administered questionnaire and clinician assessment at commencement of radiotherapy, weekly during radiotherapy, and four weeks after the completion of radiotherapy. Discussion Despite advances of radiologic advances and supportive care, RISR are still not well managed. There is a lack of efficacious interventions in managing RISR. While anecdotal evidence suggests that Moogoo Udder Cream® may be effective in managing RISR, research is needed to substantiate this claim. This paper presents the design of a double blind randomised controlled trial that will evaluate the effects of Moogoo Udder Cream® versus aqueous cream for managing in RISR in patients with cancer. Trial registration ACTRN 12612000568819

  5. The effect of dose on the safety and immunogenicity of the VSV Ebola candidate vaccine: a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1/2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttner, Angela; Dayer, Julie-Anne; Yerly, Sabine; Combescure, Christophe; Auderset, Floriane; Desmeules, Jules; Eickmann, Markus; Finckh, Axel; Goncalves, Ana Rita; Hooper, Jay W; Kaya, Gürkan; Krähling, Verena; Kwilas, Steve; Lemaître, Barbara; Matthey, Alain; Silvera, Peter; Becker, Stephan; Fast, Patricia E; Moorthy, Vasee; Kieny, Marie Paule; Kaiser, Laurent; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2015-10-01

    Safe and effective vaccines against Ebola could prevent or control outbreaks. The safe use of replication-competent vaccines requires a careful dose-selection process. We report the first safety and immunogenicity results in volunteers receiving 3 × 10(5) plaque-forming units (pfu) of the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based candidate vaccine expressing the Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein (rVSV-ZEBOV; low-dose vaccinees) compared with 59 volunteers who had received 1 ×10(7) pfu (n=35) or 5 × 10(7) pfu (n=16) of rVSV-ZEBOV (high-dose vaccinees) or placebo (n=8) before a safety-driven study hold. The Geneva rVSV-ZEBOV study, an investigator-initiated phase 1/2, dose-finding, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial conducted at the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, enrolled non-pregnant, immunocompetent, and otherwise healthy adults aged 18-65 years. Participants from the low-dose group with no plans to deploy to Ebola-aff5cted regions (non-deployable) were randomised 9:1 in a double-blind fashion using randomly permuted blocks of varying sizes to a single injection of 3 × 10(5) pfu or placebo, whereas deployable participants received single-injection 3 × 10(5) pfu open-label. Primary safety and immunogenicity outcomes were the incidence of adverse events within 14 days of vaccination and day-28 antibody titres, respectively, analysed by intention to treat. After viral oligoarthritis was observed in 11 of the first 51 vaccinees (22%) receiving 10(7) or 5 × 10(7) pfu, 56 participants were given a lower dose (3 × 10(5) pfu, n=51) or placebo (n=5) to assess the effect of dose reduction on safety and immunogenicity. This trial is ongoing with a follow-up period of 12 months; all reported results are from interim databases. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02287480. Between Jan 5 and Jan 26, 2015, 43 non-deployable participants received low-dose rVSV-ZEBOV (3 × 10(5) pfu) or placebo in a

  6. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K; Jacobi, H H

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America...

  7. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Jacobi, H H

    2002-01-01

    There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America....

  8. Cannabidiol in patients with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (GWPCARE4): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Elizabeth A; Marsh, Eric D; French, Jacqueline A; Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska, Maria; Benbadis, Selim R; Joshi, Charuta; Lyons, Paul D; Taylor, Adam; Roberts, Claire; Sommerville, Kenneth

    2018-03-17

    Patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a rare, severe form of epileptic encephalopathy, are frequently treatment resistant to available medications. No controlled studies have investigated the use of cannabidiol for patients with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. We therefore assessed the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol as an add-on anticonvulsant therapy in this population of patients. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial done at 24 clinical sites in the USA, the Netherlands, and Poland, we investigated the efficacy of cannabidiol as add-on therapy for drop seizures in patients with treatment-resistant Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Eligible patients (aged 2-55 years) had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, including a history of slow (spike-and-wave patterns on electroencephalogram, evidence of more than one type of generalised seizure for at least 6 months, at least two drop seizures per week during the 4-week baseline period, and had not responded to treatment with at least two antiepileptic drugs. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using an interactive voice response system, stratified by age group, to receive 20 mg/kg oral cannabidiol daily or matched placebo for 14 weeks. All patients, caregivers, investigators, and individuals assessing data were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was percentage change from baseline in monthly frequency of drop seizures during the treatment period, analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug and had post-baseline efficacy data. All randomly assigned patients were included in the safety analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02224690. Between April 28, 2015, and Oct 15, 2015, we randomly assigned 171 patients to receive cannabidiol (n=86) or placebo (n=85). 14 patients in the cannabidiol group and one in the placebo group discontinued study treatment; all randomly assigned patients received at least one dose of study treatment

  9. A randomised, blinded, controlled field study to assess the efficacy and safety of lotilaner tablets (Credelio™ in controlling fleas in client-owned dogs in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cavalleri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lotilaner is a novel isoxazoline developed for oral administration to dogs. In laboratory studies, lotilaner was shown to be safe and to produce a rapid flea and tick knockdown, with a sustained speed of kill for at least a month post-treatment. A study was undertaken to demonstrate the efficacy, safety and palatability of three monthly doses of lotilaner flavoured chewable tablets (Credelio™, Elanco in controlling fleas under field conditions in Europe. Methods Dogs were enrolled at 17 veterinary clinics across Germany, Hungary and Portugal. Qualifying households having no more than three dogs and one primary dog with at least five fleas was randomised 2:1 to a lotilaner (minimum dose rate 20 mg/kg or a topical fipronil group (administered per label. There were 128 and 64 households allocated to the lotilaner and fipronil groups, respectively. Treatments were dispensed to owners on Days 0, 28 and 56; supplementary household dogs received the same treatment as the primary dog. Post-enrollment flea counts and flea allergy dermatitis (FAD assessments were made on primary dogs on Days 14, 28, 56 and 84. Efficacy calculations were based on geometric mean percent reductions of live flea counts versus pre-treatment counts on Day 0. The safety and palatability of lotilaner tablets were also assessed. Results Lotilaner efficacy was 99.1, 99.5, 99.9 and 99.8% on Days 14, 28, 56 and 84, respectively. Corresponding reductions for fipronil were 93.4, 91.2, 94.4 and 97.0%. Lotilaner was superior to fipronil at all post-Day 0 assessments (t (186 ≥ 3.43, P ≤ 0.0007. At every post-treatment assessment, at least 90% of lotilaner-treated dogs were flea-free (98.4% on Day 84; fewer than 90% of fipronil group dogs were flea-free on the same time points. Lotilaner flavoured chewable tablets were palatable, and both products were well tolerated. Lotilaner alleviated or eliminated clinical signs of FAD, including pruritus. Conclusions

  10. Anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody secukinumab in treatment of ankylosing spondylitis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Dominique; Baraliakos, Xenofon; Braun, Jürgen; Sieper, Joachim; Emery, Paul; van der Heijde, Désirée; McInnes, Iain; van Laar, Jacob M; Landewé, Robert; Wordsworth, Paul; Wollenhaupt, Jürgen; Kellner, Herbert; Paramarta, Jacqueline; Wei, Jiawei; Brachat, Arndt; Bek, Stephan; Laurent, Didier; Li, Yali; Wang, Ying A; Bertolino, Arthur P; Gsteiger, Sandro; Wright, Andrew M; Hueber, Wolfgang

    2013-11-23

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease characterised by spinal inflammation, progressive spinal rigidity, and peripheral arthritis. Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is thought to be a key inflammatory cytokine in the development of ankylosing spondylitis, the prototypical form of spondyloarthritis. We assessed the efficacy and safety of the anti-IL-17A monoclonal antibody secukinumab in treating patients with active ankylosing spondylitis. We did a randomised double-blind proof-of-concept study at eight centres in Europe (four in Germany, two in the Netherlands, and two in the UK). Patients aged 18-65 years were randomly assigned (in a 4:1 ratio) to either intravenous secukinumab (2×10 mg/kg) or placebo, given 3 weeks apart. Randomisation was done with a computer-generated block randomisation list without a stratification process. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of patients with a 20% response according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society criteria for improvement (ASAS20) at week 6 (Bayesian analysis). Safety was assessed up to week 28. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00809159. 37 patients with moderate-to-severe ankylosing spondylitis were screened, and 30 were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous secukinumab (n=24) or placebo (n=6). The final efficacy analysis included 23 patients receiving secukinumab and six patients receiving placebo, and the safety analysis included all 30 patients. At week 6, ASAS20 response estimates were 59% on secukinumab versus 24% on placebo (99·8% probability that secukinumab is superior to placebo). One serious adverse event (subcutaneous abscess caused by Staphylococcus aureus) occurred in the secukinumab-treated group. Secukinumab rapidly reduced clinical or biological signs of active ankylosing spondylitis and was well tolerated. It is the first targeted therapy that we know of that is an alternative to tumour necrosis factor

  11. Safety and efficacy of abobotulinumtoxinA for hemiparesis in adults with upper limb spasticity after stroke or traumatic brain injury: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracies, Jean-Michel; Brashear, Allison; Jech, Robert; McAllister, Peter; Banach, Marta; Valkovic, Peter; Walker, Heather; Marciniak, Christina; Deltombe, Thierry; Skoromets, Alexander; Khatkova, Svetlana; Edgley, Steven; Gul, Fatma; Catus, France; De Fer, Beatrice Bois; Vilain, Claire; Picaut, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Resistance from antagonistic muscle groups might be a crucial factor reducing function in chronic hemiparesis. The resistance due to spastic co-contraction might be reduced by botulinum toxin injections. We assessed the effects of abobotulinumtoxinA injection in the upper limb muscles on muscle tone, spasticity, active movement, and function. In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, we enrolled adults (aged 18-80 years) at least 6 months after stroke or brain trauma from 34 neurology or rehabilitation clinics in Europe and the USA. Eligible participants were randomly allocated in a 1:1:1 ratio with a computer-generated list to receive a single injection session of abobotulinumtoxinA 500 U or 1000 U or placebo into the most hypertonic muscle group among the elbow, wrist, or finger flexors (primary target muscle group [PTMG]), and into at least two additional muscle groups from the elbow, wrist, or finger flexors or shoulder extensors. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was the change in muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale [MAS]) in the PTMG from baseline to 4 weeks. Secondary endpoints were Physician Global Assessment (PGA) at week 4 and change from baseline to 4 weeks in the perceived function (Disability Assessment Scale [DAS]) in the principal target of treatment, selected by the patient together with physician from four functional domains (dressing, hygiene, limb position, and pain). Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01313299. 243 patients were randomly allocated to placebo (n=81), abobotulinumtoxinA 500 U (n=81), or abobotulinumtoxinA 1000 U (n=81). Mean change in MAS score from baseline at week 4 in the PTMG was -0·3 (SD 0·6) in the placebo group (n=79), -1·2 (1·0) in the abobotulinumtoxinA 500 U group (n=80; difference -0·9, 95% CI -1·2 to -0·6; pvs placebo), and -1·4 (1·1) in the abobotulinumtoxinA 1000 U group (n=79

  12. Rucaparib maintenance treatment for recurrent ovarian carcinoma after response to platinum therapy (ARIEL3): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Robert L; Oza, Amit M; Lorusso, Domenica; Aghajanian, Carol; Oaknin, Ana; Dean, Andrew; Colombo, Nicoletta; Weberpals, Johanne I; Clamp, Andrew; Scambia, Giovanni; Leary, Alexandra; Holloway, Robert W; Gancedo, Margarita Amenedo; Fong, Peter C; Goh, Jeffrey C; O'Malley, David M; Armstrong, Deborah K; Garcia-Donas, Jesus; Swisher, Elizabeth M; Floquet, Anne; Konecny, Gottfried E; McNeish, Iain A; Scott, Clare L; Cameron, Terri; Maloney, Lara; Isaacson, Jeff; Goble, Sandra; Grace, Caroline; Harding, Thomas C; Raponi, Mitch; Sun, James; Lin, Kevin K; Giordano, Heidi; Ledermann, Jonathan A

    2017-10-28

    Rucaparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, has anticancer activity in recurrent ovarian carcinoma harbouring a BRCA mutation or high percentage of genome-wide loss of heterozygosity. In this trial we assessed rucaparib versus placebo after response to second-line or later platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with high-grade, recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian carcinoma. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients from 87 hospitals and cancer centres across 11 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had a platinum-sensitive, high-grade serous or endometrioid ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma, had received at least two previous platinum-based chemotherapy regimens, had achieved complete or partial response to their last platinum-based regimen, had a cancer antigen 125 concentration of less than the upper limit of normal, had a performance status of 0-1, and had adequate organ function. Patients were ineligible if they had symptomatic or untreated central nervous system metastases, had received anticancer therapy 14 days or fewer before starting the study, or had received previous treatment with a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor. We randomly allocated patients 2:1 to receive oral rucaparib 600 mg twice daily or placebo in 28 day cycles using a computer-generated sequence (block size of six, stratified by homologous recombination repair gene mutation status, progression-free interval after the penultimate platinum-based regimen, and best response to the most recent platinum-based regimen). Patients, investigators, site staff, assessors, and the funder were masked to assignments. The primary outcome was investigator-assessed progression-free survival evaluated with use of an ordered step-down procedure for three nested cohorts: patients with BRCA mutations (carcinoma associated with deleterious germline or somatic BRCA mutations), patients with homologous

  13. Azithromycin for episodes with asthma-like symptoms in young children aged 1-3 years: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Chawes, Bo L; Vissing, Nadja H; Bjarnadóttir, Elín; Pedersen, Tine M; Vinding, Rebecca K; Schoos, Ann-Marie M; Wolsk, Helene M; Thorsteinsdóttir, Sunna; Hallas, Henrik W; Arianto, Lambang; Schjørring, Susanne; Krogfelt, Karen A; Fischer, Thea K; Pipper, Christian B; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria and viruses are equally associated with the risk of acute episodes of asthma-like symptoms in young children, suggesting antibiotics as a potential treatment for such episodes. We aimed to assess the effect of azithromycin on the duration of respiratory episodes in young children with recurrent asthma-like symptoms, hypothesising that it reduces the duration of the symptomatic period. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited children aged 1-3 years, who were diagnosed with recurrent asthma-like symptoms from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010 cohort; a birth cohort consisting of the general Danish population of Zealand, including Copenhagen. Exclusion criteria were macrolide allergy, heart, liver, neurological, and kidney disease, and, before each treatment, one or more clinical signs of pneumonia (respiratory frequency of ≥50 breaths per min; fever of ≥39°C; C-reactive protein concentration of ≥476·20 nmol/L [≥50 mg/L]). Each episode of asthma-like symptoms lasting at least 3 days was randomly allocated to a 3-day course of azithromycin oral solution of 10 mg/kg per day or placebo after thorough examination by a study physician at the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma research unit. Each episode was randomly allocated independently of previous treatment from a computer-generated list of random numbers in blocks of ten (generated at the Pharmacy of Glostrup). Investigators and children were masked until the youngest child turned 3 years of age and throughout the data validation and analysis phases. The primary outcome was duration of the respiratory episode after treatment, verified by prospective daily diaries and analysed with Poisson regression. Analyses were per protocol (excluding those without a primary outcome measure or who did not receive treatment). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01233297. Between Nov 17, 2010, and Jan 28, 2014, we randomly

  14. Regorafenib for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who progressed on sorafenib treatment (RESORCE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruix, Jordi; Qin, Shukui; Merle, Philippe; Granito, Alessandro; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Bodoky, György; Pracht, Marc; Yokosuka, Osamu; Rosmorduc, Olivier; Breder, Valeriy; Gerolami, René; Masi, Gianluca; Ross, Paul J; Song, Tianqiang; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Ollivier-Hourmand, Isabelle; Kudo, Masatoshi; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Llovet, Josep M; Finn, Richard S; LeBerre, Marie-Aude; Baumhauer, Annette; Meinhardt, Gerold; Han, Guohong

    2017-01-07

    There are no systemic treatments for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) whose disease progresses during sorafenib treatment. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of regorafenib in patients with HCC who have progressed during sorafenib treatment. In this randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3 trial done at 152 sites in 21 countries, adults with HCC who tolerated sorafenib (≥400 mg/day for ≥20 of last 28 days of treatment), progressed on sorafenib, and had Child-Pugh A liver function were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned (2:1) by a computer-generated randomisation list and interactive voice response system and stratified by geographical region, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, macrovascular invasion, extrahepatic disease, and α-fetoprotein level to best supportive care plus oral regorafenib 160 mg or placebo once daily during weeks 1-3 of each 4-week cycle. Investigators, patients, and the funder were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival (defined as time from randomisation to death due to any cause) and analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01774344. Between May 14, 2013, and Dec 31, 2015, 843 patients were screened, of whom 573 were enrolled and randomised (379 to regorafenib and 194 to placebo; population for efficacy analyses), and 567 initiated treatment (374 received regorafenib and 193 received placebo; population for safety analyses). Regorafenib improved overall survival with a hazard ratio of 0·63 (95% CI 0·50-0·79; one-sided p<0·0001); median survival was 10·6 months (95% CI 9·1-12·1) for regorafenib versus 7·8 months (6·3-8·8) for placebo. Adverse events were reported in all regorafenib recipients (374 [100%] of 374) and 179 (93%) of 193 placebo recipients. The most common clinically relevant grade 3 or 4 treatment-emergent events were hypertension (57 patients [15%] in the regorafenib group

  15. Postural control in blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Oliveira, Cláudia Silva Remor de; Knabben, Rodrigo José; Domenech, Susana Cristina; Borges Junior, Noe Gomes

    2011-12-01

    To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  16. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  17. The PIT: SToPP Trial—A Feasibility Randomised Controlled Trial of Home-Based Physiotherapy for People with Parkinson's Disease Using Video-Based Measures to Preserve Assessor Blinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Stack

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To trial four-week's physiotherapy targeting chair transfers for people with Parkinson's disease (PwPD and explore the feasibility of reliance on remote outcome measurement to preserve blinding. Scope. We recruited 47 PwPD and randomised 24 to a focused home physiotherapy programme (exercise, movement strategies, and cueing and 23 to a control group. We evaluated transfers (plus mobility, balance, posture, and quality of life before and after treatment and at followup (weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12 from video produced by, and questionnaires distributed by, treating physiotherapists. Participants fed back via end-of-study questionnaires. Thirty-five participants (74% completed the trial. Excluding dropouts, 20% of questionnaire data and 9% of video data were missing or unusable; we had to evaluate balance in situ. We noted trends to improvement in transfers, mobility, and balance in the physiotherapy group not noted in the control group. Participant feedback was largely positive and assessor blinding was maintained in every case. Conclusions. Intense, focused physiotherapy at home appears acceptable and likely to bring positive change in those who can participate. Remote outcome measurement was successful; questionnaire followup and further training in video production would reduce missing data. We advocate a fully powered trial, designed to minimise dropouts and preserve assessor blinding, to evaluate this intervention.

  18. A randomised, double-blinded study comparing giving etoricoxib vs. placebo to female patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahagna, H; Amital, D; Amital, H

    2016-02-01

    Current therapeutic approaches to fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) do not provide satisfactory pain control to a high percentage of patients. This unmet need constantly fuels the pursuit for new modalities for pain relief. This randomised, double-blind, controlled study assessed the efficacy and safety of adding etoricoxib vs. placebo to the current therapeutic regimen of female patients with FMS. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, female patients were randomised to receive either 90 mg etoricoxib once daily or placebo for 6 weeks. Several physical and mental parameters were assessed throughout the study. The primary end-point was the response to treatment, defined as ≥ 30% reduction in the average Brief Pain Inventory score. Secondary outcomes were changes in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, SF-36 Quality of Life assessment questionnaire and Hamilton rating scales for anxiety and depression. Overall, 73 patients were recruited. Although many outcome measures improved throughout the study, no difference was recorded between the etoricoxib- and placebo-treated groups. The Brief Pain Inventory, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, The Hamilton Anxiety and Depression scores did not differ between the two groups. This is the first randomised, double-blind study assessing the effect of adding etoricoxib to pre-existing medications for female patients with FMS. Although being mildly underpowered this study clearly has shown that etoricoxib did not improve pain scores and did not lead to any beneficial mental or physical effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effects of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Til, A J; Naumann, E; Cox-Claessens, I J H M; Kremer, S; Boelsma, E; de van der Schueren, M A E

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. A single blind randomised controlled trial. Rehabilitation centre. Older adults (≥ 55 years) admitted to a rehabilitation centre after hospital discharge (n=34). Participants received a high protein diet (protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt; n=17) or a regular diet (regular bread and regular drinking yoghurt; n=17) for three consecutive weeks. Total protein intake and protein intake per meal, measured twice weekly over a three weeks period (six measurements per participant). Compared with controls, patients who received the protein enriched products had a significantly higher protein intake (115.3 g/d vs 72.5 g/d, Pconsumption of protein enriched products improves protein distribution over the day.

  20. Hypouricaemic effects of yoghurt containing Lactobacillus gasseri PA-3 in patients with hyperuricaemia and/or gout: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Hisashi; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Tsuboi, Hiroshi; Kano, Hiroshi; Asami, Yukio

    2018-03-09

    Lactobacillus gasseri PA-3 (PA-3) has been previously shown to decrease serum uric acid (SUA) levels in subjects with increased SUA. In this study, we investigated whether PA-3 is also capable of decreasing SUA levels in patients with hyperuricaemia and/or gout. Twenty-five patients with hyperuricaemia and/or gout completed this study. Urate-lowering drugs were discontinued for 12 weeks (week -4 to week 8). After flushing of urate-lowering drugs for 4 weeks (week 0), patients were randomised equally to receive diets containing yoghurt beverages with PA-3 or without PA-3 for a duration of 8 weeks (week 8). The intention to treat (ITT) population included all subjects who were randomised, and the per-protocol (PP) population included subjects who completed the experiment with compliance. We evaluated SUA levels at the end of the study as well as changes in SUA levels in comparison to week 0. In both ITT and PP analyses, there were no significant differences in SUA levels or in the changes in SUA levels compared to week 0 between the two groups. However, in a sub-population whose SUA levels at week 0 were within one SD of the mean of the whole PP population, changes in SUA levels in the group consuming PA-3-containing yoghurt were significantly lower than those of the control group (p = .0378). PA-3-containing yoghurt improves SUA levels, even in patients with hyperuricaemia and/or gout.

  1. Acute effects of traditional Thai massage on cortisol levels, arterial blood pressure and stress perception in academic stress condition: A single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Surussawadi; Bennett, Michael John; Chatchawan, Uraiwon; Jenjaiwit, Patcharaporn; Pantumethakul, Rungthip; Kunhasura, Soontorn; Eungpinichpong, Wichai

    2016-04-01

    Traditional Thai massage (TTM) has been applied widely to promote relaxation. However, there is little evidence to support its efficacy on academic stress. A randomised controlled trial was performed to examine the acute effects of TTM on cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception in academic stress. This prospective trial included 36 physiotherapy students with a self perceived stress score of between 3 and 5. They were randomly allocated into the TTM (18 people) group or the control group (18 people). Saliva cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception rating were measured before and after the intervention. Both groups showed a significant reduction in cortisol level and heart rate when compared with baseline (p stress of TTM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intravenous paracetamol versus dexketoprofen versus morphine in acute mechanical low back pain in the emergency department: a randomised double-blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eken, Cenker; Serinken, Mustafa; Elicabuk, Hayri; Uyanik, Emrah; Erdal, Muhammed

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the analgesic efficacy and safety of intravenous, single-dose paracetamol versus dexketoprofen versus morphine in patients presenting with mechanical low back pain (LBP) to the emergency department (ED). This randomised double-blind study compared the efficacy of intravenous 1 gm paracetamol, 50 mg dexketoprofen and 0.1 mg/kg morphine in patients with acute mechanical LBP. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for pain measurement at baseline, after 15 and after 30 min. A total of 874 patients were eligible for the study, and 137 of them were included in the final analysis: 46 patients from the paracetamol group, 46 patients in the dexketoprofen group and 45 patients in the morphine group. The mean age of study subjects was 31.5 ± 9.5 years, and 60.6% (n=83) of them were men. The median reduction in VAS score at the 30th minute for the paracetamol group was 65 mm (95% CI 58 to 72), 67 mm (95% CI 60 to 73) for the morphine group and 58 mm (95% CI 50 to 64) for the dexketoprophen group. Although morphine was not superior to paracetamol at 30 min (difference: 3.8 ± 4.9 (95% CI -6 to 14), the difference between morphine and dexketoprofen in reducing pain was 11.2 ± 4.7 (95% CI 2 to 21). At least one adverse effect occurred in 8.7% (n=4) of the cases in the paracetamol group, 15.5% (n=7) of the morphine group, and 8.7% (n=4) of the dexketoprophen group (p=0.482). Intravenous paracetamol, dexketoprofen and morphine are not superior to each other for the treatment of mechanical LBP in ED.

  3. Clinical improvement of patients with osteoarthritis using thermal mineral water at Szigetvár Spa—results of a randomised double-blind controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzel, Adrienn; Horvát, Krisztina; Molics, Bálint; Berényi, Károly; Németh, Balázs; Szendi, Katalin; Varga, Csaba

    2018-02-01

    Since 1966, Szigetvár in Hungary is well recognised as a thermal spa. Many patients suffering from rheumatic diseases are treated with its thermal mineral water. Our objective was to investigate the effects of a 3-week-long outpatient balneotherapy-based rehabilitation program on patients suffering from osteoarthritis of the hips and the knees. During the treatment period, patients received a 30-min underwater jet massage in a bath tub, five times a week. One patient group received jet massage in a bath tub containing mineral water; the other group received the same treatment in tap water. Primary outcomes were measured by range of movement of the involved joints and Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Visual analogue scale (VAS) was applied to measure current severity of pain. Furthermore, quality of life was assessed using the Short Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36). Range of movement (ROM) score, Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index and visual analogue scale were determined before the first treatment, after the last treatment and 3 months after the last treatment. SF-36 questionnaire was filled in before the first and after the last treatment. Fifty patients (17 male, 33 female mean age 66.7 ± 4.79 years) were enrolled. After randomisation, patients were divided into two groups: tap water n = 24 and mineral water n = 26. Treatment with the thermal mineral water of Szigetvár significantly improved ROM, WOMAC scores, and SF-36-scored quality of life of the patients. Our double-blind study provided evidence for the beneficial health effects of another Hungarian thermal mineral water masking the colour, odour and pH of the tap water and mineral water.

  4. Lidocaine patch (5%) is no more potent than placebo in treating chronic back pain when tested in a randomised double blind placebo controlled brain imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The 5% Lidocaine patch is used for treating chronic neuropathic pain conditions such as chronic back pain (CBP), diabetic neuropathy and complex regional pain syndrome, but is effective in a variable proportion of patients. Our lab has reported that this treatment reduces CBP intensity and associated brain activations when tested in an open labelled preliminary study. Notably, effectiveness of the 5% Lidocaine patch has not been tested against placebo for treating CBP. In this study, effectiveness of the 5% Lidocaine patch was compared with placebo in 30 CBP patients in a randomised double-blind study where 15 patients received 5% Lidocaine patches and the remaining patients received placebo patches. Functional MRI was used to identify brain activity for fluctuations of spontaneous pain, at baseline and at two time points after start of treatment (6 hours and 2 weeks). Results There was no significant difference between the treatment groups in either pain intensity, sensory and affective qualities of pain or in pain related brain activation at any time point. However, 50% patients in both the Lidocaine and placebo arms reported a greater than 50% decrease in pain suggesting a marked placebo effect. When tested against an untreated CBP group at similar time points, the patch treated subjects showed significantly greater decrease in pain compared to the untreated group (n = 15). Conclusions These findings suggest that although the 5% Lidocaine is not better than placebo in its effectiveness for treating pain, the patch itself induces a potent placebo effect in a significant proportion of CBP patients. PMID:22531485

  5. Effect of a polysaccharide-rich hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LipiGo®) in body weight loss: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santas, Jonathan; Lázaro, Elisabet; Cuñé, Jordi

    2017-09-01

    In the present study we evaluated the weight loss effect of a polysaccharide-rich food supplement, LipiGo®, comprising a specific β-glucan-chitin-chitosan fraction (BGCC) obtained from the chemical hydrolysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting as a by-product of the brewing process. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed enrolling 56 overweight and obese subjects (body mass index, BMI, 25-35 kg m -2 ) who were not following any specific diet, and were given placebo or BGCC (3 g d -1 ) for 12 weeks. Results were analysed by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) methods. Body weight increased in the placebo group compared to baseline (ITT: 1.0 kg, P weight and waist circumference in overweight and obese subjects, without relevant adverse effects. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effects of Four-Week Supplementation with a Multi-Vitamin/Mineral Preparation on Mood and Blood Biomarkers in Young Adults: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. White

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effects of four-week multi-vitamin and mineral (MVM supplementation on mood and neurocognitive function in healthy, young adults. Fifty-eight healthy adults, 18–40 years of age (M = 25.82 years, SD = 4.87 participated in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, in which mood and blood biomarkers were assessed at baseline and after four weeks of supplementation. Compared to placebo, MVM supplementation was associated with significantly lowered homocysteine and increased blood B-vitamin levels (p < 0.01. MVM treatment was also associated with significantly improved mood, as measured by reduced scores on the “depression-dejection” subscale of the Profile of Mood States (p = 0.018. These findings suggest that the four weeks of MVM supplementation may have beneficial effects on mood, underpinned by elevated B-vitamins and lowered homocysteine in healthy young adults.

  7. Cosmesis and body image after single-port laparoscopic or conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a multicenter double blinded randomised controlled trial (SPOCC-trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonlanthen René

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging attempts have been made to reduce operative trauma and improve cosmetic results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is a trend towards minimizing the number of incisions such as natural transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES and single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC. Many retrospective case series propose excellent cosmesis and reduced pain in SPLC. As the latter has been confirmed in a randomized controlled trial, patient's satisfaction on cosmesis is still controversially debated. Methods/Design The SPOCC trial is a prospective, multi-center, double blinded, randomized controlled study comparing SPLC with 4-port conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (4PLC in elective surgery. The hypothesis and primary objective is that patients undergoing SPLC will have a better outcome in cosmesis and body image 12 weeks after surgery. This primary endpoint is assessed using a validated 8-item multiple choice type questionnaire on cosmesis and body image. The secondary endpoint has three entities: the quality of life 12 weeks after surgery assessed by the validated Short-Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire, postoperative pain assessed by a visual analogue scale and the use of analgesics. Operative time, surgeon's experience with SPLC and 4PLC, use of additional ports, conversion to 4PLC or open cholecystectomy, length of stay, costs, time of work as well as intra- and postoperative complications are further aspects of the secondary endpoint. Patients are randomly assigned either to SPLC or to 4PLC. Patients as well as treating physicians, nurses and assessors are blinded until the 7th postoperative day. Sample size calculation performed by estimating a difference of cosmesis of 20% (alpha = 0.05 and beta = 0.90, drop out rate of 10% resulted in a number of 55 randomized patients per arm. Discussion The SPOCC-trial is a prospective, multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled study to assess cosmesis and body

  8. The ReSPonD trial--rivastigmine to stabilise gait in Parkinson's disease a phase II, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial to evaluate the effect of rivastigmine on gait in patients with Parkinson's disease who have fallen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Emily J; Lord, Stephen R; Close, Jacqueline C T; Lawrence, Andrew D; Whone, Alan; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2013-12-03

    Gait impairment is common in people with Parkinson's disease. There is a lack of effective interventions to target this debilitating complication and therefore a need to identify new therapeutic options. An underlying cholinergic deficit contributes to both the gait and cognitive dysfunction seen in Parkinson's disease. The combined impact of both impairments can be assessed in gait tasks performed with concomitant cognitive tasks. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the impact of a cholinesterase inhibitor on cognitive function and gait performance in people with established Parkinson's disease. This is a single centre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial in 130 people with Hoehn and Yahr stage 2-3 idiopathic Parkinson's disease who have fallen in the past year. Participants will be randomised to two groups, receiving either rivastigmine capsules or identical placebo capsules for 8 months. Assessment will be undertaken at baseline and at the end of medication prescription (i.e. 8 months) with participants remaining enrolled in the trial for a further 4 months to monitor for falls and adverse events. The primary outcome is step time variability, assessed with and without the addition of concurrent cognitive tasks. Secondary outcomes will include other gait parameters, sensorimotor and balance performances, cognitive indices, falls and fall related injury, fear of falling, Parkinson's symptoms and data pertaining to possible harms. This randomised controlled trial will examine the effect of cholinesterase inhibitor therapy on gait, balance and falls in Parkinson's disease. If effective, it would offer a new therapeutic option to ameliorating gait and cognitive deficits in a population at high risk of falls. ISRCTN19880883, UTN U1111-1124-0244.

  9. No effect of Pindolol on postural hypotension in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. A randomised double-blind controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgård, A; Hilsted, J

    1988-01-01

    of this therapy we performed a double-blind placebo controlled cross-over study with Pindolol (15 mg/day). Eight Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy and signs and symptoms of orthostatic hypotension (systolic blood pressure decrease greater than 30 mm Hg when standing......Orthostatic hypotension is one of the most troublesome symptoms in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Some reports have suggested Pindolol - a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity - to be effective in the treatment of this condition. In order to elucidate the value...

  10. Adalimumab in acute sciatica reduces the long-term need for surgery: a 3-year follow-up of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genevay, S; Finckh, A; Zufferey, P; Viatte, S; Balagué, F; Gabay, C

    2012-04-01

    Two subcutaneous injections of adalimumab in severe acute sciatica significantly reduced the number of back operations in a short-term randomised controlled clinical trial. To determine in a 3-year follow-up study whether the short-term benefit of adalimumab in sciatica is sustained over a longer period of time. The primary outcome of this analysis was incident discectomy. Three years after randomisation, information on surgery could be retrieved in 56/61 patients (92%).A multivariate Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for potential confounders, was used to determine factors predisposing to surgery. Twenty-three (41%) patients had back surgery within 3 years, 8/29 (28%) in the adalimumab group and 15/27 (56%) in the placebo group, p=0.04. Adalimumab injections reduced the need for back surgery by 61% (HR)=0.39 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.92). In a multivariate model, treatment with a tumour necrosis factor-α antagonist remained the strongest protective factor (HR=0.17, p=0.002). Other significant predictors of surgery were a good correlation between symptoms and MRI findings (HR=11.6, p=0.04), baseline intensity of leg pain (HR=1.3, p=0.06), intensity of back pain (HR=1.4, p=0.03) and duration of sickness leave (HR=1.01 per day, p=0.03). A short course of adalimumab in patients with severe acute sciatica significantly reduces the need for back surgery.

  11. The Effects of Clinical Hypnosis versus Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP before External Cephalic Version (ECV: A Prospective Off-Centre Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joscha Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the effects of clinical hypnosis versus NLP intervention on the success rate of ECV procedures in comparison to a control group. Methods. A prospective off-centre randomised trial of a clinical hypnosis intervention against NLP of women with a singleton breech fetus at or after 370/7 (259 days weeks of gestation and normal amniotic fluid index. All 80 participants heard a 20-minute recorded intervention via head phones. Main outcome assessed was success rate of ECV. The intervention groups were compared with a control group with standard medical care alone (=122. Results. A total of 42 women, who received a hypnosis intervention prior to ECV, had a 40.5% (=17, successful ECV, whereas 38 women, who received NLP, had a 44.7% (=17 successful ECV (>0.05. The control group had similar patient characteristics compared to the intervention groups (>0.05. In the control group (=122 27.3% (=33 had a statistically significant lower successful ECV procedure than NLP (=0.05 and hypnosis and NLP (=0.03. Conclusions. These findings suggest that prior clinical hypnosis and NLP have similar success rates of ECV procedures and are both superior to standard medical care alone.

  12. The Effects of Clinical Hypnosis versus Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) before External Cephalic Version (ECV): A Prospective Off-Centre Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Joscha; Peiffer, Swati; Sänger, Nicole; Herrmann, Eva; Yuan, Juping; Louwen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effects of clinical hypnosis versus NLP intervention on the success rate of ECV procedures in comparison to a control group. Methods. A prospective off-centre randomised trial of a clinical hypnosis intervention against NLP of women with a singleton breech fetus at or after 37(0/7) (259 days) weeks of gestation and normal amniotic fluid index. All 80 participants heard a 20-minute recorded intervention via head phones. Main outcome assessed was success rate of ECV. The intervention groups were compared with a control group with standard medical care alone (n = 122). Results. A total of 42 women, who received a hypnosis intervention prior to ECV, had a 40.5% (n = 17), successful ECV, whereas 38 women, who received NLP, had a 44.7% (n = 17) successful ECV (P > 0.05). The control group had similar patient characteristics compared to the intervention groups (P > 0.05). In the control group (n = 122) 27.3% (n = 33) had a statistically significant lower successful ECV procedure than NLP (P = 0.05) and hypnosis and NLP (P = 0.03). Conclusions. These findings suggest that prior clinical hypnosis and NLP have similar success rates of ECV procedures and are both superior to standard medical care alone.

  13. Effect of antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation on anthropometry and blood pressure in mid-childhood in Nepal: follow-up of a double-blind randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devakumar, Delan; Chaube, Shiva Shankar; Wells, Jonathan C K; Saville, Naomi M; Ayres, Jon G; Manandhar, Dharma S; Costello, Anthony; Osrin, David

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background In 2002–04, we did a randomised controlled trial in southern Nepal, and reported that children born to mothers taking multiple micronutrient supplements during pregnancy had a mean birthweight 77 g greater than children born to mothers taking iron and folic acid supplements. Children born to mothers in the study group were a mean 204 g heavier at 2·5 years of age and their systolic blood pressure was a mean 2·5 mm Hg lower than children born to mothers in the control group. We aimed to follow up the same children to mid-childhood (age 8·5 years) to investigate whether these differences would be sustained. Methods For this follow-up study, we identified children from the original trial and measured anthropometry, body composition with bioelectrical impedance (with population-specific isotope calibration), blood pressure, and renal dimensions by ultrasound. We documented socioeconomic status, household food security, and air pollution. Main outcomes of the follow-up at 8 years were Z scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and body-mass index (BMI)-for-age according to WHO Child Growth Standards for children aged 5–19 years, and blood pressure. This study is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial register, number ISRCTN88625934. Findings Between Sept 21, 2011, and Dec 7, 2012, we assessed 841 children (422 in the control group and 419 in the intervention group). Unadjusted differences (intervention minus control) in Z scores were 0·05 for weight-for-age (95% CI −0·09 to 0·19), 0·02 in height-for-age (−0·10 to 0·15), and 0·04 in BMI-for-age (−0·09 to 0·18). We recorded no difference in blood pressure. Adjusted differences were similar for all outcomes. Interpretation We recorded no differences in phenotype between children born to mothers who received antenatal multiple micronutrient or iron and folate supplements at age 8·5 years. Our findings did not extend to physiological differences or

  14. A Randomised Single-Blinded Controlled Trial on the Effectiveness of Brief Advice on Smoking Cessation among Tertiary Students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Wdas; Awang, R; Samsudeen, S; Hanna, F

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco smoking, a habitual behavior, is addictive and detrimental to health. Quitting requires personal abilities and environmental opportunities and therefore, improving these abilities and opportunities will undoubtedly act on smokers' motivation to quit. A prospective single-blinded randomized controlled interventional study was conducted among first year undergraduate students in Malaysia. A total of eighty smokers were randomly allocated to a control or intervention groups (40/40). Randomization remained concealed from research personnel. All participants were followed up for six months to evaluate abstinence. Quit line enrolment rate of the intervention group was 55% (22) compared to 7.5% (3) in the control (P smoking cessation is more effective than an information leaflet alone to promote quitting and that to maintain abstinence quit line follow up is necessary. Larger samples size and longer follow up studies are needed to further confirm these findings.

  15. Resveratrol exerts no effect on inflammatory response and delayed onset muscle soreness after a marathon in male athletes.: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laupheimer, M W; Perry, M; Benton, S; Malliaras, P; Maffulli, N

    2014-09-01

    We investigated whether the inflammatory response and delayed onset of muscle soreness after a marathon are altered by resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid antioxidant. Double blind placebo-controlled randomised pilot study. London Marathon. Marathon race participants. 7 healthy male athletes were randomised to receive Resveratrol (600 mg Resveratrol daily for 7 days immediately before the marathon) or a placebo. Blood samples taken 48 hours before and 18-32 hours after the marathon were analysed for white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A VAS score was taken at the same times as the blood samples to assess delayed onset muscle soreness. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of changes occurring between pre- and post- tests for WBC, CRP or VAS. There were no differences in immune response or delayed onset muscle soreness between resveratrol and placebo after a marathon. Further investigations are needed with longer treatment time and higher doses, analysing additional parameters such interleukins for a possible effect of resveratrol on the inflammatory response due to extensive exercise. To avoid a type II error, 17 subjects in each group would be required.

  16. Efficacy of Topical Coriandrum sativum Extract on Treatment of Infants with Diaper Dermatitis: A Single Blinded Non-Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastgheib, Ladan; Pishva, Narjes; Saki, Nasrin; Khabnadideh, Soghra; Kardeh, Bahareh; Torabi, Fatemeh; Arabnia, Shahram; Heiran, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    Diaper dermatitis is a common disorder. Coriandrum sativum is a herbal remedy with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities effects. In this non randomised clinical trial which was performed on 58 infants with diaper dermatitis referred to Faghihi Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, the efficacy and safety of topical Coriandrum extract cream is compared with hydrocortisone ointment. Coriandrum sativum extract cream was administered for 37 (intervention group) and hydrocortisone 1% ointment for 21 (control group) patients. Patients were examined on days 3 and 10. Chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis. The results demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the cure rate (20 (54.1%) for the intervention group versus 19 (90.5%) for the control group) ( P -value = 0.005) and side effects (10 (27%) for the intervention group versus 0 (0%) for control group) ( P -value = 0.009) both in favor of hydrocortisone. This trial failed to confirm the efficacy of Coriandrum sativum in the treatment of diaper dermatitis; however, it seems that if soothing compounds are used in combination with Coriandrum sativum to reduce the mild irritation, Coriandrum extract can be an alternative treatment for diaper dermatitis.

  17. Comparison of standard versus double dose of amoxicillin in the treatment of non‐severe pneumonia in children aged 2–59 months: a multi‐centre, double blind, randomised controlled trial in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazir, Tabish; Qazi, Shamim A; Nisar, Yasir Bin; Maqbool, Sajid; Asghar, Rai; Iqbal, Imran; Khalid, Sobia; Randhawa, Sajid; Aslam, Shazia; Riaz, Sobia; Abbasi, Saleem

    2007-01-01

    Introduction WHO pneumonia case management guidelines recommend oral amoxicillin as first line treatment for non‐severe pneumonia. Increasing treatment failure rates have been reported over a period of time, which could possibly be due to increasing minimum inhibitory concentrations of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae for amoxicillin. Microbiological data show that this resistance can be overcome by increasing amoxicillin dosage. Based on this data, we examined whether we can improve the clinical outcome in non‐severe pneumonia by doubling the dose of amoxicillin. Methods A double blind randomised controlled trial was conducted in the outpatient departments of four large hospitals in Pakistan. Children aged 2–59 months with non‐severe pneumonia were randomised to receive either standard (45 mg/kg/day) or double dose (90 mg/kg/day) oral amoxicillin for 3 days and then followed up for 14 days. Final outcome was treatment failure by day 5. Results From September 2003 to June 2004, 876 children completed the study. 437 were randomised to standard and 439 to double dose oral amoxicillin. 20 (4.5%) children in the standard and 25 (5.7%) in the double dose group had therapy failure by day 5. Including the relapses, by day 14 there were 26 (5.9%) cumulative therapy failures with standard and 35 (7.9%) with double dose amoxicillin. These differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.55 and p = 0.29, respectively). Conclusion Clinical outcome in children aged 2–59 months with non‐severe pneumonia is the same with standard and double dose oral amoxicillin. Non‐severe pneumonia can be treated effectively and safely with a 3 day course of a standard dose. PMID:16547082

  18. Mulberry-extract improves glucose tolerance and decreases insulin concentrations in normoglycaemic adults: Results of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lown

    Full Text Available High sugar and refined carbohydrate intake is associated with weight gain, increased incidence of diabetes and is linked with increased cardiovascular mortality. Reducing the health impact of poor quality carbohydrate intake is a public health priority. Reducose, a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (ME, may reduce blood glucose responses following dietary carbohydrate intake by reducing absorption of glucose from the gut.A double-blind, randomised, repeat measure, phase 2 crossover design was used to study the glycaemic and insulinaemic response to one reference product and three test products at the Functional Food Centre, Oxford Brooks University, UK. Participants; 37 adults aged 19-59 years with a BMI ≥ 20kg/m2 and ≤ 30kg/m2. The objective was to determine the effect of three doses of mulberry-extract (Reducose versus placebo on blood glucose and insulin responses when co-administered with 50g maltodextrin in normoglycaemic healthy adults. We also report the gastrointestinal tolerability of the mulberry extract.Thirty-seven participants completed the study: The difference in the positive Incremental Area Under the Curve (pIAUC (glucose (mmol / L x h for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -6.1% (-18.2%, 5.9%; p = 0.316, -14.0% (-26.0%, -2.0%; p = 0.022 and -22.0% (-33.9%, -10.0%; p<0.001 respectively. The difference in the pIAUC (insulin (mIU / L x h for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -9.7% (-25.8%, 6.3%; p = 0.234, -23.8% (-39.9%, -7.8%; p = 0.004 and -24.7% (-40.8%, -8.6%; p = 0.003 respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between any of the 4 groups in the odds of experiencing one or more gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, abdominal cramping, distension or flatulence.Mulberry leaf extract significantly reduces total blood glucose rise after ingestion of maltodextrin over 120 minutes. The pattern of effect demonstrates a classical dose response curve with

  19. [Venous leg ulcers: no improvement of wound healing with 685-nm low level laser therapy. Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokol, R; Berger, C; Haas, J; Kopera, D

    2005-06-01

    Venous leg ulcers (ulcera crurum venosa) are frequently seen in elderly patients. It has been suggested that low level laser irradiation has a biostimulative and wound healing effect; however, this has not yet been clinically verified by controlled studies. The difference in size reduction of leg ulcers with and without low level laser or placebo laser treatment was measured in 44 patients randomised into two treatment groups (685-nm low level laser and placebo laser) or a control group which served to quantify the effect of laser application. All patients received standardized wound care. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of low level laser irradiation with that of a placebo "light source". The size of the ulcers was planimetrically measured at baseline (day 1), at the end of therapy (day 28) and 2 months later (day 90). The difference in wound size was evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences in reduction of wound size between the three groups, thus suggesting that low level laser light does not have any stimulatory effect on wound healing in ulcera crurum venosa.

  20. Double-blind randomised controlled trial of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation versus sham electrical stimulation in the treatment of faecal incontinence: CONtrol of Faecal Incontinence using Distal NeuromodulaTion (the CONFIDeNT trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Emma J; Bremner, Stephen A; Stevens, Natasha; Norton, Christine; Gilbert, Deborah; O'Connell, P Ronan; Eldridge, Sandra; Knowles, Charles H

    2015-09-01

    Faecal incontinence (FI) is a common condition which is often under-reported. It is distressing for those suffering from it, impacting heavily on their quality of life. When conservative strategies fail, treatment options are limited. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) is a minimally invasive outpatient treatment, shown in preliminary case series to have significant effectiveness; however, no randomised controlled trial has been conducted. To assess the effectiveness of PTNS compared with sham electrical stimulation in the treatment of patients with FI in whom initial conservative strategies have failed. Multicentre, parallel-arm, double-blind randomised (1 : 1) controlled trial. Eighteen UK centres providing specialist nurse-led (or equivalent) treatment for pelvic floor disorders. Participants aged > 18 years with FI who have failed conservative treatments and whose symptoms are sufficiently severe to merit further intervention. PTNS was delivered via the Urgent(®) PC device (Uroplasty Limited, Manchester, UK), a hand-held pulse generator unit, with single-use leads and fine-needle electrodes. The needle was inserted near the tibial nerve on the right leg adhering to the manufacturer's protocol (and specialist training). Treatment was for 30 minutes weekly for a duration of 12 treatments. Validated sham stimulation involved insertion of the Urgent PC needle subcutaneously at the same site with electrical stimulation delivered to the distal foot using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and 2 weeks following treatment. Clinical outcomes were derived from bowel diaries and validated, investigator-administered questionnaires. The primary outcome classified patients as responders or non-responders, with a responder defined as someone having achieved ≥ 50% reduction in weekly faecal incontinence episodes (FIEs). In total, 227 patients were randomised from 373 screened: 115 received PTNS and 112 received

  1. Penicillin for acute sore throat : randomised double blind trial of seven days versus three days treatment or placebo in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S; Sachs, APE; Ruijs, GJHM; Gubbels, JW; Hoes, AW; de Melker, RA

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess whether treatment with penicillin for three days and the traditional treatment for seven days were equally as effective at accelerating resolution of symptoms in patients with sore throat compared with placebo. Design Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Setting 43

  2. Treating Parents to Reduce NICU Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus (TREAT PARENTS) trial: protocol of a multisite randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstone, Aaron M; Koontz, Danielle W; Voskertchian, Annie; Popoola, Victor O; Harrelson, Kathleen; Ross, Tracy; Aucott, Susan W; Gilmore, Maureen M; Carroll, Karen C; Colantuoni, Elizabeth

    2015-09-09

    More than 33,000 healthcare-associated infections occur in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) each year in the USA. Parents, rather than healthcare workers, may be a reservoir from which neonates acquire Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonisation in the NICU. This study looks to measure the effect of treating parents with short course intranasal mupirocin and topical chlorhexidine antisepsis on acquisition of S. aureus colonisation and infection in neonates. The TREAT PARENTS trial (Treating Parents to Reduce Neonatal Transmission of S. aureus) is a multicentre randomised, masked, placebo-controlled trial. Shortly after a neonate is admitted to the NICU, parents will be tested for S. aureus colonisation. If either parent screens positive for S. aureus, then both parents as a pair will be enrolled and randomised to one of the two possible masked treatment arms. Arm 1 will include assignment to intranasal 2% mupirocin plus topical antisepsis with chlorhexidine gluconate impregnated cloths for 5 days. Arm 2 will include assignment to placebo ointment and placebo cloths for skin antisepsis for 5 days. The primary outcome will be neonatal acquisition of an S. aureus strain that is concordant to the parental baseline S. aureus strain as determined by periodic surveillance cultures or a culture collected during routine clinical care that grows S. aureus. Secondary outcomes will include neonatal acquisition of S. aureus, neonatal S. aureus infection, eradication of S. aureus colonisation in parents, natural history of S. aureus colonisation in parents receiving placebo, adverse reactions to treatment, feasibility of intervention, and attitudes and behaviour in consented parents. Four hundred neonate-parent pairs will be enrolled. The study was approved by Johns Hopkins University IRB in June 2014 (IRB number 00092982). Protocol V.7 was approved in November 2014. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals. NCT02223520. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  3. No effect of Pindolol on postural hypotension in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. A randomised double-blind controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgård, A; Hilsted, J

    1988-01-01

    of this therapy we performed a double-blind placebo controlled cross-over study with Pindolol (15 mg/day). Eight Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy and signs and symptoms of orthostatic hypotension (systolic blood pressure decrease greater than 30 mm Hg when standing......) participated in the study. Patients were treated for 10 weeks. Clinical examinations were performed every fortnight and patients registered postural symptoms twice daily on a visual analog scale. No significant changes were seen in blood pressure recordings, heart-rate or visual analog scale registration...... during treatment with Pindolol compared to placebo. Our study does not support the suggestion that Pindolol is a valuable drug for treatment of diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy and postural giddiness....

  4. Therapeutic ultrasound treatment for excessive skin on the upper arms due to extensive weight loss after bariatric surgery: A single blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerså, Kristofer; Biörserud, Christina; Fagevik Olsén, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Excessive skin is a side-effect of massive weight loss. The only evidence-based treatment for excessive skin is plastic surgery. Non-invasive treatments, therefore, need to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of therapeutic ultrasound treatment on excess skin on the upper arms after bariatric surgery. Fourteen patients were randomised to receive five treatments, each lasting for 30 minutes with active ultrasound treatment by CellsonicTM (Cellsonic Ltd) on one arm. The other arm served as control. The effect was evaluated objectively by measuring arm volume, circumference, and ptosis, and subjectively by a questionnaire where the patients assessed the effect of the treatment and amount and/or discomfort of the excess skin. No statistical differences were observed in the objectively measured variables. Some patients reported perceived effects and a majority reported positive experiences of the treatment. No side-effects were reported. This study could not find any objectively measured effect of ultrasound treatment on excessive skin after bariatric surgery. However, participants experienced relief of symptoms associated with excess skin, such as pain, looseness, and decreased skin burst, which indicates that ultrasonic treatment of patients with excessive skin should be further investigated.

  5. Study protocol: a double blind randomised control trial of high volume image guided injections in Achilles and patellar tendinopathy in a young active population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Davies, Robert M; Nicol, Alastair; McCurdie, I; Watson, James; Baker, Polly; Wheeler, Patrick; Fong, Daniel; Lewis, Mark; Bennett, Alexander N

    2017-05-22

    Chronic tendinopathy is a significant problem particularly in active populations limiting sporting and occupational performance. The prevalence of patellar tendinopathy in some sports is near 50% and the incidence of lower limb tendinopathy is 1.4% p.a. in the UK Military. Management includes isometric, eccentric, heavy slow resistance exercises and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). Often these treatments are inadequate yet there is no good evidence for injection therapies and success rates from surgery can be as low as 50%. High Volume Image Guided Injection (HVIGI) proposes to strip away the neovascularity and disrupt the nerve ingrowth seen in chronic cases and has shown promising results in case series. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of HVIGI in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). RCT comparing 40ml HVIGI, with or without corticosteroid, with a 3ml local anaesthetic sham-control injection. Ninety-six participants will be recruited. male, 18-55 years old, chronic Achilles or patellar tendinopathy of at least 6 months, failed conservative management including ESWT, and Ultrasound (US) evidence of neovascularisation, tendon thickening and echogenic changes. Outcome measures will be recorded at baseline, 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcome measures include The Victoria Institute of Sport Assessments for Achilles and patellar tendinopathy (VISA-A and VISA-P) and VAS pain. Secondary outcome measures include Modified Ohberg score, maximum tendon diameter and assessment of hypoechoic appearance on US, and Functional Activity Assessment. Despite previous interventional trials and reviews there is still insufficient evidence to guide injectable therapy for chronic tendinopathy that has failed conservative treatment. The scant evidence available suggests HVIGI has the greatest potential however there is no level one RCT evidence to support this. Investigating the efficacy of HVIGI against control in a RCT and separating the effect of HVIGI

  6. Effect of live and inactivated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on experimentally induced rhinovirus colds: randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpu, M; Kekkonen, R A; Korpela, R; Tynkkynen, S; Järvenpää, S; Kautiainen, H; Allen, E K; Hendley, J O; Pitkäranta, A; Winther, B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the usability of an experimental rhinovirus model in probiotic trials aiming to assess effectiveness in viral infections, and to provide preliminary data of live and inactivated probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG for larger-scale trials utilising the model. 59 subjects were randomised to receive 100 ml of fruit juice supplemented with 10(9) cfu of live or heat-inactivated (by spray-drying) L. rhamnosus GG or control juice daily for six weeks. After three weeks subjects were intranasally inoculated with experimental rhinovirus. Infection rate (at least one positive culture for challenge virus on five days following inoculation or at least four-fold rise in antibody response to challenge virus) was 14/19 in the group receiving live probiotic strain and 18/20 both in the group receiving heat-inactivated probiotic strain and in the control group (P=0.36). The occurrence and severity of cold symptoms on the five days following the inoculation was lowest in the group receiving live probiotic strain (P=0.45). This trial was the first one dedicated to the investigation of the effect of probiotics using the experimental rhinovirus model. The model showed potential for demonstration of efficacy of probiotics in controlled respiratory viral infections. Occurrence and severity of cold symptoms and number of subjects with rhinovirus infection was lowest in the group receiving live L. rhamnosus GG, but differences were not statistically significant. Further large-scale studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of L. rhamnosus GG in respiratory infections.

  7. MEMO: an mHealth intervention to prevent the onset of depression in adolescents: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robyn; Stasiak, Karolina; McDowell, Heather; Doherty, Iain; Shepherd, Matthew; Chua, Shireen; Dorey, Enid; Parag, Varsha; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Rodgers, Anthony; Merry, Sally

    2017-09-01

    Depression often starts in adolescence making it an ideal time to intervene. We developed a universal cognitive behavioural therapy-based programme (MEMO CBT) to be delivered via multimedia mobile phone messages for teens. We conducted a prospective multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled superiority trial in 15 high schools in Auckland, New Zealand, comparing MEMO CBT with a control programme [MEMO control] matched for intensity and type of message but with alternative content not targeting depression. The primary outcome was the change in score on the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised from baseline to 12 months. Secondary outcomes included the change in scores in the self-reported Reynold's Adolescent Depression Rating Scale-Second Edition, the Moods and Feelings Questionnaire, suicidal ideation using selected items from the Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, the Pediatric Quality of Life questionnaire, 12-month period prevalence of the diagnosis of depressive disorder using the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, and students' ratings of their satisfaction with the programme. Eight hundred and fifty-five students (13-17 years old, mean 14.3 years) were randomly assigned to MEMO CBT (426) or to MEMO Control (429). Participants (68% female) had a mean CDRS-R at baseline of 21.5 (SD: 5). Overall 394 (93%) from the intervention group and 392 (91%) from the control group were followed up at 12 months. At the end of the intervention (approximately 9 weeks) the mean CDRS-R scores were 20.8 in the intervention group versus 20.4 in the control group, and at 12 months they were 22.4 versus 22.4 (p value for difference in change from baseline = 0.3). There was no obvious association between the amount of the intervention viewed by participants and outcomes. There was no evidence of benefit from the mobile phone CBT intervention compared with a control programme. Universal depression prevention remains a challenge. © 2017 Association

  8. Effects of prenatal n-3 fatty acid supplementation on offspring resolvins at birth and 12 years of age: a double-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Valene H L; Mas, Emilie; Prescott, Susan L; Beilin, Lawrence J; Burrows, Sally; Barden, Anne E; Huang, Rae-Chi; Mori, Trevor A

    2017-12-01

    Resolution of inflammation is an active process involving specialised pro-resolving mediators (SPM) generated from the n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. n-3 Fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy may provide an intervention strategy to modify these novel SPM. This study aimed to assess the effect of n-3 fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on offspring SPM at birth and 12 years of age (12 years). In all, ninety-eight atopic pregnant women were randomised to 3·7 g daily n-3 fatty acids or a control (olive oil), from 20 weeks gestation until delivery. Blood was collected from the offspring at birth and at 12 years. Plasma SPM consisting of 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE), E-series resolvins, 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA), D-series resolvins, 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14-HDHA), 10 S,17S-dihydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, maresins and protectin 1, were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem MS. We identified the resolvins RvE1, RvE2, RvE3, RvD1, 17R-RvD1 and RvD2 for the first time in human cord blood. n-3 Fatty acids increased cord blood 18-HEPE (Pbirth was significantly increased in the n-3 fatty acid group relative to the controls (P=0·001), but other SPM were not different between the groups. n-3 Fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy was associated with an increase in SPM precursors in the offspring at birth but the effects were not sustained at 12 years. The presence of these SPM, particularly at birth, may have functions relevant in the newborn that remain to be established, which may be useful for future investigations.

  9. Double-blind cluster randomised controlled trial of wheat flour chapatti fortified with micronutrients on the status of vitamin A and iron in school-aged children in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ahmed S; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, Faiz; Alam, Mohammad S; Wahed, Mohammad A; Sack, David A

    2015-12-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective and sustainable strategy to prevent or correct micronutrient deficiencies. A double-blind cluster (bari) randomised controlled trial was conducted in a rural community in Bangladesh to evaluate the impact of consumption of chapatti made of micronutrient-fortified wheat flour for 6 months by school-aged children on their vitamin A, haemoglobin and iron status. A total of 43 baris (group of households) were randomly selected. The baris were randomly assigned to either intervention or control group. The intervention group received wheat flour fortified with added micronutrients (including 66 mg hydrogen-reduced elemental iron and 3030 μg retinol equivalent as retinyl palmitate per kilogram of flour), while the control group received wheat flour without added micronutrients. A total of 352 children were enrolled in the trial, 203 in the intervention group and 149 in the control group. Analyses were carried out on children who completed the study (191 in the intervention group and 143 in the control group). Micronutrient-fortified wheat flour chapatti significantly increased serum retinol concentration at 6 months by 0.12 μmol L(-1) [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06, 0.19; P fortified chapatti consumption on iron status, haemoglobin levels or anaemia was observed. Consumption of fortified chapattis demonstrated a significant improvement in the vitamin A status, but not in iron, haemoglobin or anaemia status. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of an exercise and manual therapy program on physical impairments, function and quality-of-life in people with osteoporotic vertebral fracture: a randomised, single-blind controlled pilot trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background This randomised, single-blind controlled pilot trial aimed to determine the effectiveness of a physiotherapy program, including exercise and manual therapy, in reducing impairments and improving physical function and health-related quality of life in people with a history of painful osteoporotic vertebral fracture. Methods 20 participants were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 11) or control (n = 9) group. The intervention group attended individual sessions with an experienced clinician once a week for 10 weeks and performed daily home exercises with adherence monitored by a self-report diary. The control group received no treatment. Blinded assessment was conducted at baseline and 11 weeks. Questionnaires assessed self-reported changes in back pain, physical function, and health-related quality of life. Objective measures of thoracic kyphosis, back and shoulder muscle endurance (Timed Loaded Standing Test), and function (Timed Up and Go test) were also taken. Results Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant reductions in pain during movement (mean difference (95% CI) -1.8 (-3.5 to -0.1)) and at rest (-2.0 (-3.8 to -0.2)) and significantly greater improvements in Qualeffo physical function (-4.8 (-9.2 to -0.5)) and the Timed Loaded Standing test (46.7 (16.1 to 77.3) secs). For the perceived change in back pain over the 10 weeks, 9/11 (82%) participants in the intervention group rated their pain as 'much better' compared with only 1/9 (11%) participants in the control group. Conclusion Despite the modest sample size, these results support the benefits of exercise and manual therapy in the clinical management of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures, but need to be confirmed in a larger sample. Trail registration NCT00638768 PMID:20163739

  11. Effects of an exercise and manual therapy program on physical impairments, function and quality-of-life in people with osteoporotic vertebral fracture: a randomised, single-blind controlled pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherburn Margaret

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This randomised, single-blind controlled pilot trial aimed to determine the effectiveness of a physiotherapy program, including exercise and manual therapy, in reducing impairments and improving physical function and health-related quality of life in people with a history of painful osteoporotic vertebral fracture. Methods 20 participants were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 11 or control (n = 9 group. The intervention group attended individual sessions with an experienced clinician once a week for 10 weeks and performed daily home exercises with adherence monitored by a self-report diary. The control group received no treatment. Blinded assessment was conducted at baseline and 11 weeks. Questionnaires assessed self-reported changes in back pain, physical function, and health-related quality of life. Objective measures of thoracic kyphosis, back and shoulder muscle endurance (Timed Loaded Standing Test, and function (Timed Up and Go test were also taken. Results Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant reductions in pain during movement (mean difference (95% CI -1.8 (-3.5 to -0.1 and at rest (-2.0 (-3.8 to -0.2 and significantly greater improvements in Qualeffo physical function (-4.8 (-9.2 to -0.5 and the Timed Loaded Standing test (46.7 (16.1 to 77.3 secs. For the perceived change in back pain over the 10 weeks, 9/11 (82% participants in the intervention group rated their pain as 'much better' compared with only 1/9 (11% participants in the control group. Conclusion Despite the modest sample size, these results support the benefits of exercise and manual therapy in the clinical management of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures, but need to be confirmed in a larger sample. Trail registration NCT00638768

  12. Efficacy of Tamarindus indicus, Melia azadirach and Santalum album in syndromic management of abnormal vaginal discharge: A single-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Tabasum Ali; Begum, Wajeeha

    2017-12-19

    Background At least 25 % of women attending genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics receive treatment for one of the three common causes of abnormal vaginal discharge: bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Syndromic diagnostic approach was adopted by National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) India, at the primary health centre level. Syndromic management implies the simultaneous treatment of two or more infections. The aim of this study was to assess efficacy of sandal sufaid, maghze tukhme bakayin and khaste tamar hindi in syndromic management of Sailanur rehm. Methods This study was a randomized, single blind, standard controlled trial. It was conducted to compare efficacy of formulation which contains buradae sandal safaid, safoofe maghze tukhme bakayin, safoofe khaste tamar hindi and safoofe shakkar safaid against combination of azithromycin, fluconazole and secnidazole on diagnosed subjects of Sailanur rehm. Test group received 10 g of test drug B.D for 21 days while control group received single dose of standard drug to both the partners. Vaginal symptom score (VSS) was used for assessing discharge and associated complaints. Visual analogous scale (VAS) was used for assessing low backache and lower abdominal pain. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups concerning baseline characteristics (p>0.05). VSS was significantly decreased with p<0.001 for both control and test group. VAS was significantly decreased with p<0.001 and p=0.07 in test and control group respectively for low backache. For lower abdominal pain p=0.006 for both groups after the completion of treatment. Conclusions The formulation can effectively alleviate the disease with associated symptoms without any side effects. It can be used in syndromic management of vaginal discharge. Future research is on large sample size.

  13. Escin/diethylammonium salicylate/heparin combination gels for the topical treatment of acute impact injuries: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, D; Menke, W; Dieter, R; Smasal, V; Giannetti, B; Bulitta, M

    2002-06-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of escin-containing gels in the topical treatment of blunt impact injuries. Competitors in soccer, handball, or karate competitions were enrolled within two hours of sustaining a strain, sprain, or contusion and treated three times with the trial gel within a period of eight hours. Patients were randomised to three parallel groups consisting of two active treatment gels, containing escin (1% or 2%), 5% diethylammonium salicylate, and 5000 IU heparin, or placebo gel. Tenderness produced by pressure was measured at 0 (baseline), 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 24 hours after enrollment (within two hours of the injury). Tenderness was defined as the amount of pressure (measured by a calibrated caliper at the centre of the injury) that first produced a pain reaction as reported by the patient. A total of 158 patients were enrolled; 156 were evaluated in the intention to treat analysis. The primary efficacy variable was the area under the curve for tenderness over a six hour period. The gel preparations containing 1% and 2% escin were significantly more effective (a priori ordered hypotheses testing controlling the multiple alpha = 5% significance level) than placebo (p(1) = 0.0001 and p(2) = 0.0002 respectively). The treatment effects were 5.7 kp h/cm(2) (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9 to 8.5) and 5.9 kilopond (kp) h/cm(2) (95% CI 2.9 to 8.8) between 1% escin and placebo and between 2% escin and placebo respectively. These results were supported by secondary efficacy variables. The time to reach the baseline contralateral tenderness value (resolution of pain) at the injured site was shorter in the treatment groups than in the placebo group (pescin-containing gels were excellent. Escin/diethylammonium salicylate/heparin combination gel preparations are effective and safe for the treatment of blunt impact injuries.

  14. An adaptogenic role for omega-3 fatty acids in stress; a randomised placebo controlled double blind intervention study (pilot [ISRCTN22569553

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Stephen P

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence for an adaptive role of the omega -3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA during stress. Mechanisms of action may involve regulation of stress mediators, such as the catecholamines and proinflammatory cytokines. Prevention of stress-induced aggression and hostility were demonstrated in a series of clinical trials. This study investigates whether perceived stress is ameliorated by DHA in stressed university staff. Methods Subjects that scored ≥ 17 on the Perceived Stress Scale were randomised into a 6-week pilot intervention study. The diet reactive group was supplemented with 6 g of fish oil containing 1.5 g per day DHA, while the placebo group was supplemented with 6 g a day of olive oil. The groups were compared with each other and a wider cross sectional study population that did not receive either active or placebo intervention. Results There was a significant reduction in perceived stress in both the fish oil and the placebo group from baseline. There was also a significant between-group difference between the fish oil group and the no-treatment controls in the rate of stress reduction (p These results are discussed in the context of several methodological limitations. The significant stress reductions in both the fish oil and the placebo group are considered in view of statistical regression, an effect likely to have been exaggerated by the time course of the study, a large placebo effect and the possibility of an active effect from the placebo. Conclusion There were significant differences (p

  15. Remifentanil for labour analgesia: a double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of maternal and neonatal effects of patient-controlled analgesia versus continuous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, M K; Wu, Z F; Zhu, A B; He, L L; Shen, X F; Yang, J J; Feng, S W

    2013-03-01

    This trial aimed to compare the maternal and neonatal effects of remifentanil given by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or continuous infusion for labour analgesia. Patient controlled analgesia was administered using increasing stepwise boluses from 0.1 to 0.4 μg.kg(-1) (0.1 μg.kg(-1) increment, 2 min lockout, n = 30). Continuous infusion used rates from 0.05 to 0.2 μg.kg(-1) .min(-1) (0.05 μg.kg(-1) .min(-1) increment, n = 30). Dose increments were given on request. Women reported lowest pain scores (median (IQR [range]) of 3 (2-4 [2-5]) for PCA and 4 (3-5.25 [3-7]) for continuous infusion (p = 0.004) at 60 min after the beginning of analgesia. The mean (SD) remifentanil umbilical vein/maternal artery ratio in the PCA and infusion groups were 0.74 (0.45) vs 0.70 (0.52), respectively (p = 0.776). The mean (SD) umbilical artery/umbilical vein ratios were 0.31 (0.12) vs 0.26 (0.07), respectively (p = 0.088). Maternal and neonatal adverse reactions of remifentanil were similar between the two groups. The total remifentanil consumption (median (IQR [range]) during PCA administration was lower than continuous infusion, 1.34 (1.22-1.48 [0.89-1.69]) mg vs 1.49 (1.35-1.61 [1.12-1.70] mg; p = 0.011). The results suggest that remifentanil PCA provides better pain relief and similar placental transfer compared with continuous infusion. Anaesthesia © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Efficacy of a Russian-backbone live attenuated influenza vaccine among children in Senegal: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, John C; Lewis, Kristen D C; Diallo, Aldiouma; Niang, Mbayame N; Diarra, Bou; Dia, Ndongo; Ortiz, Justin R; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Feser, Jodi; Hoagland, Rebecca; Emery, Shannon L; Lafond, Kathryn E; Neuzil, Kathleen M

    2016-12-01

    Live attenuated influenza vaccines have been shown to significantly reduce influenza in diverse populations of children, but no efficacy studies have been done in resource-poor tropical settings. In Senegal, we assessed the efficacy and safety of a live attenuated influenza vaccine based on Russian-derived master donor viruses and licensed as a single dose. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, single-centre trial done near Niakhar, Senegal, generally healthy children aged 2-5 years were randomly allocated (2:1) to receive a single intranasal dose of masked trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine or placebo. The allocation sequence was computer-generated by PATH with block sizes of three. The manufacturer provided vaccine and placebo in coded vials to preserve blinding. Participants were monitored through the predictable influenza season in Senegal for adverse events and signs and symptoms of influenza using weekly home visits and surveillance in clinics. The primary outcome was symptomatic laboratory-confirmed influenza caused by any strain and occurring from 15 days post-vaccination to the end of the study. The primary analysis was per protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01854632. Between May 23, and July 1, 2013, 1761 children were randomly assigned, 1174 to receive live attenuated influenza vaccine and 587 to receive placebo. The per-protocol set included 1173 vaccinees and 584 placebo recipients followed up to Dec 20, 2013. Symptomatic influenza was laboratory-confirmed in 210 (18%) of 1173 recipients of live attenuated influenza vaccine and 105 (18%) of placebo recipients, giving a vaccine efficacy of 0·0% (95% CI -26·4 to 20·9). Adverse events were balanced between the study groups. Two girls who had received live attenuated influenza vaccine died, one due to anasarca 12 days postvaccination and one due to malnutrition 70 days postvaccination. Live attenuated influenza vaccine was well tolerated in

  17. Investigation of the potentiation of the analgesic effects of fentanyl by ketamine in humans: a double-blinded, randomised, placebo controlled, crossover study of experimental pain[ISRCTN83088383

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeson Raymond

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite preclinical evidence suggesting a synergistic interaction between ketamine and opioids promoting analgesia, several clinical trials have not identified dosing regimens capable of eliciting a benefit in the co-administration of ketamine with opioids. Methods Ten healthy volunteers participated in a double blinded, randomised, placebo controlled, crossover laboratory study in order to determine whether a low dose of ketamine potentiated the antinociceptive effect of fentanyl without causing an increase in sedative effects. A battery of tests was used to assess both nociception and sedation including electrical current, pressure, thermal stimuli, psychometric tests, and both subjective and objective scores of sedation. Target controlled infusions of the study drugs were used. Ketamine and fentanyl were administered alone and in combination in a double-blinded randomised crossover design. Saline was used as the control, and propofol was used to validate the tests of sedation. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were also assessed. Results The electrical current pain threshold dose response curve of fentanyl combined with ketamine was markedly steeper than the dose response curve of fentanyl alone. While a ketamine serum concentration of 30 ng/ml did not result in a change in electrical pain threshold when administered alone, when it was added to fentanyl, the combination resulted in greater increase in pain threshold than that of fentanyl administered alone. When nociception was assessed using heat and pressure stimuli, ketamine did not potentiate the anti-nociceptive effect of fentanyl. There was no difference between the sedative effect of fentanyl and fentanyl in combination with ketamine as assessed by both subjective and objective measures of sedation. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were unaffected by the study drugs at the doses given. Conclusion A serum concentration of ketamine that did not alter

  18. A prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind phase I-II clinical trial on the safety of A-Part® Gel as adhesion prophylaxis after major abdominal surgery versus non-treated group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weis Christine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postoperative adhesions occur when fibrous strands of internal scar tissue bind anatomical structures to one another. The most common cause of intra-abdominal adhesions is previous intra-abdominal surgical intervention. Up to 74% of intestinal obstructions are caused by post surgical adhesions. Although a variety of methods and agents have been investigated to prevent post surgical adhesions, the problem of peritoneal adhesions remains largely unsolved. Materials serving as an adhesion barrier are much needed. Methods/Design This is a prospective, randomised, controlled, patient blinded and observer blinded, single centre phase I-II trial, which evaluates the safety of A-Part® Gel as an adhesion prophylaxis after major abdominal wall surgery, in comparison to an untreated control group. 60 patients undergoing an elective median laparotomy without prior abdominal surgery are randomly allocated into two groups of a 1:1- ratio. Safety parameter and primary endpoint of the study is the occurrence of wound healing impairment or peritonitis within 28 (+10 days after surgery. The frequency of anastomotic leakage within 28 days after operation, occurrence of adverse and serious adverse events during hospital stay up to 3 months and the rate of adhesions along the scar within 3 months are defined as secondary endpoints. After hospital discharge the investigator will examine the enrolled patients at 28 (+10 days and 3 months (±14 days after surgery. Discussion This trial aims to assess, whether the intra-peritoneal application of A-Part® Gel is safe and efficacious in the prevention of post-surgical adhesions after median laparotomy, in comparison to untreated controls. Trial registration NCT00646412

  19. Anti-Stress, Behavioural and Magnetoencephalography Effects of an l-Theanine-Based Nutrient Drink: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. White

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available l-theanine (γ-glutamylethylamide is an amino acid found primarily in the green tea plant. This study explored the effects of an l-theanine-based nutrient drink on mood responses to a cognitive stressor. Additional measures included an assessment of cognitive performance and resting state alpha oscillatory activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Thirty-four healthy adults aged 18–40 participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover study. The primary outcome measure, subjective stress response to a multitasking cognitive stressor, was significantly reduced one hour after administration of the l-theanine drink when compared to placebo. The salivary cortisol response to the stressor was reduced three hours post-dose following active treatment. No treatment-related cognitive performance changes were observed. Resting state alpha oscillatory activity was significantly greater in posterior MEG sensors after active treatment compared to placebo two hours post-dose; however, this effect was only apparent for those higher in trait anxiety. This change in resting state alpha oscillatory activity was not correlated with the change in subjective stress response or the cortisol response, suggesting further research is required to assess the functional relevance of these treatment-related changes in resting alpha activity. These findings further support the anti-stress effects of l-theanine.

  20. Ivabradine for patients with stable coronary artery disease and left-ventricular systolic dysfunction (BEAUTIFUL): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Kim; Ford, Ian; Steg, P Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    of cardiovascular death, admission to hospital for acute myocardial infarction, and admission to hospital for new onset or worsening heart failure. We analysed patients by intention to treat. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00143507. FINDINGS: Mean heart rate at baseline was 71.6 (SD 9......, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. 5479 patients received 5 mg ivabradine, with the intention of increasing to the target dose of 7.5 mg twice a day, and 5438 received matched placebo in addition to appropriate cardiovascular medication. The primary endpoint was a composite...... the primary composite outcome (hazard ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.81-1.04, p=0.17), cardiovascular death, or admission to hospital for new-onset or worsening heart failure. However, it did reduce secondary endpoints: admission to hospital for fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction (0.64, 95% CI 0.49-0.84, p=0...

  1. Multinational, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, prospective study of esomeprazole in the prevention of recurrent peptic ulcer in low-dose acetylsalicylic acid users: the LAVENDER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Kentaro; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Lin, Jaw-Town; Goto, Shinya; Okada, Yasushi; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Miwa, Hiroto; Chiang, Chern-En; Chiba, Tsutomu; Hori, Masatsugu; Fukushima, Yasushi; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Chang, Chi-Yang; Date, Masataka

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate if esomeprazole prevents recurrent peptic ulcer in adult patients with a history of peptic ulcer receiving low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) for cardiovascular protection in East Asia. In this prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in Japan, Korea and Taiwan, eligible patients receiving low-dose ASA for cardiovascular protection (81-324 mg/day) were randomised to esomeprazole 20 mg/day or placebo for ≤72 weeks. All patients received concomitant mucosal protection (gefarnate 100 mg/day). The primary endpoint was time to ulcer recurrence (Kaplan-Meier analysis). Efficacy findings are presented up to week 48, as per a planned interim analysis within the study protocol. A total of 364 patients (79.9% men; mean age, 67.1 years) comprised the full analysis set (esomeprazole, n=182; placebo, n=182). There was a statistically significant difference in the time to ulcer recurrence between esomeprazole and placebo (HR 0.09; 96.65% CI 0.02 to 0.41; pesomeprazole) and 89.0% (placebo). The high estimated ulcer-free rate for esomeprazole was maintained through to week 48 (98.3% vs. 81.2% of placebo-treated patients). No factors, other than female gender, reduced time to ulcer recurrence in addition to the effect of esomeprazole (pesomeprazole was generally well tolerated. Daily esomeprazole 20 mg is efficacious and well tolerated in reducing the recurrence of peptic ulcer in East-Asian patients with a history of ulcers who are taking low-dose ASA for cardiovascular protection. NCT01069939. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Effect of a mixture of inulin and fructo-oligosaccharide on Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium intestinal microbiota of patients receiving radiotherapy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peris, P; Velasco, C; Lozano, M A; Moreno, Y; Paron, L; de la Cuerda, C; Bretón, I; Camblor, M; García-Hernández, J; Guarner, F; Hernández, M

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of enteritis after abdominal radiotherapy is unknown, although changes in faecal microbiota may be involved. In several studies, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have proven beneficial for the host. Prebiotics stimulate the proliferation of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and this may have positive effects on the intestinal mucosa during abdominal radiotherapy. We performed a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial including 31 patients with gynaecological cancer who received radiotherapy (29 sessions, 52.2 Gy) after surgery. Patients were randomised to two groups: prebiotic and placebo. The first group received a mixture of fibre (50% inulin and 50% fructo-oligosaccharide) and the second received 6 g of maltodextrin twice daily from one week before to three weeks after radiotherapy. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts were determined in faeces samples (day -7 before radiotherapy, day 15 of radiotherapy, at the end of treatment, and three weeks after radiotherapy) by culture in selective media and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using genus-specific probes. Bacterial counts by FISH were significantly higher than by culture method. There were no differences in baseline microbiota between groups. At the end of radiotherapy, we observed a statistically significant decrease in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts in both groups. By cultural analysis, we observed higher numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium three weeks after radiotherapy in the prebiotic group (5.6 vs. 6.3, p = 0.04 and 5.5 vs. 6 log cfu/g, p = 0.03). Abdominal radiotherapy negatively affects Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts. The prebiotic mixture of inulin and fructoligosaccharide can improve the recovery of both genera after radiotherapy. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT01549782.

  3. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial of a combined extract of sage, rosemary and melissa, traditional herbal medicines, on the enhancement of memory in normal healthy subjects, including influence of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, N S L; Menzies, R; Hodgson, F; Wedgewood, P; Howes, M-J R; Brooker, H J; Wesnes, K A; Perry, E K

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate for the first time the effects of a combination of sage, rosemary and melissa (Salvia officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.; SRM), traditional European medicines, on verbal recall in normal healthy subjects. To devise a suitable study design for assessing the clinical efficacy of traditional herbal medicines for memory and brain function. Forty-four normal healthy subjects (mean age 61 ± 9.26y SD; m/f 6/38) participated in this study. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study was performed with subjects randomised into an active and placebo group. The study consisted of a single 2-week term ethanol extract of SRM that was chemically-characterised using high resolution LC-UV-MS/MS analysis. Immediate and delayed word recall were used to assess memory after taking SRM or placebo (ethanol extract of Myrrhis odorata (L.) Scop.). In addition analysis was performed with subjects divided into younger and older subgroups (≤ 62 years mean age n = 26: SRM n = 10, Placebo n = 16; ≥ 63 years n = 19: SRM n = 13, Placebo n = 6). Overall there were no significant differences between treatment and placebo change from baseline for immediate or delayed word recall. However subgroup analysis showed significant improvements to delayed word recall in the under 63 year age group (p memory in healthy subjects under 63 years of age. Short- and long- term supplementation with SRM extract merits more robust investigation as an adjunctive treatment for patients with Alzheimer's disease and in the general ageing population. The study design proved a simple cost effective trial protocol to test the efficacy of herbal medicines on verbal episodic memory, with future studies including broader cognitive assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Protocol for a double blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial using ondansetron to reduce vomiting in children receiving intranasal fentanyl and inhaled nitrous oxide for procedural sedation in the emergency department (the FON trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux-Lamarre, Emmanuelle; Babl, Franz E; Davidson, Andrew J; Legge, Donna; Lee, Katherine J; Palmer, Greta M; Hopper, Sandy M

    2018-01-01

    Intranasal fentanyl and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) can be combined to create a non-parenteral procedural sedation regimen for children in the paediatric emergency department. This combination of intranasal fentanyl and N 2 O provides effective pain relief for more painful procedures, but is associated with a higher incidence of vomiting than N 2 O alone. Our aim is to assess whether ondansetron used preventatively reduces the incidence of vomiting associated with intranasal fentanyl and N 2 O for procedural sedation compared with placebo. This study is a double blind, randomised placebo-controlled superiority trial. This is a single-centre trial of 442 children aged 3-18 years presenting to a tertiary care Paediatric Emergency Department at the Royal Children's Hospital (RCH), Melbourne, Australia, requiring procedural sedation with intranasal fentanyl and N 2 O. After written consent, eligible participants are randomised to receive ondansetron or placebo along with intranasal fentanyl, 30-60 min prior to N 2 O administration. The primary outcome is vomiting during or up to 1 hour after procedural sedation. Secondary outcomes include: number of vomits and retching during procedural sedation, vomiting 1-24 hours after procedural sedation, procedural sedation duration and associated adverse events, procedure abandonment, parental satisfaction and the value parents place on the prevention of vomiting. This trial will allow refinement of a non-parenteral sedation regimen for children requiring painful procedures. This study has ethics approval at the RCH, Melbourne, protocol number 36174. The results from this trial will be submitted to conferences and published in a peer-reviewed journal. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12616001213437).

  5. Effect of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on defecation frequency in healthy subjects with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskesen, Dorte; Jespersen, Lillian; Michelsen, Birgit; Whorwell, Peter J; Müller-Lissner, Stefan; Morberg, Cathrine M

    2015-11-28

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on two primary end points - defecation frequency and gastrointestinal (GI) well-being - in healthy adults with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort. A total of 1248 subjects were included in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomised to 1 or 10 billion colony-forming units/d of the probiotic strain BB-12® or a matching placebo capsule once daily for 4 weeks. Subjects completed a diary on bowel habits, relief of abdominal discomfort and symptoms. GI well-being, defined as global relief of abdominal discomfort, did not show significant differences. The OR for having a defecation frequency above baseline for ≥50% of the time was 1·31 (95% CI 0·98, 1·75), P=0·071, for probiotic treatment overall. Tightening the criteria for being a responder to an increase of ≥1 d/week for ≥50 % of the time resulted in an OR of 1·55 (95% CI 1·22, 1·96), P=0·0003, for treatment overall. A treatment effect on average defecation frequency was found (P=0·0065), with the frequency being significantly higher compared with placebo at all weeks for probiotic treatment overall (all Pprobiotic strain BB-12® resulted in a clinically relevant benefit on defecation frequency. The results suggest that consumption of BB-12® improves the GI health of individuals whose symptoms are not sufficiently severe to consult a doctor (ISRCTN18128385).

  6. GAME (Goals - Activity - Motor Enrichment): protocol of a single blind randomised controlled trial of motor training, parent education and environmental enrichment for infants at high risk of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Catherine; Novak, Iona; Dale, Russell C; Guzzetta, Andrea; Badawi, Nadia

    2014-10-07

    Cerebral palsy is the most common physical disability of childhood and early detection is possible using evidence based assessments. Systematic reviews indicate early intervention trials rarely demonstrate efficacy for improving motor outcomes but environmental enrichment interventions appear promising. This study is built on a previous pilot study and has been designed to assess the effectiveness of a goal - oriented motor training and enrichment intervention programme, "GAME", on the motor outcomes of infants at very high risk of cerebral palsy (CP) compared with standard community based care. A two group, single blind randomised controlled trial (n = 30) will be conducted. Eligible infants are those diagnosed with CP or designated "at high risk of CP" on the basis of the General Movements Assessment and/or abnormal neuroimaging. A physiotherapist and occupational therapist will deliver home-based GAME intervention at least fortnightly until the infant's first birthday. The intervention aims to optimize motor function and engage parents in developmental activities aimed at enriching the home learning environment. Primary endpoint measures will be taken 16 weeks after intervention commences with the secondary endpoint at 12 months and 24 months corrected age. The primary outcome measure will be the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale second edition. Secondary outcomes measures include the Gross Motor Function Measure, Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale, and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Parent well-being will be monitored using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. This paper presents the background, design and intervention protocol of a randomised trial of a goal driven, motor learning approach with customised environmental interventions and parental education for young infants at high risk of cerebral palsy. This trial is registered on the Australian

  7. A randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled cross-over study to determine the gastrointestinal effects of consumption of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides enriched bread in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Gemma E; Lu, Congyi; Trogh, Isabel; Arnaut, Filip; Gibson, Glenn R

    2012-06-01

    Prebiotics are food ingredients, usually non-digestible oligosaccharides, that are selectively fermented by populations of beneficial gut bacteria. Endoxylanases, altering the naturally present cereal arabinoxylans, are commonly used in the bread industry to improve dough and bread characteristics. Recently, an in situ method has been developed to produce arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) at high levels in breads through the use of a thermophilic endoxylanase. AXOS have demonstrated potentially prebiotic properties in that they have been observed to lead to beneficial shifts in the microbiota in vitro and in murine, poultry and human studies. A double-blind, placebo controlled human intervention study was undertaken with 40 healthy adult volunteers to assess the impact of consumption of breads with in situ produced AXOS (containing 2.2 g AXOS) compared to non-endoxylanase treated breads. Volatile fatty acid concentrations in faeces were assessed and fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used to assess changes in gut microbial groups. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels in saliva were also measured. Consumption of AXOS-enriched breads led to increased faecal butyrate and a trend for reduced iso-valerate and fatty acids associated with protein fermentation. Faecal levels of bifidobacteria increased following initial control breads and remained elevated throughout the study. Lactobacilli levels were elevated following both placebo and AXOS-breads. No changes in salivary secretory IgA levels were observed during the study. Furthermore, no adverse effects on gastrointestinal symptoms were reported during AXOS-bread intake. AXOS-breads led to a potentially beneficial shift in fermentation end products and are well tolerated.

  8. A randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled cross-over study to determine the gastrointestinal effects of consumption of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides enriched bread in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walton Gemma E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prebiotics are food ingredients, usually non-digestible oligosaccharides, that are selectively fermented by populations of beneficial gut bacteria. Endoxylanases, altering the naturally present cereal arabinoxylans, are commonly used in the bread industry to improve dough and bread characteristics. Recently, an in situ method has been developed to produce arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS at high levels in breads through the use of a thermophilic endoxylanase. AXOS have demonstrated potentially prebiotic properties in that they have been observed to lead to beneficial shifts in the microbiota in vitro and in murine, poultry and human studies. Methods A double-blind, placebo controlled human intervention study was undertaken with 40 healthy adult volunteers to assess the impact of consumption of breads with in situ produced AXOS (containing 2.2 g AXOS compared to non-endoxylanase treated breads. Volatile fatty acid concentrations in faeces were assessed and fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used to assess changes in gut microbial groups. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA levels in saliva were also measured. Results Consumption of AXOS-enriched breads led to increased faecal butyrate and a trend for reduced iso-valerate and fatty acids associated with protein fermentation. Faecal levels of bifidobacteria increased following initial control breads and remained elevated throughout the study. Lactobacilli levels were elevated following both placebo and AXOS-breads. No changes in salivary secretory IgA levels were observed during the study. Furthermore, no adverse effects on gastrointestinal symptoms were reported during AXOS-bread intake. Conclusions AXOS-breads led to a potentially beneficial shift in fermentation end products and are well tolerated.

  9. Bupropion for the treatment of apathy in Huntington’s disease: A multicenter, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective crossover trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderblom, Harald; Wüstenberg, Torsten; McLean, Tim; Mütze, Lisanne; Fischer, Wilhelm; Saft, Carsten; Hoffmann, Rainer; Süssmuth, Sigurd; Schlattmann, Peter; van Duijn, Erik; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Priller, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bupropion in the treatment of apathy in Huntington’s disease (HD). Methods In this phase 2b multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, individuals with HD and clinical signs of apathy according to the Structured Clinical Interview for Apathy—Dementia (SCIA-D), but not depression (n = 40) were randomized to receive either bupropion 150/300mg or placebo daily for 10 weeks. The primary outcome parameter was a significant change of the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) score after ten weeks of treatment as judged by an informant (AES-I) living in close proximity with the study participant. The secondary outcome parameters included changes of 1. AES scores determined by the patient (AES-S) or the clinical investigator (AES-C), 2. psychiatric symptoms (NPI, HADS-SIS, UHDRS-Behavior), 3. cognitive performance (SDMT, Stroop, VFT, MMSE), 4. motor symptoms (UHDRS-Motor), 5. activities of daily function (TFC, UHDRS-Function), and 6. caregiver distress (NPI-D). In addition, we investigated the effect of bupropion on brain structure as well as brain responses and functional connectivity during reward processing in a gambling task using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results At baseline, there were no significant treatment group differences in the clinical primary and secondary outcome parameters. At endpoint, there was no statistically significant difference between treatment groups for all clinical primary and secondary outcome variables. Study participation, irrespective of the intervention, lessened symptoms of apathy according to the informant and the clinical investigator. Conclusion Bupropion does not alleviate apathy in HD. However, study participation/placebo effects were observed, which document the need for carefully controlled trials when investigating therapeutic interventions for the neuropsychiatric symptoms of HD. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov 01914965 PMID:28323838

  10. Bupropion for the treatment of apathy in Huntington's disease: A multicenter, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderblom, Harald; Wüstenberg, Torsten; McLean, Tim; Mütze, Lisanne; Fischer, Wilhelm; Saft, Carsten; Hoffmann, Rainer; Süssmuth, Sigurd; Schlattmann, Peter; van Duijn, Erik; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Priller, Josef

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bupropion in the treatment of apathy in Huntington's disease (HD). In this phase 2b multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, individuals with HD and clinical signs of apathy according to the Structured Clinical Interview for Apathy-Dementia (SCIA-D), but not depression (n = 40) were randomized to receive either bupropion 150/300mg or placebo daily for 10 weeks. The primary outcome parameter was a significant change of the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) score after ten weeks of treatment as judged by an informant (AES-I) living in close proximity with the study participant. The secondary outcome parameters included changes of 1. AES scores determined by the patient (AES-S) or the clinical investigator (AES-C), 2. psychiatric symptoms (NPI, HADS-SIS, UHDRS-Behavior), 3. cognitive performance (SDMT, Stroop, VFT, MMSE), 4. motor symptoms (UHDRS-Motor), 5. activities of daily function (TFC, UHDRS-Function), and 6. caregiver distress (NPI-D). In addition, we investigated the effect of bupropion on brain structure as well as brain responses and functional connectivity during reward processing in a gambling task using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At baseline, there were no significant treatment group differences in the clinical primary and secondary outcome parameters. At endpoint, there was no statistically significant difference between treatment groups for all clinical primary and secondary outcome variables. Study participation, irrespective of the intervention, lessened symptoms of apathy according to the informant and the clinical investigator. Bupropion does not alleviate apathy in HD. However, study participation/placebo effects were observed, which document the need for carefully controlled trials when investigating therapeutic interventions for the neuropsychiatric symptoms of HD. ClinicalTrials.gov 01914965.

  11. Bupropion for the treatment of apathy in Huntington's disease: A multicenter, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Gelderblom

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bupropion in the treatment of apathy in Huntington's disease (HD.In this phase 2b multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, individuals with HD and clinical signs of apathy according to the Structured Clinical Interview for Apathy-Dementia (SCIA-D, but not depression (n = 40 were randomized to receive either bupropion 150/300mg or placebo daily for 10 weeks. The primary outcome parameter was a significant change of the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES score after ten weeks of treatment as judged by an informant (AES-I living in close proximity with the study participant. The secondary outcome parameters included changes of 1. AES scores determined by the patient (AES-S or the clinical investigator (AES-C, 2. psychiatric symptoms (NPI, HADS-SIS, UHDRS-Behavior, 3. cognitive performance (SDMT, Stroop, VFT, MMSE, 4. motor symptoms (UHDRS-Motor, 5. activities of daily function (TFC, UHDRS-Function, and 6. caregiver distress (NPI-D. In addition, we investigated the effect of bupropion on brain structure as well as brain responses and functional connectivity during reward processing in a gambling task using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.At baseline, there were no significant treatment group differences in the clinical primary and secondary outcome parameters. At endpoint, there was no statistically significant difference between treatment groups for all clinical primary and secondary outcome variables. Study participation, irrespective of the intervention, lessened symptoms of apathy according to the informant and the clinical investigator.Bupropion does not alleviate apathy in HD. However, study participation/placebo effects were observed, which document the need for carefully controlled trials when investigating therapeutic interventions for the neuropsychiatric symptoms of HD.ClinicalTrials.gov 01914965.

  12. Imaging pain relief in osteoarthritis (IPRO): protocol of a double-blind randomised controlled mechanistic study assessing pain relief and prediction of duloxetine treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckziegel, Diane; Bailey, Helen; Cottam, William J; Tench, Christopher R; Mahajan, Ravi P; Walsh, David A; Knaggs, Roger D; Auer, Dorothee P

    2017-06-26

    Osteoarthritis (OA) pain is a major cause of long-term disability and chronic pain in the adult population. One in five patients does not receive satisfactory pain relief, which reflects the complexity of chronic pain and the current lack of understanding of mechanisms of chronic pain. Recently, duloxetine has demonstrated clinically relevant pain relief, but only in half of treated patients with OA. Here, the aim is to investigate the neural mechanisms of pain relief and neural signatures that may predict treatment response to duloxetine in chronic knee OA pain. This is an ongoing single-centre randomised placebo-controlled mechanistic study (2:1 (placebo) allocation), using a multimodal neuroimaging approach, together with psychophysiological (quantitative sensory testing), genetics and questionnaire assessments. Eighty-one subjects with chronic knee OA pain are planned to power for between-group comparisons (placebo, duloxetine responder and duloxetine non-responder). Participants have a baseline assessment and, following 6 weeks of duloxetine (30 mg for 2 weeks, then 60 mg for 4 weeks), a follow-up evaluation. Brain imaging is performed at 3T with blood-oxygen-level dependent functional MRI at rest and during pin-prick nociceptive stimulation for main outcome assessment; arterial spin labelling and structural imaging (T1-weighted) for secondary outcome assessment. Questionnaires evaluate pain, negative affect, quality of sleep and cognition. The study has been approved by the East Midlands, Nottingham and is being carried out under the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (64th, 2013) and Good Clinical Practice standards. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific conferences. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02208778).This work was supported by Arthritis Research UK (Grant 18769). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  13. [Intravenous iron, functional recovery and delirium in patients with hip fracture. FEDEREF study. Single-centre randomised, placebo-controlled, and double-blind clinical trial. 2014-001923-53: EudraCT number].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza Galindo, Rafael; Llorente Gutiérrez, Jesús; Pérez González, José Luis; Mora Casado, Asunción; Blanco Díaz, David; Escalera Alonso, Javier; Morales Fernández, Adoración; Molano Ortiz, Cristina; García López, Beredys Esmirla; Del Amo Del Arco, Nazaret; Barro Ordovas, Juan Pablo; Arias Muñana, Estefanía; Neira Álvarez, Marta; Sanz Rosa, David; Gómez Cerezo, Jorge Fco

    There are no previous studies evaluating the effect of intravenous iron therapy on functional and cognitive status of patients with hip fracture (HF). A single-centre randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind and parallel treatment, clinical trial has been designed to assess the efficacy of intravenous iron therapy during the peri-operative period in elderly patients suffering from a HF. Blinding will be ensured by the packaging of the drug infusion system. On days 1, 3, and 5 from admission, the intervention group will receive 200mg Venofer® (iron sucrose) diluted in 100ml saline, and the control group 100ml saline, also on days 1, 3 and 5. Patients will received conventional treatment in ortho-geriatric unit of the Hospital Infanta Sofia. Functional variables (activities of daily living and walking), cognitive (cognitive status and delirium), surgical, demographic and clinical characteristics will be collected during admission in order to assess the impact of treatment. A safety analysis of the treatment will also performed. Patients will be followed-up at 3, 6, and 12 months. The study will attempt to provide evidence on the impact of the intravenous iron administration on functional recovery. It will be determined whether iron therapy negatively affects the incidence of post-operative delirium. Finally, report will be presented on the safety data of intravenous iron in elderly HF patients, as well as the impact on allogenic blood transfusion savings. The inclusion of elderly HF patients admitted to an ortho-geriatric unit, in a clinical trial, will help to improve the knowledge of the treatment impact on a usual scenario, and provide useful data for use in other units. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of mepolizumab add-on therapy on health-related quality of life and markers of asthma control in severe eosinophilic asthma (MUSCA): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicentre, phase 3b trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, Geoffrey L; Bradford, Eric S; Albers, Frank C; Bratton, Daniel J; Wang-Jairaj, Jie; Nelsen, Linda M; Trevor, Jennifer L; Magnan, Antoine; Ten Brinke, Anneke

    2017-05-01

    Mepolizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody approved as add-on therapy to standard of care for patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, has been shown in previous studies to reduce exacerbations and dependency on oral corticosteroids compared with placebo. We aimed to further assess mepolizumab in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma by examining its effect on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicentre, phase 3b trial (MUSCA) in 146 hospitals or research centres in 19 countries worldwide. Eligible participants were patients aged 12 years or older with severe eosinophilic asthma and a history of at least two exacerbations requiring treatment in the previous 12 months before screening despite regular use of high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus other controller medicines. Exclusion criteria included current smokers or former smokers with a history of at least ten pack-years. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) by country to receive a subcutaneous injection of either mepolizumab 100 mg or placebo, plus standard of care, every 4 weeks for 24 weeks (the final dose was given at week 20). We did the randomisation using an interactive voice response system and a centralised, computer-generated, permuted-block design of block size six. The two treatments were identical in appearance and administered in a masked manner; patients, investigators, other site staff and the entire study team including those assessing outcomes data were also masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was the mean change from baseline in the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score at week 24 in the modified intention-to-treat (modified ITT) population (analysed according to their randomly assigned treatment). Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of trial medication (analysed according to the actual treatment received). This trial is registered

  15. Acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindocha, Chandni; Freeman, Tom P; Schafer, Grainne; Gardener, Chelsea; Das, Ravi K; Morgan, Celia J A; Curran, H Valerie

    2015-03-01

    Acute administration of the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), impairs human facial affect recognition, implicating the endocannabinoid system in emotional processing. Another main constituent of cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), has seemingly opposite functional effects on the brain. This study aimed to determine the effects of THC and CBD, both alone and in combination on emotional facial affect recognition. 48 volunteers, selected for high and low frequency of cannabis use and schizotypy, were administered, THC (8mg), CBD (16mg), THC+CBD (8mg+16mg) and placebo, by inhalation, in a 4-way, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. They completed an emotional facial affect recognition task including fearful, angry, happy, sad, surprise and disgust faces varying in intensity from 20% to 100%. A visual analogue scale (VAS) of feeling 'stoned' was also completed. In comparison to placebo, CBD improved emotional facial affect recognition at 60% emotional intensity; THC was detrimental to the recognition of ambiguous faces of 40% intensity. The combination of THC+CBD produced no impairment. Relative to placebo, both THC alone and combined THC+CBD equally increased feelings of being 'stoned'. CBD did not influence feelings of 'stoned'. No effects of frequency of use or schizotypy were found. In conclusion, CBD improves recognition of emotional facial affect and attenuates the impairment induced by THC. This is the first human study examining the effects of different cannabinoids on emotional processing. It provides preliminary evidence that different pharmacological agents acting upon the endocannabinoid system can both improve and impair recognition of emotional faces. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinalis and Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus Extract Supplementation on Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomised, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Giacosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Functional dyspepsia (FD is a frequent clinical finding in western world. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of a ginger and artichoke supplementation versus placebo in the treatment of FD. Methods. A prospective multicentre, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group comparison of the supplement and placebo over a period of 4 weeks was performed. Two capsules/day were supplied (before lunch and dinner to 126 FD patients (supplementation/placebo: 65/61. Results. After 14 days of treatment, only supplementation group (SG showed a significant amelioration (SG: αS=+1.195 MCA score units (u, P=0.017; placebo: αP=+0.347 u, P=0.513. The intercept (α resulted to be significantly higher in SG than in placebo (αS-αP=+0.848 u, P<0.001. At the end of the study, the advantage of SG versus placebo persists without variation (βS-βP=+0.077 u, P=0.542. In SG, a significant advantage is observed for nausea (βS-βP=-0.398 u, P<0.001, epigastric fullness (βS-βP=-0.241, P<0.001, epigastric pain (βS-βP=-0.173 u, P=0.002, and bloating (βS-βP=-0.167 u, P=0.017. Conclusions. The association between ginger and artichoke leaf extracts appears safe and efficacious in the treatment of FD and could represent a promising treatment for this disease.

  17. Beneficial effects of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on academic stress-induced sleep disturbance in healthy adults: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, M; Nishida, K; Gondo, Y; Kikuchi-Hayakawa, H; Ishikawa, H; Suda, K; Kawai, M; Hoshi, R; Kuwano, Y; Miyazaki, K; Rokutan, K

    2017-04-26

    The present study examined whether Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) improves sleep quality under psychological stress. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in healthy 4 th year medical students exposed to academic examination stress. The trial was repeated over two consecutive years in different groups of students, and the data were pooled. For 8 weeks prior to and 3 weeks after a national standardised examination, a total of 48 and 46 subjects received a daily dose of 100 ml of LcS-fermented milk or non-fermented placebo milk, respectively. Study measures included subjective anxiety, overnight single-channel electroencephalography (EEG) recordings, and the Oguri-Shirakawa-Azumi (OSA) sleep inventory scores of subjective sleep quality. Total OSA scores were significantly lower than baseline on the day before the exam and recovered after the exam, indicating a stress-induced decline in sleep quality. There was a significant positive effect of LcS treatment on OSA factors for sleepiness on rising and sleep length. Sleep latency measured by EEG lengthened as the exam approached in the placebo group but was significantly suppressed in the LcS group. The percentage of stage 3 non-REM (N3) sleep decreased in the placebo group as the exam approached, whereas it was maintained in the LcS group throughout the trial. Delta power during the first sleep cycle, measured as an index of sleep intensity, increased as the exam approached in the LcS group and was significantly higher than in the placebo group. These findings suggest that daily consumption of LcS may help to maintain sleep quality during a period of increasing stress. The observed retention of N3 sleep and increased delta power in the LcS group may have contributed to higher perceived sleep satisfaction.

  18. Preliminary aggregate safety and immunogenicity results from three trials of a purified inactivated Zika virus vaccine candidate: phase 1, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modjarrad, Kayvon; Lin, Leyi; George, Sarah L; Stephenson, Kathryn E; Eckels, Kenneth H; De La Barrera, Rafael A; Jarman, Richard G; Sondergaard, Erica; Tennant, Janice; Ansel, Jessica L; Mills, Kristin; Koren, Michael; Robb, Merlin L; Barrett, Jill; Thompson, Jason; Kosel, Alison E; Dawson, Peter; Hale, Andrew; Tan, C Sabrina; Walsh, Stephen R; Meyer, Keith E; Brien, James; Crowell, Trevor A; Blazevic, Azra; Mosby, Karla; Larocca, Rafael A; Abbink, Peter; Boyd, Michael; Bricault, Christine A; Seaman, Michael S; Basil, Anne; Walsh, Melissa; Tonwe, Veronica; Hoft, Daniel F; Thomas, Stephen J; Barouch, Dan H; Michael, Nelson L

    2017-12-04

    A safe, effective, and rapidly scalable vaccine against Zika virus infection is needed. We developed a purified formalin-inactivated Zika virus vaccine (ZPIV) candidate that showed protection in mice and non-human primates against viraemia after Zika virus challenge. Here we present the preliminary results in human beings. We did three phase 1, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials of ZPIV with aluminium hydroxide adjuvant. In all three studies, healthy adults were randomly assigned by a computer-generated list to receive 5 μg ZPIV or saline placebo, in a ratio of 4:1 at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA, or of 5:1 at Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO, USA, and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA. Vaccinations were given intramuscularly on days 1 and 29. The primary objective was safety and immunogenicity of the ZPIV candidate. We recorded adverse events and Zika virus envelope microneutralisation titres up to day 57. These trials are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT02963909, NCT02952833, and NCT02937233. We enrolled 68 participants between Nov 7, 2016, and Jan 25, 2017. One was excluded and 67 participants received two injections of Zika vaccine (n=55) or placebo (n=12). The vaccine caused only mild to moderate adverse events. The most frequent local effects were pain (n=40 [60%]) or tenderness (n=32 [47%]) at the injection site, and the most frequent systemic reactogenic events were fatigue (29 [43%]), headache (26 [39%]), and malaise (15 [22%]). By day 57, 52 (92%) of vaccine recipients had seroconverted (microneutralisation titre ≥1:10), with peak geometric mean titres seen at day 43 and exceeding protective thresholds seen in animal studies. The ZPIV candidate was well tolerated and elicited robust neutralising antibody titres in healthy adults. Departments of the Army and Defense and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Standardised high dose versus low dose cranberry Proanthocyanidin extracts for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in healthy women [PACCANN]: a double blind randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, Babar; Vicky, Leblanc; Stephanie, Dudonne; Yves, Desjardins; Amy, Howell; Sylvie, Dodin

    2018-05-02

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common bacterial infections affecting women. Although antibiotics are the treatment of choice for UTI, cranberry derived products have been used for many years to prevent UTIs, with limited evidence as to their efficacy. Our objective is to assess the efficacy of a cranberry extract capsule standardized in A-type linkage proanthocyanidins (PACs) for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection. We will perform a 1:1 randomized, controlled, double blind clinical trial in women aged 18 years or more who present ≥2 UTIs in 6 months or ≥ 3 UTIs in 12 months. One hundred and forty-eight women will be recruited and randomized in two groups to either receive an optimal dose of cranberry extract quantified and standardized in PACs (2 × 18.5 mg PACs per day) or a control dose (2 × 1 mg PACs per day). The primary outcome for the trial is the mean number of new symptomatic UTIs in women during a 6-month intervention period. Secondary outcomes are: (1) To evaluate the mean number of new symptomatic UTIs with pyuria as demonstrated by a positive leucocyte esterase test; (2) To detect the mean number of new symptomatic culture-confirmed UTIs; (3) To quantify urinary PACs metabolites in women who take a daily dose of 37 mg PACs per day compared to women who take a daily dose of 2 mg per day for 6 months; (4) To characterize women who present recurrent UTI based on known risk factors for recurrent UTI; (5) To describe the side effects of daily intake of cranberry extract containing 37 mg PACs compared to 2 mg PACs. This report provides comprehensive methodological data for this randomized controlled trial. The results of this trial will inform urologists, gynaecologists, family physicians and other healthcare professionals caring for healthy women with recurrent UTI, as to the benefits of daily use of an optimal dose of cranberry extract for the prevention of recurrent UTI. Clinicaltrials

  20. Social recovery therapy in combination with early intervention services for enhancement of social recovery in patients with first-episode psychosis (SUPEREDEN3): a single-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David; Hodgekins, Jo; French, Paul; Marshall, Max; Freemantle, Nick; McCrone, Paul; Everard, Linda; Lavis, Anna; Jones, Peter B; Amos, Tim; Singh, Swaran; Sharma, Vimal; Birchwood, Max

    2018-01-01

    Provision of early intervention services has increased the rate of social recovery in patients with first-episode psychosis; however, many individuals have continuing severe and persistent problems with social functioning. We aimed to assess the efficacy of early intervention services augmented with social recovery therapy in patients with first-episode psychosis. The primary hypothesis was that social recovery therapy plus early intervention services would lead to improvements in social recovery. We did this single-blind, phase 2, randomised controlled trial (SUPEREDEN3) at four specialist early intervention services in the UK. We included participants who were aged 16-35 years, had non-affective psychosis, had been clients of early intervention services for 12-30 months, and had persistent and severe social disability, defined as engagement in less than 30 h per week of structured activity. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated randomisation with permuted blocks (sizes of four to six), to receive social recovery therapy plus early intervention services or early intervention services alone. Randomisation was stratified by sex and recruitment centre (Norfolk, Birmingham, Lancashire, and Sussex). By necessity, participants were not masked to group allocation, but allocation was concealed from outcome assessors. The primary outcome was time spent in structured activity at 9 months, as measured by the Time Use Survey. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN61621571. Between Oct 1, 2012, and June 20, 2014, we randomly assigned 155 participants to receive social recovery therapy plus early intervention services (n=76) or early intervention services alone (n=79); the intention-to-treat population comprised 154 patients. At 9 months, 143 (93%) participants had data for the primary outcome. Social recovery therapy plus early intervention services was associated with an increase in structured

  1. Safety, immunogenicity, and tolerability of meningococcal serogroup B bivalent recombinant lipoprotein 2086 vaccine in healthy adolescents: a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Peter C; Marshall, Helen S; Nissen, Michael D; Jiang, Qin; Jansen, Kathrin U; Garcés-Sánchez, Maria; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Beeslaar, Johannes; Szenborn, Leszek; Wysocki, Jacek; Eiden, Joseph; Harris, Shannon L; Jones, Thomas R; Perez, John L

    2012-08-01

    Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B is a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease, but a broadly protective vaccine is not currently licensed. A bivalent recombinant factor H-binding protein vaccine (recombinant lipoprotein 2086) has been developed to provide broad coverage against diverse invasive meningococcus serogroup B strains. Our aim was to test the immune response of this vaccine. This randomised, placebo-controlled trial enrolled healthy adolescents from 25 sites in Australia, Poland, and Spain. Exclusion criteria were previous invasive meningococcal disease or serogroup B vaccination, previous adverse reaction or known hypersensitivity to the vaccine, any significant comorbidities, and immunosuppressive therapy or receipt of blood products in the past 6 months. Participants were randomly assigned with a computerised block randomisation scheme to receive ascending doses of vaccine (60, 120, or 200 μg) or placebo at 0, 2, and 6 months. Principal investigators, participants and their guardians, and laboratory personnel were masked to the allocation; dispensing staff were not. Immunogenicity was measured by serum bactericidal assays using human complement (hSBA) against eight diverse meningococcus serogroup B strains. The co-primary endpoints were seroconversion for the two indicator strains (PMB1745 and PMB17) analysed by the Clopper-Pearson method. Local and systemic reactions and adverse events were recorded. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00808028. 539 participants were enrolled and 511 received all three study vaccinations--116 in the placebo group, 21 in the 60 μg group, 191 in the 120 μg group, and 183 in the 200 μg group. The proportion of participants responding with an hSBA titre equal to or greater than the lower limit of quantitation of the hSBA assays (reciprcocal titres of 7 to 18, depending on test strain) was similar for the two largest doses and ranged from 75·6 to 100·0% for the 120 μg dose and 67·9 to

  2. Can cognitive enhancers reduce the risk of falls in older people with Mild Cognitive Impairment? A protocol for a randomised controlled double blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells Jennie L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults with cognitive problems have a higher risk of falls, at least twice that of cognitively normal older adults. The consequences of falls in this population are very serious: fallers with cognitive problems suffer more injuries due to falls and are approximately five times more likely to be admitted to institutional care. Although the mechanisms of increased fall risk in cognitively impaired people are not completely understood, it is known that impaired cognitive abilities can reduce attentional resource allocation while walking. Since cognitive enhancers, such as cholinesterase inhibitors, improve attention and executive function, we hypothesise that cognitive enhancers may reduce fall risk in elderly people in the early stages of cognitive decline by improving their gait and balance performance due to an enhancement in attention and executive function. Method/Design Double blinded randomized controlled trial with 6 months follow-up in 140 older individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. Participants will be randomized to the intervention group, receiving donepezil, and to the control group, receiving placebo. A block randomization by four and stratification based on fall history will be performed. Primary outcomes are improvements in gait velocity and reduction in gait variability. Secondary outcomes are changes in the balance confidence, balance sway, attention, executive function, and number of falls. Discussion By characterizing and understanding the effects of cognitive enhancers on fall risk in older adults with cognitive impairments, we will be able to pave the way for a new approach to fall prevention in this population. This RCT study will provide, for the first time, information regarding the effect of a medication designed to augment cognitive functioning have on the risk of falls in older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment. We expect a significant reduction in the risk of falls in this

  3. Comparison of oxygen uptake during cycle ergometry with and without functional electrical stimulation in patients with COPD: protocol for a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrinal, Clément; Prieur, Guillaume; Debeaumont, David; Robledo Quesada, Aurora; Combret, Yann; Quieffin, Jean; Contal, Olivier; Lamia, Bouchra

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has systemic repercussions that can lead to peripheral muscle dysfunction. Muscle atrophy reduces aerobic capacity, greatly limiting activities of daily living and quality of life. Pulmonary rehabilitation is the gold standard treatment for these patients, however, patients may not be able to reach sufficient training intensities for benefits to occur. Technologies such as functional electrical stimulation (FES) are currently being adapted and tested to enhance exercise training. We hypothesise that FES coupled with cycling (FES-cycling) will improve maximal uptake of oxygen (VO2) and aerobic capacity more than endurance training with placebo stimulation. A randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial will be carried out to evaluate the effects of FES-cycling on VO2 during endurance exercise on a cycle ergometer in patients with COPD. 25 patients with COPD will carry out two 30 min sessions at a constant load; one session with active and one with placebo FES. The primary outcome is oxygen uptake recorded with a metabolic measurement system. Secondary outcomes include ventilation equivalent for oxygen, ventilation equivalent for carbon dioxide, cardiac output, lactate values, perceived dyspnoea and perceived muscle fatigue. Approval has been granted by our Institutional Review Board (Comité de Protection des Personnes Nord-Ouest 3). The results of the trial will be presented at national and international meetings and published in peer-reviewed journals. NCT02594722.

  4. The efficacy of pre-operative oral medication of lornoxicam and diclofenac potassium on the success of inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with irreversible pulpitis: a double-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, N; Subbarao, C V; Gutmann, J L

    2011-04-01

    To determine the effect of administration of pre-operative lornoxicam (LNX) or diclofenac potassium (DP) on the success of inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB) in patients with irreversible pulpitis in a double-blind randomised controlled trial. One hundred and fourteen patients with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth participated. Patients indicated their pain scores on a Heft Parker visual analogue scale, after which they were randomly divided into three groups (n = 38). The subjects received identical capsules containing 8 mg LNX, 50 mg DP or cellulose powder (placebo, PLAC), 1 h before administration of IANB with 2% lidocaine containing 1 : 200 000 epinephrine. Lip numbness was assessed after 15 min, following which the teeth were tested with cold spray and their responses (negative or positive) were recorded. Access cavities were then prepared and success of IANB was defined as the absence of pain during access preparation and root canal instrumentation. The data were analysed using chi-squared tests. The percentages of teeth giving a negative response to cold test were 42.8% (PLAC), 78.5% (LNX) and 67.8% (DP), with no significant differences amongst the groups (P > 0.05). The success rates for the IANB in descending order were 71.4% (LNX), 53.5% (DP) and 28.5 (PLAC). A significant (P irreversible pulpitis, whilst the effect of pre-medication with DP was not significantly different from the PLAC.

  5. Habitual dietary fibre intake influences gut microbiota response to an inulin-type fructan prebiotic: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Genelle; Murphy, Rinki; Butts, Christine; Brough, Louise; Whelan, Kevin; Coad, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Dysbiotic gut microbiota have been implicated in human disease. Diet-based therapeutic strategies have been used to manipulate the gut microbiota towards a more favourable profile. However, it has been demonstrated that large inter-individual variability exists in gut microbiota response to a dietary intervention. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether habitually low dietary fibre (LDF) v. high dietary fibre (HDF) intakes influence gut microbiota response to an inulin-type fructan prebiotic. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, thirty-four healthy participants were classified as LDF or HDF consumers. Gut microbiota composition (16S rRNA bacterial gene sequencing) and SCFA concentrations were assessed following 3 weeks of daily prebiotic supplementation (Orafti® Synergy 1; 16 g/d) or placebo (Glucidex® 29 Premium; 16 g/d), as well as after 3 weeks of the alternative intervention, following a 3-week washout period. In the LDF group, the prebiotic intervention led to an increase in Bifidobacterium (P=0·001). In the HDF group, the prebiotic intervention led to an increase in Bifidobacterium (Pinulin-type fructan prebiotic than those with LDF intakes. Future studies aiming to modulate the gut microbiota and improve host health, using an inulin-type fructan prebiotic, should take habitual dietary fibre intake into account.

  6. Efficacy of a comfrey root (Symphyti offic. radix) extract ointment in the treatment of patients with painful osteoarthritis of the knee: results of a double-blind, randomised, bicenter, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, B; Grünwald, J; Krug, L; Staiger, C

    2007-01-01

    This randomised, double-blind, bicenter, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigated the effect of a daily application of 6g Kytta-Salbe f (3 x 2 g) over a 3 week period with patients suffering from painful osteoarthritis of the knee. The two hundred and twenty patients examined consisted of 153 women and 67 men of an average age of 57.9 years. On average, the complaints relating to osteoarthritis of the knee had persisted for 6.5 years. Two hundred and twenty patients were included in the Full Analysis Set (FAS) and safety collective, 186 (84.5%) in the Valid Case Analysis Set (VCAS) collective. In the course of the trial, the visual analog scale (VAS) total score (primary target value) in the verum group dropped by 51.6 mm (54.7%) and in the placebo group by 10.1 mm (10.7%). The average difference between the groups of 41.5 mm (95% confidence interval=34.8 to 48.2 mm) or 44.0% is significant (pcomfrey root extract ointment is well suited for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Pain is reduced, mobility of the knee improved and quality of life increased.

  7. Protocol for the Smoking, Nicotine and Pregnancy (SNAP trial: double-blind, placebo-randomised, controlled trial of nicotine replacement therapy in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coughtrie Michael WH

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking in pregnancy remains a public health challenge. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT is effective for smoking cessation in non-pregnant people, but because women metabolise nicotine and cotinine much faster in pregnancy, it is unclear whether this will be effective for smoking cessation in pregnancy. The NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme (HTA-funded smoking, nicotine and pregnancy (SNAP trial will investigate whether or not nicotine replacement therapy (NRT is effective, cost-effective and safe when used for smoking cessation by pregnant women. Methods/Design Over two years, in 5 trial centres, 1050 pregnant women who are between 12 and 24 weeks pregnant will be randomised as they attend hospital for ante-natal ultrasound scans. Women will receive either nicotine or placebo transdermal patches with behavioural support. The primary outcome measure is biochemically-validated, self-reported, prolonged and total abstinence from smoking between a quit date (defined before randomisation and set within two weeks of this and delivery. At six months after childbirth self-reported maternal smoking status will be ascertained and two years after childbirth, self-reported maternal smoking status and the behaviour, cognitive development and respiratory symptoms of children born in the trial will be compared in both groups. Discussion This trial is designed to ascertain whether or not standard doses of NRT (as transdermal patches are effective and safe when used for smoking cessation during pregnancy.

  8. Safety and efficacy of cognitive training plus epigallocatechin-3-gallate in young adults with Down's syndrome (TESDAD): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Rafael; de Sola, Susana; Hernandez, Gimena; Farré, Magí; Pujol, Jesus; Rodriguez, Joan; Espadaler, Josep María; Langohr, Klaus; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; Principe, Alessandro; Xicota, Laura; Janel, Nathalie; Catuara-Solarz, Silvina; Sanchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Bléhaut, Henri; Dueñas-Espín, Iván; Del Hoyo, Laura; Benejam, Bessy; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Videla, Sebastiá; Fitó, Montserrat; Delabar, Jean Maurice; Dierssen, Mara

    2016-07-01

    Early cognitive intervention is the only routine therapeutic approach used for amelioration of intellectual deficits in individuals with Down's syndrome, but its effects are limited. We hypothesised that administration of a green tea extract containing epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) would improve the effects of non-pharmacological cognitive rehabilitation in young adults with Down's syndrome. We enrolled adults (aged 16-34 years) with Down's syndrome from outpatient settings in Catalonia, Spain, with any of the Down's syndrome genetic variations (trisomy 21, partial trisomy, mosaic, or translocation) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2, single centre trial (TESDAD). Participants were randomly assigned at the IMIM-Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute to receive EGCG (9 mg/kg per day) or placebo and cognitive training for 12 months. We followed up participants for 6 months after treatment discontinuation. We randomly assigned participants using random-number tables and balanced allocation by sex and intellectual quotient. Participants, families, and researchers assessing the participants were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was cognitive improvement assessed by neuropsychologists with a battery of cognitive tests for episodic memory, executive function, and functional measurements. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01699711. The study was done between June 5, 2012, and June 6, 2014. 84 of 87 participants with Down's syndrome were included in the intention-to-treat analysis at 12 months (43 in the EGCG and cognitive training group and 41 in the placebo and cognitive training group). Differences between the groups were not significant on 13 of 15 tests in the TESDAD battery and eight of nine adaptive skills in the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System II (ABAS-II). At 12 months, participants treated with EGCG and cognitive training had significantly higher

  9. Effects of add on PTH(1-84) substitution therapy in hypoparathyroidism: results from a double-blind randomised controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikjær, Tanja Tvistholm; Rejnmark, Lars; Mosekilde, Leif

    -phosphate levels within the physiological range. Compared with placebo, participants randomised to PTH (1-84) reduced their daily dose of calcium supplements by 68 % (pvitamin D dose by 53% (pneed of calcium supplements...... and 7 were not in need of active vitamin D. With the actual add on therapy there were no change in renal calcium excretion in response to treatment. Compared with placebo, bone mineral density (BMD) decreased significantly at the hip (-1.59 ± 0.57%), lumbar spine (-1.76 ± 1.03%) and whole body (-1...... bone packets. In conclusion, PTH substitution therapy is capable of maintaining normal p-calcium levels with a significantly reduced need for calcium supplements and active vitamin D. In contrast to the effect of PTH(1-84) treatment in patients with osteoporosis, causing an increase in BMD...

  10. Efficacy of oral metronidazole with vaginal clindamycin or vaginal probiotic for bacterial vaginosis: randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona S Bradshaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine if oral metronidazole (MTZ-400 mg bid with 2% vaginal clindamycin-cream (Clind or a Lactobacillus acidophilus vaginal-probiotic containing oestriol (Prob reduces 6-month bacterial vaginosis (BV recurrence. METHODS: Double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group single-site study with balanced randomization (1:1:1 conducted at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia. Participants with symptomatic BV [Nugent Score (NS = 7-10 or ≥3 Amsel's criteria and NS = 4-10], were randomly allocated to MTZ-Clind, MTZ-Prob or MTZ-Placebo and assessed at 1,2,3 and 6 months. MTZ and Clind were administered for 7 days and Prob and Placebo for 12 days. Primary outcome was BV recurrence (NS of 7-10 on self-collected vaginal-swabs over 6-months. Cumulative BV recurrence rates were compared between groups by Chi-squared statistics. Kaplan-Meier, log rank and Cox regression analyses were used to compare time until and risk of BV recurrence between groups. RESULTS: 450 18-50 year old females were randomized and 408 (91%, equally distributed between groups, provided ≥1 NS post-randomization and were included in analyses; 42 (9% participants with no post-randomization data were excluded. Six-month retention rates were 78% (n = 351. One-month BV recurrence (NS 7-10 rates were 3.6% (5/140, 6.8% (9/133 and 9.6% (13/135 in the MTZ-Clind, MTZ-Prob and MTZ-Placebo groups respectively, p = 0.13. Hazard ratios (HR for BV recurrence at one-month, adjusted for adherence to vaginal therapy, were 0.43 (95%CI 0.15-1.22 and 0.75 (95% CI 0.32-1.76 in the MTZ-Clind and MTZ-Prob groups compared to MTZ-Plac respectively. Cumulative 6-month BV recurrence was 28.2%; (95%CI 24.0-32.7% with no difference between groups, p = 0.82; HRs for 6-month BV recurrence for MTZ-Clind and MTZ-Prob compared to MTZ-Plac, adjusted for adherence to vaginal therapy were 1.09(95% CI = 0.70-1.70 and 1.03(95% CI = 0.65-1.63, respectively. No serious

  11. Health-related quality of life for everolimus versus placebo in patients with advanced, non-functional, well-differentiated gastrointestinal or lung neuroendocrine tumours (RADIANT-4): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Marianne E; Singh, Simron; Strosberg, Jonathan R; Bubuteishvili-Pacaud, Lida; Degtyarev, Evgeny; Neary, Maureen P; Carnaghi, Carlo; Tomasek, Jiri; Wolin, Edward; Raderer, Markus; Lahner, Harald; Valle, Juan W; Pommier, Rodney; Van Cutsem, Eric; Tesselaar, Margot E T; Fave, Gianfranco Delle; Buzzoni, Roberto; Hunger, Matthias; Eriksson, Jennifer; Cella, David; Ricci, Jean-François; Fazio, Nicola; Kulke, Matthew H; Yao, James C

    2017-10-01

    In the phase 3 RADIANT-4 trial, everolimus increased progression-free survival compared with placebo in patients with advanced, progressive, non-functional, well-differentiated gastrointestinal or lung neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). We now report the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) secondary endpoint. RADIANT-4 is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial done in 97 centres in 25 countries worldwide. Adults (aged ≥18 years) were eligible for the study if they had pathologically confirmed, advanced (unresectable or metastatic), non-functional, well-differentiated (grade 1 or 2) NETs of lung or gastrointestinal origin. Patients were randomly allocated (2:1) using block randomisation (block size of three) by an interactive voice response system to receive oral everolimus (10 mg per day) or placebo, both with best supportive care, with stratification by tumour origin, WHO performance status, and previous somatostatin analogue treatment. HRQOL was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) questionnaire at baseline (visit 2, day 1), every 8 weeks (± 1 week) during the study for the first 12 months after randomisation, and every 12 weeks thereafter until study drug discontinuation. The primary endpoint, reported previously, was progression-free survival assessed by central review; HRQOL was a prespecified secondary endpoint. The prespecified secondary outcome measure was time to definitive deterioration (≥7 points) in FACT-G total score. Analyses were done on the full analysis set, consisting of all randomised patients, by intention to treat. Only data obtained while receiving the randomly allocated treatment were included in this analysis. Enrolment for RADIANT-4 was completed on Aug 23, 2013, but the trial is ongoing pending final analysis of the key secondary endpoint of overall survival. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01524783. Between April 3, 2012, and Aug 23

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation with epigallocatechin-3-gallate on weight loss, energy homeostasis, cardiometabolic risk factors and liver function in obese women: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Barrenechea, Lurdes; Alcorta, Pilar; Larrarte, Eider; Margareto, Javier; Labayen, Idoia

    2014-04-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on changes in body composition, energy and substrate metabolism, cardiometabolic risk factors and liver function enzymes after an energy-restricted diet intervention in obese women. In the present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, eighty-three obese (30 kg/m² > BMI alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase, urea, bilirubin and 2-keto[1-¹³C]isocaproate oxidation) before and after the intervention in the EGCG and control groups. We did not find any significant difference in the changes in body weight (-0.3 kg, 95% CI -5.0, 4.3), fat mass (-0.7 kg, 95% CI -3.5, 2.1), energy (0.3 kJ/kg per d, 95% CI -3.1, 2.7) and fat (-0.1 g/min, 95% CI -0.03, 0.01) metabolism, homeostasis assessment model for insulin resistance (0.2, 95% CI -0.2, 0.7), total cholesterol (-0.21 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.55, 0.13), LDL-cholesterol (-0.15 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.50, 0.20), TAG (-0.4 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.56, 0.29) and liver function markers between the EGCG and control groups. In conclusion, the present results suggest that dietary supplementation with 300 mg/d of EGCG for 12 weeks did not enhance energy-restricted diet-induced adiposity reductions, and did not improve weight-loss-induced changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in obese Caucasian women. The intake of 300 mg/d of EGCG for 12 weeks did not cause any adverse effect on liver function biomarkers.

  13. Study protocol for a double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of continuous subpectoral local anaesthetic infusion for pain and shoulder function following mastectomy: SUB-pectoral Local anaesthetic Infusion following MastEctomy (SUBLIME) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, R; Brown, I; Vickery, J; Mitchell, K; Pritchard, C; Creanor, S

    2014-09-30

    Over 16 000 mastectomies are performed in England and Wales annually. Acute postoperative pain and nausea are common. The most frequently occurring long-term complications are chronic pain (up to 50%) and reduced shoulder function (reported at 35%). Regional techniques that improve acute postoperative pain relief may reduce the incidence of these complications. This study assesses the effectiveness of a 24-hour continuous local anaesthetic in the subpectoral plane in improving postoperative pain and quality of life in patients undergoing mastectomy. This is a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, two-centre, parallel group trial in women undergoing mastectomy with or without axillary involvement. One hundred and sixty participants will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 0.25% levobupivacaine or 0.9% saline by subpectoral infusion postoperatively for 24 h. All participants will be provided with an intravenous morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) system. Participants will be followed-up for 24 h in hospital and at approximately 14 days and 6 months postoperatively. Joint primary outcome measures are total morphine consumption and total pain score (captured via patient-recorded visual analogue scale (VAS) 4 hourly) during the first 24 h postoperatively. Primary statistical analysis of total pain is based on the area under the curve of pain versus time graph. Secondary outcomes include PCA attempts in first 24 h; VAS pain scores and shoulder function by goniometry at 24 h, 14 days (approximately) and 6 months; Verbal Rating Scale pain scores in first 24 h; Brief Pain Inventory and Oxford Shoulder Score at 6 months; duration of hospital stay; incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting; cost-effectiveness. The study is approved by the South West England Research Ethics Committee (12/SW/0149). will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at local, national and international scientific meetings. ISRCTN

  14. A randomised controlled single-blind trial of the effects of Reiki and positive imagery on well-being and salivary cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Deborah; Goddard, Lorna; Gruzelier, John

    2010-01-15

    The study investigated whether participants who received Reiki would show greater health and well-being benefits than a group who received no Reiki. A method of blinding participants to Reiki was also tested, where non-contact Reiki or No-Reiki with random assignment was given to 35 healthy psychology undergraduates whose attention was absorbed in one of three tasks involving self-hypnosis/relaxation. Participants experienced ten 20-min intervention sessions over a period of two and a half to 12 weeks. Reiki was directed by the experimenter who sat behind the participants as they were absorbed in the tasks. Self-report measures of illness symptoms, mood and sleep were assessed pre-post-intervention as was salivary cortisol. While the Reiki group had a tendency towards a reduction in illness symptoms, a substantive increase was seen in the No-Reiki. The Reiki group also had a near-significant comparative reduction in stress, although they also had significantly higher baseline illness symptoms and stress scores. The Reiki blinding was successful - the groups did not differ statistically in their beliefs regarding group membership. The results are suggestive that the Reiki buffered the substantive decline in health in the course of the academic year seen in the No-Reiki group.

  15. Comparison of phenothrin mousse, phenothrin lotion, and wet-combing for treatment of head louse infestation in the UK: a pragmatic randomised, controlled, assessor blind trial [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1px

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian F. Burgess

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation of effectiveness of an alternative pediculicide dosage form, we recruited 228 children and 50 adult participants from Bedfordshire, UK, to a randomised, controlled, assessor blind trial comparing two insecticide products with mechanical removal of lice as a control group.  Participants using insecticide were treated with either the investigative 0.5% phenothrin mousse, for 30 minutes, or 0.2% phenothrin lotion, for 2 hours as the reference product.  Both treatments were applied only once, followed by shampoo washing.  Those treated by wet-combing with conditioner were combed 4 times over 12 days.  Parents/carers carried out the treatments to mimic normal consumer use.  The outcome measure was the absence of lice, 14 days after treatment for the insecticides, and up to 14 days after completion of combing.  Intention to treat analysis of the outcomes for 275 participants showed success for phenothrin mousse in 21/105 (20.0%, in 23/107 (21.5% for phenothrin lotion, and in 12/63 (19.1% for wet-combing.  People receiving mousse were 1.07 (95% CI, 0.63 to 1.81 times more likely to still have lice after treatment compared with those treated with lotion. The group of participants who received the wet combing treatment were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.61 to 2.11 times more likely to still have lice after the treatment.  None of the treatments was significantly (p < 0.05 more effective than any other. This study was carried out in an area where moderate resistance to phenothrin was demonstrated after the study by using a bioassay.  Analysis of post treatment assessments found that failure of insecticides to kill louse eggs had influenced the outcome.

  16. Patterns of soil-transmitted helminth infection and impact of four-monthly albendazole treatments in preschool children from semi-urban communities in Nigeria: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Andrew L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children aged between one and five years are particularly vulnerable to disease caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH. Periodic deworming has been shown to improve growth, micronutrient status (iron and vitamin A, and motor and language development in preschool children and justifies the inclusion of this age group in deworming programmes. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and intensity of STH infection and to investigate the effectiveness of repeated four-monthly albendazole treatments on STH infection in children aged one to four years. Methods The study was carried out in four semi-urban villages situated near Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. The study was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial. Children aged one to four years were randomly assigned to receive either albendazole or placebo every four months for 12 months with a follow-up at 14 months. Results The results presented here revealed that 50% of the preschool children in these semi-urban communities were infected by one or more helminths, the most prevalent STH being Ascaris lumbricoides (47.6%. Our study demonstrated that repeated four-monthly anthelminthic treatments with albendazole were successful in reducing prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infections. At the end of the follow-up period, 12% and 43% of the children were infected with A. lumbricoides and mean epg was 117 (S.E. 50 and 1740 (S.E. 291 in the treatment and placebo groups respectively compared to 45% and 45% of the children being infected with Ascaris and mean epg being 1095 (S.E. 237 and 1126 (S.E. 182 in the treatment and placebo group respectively at baseline. Conclusion Results from this study show that the moderate prevalence and low intensity of STH infection in these preschool children necessitates systematic treatment of the children in child health programmes. Trial Registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN44215995.

  17. A Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Efficacy Trial of the LiESP/QA-21 Vaccine in Naïve Dogs Exposed to Two Leishmania infantum Transmission Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Gaetano; Nieto, Javier; Foglia Manzillo, Valentina; Cappiello, Silvia; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Di Muccio, Trentina; Scalone, Aldo; Moreno, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Carrillo, Eugenia; Butaud, Therese; Guegand, Laurie; Martin, Virginie; Cuisinier, Anne-Marie; McGahie, David; Gueguen, Sylvie; Cañavate, Carmen; Gradoni, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Canine leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis caused by uncontrolled infection with Leishmania infantum, where an inappropriate immune response is not only responsible for permitting this intracellular parasite to multiply, but is also responsible for several of the pathological processes seen in this disease. Effective canine vaccines are therefore a highly desirable prevention tool. In this randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial, the efficacy of the LiESP/QA-21 vaccine (CaniLeish, Virbac, France) was assessed by exposing 90 naïve dogs to natural L. infantum infection during 2 consecutive transmission seasons, in two highly endemic areas of the Mediterranean basin. Regular PCR, culture, serological and clinical examinations were performed, and the infection/disease status of the dogs was classified at each examination. The vaccine was well-tolerated, and provided a significant reduction in the risk of progressing to uncontrolled active infection (p = 0.025) or symptomatic disease (p = 0.046), with an efficacy of 68.4% and a protection rate of 92.7%. The probability of becoming PCR positive was similar between groups, but the probability of returning to a PCR negative condition was higher in the vaccinated group (p = 0.04). In conclusion, we confirmed the interest of using this vaccine as part of a comprehensive control program for canine leishmaniasis, and validated the use of a protocol based on regular in-depth assessments over time to assess the efficacy of a canine leishmaniasis vaccine. PMID:25299614

  18. Effect of suppressive acyclovir administered to HSV-2 positive mothers from week 28 to 36 weeks of pregnancy on adverse obstetric outcomes: a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakubulwa, Sarah; Kaye, Dan K; Bwanga, Freddie; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Mirembe, Florence

    2017-03-03

    Acyclovir (ACV) given to HSV-2 positive women after 36 weeks reduces adverse outcomes but its benefit at lower gestation was undocumented. We determined the effect of oral acyclovir administered from 28 to 36 weeks on premature rupture of membranes (PROM) primarily and preterm delivery risk. This was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial among 200 HSV-2 positive pregnant women at 28 weeks of gestation at Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Participants were assigned randomly (1:1) to take either acyclovir 400 mg orally twice daily (intervention) or placebo (control) from 28 to 36 weeks. Both arms received acyclovir after 36 weeks until delivery. Development of Pre-PROM by 36 weeks and preterm delivery were outcomes. One hundred women were randomised to acyclovir and 100 to placebo arms between January 2014 and February 2015. There was tendency towards reduction of incidence of PROM at 36 weeks but this was not statistically significant (4.0% versus 10.0%; RR 0.35; 95% 0.11-1.10) in the acyclovir and placebo arms respectively. However, there was a significant reduction in the incidence of preterm delivery (11.1% versus 23.5%; RR 0.41; 95% 0.20-0.85) in the acyclovir and placebo arms respectively. Oral acyclovir given to HSV-2 positive pregnant women from 28 to 36 weeks reduced incidence of preterm delivery but did not significantly reduce incidence of pre-PROM. www.pactr.org, PACTR201311000558197 .

  19. A randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial of the effect of subcutaneous immunoglobulin on muscular performance in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johannes Klitgaard; Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Harbo, Thomas

    Objective: We hypothesised that the effect of subcutaneous infusion of immunoglobulins(SCIG) on muscular performance in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy(CIDP) is superior to that of placebo and equals the therapeutic effect of intravenous infusion(IVIG). Background Subcutaneous...... treatment with large amounts of immunoglobulins in multifocal motor neuropathy is feasible, safe and effective. In CIDP case reports indicate its therapeutic usefullness as well. Design/Methods: Subjects in IVIG maintenace therapy full-filling the EFNS/PNS criteria for CIDP were considered for participation......G at a concentration of 1.6g/10cc or subcutaneous saline in a double-blinded fashion. Infusions were given twice or thrice weekly for 12 weeks at home. The amount of immunoglobulin corresponded to the clinically predetermined dose. The first subcutaneous infusion was delivered two weeks after the last IVIG treatment...

  20. Immunogenicity and tolerability of a multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B (4CMenB) vaccine in healthy adolescents in Chile: a phase 2b/3 randomised, observer-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya, María Elena; O'Ryan, Miguel L; Valenzuela, María Teresa; Prado, Valeria; Vergara, Rodrigo; Muñoz, Alma; Toneatto, Daniela; Graña, Gabriela; Wang, Huajun; Clemens, Ralf; Dull, Peter M

    2012-02-18

    Effective glycoconjugate vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y have been developed, but serogroup B remains a major cause of severe invasive disease in infants and adolescents worldwide. We assessed immunogenicity and tolerability of a four-component vaccine (4CMenB) in adolescents. We did a randomised, observer-blind, placebo-controlled, study at 12 sites in Santiago and Valparaíso, Chile. Adolescents aged 11-17 years received one, two, or three doses of 4CMenB at 1 month, 2 month, or 6 month intervals. Immunogenicity was assessed as serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA) against three reference strains for individual vaccine antigens, and assessed by ELISA against the fourth strain. Local and systemic reactions were recorded 7 days after each vaccination, and adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Participants were initially randomised to five groups (3:3:3:3:1) during the primary phase to receive either one dose, two doses 1 or 2 months apart, or three doses of 4CMenB, or three doses of placebo, with an additional three groups generated for the booster phase. All subjects received at least one dose of 4CMenB. Geometric mean titres, proportions of participants with serum bactericidal antibody titres of 4 or more, and Clopper-Pearson 95% CIs were calculated. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00661713. Overall, 1631 adolescents (mean age 13·8 [SD 1·9] years) received at least one dose of 4CMenB. After two or three doses, 99-100% of recipients had hSBA titres of 4 or more against test strains, compared with 92-97% after one dose (pvaccine-related serious adverse events were reported and no significant safety signals were identified. On the basis of immunogenicity responses this study provides evidence for an adolescent 4CMenB vaccine schedule of two doses, 1-6 months apart, to provide protection against meningococcal B infection. The extent of this protection against

  1. Long-term management of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis with dupilumab and concomitant topical corticosteroids (LIBERTY AD CHRONOS): a 1-year, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauvelt, Andrew; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Gooderham, Melinda; Cather, Jennifer C; Weisman, Jamie; Pariser, David; Simpson, Eric L; Papp, Kim A; Hong, H Chih-Ho; Rubel, Diana; Foley, Peter; Prens, Errol; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Etoh, Takafumi; Pinto, Pedro Herranz; Pujol, Ramon M; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Ettler, Karel; Kemény, Lajos; Zhu, Xiaoping; Akinlade, Bolanle; Hultsch, Thomas; Mastey, Vera; Gadkari, Abhijit; Eckert, Laurent; Amin, Nikhil; Graham, Neil M H; Pirozzi, Gianluca; Stahl, Neil; Yancopoulos, George D; Shumel, Brad

    2017-06-10

    Dupilumab (an anti-interleukin-4-receptor-α monoclonal antibody) blocks signalling of interleukin 4 and interleukin 13, type 2/Th2 cytokines implicated in numerous allergic diseases ranging from asthma to atopic dermatitis. Previous 16-week monotherapy studies showed that dupilumab substantially improved signs and symptoms of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis with acceptable safety, validating the crucial role of interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 in atopic dermatitis pathogenesis. We aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of dupilumab with medium-potency topical corticosteroids versus placebo with topical corticosteroids in adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. In this 1-year, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study (LIBERTY AD CHRONOS), adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis and inadequate response to topical corticosteroids were enrolled at 161 hospitals, clinics, and academic institutions in 14 countries in Europe, Asia-Pacific, and North America. Patients were randomly assigned (3:1:3) to subcutaneous dupilumab 300 mg once weekly (qw), dupilumab 300 mg every 2 weeks (q2w), or placebo via a central interactive voice/web response system, stratified by severity and global region. All three groups were given concomitant topical corticosteroids with or without topical calcineurin inhibitors where inadvisable for topical corticosteroids. Topical corticosteroids could be tapered, stopped, or restarted on the basis of disease activity. Coprimary endpoints were patients (%) achieving Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) 0/1 and 2-point or higher improvement from baseline, and Eczema Area and Severity Index 75% improvement from baseline (EASI-75) at week 16. Week 16 efficacy and week 52 safety analyses included all randomised patients; week 52 efficacy included patients who completed treatment by US regulatory submission cutoff. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02260986. Between Oct 3, 2014

  2. B vitamins to enhance treatment response to antidepressants in middle-aged and older adults: results from the B-VITAGE randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Ford, Andrew H; Hirani, Varsha; Singh, Vash; vanBockxmeer, Frank M; McCaul, Kieran; Flicker, Leon

    2014-12-01

    Depression is common and the efficacy of antidepressants is suboptimal. High plasma homocysteine has been consistently associated with depression, and treatment with certain B vitamins demonstrably reduces its concentration. To determine whether vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid enhance response to antidepressant treatment over 52 weeks. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of citalopram (20-40 g) together with 0.5 mg of vitamin B12, 2 mg of folic acid and 25 mg of vitamin B6 for 52 weeks (Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: 12609000256279). Participants were community-dwelling adults aged 50 years or over with DSM-IV-TR major depression. We measured severity of symptoms with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The primary outcome was remission of the depressive episode after 12, 26 and 52 weeks. Secondary outcomes included reduction of MADRS scores over time and relapse of major depression after recovery by week 12. Results In total, 153 people were randomised (76 placebo, 77 vitamins). Remission of symptoms was achieved by 78.1 and 79.4% of participants treated with placebo and vitamins by week 12 (P = 0.840), by 76.5 and 85.3% at week 26 and 75.8 and 85.5% at week 52 (effect of intervention over 52 weeks: odds ratio (OR) = 2.49, 95% CI 1.12-5.51). Group differences in MADRS scores over time were not significant (P = 0.739). The risk of subsequent relapse among those who had achieved remission of symptoms at week 12 was lower in the vitamins than placebo group (OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.94). B vitamins did not increase the 12-week efficacy of antidepressant treatment, but enhanced and sustained antidepressant response over 1 year. Replication of these findings would mandate that treatment guidelines adopt the adjunctive use of B vitamins as a safe and inexpensive strategy to manage major depression in middle-aged and older adults. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  3. Use of mesalazine slow release suppositories 1 g three times per week to maintain remission of ulcerative proctitis: a randomised double blind placebo controlled multicentre study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, P; Crand, J; Foucault, M; Rambaud, J

    1998-01-01

    Background—Daily administration of rectal formulations of mesalazine is effective in preventing relapse of ulcerative proctitis. Maintenance of remission with lower doses would be an advantage. 
Aim—The efficacy of mesalazine suppositories (Pentasa) 1 g three times a week v placebo to maintain remission in patients with cryptogenetic proctitis was studied. 
Methods—Ninety five patients with cryptogenetic proctitis were randomised within two weeks of remission to receive for one year or until relapse three suppositories per week of either Pentasa (n=48) or placebo (n=47). In the case of a relapse, the patients received one suppository/day. 
Results—It was found that 25 of 48 subjects v 18 of 47 remained in remission in the mesalazine and placebo groups respectively. The relapse rate was lower in the mesalazine group for the following time intervals: 0-90 days (19% v 38%, p=0.035), 0-180 days (29% v 54%, p=0.017), 0-270 days (38% v 60%, p=0.031), and 0-365 days (48% v 62%, p=0.18). Treatment of relapse with one suppository/day induced remission in 11 of 18 and 2 of 26 patients in the mesalazine and placebo groups respectively (p=0.001). Overall, 61% v 28% patients remained in the protocol and were in remission at one year (p=0.001). Tolerance was good. 
Conclusion—Mesalazine suppositories 1 g three times a week are effective for preventing relapses of cryptogenetic proctitis. Increasing the dose to 1 g/day is effective in a high proportion of subjects who relapsed. 

 Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease; mesalazine; 5-aminosalicylic acid; topical treatments; proctitis PMID:9536943

  4. Mammographic screening: evidence from randomised controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: All randomised breast cancer screening trials have shown a reduction in breast cancer mortality in the 'invited for mammography' screening arm compared with the 'control arm' for women aged 50 years and older at randomisation (overall 25%). However,

  5. Safety and efficacy of eculizumab in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalised myasthenia gravis (REGAIN): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, James F; Utsugisawa, Kimiaki; Benatar, Michael; Murai, Hiroyuki; Barohn, Richard J; Illa, Isabel; Jacob, Saiju; Vissing, John; Burns, Ted M; Kissel, John T; Muppidi, Srikanth; Nowak, Richard J; O'Brien, Fanny; Wang, Jing-Jing; Mantegazza, Renato

    2017-12-01

    Complement is likely to have a role in refractory generalised myasthenia gravis, but no approved therapies specifically target this system. Results from a phase 2 study suggested that eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, produced clinically meaningful improvements in patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalised myasthenia gravis. We further assessed the efficacy and safety of eculizumab in this patient population in a phase 3 trial. We did a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study (REGAIN) in 76 hospitals and specialised clinics in 17 countries across North America, Latin America, Europe, and Asia. Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years, with a Myasthenia Gravis-Activities of Daily Living (MG-ADL) score of 6 or more, Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) class II-IV disease, vaccination against Neisseria meningitides, and previous treatment with at least two immunosuppressive therapies or one immunosuppressive therapy and chronic intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange for 12 months without symptom control. Patients with a history of thymoma or thymic neoplasms, thymectomy within 12 months before screening, or use of intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange within 4 weeks before randomisation, or rituximab within 6 months before screening, were excluded. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to either intravenous eculizumab or intravenous matched placebo for 26 weeks. Dosing for eculizumab was 900 mg on day 1 and at weeks 1, 2, and 3; 1200 mg at week 4; and 1200 mg given every second week thereafter as maintenance dosing. Randomisation was done centrally with an interactive voice or web-response system with patients stratified to one of four groups based on MGFA disease classification. Where possible, patients were maintained on existing myasthenia gravis therapies and rescue medication was allowed at the study physician's discretion. Patients, investigators

  6. The study protocol of a blinded randomised-controlled cross-over trial of lavender oil as a treatment of behavioural symptoms in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Eva S; Eppingstall, Barbara; O'Connor, Daniel W

    2010-07-22

    The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out) are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Increasingly more attention is being paid to alternative interventions that are associated with fewer risks than pharmacology. Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) has been thought, for centuries, to have soothing properties, but the existing evidence is limited and shows mixed results. The aim of the current study is to test the effectiveness of topically applied pure lavender oil in reducing actual counts of challenging behaviours in nursing home residents. We will use a blinded repeated measures design with random cross-over between lavender oil and placebo oil. Persons with moderate to severe dementia and associated behavioural problems living in aged care facilities will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be assigned in random order to lavender or placebo blocks for one week then switched to the other condition for the following week. In each week the oils will be applied on three days with at least a two-day wash out period between conditions. Trained observers will note presence of target behaviours and predominant type of affect displayed during the 30 minutes before and the 60 minutes after application of the oil. Nursing staff will apply 1 ml of 30% high strength essential lavender oil to reduce the risk of missing a true effect through under-dosing. The placebo will comprise of jojoba oil only. The oils will be identical in appearance and texture, but can easily be identified by smell. For blinding purposes, all staff involved in applying the oil or observing the resident will apply a masking cream containing a mixture of lavender and other essential oils to their upper lip. In addition, nursing staff will wear a nose clip during the few minutes it takes to massage the oil to the resident's forearms. If our results show that the use of lavender oil is

  7. The study protocol of a blinded randomised-controlled cross-over trial of lavender oil as a treatment of behavioural symptoms in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Daniel W

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Increasingly more attention is being paid to alternative interventions that are associated with fewer risks than pharmacology. Lavandula angustifolia (lavender has been thought, for centuries, to have soothing properties, but the existing evidence is limited and shows mixed results. The aim of the current study is to test the effectiveness of topically applied pure lavender oil in reducing actual counts of challenging behaviours in nursing home residents. Methods/Design We will use a blinded repeated measures design with random cross-over between lavender oil and placebo oil. Persons with moderate to severe dementia and associated behavioural problems living in aged care facilities will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be assigned in random order to lavender or placebo blocks for one week then switched to the other condition for the following week. In each week the oils will be applied on three days with at least a two-day wash out period between conditions. Trained observers will note presence of target behaviours and predominant type of affect displayed during the 30 minutes before and the 60 minutes after application of the oil. Nursing staff will apply 1 ml of 30% high strength essential lavender oil to reduce the risk of missing a true effect through under-dosing. The placebo will comprise of jojoba oil only. The oils will be identical in appearance and texture, but can easily be identified by smell. For blinding purposes, all staff involved in applying the oil or observing the resident will apply a masking cream containing a mixture of lavender and other essential oils to their upper lip. In addition, nursing staff will wear a nose clip during the few minutes it takes to massage the oil to the resident's forearms

  8. Multivitamin and dietary supplements, body weight and appetite: results from a cross-sectional and a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Geneviève C; Doucet, Eric; Jacqmain, Mélanie; St-Onge, Myriam; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2008-05-01

    Two studies were conducted to compare characteristics of consumers and non-consumers of vitamin and/or dietary supplements (study 1) and to assess the effect of a multivitamin and mineral supplementation during a weight-reducing programme (study 2). Body weight and composition, energy expenditure, and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire scores were compared between consumers and non-consumers of micronutrients and/or dietary supplements in the Québec Family Study (study 1). In study 2, these variables and appetite ratings (visual analogue scales) were measured in forty-five obese non-consumers of supplements randomly assigned to a double-blind 15-week energy restriction ( - 2930 kJ/d) combined with a placebo or with a multivitamin and mineral supplement. Compared with non-consumers, male consumers of vitamin and/or dietary supplements had a lower body weight (P supplements consumers had lower disinhibition and hunger scores (P body weight was significantly decreased after the weight-loss intervention (P supplemented women (P dietary supplements consumption and multivitamin and mineral supplementation during a weight-reducing programme seems to have an appetite-related effect in women. However, lower body weight and fat were more detectable in male than in female vitamin and/or dietary supplements consumers.

  9. Effect of supplementation of fermented milk drink containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota on the concentrations of aflatoxin biomarkers among employees of Universiti Putra Malaysia: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Redzwan, Sabran; Abd Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Ahmad, Zuraini; Kang, Min-Su; Abdul Rahman, Nurul 'Aqilah; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Elham; Jamaluddin, Rosita

    2016-01-14

    Human exposure to aflatoxin is through the diet, and probiotics are able to bind aflatoxin and prevent its absorption in the small intestine. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) (probiotic drink) to prevent aflatoxin absorption and reduce serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct (AFB1-lys) and urinary aflatoxin M1 concentrations. The present study was a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study with two 4-week intervention phases. In all, seventy-one subjects recruited from the screening stage were divided into two groups--the Yellow group and the Blue group. In the 1st phase, one group received probiotic drinks twice a day and the other group received placebo drinks. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline, 2nd and 4th week of the intervention. After a 2-week wash-out period, the treatments were switched between the groups, and blood and urine samples were collected at the 6th, 8th and 10th week (2nd phase) of the intervention. No significant differences in aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were observed during the intervention. A within-group analysis was further carried out. Aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were not significantly different in the Yellow group. Nevertheless, ANOVA for repeated measurements indicated that AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly different (P=0·035) with the probiotic intervention in the Blue group. The 2nd week AFB1-lys concentrations (5·14 (SD 2·15) pg/mg albumin (ALB)) were significantly reduced (P=0·048) compared with the baseline (6·24 (SD 3·42) pg/mg ALB). Besides, the 4th week AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly lower (Pprobiotic supplementation than with the placebo. Based on these findings, a longer intervention study is warranted to investigate the effects of continuous LcS consumption to prevent dietary aflatoxin exposure.

  10. Reduced inattention and hyperactivity and improved cognition after marine oil extract (PCSO-524®) supplementation in children and adolescents with clinical and subclinical symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, James D; Sarris, Jerome; Scholey, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of a marine oil extract (PCSO-524®) on inattention, hyperactivity, mood and cognition in children and adolescents. PCSO-524® is a standardised lipid extract of the New Zealand green-lipped mussel and is an inflammatory modulator that inhibits the 5'-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways and decreases concentrations of the pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid (AA). PCSO-524® or a matched placebo was administered for 14 weeks to 144 participants (123 males/21 females; mean age 8.7 years) with high hyperactivity and inattention in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The primary outcome was the Conners Parent Rating Scale assessing parental reports of behavioural problems. Secondary outcomes assessed changes in cognition and mood. The results of the present study did not support the hypothesis that PCSO-524® improves parental reports of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity in children ages 6 to 14 years over placebo. Repeated measures ANOVA on post hoc subsample analysis indicated significant improvements in hyperactivity (p = 0.04), attention (p = 0.02), learning (p = 0.05) and probability of ADHD (p = 0.04) with a medium to large average effect size (d = 0.65) in those children who did not meet criteria for combined hyperactivity and inattention. Furthermore, significant improvements in the PCSO-524® group were indicated in a whole sample repeated measures ANCOVA on recognition memory between baseline and week 8 over placebo (p = 0.02, d = 0.56); this difference was not sustained at week 14. The results presented indicate that PCSO-524® may be beneficial in reducing levels of hyperactivity and inattention in a population of children with clinical and subclinical symptoms of ADHD.

  11. Influence of habitual dietary fibre intake on the responsiveness of the gut microbiota to a prebiotic: protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, single-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Butts, Chrissie; Murphy, Rinki; Whelan, Kevin; Coad, Jane

    2016-09-02

    The commensal gut microbiota have been shown to have an impact on human health as aberrant gut microbiota have been linked to disease. Dietary constituents are influential in shaping the gut microbiota. Diet-specific therapeutic strategies may therefore play a role in optimising human health via beneficial manipulation of the gut microbiota. Research has suggested that an individual's baseline gut microbiota composition may influence how the gut microbiota respond to a dietary intervention and individuals with differing habitual dietary intakes appear to have distinct baseline gut microbiota compositions. The responsiveness of the gut microbiota may therefore be influenced by habitual dietary intakes. This study aims to investigate what influence differing habitual dietary fibre intakes have on the responsiveness of the gut microbiota to a prebiotic intervention. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, single-centre study, 20 low dietary fibre (dietary fibre intake gut microbiota composition (using 16S rRNA gene sequencing) and functional capacity (faecal short chain fatty acid concentrations and Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt)) as well as appetite (visual analogue scale appetite questionnaire) will be assessed at the beginning and end of each intervention phase. The Massey University Human Ethics Committee approved this study (Massey University HEC: Southern A application-15/34). Results will be disseminated through peer-review journal publications, conference presentations and a summary of findings will be distributed to participants. ACTRN12615000922572; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Efficacy and safety of K-877, a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator (SPPARMα), in combination with statin treatment: Two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials in patients with dyslipidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Hidenori; Yamashita, Shizuya; Yokote, Koutaro; Araki, Eiichi; Suganami, Hideki; Ishibashi, Shun

    2017-06-01

    Substantial residual cardiovascular risks remain despite intensive statin treatment. Residual risks with high triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are not the primary targets of statins. K-877 (pemafibrate) demonstrated robust efficacy on triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a good safety profile as a monotherapy. The aim of these studies was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of K-877 add-on therapy to treat residual hypertriglyceridaemia during statin treatment. The objectives were investigated in two, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group comparison clinical trials: (A) K-877 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/day in combination with pitavastatin for 12 weeks in 188 patients, (B) K-877 0.2 (fixed dose) and 0.2 (0.4) (conditional up-titration) mg/day in combination with any statin for 24 weeks in 423 patients. In both studies, we found a robust reduction in fasting triglyceride levels by approximately 50% in all combination therapy groups, which was significant compared to the statin-monotherapy (placebo) groups (p K-877 add-on therapy, i.e. small low-density lipoproteins decreased whereas larger ones increased, and larger high-density lipoproteins decreased whereas smaller ones increased. The incidence rates of adverse events and adverse drug reactions in K-877 combination therapy groups were comparable to those in statin-monotherapy groups without any noteworthy event in both studies. These results strongly support the favourable benefit-to-risk ratio of K-877 add-on therapy in combination with statin treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A red yeast rice-olive extract supplement reduces biomarkers of oxidative stress, OxLDL and Lp-PLA2, in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Nina; Van der Auwera, Anastasia; Breynaert, Annelies; Verlaet, Annelies; De Bruyne, Tess; Van Gaal, Luc; Pieters, Luc; Verhoeven, Veronique

    2017-07-03

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to clustered cardiovascular risk factors (abdominal obesity, pre-diabetes, high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia). Therapies targeting oxidative stress may delay progression to atherosclerosis and diabetes. We investigated the anti-oxidative effect of a supplement combining red yeast rice and olive extract in patients with MetS. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial was conducted with 50 patients with MetS as defined by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Forty-nine subjects randomly assigned to red yeast rice-olive extract (RYR-olive extract; 10.82 mg of monacolins and 9.32 mg of hydroxytyrosol per Cholesfytolplus capsule) or placebo completed the 8-week trial. Whereas effects on cardiovascular risk parameters of MetS have been reported recently, the observed significant 20% increase in oxidised low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) prompted us to investigate other oxidative stress-related parameters: malondialdehyde (MDA), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Statistical calculations included univariate quantitative analysis, multivariate linear regression and correlation analysis. The updated results indicate that an RYR-olive extract supplement significantly reduced Lp-PLA 2 by 7% (p  0.05). Reductions in OxLDL (20%) and Lp-PLA 2 (7%) were associated with each other (r = 0.740, p < 0.001). RYR-olive extract significantly reduced Lp-PLA 2 in correlation with the marked reduction in plasma OxLDL, which may lead to a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease in patients with MetS. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02065180 . Registered on 13 February 2014.

  14. Efficacy of hypnotherapy compared to cognitive-behavioural therapy for mild-to-moderate depression: study protocol of a randomised-controlled rater-blind trial (WIKI-D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, Kristina; Schweizer, Cornelie; Meisner, Christoph; Batra, Anil

    2017-12-01

    Despite a substantial number of studies providing evidence for the efficacy of psychological treatment for mild-to-moderate depression, maximally only 50% of participants respond to treatment, even when using gold-standard treatments such as cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy. New approaches such as the 'third wave' psychotherapies have provided promising results; however, studies concerning the comparison with evidence-based treatments are lacking. This study aims to compare the efficacy of clinical hypnotherapy (HT) with gold-standard psychotherapy (CBT) in the treatment of mild-to-moderate major depressive episodes. The present study comprises a monocentric, two-armed, randomised-controlled, rater-blind (non-inferiority) clinical trial. A total of 160 participants with mild-to-moderate major depression episode will be randomly assigned to either CBT or HT involving 20 sessions of psychotherapy over a period of 24 weeks. We predict that the average improvement in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score will not be inferior in HT compared with CBT (non-inferiority hypothesis).Further outcome parameters will include the number of participants responding to treatment following the completion of treatment and 1 year after. Additionally, quality of life, treatment expectations and hypnotic susceptibility before and after end of treatment will be assessed. The study protocol and the documents for the informed consent have been approved by the Ethics Committee of the University Hospital Tuebingen (061/2015B02). The results of this trial will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, and will be presented at national and international conferences. NCT02375308; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Effect of fermented milk product containing lactotripeptides and plant sterol esters on haemodynamics in subjects with the metabolic syndrome--a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautaniemi, Elina J; Tikkakoski, Antti J; Tahvanainen, Anna; Nordhausen, Klaus; Kähönen, Mika; Mattsson, Tiina; Luhtala, Satu; Turpeinen, Anu M; Niemelä, Onni; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Korpela, Riitta; Pörsti, Ilkka H

    2015-08-14

    We investigated the effects of fermented milk product containing isoleucine-proline-proline, valine-proline-proline and plant sterol esters (Pse) on plasma lipids, blood pressure (BP) and its determinants systemic vascular resistance and cardiac output. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 104 subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) were allocated to three groups in order to receive fermented milk product containing (1) 5 mg/d lactotripeptides (LTP) and 2 g/d plant sterols; (2) 25 mg/d LTP and 2 g/d plant sterols; (3) placebo for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids and home BP were monitored. Haemodynamics were examined in a laboratory using radial pulse wave analysis and whole-body impedance cardiography in the supine position and during orthostatic challenge. There were no differences between the effects of the two treatments and placebo on the measurements of BP at home or on BP, systemic vascular resistance index and cardiac index in the laboratory, neither in the supine nor in the upright position. The changes in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration were - 0.1 (95% CI - 0.3, 0.1 and - 0.3, 0.0) mmol/l in the 5 and 25 mg/d LTP groups, respectively, and +0.1 (95% CI - 0.1, 0.3) mmol/l during placebo (P= 0.024). Both at baseline and at week 12, the increase in systemic vascular resistance during head-up tilt was lower in the 25 mg/d LTP group than in the 5 mg/d LTP group (Peffect of borderline significance, while no antihypertensive effect was observed at home or in the laboratory.

  16. A protocol for a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled feasibility study to determine whether the daily consumption of flavonoid-rich pure cocoa has the potential to reduce fatigue in people with relapsing and remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, S; Collett, J; Izadi, H; Wade, D T; Clegg, M; Harrison, J M; Buckingham, E; Cavey, A; DeLuca, G C; Palace, J; Dawes, H

    2018-01-01

    Dietary interventions including consumption of flavonoids, plant compounds found in certain foods, may have the ability to improve fatigue. However, to date, no well-designed intervention studies assessing the role of flavonoid consumption for fatigue management in people with MS (pwMS) have been performed. The hypothesis is that the consumption of a flavonoid-rich pure cocoa beverage will reduce fatigue in pwMS. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility and potential outcome of running a trial to evaluate this hypothesis. Using a randomised (1:1) double-blind placebo-controlled feasibility study, 40 men and women (20 in each trial arm) with a recent diagnosis (breakfast daily. At baseline, demographic factors and disease-related factors will be assessed. Fatigue, activity and quality of life, in addition to other measures, will be taken at three visits (baseline, week 3 and week 6) in a university setting by a researcher blinded to group membership. Feasibility and fidelity will be assessed through recruitment and retention, adherence and a quantitative process evaluation at the end of the trial.We will describe demographic factors (age, gender, level of education) as well as disease-related factors (disease burden scores, length of time diagnosed with MS) and cognitive assessment, depression and quality of life and general physical activity in order to characterise participants and determine possible mediators to identify the processes by which the intervention may bring about change. Feasibility (recruitment, safety, feasibility of implementation of the intervention and evaluation, protocol adherence and data completion) and potential for benefit (estimates of effect size and variability) will be determined to inform future planned studies. Results will be presented using point estimates, 95% confidence intervals and p values. Primary statistical analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis and will use the complete case data set. We propose that

  17. Effects of training on quality of peer review: randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Schroter, Sara; Black, Nick; Evans, Stephen; Carpenter, James; Godlee, Fiona; Smith, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of training on the quality of peer review Design Single blind randomised controlled trial with two intervention groups receiving different types of training plus a control group. Setting and participants Reviewers at a general medical journal. Interventions Attendance at a training workshop or reception of a self taught training package focusing on what editors want from reviewers and how to critically appraise randomised controlled trials. Main outcome meas...

  18. Immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of a recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-comparator, first-in-man trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsauer, Katrin; Schwameis, Michael; Firbas, Christa; Müllner, Matthias; Putnak, Robert J; Thomas, Stephen J; Desprès, Philippe; Tauber, Erich; Jilma, Bernd; Tangy, Frederic

    2015-05-01

    Chikungunya is an emerging arthropod-borne disease that has spread from tropical endemic areas to more temperate climates of the USA and Europe. However, no specific treatment or preventive measure is yet available. We aimed to investigate the immunogenicity and safety of a live recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine. We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-comparator, phase 1, dose-escalation study at one centre in Vienna, Austria. Healthy men and women aged 18-45 years with no comorbidities were randomly assigned, by computer-generated block randomisation (block size of 14), to receive either one of three escalating doses of the measles-virus-based candidate vaccine (low dose [1·5 × 10(4) median tissue culture infection doses (TCID50) per 0·05 mL], medium dose [7·5 × 10(4) TCID50 per 0·25 mL], or high dose [3·0 × 10(5) TCID50 per 1·0 mL]), or the active comparator-Priorix. Participants were additionally block-randomised to receive a booster injection on either day 28 or day 90 after the first vaccination. Participants and study investigators were masked to group allocation. The primary endpoint was the presence of neutralising anti-chikungunya antibodies on day 28, as assessed by 50% plaque reduction neutralisation test. Analysis was by intention to treat and per protocol. This trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2013-001084-23. Between Nov 22, 2013, and Feb 25, 2014, we randomly assigned 42 participants to receive the low dose (n=12), the medium dose (n=12), or the high dose (n=12) of the measles-virus-based candidate vaccine, or Priorix (n=6), of whom 36 participants (86%; n=9, n=12, n=10, n=5, respectively) were included in the per-protocol population. The candidate vaccine raised neutralising antibodies in all dose cohorts after one immunisation, with seroconversion rates of 44% (n=4) in the low-dose group, 92% (n=11) in the medium-dose group, and 90% (n=10) in the high-dose group. The

  19. Efficacy and safety of oral solithromycin versus oral moxifloxacin for treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: a global, double-blind, multicentre, randomised, active-controlled, non-inferiority trial (SOLITAIRE-ORAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Carlos M; Mykietiuk, Analia; Metev, Hristo; Nitu, Mimi Floarea; Karimjee, Najumuddin; Doreski, Pablo Alexis; Mitha, Ismail; Tanaseanu, Cristina Mihaela; Molina, Joseph McDermott; Antonovsky, Yuri; Van Rensburg, Dirkie Johanna; Rowe, Brian H; Flores-Figueroa, Jose; Rewerska, Barbara; Clark, Kay; Keedy, Kara; Sheets, Amanda; Scott, Drusilla; Horwith, Gary; Das, Anita F; Jamieson, Brian; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Oldach, David

    2016-04-01

    Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and treatment recommendations, each with specific limitations, vary globally. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of solithromycin, a novel macrolide, with moxifloxacin for treatment of CABP. We did this global, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, active-controlled, non-inferiority trial at 114 centres in North America, Latin America, Europe, and South Africa. Patients (aged ≥18 years) with clinically and radiographically confirmed pneumonia of Pneumonia Outcomes Research Team (PORT) risk class II, III, or IV were randomly assigned (1:1), via an internet-based central block randomisation procedure (block size of four), to receive either oral solithromycin (800 mg on day 1, 400 mg on days 2-5, placebo on days 6-7) or oral moxifloxacin (400 mg on days 1-7). Randomisation was stratified by geographical region, PORT risk class (II vs III or IV), and medical history of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The study sponsor, investigators, staff, and patients were masked to group allocation. The primary outcome was early clinical response, defined as an improvement in at least two of four symptoms (cough, chest pain, sputum production, dyspnoea) with no worsening in any symptom at 72 h after the first dose of study drug, with a 10% non-inferiority margin. The primary analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT-01756339. Between Jan 3, 2013, and Sept 24, 2014, we randomly assigned 860 patients to receive solithromycin (n=426) or moxifloxacin (n=434). Patients were followed up to days 28-35 after first dose. Solithromycin was non-inferior to moxifloxacin in achievement of early clinical response: 333 (78·2%) patients had an early clinical response in the solithromycin group versus 338 (77·9%) patients in the moxifloxacin group (difference 0·29, 95% CI -5·5 to 6·1). Both drugs had a similar safety

  20. Regorafenib plus best supportive care versus placebo plus best supportive care in Asian patients with previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer (CONCUR): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Qin, Shukui; Xu, Ruihua; Yau, Thomas C C; Ma, Brigette; Pan, Hongming; Xu, Jianming; Bai, Yuxian; Chi, Yihebali; Wang, Liwei; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Bi, Feng; Cheng, Ying; Le, Anh Tuan; Lin, Jen-Kou; Liu, Tianshu; Ma, Dong; Kappeler, Christian; Kalmus, Joachim; Kim, Tae Won

    2015-06-01

    In the international randomised phase 3 CORRECT trial (NCT01103323), regorafenib significantly improved overall survival versus placebo in patients with treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. Of the 760 patients in CORRECT, 111 were Asian (mostly Japanese). This phase 3 trial was done to assess regorafenib in a broader population of Asian patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer than was studied in CORRECT. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase 3 trial done in 25 hospitals in mainland China, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam, we recruited Asian patients aged 18 years or older with progressive metastatic colorectal cancer who had received at least two previous treatment lines or were unable to tolerate standard treatments. Patients had to have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, life expectancy of at least 3 months, and adequate bone marrow, liver, and renal function, without other uncontrolled medical disorders. We randomly allocated patients (2:1; with a computer-generated unicentric randomisation list [prepared by the study funder] and interactive voice response system; block size of six; stratified by metastatic site [single vs multiple organs] and time from diagnosis of metastatic disease [regorafenib 160 mg once daily or placebo on days 1-21 of each 28 day cycle; patients in both groups were also to receive best supportive care. Participants, investigators, and the study funder were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival, and we analysed data on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01584830. Between April 29, 2012, and Feb 6, 2013, we screened 243 patients and randomly assigned 204 patients to receive either regorafenib (136 [67%]) or placebo (68 [33%]). After a median follow-up of 7·4 months (IQR 4·3-12·2), overall survival was significantly better with regorafenib

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of a novel recombinant adenovirus type-5 vector-based Ebola vaccine in healthy adults in China: preliminary report of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Cai; Hou, Li-Hua; Li, Jing-Xin; Wu, Shi-Po; Liu, Pei; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Hu, Yue-Mei; Meng, Fan-Yue; Xu, Jun-Jie; Tang, Rong; Zhang, Jin-Long; Wang, Wen-Juan; Duan, Lei; Chu, Kai; Liang, Qi; Hu, Jia-Lei; Luo, Li; Zhu, Tao; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Chen, Wei

    2015-06-06

    Up to now, all tested Ebola virus vaccines have been based on the virus strain from the Zaire outbreak in 1976. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a novel recombinant adenovirus type-5 vector-based Ebola vaccine expressing the glycoprotein of the 2014 epidemic strain. We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 clinical trial at one site in Taizhou County, Jiangsu Province, China. Healthy adults (aged 18-60 years) were sequentially enrolled and randomly assigned (2:1), by computer-generated block randomisation (block size of six), to receive placebo, low-dose adenovirus type-5 vector-based Ebola vaccine, or high-dose vaccine. Randomisation was pre-stratified by dose group. All participants, investigators, and laboratory staff were masked to treatment allocation. The primary safety endpoint was occurrence of solicited adverse reactions within 7 days of vaccination. The primary immunogenicity endpoints were glycoprotein-specific antibody titres and T-cell responses at day 28 after the vaccination. Analysis was by intention to treat. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02326194. Between Dec 28, 2014, and Jan 9, 2015, 120 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive placebo (n=40), low-dose vaccine (n=40), or high-dose vaccine. Participants were followed up for 28 days. Overall, 82 (68%) participants reported at least one solicited adverse reaction within 7 days of vaccination (n=19 in the placebo group vs n=27 in the low-dose group vs n=36 in the high-dose group; p=0·0002). The most common reaction was mild pain at the injection site, which was reported in eight (20%) participants in the placebo group, 14 (35%) participants in the low-dose group, and 29 (73%) participants in the high-dose vaccine group (p<0·0001). We recorded no statistical differences in other adverse reactions and laboratory tests across groups. Glycoprotein-specific antibody titres were significantly increased in

  2. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  3. Supportive text messaging for depression and comorbid alcohol use disorder: single-blind randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O; Ahern, Sinead; McLoughlin, Declan M; Farren, Conor K

    2012-12-10

    Mobile phone text message technology has the potential to improve outcomes for patients with depression and co-morbid Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). To perform a randomised rater-blinded trial to explore the effects of supportive text messages on mood and abstinence outcomes for patients with depression and co-morbid AUD. Participants (n=54) with a DSM IV diagnosis of unipolar depression and AUD who completed an in-patient dual diagnosis treatment programme were randomised to receive twice daily supportive text messages (n=26) or a fortnightly thank you text message (n=28) for three months. Primary outcome measures were Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scores and Cumulative Abstinence Duration (CAD) in days at three months. NCT0137868. There was a statistically significant difference in three month BDI-II scores between the intervention and control groups; 8.5 (SD=8.0) vs. 16.7 (SD=10.3) respectively after adjusting for the baseline scores, F (1, 49)=9.54, p=0.003, η(p)(2)=0.17. The mean difference in change BDI-II scores was -7.9 (95% CI -13.06 to -2.76, Cohen'sd=0.85). There was a trend for a greater CAD in the text message group than the control group: 88.3 (SD=6.2) vs. 79.3 (SD=24.1), t=1.78, df=48, p=0.08. Limitations of the study include the small sample size, the potential for loss of rater blinding and the lack of long term follow-up to determine the longer term effects of the intervention. Supportive text messages have the potential to improve outcomes for patients with comorbid depression and alcohol dependency syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunity duration of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 vector-based Ebola vaccine and a homologous prime-boost immunisation in healthy adults in China: final report of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Xin; Hou, Li-Hua; Meng, Fan-Yue; Wu, Shi-Po; Hu, Yue-Mei; Liang, Qi; Chu, Kai; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Jun-Jie; Tang, Rong; Wang, Wen-Juan; Liu, Pei; Hu, Jia-Lei; Luo, Li; Jiang, Rong; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Chen, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The 2013-15 Ebola virus disease epidemic in west Africa greatly accelerated the development of Ebola vaccine. We aimed to analyse the immune persistence induced by one shot of an adenovirus type-5 vector-based Ebola virus vaccine up to 6 months and the effect of boosting with a homologous vector in healthy adults in China. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 clinical trial in one site in Jiangsu Province, China, 120 healthy adults aged 18-60 years received an initial dose of intramuscular adenovirus type-5 Ebola virus vaccine of 4·0 × 10 10 viral particles, 1·6 × 10 11 viral particles, or placebo, and were followed up to day 168. Participants were subsequently re-recruited to receive a booster dose of the same vaccine or placebo, in the same dose, at month 6. Women who were pregnant, breastfeeding, or planned to become pregnant during the next month were excluded. Randomisation was conducted by computer-generated block randomisation. Randomisation data were unmasked for interim analysis of the data obtained between days 0-28 but not disclosed to participants or site staff. Safety and immunogenicity analysis were done on the intention-to-treat population. We aimed to assess the safety profile of the experimental vaccine and the immunity responses to a single-dose immunisation or a homologous prime-boost regimen. Primary outcomes were Ebola glycoprotein-specific ELISA antibody responses 28 days post-boost and the occurrences of adverse reactions post-boost. The original trial and the extended booster study were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT02326194 and NCT02533791, respectively. Between Dec 28, 2014, and Jan 9, 2015, we enrolled 210 volunteers. 90 participants were not randomised due to not meeting inclusion criteria (61), meeting exclusion criteria (4), or withdrawal of consent (25). 120 people were randomly assigned to receive intramuscular Ebola vaccine at 4·0 × 10 10 viral particles (low dose, n=40

  5. Efficacy and tolerability of myrtol standardized in acute bronchitis. A multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group clinical trial vs. cefuroxime and ambroxol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, H; de Mey, C; Carls, C; Ryś, A; Geib, A; Wittig, T

    2000-08-01

    Myrtol standardized (Gelomyrtol forte) is a phytotherapeutic extract (distillate) consisting mainly of three monoterpenes: (+)alpha-pinene, d-limonene and 1,8-cineole. This study describes and compares the efficacy, safety and tolerability of a 2-week treatment with myrtol stand. (4 x 300 mg, day 1-14), cefuroxime (CAS 55268-75-2) (2 x 250 mg daily for day 1-6), ambroxol (CAS 18683-91-5) (3 x 30 mg for day 1-3, 2 x 30 mg for days 4-14) and matched placebo in acute bronchitis. 676 male and female outpatients, aged > or = 18 years, with acute bronchitis of recent onset (within last 5 days), with an FEV1 > 75% of the normal EGKS-value and without evidence or suspicion of chronic pulmonary disease or any further confounding illness were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to a 2-week treatment course with either myrtol stand. (N = 170), cefuroxime (N = 171), ambroxol (N = 163) or placebo (N = 172) in a double-blind, placebo-matched, parallel-group fashion. Evaluations were at baseline (visit 1), after 1 and 2 weeks of treatment (visits 2 and 3) and at 2 weeks after conclusion of the treatments (visit 4). Responder- and non-responder rates (primary), signs (abnormal auscultation), symptoms (daily diary data on nightly cough, coughing fits during the day, sputum consistence and general well-being; visit data on bronchial hyperreactivity and absence/presence of associated symptoms), FEV1, overall efficacy, absence of relapse, safety and tolerability (adverse events, laboratory screens, vital signs and physical examination). Criteria were evaluated for the intention-to-treat data-set (ITT) and the 'efficacy evaluable' sample (EAP), i.e. excluding patients with missing values (incl. discontinued non-responders and drop-outs for other reasons) at the time of assessment. The signs and symptoms of acute bronchitis regressed readily in all treatment groups, but regression was slower and less complete in the patients treated with placebo. In patients treated

  6. Virtual-reality-based cognitive behavioural therapy versus waiting list control for paranoid ideation and social avoidance in patients with psychotic disorders: a single-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot-Kolder, Roos M C A; Geraets, Chris N W; Veling, Wim; van Beilen, Marije; Staring, Anton B P; Gijsman, Harm J; Delespaul, Philippe A E G; van der Gaag, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Many patients with psychotic disorders have persistent paranoid ideation and avoid social situations because of suspiciousness and anxiety. We investigated the effects of virtual-reality-based cognitive behavioural therapy (VR-CBT) on paranoid thoughts and social participation. In this randomised controlled trial at seven Dutch mental health centres, outpatients aged 18-65 years with a DSM-IV-diagnosed psychotic disorder and paranoid ideation in the past month were randomly assigned (1:1) via block randomisation to VR-CBT (in addition to treatment as usual) or the waiting list control group (treatment as usual). VR-CBT consisted of 16 individual therapy sessions (each 1 h long). Assessments were done at baseline, after treatment (ie, 3 months from baseline), and at a 6 month follow-up visit. The primary outcome was social participation, which we operationalised as the amount of time spent with other people, momentary paranoia, perceived social threat, and momentary anxiety. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial was retrospectively registered with ISRCTN, number 12929657. Between April 1, 2014, and Dec 31, 2015, 116 patients with a psychotic disorder were randomly assigned, 58 to the VR-CBT group and 58 to the waiting list control group. Compared with the control, VR-CBT did not significantly increase the amount of time spent with other people at the post-treatment assessment. Momentary paranoid ideation (b=-0·331 [95% CI -0·432 to -0·230], pproblems were mediators of change in paranoid ideation. No adverse events were reported relating to the therapy or assessments. Our results suggest that the addition of VR-CBT to standard treatment can reduce paranoid ideation and momentary anxiety in patients with a psychotic disorder. Fonds NutsOhra, Stichting tot Steun VCVGZ. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cognitive and mood effects of a nutrient enriched breakfast bar in healthy adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, David; Wightman, Emma; Forster, Joanne; Khan, Julie; Haskell, Crystal; Jackson, Philippa

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Few previous studies have assessed the effects of concomitant administration of multiple potentially psychoactive nutrients. Methods: 95 healthy adult participants consumed either a nutrient enriched breakfast bar (containing α-Linolenic acid, l-tyrosine, l-theanine, vitamins, minerals and 21.5 mg of caffeine) or an isocaloric, macronutrient matched control bar for 56 days. Cognitive function and mood were assessed pre-dose and at 40- and 160-min post-dose on the 1st and 56th day ...

  8. Dental plaque, gingival inflammation and tooth -discolouration with different commercial -formulations of 0.2% chlorhexidine rinse: a double-blind randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Filippo; Gabriele, Mario; D'Aiuto, Francesco; Suvan, Jeanie; Tonelli, Matteo; Cei, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of various formulations of chlorhexidine 0.2% (CHX) in terms of plaque and gingival bleeding control compared to each other and to saline rinse (CTRL) over a 35-day rinsing period. Seventy subjects were randomly allocated to one of 4 groups rinsing twice daily for 35 days. The different groups used CHX 0.2% rinse with alcohol (CHX1) and without alcohol (CHX2), with an antidiscolouration system (CHX3) or saline rinse (CTRL). Clinical examinations to evaluate full-mouth plaque scores (FMPS) and periodontal parameters were performed at baseline, 7, 21 and 35 days. Tooth discolouration (TD) was measured at each time point using digital photographs and spectrophotometric analysis. At 35 days, CTRL showed the highest levels of plaque. The mean changes in FMPS from baseline were 69.8% ± 6.8 for CHX1, 57.5% ± 9.8 for CHX2, 43.7% ± 9.8 for CHX3 and 25.8% ± 7.7 for CTRL. Statistically significant differences were demonstrated between CHX1 and CHX3 (p = 0.02), CHX2 vs CHX3 (p ≤ 0.05) and CHX1/CHX2 vs CHX3 (p plaque reduction. Interestingly, the newest formulation showed a higher control of gingival inflammation. Staining was associated with lower plaque levels.

  9. Effect of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V supplementation on fecal bifidobacteria in preterm neonates--a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Patole

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Probiotic supplementation significantly reduces the risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC and all cause mortality in preterm neonates. Independent quality assessment is important before introducing routine probiotic supplementation in this cohort. AIM: To assess product quality, and confirm that Bifidobacterium breve (B. breve M-16V supplementation will increase fecal B. breve counts without adverse effects. METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: Strain identity (16S rRNA gene sequencing, viability over 2 year shelf-life were confirmed, and microbial contamination of the product was ruled out. In a controlled trial preterm neonates (Gestation <33 weeks ready to commence or on feeds for <12 hours were randomly allocated to either B. breve M-16V (3×109 cfu/day or placebo (dextrin supplementation until the corrected age 37 weeks. Stool samples were collected before (S1 and after 3 weeks of supplementation (S2 for studying fecal B. breve levels using quantitative PCR (Primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included total fecal bifidobacteria and NEC≥Stage II. Categorical and continuous outcomes were analysed using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests, and McNemar and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests for paired comparisons. RESULTS: A total of 159 neonates (Probiotic: 79, Placebo: 80 were enrolled. Maternal and neonatal demographic characteristics were comparable between the groups. The proportion of neonates with detectable B. breve increased significantly post intervention: Placebo: [S1:2/66 (3%, S2: 25/66 (38%, p<0.001] Probiotic: [S1: 29/74 (40%, S2: 67/74 (91%, p<0.001]. Median S1 B. breve counts in both groups were below detection (<4.7 log cells x g(-1, increasing significantly in S2 for the probiotic group (log 8.6 while remaining <4.7 log in the control group (p<0.001. There were no adverse effects including probiotic sepsis and no deaths. NEC≥Stage II occurred in only 1 neonate (placebo group. CONCLUSION: B. breve M-16V is a suitable probiotic

  10. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation versus sham electrical stimulation for the treatment of faecal incontinence in adults (CONFIDeNT): a double-blind, multicentre, pragmatic, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Charles H; Horrocks, Emma J; Bremner, Stephen A; Stevens, Natasha; Norton, Christine; O'Connell, P Ronan; Eldridge, Sandra

    2015-10-24

    Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) is a new ambulatory therapy for faecal incontinence. Data from case series suggest it has beneficial outcomes in 50-80% patients; however its effectiveness against sham electrical stimulation has not been investigated. We therefore aimed to assess the short-term efficacy of PTNS against sham electrical stimulation in adults with faecal incontinence. We did a double-blind, multicentre, pragmatic, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial (CONtrol of Faecal Incontinence using Distal NeuromodulaTion [CONFIDeNT]) in 17 specialist hospital units in the UK that had the skills to manage patients with faecal incontinence. Eligible participants aged 18 years or older with substantial faecal incontinence for whom conservative treatments (such as dietary changes and pelvic floor exercises) had not worked, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either PTNS (via the Urgent PC neuromodulation system) or sham stimulation (via a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation machine to the lateral forefoot) once per week for 12 weeks. Randomisation was done with permuted block sizes of two, four, and six, and was stratified by sex and then by centre for women. Patients and outcome assessors were both masked to treatment allocation for the 14-week duration of the trial (but investigators giving the treatment were not masked). The primary outcome was a clinical response to treatment, which we defined as a 50% or greater reduction in episodes of faecal incontinence per week. We assessed this outcome after 12 treatment sessions, using data from patients' bowel diaries. Analysis was by intention to treat, and missing data were multiply imputed. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number 88559475, and is closed to new participants. Between Jan 23, 2012, and Oct 31, 2013, we randomly assigned 227 eligible patients (of 373 screened) to receive either PTNS (n=115) or sham stimulation (n=112). 12 patients withdrew from the trial

  11. Efficacy and safety of a subacromial continuous ropivacaine infusion for post-operative pain management following arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery: A protocol for a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Simon N

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major shoulder surgery often results in severe post-operative pain and a variety of interventions have been developed in an attempt to address this. The continuous slow infusion of a local anaesthetic directly into the operative site has recently gained popularity but it is expensive and as yet there is little conclusive evidence that it provides additional benefits over other methods of post-operative pain management. Methods/Design This will be a randomised, placebo-controlled trial involving 158 participants. Following diagnostic arthroscopy, all participants will undergo arthroscopic subacromial decompression with or without rotator cuff repair, all operations performed by a single surgeon. Participants, the surgeon, nurses caring for the patients and outcome assessors will be blinded to treatment allocation. All participants will receive a pre-incision bolus injection of 20 mls of ropivacaine 1% into the shoulder and an intra-operative intravenous bolus of parecoxib 40 mg. Using concealed allocation participants will be randomly assigned to active treatment (local anaesthetic ropivacaine 0.75% or placebo (normal saline administered continuously into the subacromial space by an elastomeric pump at 5 mls per hour post-operatively. Patient controlled opioid analgesia and oral analgesics will be available for breakthrough pain. Outcome assessment will be at 15, 30 and 60 minutes, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours, and 2 or 4 months for decompression or decompression plus repair respectively. The primary end point will be average pain at rest over the first 12-hour post-operative period on a verbal analogue pain score. Secondary end points will be average pain at rest over the second 12-hour post-operative period, maximal pain at rest over the first and second 12-hour periods, amount of rescue medication used, length of inpatient stay and incidence of post-operative adhesive capsulitis. Discussion The results of this trial will

  12. Effect of dietary prebiotic supplementation on advanced glycation, insulin resistance and inflammatory biomarkers in adults with pre-diabetes: a study protocol for a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised crossover clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellow, Nicole J; Coughlan, Melinda T; Savige, Gayle S; Reid, Christopher M

    2014-07-10

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) contribute to the development of vascular complications of diabetes and have been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Since AGEs are generated within foodstuffs upon food processing, it is increasingly recognised that the modern diet is replete with AGEs. AGEs are thought to stimulate chronic low-grade inflammation and promote oxidative stress and have been linked to the development of insulin resistance. Simple therapeutic strategies targeted at attenuating the progression of chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance are urgently required to prevent or slow the development of type 2 diabetes in susceptible individuals. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota has been shown to confer a number of health benefits to the host, but its effect on advanced glycation is unknown. The aim of this article is to describe the methodology of a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised crossover trial designed to determine the effect of 12 week consumption of a prebiotic dietary supplement on the advanced glycation pathway, insulin sensitivity and chronic low-grade inflammation in adults with pre-diabetes. Thirty adults with pre-diabetes (Impaired Glucose Tolerance or Impaired Fasting Glucose) aged between 40-60 years will be randomly assigned to receive either 10 grams of prebiotic (inulin/oligofructose) daily or 10 grams placebo (maltodextrin) daily for 12 weeks. After a 2-week washout period, study subjects will crossover to receive the alternative dietary treatment for 12 weeks. The primary outcome is the difference in markers of the advanced glycation pathway carboxymethyllysine (CML) and methylglyoxal (MG) between experimental and control treatments. Secondary outcomes include HbA1c, insulin sensitivity, lipid levels, blood pressure, serum glutathione, adiponectin, IL-6, E-selectin, myeloperoxidase, C-reactive protein, Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), soluble receptor for AGE (sRAGE), urinary 8

  13. A pilot study to evaluate the effect of Taeumjowi-tang on obesity in Korean adults: study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunju; Park, Jeong-Su; Cheon, ChunHoo; Yang, Yong Joon; An, Changsuk; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Song, Yun-Kyung; Go, Hoyeon; Lee, Ju Ah; Shin, Yongcheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2012-04-07

    Obesity, which is described as excessive or abnormal body fat, increases the risk of diet-related diseases. In Korea and around the world, the prevalence of obesity has grown annually from 1998 to 2008. This growth has continued despite various therapeutic efforts. The discovery of new and alternative treatments for obesity should be considered an important priority. Taeumjowi-tang (TJ001), a traditional Korean medicinal extract consisting of eight herbs, is a widely used herbal remedy for obesity in Korea. However, the efficacy and safety of TJ001 have not been fully investigated in a clinical trial. The purpose of this pilot study is to estimate obesity-related parameters and to assess the efficacy and safety of TJ001. Our study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre clinical trial of Taeumjowi-tang (TJ001). For this study, we will recruit obese Korean patients of both sexes, ages 18 to 65 years, from four university hospitals. A total of 104 subjects will be recruited. The participants will receive either 7 g of TJ001 or a placebo three times daily for 12 weeks. The primary end point will be the rate of subjects who lose at least 5% of their baseline body weight. The secondary end points will be changes in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/hip circumference ratio, lipid profiles, body fat composition, blood pressure, fasting glucose concentration, C-reactive protein and questionnaires related to the quality of life. The outcomes will be measured every 4 weeks. The study period will be 12 weeks and will include a total of five visits with each subject (at screening and at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks). The results of our study will inform various estimates of TJ001 and will serve as the basis for a larger-scale trial. This study will assess the efficacy and safety of TJ001 as an alternative herbal remedy for obesity. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN87153759.

  14. Cognitive and Mood Effects of a Nutrient Enriched Breakfast Bar in Healthy Adults: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Groups Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Kennedy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Few previous studies have assessed the effects of concomitant administration of multiple potentially psychoactive nutrients. Methods: 95 healthy adult participants consumed either a nutrient enriched breakfast bar (containing α-Linolenic acid, l-tyrosine, l-theanine, vitamins, minerals and 21.5 mg of caffeine or an isocaloric, macronutrient matched control bar for 56 days. Cognitive function and mood were assessed pre-dose and at 40- and 160-min post-dose on the 1st and 56th day of the intervention period. Results: The results demonstrated acute effects of treatment across post-dose assessments on both assessment days in terms of alertness, and on tasks assessing attention, working and episodic memory and executive function, including cognitively demanding Serial subtraction and Rapid Visual Information Processing tasks. There were no evident chronic effects independent of the breakfast bars’ acute effects. Discussion: These results demonstrate that a nutrient enriched breakfast bar with low caffeine content can exert striking beneficial effects on acute cognitive function and alertness.

  15. Cognitive and Mood Effects of a Nutrient Enriched Breakfast Bar in Healthy Adults: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Groups Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David O; Wightman, Emma L; Forster, Joanne; Khan, Julie; Haskell-Ramsay, Crystal F; Jackson, Philippa A

    2017-12-07

    Few previous studies have assessed the effects of concomitant administration of multiple potentially psychoactive nutrients. 95 healthy adult participants consumed either a nutrient enriched breakfast bar (containing α-Linolenic acid, l-tyrosine, l-theanine, vitamins, minerals and 21.5 mg of caffeine) or an isocaloric, macronutrient matched control bar for 56 days. Cognitive function and mood were assessed pre-dose and at 40- and 160-min post-dose on the 1st and 56th day of the intervention period. The results demonstrated acute effects of treatment across post-dose assessments on both assessment days in terms of alertness, and on tasks assessing attention, working and episodic memory and executive function, including cognitively demanding Serial subtraction and Rapid Visual Information Processing tasks. There were no evident chronic effects independent of the breakfast bars' acute effects. These results demonstrate that a nutrient enriched breakfast bar with low caffeine content can exert striking beneficial effects on acute cognitive function and alertness.

  16. Effect of oligofructose supplementation on body weight in overweight and obese children: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Anna; Szajewska, Hania

    2014-12-28

    Limited evidence suggests that the dietary inclusion of oligofructose, an inulin-type fructan with prebiotic properties, may increase satiety and, thus, reduce energy intake and body weight in overweight and obese adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of oligofructose supplementation for 12 weeks on the BMI of overweight and obese children. A total of ninety-seven children aged 7-18 years who were overweight and obese (BMI >85th percentile) were randomly assigned to receive placebo (maltodextrin) or oligofructose (both at an age-dependent dose: 8 g/d for children aged 7-11 years and 15 g/d for children aged 12-18 years) for 12 weeks. Before the intervention, all children received dietetic advice and they were encouraged to engage in physical activity. The primary outcome measure was the BMI-for-age z-score difference between the groups at the end of the intervention. Data from seventy-nine (81%) children were available for analysis. At 12 weeks, the BMI-for-age z-score difference did not differ between the experimental (n 40) and control (n 39) groups (mean difference 0.002, 95% CI - 0.11, 0.1). There were also no significant differences between the groups with regard to any of the secondary outcomes, such as the mean BMI-for-age z-score, percentage of body weight reduction and the difference in total body fat. Adverse effects were similar in both groups. In conclusion, oligofructose supplementation for 12 weeks has no effect on body weight in overweight and obese children.

  17. Randomised, double-blind trial of intravenous diltiazem versus glyceryl trinitrate for unstable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobel, EJAM; Hautvast, RWM; vanGilst, WH; Spanjaard, JN; Hillege, HL; DeJongste, MJL; Molhoek, GP; Lie, KI

    1995-01-01

    The effect of dihydropyridines in patients with unstable angina is discouraging. To find out the effect of the non- dihydropyridine-like calcium-channel blocker diltiazem, a randomised, double-blind trial was conducted comparing diltiazem with glyceryl trinitrate. both given intravenously, in 129

  18. Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement (ADVANCE-2): a randomised double-blind trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Michael Rud; Raskob, Gary E; Gallus, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    efficacy and safety of these drugs after elective total knee replacement. METHODS: In ADVANCE-2, a multicentre, randomised, double-blind phase 3 study, patients undergoing elective unilateral or bilateral total knee replacement were randomly allocated through an interactive central telephone system...

  19. A single blind randomised controlled trial of the impact on patient-reported pain of arm elevation versus exsanguination prior to tourniquet inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, D A; Penny, J B; Baker, P

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the pain caused by the application of a tourniquet after exsanguination of the upper limb with that occurring after simple elevation. We used 26 healthy volunteers (52 arms), each of whom acted as their own matched control. The primary outcome measure was the total pain experienced by each volunteer while the tourniquet was inflated for 20 minutes. This was calculated as the area under the pain curve for each individual subject. Secondary outcomes were pain at each time point; the total pain experienced during the recovery phase; the ability to tolerate the tourniquet and the time for full recovery after deflation of the tourniquet. There was a significant difference in the area under the pain curves in favour of exsanguination (mean difference 8.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0 to 13.7, p = 0.004). There was no difference between the dominant and non-dominant arms (mean difference -0.2; 95% CI -23.2 to 22.8, p = 0.99). The area under both recovery curves were similar (mean difference 0.7; 95% CI -6.0 to 4.6, p = 0.78). There was no statistical difference in recovery time, the actual mean difference being 30 seconds longer in the elevation group (p = 0.06). Many orthopaedic and plastic surgery procedures are done under local anaesthetic or regional block where a bloodless field and a motionless patient are essential. Optimising patient comfort during surgery with the tourniquet inflated is thus a priority. This study is useful in that it compares two common methods of preparation of the upper limb prior to tourniquet inflation and which have not previously been compared in this context. Following on the results of this study, we can confidently conclude that exsanguinating the upper limb before inflating a tourniquet is more comfortable than simply elevating the arm for patients undergoing a procedure under local or regional block, both during the procedure and in the recovery phase. Exsanguination rather than elevation is

  20. Efficacy of human rotavirus vaccine against severe gastroenteritis in Malawian children in the first two years of life: a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunliffe, Nigel A; Witte, Desiree; Ngwira, Bagrey M; Todd, Stacy; Bostock, Nancy J; Turner, Ann M; Chimpeni, Philips; Victor, John C; Steele, A Duncan; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Neuzil, Kathleen M

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among African infants and young children. A phase III, placebo-controlled, multi-centre clinical trial of a live, oral G1P[8] human rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) undertaken in Malawi and South Africa significantly reduced the incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in the first year of life. We now report on vaccine efficacy in the Malawi cohort of children who were followed into the second year of life. A total of 1,773 healthy infants were enrolled in Blantyre, Malawi into three groups. Two groups received three doses of RIX4414 or placebo at age 6, 10, and 14 weeks and the third group received placebo at 6 weeks and RIX4414 at age 10 and 14 weeks. Subjects were followed by weekly home visits for episodes of gastroenteritis until 1 year of age, and were then re-consented for further follow-up to 18-24 months of age. Severity of gastroenteritis episodes was graded according to the Vesikari scoring system. Seroconversion for anti-rotavirus IgA was determined on a subset of children by using ELISA on pre- and post-vaccine blood samples. Rotavirus VP7 (G) and VP4 (P) genotypes were determined by RT-PCR. A total of 70/1030 (6.8%, 95% CI 5.3 - 8.5) subjects in the pooled (2 dose plus 3 dose) RIX4414 group compared with 53/483 (11.0%, 8.3 – 14.1) subjects in the placebo group developed severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in the entire follow-up period (Vaccine Efficacy 38.1% (9.8 – 57.3). The point estimate of efficacy in the second year of life (17.6%; −59.2 – 56.0) was lower than in the first year of life (49.4%; 19.2 – 68.3). There were non-significant trends towards a higher efficacy in the second year of life among children who received the three-dose schedule compared with the two-dose schedule, and a higher anti-rotavirus IgA seroresponse rate in the three-dose RIX4414 group. Rotavirus strains detected included genotype G12 (31%); G9 (23%); and G8 (18%); only 18% of strains belonged

  1. Effect of once-daily, modified-release hydrocortisone versus standard glucocorticoid therapy on metabolism and innate immunity in patients with adrenal insufficiency (DREAM): a single-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidori, Andrea M; Venneri, Mary Anna; Graziadio, Chiara; Simeoli, Chiara; Fiore, Daniela; Hasenmajer, Valeria; Sbardella, Emilia; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Pozza, Carlotta; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Morrone, Stefania; Santoni, Angela; Naro, Fabio; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario; Lenzi, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Conventional treatment of patients with adrenal insufficiency involves administration of glucocorticoids multiple times a day and has been associated with weight gain and metabolic impairment. The optimal glucocorticoid replacement therapy for these patients is highly debated because of the scarcity of evidence from randomised trials. We aimed to establish whether the timing and pharmacokinetics of glucocorticoid replacement therapy affect the metabolism and immune system of patients with adrenal insufficiency. We did a single-blind randomised controlled trial at two reference university hospitals in Italy. Eligible patients (aged 18-80 years) with adrenal insufficiency were on conventional glucocorticoid therapy and had been stable for at least 3 months before enrolment. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) with a computer-generated random sequence stratified by type of adrenal insufficiency and BMI to continue conventional glucocorticoid therapy (standard treatment group) or to switch to an equivalent dose of once-daily, modified-release oral hydrocortisone (switch treatment group). Outcome assessors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was bodyweight change from baseline to 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes included immune cell profiles, susceptibility to infections, and quality of life. Efficacy analyses included all patients who received at least one dose of the study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02277587. Between March 1, 2014, and June 30, 2016, 89 patients with adrenal insufficiency were randomly assigned to continue standard glucocorticoid therapy (n=43) or to switch to once-daily, modified-release hydrocortisone (n=46). At 24 weeks, bodyweight reduction was superior in patients in the once-daily hydrocortisone group compared with those in the standard treatment group (-2·1 kg [95% CI -4·0 to -0·3] vs 1·9 kg [-0·1 to 3·9]; treatment difference -4·0 kg, 95% CI -6·9 to -1·1; p=0·008). Additionally

  2. Intravenous desmoteplase in patients with acute ischaemic stroke selected by MRI perfusion-diffusion weighted imaging or perfusion CT (DIAS-2): a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Werner; Furlan, Anthony J; Al-Rawi, Yasir; Davalos, Antoni; Fiebach, Jochen B; Gruber, Franz; Kaste, Markku; Lipka, Leslie J; Pedraza, Salvador; Ringleb, Peter A; Rowley, Howard A; Schneider, Dietmar; Schwamm, Lee H; Leal, Joaquin Serena; Söhngen, Mariola; Teal, Phil A; Wilhelm-Ogunbiyi, Karin; Wintermark, Max; Warach, Steven

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that desmoteplase, a novel plasminogen activator, has clinical benefit when given 3-9 h after the onset of the symptoms of stroke in patients with presumptive tissue at risk that is identified by magnetic resonance perfusion imaging (PI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-ranging study, patients with acute ischaemic stroke and tissue at risk seen on either MRI or CT imaging were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to 90 microg/kg desmoteplase, 125 microg/kg desmoteplase, or placebo within 3-9 h after the onset of symptoms of stroke. The primary endpoint was clinical response rates at day 90, defined as a composite of improvement in National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) score of 8 points or more or an NIHSS score of 1 point or less, a modified Rankin scale score of 0-2 points, and a Barthel index of 75-100. Secondary endpoints included change in lesion volume between baseline and day 30, rates of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage, and mortality rates. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00111852. Between June, 2005, and March, 2007, 193 patients were randomised, and 186 patients received treatment: 57 received 90 microg/kg desmoteplase; 66 received 125 microg/kg desmoteplase; and 63 received placebo. 158 patients completed the study. The median baseline NIHSS score was 9 (IQR 6-14) points, and 30% (53 of 179) of the patients had a visible occlusion of a vessel at presentation. The core lesion and the mismatch volumes were small (median volumes were 10.6 cm(3) and 52.5 cm(3), respectively). The clinical response rates at day 90 were 47% (27 of 57) for 90 microg/kg desmoteplase, 36% (24 of 66) for 125 microg/kg desmoteplase, and 46% (29 of 63) for placebo. The median changes in lesion volume were: 90 microg/kg desmoteplase 14.0% (0.5 cm(3)); 125 microg/kg desmoteplase 10.8% (0.3 cm(3)); placebo -10.0% (-0.9 cm(3

  3. An intensified dosing schedule of subcutaneous methotrexate in patients with moderate to severe plaque-type psoriasis (METOP): a 52 week, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Richard B; Mrowietz, Ulrich; von Kiedrowski, Ralph; Niesmann, Johannes; Wilsmann-Theis, Dagmar; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Zschocke, Ina; Falk, Thomas M; Blödorn-Schlicht, Norbert; Reich, Kristian

    2017-02-04

    Methotrexate is one of the most commonly used systemic drugs for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis; however, high-quality evidence for its use is sparse and limited to use of oral dosing. We aimed to assess the effect of an intensified dosing schedule of subcutaneous methotrexate in patients with moderate to severe plaque-type psoriasis. We did this prospective, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial (METOP) at 16 sites in Germany, France, the Netherlands, and the UK. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had a diagnosis of chronic plaque psoriasis for at least 6 months before baseline, had currently moderate to severe disease, and were methotrexate treatment-naive. Participants were randomly assigned (3:1), via a computer-generated random number sequence integrated into an electronic data capture system, to receive either methotrexate at a starting dose of 17·5 mg/week or placebo for the first 16 weeks, followed by methotrexate treatment of all patients up to 52 weeks (methotrexate-methotrexate vs placebo-methotrexate groups). Dose escalation to 22·5 mg/week was allowed after 8 weeks of methotrexate treatment if patients had not achieved at least a 50% reduction in baseline Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score (PASI), with corresponding volume increases in placebo injections. Treatment was combined with folic acid 5 mg/week. Group allocation was concealed from participants and investigators from the time of randomisation until an interim database lock at week 16, and was open label from week 16 onwards, with no masking of participants or investigators. The primary efficacy endpoint was a 75% reduction in PASI score (PASI 75) from baseline to week 16. We did analysis by modified intention to treat, with non-responder imputation. This study is registered with EudraCT, number 2012-002716-10. Between Feb 22, 2013, and May 13, 2015, we randomly assigned 120 patients to receive methotrexate (n=91) or placebo (n

  4. Ipatasertib plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel as first-line therapy for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (LOTUS): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Bae; Dent, Rebecca; Im, Seock-Ah; Espié, Marc; Blau, Sibel; Tan, Antoinette R; Isakoff, Steven J; Oliveira, Mafalda; Saura, Cristina; Wongchenko, Matthew J; Kapp, Amy V; Chan, Wai Y; Singel, Stina M; Maslyar, Daniel J; Baselga, José

    2017-10-01

    The oral AKT inhibitor ipatasertib is being investigated in cancers with a high prevalence of PI3K/AKT pathway activation, including triple-negative breast cancer. The LOTUS trial investigated the addition of ipatasertib to paclitaxel as first-line therapy for triple-negative breast cancer. In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 trial, women aged 18 years or older with measurable, inoperable, locally advanced or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer previously untreated with systemic therapy were recruited from 44 hospitals in South Korea, the USA, France, Spain, Taiwan, Singapore, Italy, and Belgium. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous paclitaxel 80 mg/m 2 (days 1, 8, 15) with either ipatasertib 400 mg or placebo once per day (days 1-21) every 28 days until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Randomisation was by stratified permuted blocks (block size of four) using an interactive web-response system with three stratification criteria: previous (neo)adjuvant therapy, chemotherapy-free interval, and tumour PTEN status. The co-primary endpoints were progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population and progression-free survival in the PTEN-low (by immunohistochemistry) population. This ongoing trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02162719). Between Sept 2, 2014, and Feb 4, 2016, 166 patients were assessed for eligibility and 124 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to paclitaxel plus ipatasertib (n=62) or paclitaxel plus placebo (n=62). Median follow-up was 10·4 months (IQR 6·5-14·1) in the ipatasertib group and 10·2 months (6·0-13·6) in the placebo group. Median progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population was 6·2 months (95% CI 3·8-9·0) with ipatasertib versus 4·9 months (3·6-5·4) with placebo (stratified hazard ratio [HR] 0·60, 95% CI 0·37-0·98; p=0·037) and in the 48 patients with PTEN-low tumours, median progression

  5. Subcutaneous golimumab for children with active polyarticular-course juvenile idiopathic arthritis : results of a multicentre, double-blind, randomised-withdrawal trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, Hermine I; Ruperto, Nicolino; Tzaribachev, Nikolay; Horneff, Gerd; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav G.; Panaviene, Violeta Vladislava; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Reiff, Andreas; Alexeeva, Ekaterina; Rubio-Pérez, Nadina; Keltsev, Vladimir; Kingsbury, Daniel J.; Del Rocio Maldonado Velázquez, Maria; Nikishina, Irina; Silverman, Earl D.; Joos, Rik; Smolewska, Elzbieta; Bandeira, Márcia; Minden, Kirsten; van Royen-Kerkhof, Annet; Emminger, Wolfgang; Foeldvari, Ivan; Lauwerys, Bernard R.; Sztajnbok, Flavio; Gilmer, Keith E.; Xu, Zhenhua; Leu, Jocelyn H.; Kim, Lilianne; Lamberth, Sarah L.; Loza, Matthew J.; Lovell, Daniel J.; Martini, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This report aims to determine the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK) and efficacy of subcutaneous golimumab in active polyarticular-course juvenile idiopathic arthritis (polyJIA). METHODS: In this three-part randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled withdrawal trial, all patients received

  6. Primary care based randomised, double blind trial of amoxicillin versus placebo for acute otitis media in children aged under 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damoiseaux, RAMJ; van Balen, FAM; Hoes, AW; Verheij, TJM; de Melker, RA

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media in children between 6 months and 2 years of age. Design Practice based, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. Setting 53 general practices in the Netherlands. Subjects 240 children aged 6 months to 2 years

  7. OnabotulinumtoxinA 100 U significantly improves all idiopathic overactive bladder symptoms and quality of life in patients with overactive bladder and urinary incontinence: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Christopher; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; MacDiarmid, Scott; Khullar, Vik; Radziszewski, Piotr; Nardo, Christopher; Thompson, Catherine; Zhou, Jihao; Haag-Molkenteller, Cornelia

    2013-08-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome with urinary incontinence (UI) is prevalent in the population and impairs health-related quality of life (HRQOL). To assess the impact on efficacy, safety, and HRQOL of onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX(®), Allergan, Inc.) treatment in patients with OAB with UI. This pivotal, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study enrolled patients with idiopathic OAB with ≥ 3 urgency UI episodes over 3 d and ≥ 8 micturitions per day who were inadequately managed by anticholinergics. OnabotulinumtoxinA at a 100U dose (n=277) or placebo (n=271), administered as 20 intradetrusor injections of 0.5 ml. Co-primary end points were change from baseline in the number of UI episodes per day and proportion of patients reporting positive treatment response on the treatment benefit scale (TBS) at week 12. Additional end points included other OAB symptoms (episodes of urinary urgency incontinence, micturition, urgency, and nocturia) and HRQOL (Incontinence Quality of Life [I-QOL], King's Health Questionnaire [KHQ]). Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs), postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume, and initiation of clean intermittent catheterisation (CIC). OnabotulinumtoxinA significantly decreased UI episodes per day at week 12 (-2.95 for onabotulinumtoxinA versus -1.03 for placebo; p<0.001). Reductions from baseline in all other OAB symptoms were also significantly greater following onabotulinumtoxinA compared with placebo (p ≤ 0.01). Patients perceived a significant improvement in their condition, as measured by patients with a positive treatment response on the TBS (62.8% for onabotulinumtoxinA versus 26.8% for placebo; p<0.001). Clinically meaningful improvements from baseline in all I-QOL and KHQ multi-item domains (p<0.001 versus placebo) indicated positive impact on HRQOL. AEs were mainly localised to the urinary tract. Mean PVR was higher in the onabotulinumtoxinA group (46.9 ml versus 10.1 ml at week 2; p<0

  8. Renal and Cardiovascular Effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition in combination with loop Diuretics in diabetic patients with Chronic Heart Failure (RECEDE-CHF): protocol for a randomised controlled double-blind cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordi, Natalie A; Mordi, Ify R; Singh, Jagdeep S; Baig, Fatima; Choy, Anna-Maria; McCrimmon, Rory J; Struthers, Allan D; Lang, Chim C

    2017-10-16

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and heart failure (HF) are a frequent combination, where treatment options remain limited. There has been increasing interest around the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and their use in patients with HF. Data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitor use with diuretics are limited. We hypothesise that SGLT2 inhibition may augment the effects of loop diuretics and the benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors may extend beyond those of their metabolic (glycaemic parameters and weight loss) and haemodynamic parameters. The effects of SGLT2 inhibitors as an osmotic diuretic and on natriuresis may underlie the cardiovascular and renal benefits demonstrated in the recent EMPA-REG study. To assess the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors when used in combination with a loop diuretic, the RECEDE-CHF (Renal and Cardiovascular Effects of SGLT2 inhibition in combination with loop Diuretics in diabetic patients with Chronic Heart Failure) trial is a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial conducted in a secondary care setting within NHS Tayside, Scotland. 34 eligible participants, aged between 18 and 80 years, with stable T2D and CHF will be recruited. Renal physiological testing will be performed at two points (week 1 and week 6) on each arm to assess the effect of 25 mg empagliflozin, on the primary and secondary outcomes. Participants will be enrolled in the trial for a total period between 14 and 16 weeks. The primary outcome will assess the effect of empagliflozin versus placebo on urine output. The secondary outcomes are to assess the effect of empagliflozin on glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C, urinary sodium excretion, urinary protein/creatinine ratio and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio when compared with placebo. Ethics approval was obtained by the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service. Results of the trial will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. NCT03226457; Pre-results. © Article author

  9. Adjuvant sunitinib or sorafenib for high-risk, non-metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (ECOG-ACRIN E2805): a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, phase 3 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Naomi B; Manola, Judith; Uzzo, Robert G; Flaherty, Keith T; Wood, Christopher G; Kane, Christopher; Jewett, Michael; Dutcher, Janice P; Atkins, Michael B; Pins, Michael; Wilding, George; Cella, David; Wagner, Lynne; Matin, Surena; Kuzel, Timothy M; Sexton, Wade J; Wong, Yu-Ning; Choueiri, Toni K; Pili, Roberto; Puzanov, Igor; Kohli, Manish; Stadler, Walter; Carducci, Michael; Coomes, Robert; DiPaola, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Renal-cell carcinoma is highly vascular, and proliferates primarily through dysregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. We tested sunitinib and sorafenib, two oral anti-angiogenic agents that are effective in advanced renal-cell carcinoma, in patients with resected local disease at high risk for recurrence. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, phase 3 trial, we enrolled patients at 226 study centres in the USA and Canada. Eligible patients had pathological stage high-grade T1b or greater with completely resected non-metastatic renal-cell carcinoma and adequate cardiac, renal, and hepatic function. Patients were stratified by recurrence risk, histology, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, and surgical approach, and computerised double-blind randomisation was done centrally with permuted blocks. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 54 weeks of sunitinib 50 mg per day orally throughout the first 4 weeks of each 6 week cycle, sorafenib 400 mg twice per day orally throughout each cycle, or placebo. Placebo could be sunitinib placebo given continuously for 4 weeks of every 6 week cycle or sorafenib placebo given twice per day throughout the study. The primary objective was to compare disease-free survival between each experimental group and placebo in the intention-to-treat population. All treated patients with at least one follow-up assessment were included in the safety analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00326898. Findings Between April 24, 2006, and Sept 1, 2010, 1943 patients from the National Clinical Trials Network were randomly assigned to sunitinib (n=647), sorafenib (n=649), or placebo (n=647). Following high rates of toxicity-related discontinuation after 1323 patients had enrolled (treatment discontinued by 193 [44%] of 438 patients on sunitinib, 199 [45%] of 441 patients on sorafenib), the starting dose of each

  10. Skeletal effects and functional outcome with olpadronate in children with osteogenesis imperfecta: a 2-year randomised placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakkers, Ralph; Kok, Dieke; Engelbert, Raoul; van Dongen, Alice; Jansen, Maarten; Pruijs, Hans; Verbout, Ab; Schweitzer, Dave; Uiterwaal, Cuno

    2004-01-01

    Non-randomised studies have suggested beneficial effects of bisphosphonates in osteogenesis imperfecta. We assessed the effects of oral olpadronate in children with this disorder in a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. 34 children recruited from the Dutch national centre for

  11. Effective treatment of heavy and/or prolonged menstrual bleeding without organic cause: pooled analysis of two multinational, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of oestradiol valerate and dienogest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Ian S; Parked, Susanne; Mellinger, Uwe; Machlitt, Andrea; Serrani, Marco; Jensen, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of oestradiol valerate/dienogest (E2V/DNG) for the treatment of heavy and/or prolonged menstrual bleeding without organic pathology based on the analysis of data from two identically designed double-blind, randomised studies. Methods Women aged ≥ 18 years with heavy and/or prolonged menstrual bleeding were randomised to E2V/DNG (n = 269) or placebo (n = 152) for 196 days. Objective changes in menstrual blood loss (MBL) volume were assessed using the alkaline haematin method. Results After six months of treatment, median MBL decreased by 88% with E2V/DNG compared with 24% with placebo. The greatest reduction was achieved at the first withdrawal bleed after treatment initiation and it was sustained with no loss of effect throughout treatment. Conclusion E2V/DNG was more effective than placebo in reducing MBL in women with heavy and/or prolonged menstrual bleeding without organic pathology. The reduction was largely achieved as early as the first withdrawal bleed, with further gradual improvement throughout treatment. PMID:21774563

  12. How best to teach developmental assessment? A single-blinded randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyereislova, Simona; Nathan, Dilip

    2014-12-01

    Developmental assessment is a core paediatric competency, but research demonstrates teaching gaps. This single-blinded, randomised controlled study compares three teaching approaches to developmental assessment in a large group setting based on a student's self-perception and objective competency assessment. Students were randomised into one of the following: ▸ a didactic lecture followed by self-study with online resources (control group), ▸ a didactic lecture and small group tutorial (small group) ▸ a combined didactic lecture and interactive component using audio-visual equipment (Interactive Developmental Teaching-IDT group). Competency scores (based on the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) scoring system, adapted for undergraduates), mean scores of self-reported confidence and degree of motivation were compared between groups. 114 students participated. Statistically significant difference between mean assessment scores was demonstrated for the small group (38.0; 95% CI 36.5 to 39.6) and the IDT group (37.9; 95% CI 36.5 to 39.4) compared to the control group (34.8; 95% CI 33.2 to 36.4). Students' self-reported confidence, acquisition of knowledge and degree of motivation to practice was higher in IDT and small groups compared to the didactically taught control group. Teaching costs, if measured by trainer's time, were one-fifth in the IDT group compared to the small group teaching. The IDT is an effective teaching method in large groups, improves competencies compared to didactic lecturing, and is as effective as small group teaching. Adoption of the IDT appears to facilitate learning and can be easily delivered with falling ratios of teachers to students. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Aspartame sensitivity? A double blind randomised crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thozhukat Sathyapalan

    Full Text Available Aspartame is a commonly used intense artificial sweetener, being approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. There have been concerns over aspartame since approval in the 1980s including a large anecdotal database reporting severe symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the acute symptom effects of aspartame to a control preparation.This was a double-blind randomized cross over study conducted in a clinical research unit in United Kingdom. Forty-eight individual who has self reported sensitivity to aspartame were compared to 48 age and gender matched aspartame non-sensitive individuals. They were given aspartame (100mg-containing or control snack bars randomly at least 7 days apart. The main outcome measures were acute effects of aspartame measured using repeated ratings of 14 symptoms, biochemistry and metabonomics.Aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive participants differed psychologically at baseline in handling feelings and perceived stress. Sensitive participants had higher triglycerides (2.05 ± 1.44 vs. 1.26 ± 0.84mmol/L; p value 0.008 and lower HDL-C (1.16 ± 0.34 vs. 1.35 ± 0.54 mmol/L; p value 0.04, reflected in 1H NMR serum analysis that showed differences in the baseline lipid content between the two groups. Urine metabonomic studies showed no significant differences. None of the rated symptoms differed between aspartame and control bars, or between sensitive and control participants. However, aspartame sensitive participants rated more symptoms particularly in the first test session, whether this was placebo or control. Aspartame and control bars affected GLP-1, GIP, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels equally in both aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive subjects.Using a comprehensive battery of psychological tests, biochemistry and state of the art metabonomics there was no evidence of any acute adverse responses to aspartame. This independent study gives reassurance to both regulatory bodies and the public that

  14. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria provides substantial protection against malaria in children already protected by an insecticide-treated bednet in Burkina Faso: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou T Konaté

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children (IPTc is a promising new approach to the control of malaria in areas of seasonal malaria transmission but it is not known if IPTc adds to the protection provided by an insecticide-treated net (ITN.An individually randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of seasonal IPTc was conducted in Burkina Faso in children aged 3 to 59 months who were provided with a long-lasting insecticide-treated bednet (LLIN. Three rounds of treatment with sulphadoxine pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine or placebos were given at monthly intervals during the malaria transmission season. Passive surveillance for malaria episodes was established, a cross-sectional survey was conducted at the end of the malaria transmission season, and use of ITNs was monitored during the intervention period. Incidence rates of malaria were compared using a Cox regression model and generalized linear models were fitted to examine the effect of IPTc on the prevalence of malaria infection, anaemia